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Forest stand factors affecting precommercial thinning productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The New Brunswick Dept of Natural Resources uses a density-based productivity model for determining reimbursement rates for precommercial thinning (PCT) on Crown land. In response to concerns that the model makes no provision for non- density related stand conditions and the possibility that the model may be unfair to private woodlot operators or to those working in atypical stands, a study was initiated to identify what factors (in addition to stand density) affect PCT productivity, and to develop a productivity model or models based on these factors. Study methods included observations made of operators performing PCT with spacing saws, with a particular effort to focus on high- and low- density areas and to observe a wide range of stand conditions in order to capture factors other than density that may affect PCT productivity. Field data collection included a pre-thin stand assessment, a time study of operator activities (average observation time about 3.6 hours), and a post-thin assessment. Regression analyses were used to identify stand factors having a significant effect on PCT productivity and to develop suitable models. Ancillary stand factors examined included species composition, tree size, and tree spatial distribution.

Needham, T.D.; Hart, D.

1991-12-31

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Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

Adnan Nazir; Ghulam Ali Jariko; Mumtaz Ali Junejo

2013-01-01

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Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 2004–2008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value add...

Zbigniew Go?a?

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Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 2004–2008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value added and depreciation costs, and using linear stepwise regression. The study shows that despite significant progress, the level of labour productivity in domestic manufacturing significantly lower than the average in the European Union. Lower than in Poland, the level of labour productivity gain only companies in Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Estimated parameters of the regression function showed that the most important determinants of labour productivity in manufacturing are technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, assets productivity, level of added value in relation to revenues. These factors explain the variability of labour productivity in 2004–2008 in a high degree.

Zbigniew Go?a?

2010-01-01

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Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 20042008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value added and depreciation costs, and using linear stepwise regression. The study shows that despite significant progress, the level of labour productivity in domestic manufacturing significantly lower than the average in the European Union. Lower than in Poland, the level of labour productivity gain only companies in Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Estimated parameters of the regression function showed that the most important determinants of labour productivity in manufacturing are technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, assets productivity, level of added value in relation to revenues. These factors explain the variability of labour productivity in 20042008 in a high degree.

Zbigniew Go?a?

2011-01-01

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Factors affecting coke-oven productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors examine the parameters affecting coke-oven productivity. They begin by defining productivity and, having assessed the significance of 400 kg oven tests, they proceed to investigate; (1) The influence of carbonisation parameters which they classify as constitutional parameters and operating parameters. (2) The effect of the charging method. The findings suggest that variations in oven productivity are very much linked to the quality of heat transfer in the charge. Certain parameters were deliberately left aside. (10 refs.) (In French)

Yax, E.; Duchene, S.M.

1984-01-01

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Factors Affecting Milk Production in Buffaloes: A Case Study  

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Full Text Available This study quantified the effect of major factors affecting the milk production in buffaloes. The important factors considered for the estimation of milk production included the value of dry fodder, the value of green fodder, the value of concentrate, number of lactations and the value of labour hours. A production function for milk was estimated by employing Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression. In the estimated model among all the relevant variables, green fodder, lactation number and labour hours were found to be the influential factors affecting milk production in this species.

Maqsood Hussain*, Abdul Ghafoor1and Abdul Saboor2

2010-01-01

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Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

Sohail, Muhammad

2009-01-01

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A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of management in the related periods. The results indicated that organizational factors have always been important for new product development process, which is in line with the nature of the innovation process. But the emphasis on internal factors has increased in the 21st century which is congruent with the change in management perspective foregrounding resource based view. The study differs from the similar literature review studies on the point that it deals with the topic from international marketing perspective. Therefore, R&D and other marketing studies are not included in the review and the study proposes the important factors from international firms’ point of view.

Eda Atilgan-Inan; Aslihan Buyukkupcu; Serkan Akinci

2010-01-01

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Factores grupales que inciden en la productividad/ Group factors affecting productivity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las organizaciones en la actualidad están sometidas permanentemente a cambios acelerados, obligándolas a incrementar su flexibilidad y adaptabilidad para mantener su posición competitiva, sobrevivir a estas presiones lograr sus objetivos y ser más productivas. Por estas razones, la productividad del factor humano es fundamental, ya que son las personas las que realizan los procesos creativos que generan resultados en las organizaciones. Cuando las personas interactúa (more) n en la organización se generan unos procesos de carácter psicosocial que incide en el desempeño de individuos, grupos y organización y se denominan Factores grupales, porque son producto de la actuación de las personas en grupos de trabajo. Dichos factores tienen impacto en la productividad, por lo que resulta de interés el estudio de estas relaciones. Con el fin de analizar este impacto, se presenta relaciones Factores Grupales-Productividad, mediante un Modelo de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM), donde los Factores Grupales y la Productividad son constructos o variables latentes explicadas por variables observables o indicadores. El modelo planteado, es aceptado de acuerdo con los índices globales de ajuste y a las cargas factoriales de las variables del modelo resultante. Se corroboró que los factores grupales, tales como Cohesión, Conflicto, Consenso y Moral, inciden en la productividad. Abstract in english Organizations today are undergoing rapid change permanently, forcing them to increase their flexibility and adaptability to stay competitive, to survive these pressures, achieve their goals and be more productive. For these reasons, the productivity of the human factor is critical because it is the people doing the creative processes those results in organizations. When people interact in the organization are a generated psychosocial process that affects the performance o (more) f individuals, groups and organization and are called group factors, because they are the product of individual behavior in work groups. These factors have an impact on productivity, so it is interesting to study these relationships. To analyze this impact is presented group factors-productivity relationships through a Structural Equation Model (SEM), where the group factors and productivity are constructs or latent variables explained by observable variables or indicators. The proposed model is accepted in accordance with the global fit indices and factor loadings of the variables of the resulting model. It was confirmed that the group factors, such as Cohesion, Conflict, Consensus and Moral affect productivity.

Mirza Marvel, Cequea; Núñez Bottini, Miguel; Rodríguez-Monroy, Carlos

2011-12-01

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Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study  

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Full Text Available This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM) groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as an elite set. The results show that three factors increase both the research productivity and the quality of the articles published by professors of a POM group. These factors are (a) the presence of a POM research center, (b) funding received from external sources for research purposes, and (c) better library facilities. Doctoral students do assist in improving research quality and productivity, but they are not the driving force. These results have important implications for establishing policy guidelines for business schools. For example, real-world problems are funded by external sources and have a higher probability of publication. Furthermore, schools could place more emphasis on external funding, as most engineering schools do, since groups receiving external funding are more productive in terms of research.

George C. Hadjinicola; Andreas C. Soteriou

2006-01-01

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Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly.

1984-01-01

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Factors affecting the production of (-)-mitorubrinic acid by Penicillium funiculosum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The optimum conditions for the production of (-)-mitorubrinic acid by mutant strain of Penicillium funiculosum CCM F-8080 were examined in shaken flask cultures. The highest production of this metabolite was achieved in a medium with glucose as the sole carbon source and (NH4)2HPO4 as the nitrogen source. The most suitable concentrations of the given sources for production of (-)-mitorubrinic acid are 80 g/l glucose and 2 g/l (NH4)2HPO4 (maximal production, 814.9 mg/l). We also observed the influence of concentration of L-phenylalanine and inorganic phosphate in culture medium on the production of (-)-mitorubrinic acid. The biological activity of mitorubrinic acid as trypsin inhibitor was determined (IC50 41.05 mumol/l).

Lesová K; Sturdíková M; Rosenberg M

2000-01-01

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Factors affecting the production of (-)-mitorubrinic acid by Penicillium funiculosum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The optimum conditions for the production of (-)-mitorubrinic acid by mutant strain of Penicillium funiculosum CCM F-8080 were examined in shaken flask cultures. The highest production of this metabolite was achieved in a medium with glucose as the sole carbon source and (NH4)2HPO4 as the nitrogen source. The most suitable concentrations of the given sources for production of (-)-mitorubrinic acid are 80 g/l glucose and 2 g/l (NH4)2HPO4 (maximal production, 814.9 mg/l). We also observed the influence of concentration of L-phenylalanine and inorganic phosphate in culture medium on the production of (-)-mitorubrinic acid. The biological activity of mitorubrinic acid as trypsin inhibitor was determined (IC50 41.05 mumol/l). PMID:11199497

Lesová, K; Sturdíková, M; Rosenberg, M

2000-01-01

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Factors affecting strength and durability of densified biomass products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effectiveness of a densification process to create strong and durable bonding in densified products such as pellets, briquettes, and cubes can be determined by testing the strength (i.e., compressive resistance, impact resistance, and water resistance), and durability (i.e., abrasion resistance) of the densified products. These tests can indicate the maximum force/stress that the densified products can withstand, and the amount of fines produced during handling, transportation, and storage. In this article, the procedures used for measuring the strength and durability of the densified products are discussed. The effects of constituents of the feed such as starch, protein, fiber, fat, lignin and extractives; feed moisture content; feed particle size and its distribution; feed conditioning temperature/preheating of feed; added binders; and densification equipment variables (forming pressure, and pellet mill and roll press variables) on the strength and durability of the densified products are reviewed. This article will help select process parameters to produce strong and durable densified products from new biomass feedstocks or animal feed formulations. Guidelines for developing standards on criteria for the acceptance levels of strength and durability of the densified products are presented. (author)

Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Vance Morey, R. [Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

2009-03-15

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Some factors affecting tannase production by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english One variable at a time procedure was used to evaluate the effect of qualitative variables on the production of tannase from Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem. These variables including: fermentation technique, agitation condition, tannins source, adding carbohydrates incorporation with tannic acid, nitrogen source type and divalent cations. Submerged fermentation under intermittent shaking gave the highest total tannase activity. Maximum extracellular tannase activity (305 un (more) its/ 50 mL) was attained in medium containing tannic acid as tannins source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source at 30 ºC for 96 h. All added carbohydrates showed significant adverse effects on the production of tannase. All tested divalent cations significantly decreased tannase production. Moreover, split plot design was carried out to study the effect of fermentation temperature and fermentation time on tannase production. The results indicated maximum tannase production (312.7 units/50 mL) at 35 ºC for 96 h. In other words, increasing fermentation temperature from 30 ºC to 35 ºC resulted in increasing tannase production.

Aboubakr, Hamada A.; El-Sahn, Malak A.; El-Banna, Amr A.

2013-01-01

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Affecting the Choice Factors of Fishery Products Consumption in Turkey  

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Full Text Available This study examines fish consumption behavior patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of choosing factors in determining food pattern of Turkish people. A total of 666 surveys in all around Turkey responded to a self-administered questionnaire about seafood consumption habits, past frequency of seafood consumption, attitude towards and intention to eat seafood. In this research some prompts were used such as health, taste, availability, versatility, the components of a good family meal, value for money and alternatives to red meat.

Saygi Hulya; Hekimoglu Muge Aliye

2011-01-01

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Study of some factors affecting potato microtuber production in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of variety, growth regulators, sucrose, and low doses of gamma irradiation on the production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) microtubers in vitro were investigated. Nodal segments from virus free explants of 3 potato varieties were placed on six different media and irradiated with 4 doses of gamma radiation (2.5, 5, 10, 15 Gy).Potato varieties used in the study differed in their ability to produce microtubers. Variety Diamant was the best in microtuber production followed by Draga and Spunta. Kinetin played a significant role in inducing tuberization in vitro especially at a concentration of 4 mg-1. Tuberization was also enhanced by sucrose especially when its level was increased from 3% to 6%. Irradiating the explants with 2.5 Gy of gamma radiation leads to a significant increase in number of microtubers (34% increase over the control). Weight of microtubers was not significantly influenced by low doses of gamma irradiation or media components. Draga microtubers were the largest followed by Diamant and Spunta. Microtubers resembled mature tubers in shape (Spunta was elongated and Draga and Diamant were round). Size of microtubers was crucial for sprouting in vivo. It is suggested that only microtubers larger than 250 mg (5 mm in diameter) can be used to produce minitubers in vivo. Since 2.5 Gy is a low dose, it can be used to enhance tuberization in vitro without fear of genetic changes in the used varieties. (author).

2000-01-01

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Ranking factors affecting the productivity of human resources using MADM techniques  

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Full Text Available For improving and efficient uses of various resources such as labor, capital, materials, energy and information, productivity is the purpose of all economic and industrial organizations and service enterprises. The human factor is the main strategic resource and the realization axis of productivity for each type of organization. Therefore the factors affecting the productivity, depends on suitable conditions for labor. This study is performed to identification and prioritization the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company. The objective of this research is an applied and the data collection methods and conclusions are descriptive - survey. Statistical sample size by using Cochran's formula is considered equal to 120. To perform this study with the Delphi method, we identify the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company and by using MADM techniques, prioritization of these factors has been done. Also Team Expert Choice2000 software have used for analysis. Research results show that factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company in order of importance are: Health aspects, leadership style, motivational factors, organizational commitment, work experience, general and applied education, demographic characteristics, physical environment within the organization, external environment and competitive spirit.

G. A. Shekari; S. Khayat Moghadam; Adeleh Hakimzadeh; S. Salahshour; A. K. Keifi

2012-01-01

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Export of Pharmaceutical Products : An analysis of which factors that affects Sweden’s export of pharmaceutical products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pharmaceutical industry is one of Sweden’s most important export industries with 6% of total exports. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse which factors affect Sweden’s ex-port of pharmaceutical products. Further, the different pharmaceutical products group Sweden exports will be identified....

Adolfsson, Per

 
 
 
 
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Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text books and factory publications. The target population was over 700,000 small-scale coffee producers in Kenya out of which the accessible population of 10,000 producers drawn from Githunguri District in Kiambu County was selected which a sample size of 120 respondents was sampled. Stratified sampling technique was employed to compare views among coffee producers from the various coffee societies in the area. Data analysis was both qualitative and quantitative using descriptive statistics. Data presentation was in form of tables to help interpret findings and generate conclusions that aided solutions to identified problems. The research established that marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources greatly affected coffee production. The study recommended that the government should encourage coffee production by formulating favorable marketing factors and other policies and provide finances to small scale coffee producers. Producers on the other hand should strive to provide conducive working environment to their workers so as to sustain them in their farms. This will help to improve coffee yields and quality.

Margaret Njeri Gathura

2013-01-01

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Some factors including radiation affecting the productivity of proteinase enzymes by mucor lamprosporus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present time, great attention has been focused on the production of milk clotting enzymes from microbial source for use as remain substitute due to the increasing demands on rennin for cheese making and the prohibition of the slaughter of small calves. The present investigation included the isolation and identification of remin-like enzyme fungal producers from different egyptian food and soil samples. Different factors including gamma radiation affecting the capability of selected isolate to produce the enzyme was also included. Special attention has also given to study the effect of different purification methods of the produced enzyme. The properties of the purified enzyme were also investigated.

1996-01-01

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Analysis of Key Factors Affecting Ethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFST-072011  

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Full Text Available Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is affected not only by fermentation conditions (temperature, pH and sugar concentration) but also by the intrinsic factors e.g., culture medium, dissolved O2, immobilization and other micronutrients. In order to investigate the influence of key factors on ethanol production by S. cerevisiae, a laboratory strain S. cerevisiae IFST-072011 was used in this study. Several fermentation runs were carried out varying temperature, pH, sugar concentration, aeration, immobilization and supplementation of metal ions employed. Experimental data on several fermentation runs showed that reducing sugar concentration ranged between 5-6%, temperature of 30°C and pH between 5.0 and 6.0 were optimum for maximum yield of ethanol by S. cerevisiae IFST-072011.The strain produced 86.9 g L-1 ethanol by free cells using the initial reducing sugar concentration 5.50% at 48 h under shaking condition. Maximum yield of ethanol 94.8 g L-1 was produced by immobilized cells using the reducing sugar concentration 5.50% at 48 h. Ethanol production was higher by immobilized cells in shaking conditions than free cells with same culture conditions. Influence of boron, chromium, copper and magnesium was investigated on ethanol production. Only chromium was found to show slight stimulatory effect on ethanol production.

Md. Fakruddin; Md. Abdul Quayum; Monzur Morshed Ahmed; Naiyyum Choudhury

2012-01-01

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Cassava sector development in Cameroon: Production and marketing factors affecting price  

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Full Text Available Regular and available supply is the prerequisite of an effective and efficient commercialization process. Using multivariate regression analysis on field data, this research appraises the production and marketing factors that influence cassava market price. The production factors include cultivated area, planting material, yield, and farmers’ field schools; while farmers access to a paved road, having a telephone, the transportation costs of fresh roots, the level of root perishability, and the prices of rice and maize stand as marketing factors. The results show that farmers who attended farmers’ field school adopted improved planting materials, propagated them in their localities and the yields in these communities increased significantly. The farm size also has a significant influence on the availability of fresh roots. On the marketing side, transportation costs, access to a paved road, the prices of rice and maize significantly affect cassava’s market price and tighten the relationship between producers and marketers. We conclude that to increase fresh roots supply, roads leading to cultivating areas should be paved, better transportation provided, communication costs reduced, even distribution of planting materials and appropriate warehouses.

Elise Stephanie Meyo Mvodo; Dapeng Liang

2012-01-01

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Changing medical doctor productivity and its affecting factors in rural China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using the data collected from the health facility-based survey, part of the national health service survey conducted in 1993 and 1998, this paper tries to examine changes in labour productivity among the county-level hospitals and township health centres in rural China, and to analyse factors affecting the changes. The results presented in the paper show that the average number of outpatient visits per doctor per day and the average number of inpatient days per doctor per day declined significantly over the period from 1986 to 1997. The main factors resulting in the reduction of productivity are associated with the increase of inappropriate staff recruitment in these health facilities, the significant decline of rural population covered by health insurance, particularly rural cooperative medical schemes (CMS), and the rapid rise of health care costs. The latter two factors also have brought about a reduction in the use of these health facilities by the rural population. The paper suggests that the government should tighten up the entrance of health and non-health staff into the rural health sector and develop effective measures aimed to avoid providing pervasive financial incentives to the over-provision of services and over-use of drugs. In addition, other measures that help to increase the demand for health services, such as the establishment of rural health insurance, should be considered seriously.

Martineau T; Gong Y; Tang S

2004-04-01

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Changing medical doctor productivity and its affecting factors in rural China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the data collected from the health facility-based survey, part of the national health service survey conducted in 1993 and 1998, this paper tries to examine changes in labour productivity among the county-level hospitals and township health centres in rural China, and to analyse factors affecting the changes. The results presented in the paper show that the average number of outpatient visits per doctor per day and the average number of inpatient days per doctor per day declined significantly over the period from 1986 to 1997. The main factors resulting in the reduction of productivity are associated with the increase of inappropriate staff recruitment in these health facilities, the significant decline of rural population covered by health insurance, particularly rural cooperative medical schemes (CMS), and the rapid rise of health care costs. The latter two factors also have brought about a reduction in the use of these health facilities by the rural population. The paper suggests that the government should tighten up the entrance of health and non-health staff into the rural health sector and develop effective measures aimed to avoid providing pervasive financial incentives to the over-provision of services and over-use of drugs. In addition, other measures that help to increase the demand for health services, such as the establishment of rural health insurance, should be considered seriously. PMID:15239207

Martineau, Tim; Gong, Youlong; Tang, Shenglan

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Factors Affecting Egg Production in Broiler Breeders from Start to Peak of Production  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of environment, nutrition and management on egg production of broiler breeders from start to peak of production. Rearing and production records of 11 Arian broiler breeder flocks, in 3 farms between 1993 and 2000, including age of broiler breeder, age of maturity, flock number, farm number, density, feeder space/hen, body weight at 20, 22 and 24 weeks, protein and energy intake/day and week, cumulative feed intake in each age, weekly body weight, season effect, diet energy and presence or lack of canal under waterers were used. All records processed in excel software and transferred to JMP 3.1.2 software for analysis. Records tested for normality and then analyzed with multiple regression analysis procedure. The results of the current study indicated that, age of broiler breeders has a dramatic effect on egg production. By delaying age of maturity after 24 weeks, uniformity and egg production in Arian broiler breeders increased. Canals under waterer in some of the farms had a negative effect on mean egg production (63 vs 52%). In the seasons of spring and autumn, mean egg production was higher than those of summer and winter (80.03, 81.08, 50.16 and 60%, respectively). The result showed that body weight at 24 weeks is a better indication of subsequent flock performance than body weight at 20 or 22 weeks. By increasing age and protein intake from 23 to 27 g/hen/day, egg production decreased. Conversely, by increasing age and energy intake, egg production increased. Under the conditions of this study, it was concluded that protein intake should not be increased from 23g/hen/day at this period. Heavier broiler breeders, who get more energy intake/day, may produce more eggs too.

M. Elahi Torshizi; F. Eftekhari Shahroudi; H. Kermanshahi

2008-01-01

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Some Factors Affecting the Production of Carotenoids by Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis  

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Full Text Available A new yeast strain isolated from pin cushion flower (Scabiosa atropurpura) in our laboratory was selected from 200 yeast isolates as carotenoids producer and identified as Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis. The selected isolate was grown in synthetic medium to study the effect of carbon to nitrogen ratio, sources of nitrogen and carbon, mineral salts and incubation temperature on carotenoids production. The results indicated the following optimal conditions: carbon to nitrogen ratio of 5, ammonium sulphate as nitrogen source, sucrose as carbon source, presence of zinc sulphate in the medium and cultivation temperature of 25?C. The studied factors affected the dry biomass as well as the proportion of carotenoids and consequently the colour of pellets of the yeast. The yeast strain was grown under the optimal conditions to study the changes occurring in the medium and the pellets during carotenoids production for 6 days. Carotenoids production started after the first day of incubation and most of the carotenoids content in the yeast cells was produced during stationary phase. The highest cellular (861 ?g?g–1) and volumetric (1.9 mg?L–1) carotenoids content were ob- tained after 5 days of growth.

Amr A. El-Banna; Amal M. Abd El-Razek; Ahmed R. El-Mahdy

2012-01-01

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Factors Affecting Knowledge Production in Open and Distance Learning in Zimbabwe. Case of Zimbabwe Open University  

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Full Text Available Zimbabwe Open University has been in existence for over a decade and is the only institution offering open and distance learning in Zimbabwe. The institution when it started had the highest enrolment which was higher than four conventional state universities combined. Currently the university is on the enrolment decline. This is contrary to the fact that distance education is spreading to almost all areas of education and training worldwide. It is also against the background that the Government is channeling many resources towards the establishment of a fully integrated distance learning system which involves the development of course materials and providing student support and instruction. This exhibits negative forces acting against knowledge production as less and fewer graduates are produced. Therefore the purpose of this paper was be to examine the key factors affecting open and distance learning in Zimbabwe. A descriptive survey design was adopted in form of a structured questionnaire which was used to collect data from 70 undergraduates, and 20 students post graduates. Also an interview guide was developed to carry out interviews to 10 staff members consisting of 2 Regional Directors, 2 Regional administrators, and 6 lecturers. Descriptive statistical analysis was a basic one which involves finding frequency of factors and converts them to percentages. This method was able to reduce lots of data into simpler summaries to present easily.

Tawanda Dzama; Chisango F.T Future

2012-01-01

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Factors Affecting Alternate Rice-Fish Production of Mymensingh District in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cobb-Douglas production function has been used to measure the effect of various factors on alternate rice-fish production. The chosen factors were of fingerlings cost, cost of cow dung, cost of rice bran, cost of oil cake, cost of lime, cost of urea cost of human labour and cost of netting for fish production and for rice production the factors were human labour, animal labour. Cow dung, urea, TSP, MP, seed and irrigation cost. It was found that except cost of rice bran and lime for fish production all the factors were statistically significant and for the rice production animal labour, TSP and irrigation cost were the insignificant.

Rabbani M.G.; M.I. Hossain; M.S. Islam; T.M.B. Hossain; M.A. Mannan

2004-01-01

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THE TAGUCHI APPROACH IN OPTIMIZING ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTIVITY IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the dominance effects of environmental factors such as illuminance, humidity and WBGT on operators’ productivity in the Malaysian automotive industry. A case study was carried out at an automotive components assembly factory. The environmental factors examined were the illuminance (lux), humidity and WBGT of the surrounding workstation area. Two sets of representative data including the illuminance, humidity and WBGT level and production rate were collected during the study. The production rate data were collected through observations and survey questionnaires while the illuminance level was measured using photometer model RS 180-7133, and the humidity and WBGT level were measured by using Quest Temp apparatus and humidity. The Taguchi method was utilized to find the sequence of dominant factors that contributed to the productivity of the operator at that specified production workstation. The study reveals that the dominant factor that contributed to the productivity was humidity, followed by illuminance and WBGT.

M.H.M. Haniff; A.R. Ismail; B.M. Deros; M.N.A. Rahman; K. Kardigama

2011-01-01

32

Optimization of factors affecting the production of biodiesel from crude palm kernel oil and ethanol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, studies on the sources of biodiesel and their properties as a substitute for fossil diesel have tended to be limited to Jatropha oil. This paper, however, reports the parameters that influences the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil, one of the vegetable oils obtained from oil palm which is the highest vegetable oil source in Ghana. The parameters studied are; mass ratio of ethanol to oil, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and reaction time using completely randomized 24 factorial design. Results indicated that ethanol to oil mass ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time were the most important factors affecting the ethyl ester yield. There was also an interaction effect between catalyst and time and ethanol- oil ratio and time on the yield. Accordingly, the optimal conditions for the production of ethyl esters from crude palm kernel oil were determined as; 1:5 mass ratio of ethanol to oil, 1% catalyst concentration by weight of oil, 90 minutes reaction time at a temperature of 30 oC.

David K. Kuwornoo, Julius C. Ahiekpor

2010-01-01

33

Optimization of factors affecting the production of biodiesel from crude palm kernel oil and ethanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, studies on the sources of biodiesel and their properties as a substitute for fossil diesel have tended to be limited to Jatropha oil. This paper, however, reports the parameters that influences the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil, one of the vegetable oils obtained from oil palm which is the highest vegetable oil source in Ghana. The parameters studied are; mass ratio of ethanol to oil, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and reaction time using completely randomized 24 factorial design. Results indicated that ethanol to oil mass ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time were the most important factors affecting the ethyl ester yield. There was also an interaction effect between catalyst and time and ethanol- oil ratio and time on the yield. Accordingly, the optimal conditions for the production of ethyl esters from crude palm kernel oil were determined as; 1:5 mass ratio of ethanol to oil, 1% catalyst concentration by weight of oil, 90 minutes reaction time at a temperature of 30 deg C.

Kuwornoo, David. K. [Faculty of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Private Mail Bag, Kumasi (Ghana); Ahiekpor, Julius C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Kumasi Polytechnic, P.O. Box 854, Kumasi (Ghana)

2010-07-01

34

Pulsed electromagnetic fields stimulation affects BMD and local factor production of rats with disuse osteoporosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been used widely to treat nonunion fractures and related problems in bone healing, as a biological and physical method. With the use of Helmholtz coils and PEMF stimulators to generate uniform time-varying electromagnetic fields, the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on bone mineral density (BMD) and local factor production in disuse osteoporosis (DOP) rats were investigated. Eighty 4-month-old female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into intact (INT) group, DOP group, calcitonin-treated (CT) group, and PEMF stimulation group. The right hindlimbs of all the rats were immobilized by tibia-tail fixation except for those rats in the INT group. Rats in the CT group were injected with calcitonin (2 IU/kg, i.p., once a day) and rats in the PEMF group were irradiated with PEMF immediately postoperative. The BMD, serum transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration of the proximal femur were measured 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatment. Compared with the CT and DOP groups, the BMD and serum TGF-beta1 concentration in the PEMF group increased significantly after 8 weeks. The IL-6 concentration in the DOP group was elevated significantly after operation. The PEMF group showed significantly lower IL-6 level than the DOP group. The results found demonstrate that PEMF stimulation can efficiently suppress bone mass loss. We, therefore, conclude that PEMF may affect bone remodeling process through promoting TGF-beta1 secretion and inhibiting IL-6 expression.

Shen WW; Zhao JH

2010-02-01

35

Pulsed electromagnetic fields stimulation affects BMD and local factor production of rats with disuse osteoporosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been used widely to treat nonunion fractures and related problems in bone healing, as a biological and physical method. With the use of Helmholtz coils and PEMF stimulators to generate uniform time-varying electromagnetic fields, the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on bone mineral density (BMD) and local factor production in disuse osteoporosis (DOP) rats were investigated. Eighty 4-month-old female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into intact (INT) group, DOP group, calcitonin-treated (CT) group, and PEMF stimulation group. The right hindlimbs of all the rats were immobilized by tibia-tail fixation except for those rats in the INT group. Rats in the CT group were injected with calcitonin (2 IU/kg, i.p., once a day) and rats in the PEMF group were irradiated with PEMF immediately postoperative. The BMD, serum transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration of the proximal femur were measured 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatment. Compared with the CT and DOP groups, the BMD and serum TGF-beta1 concentration in the PEMF group increased significantly after 8 weeks. The IL-6 concentration in the DOP group was elevated significantly after operation. The PEMF group showed significantly lower IL-6 level than the DOP group. The results found demonstrate that PEMF stimulation can efficiently suppress bone mass loss. We, therefore, conclude that PEMF may affect bone remodeling process through promoting TGF-beta1 secretion and inhibiting IL-6 expression. PMID:19670410

Shen, Wei-Wei; Zhao, Jian-Hua

2010-02-01

36

Factors affecting labour productivity in the SME sector of the European Union  

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Full Text Available The article presents the results of labour productivity analysis in micro, small and medium enterprises of EU countries. The analysis was conducted on the basis of European Commission for Enterprise and Industry data from 2008. The results of regression analysis point that the technical equipment of work, the share of value added and value of production in revenues are the most important factors influencing the labour productivity in the SME sector.

Zbigniew Go?a?

2011-01-01

37

Analyzing factors Affecting Consumers’ Attitude & Intention to Purchase Counterfeit products of luxury Brands In clothing Industry  

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Full Text Available One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit products & then the impact of attitude toward counterfeit products on intention to buy such products have been measured. The study method is a Survey type & in order to collect study data, a questionnaire designed with a combination of different available resources in literature has been used. To achieve the study goals, 384 individuals who purchased counterfeit products intentionally were chosen from Sari. To analyze data & test hypotheses, Study model & questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient tests, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM), Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA) & one-way Variance analysis (ANONA) have been applied & two Software Packages SPSS & LISREL were used. Through reviewing the literature available & analyzing experts’ views, generally, 11 variables have been identified: Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Ethical Issues, Risk averseness, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, as the influencing factors on attitude toward counterfeit products. Study Findings have indicated that the factors as Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Ethical Issues, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, have meaningful effect on attitude to counterfeit products & the impact of Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Risk averseness, was not meaningfull on view about counterfeit products. Besides, the findings have shown that attitude toward counterfeit products has a meaningful effect on intention to purchase such products.

Abdolhamid Ebrahimi; Mehdi Jafarzade Konari; Saber Bozorgi

2012-01-01

38

Statistical analysis of factors affecting crop production in Navrongo, Tono irrigation dam a case study  

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Full Text Available This study identified the essential factors of production in the Tono irrigation dam of the Upper East Region. The accessibility and patronage of these factors by farmers in this area was studied and how they influence crop production in the Region. A total of two hundred questionnaires designed by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture for farmers in Navrongo were administered. A snowball sampling design was employed to identify farmers on these facilities in the study area. Pearson correlation coefficient, principal component analysis, and subset regression analysis were used to unveil the relevant information in the study. The results revealed a high correlation between the factors of production being studied with each pair having a probability level less than 0.0001. The full general linear model was highly significant (F=662.50, psmaller tahn 0.0001) with only two factors (Farm size and Fertilizer) accounting for 98.86% of the total variation in yield. This is a clear indication of multicollinearity and a subset regression analysis was used to identify the best subset that improves yield in the irrigation dam. The best subset comprised of Age, Farm size, seed, and Fertilizer accounting for 97.75% of the total variation in crop production in Navrongo. To enhance yield in Navrongo therefore, high yielding seeds, timely granting of fertilizer credit to farmers who mature enough and responsible with reasonable farm sizes should be encouraged.

D. JAKPERIK; S. ODURO

2013-01-01

39

Factors affecting productivity and the role of customer relationship management: A case study of home appliance manufacturing  

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Full Text Available In today's competitive world, productivity- as a core source of production - is the most important target of the organization. Experimental studies in developed industrial countries prove that productivity improvements resulted from development of management systems play a more important role in production than physical increases in labor and capital factors. This paper, while focusing on productivity from a CRM perspective, employs a European Organizational Excellence Model framework to identify factors affecting productivity and the role of CRM systems. We perform an empirical study for a case study of home appliance manufacturing and using a questionnaire computed present status and compared with desired status of CRM components such as customer leadership, strategy, skill and motivation of labor work, effective use of information technology and process management.

Saeed Mirzamohammadi; Forough Basirat Fard

2012-01-01

40

Parametric analysis of factors affecting injection and production in geothermal reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A program was designed to allow the study of the effects of several parameters on the injection of water into and production of fluid from a fractured low porosity geothermal reservoir with properties similar to those at The Geysers. Fractures were modeled explicitly with low porosity, high permeability blocks rather than with a dual-porosity formulation to gain insight into the effects of single fractures. A portion of a geothermal reservoir with physical characteristics similar to those at the Geysers geothermal field was constructed by simulating a single fracture bounded by porous matrix. A series of simulation runs were made.using this system as a basis. Reservoir superheat prior to injection, injection temperature, angle of fracture inclination, fracture/matrix permeability contrast, fracture and matrix relative permeability, and the capillary pressure curves in both fracture and matrix were varied and the effects on production were compared. Analysis of the effects of these parameter variations led to qualitative conclusions about injection and production characteristics at the Geysers. The degree of superheat prior to water injection was found to significantly affect the production from geothermal reservoirs. A high degree of superheat prior to injection increases the enthalpy of the produced fluid and causes the cumulative produced energy to nearly equal that from a reservoir which began injection much earlier. Injection temperature was found to have very little effect on production characteristics. Angle of fracture inclination affects the enthalpy of the produced fluid. Fractures dipping toward the production well allow greater flow of water toward the producer resulting in lower enthalpies of produced fluid. The fracture/matrix permeability contrast was shown to influence the production in an expected way: The lower the contrast, the lower the production rate, and the lower the enthalpy of the produced fluid at a given time. Results obtained by varying relative permeability show that the relative permeability curves used have little effect on the production from the reservoir. This indicates that the transfer between the matrix and the fracture is dominated by capillary forces, thus reducing the importance of the shape of the relative permeability curve. Capillary pressure curves were shown to have a strong effect on production characteristics, further emphasizing the importance of capillary forces in Geysers-type geothermal reservoirs.

Hornbrook, John W.; Faulder, D.D.

1993-01-28

 
 
 
 
41

Tannin Biodegradation and Some Factors Affecting Tannase Production by Two Aspergillus sp.  

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Full Text Available In this study two local isolates Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus oryzae were investigated for tannase production on synthetic medium containing tannic acid as sole carbon source. Optimizations of intracellular tannase production at different culture conditions using batch and submerged fermentation techniques were studied. The highest levels of tannase were detected after 2 and 3 days from A. japonicus and A. oryzae, respectively. A. japonicus degrade tannins 3.79 times faster than A. oryzae. Tannase production was optimum 2.0% tannic acid, 0.3% NH4Cl, 0.1% CaCl2 and pH 4.5. Addition of glucose adversely affected the rate of enzyme production by A. japonicus; however, A. oryzae tannase was stimulated at lower glucose levels (0.05-0.4%). Extract of 3% of China green tea was suitable for tannase production compared with other tannins. Finally, parametric optimization of tannase yielded 1.77 and 1.70 fold increase in case of A. oryzae and A. japonicus, respectively. Biodegradation of tannic acid during the fermentation course of A. oryzae indicated that, di-gallolyglucose, tri-gallolyglucose and tetra-galloylglucose appeared in the culture filtrates during the first 12 h. However, mono-gallolyglucose was the end product after 6 days.

M.A. Abdel-Nabey; A.A. Sherief; A.B. EL-Tanash

2011-01-01

42

Bibliometric approach of factors affecting scientific productivity in environmental sciences and ecology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Different academic bibliometric studies have measured the influence of economic, political and linguistic factors in the academic output of countries. Separate analysis in different fields can reveal specific incentive factors. Our study proves that the Environmental Performance Index, computed by Yale University, is highly significant (p<0.01) for the productivity of research and development activities in environmental sciences and ecology. The control variables like education financing, publishing of ISI Thomson domestic journals and the English language are also significant. The methodology uses Ordinary Least Squares multiple regressions with convincing results (R(2)=0.752). The relative positions of the 92 countries in the sample are also discussed. We draw up a ranking of the countries' concern for the environment, considering evenly the scientific productivity and the environment quality. We notice huge differences concerning the number of inhabitants and population income between the countries that dominate the classification and those occupying the last positions.

Dragos CM; Dragos SL

2013-04-01

43

Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism in order to (1) determine its maximum theoretical plasmid-producing capacity, and to (2) identify factors that significantly impact plasmid production. Results Such a model was developed for the production of a high copy plasmid under conditions of batch aerobic growth on glucose minimal medium. The objective of the model was to maximize plasmid production. By employing certain constraints and examining the resulting flux distributions, several factors were determined that significantly impact plasmid yield. Acetate production and constitutive expression of the plasmid's antibiotic resistance marker exert negative effects, while low pyruvate kinase (Pyk) flux and the generation of NADPH by transhydrogenase activity offer positive effects. The highest theoretical yield (592 mg/g) resulted under conditions of no marker or acetate production, nil Pyk flux, and the maximum allowable transhydrogenase activity. For comparison, when these four fluxes were constrained to wild-type values, yields on the order of tens of mg/g resulted, which are on par with the best experimental yields reported to date. Conclusion These results suggest that specific plasmid yields can theoretically reach 12 times their current experimental maximum (51 mg/g). Moreover, they imply that abolishing Pyk activity and/or transhydrogenase up-regulation would be useful strategies to implement when designing host strains for plasmid production; mutations that reduce acetate production would also be advantageous. The results further suggest that using some other means for plasmid selection than antibiotic resistance, or at least weakening the marker's expression, would be beneficial because it would allow more precursor metabolites, energy, and reducing power to be put toward plasmid production. Thus far, the impact of eliminating Pyk activity has been explored experimentally, with significantly higher plasmid yields resulting.

Cunningham Drew S; Koepsel Richard R; Ataai Mohammad M; Domach Michael M

2009-01-01

44

PREDICTING OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR THE CHOICE OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS BY LOGIT REGRESSION ANALYSIS  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine consumer behavior towards organic products in Samsun city center and to determine the factors affacting their preferences of organic products. The study was interviewed with 478 consumers living the city center of Samsun. Ad?yaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, Y?l: 5, Say?: 10, Aral?k 2012130According of the findings, ease of accesibility of organic products, spouse’s educational level, paying extra for the organic produce, aware of food health benefits, considering the harmful effects of conventional produce, having complete knowledge of organic farming and one unit increase household number income to result increase consumption of organic produce. Consumers were not aware of the certification and control process. As a result, easy of accesibility of organic produces in the supermarkets need to be improved.

Selma KARABA?; A.Zafer GÜRLER

2012-01-01

45

[Environmental factors affecting the succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC 1593].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Actinobacillus succinogenes is a promising candidate for the production of bio-based succinic acid. Previously, we isolated a succinic acid-producing strain Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC 1593 from bovine rumen. In this paper, the influence of the environmental factors such as gas phase, pH, ORP, on succinic acid production by A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593 was studied. The results showed that CO2 was the optimum gas phase for anaerobic fermentation ofA. succinogenes CGMCC 1593 as well as one of the substrate for the succinic acid synthesis. Using MgCO3 as a pH regulator, the pH was maintained within 7.1-6.2 during the anaerobic fermentation for the cell growth and acid production of A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593. Our results showed that low initial ORP was disadvantageous for the growth of A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593 and an ORP of -270 mV was demonstrated to be beneficial to the succinic acid production. By adding Na2S.9H2O to decrease ORP to -270 mV at the end of exponential growth phase in batch culture of A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593, the succinic acid concentration reached 37 g/L and the yield of succinic acid was 129% at 48 h. This work might provide valuable information for further optimization of succinic acid fermentation by A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593.

Zheng P; Zhou W; Ni Y; Jiang M; Wei P; Sun Z

2008-06-01

46

Factors Affecting Pasture and Meat Production Imbalance in Fars Province: A Case Study of Koohnamak Pastures in Darab  

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Full Text Available In the process of agricultural development, sustainability of pasture utilization to ensure sustained production of meat and dairy products has become increasingly important. This article aims to study factors affecting pasture and meat production imbalances in Fars province. For this purpose, the transcendental production function was used. Data was collected by using two stage cluster random sampling from 71 producers. The results revealed that present method of pasture utilization is not compatible with increasing live animal meat production objective. To optimize pasture utilization, the pasture users should be advised to stop overgrazing. In addition, the results indicated that increasing livestock and pasture mismanagement causes damage to pastures and consequently would decrease meat production in the long-run.

B. Najafi; A. Shirvanian; T. Haghshenas

2008-01-01

47

Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting semen production traits in Karan Fries crossbred bulls.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of genetic and non-genetic factors on production of breeding bulls and semen quality parameters in Karan Fries crossbred male by fitting least squares analysis. Genetically, the animals were divided into three subclasses. The non-genetic factors were season of birth, period of birth, and age group with three subclasses each for season of birth and period of birth. Age group was classified into four subclasses. The traits generated in the study were number of males reaching semen donation stage (AFSC) and first freezing (AFSF), age at last semen collection (ALSC) and last freezing (ALSF), age at disposal (AD), and lifetime semen production traits (up to 1 year after first freezing). The effect of period of birth was significant for AFSC, AFSF, ALSC, and AD. It was also significant for total ejaculates produced in a year. The age group had significant effect on AFSF. Effect of genetic group was significant for freezable ejaculates produced in a year, for frozen semen doses produced in a year, and for number of ejaculates cryoprocessed in a year. Season had no statistically significant effect on any of the traits studied. The influence of period revealed that the most of the traits of breeding bulls improved after intermediate period, which could be due to better care, training, feeding, and other management practices in the latter years. However, no consistent trend could be established for the effects of genetic groups and other non-genetic causes on the traits considered.

Chauhan IS; Gupta AK; Khate K; Chauhan A; Rao TK; Pathak S; Hazra R; Singh M

2010-12-01

48

Investigation of the factors affecting adult fly production in biosolid cake.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The seasonal pattern of adult fly production in both fresh and aged biosolid cake was established by the exposure of biosolid cake to natural conditions in the central coastal region of Perth, Western Australia, over the course of a year. Relationships between fly emergence and six factors (weeks exposed, pH, NH(4), rainfall, temperature, and moisture) suspected of facilitating the attraction of adult flies to biosolid cake were measured. The aim was to study the production of adult flies with regard to weeks exposed in different seasons to establish a "best practice" storage procedure for aged biosolid cake. Four fly species were collected during the study; Musca domestica L. (house fly), Stomoxys calcitrans L. (stable fly), Fannia canicularis L. (lesser house fly), and Muscina stabulans (Fallén) (false stable fly). Of the 5,303 flies identified, >97% of these were either M. domestica or S. calcitrans. Adult flies emerged from biosolid cake all year round with a sharp decline in winter. The number of emerged flies peaked in summer (3,163 flies) and declined during autumn (1,545 flies) and spring (532 flies). Significant positive relationships were observed between the number of adult flies emerging from biosolid cake and ambient temperature, NH(4) content, and weeks exposed. Higher ambient temperatures and a higher NH(4) content of the biosolid cake were associated with increased number of adult flies emerging from the biosolid cake. Similarly, the majority of flies emerged from biosolid cake in the first 10 wk of exposure to fly activity.

Dadour IR; Voss SC

2009-06-01

49

Analysis of the Factors Affecting Consumer’s Some Traditional Food Products Preferences by Multidimensional Scaling Method  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate consumer behaviour towards factors affecting purchase decision of some traditional food products and grouping those consumer attitudes. The original data was obtained from results of a survey conducted in 14 different districts in Tekirdag. The survey consisted of face-to-face interviews conducted within a total sample of 166 households randomly. In the study, multidimensional scaling analysis is used for evaluating the effective factors of consumer preferences for traditional products and grouping their preferences. It is found that taste, food safety and freshness have similar effects on consumer preferences for yogurt, molasses and noodles. Price has an important and positive loaded effect on other variables for the three products.

Y. Oraman G. Unak?tan E. Y?lmaz B. Ba?aran

2011-01-01

50

Evaluation of Factors Affecting Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production by Comamonas sp. EB172 Using Central Composite Design  

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Full Text Available Aims: Statistical approach, central composite design (CCD) was used to investigate the complex interaction among temperature (25-37 °C), initial medium pH (5-9), inoculum size (4-10 % (v/v)), concentration of (NH4)2SO4 (0-1 g/L) and concentration of mixed organic acids (5-10 g/L) in the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Comamonas sp. EB172.Methodology and Results: Mixed organic acids derived from anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME) containing acetic:propionic:butyric (ratio of 3:1:1) were used as carbon source in the batch culture of Comamonas sp. EB172 to produce polyhydoxyalkanoates (PHAs). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that all five factors were significantly important in the batch fermentation by shake flask with a P value of less than 0.001. The optimal temperature, initial medium pH, inoculum size, concentration of (NH4)2SO4 and concentration of mixed organic acids were 30 °C, 7.04, 4.0 % (v/v), 0.01 g/L and 5.05 g/L respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Optimization of the production medium containing mixed organic acids has improved the PHA production for more than 2 folds. Under optimal condition in the shake flask fermentation, the predicted growth is 2.98 g/L of dry cell weight (DCW) with 47.07 wt % of PHA content. The highest yield of PHA was 0.28 g of PHA per g mixed organic acids.

Noor Azman Mohd Johar; Mohd Ali Hassan; Mohd Rafein Zakaria; Phang Lai Yee; Yoshihito Shirai; Hidayah Ariffin

2012-01-01

51

Adrenal hormone deprivation affects macrophage catecholamine metabolism and ?2-adrenoceptor density, but not propranolol stimulation of tumour necrosis factor-? production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Catecholamines modulate the production of inflammatory mediators by macrophages in an autocrine/paracrine manner. They also tune ?2-adrenoceptor expression. Glucocorticoids influence catecholamine metabolism and adrenoceptor expression in many cell types. We hypothesized that adrenal hormones affect the production of tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and NO by macrophages by altering the modulatory influence of catecholamines. To prove the hypothesis, peritoneal exudate macrophages from propranolol-treated non-operated and adrenalectomized rats and from corticosterone-supplemented adrenalectomized rats were examined for lipopolysaccharide-stimulated NO and TNF-? production in vitro and for expression of ?2-adrenoceptors and major catecholamine-metabolizing enzymes. Glucocorticoid deprivation increased NO production by macrophages, whereas 4 days of propranolol treatment was ineffective in this respect. However, propranolol treatment, via ?2-adrenoceptor blockade, increased production of TNF-? by macrophages in both non-operated and adrenalectomized rats (showing dramatically enhanced TNF-? production due to a lack of circulating glucocorticoids) for the same value. The expression of ?2-adrenoceptor was increased in peritoneal macrophages that were freshly isolated from non-operated, propranolol-treated and adrenalectomized rats (due to adrenal catecholamine deficiency). Propranolol did not affect macrophage ?2-adrenoceptor expression in adrenalectomized rats. Given that propranolol increased the density of macrophage tyrosine hydroxylase expression only in non-operated rats and affected the mRNA expression of monoamine oxidase-A in neither non-operated nor adrenalectomized animals, a significant influence of propranolol on peritoneal exudate cell noradrenaline content was found only in non-operated rats. A lack of circulating adrenal hormones also affected noradrenaline metabolism and content in peritoneal exudate cells including macrophages. Collectively, despite differences in the abundance of macrophage catecholamine-?2-adrenoceptor system components and in the TNF-? response to lipopolysaccharide between adrenalectomized and non-operated rats, propranolol increased TNF-? production by the same amount in macrophages from these two groups of animals.

Stanojevic S; Dimitrijevic M; Kustrimovic N; Mitic K; Vujic V; Leposavic G

2013-03-01

52

Investigation of the factors affecting adult fly production in biosolid cake.  

Science.gov (United States)

The seasonal pattern of adult fly production in both fresh and aged biosolid cake was established by the exposure of biosolid cake to natural conditions in the central coastal region of Perth, Western Australia, over the course of a year. Relationships between fly emergence and six factors (weeks exposed, pH, NH(4), rainfall, temperature, and moisture) suspected of facilitating the attraction of adult flies to biosolid cake were measured. The aim was to study the production of adult flies with regard to weeks exposed in different seasons to establish a "best practice" storage procedure for aged biosolid cake. Four fly species were collected during the study; Musca domestica L. (house fly), Stomoxys calcitrans L. (stable fly), Fannia canicularis L. (lesser house fly), and Muscina stabulans (Fallén) (false stable fly). Of the 5,303 flies identified, >97% of these were either M. domestica or S. calcitrans. Adult flies emerged from biosolid cake all year round with a sharp decline in winter. The number of emerged flies peaked in summer (3,163 flies) and declined during autumn (1,545 flies) and spring (532 flies). Significant positive relationships were observed between the number of adult flies emerging from biosolid cake and ambient temperature, NH(4) content, and weeks exposed. Higher ambient temperatures and a higher NH(4) content of the biosolid cake were associated with increased number of adult flies emerging from the biosolid cake. Similarly, the majority of flies emerged from biosolid cake in the first 10 wk of exposure to fly activity. PMID:19508771

Dadour, Ian R; Voss, Sasha C

2009-06-01

53

Population dynamics of dechlorinators and factors affecting the level and products of PCB dechlorination in sediments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) often stops although a significant number of removable chlorines remain. To determine the reason for the cessation, we investigated the limitation of organic carbon, PCB bioavailability, and inhibition by metabolic products. Enrichment with carbon sources did not induce additional chlorination, indicating the plateau was not due to depletion of organic carbon. The bioavailability was not limiting, since a subcritical micelle concentration of the surfactant, which enhanced desorption without inhibiting dechlorinating microorganisms, failed to lower the plateau. Neither was it due to accumulation of metabolites, since no additional dechlorination was detected when plateau sediments were incubated with fresh medium. Similarly, dechlorination was not inhibited in freshly spiked sediment slurries. Dechlorination ended up at the same level with nearly identical congener profiles, regardless of treatment. These results indicate that cessation of dechlorination was due to the accumulation of daughter congeners, which cannot be used as electron acceptors by microbes. To determine whether the decreasing availability affected the microorganisms, we determined the population dynamics of dechlorinators using the most probable number technique. The growth dynamics of the dechlorinators mirrored the time course of dechlorination. It started when the population increased by two orders of magnitude. Once dechlorination stopped the dechlorinating population also began to decrease. When dechlorinators were inoculated into PCB-free sediments, the population decreased over time. The decrease of the population as dechlorination ceased confirms that the diminishing availability of congeners was the reason for the incomplete dechlorination. Recent findings have shown that a second phase of dechlorination of certain congeners can occur after a long lag. 45 refs., 8 figs.

Kim, J.S.; Sokol, R.C.; Liu, X.; Bethoney, C.M.; Rhee, G.Y. [State Univ. of New York and New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

54

Tannin Biodegradation and Some Factors Affecting Tannase Production by Two Aspergillus sp.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study two local isolates Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus oryzae were investigated for tannase production on synthetic medium containing tannic acid as sole carbon source. Optimizations of intracellular tannase production at different culture conditions using batch and sub...

M.A. Abdel-Nabey; A.A. Sherief; A.B. EL-Tanash

55

Factors affecting microbial growth and polysaccharide production during the fermentation of Xanthomonas campestris cultures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fermentations of Xanthomonas campestris have been carried out on laboratory and pilot plant scales using various organic nitrogen sources in order to test their effectiveness in polysaccharide (xanthan) production. It was discovered that high nitrogen concentrations give highest yields of crude product and result in a need for only short fermentation times to achieve maximum product formation. These products, however, have inferior solution rheology to those produced from low-nitrogen media due partly to their high concentrations of co-precipitated microbial cells and partly to differences in tertiary molecular structure. (Refs. 17).

Kennedy, J.F.; Jones, P.; Barker, S.A.; Banks, G.T.

1982-01-01

56

Factors affecting corneoscleral topography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate factors affecting corneoscleral profile (CSP) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in combination with conventional videokeratoscopy. METHODS: OCT DATA WERE COLLECTED FROM 204 SUBJECTS OF MEAN AGE 34.9 YEARS (SD: ±15.2 years, range 18-65) using the Zeiss Visante AS-OCT and Medmont M300 corneal topographer. Measurements of corneal diameter (CD), corneal sagittal height (CS), iris diameter (ID), corneoscleral junction angle (CSJ), and scleral radius (SR) were extracted from multiple OCT images. Horizontal visible iris diameter (HVID) and vertical palpebral aperture (PA) were measured using a slit lamp graticule. Subject body height was also measured. Associations were then sought between CSP variables and age, height, ethnicity, sex, and refractive error. RESULTS: Significant correlations were found between age and ocular topography variables of HVID, PA, CSJ, SR, and ID (P < 0.0001), while height correlated with HVID, CD, and ID, and power vector terms with vertical plane keratometry, CD, and CS. Significant differences were noted between ethnicities with respect to CD (P = 0.0046), horizontal and vertical CS (P = 0.0068 and P = 0.0095), and horizontal ID (P = 0.0010). The same variables, with the exception of vertical CS, also varied with sex; horizontal CD (P = 0.0018), horizontal CS (P = 0.0018), and ID (P = 0.0012). Age accounted for the greatest variance in topography variables (36%). CONCLUSIONS: Age is the main factor influencing CSP; this should be taken into consideration in contact lens design, IOL selection, and in the optimization of surgical procedures. Ocular topography also varied with height, sex, ethnicity, and refractive error.

Hall LA; Hunt C; Young G; Wolffsohn J

2013-05-01

57

Exopolysaccharides Production by Pleurotus pulmonarius: Factors Affecting Formation and Their Structures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The optimization of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by Pleurotus pulmonarius was carried out. Malt extract at 1.5 % (w/v) showed the highest EPS production after 10 days of submerged incubation and initial pH 5.5. 5.5% (w/v) glucose and 0.4% (w/v) potassium nitrate as sole carbon and nitrogen sources were the best stimulators for EPS production respectively. Suitable incubation temperature was found to be 30°C. At the end of these series of experiments we have obtained (280 mg/100 ml) of EPS. The physicochemical characterization of EPS was studied and the structure was confirmed by the infrared spectroscopic analysis (IR).

Mahmoud M. Nour El-Dein; Amira A. El-Fallal; EL-Shahat A. Toson; Faten E. Hereher

2004-01-01

58

Factors affecting biosurfactant production by oil degrading Aeromonas spp. isolated from a tropical environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An Aeromonas spp. was isolated from tropical estuarine water. The organism grew on crude oil and produced biosurfactant that could emulsify hydrocarbons. The peak growth and biosurfactant production was on the 8th day. The organism grew on a range of hydrocarbons that include crude oil and hexadecane while no growth was recorded on some hydrocarbons that include benzene. The biosurfactant produced by the organism emulsified a range of hydrocarbons with diesel (E24=65) as the best substrate and hexane (E24=22) as the poorest. After purification, the biosurfactant was found to contain about 38% carbohydrate and an unidentified lipid. No protein was present in the purified biosurfactant. Production of biosurfactant was highest in medium with glucose and lowest in the medium with diesel+acetate. Soybean was the best nitrogen source for biosurfactant production. The activity of the biosurfactant was enhanced optimally at NaCl concentration of 5%, pH of 8.0 and temperature of 40 degrees C. The biosurfactant retained 77% of its original activity after 120 min of exposure to heat at a temperature of 100 degrees C. Biosurfactant may be produced with this organism using non-hydrocarbon substrates such as glucose and soybean that are readily available and would not require extensive purification for use in food and pharmaceutical industries.

Ilori MO; Amobi CJ; Odocha AC

2005-11-01

59

Factors affecting growth performance in beef production: an on farm survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate sources of variation of average daily gain in beef cattle, with an on farm approach, in the Veneto region. Data of 38707 animals fattened in 29 farms and belonging to 5 genotypes (Charolais, Charolais Female, French Crossbred, Limousin and Polish Friesian) were analysed considering type of farm, farm nested within type, genotype, housing system, arrival live weight, percentage of dead and injured animals, season of sale and diet. Genotype, farm, percentage of unhealthy animals and season of sale significantly affected average daily gain. Charolais and French Crossbred showed the highest values of average daily gain, Charolais Female the lowest. The effect of farm suggests that management is very important for growth performance in beef cattle. Moreover, batches of animals with high percentage of dead and injured presented lower values of average daily gain. In spring-summer 2003 an extremely hot climate was unfavourable for growth performance.

Enrico Sturaro; Marzio Quassolo; Maurizio Ramanzin

2010-01-01

60

Factors affecting catalysis of copper corrosion products in NDMA formation from DMA in simulated premise plumbing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the effects of corrosion products of copper, a metal commonly employed in household plumbing systems, on N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation from a known NDMA precursor, dimethylamine (DMA). Copper-catalyzed NDMA formation increased with increasing copper concentrations, DMA concentrations, alkalinity and hardness, but decreased with increasing natural organic matter (NOM) concentration. pH influenced the speciation of chloramine and the interactions of copper with DMA. The transformation of monochloramine (NH2Cl) to dichloramine and complexation of copper with DMA were involved in elevating the formation of NDMA by copper at pH 7.0. The inhibiting effect of NOM on copper catalysis was attributed to the rapid consumption of NH2Cl by NOM and/or the competitive complexation of NOM with copper to limit the formation of DMA-copper complexes. Hardness ions, as represented by Ca(2+), also competed with copper for binding sites on NOM, thereby weakening the inhibitory effect of NOM on NDMA formation. Common copper corrosion products also participated in these reactions but in different ways. Aqueous copper released from malachite [Cu2CO3(OH)2] was shown to promote NDMA formation while NDMA formation decreased in the presence of CuO, most likely due to the adsorption of DMA.

Zhang H; Andrews SA

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting production potential of Butana dairy cows at Atbara Research Station, Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effects of year and season of calving and cows' parity order on milk yield, lactation period, persistency and longevity were studied using 1338 records of 222 Butana dairy cows. Estimates of heritability and repeatability of these traits were also studied. Data were classified according to years of calving into 1949 –1959, 1960-1969, 1970-1979, 1980-1989 and 1990–1999 groups. Further data classification was done according to season of calving into dry summer (March–June), wet summer (July-October) and winter (November-February) groups. Data were also classified according to cow's parity order into ten parity groups. General linear model was conducted to examine the significance of the tested effects. Overall means of total milk yield, lactation period, persistency and longevity were 1709.50 ± 892.10 kg, 248.40 ± 91.30 days, 75.16 ± 48.58% and 6.56 ± 3.18 years, respectively. Milk yield was significantly affected by year of calving and parity order, persistency was not affected by any of the studied factors, while longevity was affected by year and season of calving. Heritability of these traits was low (ranged between 0.01 and 0.14) while repeatability ranged between 0.17 and 0.23. The study concluded that Butana breed are promising dairy cows and their production potential traits were mainly affected by the non genetic environmental factors such as managerial changes during years, seasonal variations and age of cows. However, the traits values were repeatable during the animal’s life.

T. M. Badri,; M. Atta,; Mohamed T. Ibrahim; K. A. Gubartalla

2011-01-01

62

Some Factors Affecting the Production of Carotenoids by Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new yeast strain isolated from pin cushion flower (Scabiosa atropurpura) in our laboratory was selected from 200 yeast isolates as carotenoids producer and identified as Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis. The selected isolate was grown in synthetic medium to study the effect of carbon to nitrogen ratio, sources of nitrogen and carbon, mineral salts and incubation temperature on carotenoids production. The results indicated the following optimal conditions: carbon to nitrogen ratio of 5, ammonium sulphate as nitrogen source, sucrose as carbon source, presence of zinc sulphate in the medium and cultivation temperature of 25?C. The studied factors affected the dry biomass as well as the proportion of carotenoids and consequently the colour of pellets of the yeast. The yeast strain was grown under the optimal conditions to study the changes occurring in the medium and the pellets during carotenoids production for 6 days. Carotenoids production started after the first day of incubation and most of the carotenoids content in the yeast cells was produced during stationary phase. The highest cellular (861 ?g?g–1) and volumetric (1.9 mg?L–1) carotenoids content were ob- tained after 5 days of growth.

Amr A. El-Banna; Amal M. Abd El-Razek; Ahmed R. El-Mahdy

2012-01-01

63

Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Adoption of Soya Bean Production Technologies in Takum Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examined socio-economic factors affecting the adoption of soya bean production technologies in Takum Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria. Interview schedules were administered to 180 respondents which were analyzed by the use of descriptive (frequencies and percentages) and inferential (multiple regression analysis) statistics. The study revealed that majority of the respondents adopted the recommended technologies with respect to improved seeds, planting time and harvesting time representing 52.20%, 50.70% and 68.90% respectively. While on the other hand, majority of the respondents did not adopt the recommended technologies with regards to fertilizer application, spacing, weeding frequency and the use of chemicals with 52.20%, 53.30%, 61.10% and 67.80% respectively. The regression analysis revealed that educational level, farming experience and sources of information had significantly and positively influenced the adoption of improved soya bean production technologies by respondents. The major constraints to adoption of soya bean production technologies by respondents were poor extension services (75.60%) and lack of credit facilities (72.20%. The study recommends that agricultural extension services should adequately be provided with input support services in the form of credit facilities among others.

Mustapha, S. B.; Makinta, A. A.; Zongoma, B. A.; Iwan, A. S.

2012-01-01

64

Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants. IV-Factors affecting the characteristics of simulating polymer waste products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The goal of this study, which is part of a coordinated research program that was arranged by the International Atomic Energy Agency, was aimed at evaluating final waste forms and packages. Four different types of polymer matrices were used to incorporate simulating borate waste originating from a primary cooling circuit in a pressurized water reactor. The factors affecting the properties of simulated polymer waste products that were studied included polymer waste ratios, the effect of accumulated radiation dose, water content added to loaded dry simulating borate waste, and the effect of given chemical components of polymer matrix. The results obtained show that, where leaching criteria of the final waste form was concerned, 50% of the immobilized dry simulating waste powder was a reasonable loading for all polymers under investigation. The data obtained also indicated decreases in the compressive strength values of the solidified forms with an increase in the water content of the immobilized simulating borate waste powder. (author) 6 figs., 10 tabs., 35 refs

1995-01-01

65

Factors Affecting Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Production from Oil Palm Frond Juice by Cupriavidus necator (CCUG52238T)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Factors influencing poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) P(3HB) production by??Cupriavidus necator??CCUG52238T utilizing oil palm frond (OPF) juice were clarified in this study. Effects of initial medium pH, agitation speed, and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 concentration on the production of P(3HB) were investigat...

Mohd Zahari, Mior Ahmad Khushairi; Ariffin, Hidayah; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Salihon, Jailani; Shirai, Yoshihito

66

Analysis of Factors Affecting on Risk Management of Wheat Production Among Wheat Farmers (Razavieh Region, Khorasan-E-Razavi Province, Iran)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to analyze the Factors Affecting on risk management in wheat production among farmers of Razavieh region (Khorasan-E-Razavi province, Iran). Statistical population of the study was 1520 farmers that they had water cultivation. By using of stratified proportional random sampling 156 respondents were selected from 8 villages. For the calculation of the risk-aversion coefficient degree among farmers, the Safety First Rule model was used. The findings revealed that the dominant respondents (65%) were risk-averse. The results of exploratory factorial analysis showed that five factors determined about 74.267 % from total variance for wheat farmers' risk management that consist of: economy & marketing management factor, planting management factor, harvest management factor, infrastructure management of farming and risk-sharing management factor. From among of the above mentioned factors, the most important factor of risk management in study region was factor of economy & marketing management

M. Sookhtanlo; V. Sarani

2011-01-01

67

Epidemiological factors affecting "Hepatitis C".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection is often asymptomatic, but once established, chronic infection can progress to scarring of the liver (fibrosis), and advanced scarring (cirrhosis) which is generally apparent after many years. The main goal of this work is the investigation of the important factors that affect hepatitis C. Epidemiological and Statistical analysis using non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Willis, Mann-Whitney) are considered to present the amount of significant differences between important factors. Proposed model are analyzed when logistic regression is applied.

Diomidous M; Zimeras S; Elefsiniotis IS

2013-01-01

68

Factors Affecting the Contribution by Epiphytic Algae to the Primary Productivity of an Oligotrophic Freshwater Lake1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A diatom-dominated population of epiphytic algae was studied in an oligotrophic lake to determine the factors which limit epiphyte growth and to measure their contribution to primary productivity. Algae were collected from plants growing at four sites in Lake George, N.Y., during the spring, summer,...

Sheldon, Richard B.; Boylen, Charles W.

69

A Study of Factors Affecting on Men’s Skin Care ProductsPurchasing, Particularly in Karlstad, Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines in some depth the influences of marketing mix, social factors, emergence of the metrosexual, evolution of femininity and masculinity, self-esteem and customer decision making on the male consumer behavior in purchasing skin care products in Sweden, particular in Karlstad. In do s...

SURAKIATPINYO, JIRAPORN; MOUNGKHEM, CHANINTORN

70

Factors affecting vegetable stand establishment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several factors can influence stand establishment in vegetable crop production. Environmental conditions such as soil physical characteristics, temperature and moisture, various cultural practices, and diseases may all be limiting factors in establishing maximum stands and achieving the highest possible yields. Measures taken to increase stands include soil improvements, implementing cultural practices, and use of chemical and biological seed treatments. Combining seed treatments and cultural/tillage practices to minimize environmental constraints can lead to maximum stands and yields in the production of high quality vegetable crops.

Grassbaugh E. M.; Bennett M. A.

1998-01-01

71

The sigma factor sigma s affects antibiotic production and biological control activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5, a rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium that suppresses several soilborne pathogens of plants, produces the antibiotics pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin, and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. A gene necessary for pyrrolnitrin production by Pf-5 was identified as rpoS, which encodes the stationary-phase sigma factor sigma s. Several pleiotropic effects of an rpoS mutation in Escherichia coli also were observed in an RpoS- mutant of Pf-5. These included sensitivities of stationary-phase cells to stresses imposed by hydrogen peroxide or high salt concentration. A plasmid containing the cloned wild-type rpoS gene restored pyrrolnitrin production and stress tolerance to the RpoS- mutant of Pf-5. The RpoS- mutant overproduced pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetyl-phloroglucinol, two antibiotics that inhibit growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Pythium ultimum, and was superior to the wild type in suppression of seedling damping-off of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum. When inoculated onto cucumber seed at high cell densities, the RpoS- mutant did not survive as well as the wild-type strain on surfaces of developing seedlings. Other stationary-phase-specific phenotypes of Pf-5, such as the production of cyanide and extracellular protease(s) were expressed by the RpoS- mutant, suggesting that sigma s is only one of the sigma factors required for the transcription of genes in stationary-phase cells of P. fluorescens. These results indicate that a sigma factor encoded by rpoS influences antibiotic production, biological control activity, and survival of P. fluorescens on plant surfaces.

Sarniguet A; Kraus J; Henkels MD; Muehlchen AM; Loper JE

1995-12-01

72

Protein digestibility and quality in products containing antinutritional factors are adversely affected by old age in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) has been recommended to be the most suitable method for routine evaluation of protein quality of foods by FAO/WHO. The PDCAAS method includes the use of young rats for predicting protein digestibility of foods for all ages including the elderly. To assess the usefulness of protein digestibility in old rats in the calculation of PDCAAS for the elderly, the influence of age on the digestibility of protein in 5-wk-old and 20-mo-old rats by the balance method was studied. Fifteen protein products were tested. Each protein product was fed as the sole source of 10% dietary protein. A protein-free diet was also included to obtain an estimate of metabolic fecal protein. Protein digestibility values (corrected for metabolic fecal protein loss) in old rats were significantly (P skim milk powder). Similarly, the differences attributed to age were not large (up to 5%) for properly processed vegetable protein products (soy protein isolate and autoclaved soybean meal, black beans and fava beans). However, digestibility values in old rats were considerably lower (7-17%) than in young rats when fed products containing antinutritional factors, that is, mustard flour containing glucosinolates; alkaline/heat-treated soy protein isolate and lactalbumin-containing lysinoalanine; raw soybean meal and black beans containing trypsin inhibitors; and heated skim milk powder containing Maillard compounds. Therefore, the inclusion of protein digestibility data obtained using young rats in the calculations of PDCAAS may overestimate protein digestibility and quality of these products for the elderly. For products specifically intended for the elderly, protein digestibility should be determined using old rats. PMID:12514294

Gilani, G Sarwar; Sepehr, Estatira

2003-01-01

73

The level of fertilizer use in sunflower production and the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the factors affecting the amount of fertilizer used in sunflower production have been investigated. Average sunflower production area was determined as 21.91 da and sunflower was grown in irrigated conditions. Average plant nutrients was 20.92 kg N/da, 14.33 kg P2O5/da, and 2.22 kg K2O/da. As a result of the study, it has been determined that farmers used excess fertilizer in sunflower production. In addition, in the use of plant nutrients, the factors such as farm size, sources of fertilizer, irrigation possibilities, credit use situation, and the quality of land were statistically significant contrary to the factors such as land usage situation, educational level of farmers and deciding on fertilization. Refs. 6 (author)

1999-01-01

74

Factors affecting poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production from oil palm frond juice by Cupriavidus necator (CCUG52238(T)).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Factors influencing poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) P(3HB) production by Cupriavidus necator CCUG52238(T) utilizing oil palm frond (OPF) juice were clarified in this study. Effects of initial medium pH, agitation speed, and ammonium sulfate (NH(4))(2)SO(4) concentration on the production of P(3HB) were investigated in shake flasks experiments using OPF juice as the sole carbon source. The highest P(3HB) content was recorded at pH?7.0, agitation speed of 220?rpm, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) concentration at 0.5?g/L. By culturing the wild-type strain of C. necator under the aforementioned conditions, the cell dry weight (CDW) and P(3HB) content obtained were 9.31?±?0.13?g/L and 45?±?1.5?wt.%, respectively. This accounted for 40% increment of P(3HB) content compared to the nonoptimized condition. In the meanwhile, the effect of dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) on P(3HB) production was investigated in a 2-L bioreactor. Highest CDW (11.37?g/L) and P(3HB) content (44?wt.%) were achieved when DOT level was set at 30%. P(3HB) produced from OPF juice had a tensile strength of 40?MPa and elongation at break of 8% demonstrated that P(3HB) produced from renewable and cheap carbon source is comparable to those produced from commercial substrate.

Mohd Zahari MA; Ariffin H; Mokhtar MN; Salihon J; Shirai Y; Hassan MA

2012-01-01

75

Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

McBride Sebastian D; Mills Daniel S

2012-01-01

76

Parameters affecting solar still productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, investigation of the main parameters affecting solar still performance under the weather conditions of the Suez Gulf area is considered. Four solar still units are designed and constructed to operate under the same weather conditions with different design parameters. A general equation is developed to predict the daily productivity of a single sloped solar still. The developed equation relates the dependent and independent variables which control the daily productivity. This equation could be used to predict the daily productivity with a reasonable confidence level (maximum error {+-} 5%). (author)

Nafey, A.S.; Mabrouk, A.A. [Suez Canal University (Egypt). Engineering Science Dept.; Abdelkader, M.; Abdelmotalip, A. [Suez Canal University (Egypt). Mechanical Power Engineering Dept.

2000-11-01

77

Principal Factors Affecting IDBT Evolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on Italian Double-entry Bookkeeping Thought (IDBT) evolution are seldom found in such aspects as accounts with persons (AP), accounts with goods (AG), and accounts equilibria (AE), etc., so we studied IDBT evolution in the aspects stated above and the principal factors for IDBT evolution, including their selection, contribution and sequence in this thesis. By our analysis, IDBT evolved in such aspects as accounts with persons (AP), accounts with goods (AG), loss and net income accounts (LNIA), capital accounts (AC) and accounts equilibria (AE), etc., and ripened in the period of 1430-1482. Principal factors affecting IDBT evolution can be ordered by contribution as follows: social conditions (SCS3) and relationships between supply and demand of accounting thought (RBSDAT2). And our related advice is as follows: governments should adopt appropriate policy, and help to build proper social conditions and strengthen the relationships between supply and demand of accounting thought to promote the evolution of accounting thought. Especially as to social conditions, IDBT evolution is mainly owing to external causes from the outside of Italy. Once the outside motive disappeared, IDBT would lose the strong power of evolution and slow down its pace. So governments should place more emphases on building proper social conditions by encouraging internal powers from the inside of Italy.

Changqing Liu; Haili Yuan

2011-01-01

78

Factors affecting forage stand establishment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

Sulc R.M.

1998-01-01

79

Factors affecting the production of biomass by a nitrogen-fixing blue-green alga in outdoor culture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effectiveness of an aeration-shaking (air-lift) system for outdoor biomass photoproduction by the N2-fixing filamentous blue-green alga Anabaena variabilis was evaluated and the influence of relevant fractors on the productivity of the system was assessed. Air at a flow rate of 60 liters per liter of cell suspension per h was enough, by itself, to promote adequate turbulence and to supply the gaseous nutrients (CO/sub 2/ and N2) needed for maximal productivity. The addition of either or both, CO/sub 2/ and combined nitrogen (as KNO/sub 3/ or NH/sub 4/Cl), did not result in any increase in productivity. In summer and winter, optimal cell density for a suspension depth of 25 cm was 0.2-0.3 g (dry weight) per liter and 0.1-0.2 g (dry weight) per liter respectively. Reciprocally, optimal suspension depth for a cell density of 0.2 g (dry weight) per liter was 20-25 cm in summer and below 15 cm in winter. Optimal values for pH and temperature were 8.2-8.4 and 30-35 degrees C, respectively. Under optimal conditions, mean productivity values were about 13 g (dry weight)/square m per day in summer and 6 g (dry weight)/square m per day in winter. Net protein content of A. variabilis cells was higher than 50%, and nitrogen accounted for 10% of the dry biomass. From the productivity and nitrogen content data, the N2 fixation rate in outdoor cultures of A. variabilis can be estimated to be higher than 1 g N/square m per day, i.e. more than 3 t N per hectare per year when values are extrapolated both in time and area. (Refs. 18).

Fontes, A.G.; Vargas, M.A.; Moreno, J.; Guerrero, G.M.; Losada, M.

1987-01-01

80

SUBTASK 1.7 EVALUATION OF KEY FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL OIL PRODUCTION IN THE BAKKEN FORMATION, NORTH DAKOTA PHASE II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations continues to trend upward as forecasts predict significant production of oil from unconventional resources nationwide. As the U.S. Geological Survey reevaluates the 3.65 billion bbl technically recoverable estimate of 2008, technological advancements continue to unlock greater unconventional oil resources, and new discoveries continue within North Dakota. It is expected that the play will continue to expand to the southwest, newly develop in the northeastern and northwestern corners of the basin in North Dakota, and fully develop in between. Although not all wells are economical, the economic success rate has been near 75% with more than 90% of wells finding oil. Currently, only about 15% of the play has been drilled, and recovery rates are less than 5%, providing a significant future of wells to be drilled and untouched hydrocarbons to be pursued through improved stimulation practices or enhanced oil recovery. This study provides the technical characterizations that are necessary to improve knowledge, provide characterization, validate generalizations, and provide insight relative to hydrocarbon recovery in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. Oil-saturated rock charged from the Bakken shales and prospective Three Forks can be produced given appropriate stimulation treatments. Highly concentrated fracture stimulations with ceramic- and sand-based proppants appear to be providing the best success for areas outside the Parshall and Sanish Fields. Targeting of specific lithologies can influence production from both natural and induced fracture conductivity. Porosity and permeability are low, but various lithofacies units within the formation are highly saturated and, when targeted with appropriate technology, release highly economical quantities of hydrocarbons.

Darren D. Schmidt; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen; Damion J. Knudsen; John A. Harju; Edward N. Steadman

2011-10-31

 
 
 
 
81

FACTORS AFFECTING THE POST LARVAL PRODUCTION OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII (DE MAN) BY USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF FEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study was conducted to know the importance of for the effects of different types of feed on larval survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  In this experiment total nine tanks are selected and were divided, placed under three experiments (Viz. E1, E2, and E3) each having three replicates. The feshly hatched out larvae (Zoea) were collected and stocked in three different treatment tanks. The larvae were stoked in E1 (Artemia nauplii and egg custard), E2 (Artemia nauplii only) and E3 (Freeze dried (Cyclop-eeze only).  The survival rate of postlarvae found to vary from 5 to 40%. Highest rate of survival was recorded for the treatment of E1 (31.5- 40.2 %) and the lowest survival was recorded in E3 (3.0- 5.2 %). Such variations was occurred due to higher nutritive and growth promoting value of egg custard. The result obtained from the present study indicated that rearing of freshwater prawn larvae by improved management techniques can be considered economically viable and acceptable. So the production of post larvae of prawn was increased significantly by using Artemia nauplii and egg custard as larval diet.

Shailender M*, Krishna PV, Suresh Babu CH

2013-01-01

82

Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

Sertac Gonenc; Harun Tanrivermis

2007-01-01

83

Factors Affecting Performance of AODV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) it is hard for a route to sustain for a longer period of time due to the mobility of nodes. High mobility of nodes results in active route failure and re-route discoveries. Such frequent route discoveries result in decreased network performance. In this study we have analyzed in detail the affect of different node mobility parameters on the performance of AODV (Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector) Routing Protocol. Simulation results are provided at the end.

S.A. Hussain; K. Mahmood; E. Garcia

2007-01-01

84

FACTORS AFFECTING ONLINE PURCHASING BEHAVIOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examined the relationship between consumer personality and cultural dimensions to that of purchasing behavior through cyber advertising. Krugman?s Low Involvement theory and Hofstede?s Cultural Dimensions were incorporated in the study. A survey was conducted in the Subang Jaya, Puchong and Kuala Lumpur area. The sample consisted of 504 respondents drawn from a simple random sampling. Spearman Correlation Coefficients was used to analyze the data. The study showed as suggested by Krugman?s Low Involvement theory, high involvement products and attitude towards Internet contributed significantly to the purchasing behavior through cyber advertising. Thus indicating the Internet to be better suited for high involvement products and services as well as help increase the tendency to purchase products and services online. Similarly, the study also showed that the convenience dimension of the consumer personality variable formed a significant relationship with purchasing behavior through cyber advertising. Although Hofstede?s Cultural Dimensions argued that cultural dimensions influences the adoption of innovations, yet results obtained from the study failed to support the theory as it was found that risk personality which represent the other dimension of the consumer personality and the cultural dimensions failed to support the hypotheses as observed in the non-significant relationships between the variables and the purchasing behavior through cyber advertising.

Hamisah Haji Hasan; Samsudin A. Rahim

2008-01-01

85

Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most important factors that affecting efficiency of solar cells. These effects are cell temperature, MPPT (maximum power point tracking) and energy conversion efficiency. The changing of these factors improves solar cell efficiency for more reliable applications.

Furkan Dincer; Mehmet Emin Meral

2010-01-01

86

Factors affecting the quality of bottled water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ever-increasing popularity of bottled water means that it is important to analyze not only its mineral content but also, above all, its content of possible contaminants, especially the organic ones. In this respect, bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic chemical contaminants derived from the well from which they were acquired, their secondary contamination is always possible, during treatment or storage or transport in unsuitable conditions (sunlight and elevated temperature). This paper describes how various factors, from the area around the well, and the method of drawing and treating water, to the manner in which the finished product is stored and transported may affect the quality of bottled waters. It also summarizes literature information on the levels of organic contaminants in various kinds of bottled water samples.

Diduch M; Polkowska ?; Namie?nik J

2013-03-01

87

Rate factors affecting western railroad coal transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Events of the mid-1970s have materially affected US coal production and transportation by railroad. Coal, as a replacement or substitute for petroleum fuels, has been hauled in significantly increased tonnages. Concurrent with the new demand, the railroad regulatory environment has undergone major changes, especially in deregulation activity. Those two events have produced considerable litigation regarding coal rates. This paper discusses the factors involved with railroad rates and topics such as revenue adequacy, Ramsey Pricing, stand-alone cost, and differential pricing. In addition, an update on the western railroad merger situation and the implications for coal transportation are presented. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the current regulatory climate and future prospects.

Frank, W.B.

1984-01-01

88

Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

Erman YUKSELTURK; Fethi Ahmet INAN

2006-01-01

89

A Survey on Factors Affecting on Consumer’s Potential Willingness to Pay for Organic Products in Iran (A Case Study)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study determined factors influencing on consumer’s potential willingness to pay for organic products in Iran. Data collected with filling 240 questionnaires in 2006 from Mashhad’s households and analyzed using Tobit model. Results showed that product appearance and measure of consumers’ information is effective on willingness to pay for organic products. In addition, consumers’ anxieties from chemical residue in nutrition have positive effect on willingness to pay for these products. Also, results showed that household’s education level has negative effect on willingness to pay for organic products. encourage of consumers to organic products consumption, encourage farmers to produce organic products and without any chemical material and make sustainable marketing for organic products, increasing the households awareness about organic products, expansion of organic product cultivation, government payment for supporting of producers suggested.

M. Ghorbani; S. Hamraz

2009-01-01

90

Environmental factors affecting autoimmune thyroid disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of environmental factors affect the incidence and progression of autoimmune thyroid disease. Exposure to excess iodine, certain drugs, infectious agents and pollutants, and stress have all been implicated.

Safran, M.; Paul, T.L.; Roti, E.; Braverman, L.E.

1987-06-01

91

EFL Teachers' Factors and Students' Affect  

Science.gov (United States)

Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…

Qin, Lei

2007-01-01

92

Factors affecting the production and regeneration of protoplasts from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum/ Fatores que afetam a produção e regeneração de protoplastos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho apresenta os fatores que afetam a produção e regeneração de protoplastos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. O isolamento de protoplastos é muito relevante para diferentes aplicações, principalmente, em procedimentos que envolvem a manipulação genética. Estabilizadores osmóticos, enzimas líticas, tempo de incubação e idade micelial foram testados com relação ao efeito na liberação de protoplastos. As condições otimizadas para produç? (more) ?o de protoplastos foram incubação de micélio jovem (48 h) em estabilizador osmótico NaCl 0.6 mol l-1, acrescido de 30 mg ml-1 da enzima Lysing Enzymes de Trichoderma harzianum incubado, durante 3 h. Nessas condições, a obtenção de protoplastos foi maior que 10(6) protoplatos ml-1 na mistura de digestão, número suficientemente adequado para experimentos de transformação em fungos. Sacarose nas concentrações de 1.2 mol l-1 e 1 mol l-1 foram os estabilizadores mais apropriados para a regeneração, após 48 h, sendo as taxas de regeneração de 16.35% e 14.54%, respectivamente. Este estudo produziu um método eficiente para produção e reversão de protoplastos à morfologia micelial típica de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum utilizando o isolado LV115. Abstract in english The present work reports factors affecting the production and regeneration of protoplasts from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The usefulness of protoplast isolation is relevant for many different applications and has been principally used in procedures involving genetic manipulation. Osmotic stabilizers, lytic enzymes, incubation time and mycelial age were evaluated in terms of their effects on protoplast yield. The optimal condition for protoplast production included the (more) incubation of young mycelia (48 h) in 0.6 mol l-1 NaCl as the osmotic stabilizer, with 30 mg ml-1 Lysing Enzymes from Trichoderma harzianum for 3 h of incubation. In these conditions protoplasts production was higher than 10(6) protoplatos ml-1 in the digestion mixture, number suitable enough for experiments of transformation in fungi. Sucrose concentrations of 1.2 mol l-1 and 1 mol l-1 were the most suitable osmotic stabilizers for the regeneration after 48 h, with rates of 16.35% and 14.54%, respectively. This study produced an efficient method for protoplast production and reverted them into a typical mycelial morphology using a Colletotrichum lindemuthianum LV115 isolate.

Ishikawa, Francine Hiromi; Barcelos, Quélen de Lima; Souza, Elaine Aparecida de; Dias, Eustáquio Souza

2010-02-01

93

Factors affecting labour productivity in the SME sector of the European Union Czynniki kszta?tuj?ce wydajno?? pracy w sektorze MSP Unii Europejskiej  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of labour productivity analysis in micro, small and medium enterprises of EU countries. The analysis was conducted on the basis of European Commission for Enterprise and Industry data from 2008. The results of regression analysis point that the technical equipment of work, the share of value added and value of production in revenues are the most important factors influencing the labour productivity in the SME sector.

Zbigniew Go?a?

2011-01-01

94

Primary Factors Affecting Safety of Control System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim of the paper is to point out some of the factors that affect safety of control system. Already in initial stages of the control system life-cycle it is necessary to analyze the effect of each of these factors on safety of a designed control system. Following this analysis, it is possible to prop...

Karol Rastocny; Michal Foltan

95

How Employee Turnover Affects Productivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research on employee turnover suggests that turnover results in negative organization-level outcomes. This paper provides a firm-level analysis of the impact of the in- and outflows of human resources on productivity and how the presence of organizational slack resources moderates the effects of emp...

Eriksen, Bo

96

Primary Factors Affecting Safety of Control System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to point out some of the factors that affect safety of control system. Already in initial stages of the control system life-cycle it is necessary to analyze the effect of each of these factors on safety of a designed control system. Following this analysis, it is possible to propose appropriate measures for achieving specified safety goals.

Karol Rastocny; Michal Foltan

2006-01-01

97

Factors that affect toilet training in children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To identify age of initiation of toilet training and affecting factors for children. Material and Methods: 861 children were included in this study. "Chi square test", "Mann-Whitney U Test" and "Kruskall-Wallis Variance Analysis" statistical analysis methods have been applied. Ethical per...

Serdar Önen; ?lknur Aksoy; M. Ay?in Ta?ar; Y?ld?z Dallar Bilge

98

Factors affecting beam shape and quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The beam shape and quality are affected by hash, ripple, ion intensity distribution and geometrical and operational factors. Hash, which was found to be localized mainly at the sides of the beam (parasitic divergence ?), must be stopped by an appropriate diapharam to improve the image quality. The magnitude of ? is strongly dependent on the relative hash. Of all the source parameters, the magnetic field is the dominant factor in determining hash. Ripple in the cathode or arc power supplies of the source leads to a modulation of the beam divergence and consequently to an apparant increase of ?. The main result is an equivalent loss of transmission when ? is eliminated. Installing effective filters in the cathode and arc supplies of the MEIRA separator reduce the ripple by a factor of 10. Other factors found to increase the value of ? for long emission slits were faulty alignment of the electrode with the emission slit and non-uniform current density along this slit. Factors affecting ion current density distribution along the slit are described. Preliminary results are given concerning the variation of features of the divergence curve with operational parameters. (Auth.)

1976-12-01

99

The factors affecting the recarburization process indicators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the factors affecting the carburizing rates obtained (rate and efficiency) during the process of melting cast iron. The analysis includes the recarburizer type (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke) and particle size. Further factors considered in work are the methods of recarburization (recarburizer introduction to a solid charge and on the surface of the metal bath) and the parameters of the melt (temperature and chemical composition). The analysis was based on experiments performed, the calculation results of computer simulations and literature data.

K. Janerka; J. Szajnar; J. Jezierski; D. Bartocha

2011-01-01

100

Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most ...

Furkan Dincer; Mehmet Emin Meral

 
 
 
 
101

Experimental factors affecting white strobe pulse frequency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes made to the standard strobe compositions used as a baseline, and the resultant effects in intensity, duration and pulse frequency are described. The changes involved variations in particle sizes and mix ratios in order to cause performance changes in the original pyrotechnic strobe composition. Several factors, such as binder material, binder percentage, the addition of sulfur or antimony trisulfide and sulfates were found to affect strobe frequency. Technical data, photographic and videotape evidence of burning characteristics are highlighted. 3 refs., 7 figs.

Domanico, J. A. [Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (United States)

2000-04-01

102

Factors affecting air quality in Hong Kong  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hong Kong is a thriving territory of over 6 million people, well known for its manufacturing and trade, and also as a popular city for visitors. However, in common with many Asian cities, it experiences air pollution problems that are potential health risks and that also reduce the quality of life for visitors and residents alike. In this presentation, the factors affecting air quality in populated areas are discussed

Gervat, G.P.; Lee, F.Y.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept., Air Service Group

1995-12-31

103

Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural developmentin Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have abetter insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as alearning forum for bringing about changes for all participants,they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciativeinquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting thefacilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors andpreventing factors. The former are: two-way communication,election of rural eligible facilitators, participation, sense ofresponsibility, and the latter are: cultural and tribal fanaticism,lack of permanent female extension workers and frequentmanagement changes. Appreciative inquiry as a positive modeof action research could facilitate the process of education andcommunication for all stakeholders. We suggested that thereshould be a shift from the extension as a knowledge transfer tofacilitation as people’s own knowledge creation. This studyshowed that appreciative inquiry could facilitate the process ofchange and gender-awareness. This research method couldalso facilitate mutual communication between the rural facilitatorsand extension workers.

Farideh Azimi; Mohammad Bagher Kamali

2011-01-01

104

FACTORS AFFECTING THE SPORT RELATED CONSUMER EXPENDITURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years there has been a significant change in the importance given to economic and social role of sport related economic activities since sport has changed to a much broader concept involving sport clubs, associations, organizations and businesses where the implementation of carefully designed marketing strategies became vital for success. This study aims to explore the factors affecting the sport related consumer expenditures. Empirical results were obtained by means of a questionnaire survey in Izmir, the third biggest city in Turkey. The results include demographic and socio-economic analysis of respondents, their practices about sport related activities and expenditures associated with these activities. Six factors were obtained from the factor analysis depending on the respondents’ attitudes towards sporting activities were examined for their effects on sport related expenditures of the consumers.

Aykan CANDEM?R; Ali Erhan ZALLUHO?LU

2012-01-01

105

Factors affecting culture fluorescence when monitoring bioreactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the investigation of major factors which affect culture fluorescence signals from bioreactors, in particular, culture fluorescence signals from excited tryptophan, pyridoxine, NADH, and riboflavin. Major facrors chosen for the investigation are as follows; probe position, agitation and aeration rates, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, inner filter effects, and cascade effects. Among these factors, inner filter effects, temperature, probe position, and agitation and aeration rates were found to be most important to quantify the culture fluorescence signals. The effect of pH was especially important to quantify the culture fluorescence signals from tryptophan and pyridoxine. Effects of dissolved oxygen and cascade were not important factors for any of the above four cellular fluorophores dissolved in buffer. Furthermore, mathematical models were derived to explain effects of pH, temperature, and inner filter on the back scattered fluorescence signals. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Li, J. (Merck and Co. Inc., PA (USA)); Humphrey, A. (Lehigh University, PA (United States))

1992-08-25

106

Factors affecting ice nucleation in plant tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors affecting the ice nucleation temperature of plants and plant tissues were examined. The mass of a sample had a marked effect on ice nucleation temperature. Small tissue samples supercooled to -10 degrees C and were not accurate predictors of the nucleation temperature of intact plants in either laboratory or field experiments. This effect was not unique to plant tissues and was observed in autoclaved and control soil samples. Ice nucleation temperatures of bean, corn, cotton, and soybean seedlings were influenced by the length of subzero exposure, presence of ice nucleation active bacteria, and leaf surface wetness. The number of factors influencing ice nucleation temperature suggested that predicting the freezing behavior of plants in the field will be complex. PMID:16664524

Ashworth, E N; Davis, G A; Anderson, J A

1985-12-01

107

Factors affecting ice nucleation in plant tissues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Factors affecting the ice nucleation temperature of plants and plant tissues were examined. The mass of a sample had a marked effect on ice nucleation temperature. Small tissue samples supercooled to -10 degrees C and were not accurate predictors of the nucleation temperature of intact plants in either laboratory or field experiments. This effect was not unique to plant tissues and was observed in autoclaved and control soil samples. Ice nucleation temperatures of bean, corn, cotton, and soybean seedlings were influenced by the length of subzero exposure, presence of ice nucleation active bacteria, and leaf surface wetness. The number of factors influencing ice nucleation temperature suggested that predicting the freezing behavior of plants in the field will be complex.

Ashworth EN; Davis GA; Anderson JA

1985-12-01

108

Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS) have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS) economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1) public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2) support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3) the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1) and 2), as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

Maria S. Bowman; David Zilberman

2013-01-01

109

[Factors that affect inpatients' quality of sleep].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to identify factors that interfere with the sleep quality of patients admitted to a university hospital in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This was an exploratory, cross sectional study using non-probability sampling. Participants were 117 patients (59% men, mean age 48.0 years, standard deviation 16.9) hospitalized for at least 72 hours in stable clinical condition. The data were collected with an identification questionnaire and the Factors Affecting Sleep Quality (FASQ) questionnaire. Data processing was performed with descriptive statistics; each item of the FASQ underwent a test and a retest. The factors most often reported were waking up early (55.6%), disrupted sleep (52.1%), excessive lighting (34.2%), receipt of care by nursing staff (33.3%) and organic disorders such as pain and fatigue (26.5%). It is suggested that nurses should plan interventions to modify factors that require intense noise and lighting at night in order to reduce disruption and, consequently, sleep deprivation among patients.

da Costa SV; Ceolim MF

2013-02-01

110

Predictive factors affecting outcome following cervical laminoplasty.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Study Design. Systematic ReviewObjective. To determine whether various preoperative factors affect patient outcome following cervical laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and/or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL).Summary of Background Data. Cervical laminoplasty is a procedure designed to decompress the spinal cord by enlarging the spinal canal while preserving the lamina. Prior research has identified a variety of potential predictive factors that might affect outcomes following this procedure.Methods. A systematic search of multiple major medical reference databases was conducted to identify studies explicitly designed to evaluate the effect of preoperative factors on patient outcome following cervical laminoplasty for CSM or OPLL. Studies specifically designed to evaluate potential predictive factors and their associations with outcome were included. Only cohort studies that used multivariate analysis, enrolled at least 20 patients, and adjusted for age as a potential confounding variable were included. JOA, modified JOA, and JOACMEQ-L were the main outcome measures. Clinical recommendations and consensus statements were made through a modified Delphi approach by applying the GRADE/AHRQ criteria.Results. The search strategy yielded 433 citations, of which 1 prospective and 11 retrospective cohort studies met our inclusion criteria. Overall, the strength of evidence from the 12 studies is low or insufficient for most of the predictive factors. Increased age was not associated with poorer JOA outcome for CSM patients, but there is insufficient evidence to make a conclusion for OPLL patients. Increased severity of disease and longer duration of symptoms might be associated with JOA outcome for CSM patients. Hill-shaped lesions might be associated with poorer JOA outcomes for OPLL patients. There is insufficient evidence to permit conclusions regarding other predictive factors.Conclusion. Overall, the strength of evidence for all of the predictive factors was insufficient or low. Given that cervical myelopathy due to CSM tends to be progressive and that increased severity of myelopathy and duration of symptoms might be associated with poorer outcomes after cervical laminoplasty for CSM, it is preferable to perform laminoplasty in patients with CSM earlier rather than waiting for symptoms to get worse. Further research is needed to more clearly identify predictive factors that affect outcomes following cervical laminoplasty as there were relatively few studies identified that used multivariate analyses to control for confounding factors and many of these studies did not provide a detailed description of the multivariate analyses or the magnitude of effect estimates.Recommendation #1: For CSM patients, increased age is not a strong predictor of clinical neurological outcomes following laminoplasty, therefore age by itself should not preclude cervical laminoplasty for CSM.Overall Strength of Evidence: LowStrength of Recommendation: StrongRecommendation #2: For CSM patients, increased severity of disease and longer duration of symptoms might be associated with poorer clinical neurological outcomes following laminoplasty, therefore we recommend that patients be informed about this.Overall Strength of Evidence: LowStrength of Recommendation: StrongSummary Statement: For OPLL patients, Hill-shaped lesions might be associated with poorer clinical neurological outcomes following laminoplasty therefore surgeons might consider potential benefits and risks of alternative or additional surgery.

Yoon T; Raich A; Hashimoto R; Riew D; Shaffrey CI; Rhee J; Tetreault LA; Skelly A; Fehlings MG

2013-08-01

111

Prognostic factors in radical cystectomy affecting survival.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic factors in radical cystectomy affecting survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 100 hundred patients were included in the study. Incontinent diversion was applied to 73 of these, and continent diversion to 27. Prospective and retrospective data of the patients were examined. The prognostic value for survival was evaluated for of lymph node involvement, tumor grade (low grade: grade 0-II, high grade: ? III or epidermoid carcinoma), tumor stage (low stage: stage pT0-2, high stage: stage ? 3a pT3a), presence of preoperative unilateral of bilateral hydronephrosis, presence of preoperative uremia (serum urea value: ? 60), and age (> 70 and ? 70 years of age) on survival were investigated. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-Rank statistical methods were used in the study. RESULTS: Grade, stage, uremia, and lymph node involvement had significant effects on survival (p values 0.0002, 0.03, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). Presence of preoperative hydronephrosis and age had no statistically significant effects on survival (p values 0.8 and 0.2, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Tumor grade, tumor stage, preoperative uremia, and lymph node involvement are prognostic factors affecting survival. Advanced age and presence of preoperative hydronephrosis have no prognostic value for survival. The presence of uremia in the preoperative assessment of the patients is more important than hydronephrosis.

Aglamis E; Toktas G; Unluer E; Tasdemir C; Ceylan C

2012-09-01

112

Factors affecting aural detections of songbirds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many factors affect the number of birds detected on point count surveys of breeding songbirds. The magnitude and importance of these factors are not well understood. We used a bird song simulation system to quantify the effects of detection distance, singing rate, species differences, and observer differences on detection probabilities of birds detected by ear. We simulated 40 point counts consisting of 10 birds per count for five primary species (Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia, Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens, Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens, Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina, and Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus) over a range of 15 distances (34-143 m). Songs were played at low (two songs per count) and high (13-21 songs per count) singing rates. Detection probabilities averaged across observers ranged from 0.60 (Black-and-white Warbler) to 0.83 (Hooded Warbler) at the high singing rate and 0.41 (Black-and-white Warbler) to 0.67 (Hooded Warbler) at the low singing rate. Logistic regression analyses indicated that species, singing rate, distance, and observer were all significant factors affecting detection probabilities. Singing rate x species and singing rate X distance interactions were also significant. Simulations of expected counts, based on the best logistic model, indicated that observers detected between 19% (for the worst observer, lowest singing rate, and least detectable species) and 65% (for the best observer, highest singing rate, and most detectable species) of the true population. Detection probabilities on actual point count surveys are likely to vary even more because many sources of variability were controlled in our experiments. These findings strongly support the importance of adjusting measures of avian diversity or abundance from auditory point counts with direct estimates of detection probability.

Alldredge MW; Simons TR; Pollock KH

2007-04-01

113

Factors Affecting Electricity Demand in Jordan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 1) The paper examines the relationship between electricity demand and climate/non-climate related factors using statistical regression analysis. 2) It focuses on the environmental, demographic, policy (energy pricing) and technological factors as the main factors affecting the consumption pattern in Jordan. 3) The paper also presents the variations occurred in the electricity demand over the period 1994-2008. The variations that are observed during the period of study are: Shifting of the peak load occurrence from evening to morning period, Modification in the annual daily load curve especially in winter season, Variation in relationship between space temperature and demand especially in winter, and dramatic increase in electric generation after year 2003. The shift in peak load from evening to morning period is mainly due to technological factor as a result of wide use of the air conditions in houses, services and government offices for cooling in summer instead of ordinary air fans. The variations in consumption pattern between 2000 and 2007 are mainly associated with economic, social and demographic factors. The high demand at lower space temperature is governed by introducing new appliances for heating in winter as a result of low electricity pricing comparing with gasoline price. The dramatic increase in electric generation after 2003 is probably due to demographic factors as a result of high growth of population after the Gulf war II. 4) The correlation between the daily maximum loads in morning and evening periods with the differential temperature (?T) above 20?C threshold in summer and below 15?C threshold in winter, shows pronounced changes in 2007 compared with year 2000. The regression tests show that a decrease of 1?C below 15?C threshold in winter 1) increases the morning demand by only 2 MW/?C in 2000 and 16.7 MW/?C in 2007, 2) decreases the evening peak by ?2.6 MW/1?C in 2000 and increases the evening peak by 22.9 MW/1?C in 2007. Results show that the demographic, technological, environmental and national energy pricing factors play a vital rule in consumption pattern in Jordan. Moreover, the paper reveals that planners and decision makers should be careful when applying new tariff in the developing countries such as Jordan.

Mohammad Awad Momani

2013-01-01

114

Factors affecting success of agricultural producers groups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor organisation of agricultural markets in Poland remains one of the biggest problems for agricultural sector. There are about 510 agricultural producer groups, but only 2% of Polish farmers selling for market are members. Knowledge on cooperation determinants and different aspects of producer groups performance is crucial to build references for policy makers and producer groups’ managers. The aim of the article was to discuss factors affecting success of producers groups understood as a level of members’ satisfaction. Data for 2006 and 2011 from 30 producers groups in fruit and vegetable sector were analysed using logit model. Three determinants occurred to be statistically important: scope of a group functions, informal cooperation with farmers before starting a formal cooperation and homogeneity of farms.

Aleksandra Chlebicka

2011-01-01

115

EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

Yu-Jia Hu

2012-01-01

116

Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

1989-01-01

117

Factors affecting the microstructure of porous ceramics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, porous ceramics were produced by using two methods: the polymeric sponge and foam method. Astudy of the effect of viscosity on the characteristics of the final product produced using the polymeric sponge method revealed that the microstructure of porous ceramics is highly affected by the viscosity of the slurry. The optimal ratio between porosity and the strength of the porous material was achieved by subsequently repeating the immersing and drying processes. Astudy of the porous material obtained using the foam method revealed that the pore size and foam volume can be controlled by varying the amounts of anhydride and thermal blowing agent. The problem related to foam collapsing was solved by using a thermal blowing agent. The microstructure of the samples was characterized by SEM.

DUSAN TRIPKOVIC; VESNA RADOJEVIC; RADOSLAV ALEKSIC

2006-01-01

118

Factors Affecting E-Service Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available User satisfaction is an important predictor of online consumer behavior and the success of a web-based system. If customers are satisfied with the services received through the online system, it is likely they will keep using the system. To examine factors affecting user satisfaction with e-services, a questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of (615) students out of (5918) at Petra University in Jordan to explore their perceptions. Regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results indicated that website design, navigation, and personalization were found to be predictors of e-service satisfaction. The results of this study provide a comprehensive set of implications for practitioners and researchers. This study shows how the website design, navigation, and personalization play a crucial role in the overall evaluation of e-service satisfaction. Management of universities need to be aware that a bad experience with website design, navigation, and personalization can affect satisfaction, if a student has a bad experience regarding interactivity, customization, or website design, then a student might make an overall e-service judgment even before a transaction can take place. If customers believe that an organization’s website is hard to use, poorly designed, and doesn’t take into consideration distinguished services for each user, then customers are likely to move to other organizations’ websites.

Mohammed Mufaddy Al-Kasasbeh; Subhasish Dasgupta; Abeer Hmoud AL-Faouri

2011-01-01

119

Factors affecting force loss with prolonged stretching.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors underlying the force loss occurring after prolonged, static, passive stretching. Subjects were tested before and 5-10 min following 20 min of static, passive stretching of the quadriceps (N=12) or a similar period of no stretch (control, N=6). Measurements included isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force, surface integrated electromyographic (iEMG) activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings, evoked contractile properties (twitch and tetanic force), and quadriceps inactivation as measured by the interpolated twitch technique (ITT). Following stretching, there was a significant 12% decrement in MVC with no significant changes in the control group. Muscle inactivation as measured by the ITT and iEMG increased by 2.8% and 20.2%, respectively. While twitch forces significantly decreased 11.7%, there was no change in tetanic force post-stretch. Although possible increases in muscle compliance affected twitch force, a lack of tetanic force change would suggest that post-stretch force decrements are more affected by muscle inactivation than changes in muscle elasticity.

Behm DG; Button DC; Butt JC

2001-06-01

120

An experiment on the factors affecting simple reaction time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reaction time is considered as an important measure that affects performance of an individual both in business and private life. Especially, reaction time, which can be defined as a period of time being required for giving appropriate responses to the perceived stimuli, is an important factor in terms of efficiency of organization and also health and safety at work. Moreover, reaction time is regarded as an important factor in product design. In this study, an experiment is designed to reveal the factors that affect simple reaction time and the effects of (discrete / continuous) variables such as age, height, weight, gender, sight defects, smoking and alcohol use, regular habits of sports and academic achievement on reaction time of individuals are investigated, and the findings are interpreted.

Ufuk Türen; Burcu Kaya; Hale Akkocao?lu

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

Marius Liutvinavi?ius; Virgilijus Sakalauskas

2011-01-01

122

Factors Affecting Hoteliers’ Decision to Advertise in Travel Magazine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advertising is a paid, mass-mediated attempt to persuade. That mean Advertising is paid communication by a company or organization that wants its information disseminated through a communication medium designed to reach more than one person, typically a large number or mass of people and advertising includes an attempt to persuade consumer to like the brand and because of that liking to eventually buy the brand. Advertising in travel magazine is one of the promotional methods to promote hoteliers products or services to the market place. By advertising in travel magazine, it can reach the target audience, educate them about the products or services, and move them closer to make a purchase. The purpose of the research is to recognize and rank the factors affecting hotelier’s decision to advertise in travel magazine. The respondents for the research are those hoteliers operating in Malaysia. The factors for this research are reached target readers, cost of advertising, contents of the magazine, frequency of advertising and media of advertising. The result of the research shows two of the factors significantly affecting hoteliers advertising decision. Furthermore, cost of advertising ranks the first follow by reach target readers, contents of magazine, media of advertising and frequency of advertising ranks the last. This research will help the publisher of travel magazine to understand and recognize the ranking of factors affecting hoteliers’ decision to advertise in travel magazine.

Mohd Faiz Hilmi; Ah Hwa Ngo

2011-01-01

123

Factors affecting sleep disturbances in children and adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: To determine factors affecting sleep disturbances in children.Background: Factors affecting sleep disturbances have been studied extensively in adults, but relatively few studies have been done in children.Methods: As part of the twelfth survey of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study of Obstructive Airways Disease (TESOAD, 1991-1992), children, ages 3-14, of adult cohort members were administered a health questionnaire which contained items related to sleep problems as well as items related to respiratory diseases and symptoms. Participants were classified as having sleep disturbances if they reported disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) or snoring. Potential factors affecting sleep included age, gender, obesity, asthma, other bronchial problems, cough and sputum production, wheezing and rhinitis.Results: The overall prevalence rates were 16.8, 4 and 22.9% for DIMS, EDS, and snoring, respectively. We found a significantly higher prevalence of DIMS in 11-14-year-old girls (30.4%) and snoring (32.3%) in 3-6-year-old boys. Certain respiratory factors were more prevalent in children with sleep disturbances. Multivariate analysis revealed that risk factors for DIMS included female gender, age 11-14 and wheezing. The risk for EDS was increased in those children with cough and sputum production. Cough and sputum production also were risk factors for snoring as was rhinitis and age 3-6.Conclusions: We conclude that in children as in adults, respiratory symptoms are associated with sleep disturbances. Further, the increased insomnia seen in adult women may begin in early adolescence.

Camhi SL; Morgan WJ; Pernisco N; Quan SF

2000-04-01

124

Analysis and Measurement of Buildability Factors Affecting Edge Formwork  

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Full Text Available Labour productivity is affected by several factors, but buildability is among the most important. Nevertheless, a thoroughexamination of the literature revealed a dearth of research into the influence of buildability factors on labour productivityof in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Although edge formwork is an importantlabour intensive activity, most often, its labour cost is either crudely estimated or lumped within the formwork cost of otheractivities. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate and quantify the effects and relative influence of the followingbuildability factors on its labour productivity: (a) depth of slab being edge-formed; (b) slab geometric factor; and (c)type of formwork material used. To achieve this objective, a sufficiently large volume of productivity data was collected andanalyzed using the multiple categorical-regression method. As a result, the effects and relative influence of the buildabilityfactors investigated are determined. The findings show significant effects of these factors on edge formwork labour productivity,which can be used to provide designers feedback on how well their designs consider the requirements of buildabilityprinciples, and the consequences of their decisions on labour efficiency. On the other hand, the depicted patterns of resultsmay provide guidance to construction managers for effective activity planning and efficient labour utilization.

A. M. Jarkas

2010-01-01

125

Factors affecting radiocaesium transfer to ruminants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The studies performed in the 2 year CEG/DG XII Radiation Protection Programme described here have tried to identify and quantify some of the most important factors influencing the radiocaesium levels in animal food products. The programme involved 9 laboratories in 6 countries: Belgium, Ireland, Greece, Italy, Sweden and the UK. Scientists from Norway and Germany also participated on an informal basis and are formally involved in a subsequent project. Experimental studies have largely been conducted using sheep, although some comparative studies have been performed with dairy cattle. In parallel to the experimental studies, a number of research models have been developed by participants in Greece and the UK to be interactively used with a number of different aspects in the programme. This presentation gives a short overview and discussion of the main findings of this project. (orig./DG)

Voigt, G.; Howard, B.J.; Vandecasteele, C.; Mayes, R.W.; Belli, M.; Sansone, U.; Stakelum, G.; Colgan, P.A.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Crout, N.M.J.; Jones, B.E.V., Hove, K. [GSF-ISS, Neuherberg (Germany)]|[ITE, Merlewood (United Kingdom)]|[CEN, Mol (Belgium)]|[MLURI, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)]|[ENEA-DISP, Rome (Italy)]|[MPRC, Fermoy (Ireland)]|[RPII, Dublin (Ireland)]|[Ioannina Univ., Nuclear Physics (Greece)]|[Nottingham Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences (United Kingdom)]|[Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Clinical Chemistry]|[Agricultural Univ., Aas (Norway). Animal Sciences

1993-12-31

126

Factors that affect toilet training in children  

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Full Text Available Objective: To identify age of initiation of toilet training and affecting factors for children. Material and Methods: 861 children were included in this study. "Chi square test", "Mann-Whitney U Test" and "Kruskall-Wallis Variance Analysis" statistical analysis methods have been applied. Ethical permission has been provided by local ethical committee. Results: 861 children under age of five were evaluated in this study (average age was 4±0.9); 433 children were boy (50.3%), 428 children were girl (49.7%). Age of initiation of toilet training was younger than 1 years old for 45 children (5.2%), between 13-18 month for 223 children (25.9%), between 19-24 month for 307 children (35.7%), between 25-30 month for 201 children (23.3%) and older than 30 month for 85 children (9.9%). That families who live below hunger threshold and small families initiate toilet training earlier that other families were determined (p=0.001). Children in 19-24 month have shorter duration of toilet training than other groups (p<0.05). That children who live in shanty have longer duration of toilet training than children who live in apartment were determined (p=0,031). That 219 children (25.4%) who had faced traumatic experiences which may affect training process, recently have longer duration of toilet training than other children (p=0,008). Duration of the training is shorter for f amilies who did not use toilet training methods than families who used methods. Conclusion: In our study, we found that age of initiation of toilet training is smaller for children who belong to family which has low level of income and small families. Duration of training is the longer for children whose initiation of toilet training was earlier than 18 month and later than 30 month, live in shanty, faced traumatic experiences.

Serdar Önen; ?lknur Aksoy; M. Ay?in Ta?ar; Y?ld?z Dallar Bilge

2012-01-01

127

Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort  

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Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150) who applied to the delivery service of the Ba?kent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7%) and were multipara (66.0%). It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05).Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05).

Gül P?nar; Nevin Do?an; Lale Alg?er; Necibe Kaya; Filiz Çakmak

2009-01-01

128

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research. PMID:23718720

Awases, Magdalene H; Bezuidenhout, Marthie C; Roos, Janetta H

2013-04-19

129

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

Magdalene H. Awases; Marthie C. Bezuidenhout; Janetta H. Roos

2013-01-01

130

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

Awases MH; Bezuidenhout MC; Roos JH

2013-01-01

131

Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR) using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044). The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

Rubporn Kittivachra; Rommanee Sanguandeekul; Rungpetch Sakulbumrungsil; Penphimon Phongphanphanee

2007-01-01

132

Factors affecting cervical screening among Turkish women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is second most common cancer among women worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To determinate pap smear test rates and affecting factors among Turkish women. METHODS: This descriptive and cross-sectional questionnaire study covered 397 women consulting at Gynecology Outpatient Clinic of Birth and Children's Hospital in Ordu province, enrolled non-consecutively as volunteers after providing informed consent. Data for women who had a history of at least one pap smear in her history were compared with those having none. RESULTS: 24.7% of women had knowledge about the pap smear test and 11.8% of them had undergone at least one pap smear test. Higher mean age (p=0.000), high education level (p=0.013), duration of marriage (p=0.001), working outside home (p=0.000), use of contraceptive method (p=0.000), history of cancer in women's family or relatives (p=0.021), having a sexually transmitted disease history (p=0.042), positive attitude towards gynecologic examination of women (p=0.000) and considering oneself in a cervical cancer risk group (p=0.004) were positively associated with a pap smear test history. CONCLUSION: Since the rate of pap smear testing was very low, education of women about screening and protection against cervical cancer appears a high priority.

Erbil N; Tezcan Y; Gür EN; Yildirim M; Ali? N

2010-01-01

133

Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen  

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Full Text Available Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) were investigated. Types of explants, strains and densities of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and co-culture methods were examined to optimize gene transformation. The results showed that among strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tested, LBA 4404 containing pBI 121 gave the calli with the highest resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin at the concentration of 50-100 mg/l was the best range for selection of transformants. Higher density of agrobacteria tended to promote higher frequency of transformation. The best co-culture method was dipping the explant in a solution of agrobacteria for 10 minutes, followed by culturing onto co-culture medium without antibiotic for 48 hours. Among the explants used to co- culture with bacteria, half leaf treatment gave the best result for transformation; however, callus proliferation and plantlet regeneration were inferior to whole leaf treatment. Activity of ?-Glucuronidase (GUS) could not be detected, thus resistance to kanamycin was used for detecting transformability. Shoot primordia could be induced from kanamycin-resistant calli grown in regeneration medium. After maintenance by subculturing to the same medium 2 to 3 times in 2-3 months, the developed shoots turned brown and finally died. Hence, the transformed plant of mangosteen was not obtained from this experiment.

Sompong Te-chato; Vitoon Chaipakdee

2003-01-01

134

Factors affecting complications in radiated breast reconstruction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Breast irradiation in combination with breast reconstruction is associated with increased complications. Because of the diminishing threshold for radiotherapy, breast reconstruction irradiation is rising. Our aim was to evaluate factors affecting outcomes in irradiated breast reconstructions. METHODS: A review of consecutive patients who underwent mastectomy, radiation, and breast reconstruction was conducted. Patient demographics, operative procedure, breast irradiation timing, and postoperative complications were collected. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-four patients (157 breast reconstructions) were included with a mean follow-up of 6 years. Average age at reconstruction was 50 years. One hundred nine cases were immediate and 48 cases were delayed. Sixty-eight cases were autologous reconstructions and 89 cases were implant-based. Thirty-seven cases used acellular dermal matrices (ADMs); 60% of cases were radiated before reconstruction and 40% were radiated afterward. Major complications occurred in 43% of patients and minor complications occurred in 17%. The presence of ADM led to an increase in complication rate with a 2.3-fold greater chance of requiring reoperation (P = 0.03). No significant difference in complication rates was associated with presence of hypertension, diabetes, smoking, elevated body mass index, autologous versus implant-based reconstructions, delayed versus immediate reconstructions, and time between radiation and reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Radiation after prosthetic reconstruction may produce an increase in failure rates. The use of ADMs in the face of breast irradiation increases the likelihood of a complication requiring reoperation.

Pestana IA; Campbell DC; Bharti G; Thompson JT

2013-05-01

135

[Factors affecting mortality in blunt thoracic trauma].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Blunt thoracic trauma is usually associated with extra-thoracic injuries, but the effect of blunt thoracic trauma on mortality is not known. METHODS: Patients with blunt thoracic trauma were evaluated with regard to clinical findings and factors affecting mortality. RESULTS: There were 76 patients (37.2±15 years) in the study group. Traffic accidents (63%) were the most common cause of trauma. Pneumothorax (54%), rib fracture (42%), hemothorax (22%) and lung contusion (22%) were common thoracic injuries. Extra-thoracic injuries were most commonly seen in the extremities (46%) and abdomen (40%). Glasgow Coma, Injury Severity and Revised Trauma Scores were 14±2.6, 19±13 and 7.4±1.5, respectively. Non-operative management was effective in 37 (48.7%) patients, tube thoracotomy and thoracotomy were performed in 37 (48.7%) and 2 (2.6%) patients, respectively. Mortality rate was 10.5%. Systolic blood pressure lower than 90 mmHg and superficial and apneic respiration at the first admission, and values of trauma scoring systems were significantly associated with mortality (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The effect of thoracic trauma on mortality with regard to thoracic pathology is not shown, although it is usually associated with extra-thoracic injuries. There was a close relationship between the pattern of respiration, values of systolic blood pressure and trauma scoring systems, and mortality. Non-operative management and tube thoracotomy were effective in most of the cases.

Hasbahçeci M; Ozpek A; Ba?ak F; Cal??kan M; Ener BK; Alimo?lu O

2013-03-01

136

Some Environmental Factors Affecting on Growth Characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Live weights, weight gains and some body measurements at different ages of Eastern Anatolian Red Cattle (EAR) were determined and some environmental factors affecting on these traits were investigated. The effect of dam’s age on the birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01). Although the lowest birth weight was obtained from calves of dams at the 3 years of age, the highest birth weight was obtained from calves given birth by cows at the 5 years of age. The males had heavier live weights and weight gains at different ages than the females. The effect of the sex on the live weights except for 9 and 12 months weights was found as highly significant (P<0.01). Feeding of the calves with different amount of milk had significant (P<0.01) influence on the 3, 6 and 9 months weights as well as weight gains. The effect of the years on the daily weight gains in EAR was also highly significant (P<0.01). The results shows the importance of the environmental effects on the traits studied and revealed that there is need for them to be corrected prior to the improvement studies.

A. Ozluturk; O. Guler; M. Yanar; O. Akbulut; N. Tuzemen

2007-01-01

137

Fatores genéticos e de meio na produção de leite de caprinos leiteiros Genetic and environmental factors affecting milk production from dairy goats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente estudo, avaliar a produção de leite de caprinos leiteiros da região sudeste do Brasil, com intuito de verificar os fatores de meio e estimar os parâmetros genéticos pelo método dos mínimos quadrados (MMQ). Os controles de 1336 lactações foram inicialmente ajustados pela função multifásica (difásica) e calculou-se a produção de leite total (PLT). Os dados foram provenientes de sete propriedades e três raças (Parda Alpina, Saanen e Toggenburg). A média e o erro-padrão da PLT estimados pelo MMQ foram de 635,31 ±39,75 kg. A interação ano x estação do parto influenciou a PLT. Em um dos anos estudados, a PLT foi menor para as cabras paridas no final da estação. Nas três estações de parto, observou-se comportamento quadrático da PLT, em função dos anos de parto. Para as três estações, a PLT aumentou de 1986 até meados de 1990, decrescendo em seguida. A idade de máxima PLT foi observada aos 46,65 meses. Das três raças estudadas, observou-se que as raças Parda Alpina e Saanen apresentaram alternância de superioridade na PLT em algumas fazendas, porém maiores que a Toggenburg. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade e repetibilidade da PLT estimados pelo MMQ foram de 0,296 ± 0,079 e 0,277 ± 0,033, respectivamente. Estes resultados revelam baixa confiabilidade em poucas observações dessas características ou na inconsistência das estimativas da função multifásica. Como a PLT é uma característica limitada ao sexo, sugere-se o teste de progênie como método de seleção mais eficiente para os reprodutores e uso de inseminação artificial como processo de disseminação do material genético selecionado.The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on milk production from dairy goats raised in the Brazilian Southeast and to estimate genetic parameters for this trait through least squares. The data originated from seven farms and three breeds (Alpine Brown, Saanen and Toggenburg). Milk yields obtained from 1,336 lactations were initially fitted to a diphasic function, whereby total milk production (TMP) was estimated. The overall mean and standard error for TMP were 635.31±39.75 kg. A significant year x kidding season interaction was observed. In all three kidding seasons a quadratic yearly trend of PLT was observed: it increased from 1986 until mid-1990, decreasing thereafter. Age of maximum PLT was estimated as 46.65 months. Alpine Brown was superior to Saanen in some farms, the opposite occurring in others, but both showed higher PLT values than Toggenburg. Estimated heritability and repeatability coefficients were 0.296±0.079 and 0.227±0.033, respectively. These results show low reliability due to the small number of observations or to inconsistent PLT estimates obtained through the biphasic function. Since PLT is a sex-limited trait, it is suggested the use of progeny tests as the most efficient selection method for bucks and artificial insemination for spreading the selected genetic material.

Heraldo Cesar Gonçalves; Martinho de Almeida e Silva; Francisco Stefano Wechsler; Alcides Amorim Ramos

2001-01-01

138

Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were used to divide the metabolites into the following three groups: 1) correlated to growth, 2) correlated to color formation, and 3) formed at high pH. Subsequently, a full factorial experiment with factors P, Mg and Cu, showed that low P concentrations (2000 mg/kg) induced yellow color formation. Among the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the yellow discoloration phenomenon observed in the dairy industry.

Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.

2002-01-01

139

Factors affecting liver uptake of gallium-67  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From our clinical experience, we have suggested that the absence of liver uptake during Ga-67 scintigraphy was mainly due to markedly decreased unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC). We have succeeded in producing a rat model of absent liver uptake by administration of iron and vincristine to markedly decrease UIBC. However, the possibility of decreased liver uptake of Ga-67 due to liver dysfunction caused by these drugs can not be denied, so we performed further experiments. The changes of uptake by liver and other tissues, and UIBC induced by administration of apotransferrin (ATF) and deferoxamine (DEF) before the second scan were determined. The abscess uptake of Ga-67 during the absence of liver uptake was also determined. The administration of ATF one day before the second scan made liver uptake recover to almost normal levels and UIBC recover considerably. No recovery was produced by administration of DEF. The mechanism of Ga-67 uptake in various tissues is not completely clear. The theory that the amount of strage iron in the liver affects liver uptake has been proposed. The possibility is also suggested that antineoplastic agents may damage the synthesis of transferrin (TF) and intracellular Ga-67 carrier molecules, and/or block TF receptors in the hepatocyte to decrease liver uptake. The fact that liver uptake recovered rapidly after administration of ATF refutes these hypotheses, at least in vivo, and serum UIBC level is the decisive factor in liver uptake of Ga-67. The lack of significant decrease in abscess uptake of Ga-67 during the absence of liver uptake may suggest that the pathway to the abscesses is different from that to the liver. (author).

Nogami, Makoto; Shinotsuka, Akira; Hirono, Yoshisada; Takenaka, Hiroki (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

1990-06-01

140

Factors affecting reproductive performance of Holstein heifers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives were to evaluate factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy heifers. Holstein heifers (6389) were housed in a feed lot located in Parma, ID. Each week heifers weighing > or =290 kg were initiated in the reproductive program, which consisted of one injection of PGF(2alpha) and AI on detection of estrus. Heifers not inseminated by 11 days after the initiation of the breeding program received a second injection of PGF(2alpha). Pregnancy was diagnosed at 40+/-3 and 90+/-3 days after AI. Average daily minimum temperature (ADMnT), average daily maximum temperature (ADMxT), and average daily rainfall (ARF) were recorded between 15 days prior to and 15 days after the day of AI or the day of initiation of the breeding program. Exposure to air temperature was classified as: cold stress (CS=ADMnT4 degrees C and ADMxT or =29 degrees C). Exposure to rainfall was classified as above (HRF) or below (LRF) the mean for the period in question. Heifers were classified according to body weight at initiation of the breeding program as thin (TH365 kg). Service sire was associated with conception rate at 40 and 90 days after first AI. Although exposure to air temperature was not correlated with conception rate at 40 days after first AI, heifers exposed to cold stress had smaller conception rates at 90 days after first AI because they were more likely to lose pregnancy between 40 and 90 days of gestation. The proportion of heifers inseminated after initiation of the breeding program was correlated with body weight and exposure to cold stress. Exposure to cold stress was also correlated with the proportion of heifers conceiving within 11 and 22 days after initiation of the breeding program. From this study a correlation was established between body weight and rate of insemination and between the exposure to cold stress and reproductive efficiency of Holstein heifers. PMID:17045427

Chebel, Ricardo C; Braga, Fernando A; Dalton, Joseph C

2006-09-10

 
 
 
 
141

Which Factors Affect Software Projects Maintenance Cost More?  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The software industry has had significant progress in recent years. The entire life of software includes two phases: production and maintenance. Software maintenance cost is increasingly growing and estimates showed that about 90% of software life cost is related to its maintenance phase. Extraction and considering the factors affecting the software maintenance cost help to estimate the cost and reduce it by controlling the factors. Methods In this study, the factors affecting software maintenance cost were determined then were ranked based on their priority and after that effective ways to reduce the maintenance costs were presented. This paper is a research study. 15 software related to health care centers information systems in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and hospitals function were studied in the years 2010 to 2011. Results and discussion Among Medical software maintenance team members, 40 were selected as sample. After interviews with experts in this field, factors affecting maintenance cost were determined. In order to prioritize the factors derived by AHP, at first, measurement criteria (factors found) were appointed by members of the maintenance team and eventually were prioritized with the help of EC software. Based on the results of this study, 32 factors were obtained which were classified in six groups. “Project” was ranked the most effective feature in maintenance cost with the highest priority. By taking into account some major elements like careful feasibility of IT projects, full documentation and accompany the designers in the maintenance phase good results can be achieved to reduce maintenance costs and increase longevity of the software.

Dehaghani, Sayed Mehdi Hejazi; Hajrahimi, Nafiseh

2013-01-01

142

Which factors affect software projects maintenance cost more?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The software industry has had significant progress in recent years. The entire life of software includes two phases: production and maintenance. Software maintenance cost is increasingly growing and estimates showed that about 90% of software life cost is related to its maintenance phase. Extraction and considering the factors affecting the software maintenance cost help to estimate the cost and reduce it by controlling the factors. METHODS: In this study, the factors affecting software maintenance cost were determined then were ranked based on their priority and after that effective ways to reduce the maintenance costs were presented. This paper is a research study. 15 software related to health care centers information systems in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and hospitals function were studied in the years 2010 to 2011. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Among Medical software maintenance team members, 40 were selected as sample. After interviews with experts in this field, factors affecting maintenance cost were determined. In order to prioritize the factors derived by AHP, at first, measurement criteria (factors found) were appointed by members of the maintenance team and eventually were prioritized with the help of EC software. Based on the results of this study, 32 factors were obtained which were classified in six groups. "Project" was ranked the most effective feature in maintenance cost with the highest priority. By taking into account some major elements like careful feasibility of IT projects, full documentation and accompany the designers in the maintenance phase good results can be achieved to reduce maintenance costs and increase longevity of the software.

Dehaghani SM; Hajrahimi N

2013-03-01

143

Factors affecting bone strength other than osteoporosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Osteoporosis is the most common cause of bone fragility, especially in post-menopausal women. Bone strength may be compromised by several other medical conditions and medications, which must be ruled out in the clinical management of patients affected by fragility fractures. Indeed, 20-30 % of women and up to 50 % of men affected by bone fragility are diagnosed with other conditions affecting bone strength other than osteoporosis. These conditions include disorders of bone homeostasis, impaired bone remodeling, collagen disorders, and medications qualitatively and quantitatively affecting bone strength. Proper diagnosis allows correct treatment to prevent the occurrence of fragility fractures.

Ratti C; Vulcano E; Canton G; Marano M; Murena L; Cherubino P

2013-09-01

144

Environmental factors affect efficacy of some essential oils and resveratrol to control growth and ochratoxin A production by Penicillium verrucosum and Aspergillus westerdijkiae on wheat grain.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study determined the efficacy of three essential oils (bay, clove and cinnamon oil) and the antioxidant resveratrol (0–500 ?g g?1) on the control of growth and ochratoxin A (OTA) production by Penicillium verrucosum and Aspergillus westerdijkiae (=A. ochraceus) under different water activity (a...

Aldred, David; Cairns-Fuller, Victoria; Magan, Naresh

145

Factors affecting labour productivity in the SME sector of the European Union Czynniki kszta?tuj?ce wydajno?? pracy w sektorze MSP Unii Europejskiej  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents the results of labour productivity analysis in micro, small and medium enterprises of EU countries. The analysis was conducted on the basis of European Commission for Enterprise and Industry data from 2008. The results of regression analysis point that the technical equipment of...

Zbigniew Go?a?

146

Factors affecting reproductive performance of Holstein heifers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives were to evaluate factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy heifers. Holstein heifers (6389) were housed in a feed lot located in Parma, ID. Each week heifers weighing > or =290 kg were initiated in the reproductive program, which consisted of one injection of PGF(2alpha) and AI on detection of estrus. Heifers not inseminated by 11 days after the initiation of the breeding program received a second injection of PGF(2alpha). Pregnancy was diagnosed at 40+/-3 and 90+/-3 days after AI. Average daily minimum temperature (ADMnT), average daily maximum temperature (ADMxT), and average daily rainfall (ARF) were recorded between 15 days prior to and 15 days after the day of AI or the day of initiation of the breeding program. Exposure to air temperature was classified as: cold stress (CS=ADMnT< or =4 degrees C), no stress (NS=ADMnT>4 degrees C and ADMxT<29 degrees C), and heat stress (HS=ADMxT> or =29 degrees C). Exposure to rainfall was classified as above (HRF) or below (LRF) the mean for the period in question. Heifers were classified according to body weight at initiation of the breeding program as thin (TH<340 kg); moderate (MD=340-365 kg); and heavy (HY>365 kg). Service sire was associated with conception rate at 40 and 90 days after first AI. Although exposure to air temperature was not correlated with conception rate at 40 days after first AI, heifers exposed to cold stress had smaller conception rates at 90 days after first AI because they were more likely to lose pregnancy between 40 and 90 days of gestation. The proportion of heifers inseminated after initiation of the breeding program was correlated with body weight and exposure to cold stress. Exposure to cold stress was also correlated with the proportion of heifers conceiving within 11 and 22 days after initiation of the breeding program. From this study a correlation was established between body weight and rate of insemination and between the exposure to cold stress and reproductive efficiency of Holstein heifers.

Chebel RC; Braga FA; Dalton JC

2007-10-01

147

Factors affecting M13 bacteriophage inactivation by methylene blue photosensitization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have investigated the factors that affect the virucidal activity of methylene blue (MB) photosensitization. The M13 bacteriophage was more rapidly inactivated at higher temperatures (6 degrees C < 24 degrees C < 38 degrees C). Rate constants for inactivation were 0.072, 0.139 and 0.260 (log10 inactivation)/ (J/cm2) at 6 degrees C, 24 degrees C and 38 degrees C, respectively. On the other hand, dye penetration into virus particles, which was monitored by the fluorescence of YOYO-1, was unchanged with incubation temperature. These data suggest that temperature dependency of M13 inactivation was due to factors other than dye permeability. The pH of the virus suspension also affected the rate of M13 inactivation by MB. The M13 bacteriophage was inactivated faster in basic suspensions and slower in acidic suspensions compared with neutral buffers. These results suggest that temperature and pH are factors that influence the extent of MB photosensitization, and hence, the control of these factors will be necessary for MB phototreatment of plasma products in transfusion medicine.

Abe H; Wagner SJ; Kuwabara M; Kamo N; Ikebuchi K; Sekiguchi S

1997-05-01

148

Factors Affecting Forest Area Changes in Cambodia: An Econometric Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clarifying factors affecting forest area changes is critical to implementing REDD+ scheme properly. We analyzed some socio-economic factors and clarified their relationships with deforestation in Cambodia for the period of 2002 to 2010. A panel data analysis was conducted for 18 provinces, while six other provinces were deleted from the list because only a small amount of their land was forested. Time effects, cross-sectional dependence, serial correlation in idiosyncratic errors, and heteroskedasticity were tested, and robust variance matrix estimations were obtained to solve the problems of heteroskedasticity and serial correlation. The model estimation results showed that population, gross agricultural production and large-scale plantation development have negative impacts on forest area changes. On the other hand, the impacts of rice cultivation, gross industrial production, household income and house floor area by household were found not to be significant. Overall, however, the results indicated that forests in Cambodia still face pressure from the increases in population, agriculture production, and the enlargement of land development. As the increase in productivity of agriculture gives a better use of current agricultural land and lessens the pressure on forest, intensifying agriculture is important. It is also important to develop industry and other economic ventures to grow national economy while not imposing pressure on forest. This research reminds decision makers to use discretion when developing large-scale plantations.

Tetsuya Michinaka; Motoe Miyamoto; Yasuhiro Yokota; Heng Sokh; Sethaphal Lao; Vuthy Ma

2013-01-01

149

Variation in net CO2 exchange, gross primary production and its affecting factors in the planted pasture ecosystem in Sanjiangyuan Region of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims Our objective was to understand seasonal and diurnal variations in CO2 exchange of a grassland ecosystem by clarifying the carbon cycle and its affecting factors for a planted pasture ecosystem in the Sanjiangyuan Region of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.Methods We used the eddy covariance method to measure net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and environmental factors in the planted pasture (Elymus nutans) ecosystem in 2006.Important findings Daily maximum uptake and release of CO2 were 6.56 and –4.87 g CO2·m–2·d–1, respectively. Maximum rates of NEE uptake and release were –0.35 and 0.22 mg CO2·m–2·s–1, respectively. Annual gross primary production (GPP) was 1 761 g CO2·m–2·a–1, of which more than 90% was consumed by ecosystem respiration (Reco). Annual NEE was –111 g CO2·m–2. In the growing season, maximum and minimum Reco/GPP values were 90% in May and 79% in June, respectively. The Q10 was 4.81, which is higher than in other ecosystems. The NEE was mostly influenced by photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). The Reco was mainly affected by soil temperature at 5 cm depth (Ts).

WU Li-Bo; GU Song; ZHAO Liang; XU Shi-Xiao; ZHOU Hua-Kun; FENG Chao; Xu Wei-Xin; LI Ying-Nian; ZHAO Xin-Quan; TANG Yan-Hong

2010-01-01

150

Factors affecting levodopa effects in Parkinson's disease.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Levodopa is the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) because of its outstanding clinical efficacy. However, the majority of patients experience various adverse reactions, including the wearing-off phenomenon, the on-off phenomenon, dyskinesia and psychiatric symptoms. The response to levodopa depends not only on the intrinsic responsiveness of the patients, but also on various other important factors including the type of levodopa preparation, its absorption/metabolism, the blood-brain barrier, age at onset of disease and concomitant use of anti-parkinsonian drugs. This review summarizes factors which influence the effects of levodopa in PD. To minimize levodopa-induced adverse reactions and to relieve long-term parkinsonian symptoms, levodopa therapy should be conducted by taking these factors into consideration.

Ogawa N

2000-01-01

151

Epidemiological Factors Affecting Low Birth Weight  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the epidemiological factors influencing low birthweight. The prominent factors associated with low birth weight (LBW) such as maternal age, parity,obstetric and maternal anthropometry were studied in a rural community of district Dehradun. Theaverage birth weight of all newborns was 2.67± 0.42 kg and 23.84% of newborns were LBW. Thefactors which were significant for LBW were antenatal care, parity, inter-pregnancy interval, gestationalweight, and bad obstetric history. However, the relationship between maternal age and height withlow birth weight was not found to be statistically significant (p>.05).

K.S. Negi, S.D. Kandpal, M. Kukreti

2006-01-01

152

Controlling external factors affecting accounts receivable.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

External factors such as complex billing arrangements, decreasing healthcare benefits, and increasing numbers of uninsured workers contribute to a hospital's outstanding accounts receivable. Instituting measures for getting payment in full and as soon as possible can help control for outside influences and reduce outstanding receivables.

Ramey N; Bradley L

1991-08-01

153

Continuing education: factors which affect cognitive benefits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 16-week continuing education course in clinical chemistry provided for a group of laboratory professionals was evaluated in terms of those factors in the participants' backgrounds which influenced their performance on precourse and postcourse examinations. Work setting, facility size, educational background, and sex influenced precourse scores. Educational background and occupational function influenced postcourse test scores.

Parker SL; Davis SH

1979-01-01

154

Factors affecting bony impingement in hip arthroplasty.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Computer modeling of 10 patients' computed tomographic scans was used to study the variables affecting hip arthroplasty range of motion before bony impingement (ROMBI) including acetabular offset and height, femoral offset, height and anteversion, and osteophyte removal. The ROMBI was compared with the ROM before component impingement and the native hip ROM. The ROMBI decreased with decreased total offset and limb shortening. Acetabular offset and height had a greater effect on ROMBI than femoral offset and height. The ROMBI lost with decreased acetabular offset was not fully recoverable with an increase in femoral offset or osteophyte removal. Bony impingement increased and component impingement decreased with decreased acetabular offset and increased head diameter.

Kurtz WB; Ecker TM; Reichmann WM; Murphy SB

2010-06-01

155

Internal factors affecting the jury members verdict  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence), the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.

Kalashnikova A.S.; Levochkina N.S.

2013-01-01

156

Factors affecting triadimefon degradation in soils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The degradation of triadimefon [1-(4-chlorophenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-one] was studied in two soils, mollisol and inseptisol, under varying conditions of moisture and temperature, and the role of cow manure amendment and soil sterilization on fungicide degradation was ascertained. The soil moisture content affected the pathway followed for triadimefon degradation. In nonflooded soils (60% water-holding capacity), triadimefon was reduced to triadimenol, and in flooded soils, it was metabolized to the diol derivative [1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-3,3-dimethylbutan-2-one-1,4-diol]. In nonflooded soils, triadimefon was more persistent in soil having more organic carbon content (mollisol), and the amendment of cow manure (5%) further enhanced its persistence. On the contrary, in flooded soil systems, the higher the soil organic carbon content was, the less persistent was the fungicide, and amendment of cow manure further enhanced its degradation. Triadimefon degradation was faster at 35 degrees C than at 27 degrees C. Triadimefon degradation in soils was mediated by the microorganisms, and no triadimefon degradation was observed in sterile soils. Triadimefon (1 mg/kg) did not affect soil phosphatase activity in either of the soils; however, soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly reduced, especially in mollisol soil.

Singh N

2005-01-01

157

SOME FACTORS AFFECTING UNDERGRADUATE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A related series of studies, most of which have been published previously, is described. These studies form a coherent whole and demonstrate the development of a theme, namely, the identification of factors in the student and the medical school which, in their interaction, influenced undergraduate academic performance at one medical school. In the population concerned no reliable positive or negative correlation could be demonstrated between cognitive ability and academic performance, when the former was measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Medical College Admission Test, and the latter by the current assessment methods of the medical school. Other factors, including socioeconomic and individual personality variables, are at present under investigation as to their effect on academic achievement. It is emphasized that the results of these studies cannot be regarded as valid for all medical schools, but the methods employed can be generalized.

HUNTER RC

1965-04-01

158

Factors which affect fatigue strength of fasteners  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue failure and design parameters of fasteners for axial and bending cyclic load conditions. This paper reviews the factors which influence the fatigue strength of low Alloy steel threaded fasteners, identifies those most significant to fatigue strength, and provides design guidelines based on the direct evaluation of fatigue tests of threaded fasteners. Influences on fatigue strength of thread manufacturing process (machining and rolling of threads), effect of fastener membrane and bending stresses, thread root radii, fastener sizes, fastener tensile strength, stress relaxation, mean stress, and test temperature are discussed.

Skochko, G.W.; Herrmann, T.P.

1992-11-01

159

Factores no Genéticos y de Grupo Racial que Afectan el Peso al Nacer en un Sistema de Producción con Vacunos de Carne/ Non Genetic and Breed Group Factors Affecting Birth Weight in a Beef Cattle System Production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Para evaluar el efecto de factores no genéticos y de grupo racial sobre el peso al nacer (PN), se analizaron 5136 datos de becerros nacidos en una zona de bosque seco tropical. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando un modelo lineal aditivo por el método de máxima verosimilitud restringida que incluyó los efectos fijos: año de nacimiento (AN; 2001,..,2007); mes de nacimiento (MN; enero, febrero, octubre, noviembre y diciembre); edad de la madre al parto (EM; 3,..,11 (more) años ó más), sexo (S; hembra-macho); grupo racial del becerro (GR1: mestizos Bos taurus de las razas Angus, Braunvieh, Carora, Holstein, Simmental, Romosinuano y Senepol; GR2: predominantemente Bos indicus de las razas Brahman, Nelore, Guzerat y Gyr). El AN, MN, EM y S afectaron (P Abstract in english To evaluate the effect of non-genetic factors and of breed group on birth weight (BW), 5136 records of calves born in a dry tropical forest were analyzed. The data was analyzed using an additive linear model by the restricted maximum verisimilitude method, that included the fixed effects of: year of birth (YB; 2001,..., 2007); month of birth (MB; January, February, October, November, December); age of the mother at calving (AM; 3.., 11 years or more); sex (S; female - mal (more) e); breed group of the calf (BG1: Crossbred Bos taurus of the breeds Angus, Braunvieh, Carora, Holstein, Simmental, Romosinuano, Senepol; BG2: mainly Bos indicus of the breeds Brahman, Nelore, Guzerat and Gyr). The YB, MB, AM and S affected (P

Pacheco, Francisco; Depablos, Luis; Martínez, Gonzalo; Vargas, Daniel

2013-06-01

160

Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues.

Small, Emma [Forestry Commission Wales, Victoria House, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 2DQ (United Kingdom); Sadler, Jon P. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.p.sadler@bham.ac.uk; Telfer, Mark [UK Headquarters, The RSPB, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL (United Kingdom)

2006-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Examining Factors Affecting Classroom Attendance and Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: This study examined the relationship between four class attitudinal variables and how it affects class attendance and performance. A questionnaire was administered to 134 undergraduate students at medium sized college in Taiwan. The data included questions about the participant’s rating of the level of difficulty of the course (Difficulty), the topics covered in the course (Topics), their motivation towards attending the course (Motivation), and whether or not the participants felt that the course is practical and useful to their future (Practicality). The results of the Pearson correlation coefficients showed that 4 out of the 15 correlations were statistically significant. The negative correlation found between motivation and topics; and practicality and topics suggest the attitude that when choosing courses, students tend to choose courses that they think would easy to pass. The finding that none of the variables were significantly correlated to course attendance and course performance suggests that the strongest predictor of success of a course is based on the student’s level of attendance. This lead to the discussion in the conclusion about pedagogical implications for what teachers can do in their classrooms.

Peter Tze-Ming Chou; Ya-Hui Kuo

2012-01-01

162

Environmental factors affecting corrosion of munitions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spent small arms munitions have accumulated for years at outdoor firing ranges operated by the DoD and other groups. Used bullets are often subjected to moisture sources. There is increasing concern that accumulations of lead-based munitions represent potential sources of water and soil pollution. To understand both the severity of and solutions to this problem, it is necessary to measure how rapidly bullets corrode and to determine the soil variables affecting the process. In this study M16 bullets were buried in samples of soil taken from Louisiana army firing ranges. Four environmental conditions were simulated; rain water, acid rain, sea water, and 50% sea water/50% acid rain. The three electrode technique was used to measure the bullet corrosion. Graphite rods served as counter electrodes. A saturated calomel reference electrode was used along with a specially constructed salt bridge. Electrochemical measurements were conducted using a computer-controlled potentiostat to determine corrosion potential, soil resistance, and corrosion current. The rate of corrosion was found to markedly increase with decreasing soil pH and increasing chloride and moisture contents, with the chloride content being the most influential variable. High soil resistance and noble corrosion potential were found to be associated with low corrosion rates. This is important since both parameters can be readily measured in the field.

Bundy, K. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States); Bricka, M.; Morales, A. [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

1995-12-31

163

Factors affecting the MTW zeolite cristallization process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthesis mechanism of the high silica zeolite types other than MFI is rarely studied in the open literature. This work is devoted to the role of different parameters governing the zeolite MTW crystallization process. The influence of the most important factors: the nature of the silica and alumina source, the type of the organic cation, the alkalinity of the reaction mixture and the crystallization temperature, was studied. The molar composition of the initial hydrogel was varied in other to determine the crystallization field of the zeolite MTW. The observed morphology and particle size of the crystallites are related to the corresponding reaction conditions. The competitive formation of the other zeolite types (prevalently MFI and BEA) is discussed.

Katovic, A.; Giordano, G. [Universita della Calabria, Rende (Italy)

1995-12-01

164

Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. OpsommingEen van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

Margie Sutherland; Wilhelm Jordaan

2004-01-01

165

FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF COBAMIDE COENZYMES IN CLOSTRIDIUM TETANOMORPHUM.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Toohey, J. I. (University of California, Berkeley), and H. A. Barker. Factors affecting the formation of cobamide coenzymes in Clostridium tetanomorphum. J. Bacteriol. 87:504-509. 1964.-Tests were carried out to determine the optimal culture conditions for the production of cobamide coenzymes in Clostridium tetanomorphum strain H1. A method is described for carrying out coenzyme determinations on the cells from 10-ml cultures of the bacterium. In a basal medium containing magnesium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate, sodium molybdate, calcium chloride, and potassium phosphate, the optimal concentration of monosodium glutamate was 0.1 m and of yeast extract was 3 g per liter. Addition of glucose at a concentration of 0.05 m was found to double the yield of cells and to increase tenfold the specific coenzyme yield. Addition of cobaltous chloride (2 x 10(-5)m) also increased coenzyme production. Addition of benzimidazole caused an apparent increase in coenzyme production by causing the synthesis of the highly active benzimidazole analogue. Addition of methionine (5 x 10(-6)m) appeared to inhibit coenzyme production.

TOOHEY JI; BARKER HA

1964-03-01

166

Factors affecting haemoglobin synthesis in the mouse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of various forms of haematopoietic stress on haemoglobin production was studied in mice. During acute anaemia, recovery from polycythaemia or irradiation, there was an increase in the number of reticulocytes, and this was associated with a marked increase in the total protein synthesis. The specific activity in reticulocytes increased up to 20-fold from the normal. The maximum specific activity usually preceded the maximum peak of reticulocytosis. The proportion of minor haemoglobin increased by up to 30%, and there was a significant correlation between the specific activity in reticulocytes and the proportion of minor haemoglobin synthesized. These results indicate that erythropoietic stress results in the release of a new population of reticulocytes that are very active in protein synthesis as measured by markedly increased specific activity, and that this coincides with an increase in the proportion of minor haemoglobin produced.

Pappas, S.; Cauchi, M.N.

1982-10-01

167

Human factors affecting NDE technician performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present an investigation of the problem of less than optimal performance among IGSCC inspection personnel both at the qualification training and in the field context. Two separate approaches were adopted: theory based, in which effective performance is a product of a skillful, motivated person interacting with a responsive environment; and empirical, in which performance is defined on the basis of the opinions of experts in the industry. In the empirical approach, two separate yet related studies were conducted. Study 1 was designed to elicit prototypical attributes of highly competent examiners from 37 subjects. Study 2 was designed to elicit prototypical attributes of typical, superior, and unusually poor occasions or episodes of performance based on the real-life experiences of 20 subjects generating a sample of 100 episodes. The results of these studies are discussed by the authors.

1988-01-01

168

Study of Factors Affecting Mental Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the simple and multiple relationships between role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload and mental health considering the moderating role of type A personality and sense of coherence. To this end correlation and regression analysis is utilized. Research sample includes 196 personnel working in Ahvaz Pipe-production factory during year 2007. Research results revealed that there is a significant relation between role ambiguity and mental health deficiency, but no one was found between role conflict and role overload and mental health deficiency; nevertheless, higher correlation level between role stressors and mental Health deficiency in low-level sense of coherence in comparison with high-level sense of coherence personnel was found. Also, a higher multiple correlations between role stressors and MH deficiency in personnel having further type A personality in comparison with personnel having not as much of mentioned group’s type A personality was observed.

Abdul-Kazem Naisi; Ali Moazami-Goodarzi; Maryam Zarra-Nezhad

2009-01-01

169

Factors that affect the in vitro production of bovine embryos: A review Factores que afectan la producción in vitro de embriones bovinos: una revisión Fatores que afetam a produção in vitro de embriões bovinos: A revisão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro embryo production (IVP) represents a way to increase gamete use from animals with high zootechnical value. In spite of the advances obtained in IVP over the last few years, production of transferable embryos is still low. The aim of this review is to discuss ways to produce in vitro embryos, as well as oocytes formation and maturation processes that can be related to the effectiveness of obtained results. Some studies show the influence of follicular growth factors, gonadotropins, steroids and other hormones on the follicular development and the quality of the cumulus oocyte complex (COC). The follicular phase of slow growth is critical for the development of the oocyte capacity to reach the final competence and diameter. Information about endocrine influences, or likewise, the dependence of growth of small antral follicles when a loss in the oocyte or follicle functionality occurs is scarce in the literature. A variable number of different techniques and protocols for treatment of oocytes donors are described with the aim of improve the results, the COCs recovering rate and the developmental competence in vitro of collected oocytes. From the considerations presented in this review, it is possible to verify the importance of better understanding the factors involved in the IVP process, with the aim of allow new alternatives to increase the results obtained in programs of animal assisted reproduction.La producción in vitro de embriones (PIV) representa una manera de aumentar el uso de gametos de animales con alto valor zootécnico. A pesar de los avances obtenidos en PIV en los últimos años, la producción de embriones tranferibles sigue siendo baja. El objetivo de esta revisión es discutir maneras de producir embriones in vitro, así como los procesos de formación y de maduración de los oocitos que se pueden relacionar con la eficacia de los resultados obtenidos. Algunos estudios demuestran la influencia de los factores foliculares del crecimiento, gonadotrofinas, esteroides y otras hormonas en el desarrollo folicular y la calidad del complejo del cumulus oocito (CCO). La fase folicular del crecimiento lento es crítica para el desarrollo de la capacidad del oocito de alcanzar la capacidad y el diámetro final. Información sobre influencias endocrinas, o además, la dependencia del crecimiento de pequeños folículos antrales cuando ocurre una pérdida en la funcionalidad del oocito o del folículo, es escasa en la literatura. Un número variable de diversas técnicas y los protocolos para el tratamiento de oocitos de las donantes son descritos en esta revisión, con lo objetivo de mejorar los resultados, el índice de la recuperacion de CCOs y la capacidad de desarrollo in vitro de oocitos recogidos. De las consideraciones presentadas en esta revisión, es posible verificar la importancia de entender los factores implicados en el proceso de PIV, para permitir el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas que mejoren los resultados obtenidos en programas de la reproducción animal asistida.A produção in vitro (PIV) de embriões representa uma maneira de incrementar o uso de gametas de animais de alto valor zootécnico. Apesar dos avanços obtidos na PIV nos últimos anos, a produção de embriões transferíveis ainda é baixa. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir maneiras de produzir embriões in vitro, assim como o processo de formação e maturação de oócitos, que pode estar relacionado a eficácia dos resultados obtidos. Aguns estudos demonstram a influência de fatores de crescimento, gonadotrofinas, esteróides e outros hormônios no desenvolvimento folicular e na qualidade do complexo cumulus oócito (CCO). A fase folicular de crescimento lento é critica para o desenvolvimento da capacidade do oócito de atingir a competência e o diâmetro finais. Informação sobre as influências endócrinas, ou seja, da dependência do crescimento de pequenos folículos antrais quando ocorre perda da funcionalidade do oócito ou folículo são escassas na literatura. Um número variável de di

Luiz F M Pfeifer; Augusto Schneider; Marcio N Corrêa

2008-01-01

170

Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

Francis GA; Gallone A; Nychas GJ; Sofos JN; Colelli G; Amodio ML; Spano G

2012-01-01

171

Factors affecting crowded acuity: eccentricity and contrast.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Acuity measurement is a fundamental method to assess visual performance in the clinic. Little is known about how acuity measured in the presence of neighboring letters, as in the case of letter charts, changes with contrast and with nonfoveal viewing. This information is crucial for acuity measurement using low-contrast charts and when patients cannot use their fovea. In this study, we evaluated how optotype acuity, with and without flankers, is affected by contrast and eccentricity. METHODS: Five young adults with normal vision identified the orientation of a Tumbling-E presented alone or in the presence of four flanking Tumbling-Es. Edge-to-edge letter spacing ranged from 1 to 20 bar widths. Stimuli were presented on a white background for 150 ms with Weber contrast ranging from -2.5% to -99%. Flankers had the same size and contrast as the target. Testings were performed at the fovea, 3°, 5°, and 10° in the inferior visual field. RESULTS: When plotted as a function of letter spacing, acuity remains unaffected by the presence of flankers until the flankers are within the critical spacing, which averages an edge-to-edge spacing of 4.4 bar widths at the fovea and approximately 16 bar widths at all three eccentricities. Critical spacing decreases with a reduction in contrast. When plotted as a function of contrast, acuity only worsens when the contrast falls below approximately 24% at the fovea and 17% in the periphery, for flanked and unflanked conditions alike. CONCLUSIONS: The letter spacing on conventional letter charts exceeds the critical spacing for acuity measurement at the fovea, at all contrast levels. Thus, these charts are appropriate for assessing foveal acuity. In the periphery, the critical spacing is larger than the letter spacing on conventional charts. Consequently, these charts may underestimate the acuity measured in the periphery because of the effects of crowding.

Coates DR; Chin JM; Chung ST

2013-07-01

172

Factors affecting the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes in palestine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although medical research has proven that breastfeeding is unparalleled in providing the ideal nutrition for infants, "the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes" is a little-known concept. This empirical study tackled the origin and definition of demarketing, examined the different factors affecting the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes in Palestine from the breastfeeding woman's point of view, and developed an appropriate model for the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes. The article subsequently concludes with recommendations for areas of further academic research in the World Health Assembly, for policy makers in Palestine, and for the breastfeeding women themselves. Subjects and METHODS: An empirical study was conducted to collect the primary data using a questionnaire as a tool in order to test the hypotheses. The questionnaire was distributed to 400 breastfeeding women who were randomly selected from the population. RESULTS: The findings proved that there is a relationship between independent variables (i.e., product, price, place, and promotion) and the dependent variable (i.e., demarketing of breastmilk substitutes) based on several reasons discussed thoroughly in this article. CONCLUSIONS: Product, price, place, and promotion affect the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes in Palestine.

Salem MZ

2013-06-01

173

Factors affecting participation after traumatic brain injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: The aim of this work was to explore the extent to which social, cognitive, emotional and physical aspects influence participation after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design/subjects: An explorative study of the patient perspective of participation 4 years after TBI. The cohort consisted of all patients (age range 18-65 years), presenting in 1999-2000, admitted to the hospital (n?=?129). Sixty-three patients responded; 46 males and 17 females, mean age 41 (range 19-60) years. Methods: Four years after the injury, the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ), EuroQol-5D, Swedish Stroke Register Questionnaire and Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) questionnaire were sent to the sample. Data were analysed with logistic regression. Results: On the EBIQ, 40% of the sample reported problems in most questions. According to IPA, between 20% and 40% did not perceive that they had a good participation. The analyses gave 5 predictors reflecting emotional and social aspects, which could explain up to 70% of the variation in participation. Conclusion: It is not easy to find single predictors, as there seems to be a close interaction between several aspects. Motor deficits appear to have smaller significance for participation in this late state, while emotional and social factors play a major role.

Larsson J; Björkdahl A; Esbjörnsson E; Sunnerhagen KS

2013-09-01

174

Factors affecting participation after traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The aim of this work was to explore the extent to which social, cognitive, emotional and physical aspects influence participation after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design/subjects: An explorative study of the patient perspective of participation 4 years after TBI. The cohort consisted of all patients (age range 18-65 years), presenting in 1999-2000, admitted to the hospital (n?=?129). Sixty-three patients responded; 46 males and 17 females, mean age 41 (range 19-60) years. Methods: Four years after the injury, the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ), EuroQol-5D, Swedish Stroke Register Questionnaire and Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) questionnaire were sent to the sample. Data were analysed with logistic regression. Results: On the EBIQ, 40% of the sample reported problems in most questions. According to IPA, between 20% and 40% did not perceive that they had a good participation. The analyses gave 5 predictors reflecting emotional and social aspects, which could explain up to 70% of the variation in participation. Conclusion: It is not easy to find single predictors, as there seems to be a close interaction between several aspects. Motor deficits appear to have smaller significance for participation in this late state, while emotional and social factors play a major role. PMID:24002312

Larsson, Jerry; Björkdahl, Ann; Esbjörnsson, Eva; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S

2013-09-01

175

Factors affecting the performance of ultrasonic flowmeters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A programme of work is currently underway at NEL to investigate and characterise the performance of liquid ultrasonic meters over a wide range of conditions. This paper presents the results of laboratory evaluations in addition to the initial results of combined flow and flowmeter modelling. Two-phase, oil/gas performance tests were conducted on commercially available meters of 4-inch nominal bore. Specific results have been selected to illustrate performance variations related to factors in meter design and operation. Two-phase, oil/water performance tests with water-cuts of up to 15 % were also conducted on the above meters. These results are presented in their entirety. The results show deviations from single-phase performance which vary for each meter design. Baseline calibration results for four commercially available clamp-on meters are presented. The results were obtained in good installation conditions on stainless steel pipes of 4-inch and 8-inch nominal bore. The results show different levels of accuracy associated with each meter and a general conformation with predicted behaviour. The final section of the paper presents results obtained by a systematic numerical method of determining the flow profile sensitivity of various meter configurations. The results provide quantitative confirmation of the reduced sensitivity of multipath designs to variations in the velocity profile. (author)

Brown, G.J.

1997-07-01

176

Factors affecting seal life in downhole motors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The life expectancy of rotary seals in downhole motors depends on temperature generated by sliding friction as well as ambient temperature. Heat transfer calculations show that sliding friction can produce a significant rise in temperature across seal assemblies, great enough to deteriorate the seal material and cause premature failure. Thermal conductivities of seal materials and thicknesses of shaft, sleeve, and housing are major design factors influencing steady state temperature profiles across seal assemblies. In general, smaller dimensions and higher thermal conductivities allow the friction generated heat to dissipate at a lower temperature. A parameter study led to an improved rotary seal configuration which will significantly lower peak seal temperatures in downhole motors. The design will channel drilling mud near the sliding friction surface for better dissipation of the friction generated heat. Plans are being made to incorporate this improvement into the bearing seal test assembly. It is doubtful that seals made of Buna-N will perform successfully on downhole motors, even when used in the improved design. On the other hand, calculated maximum temperatures are within material limitations of Grafoil.

Dareing, D.W.

1980-01-01

177

Factors affecting antimicrobial activity of Synechococcus leopoliensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An antimicrobial agent is produced by the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis which was found to be active against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The effects of temperature, pH, incubation period, some media and different nitrogen and carbon sources on both growth and antimicrobial activity were investigated. Temperature 35 degrees C and pH 8 were the best for growth and antimicrobial agent production and 14 and 15 days of incubation were found to be the best for maximum growth and antimicrobial activity, respectively, in the medium BG-11. No antimicrobial activity could be detected by the use of G medium, moderate activity was recorded with Chu 10 medium, while high activity was reported in BG-11 medium. Leucine was the best nitrogen source for antimicrobial activity, while maximum antimicrobial activity was introduced by using the carbon sources, citrate and acetate. Very high antimicrobial activity could be detected by using the carbon source galactose in combination with the nitrogen source alanine or by using arabinose with methionine.

Noaman NH; Fattah A; Khaleafa M; Zaky SH

2004-01-01

178

Factors affecting recurrence of sinonasal inverted papilloma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim is to study clinical characteristics and recurrence rates for sinonasal inverted papilloma (NIP), to evaluate relevant factors for its recurrence, and to compare the curative rates of different surgical approaches. The Krouse classification for the 156 follow-up cases of the patients with NIP was as following: 26 cases in T1, 33 cases in T2, 94 cases in T3, and 3 cases in T4. A total number of 99 cases of endoscopic sinus surgery were included, of which 26 cases of lateral rhinotomy approach were combined with Caldwell Luc approach, and 31 cases of nasal endoscopy combined with traditional surgery, with average postoperative follow-up of 3-11 years. Of the 156 studied patients with NIP, male:female = 1.69:1, age varied from 18 to 77 years, with average of 56 years, 19 cases showed postoperative recurrence, of which 8 cases developed to be squamous cell carcinoma. Among these 8 cases, 3 patients showed no recurrence after treatment in 5 years, and the other 5 patients died in 3-2 years period. Tumor recurrence rates for different surgical approach are: 9.09 % for endoscopic surgical group, 23.08 % for traditional surgical group, and 12.12 % for combined surgical group; tumor malignancy rates for different surgical approach are: 2.02 % for endoscopic surgical group, 11.54 % traditional surgical group, and 9.09 % for combined group, and Chi-square test showed that the differences in recurrence and malignancy rates for NIP patients with different surgical treatments were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Recurrence rates for different stages are: T1 at 3.85 %, T2 at 12.12 %, T3 at 14.89 %, and T4 at 0.00 %, and the differences in the recurrence rates for different stages were not statistically significant (P > 0.05) by Chi-square test. There are clear clinical features for NIP, and the recurrence is related to the thoroughness of the first time surgical removal of lesions and is less relevant with Krouse classification stage and surgical approaches.

Xiao-Ting W; Peng L; Xiu-Qing W; Hai-Bo W; Wen-Hui P; Bing L; Er-Peng Z; Guang-Gang S

2013-03-01

179

Factors affecting recurrence of sinonasal inverted papilloma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim is to study clinical characteristics and recurrence rates for sinonasal inverted papilloma (NIP), to evaluate relevant factors for its recurrence, and to compare the curative rates of different surgical approaches. The Krouse classification for the 156 follow-up cases of the patients with NIP was as following: 26 cases in T1, 33 cases in T2, 94 cases in T3, and 3 cases in T4. A total number of 99 cases of endoscopic sinus surgery were included, of which 26 cases of lateral rhinotomy approach were combined with Caldwell Luc approach, and 31 cases of nasal endoscopy combined with traditional surgery, with average postoperative follow-up of 3-11 years. Of the 156 studied patients with NIP, male:female = 1.69:1, age varied from 18 to 77 years, with average of 56 years, 19 cases showed postoperative recurrence, of which 8 cases developed to be squamous cell carcinoma. Among these 8 cases, 3 patients showed no recurrence after treatment in 5 years, and the other 5 patients died in 3-2 years period. Tumor recurrence rates for different surgical approach are: 9.09 % for endoscopic surgical group, 23.08 % for traditional surgical group, and 12.12 % for combined surgical group; tumor malignancy rates for different surgical approach are: 2.02 % for endoscopic surgical group, 11.54 % traditional surgical group, and 9.09 % for combined group, and Chi-square test showed that the differences in recurrence and malignancy rates for NIP patients with different surgical treatments were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Recurrence rates for different stages are: T1 at 3.85 %, T2 at 12.12 %, T3 at 14.89 %, and T4 at 0.00 %, and the differences in the recurrence rates for different stages were not statistically significant (P > 0.05) by Chi-square test. There are clear clinical features for NIP, and the recurrence is related to the thoroughness of the first time surgical removal of lesions and is less relevant with Krouse classification stage and surgical approaches. PMID:23064461

Xiao-Ting, Wang; Peng, Li; Xiu-Qing, Wei; Hai-Bo, Wang; Wen-Hui, Pang; Bing, Li; Er-Peng, Zhang; Guang-Gang, Shi

2012-10-12

180

FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA) are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography) equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ?2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ?30 mg.l-1; spermidine ?10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ?5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

Pavel Pleva; Leona Bu?ková; Andrea Lauková; Eva Lorencová; Vlastimil Kubá?; František Bu?ka

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine in water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the major factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine (SMT), a typical pharmaceutically active compound, in water were evaluated. The factors tested included two operational parameters (i.e. initial SMT concentration and ultrasonic power), three dissolved gases (i.e. Ar, O2 and N2), five most frequently found anions in water (NO3(-),Cl(-),SO4(2-),HCO3(-)andBr(-)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and four alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol). Typically, the degradation rate was increased with the increasing initial SMT concentration and power. The degradation rate was accelerated in the presence of argon or oxygen, but inhibited by nitrogen. Effects of anions on the ultrasonic treatment were species-dependent. The SMT degradation rate was slightly inhibited by NO3(-),Cl(-),and,SO4(2-) but significantly improved by HCO3(-)andBr(-). The negative effects of alcohols acted as hydroxyl radicals scavengers with the following order: tert-butyl alcohol>isopropyl alcohol>ethanol>methanol. The synergetic effect of ferrous ion was mainly due to production of additional hydroxyl radicals (·OH) through Fenton chemistry. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that the degradation of SMT by ultrasonic irradiation is mainly ascribed to ·OH oxidation. Of interest, although the SMT could be rapidly degraded by ultrasonic irradiation, the degradation products were rarely mineralized. For example, ~100% of 180 ?M SMT was decomposed, but only 8.31% TOC was reduced, within 2h at an irradiation frequency of 800 kHz and a power of 100 W. However, the products became much biodegradable (BOD5/COD was increased from 0.04 to 0.45). Therefore, an aerobic biological treatment may be an appropriate post-treatment to further decompose the SMT degradation products.

Gao YQ; Gao NY; Deng Y; Gu JS; Gu YL; Zhang D

2013-11-01

182

Factors and perspectives affecting nursing resource consumption in community hospitals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The consumption of professional and non-professional nursing resources on medical/surgical nursing units varies sharply among community hospitals. In an effort to explain the variation, this study examines several factors: socio-economic characteristics of the population; supply of registered nurses; hospital characteristics such as size, complexity and diversity of services; patient characteristics such as case mix index and nursing care acuity index; and production system characteristics such as efficiency of technical support systems and the structure of nursing care delivery. Nursing skill mix varies more than the staffing levels among hospitals. The research suggests that factors associated with a clinical-rational model such as nursing acuity index and the efficiency of clinical/support systems explains little, whereas factors associated with economic-rational model of hospital revenues--like case mix, number of hospital services, poverty (through Medicaid program) and age distribution (through Medicare program)--do significantly affect nursing resource consumption. The results point to the presence of resource allocation to nursing based on hospital revenues rather than patient care needs. PMID:10122811

Shukla, R K

1992-11-01

183

Factors and perspectives affecting nursing resource consumption in community hospitals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The consumption of professional and non-professional nursing resources on medical/surgical nursing units varies sharply among community hospitals. In an effort to explain the variation, this study examines several factors: socio-economic characteristics of the population; supply of registered nurses; hospital characteristics such as size, complexity and diversity of services; patient characteristics such as case mix index and nursing care acuity index; and production system characteristics such as efficiency of technical support systems and the structure of nursing care delivery. Nursing skill mix varies more than the staffing levels among hospitals. The research suggests that factors associated with a clinical-rational model such as nursing acuity index and the efficiency of clinical/support systems explains little, whereas factors associated with economic-rational model of hospital revenues--like case mix, number of hospital services, poverty (through Medicaid program) and age distribution (through Medicare program)--do significantly affect nursing resource consumption. The results point to the presence of resource allocation to nursing based on hospital revenues rather than patient care needs.

Shukla RK

1992-11-01

184

Factors Affecting Software Cost Estimation in Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cost is the main driving factor for all projects. When it is done correctly, it helps in the successful completion of the project. In this research we have discussed various factors that affect the estimation procedure. These include team structure, team culture, managerial style, project type (Core application or integrated application), client’s working environment. Accurate estimation is far difficult in developing countries where most of the organizations follow local standards. These inaccurate estimations lead to late delivery, less profit or in worst case complete failure. Software requirement gathering, development, maintenance, quality assurance and cost of poor quality are major groups responsible for overall cost in software production process. The exact proportion among them varies significantly in consecutive software releases, which is caused by many factors. The ever increasing need for the reliability of the software systems, especially mission critical applications in the public safety domain, raises the bar for the accuracy of prediction and estimation techniques. The accuracy of estimations in many areas brings about more concerns regarding techniques already used in the software industry. Widely deployed techniques, such as Wideband Delphi method, stress the engineering and technical aspects of the process of how estimates are prepared.

Ali Javed; Mirza Ahsan Ullah; Aziz-ur-Rehman

2013-01-01

185

Factors affecting the turnaround time for manufacturing, testing, and release of cellular therapy products prepared at multiple sites in support of multicenter cardiovascular regenerative medicine protocols: a Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network (CCTRN) study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cellular therapy studies are often conducted at multiple clinical sites to accrue larger patient numbers. In many cases this necessitates use of localized good manufacturing practices facilities to supply the cells. To assure consistent quality, oversight by a quality assurance group is advisable. In this study we report the findings of such a group established as part of the Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network (CCTRN) studies involving use of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (ABMMCs) to treat myocardial infarction and heart failure. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Factors affecting cell manufacturing time were studied in 269 patients enrolled on three CCTRN protocols using automated cell processing system (Sepax, Biosafe SA)-separated ABMMCs. The cells were prepared at five good manufacturing practices cell processing facilities and delivered to local treatment sites or more distant satellite centers. RESULTS: Although the Sepax procedure takes only 90 minutes, the total time for processing was approximately 7 hours. Contributing to this were incoming testing and device preparation, release testing, patient randomization, and product delivery. The mean out-of-body time (OBT), which was to be less than 12 hours, averaged 9 hours. A detailed analysis of practices at each center revealed a variety of factors that contributed to this OBT. CONCLUSION: We conclude that rapid cell enrichment procedures may give a false impression of the time actually required to prepare a cellular therapy product for release and administration. Institutional procedures also differ and can contribute to delays; however, in aggregate it is possible to achieve an overall manufacturing and testing time that is similar at multiple facilities.

Richman S; Gee AP; McKenna DH; Traverse JH; Henry TD; Fisk D; Pepine CJ; Bloom J; Willerson JT; Prater K; Zhao D; Koç JR; Anwaruddin S; Taylor DA; Cogle CR; Moyé LA; Simari RD; Skarlatos SI

2012-10-01

186

Factors that affect the in vitro production of bovine embryos: A review/ Factores que afectan la producción in vitro de embriones bovinos: una revisión/ Fatores que afetam a produção in vitro de embriões bovinos: A revisão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A produção in vitro (PIV) de embriões representa uma maneira de incrementar o uso de gametas de animais de alto valor zootécnico. Apesar dos avanços obtidos na PIV nos últimos anos, a produção de embriões transferíveis ainda é baixa. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir maneiras de produzir embriões in vitro, assim como o processo de formação e maturação de oócitos, que pode estar relacionado a eficácia dos resultados obtidos. Aguns estudos demonstram a (more) influência de fatores de crescimento, gonadotrofinas, esteróides e outros hormônios no desenvolvimento folicular e na qualidade do complexo cumulus oócito (CCO). A fase folicular de crescimento lento é critica para o desenvolvimento da capacidade do oócito de atingir a competência e o diâmetro finais. Informação sobre as influências endócrinas, ou seja, da dependência do crescimento de pequenos folículos antrais quando ocorre perda da funcionalidade do oócito ou folículo são escassas na literatura. Um número variável de diferentes técnicas e protocolos para o tratamento de doadoras de ovóctios são descritos com o objetivo de melhorar os resultados, a taxa de recuperação de CCOs e o desenvolvimento da competência in vitro dos oócitos coletados. Das considerações apresentadas nesta revisão é possível verificar a importância do conhecimento dos fatores envolvidos no processo de PIV, com o objetivo de possibilitar que novas alternativas incrementem os resultados obtidos em programas de reprodução animal assistida. Abstract in spanish La producción in vitro de embriones (PIV) representa una manera de aumentar el uso de gametos de animales con alto valor zootécnico. A pesar de los avances obtenidos en PIV en los últimos años, la producción de embriones tranferibles sigue siendo baja. El objetivo de esta revisión es discutir maneras de producir embriones in vitro, así como los procesos de formación y de maduración de los oocitos que se pueden relacionar con la eficacia de los resultados obtenido (more) s. Algunos estudios demuestran la influencia de los factores foliculares del crecimiento, gonadotrofinas, esteroides y otras hormonas en el desarrollo folicular y la calidad del complejo del cumulus oocito (CCO). La fase folicular del crecimiento lento es crítica para el desarrollo de la capacidad del oocito de alcanzar la capacidad y el diámetro final. Información sobre influencias endocrinas, o además, la dependencia del crecimiento de pequeños folículos antrales cuando ocurre una pérdida en la funcionalidad del oocito o del folículo, es escasa en la literatura. Un número variable de diversas técnicas y los protocolos para el tratamiento de oocitos de las donantes son descritos en esta revisión, con lo objetivo de mejorar los resultados, el índice de la recuperacion de CCOs y la capacidad de desarrollo in vitro de oocitos recogidos. De las consideraciones presentadas en esta revisión, es posible verificar la importancia de entender los factores implicados en el proceso de PIV, para permitir el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas que mejoren los resultados obtenidos en programas de la reproducción animal asistida. Abstract in english In vitro embryo production (IVP) represents a way to increase gamete use from animals with high zootechnical value. In spite of the advances obtained in IVP over the last few years, production of transferable embryos is still low. The aim of this review is to discuss ways to produce in vitro embryos, as well as oocytes formation and maturation processes that can be related to the effectiveness of obtained results. Some studies show the influence of follicular growth facto (more) rs, gonadotropins, steroids and other hormones on the follicular development and the quality of the cumulus oocyte complex (COC). The follicular phase of slow growth is critical for the development of the oocyte capacity to reach the final competence and diameter. Information about endocrine influences, or likewise, the dependence of growth of small antr

M Pfeifer, Luiz F; Schneider, Augusto; Corrêa, Marcio N

2008-03-01

187

Sodium L-lactate differently affects brain-derived neurothrophic factor, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and heat shock protein 70 kDa production in human astrocytes and SH-SY5Y cultures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study analyzed the in vitro effects induced by sodium L-lactate on human astrocytes and the SH-SY5Y cell line, when added at concentrations of 5, 10, and 25 mmol/liter. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70) was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Cell viability with MTT, release of nitric oxide (NO) through the Griess reaction, and production of BDNF by enzyme-linked immunoassay was determined. Data indicate that, in SH-SY5Y as well as in cortical astrocytes, after 4 hr sodium L-lactate increases the expression and release of BDNF, iNOS, and NO; after 24 hr, it turns is ineffective for the production of the neurotrophin in SH-SY5Y and not in astrocytes, but the expression of iNOS and release of NO appear to be further increased compared with those after 4 hr. Sodium L-lactate influences differently the expression of HSP70 in SH-SY5Y compared with astrocytes. We propose, based on these findings, that sodium L-lactate affects the expression of BDNF in SH-SY5Y and astrocytes in a different manner: high levels of iNOS and NO expressed in SH-SY5Y have a profound inhibitory effect on the release of BDNF related to a more limited production of HSP70 by SH-SY5Y. In conclusion, the results demonstrate differences in the responses of SH-SY5Y and astrocytes to stimulation by high levels of sodium L-lactate. Sodium L-lactate differently and dose and time dependently influences the expression and release of BDNF, iNOS, NO, and HSP70 depending on the cell type.

Coco M; Caggia S; Musumeci G; Perciavalle V; Graziano AC; Pannuzzo G; Cardile V

2013-02-01

188

Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

Sven Skjenneberg (ed.)

1984-01-01

189

Factors affecting the internal brain drain of Saudi healthcare professionals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To investigate factors affecting the internal brain drain of healthcare professionals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an anonymous self-administered online questionnaire...

Zuhair T. Bakhsh; Ameerah Y. Mansour; Edward K. Mensah; Kevin G. Croke; James L. Drummond; Anne Koerber

190

Productive Parasites: Thinking of Noise as Affect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drawing from Michel Serres’ notion of the parasite, this article provides a nuanced explanation for noise that distinguishes itself from prevailing negative narratives, which often seek to define noise as unwanted, undesirable or damaging sound. Such narratives have left noise vulnerable to moralising polemics, which construct silence and noise as a dichotomy between the past and present, natural and cultural, relaxing and disturbing, and, fundamentally, good and bad. This article facilitates a reconsideration of noise’s ethical connotations by proposing the notion of noise as affect.

Marie Thompson

2012-01-01

191

Discuss the factors that affect the outcome of endodontic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Factors affecting the outcome of endodontic treatment are discussed from the theoretical viewpoint (microbes, foreign bodies and epithelium) and from a clinical aspect (preoperative factors, intraoperative factors and miscellaneous factors). The following conditions favour endodontic success significantly: the absence of a periapical infection, a well-condensed root filling, the root filling extending to 2 mm within the radiographic apex and not beyond, a satisfactory coronal restoration, use of a rubber dam during treatment and cases involving primary root canal treatment as opposed to retreatment. Other factors have the potential to affect success rates, but these have not yet been quantified. Although there is an array of potential factors that influence the outcome of endodontic treatment, success is most significantly dependent upon the elimination of root canal infection present when treatment starts and the prevention of contamination during treatment.

Chandra A

2009-08-01

192

Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

2013-06-06

193

TRUST - A FACTOR OF PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economic activity is more and more influenced by the condition and the evolution of some immaterial and non-financial elements which exist in a firm or a country. One of these elements - information - has unanimously been accepted as the 4th production factor. In this paper I try to demonstrate that trust too, has to be accepted as a production factor. Especially as it fulfils the fundamental conditions for this to happen : it is infinitly divisible and homogeneous and, thus, its marginal product can be calculated. In nowadays world, characterized by the apparently unstoppable expansion of the cruel individualism and of market fundamentalism, which have undermined the trust in the success of private initiative, producers increasingly need community, need another mode of involvement of the state in economy and they need another way of relating to each other. The costs resulting from the diminishing of trust have become so significant that their transformation into income is necessary, if we succeed in basing ourselves on trust in the economic process.

Prunea Petru

2011-01-01

194

Identifying the Factors Affecting the Participation of Agricultural Cooperatives' Members  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: 40-year history of agricultural production cooperatives in the country shows that this type of exploitation system has faced many ups and downs during this period. First, despite the help and support by the government, the cooperative sector has not been able to play a major role in the development of the country and its share has not exceeded 3% of development program. The main aim of this study is identifying the factors affecting the participation of Shirvan-Chardavol township?s agricultural cooperatives? members. Approach: This casual comparative applied research which uses survey method for data accumulation, is of Quasi-experimental research type because of impossibility of controlling the research variables. A researcher-made questionnair was used as the main tool for gathering data. The face and content validity of the questionnaire were confirmed by a group of university professors and cooperative experts; also the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed through calculating the Kronbach alfa coefficient (a = 0.80). Results: The statistical society of the research included 751 active members of Shirvan-Chardavol township?s agricultural cooperatives, among which 260 people were selected for the study using classified proportional random sampling method and with the aid of Morgan sample-volume table. Data processing was performed using SPSS estatistial software, as well as descriptive estatistics (central and inferential indexes) and analytical estatistics (correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis). Conclusion: The correlation coefficient results show that there is significant relationship between the variables like age, background history of membership in cooperatives, the members? agricultural land areas, annual income of the members, socio-cultural features, economical features, educational-extensional features, managerial factors, psychological features, political factors and communicational-informational factors from the one hand and the dependent variable of agricultural cooperatives? members? level of participation from the other. The multiple regression analysis results showed that variables like political, economic, managerial and social factors have positive effect on the dependent variable of agricultural cooperatives? members? participation, describing 65% of the changes of the mentioned dependent variable.

Bagher Arayesh

2011-01-01

195

Erdosteine affects eicosanoid production in COPD.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance and lipid peroxidation are known to activate the 5-LO pathway with increased expression of inflammatory eicosanoids. Erdosteine has recently shown important anti-oxidant properties, including the ability to reduce 8-isoprostane in COPD patients. Aim: To assess the effects of erdosteine (E) on eicosanoids, and to compare the time-course of effect with that of E anti-oxidant activity. Methods: 12 moderate COPD patients (9 males, 60 - 78 y) randomly received E 300 mg b.i.d. or placebo (P) for 10 days in a double-blind, controlled design. Blood ROS (Fort/Units); serum LTB4 and urine LTE4 (pg/ml) were measured at baseline and after 1, 3, 5 and 10 days of treatment. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed. Results: In COPD patients, both LTB4 and LTE4 dropped significantly during the 10-day treatment with E: s-LTB4 from 136.0 ± 35.4 SD to 54.5 ± 31.2 SD; u-LTE4 from 267.0 ± 91.5 SD to 84.0 ± 64.7 SD, p < 0.001 vs. p from Days 5 and 3, respectively. Moreover, a significant decrease of blood ROS was confirmed in patients using E. FEV1 values slightly increased during erdosteine treatment, whereas a trend to decrease was observed in the placebo group, with a significant difference in favor of erdosteine after 10 days of treatment (p = 0.0088). Conclusions: 1) The scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects of Erdosteine were both confirmed; 2) erdosteine proved to affect eicosanoids significantly; 3) this novel effect underlines the important anti-inflammatory potentialities of the drug in COPD; 4) further investigation is needed in order to assess the capability of Erdosteine in controlling ongoing inflammation in chronic respiratory diseases.

Dal Negro RW; Visconti M; Tognella S; Micheletto C

2011-01-01

196

Erdosteine affects eicosanoid production in COPD.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance and lipid peroxidation are known to activate the 5-LO pathway with increased expression of inflammatory eicosanoids. Erdosteine has recently shown important anti-oxidant properties, including the ability to reduce 8-isoprostane in COPD patients. Aim: To assess the effects of erdosteine (E) on eicosanoids, and to compare the time-course of effect with that of E anti-oxidant activity. Methods: 12 moderate COPD patients (9 males, 60 - 78 y) randomly received E 300 mg b.i.d. or placebo (P) for 10 days in a double-blind, controlled design. Blood ROS (Fort/Units); serum LTB4 and urine LTE4 (pg/ml) were measured at baseline and after 1, 3, 5 and 10 days of treatment. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed. Results: In COPD patients, both LTB4 and LTE4 dropped significantly during the 10-day treatment with E: s-LTB4 from 136.0 ± 35.4 SD to 54.5 ± 31.2 SD; u-LTE4 from 267.0 ± 91.5 SD to 84.0 ± 64.7 SD, p < 0.001 vs. p from Days 5 and 3, respectively. Moreover, a significant decrease of blood ROS was confirmed in patients using E. FEV1 values slightly increased during erdosteine treatment, whereas a trend to decrease was observed in the placebo group, with a significant difference in favor of erdosteine after 10 days of treatment (p = 0.0088). Conclusions: 1) The scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects of Erdosteine were both confirmed; 2) erdosteine proved to affect eicosanoids significantly; 3) this novel effect underlines the important anti-inflammatory potentialities of the drug in COPD; 4) further investigation is needed in order to assess the capability of Erdosteine in controlling ongoing inflammation in chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:21176724

Dal Negro, R W; Visconti, M; Tognella, S; Micheletto, C

2011-01-01

197

Factors affecting oligomerization status of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.  

Science.gov (United States)

UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) is involved in the production of UDP-glucose, a key precursor to polysaccharide synthesis in all organisms. UGPase activity has recently been proposed to be regulated by oligomerization, with monomer as the active species. In the present study, we investigated factors affecting oligomerization status of the enzyme, using purified recombinant barley UGPase. Incubation of wild-type (wt) UGPase with phosphate or Tris buffers promoted oligomerization, whereas Mops and Hepes completely dissociated the oligomers to monomers (the active form). Similar buffer effects were observed for KK127-128LL and C99S mutants of UGPase; however, the buffers had a relatively small effect on the oligomerization status of the LIV135-137NIN mutant, impaired in deoligomerization ability and showing only 6-9% activity of the wt. Buffer composition had no effect on UGPase activity at UGPase protein concentrations below ca. 20 ng/ml. However, at higher protein concentration the activity in Tris, but not Mops nor Hepes, underestimated the amount of the enzyme. The data suggest that oligomerization status of UGPase can be controlled by subtle changes in an immediate environment (buffers) and by protein dilution. The evidence is discussed in relation to our recent model of UGPase structure/function, and with respect to earlier reports on the oligomeric integrity/activity of UGPases from eukaryotic tissues. PMID:16289256

Kleczkowski, Leszek A; Martz, Françoise; Wilczynska, Malgorzata

2005-11-11

198

Factors affecting oligomerization status of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) is involved in the production of UDP-glucose, a key precursor to polysaccharide synthesis in all organisms. UGPase activity has recently been proposed to be regulated by oligomerization, with monomer as the active species. In the present study, we investigated factors affecting oligomerization status of the enzyme, using purified recombinant barley UGPase. Incubation of wild-type (wt) UGPase with phosphate or Tris buffers promoted oligomerization, whereas Mops and Hepes completely dissociated the oligomers to monomers (the active form). Similar buffer effects were observed for KK127-128LL and C99S mutants of UGPase; however, the buffers had a relatively small effect on the oligomerization status of the LIV135-137NIN mutant, impaired in deoligomerization ability and showing only 6-9% activity of the wt. Buffer composition had no effect on UGPase activity at UGPase protein concentrations below ca. 20 ng/ml. However, at higher protein concentration the activity in Tris, but not Mops nor Hepes, underestimated the amount of the enzyme. The data suggest that oligomerization status of UGPase can be controlled by subtle changes in an immediate environment (buffers) and by protein dilution. The evidence is discussed in relation to our recent model of UGPase structure/function, and with respect to earlier reports on the oligomeric integrity/activity of UGPases from eukaryotic tissues.

Kleczkowski LA; Martz F; Wilczynska M

2005-12-01

199

Statistical analysis of the different factors affecting the diarrhea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diarrhea is a worldwide problem facing both developing countries and developed countries, especially in pediatric population. Because of shortage of health facilities and lack of good food in developing countries, it is known fact that developing countries are facing this death taking problem more. The main purpose of this study was to examine the various factors which affect the recovery time of diarrhea. A multiple linear regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a model. The response variable for the study was the recovery time of diarrhea. The results of the analysis show that the Zinc is the main factor which affect the recovery time in Peshawar.

Zaman Q; Khan I

2011-09-01

200

Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM)  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management) scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response) and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation) factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions), physical activity (eight dimensions), and stress management (eight dimensions). Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American and white mothers in community settings.

Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management) scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response) and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation) factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions), physical activity (eight dimensions), and stress management (eight dimensions). Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American and white mothers in community settings.

Chang Mei-Wei; Brown Roger; Nitzke Susan

2008-01-01

202

Analysis on Psychological Factors to Affect the Vocal Stage Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The stage performance is an important part of artistic practice for vocal students. To perfectly express the music on stage is the dream of every vocal music performer. This essay is about analysis of the psychological factors to affect the vocal stage performance and to explore the reasons for stage fright and the methods to overcome this, to enable students to further enhance the level of their vocal music.Key words: Vocal music; Stage performance; Psychological factor

Xihong CHEN

2012-01-01

203

Environmental factors affecting monogeneans parasitic on freshwater fishes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental factors that act on fish parasites have received increasing attention in recent years. The effects of changing environmental conditions on parasite communities can provide valuable information on the effects of pollution on the ecosystem as a whole. This, of course, demands that we have a detailed knowledge o f parasite communities and the mechanisms acting upon them in a variety of natural conditions. Here, Mari Koskivaaro looks at those environmental factors that affect monogeneans parasitic on freshwater fishes. PMID:15463531

Koskivaara, M

1992-10-01

204

Environmental factors affecting monogeneans parasitic on freshwater fishes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The environmental factors that act on fish parasites have received increasing attention in recent years. The effects of changing environmental conditions on parasite communities can provide valuable information on the effects of pollution on the ecosystem as a whole. This, of course, demands that we have a detailed knowledge o f parasite communities and the mechanisms acting upon them in a variety of natural conditions. Here, Mari Koskivaaro looks at those environmental factors that affect monogeneans parasitic on freshwater fishes.

Koskivaara M

1992-10-01

205

Factors affecting Iran`s future. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the factors affecting Iran`s future by focusing on the demographic, economic, and military trends in Iran and their impact on the country`s national security objectives in the next decade. The paper also assesses the implications of an economic embargo on Iran and potential Iranian threats to regional and United States national interests.

Sinai, J.

1993-05-28

206

Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

Kwenda, Maxwell

2011-01-01

207

Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

2009-01-01

208

Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The populatio...

Naile Bilgili; Sultan Ayaz

209

Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

Kwan, Eugene E.

2005-01-01

210

Factors that affect the accuracy of method 21  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the enactment of the HON and the petroleum refinery NESHAP, EPA method 21 will shortly become an enormous fact of life for all petroleum & petrochemical refineries across the United States; and yet, little is known about it. This presentation looks at factors that can affect the accuracy of method 21 when it is used to make precision ppm measurements under actual field conditions. What does method 21 actually measure? Which chemicals are compatible with method 21, and which are not? How does a ppm reading obtained by method 21 correlate to a leak rate? Do variables such as process line pressure, temperature, and weather conditions affect leak measurements? These, along with other factors that affect leak detection, will be discussed.

Dolan, P. [Adsistor Environmental Systems, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

1996-12-31

211

Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

2008-01-01

212

FACTORS AFFECTING INTENT TO PURCHASE VIRTUAL GOODS IN ONLINE GAMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Online games increasingly sell virtual goods to generate real income. As a result, it isincreasingly important to identify factors and theory of consumption values that affect intent topurchase virtual goods in online games. However, very little research has been devoted to thetopic. This study is an empirical investigation of the factors and theory of consumption valuesthat affect intent to purchase virtual goods in online games. The study determines the effects ofgame type, satisfaction with the game, identification with the character, and theory ofconsumption values on intent to purchase virtual goods. The study used a survey to collectinformation from 523 virtual game users. Study results showed that game type is a moderatingvariable that affects intent to purchase virtual goods. And it demonstrated that role-playing gameusers are affected by theory of consumption values: functional quality, playfulness, and socialrelationship support. Moreover, war-strategy game users are affected by satisfaction with thegame, identification with the character, and theory of consumption values: price, utility, andplayfulness. The study also presents conclusions, proposes applications, and describesopportunities for further research.

Cheng-Hsun Ho; Ting-Yun Wu

2012-01-01

213

Are Affective Factors a Good Predictor of Science Achievement? Examining the Role of Affective Factors Based on PISA 2006  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated how affective factors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…

Ozel, Murat; Caglak, Serdar; Erdogan, Mehmet

2013-01-01

214

Factors affecting receipt of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Libby Morimoto1, Jenna Coalson1, Fionna Mowat1, Cynthia O’Malley21Exponent Health Sciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA; 2Amgen Global Epidemiology, Thousand Oaks, CA, USAAims: To review literature describing factors associated with receipt of chemotherapy for breast cancer, to better understand what factors are most relevant to women’s health and whether health disparities are apparent, and to assess how these factors might affect observational studies and outcomes research. Patterns of care for metastatic breast cancer, for which no standard-of-care exists, were of particular interest.Methods: Relevant studies written in English, Italian, French, or Spanish, published in 2000 or later, were identified through MEDLINE and reviewed. Review articles and clinical trials were excluded; all observational studies and surveys were considered. Articles were reviewed for any discussion of patient characteristics, hospital/physician/insurance characteristics, psychosocial characteristics, and clinical characteristics affecting receipt of chemotherapy by breast cancer patients.Results: In general, factors associated with increased likelihood of receiving chemotherapy included younger age, being Caucasian, having good general health and few co-morbidities, having more severe clinical disease, having responded well to previous treatment, and having breast cancer that is estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-negative. Many of the clinical factors found to increase the likelihood of receiving chemotherapy were consistent with current oncology guidelines. Of the relevant 19 studies identified, only six (32%) reported data specific to metastatic cancer; most studies aggregated women with stage I–IV for purposes of analysis.Conclusion: Studies of patterns of care in breast cancer treatment can help identify challenges in health care provided to particular subgroups of women and can aid researchers in designing studies that account for such factors in clinical and outcomes research. Although scarce, studies evaluating only women with metastatic breast cancer indicate that factors affecting decisions related to receipt of chemotherapy are similar across stage for this disease.Keywords: breast cancer, chemotherapy, metastatic, treatment decisions, health disparities

Libby Morimoto; Jenna Coalson; Fionna Mowat; et al

2010-01-01

215

Nurse aide decision making in nursing homes: factors affecting empowerment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors affecting structural empowerment among nurse aides in nursing homes. BACKGROUND: Structural empowerment can be defined as the actual rather than perceived ability to make autonomous decisions within an organisation. Given the paucity of research on the subject, this study helps to close the gap by identifying factors that affect nurse aide empowerment, that is, decision-making among nurse aides. METHODS: The data for the study come from self-administered questionnaires distributed to direct-care workers (nurse aides) in 11 nursing homes in a southern state in the USA. Ordinary least square regression models were estimated to analyse the effects of demographic predictors, personal factors (competency, emotional exhaustion and positive attitude) and structural characteristics (coworker and supervisor support, information availability and shared governance) on nurse aide decision-making. RESULTS: Findings suggest race among demographic predictors, emotional exhaustion among personal characteristics, and supervisor support, and shared governance among structural factors, significantly affect nurse aide decision-making. CONCLUSION: It is important to explore race as one of the central determinants of structural empowerment among nurse aides. In addition, the nature and type of emotional exhaustion that propels decision-making needs to be further examined. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The study shows the importance of shared governance and supervisor support for fostering nurse aide empowerment.

Chaudhuri T; Yeatts DE; Cready CM

2013-09-01

216

Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5%) such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

Bahieh Moradi; Majid Maleki; Maryam Esmaeilzadeh; Hooman Bakhshandeh Abkenar

2011-01-01

217

Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5%) such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

Moradi, Bahieh; Maleki, Majid; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Abkenar, Hooman Bakhshandeh

2011-01-01

218

Physician-related factors affecting cardiac rehabilitation referral.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician's attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. RESULTS: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5%) such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians' fee were other factors reported by the physicians. CONCLUSION: Cardiologists' inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

Moradi B; Maleki M; Esmaeilzadeh M; Abkenar HB

2011-11-01

219

Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2004-02-24

220

Confounding factors affect the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a newly diagnosed esophageal disease in adult and children. The clinical and pathological characteristics of this disease have been established and were recently summarized in the expert clinical guideline published in 2011. In spite of the wide knowledge accumulated on this disease, there are many areas where scientific data are missing, especially in regard to the disease’s pathophysiology. Recent publications have suggested that other confounding factors modify the disease and may affect its clinical-phenotypic presentation. Those factors may include place of living, air pollution, race, genetic factors and other. In the present report we discussed and review those confounding factors, the new developments, and what direction we should go to further advance our knowledge of this disease.

Elitsur, Yoram

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Confounding factors affect the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis is a newly diagnosed esophageal disease in adult and children. The clinical and pathological characteristics of this disease have been established and were recently summarized in the expert clinical guideline published in 2011. In spite of the wide knowledge accumulated on this disease, there are many areas where scientific data are missing, especially in regard to the disease’s pathophysiology. Recent publications have suggested that other confounding factors modify the disease and may affect its clinical-phenotypic presentation. Those factors may include place of living, air pollution, race, genetic factors and other. In the present report we discussed and review those confounding factors, the new developments, and what direction we should go to further advance our knowledge of this disease.

Yoram Elitsur

2012-01-01

222

Analysis of Factors that Affect e-Governance .  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available e-Governance is an application of ICT (Information & Communication technology) to provide government services to its citizens and organizations. Punjab is one of the leading states in implementation of e-Governance but still there are some obstacles in its effective implementation at rural level. This research paper highlights the factors that are affecting the implementation of e-Governance. It also includes a survey questionnaire which takes all the factors into account and before starting actual survey a pilot study for this questionnaire was done which confirms its acceptance

Dr. Pardeep Mittal; Amandeep Kaur

2013-01-01

223

Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author); Mumtaz Ali Junejo; Muhammad Saleem Rahpoto; Maqsood Zia Shah

2011-01-01

224

Factors affecting the dermal bioavailability of hydrocarbons in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science of risk assessment has advanced significantly in recent years, in a continuing effort to more accurately represent potential human health effects from exposure to chemicals in the environment. This paper describes some environmental factors that affect the behavior of chemicals in soil and the relationship of this chemical behavior to the prediction of dermal exposures relating to soil contamination. The information presented in this paper suggests that the mass transfer of chemicals from the soil to the skin is as much an issue in dermal exposures to soil-sorbed chemicals as the actual absorption of the chemical through the skin. Relevant factor affecting the sorption, desorption, and mass transfer of hydrocarbon chemicals in soil are discussed. A summary of the scientific literature related to research on chemicals sorbed to soil is also presented.

1991-01-01

225

Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

M. Ketema; S. Bauer

2012-01-01

226

The quantum walk search algorithm: Factors affecting efficiency  

CERN Document Server

We numerically study the quantum walk search algorithm of Shenvi, Kempe and Whaley [PRA \\textbf{67} 052307] and the factors which affect its efficiency in finding an individual state from an unsorted set. Previous work has focused purely on the effects of the dimensionality of the dataset to be searched. Here, we consider the effects of interpolating between dimensions, connectivity of the dataset, and the possibility of disorder in the underlying substrate: all these factors affect the efficiency of the search algorithm. We show that, as well as the strong dependence on the spatial dimension of the structure to be searched, there are also secondary dependencies on the connectivity and symmetry of the lattice, with greater connectivity providing a more efficient algorithm. In addition, we also show that the algorithm can tolerate a non-trivial level of disorder in the underlying substrate.

Lovett, Neil B; Heath, Robert M; Kendon, Viv

2011-01-01

227

Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

1990-01-01

228

Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

1983-09-01

229

Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129

Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

2013-01-01

230

Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas.

Jie Y; Isa ZM; Jie X; Ju ZL; Ismail NH

2013-01-01

231

Factors affecting absorption, transport, and form of plutonium in plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The absorption of Pu by plants was related primarily to differences in soil properties and to the presence of natural and synthetic organic ligands that partially stabilized Pu against hydrolysis in soil. Plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) were also affected by a series of secondary processes related to plant growth rate and production of biomass. The valence state of Pu added to soil did not affect CR values due to reduction of Pu(VI) to Pu(IV). The Pu was transported in plant xylem fluid to aerial leaf tissue as Pu(IV) organic acid complexes. Variables affecting the chemical form of Pu in plants after uptake included plant age, plant species, and the presence of nutrient elements (especially Fe, Zn, and Cu) that competed for reaction sites on plant organic ligands. Test plants used were alfalfa, peas, soybeans, squash, and bushbeans.

1987-01-01

232

Factors affecting Culicoides species composition and abundance in avian nests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mechanisms affecting patterns of vector distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of vectors, hosts and the parasites transmitted. We studied the role of different factors affecting the species composition and abundance of Culicoides found in nests of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We identified 1531 females and 2 males of 7 different Culicoides species in nests, with C. simulator being the most abundant species, followed by C. kibunensis, C. festivipennis, C. segnis, C. truncorum, C. pictipennis and C. circumscriptus. We conducted a medicationxfumigation experiment randomly assigning bird's nests to different treatments, thereby generating groups of medicated and control pairs breeding in fumigated and control nests. Medicated pairs were injected with the anti-malarial drug Primaquine diluted in saline solution while control pairs were injected with saline solution. The fumigation treatment was carried out using insecticide solution or water for fumigated and control nests respectively. Brood size was the main factor associated with the abundance of biting midges probably because more nestlings may produce higher quantities of vector attractants. In addition, birds medicated against haemoparasites breeding in non-fumigated nests supported a higher abundance of C. festivipennis than the rest of the groups. Also, we found that the fumigation treatment reduced the abundance of engorged Culicoides in both medicated and control nests, thus indicating a reduction of feeding success produced by the insecticide. These results represent the first evidence for the role of different factors in affecting the Culicoides infracommunity in wild avian nests. PMID:19523254

Martínez-de la Puente, J; Merino, S; Tomás, G; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Talavera, S; Sarto I Monteys, V

2009-06-15

233

Factors affecting Culicoides species composition and abundance in avian nests.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mechanisms affecting patterns of vector distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of vectors, hosts and the parasites transmitted. We studied the role of different factors affecting the species composition and abundance of Culicoides found in nests of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We identified 1531 females and 2 males of 7 different Culicoides species in nests, with C. simulator being the most abundant species, followed by C. kibunensis, C. festivipennis, C. segnis, C. truncorum, C. pictipennis and C. circumscriptus. We conducted a medicationxfumigation experiment randomly assigning bird's nests to different treatments, thereby generating groups of medicated and control pairs breeding in fumigated and control nests. Medicated pairs were injected with the anti-malarial drug Primaquine diluted in saline solution while control pairs were injected with saline solution. The fumigation treatment was carried out using insecticide solution or water for fumigated and control nests respectively. Brood size was the main factor associated with the abundance of biting midges probably because more nestlings may produce higher quantities of vector attractants. In addition, birds medicated against haemoparasites breeding in non-fumigated nests supported a higher abundance of C. festivipennis than the rest of the groups. Also, we found that the fumigation treatment reduced the abundance of engorged Culicoides in both medicated and control nests, thus indicating a reduction of feeding success produced by the insecticide. These results represent the first evidence for the role of different factors in affecting the Culicoides infracommunity in wild avian nests.

Martínez-de la Puente J; Merino S; Tomás G; Moreno J; Morales J; Lobato E; Talavera S; Sarto I Monteys V

2009-08-01

234

Factors Affecting the Crevice Corrosion Susceptibility of Alloy 22  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The susceptibility or Alloy 22 (N06022) to crevice corrosion may depend on environmental or external factors and metallurgical or internal factors. Some of the most important environmental factors are chloride concentration, inhibitors, temperature and potential. The presence of a weld seam or second phase precipitation in the alloy are classified as internal factors. The localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 has been extensively investigated in the last five years, however not all affecting factors were considered in the studies. This paper discusses the current findings regarding the effect of many of these variables on the susceptibility (or resistance) of Alloy 22 to crevice corrosion. The effect of variables such as temperature, chloride concentration and nitrate are rather well understood. However there are only limited or no data regarding effect of other factors such as pH, other inhibitive or deleterious species and type of crevicing material and crevice geometry. There are contradictory results regarding the effect of metallurgical factors such as solution heat treatment.

Rebak, R B

2004-11-24

235

Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland  

Science.gov (United States)

The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user's committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user's committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

236

Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market.

2010-01-01

237

FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHERS’ USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers’ decisions to use ICT in the classroom: non-manipulative and manipulative school and teacher factors. These factors are interrelated. The success of the implementation of ICT is not dependent on the availability or absence of one individual factor, but is determined through a dynamic process involving a set of interrelated factors. It is suggested that ongoing professional development must be provided for teachers to model the new pedagogies and tools for learning with the aim of enhancing the teaching-learning process. However, it is important for teacher trainers and policy makers to understand the factors affecting effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different approaches to ICT use in teacher training so training strategies can be appropriately explored to make such changes viable to all.

Mojgan Afshari; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Wong Su Luan; Bahaman Abu Samah; Foo Say Fooi

2009-01-01

238

An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL) has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs), problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL). Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

Takashi Kuremoto; Tetsuya Tsurusaki; Kunikazu Kobayashi; Shingo Mabu; Masanao Obayashi

2013-01-01

239

A conceptual model for factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Supply chain is a widely used concept around the world. Nowadays, companies need to integrate their production processes, from the raw materials to the end-user. Supply chain management is a phenomenon that achieves this in a way that ensures customers get reliable and fast service and high quality products at the lowest possible cost. There is very limited and sporadic research on supply chain integration and how it affects supply chain performance. Therefore there is no real understanding of the concept of supply chain integration and how it affects supply chain performance nor is there a holistic model. This paper thus aims to present a model that identifies factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. After analyzing the collected data on supply chain integration and customer delivery performance, the preliminary model was proposed and completed, and using expert opinion in the Imam Khomeini Oil Refinery the final model and for factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance were presented. To determine how these factors interrelate with each other, the DEMATEL method was then used. The statistical population included the staff at Imam Khomeini Oil Refinery in Shazand. The data, collected through the standard DEMATEL questionnaire, were analyzed using the DEMATEL method and a MATLAB program. The DEMATEL results indicate that intra-organizational factors, institutional norms, technological certainties are causal factors which influence other factors that affect the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. Intra-organizational factor have a greater influence also among effect factors, substructures have the greatest influence.

Peyman Ghafari Ashtiani; Elahe Bosak

2013-01-01

240

Factors Affecting Business Success of Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study attempted to identify factors that are affecting business success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. The intention of this study is to provide the understanding on how people should start their business by looking at all the factors affecting business success hence help to reduce the risk of failure and increase chances of success. The study examined eight factors that influence the SMEs business success. These factors are: SMEs characteristic, management and know-how, products and services, Customer and Market, the way of doing business and cooperation, resources and finance, Strategy, and external environment. The theoretical framework has been drawn out and questionnaire was designed based on the factors chosen. Eight hypotheses were developed to find out factors that are affecting Business Success of SMEs in Thailand. The entire hypotheses were successfully tested with SPSS and five hypotheses were accepted. The regression analysis result shown that the most significant factors affecting business success of SMEs in Thailand were SMEs characteristics, customer and market, the way of doing business, resources and finance, and external environment.

Chuthamas Chittithaworn; Md. Aminul Islam; Thiyada Keawchana; Dayang Hasliza Muhd Yusuf

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Managerial and institutional factors affect prescribed burning costs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prescribed burning costs are extremely variable, even if conditions are similar. This variability complicates planning and evaluation of prescribed burning programs and budgets, resulting in imprecise projections of their economic benefits. Evaluating the worth of prescribed burning efforts in objective terms is difficult, but the continual shrinkage of USDA Forest Service budgets requires an increase in program efficiency and understanding the causes of variability for prescribed burning costs. An analysis of variance model was used to describe and quantify the relative effect of managerial and institutional factors, such as smoke emission limitations or the constraint to control all types of fires, on prescribed burning costs. Data were collected by using a questionnaire to fire and fuel managers in the USDA Forest Service's Northern, Intermountain, and Pacific Northwest Regions. Estimated prescribed burning costs were significantly affected by changes in the managerial and institutional factors, such as minimizing escape potential or complying with smoke emission standards presented to these fire managers. Contrary to our expectations, burn objective (the main reason for conducting the burn) was not a significant cost factor. Unit size of the burned area affected prescribed burning costs more than either change in slope or unit shape, both of which increase the amount of burn perimeter relative to the area burned. Costs per acre demonstrated economies of scale: the larger the unit burned, the lower its per-acre cost.

Gonzalez-Caban A

1997-11-01

242

Factors affecting stair-ascent patterns in unilateral transfemoral amputees.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Patterns and ease of stair ambulation influence amputees' level of satisfaction with their rehabilitation, confidence level, and motivation for continued rehabilitation, demonstrating the importance of stair-ascent data for rehabilitation. However, little is known about the determinants of stair-ascent patterns in unilateral transfemoral amputees. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the factors affecting stair-ascent patterns in transfemoral amputees. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: Stair-ascent patterns were evaluated using the Stair Assessment Index. We collected Stair Assessment Index data as well as demographic and clinical data (sex, age, height, mass, amputation side, reason for amputation, time since amputation, and residual limb length) from 25 transfemoral amputees. RESULTS: Statistical analyses revealed that age was negatively correlated and time since amputation was positively correlated with Stair Assessment Index. In contrast, height, body mass, and residual limb lengths were not correlated with Stair Assessment Index. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that in unilateral transfemoral amputee, (1) both age and time since amputation could affect stair-climbing patterns and (2) residual limb length should not be a limiting factor for stair climbing if the transfemoral amputee has a certain minimum residual limb length. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Rehabilitation teams should carefully consider nonmodifiable predisposing factors such as age and time since amputation. However, they may be able to carry on stair-ascent rehabilitation for transfemoral amputees disregarding residual limb length (depending on the length).

Hobara H; Kobayashi Y; Tominaga S; Nakamura T; Yamasaki N; Ogata T

2013-06-01

243

Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol) contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ended in July 2008. The following 11 factors were taken into consideration during sample collection: olive fly infection, topography, olive storage before pressing, geographical area, effect of olive seeds during oil extraction, effect of pressing temperature, presence of olive leaves during oil extraction, soil type, maturity index of the olive fruit, olive variety and oil preservation and storage in terms of storage container types. The results show that soil type, region, maturity index and olive fly infection are the main factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol. Pressing temperature, olive storage before pressing, olive variety and oil storage showed a moderate effect. Olive seeds, topography and presence of olive leaves had a negligible effect on D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil.

K. Abu-Alruz; I.A. Afaneh; J.M. Quasem; M.A. Hmidat; J. Abbady; A.S. Mazahreh

2011-01-01

244

Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

Taylor D Robin; Mandhane Piush; Greene Justina M; Hancox Robert J; Filsell Sue; McLachlan Christene R; Williamson Avis J; Cowan Jan O; Smith Andrew D; Sears Malcolm R

2007-01-01

245

Factors affecting tube dwelling time after percutaneous nephrolithotomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about the impact of nephrostomy tubes on morbidity and quality of life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The tube dwelling time and the factors influencing it were determined in 165 patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). RESULTS: The mean tube dwelling time was 21+/-30 days. The duration of tube drainage after PCNL was 13+/-17 days. Most of this time was preoperative when the tube was inserted for urgent reasons--obstruction or sepsis (31+/-33 days). On multivariate analysis, the number of secondary PCNLs and postoperative complications were the most significant factors affecting tube dwelling time. Age correlated with intubation time but did not reach statistical significance (P < 0.09). Neither the stone's side and type nor the patient's sex had a significant influence. CONCLUSIONS: A significant factor affecting the duration of tube drainage is preoperative medical evaluation and patient preparation, and these steps should be completed expeditiously in order to minimize the time to PCNL. Completion of PCNL in one session should shorten the postoperative intubation time.

Kleinmann J; Siegel Y; Cipele H; Goren E; Zisman A; Leibovici D; Lindner A

2001-10-01

246

Recruitment and retention: factors that affect pericyte migration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pericytes are critical for vascular morphogenesis and contribute to several pathologies, including cancer development and progression. The mechanisms governing pericyte migration and differentiation are complex and have not been fully established. Current literature suggests that platelet-derived growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-?, sphingosine 1-phosphate/endothelial differentiation gene-1, angiopoietin-1/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, angiopoietin-2/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 1, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 5, Semaphorin-3A/Neuropilin, and matrix metalloproteinase activity regulate the recruitment of pericytes to nascent vessels. Interestingly, many of these pathways are directly affected by secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). Here, we summarize the function of these factors in pericyte migration and discuss if and how SPARC might influence these activities and thus provide an additional layer of control for the recruitment of vascular support cells. Additionally, the consequences of targeted inhibition of pericytes in tumors and the current understanding of pericyte recruitment in pathological environments are discussed.

Aguilera KY; Brekken RA

2013-08-01

247

Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are commonly used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP). DEAP films are used in making actuators, generators and sensors. In the large scale manufacture of DEAP films, release of films from the substrate (carrier web) induces some defects and pre-strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities of perfluoroether allylamide (PFE) lowered the surface energy which could ease the release. This is further investigated together with an evaluation of the resulting change in actuator performance. The relationship between the adhesive energy, surface energy, Young’s modulus and peel force of the films is analyzed.

Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Junker, Michael Daniel

2013-01-01

248

Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y. [National University of Singapore, (Singapore)

2007-07-01

249

Factors affecting the interferon sensitivity of human cytomegalovirus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several factors affected the interferon sensitivity of human cytomegalovirus in human foreskin fibroblast cultures. An inoculum of infected cells was up to 300-fold less sensitive than a cell-free inoculum of equivalent input multiplicity. A 10-fold increase in the dose of infectious units of either type of inoculum was associated with a 10-fold or greater decrease in interferon sensitivity. Several aspects of the virus-cell interaction were examined and parameters indicative of cell infection were less inhibited by interferon than were those for virus replication. PMID:202571

Holmes, A R; Rasmussen, L; Merigan, T C

1978-01-01

250

Factors affecting the interferon sensitivity of human cytomegalovirus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several factors affected the interferon sensitivity of human cytomegalovirus in human foreskin fibroblast cultures. An inoculum of infected cells was up to 300-fold less sensitive than a cell-free inoculum of equivalent input multiplicity. A 10-fold increase in the dose of infectious units of either type of inoculum was associated with a 10-fold or greater decrease in interferon sensitivity. Several aspects of the virus-cell interaction were examined and parameters indicative of cell infection were less inhibited by interferon than were those for virus replication.

Holmes AR; Rasmussen L; Merigan TC

1978-01-01

251

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

1979-06-28

252

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

1979-06-28

253

Chinese multinationals: how do institutional factors affect their location patterns?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of various host country institutional factors on the location patterns of 29 large Chinese multinationals. From a sample of 127 outward foreign direct investment (FDI) decisions made in 52 countries, our findings suggest that a greater difficulty in doing business and a high political risk in the host country do not discourage Chinese multinationals. However, the presence of overseas Chinese in the host country, a larger absolute host market size and a higher volume of Chinese exports to that country affect positively.

Diego Quer Ramón; Enrique Claver Cortés; Laura Rienda García

2011-01-01

254

Factors Affecting Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Performance and Reproducibility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of fuel cells is often based on small-scale laboratory studies. Due to limited time and budgets, a minimum number of cells are usually prepared and tested, thus, conclusions about improved performance are often drawn from studies of a few cells. Generally, statistics showing the significance of an effect are seldom reported. In this work a simple PEM fuel cell electrode optimization experiment is used as an example to illustrate the importance of statistical evaluation of factors affecting cell performance. The use of fractional factorial design of experiments to reduce the number of cells that have to be studied is also addressed.

Moller-Holst S.

1998-11-01

255

Factors Affecting the End-User Computing Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigate factors that are affecting the end-user computing of accounting information system satisfaction from financial managers' point of view. Our sample is selected from companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. This research is a descriptive - empirical field study. The required data is collected by sending out questionnaires to the financial managers of the sampled companies. Our findings indicate that, the information content, ease of using accounting information system, accuracy and correctness of information, format of the reports and timeliness of information have an impact on the end-user computing satisfaction.

Mohsen Dastgir; Ahmad S. Mortezaie

2012-01-01

256

Factors affecting public acceptance of wind turbines in Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind power is growing in Sweden, but the high-level of opposition to turbine proposals has meant that many proposals are never realised. This opposition in a country that has a measured 74% support for wind power leads to questions being raised as to what is causing this opposition. Many have suggested that it is due to prevalent NIMBY attitudes; this, however, is only one factor affecting the public acceptance of turbines. The over-riding factor is the spatial distance between the costs incurred and the benefits derived from wind power. Perceived need for wind power, level of participation, individual considerations of visual impact and the amount to which the local community benefits determine the realisation of turbine proposals. (author)

Devlin, E.

2005-12-15

257

A Study on Factors Affecting Turnover Intention of Hotel Empolyees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available his study used linear structural modeling to explore the factors affecting the turnover intention of hotel employees in Taiwan. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed to hotel employees. Among these, 350 were valid samples, a valid return rate of 87.50%. The empirical results showed that (1) more harmonious coworker relationships between hotel employees and a higher level of satisfaction regarding their work environment have a significantly positive effect on job satisfaction; (2) a higher level of organizational commitment among hotel employees has a significantly negative effect on turnover intention; (3) the direct effect of employee job satisfaction and salary level on turnover intention has not reached a significant level. Nevertheless, the two factors have indirect negative effects on turnover intention.

Chun-Chang Lee; Sheng-Hsiung Huang; Chen- Yi Zhao

2012-01-01

258

Extrinsic factors affecting accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters for LMFBRs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Assuming that ultrasonic flowmeters of suitable intrinsic accuracy are feasible, this report explores factors extrinsic to the flowmeter which affect the accuracy such as asymmetric flow profile, regions of high turbulence and thermal stratification. By integrating isovelocity flow profile maps, the predicted performance of various flowmeter configurations may be compared to experimental data. For the two pipe arrangements analyzed, the single diametral path flowmeter results were within 5 percent of true flow rate. Theoretical correction factors could reduce the error for the straight pipe but increased the error for asymmetrical flow. On the same pipe arrangements a four path ultrasonic flowmeter spaced for Gaussian integration gave less than 1 percent error. For more general conclusions a range of flow profiles produced by typical LMFBR piping arrangements must be analyzed

1976-01-01

259

The competitive priorities affecting energy production investments. Wind power in Finland as a special issue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research investigates the competitive priorities affecting energy production investments and the special issues related to wind power in Finland. Even though the energy industry is global due to the global equipment and fuel markets, it is also local due to legislation and the limited transmittability of the end products. Since the research is primarily focused on the Finnish energy production system that is part of the Nordic electricity market, it enables the examination of factors that have an impact on local legislation, the surrounding society and the demand for the end product. The dissertation is a macro-level study carried out from the perspective of strategic management. It investigates the factors affecting energy investors' decision-making processes and produces new scientific information for researchers in the field, decision-makers, legislators, investors and equipment manufacturers. The research questions that concern the energy industry in general are the following: what kinds of factors have the largest impact on the life-cycle profits of large-scale energy production investments, and how can the theories of agile strategic management be combined with the competitive priorities affecting energy production investment decisions? As for wind power, the purpose of the research is to find out what the major competitive priorities affecting investments are from the investors' and suppliers' point of view, and what kind of relation the framework factors affecting the acceptability of investment projects have to the other decision-making factors affecting the investment preconditions. The research questions are answered with the help of five articles. The methodological framework of the research is based on several different research methods. The research suggests that economic and political factors have the largest impact when making decisions on large-scale energy production investments. Further, the theories of agile strategic management can be combined with the competitive priorities affecting energy production investment decisions. Regarding wind power, six different competitive priorities were identified, in relation to which investors' and equipment suppliers' views differ the most. When decisions are made concerning the implementation of a wind power project, there are three factors that must be correctly balanced: the acceptability of the project, economy and the technology used. (orig.)

Maekipelto, T.

2010-07-01

260

Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05) CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000): 497-502

Naile Bilgili; Sultan Ayaz

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

11-year experience with gastroschisis: factors affecting mortality and morbidity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery, operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) related complications. The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined. FINDINGS: Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure) without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but not mortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section. CONCLUSION: In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

Erdo?an D; Az?l? MN; Cavu?o?lu YH; Tuncer IS; Karaman I; Karaman A; Ozgüner IF

2012-09-01

262

11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality.Methods: Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively.Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery,operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) related complications.The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined.Findings: Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure) without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but notmortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section.Conclusion: In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

Derya Erdo?an; Müjdem Nur Az?l?; Yusuf Hakan Çavu?o?lu; ?lker SaA Tuncer; ?brahim Karaman; Ay?e Karaman; ?smet Faruk Özgüner

2012-01-01

263

11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality. Methods Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery, operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) related complications. The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined. Findings Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure) without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but not mortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section. Conclusion In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

Erdogan, Derya; Az?l?, Mujdem Nur; Cavusoglu, Yusuf Hakan; Tuncer, Ilker SaA; Karaman, Ibrahim; Karaman, Ayse; Ozguner, Ismet Faruk

2012-01-01

264

Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations.

Salewski V; Hochachka WM; Fiedler W

2013-01-01

265

Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations. PMID:23593131

Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

2013-04-08

266

Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

Hill, L.J.

1994-01-01

267

Factors affecting residual platelet aggregation in prasugrel treated patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Identification of factors affecting platelet reactivity (PR) and high PR (HPR) or high platelet inhibition (HPI) rates while on prasugrel maintenance dose (MD) might be helpful in avoiding ischemic or bleeding complications. We retrospectively analyzed all patients (n=233) treated in our institution between April 2010 and November 2012 who had platelet function assessment pre-prasugrel and following prasugrel 10 mg MD for at least 5 days, using the Verify Now P2Y12 platelet function assay. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were applied to identify independent factors affecting post-prasugrel PR level, HPR and HPI status. The amount of variance in PR under prasugrel MD that could be explained by the model was 25.9% (adjusted R(2)), p<0.001. Pre-prasugrel treatment PR, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), prasugrel loading and smoking uniquely accounted for 10.8%, 1.3%, 3.5% and 1.2% of the observed variance, respectively. HPR and HPI were observed in 7.7% and 13.7% of the cases, respectively. On multivariate analysis, pre-prasugrel PR in the upper quartile (>313 PRU) was the only independent factor associated with HPR under prasugrel MD. In contrast, pre-prasugrel PR in the lower quartile (<242 PRU) and prasugrel loading emerged as the only independent predictors of HPI. In patients under different clinical settings receiving prasugrel 10 mg MD a significant amount of the PR variability in response to prasugrel may be explained by pre- treatment PR level, ACS, prasugrel loading and smoking status. A high pre- treatment PR is associated with HPR, while a low pre-treatment PR and prasugrel loading predict HPI.

Alexopoulos D; Xanthopoulou I; Perperis A; Siapika A; Stavrou K; Tsoni E; Davlouros P; Hahalis G

2013-01-01

268

Geolocation by light: accuracy and precision affected by environmental factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. Geolocation by light allows for tracking animal movements, based on measurements of light intensity over time by a data-logging device (‘geolocator’). Recent developments of ultra-light devices (<2 g) broadened the range of target species and boosted the number of studies using geolocators. However, an inherent problem of geolocators is that any factor or process that changes the natural light intensity pattern also affects the positions calculated from these light patterns. Although the most important factors have been identified, estimation of their effect on the accuracy and precision of positions estimated has been lacking but is very important for the analyses and interpretation of geolocator data. 2. The ‘threshold method’ is mainly used to derive positions by defining sunrise and sunset times from the light intensity pattern for each recorded day. This method requires calibration: a predefined sun elevation angle for estimating latitude by fitting the recorded day / night lengthsto theoretical values across latitudes. Therewith, almost constant shading can be corrected for by finding the appropriate sun elevation angle. 3. Weather, topography and vegetation are the most important factors that influence light intensities. We demonstrated their effect on the measurement of day /night length, time of solar midnight /noon and the resulting position estimates using light measurements from stationary geolocators at known places and from geolocators mounted on birds. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of different calibration methods on the accuracy of the latitudinal positions. 4. All three environmental factors can influence the light intensity pattern significantly. Weather and an animal’s behaviour result in increased noise in positioning, whereas topography and vegetation result in systematic shading and biased positions. Calibration can significantly shift the estimated latitudes and potentially increase the accuracy, but detailed knowledge about the particular confounding factors and the behaviour of the studied animal is crucial for the choice of the most appropriate calibration method.

Lisovski, Simeon; Hewson, Chris M.

2012-01-01

269

PRODUCTION OF FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Process for producing E. coli derived recombinant fibroblast growth factor possessing part or all of the primary structural conformation and one or more of the biological properties of a mammalian (e.g., human) basic fibroblast growth factor which process is characterized as the host expression of an exogenous DNA sequence. Sequences coding for part or all of the sequence of amino acid residues of bFGF may be incorporated in autonomously replicating plasmid or viral vectors having a regulated promoter sequence and a temperature inducible copy number control gene employed to transform suitable procaryotic host cells such as E. coli in culture.

BANKS Allen R.; FOX Gary M.

270

Production of fibroblast growth factor  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is a process for producing E. coli derived recombinant fibroblast growth factor possessing part or all of the primary structural conformation and one or more of the biological properties of a mammalian (e.g., human) basic fibroblast growth factor which process is characterized as the host expression of an exogenous DNA sequence. Sequences coding for part or all of the sequence of amino acid residues of bFGF may be incorporated in autonomously replicating plasmid or viral vectors having a regulated promoter sequence and a temperature inducible copy number control gene employed to transform suitable procaryotic host cells such as E. coli in culture.

Banks Allen Rush; Fox Gary Michael

271

Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

Mohammad Reza Iravani

2012-01-01

272

Assessing psychological factors affecting medical conditions: comparison between different proposals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We compared the provisional Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for Somatic Symptom Disorders (SSD) and an alternative classification based on the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR) as to prevalence and associations with dimensional measures of psychological distress and functioning in a population of medical patients. METHOD: Seventy consecutive outpatients with congestive heart failure were administered an ad hoc structured clinical interview for the identification of DSM-5 SSD, the section concerning hypochondriasis of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Structured Interview for DCPR and Paykel's Clinical Interview for Depression. Subjects also completed the Symptom Questionnaire and the Psychosocial Index. Global assessment of functioning was performed with the DSM-IV Axis V. RESULTS: A diagnosis within DSM-5 SSD was found in 13 patients (18.5%): 61.5% of them were diagnosed with the Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition category. Twenty-nine patients (41.4%) were classified according to the DCPR-based proposal: illness denial, demoralization and irritable mood were the most frequent specifiers. The DCPR-based classification showed a greater number of significant associations with dimensional measures of psychological distress, global functioning and stress. CONCLUSION: Compared to DSM-5 SSD, the DCPR-based proposal was more sensitive in detecting psychological factors relevant to illness course and provided a better characterization of such factors. The DCPR-based proposal was also superior in identifying patients with increased psychological distress and poor psychosocial functioning.

Guidi J; Rafanelli C; Roncuzzi R; Sirri L; Fava GA

2013-03-01

273

Statistical appraisal of intrinsic factors affecting spontaneous combustion of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is concerned with the statistical prediction of the liability of coal to spontaneous combustion. The experimental data consisted of adiabatic oxidation test results on 47 different coals, together with the laboratory evaluation of intrinsic properties of individual coal samples. The measures of propensity of coal to spontaneous combustion were based on the initial rate of heating and total temperature rise in an adiabatic oxidation experiment. These parameters were statistically correlated with various intrinsic properties of coal to isolate the most important intrinsic factors affecting the spontaneous heating potential of coal. A multiple regression analysis between initial rate of heating and total temperature rise and thirteen independent variables have generated a set of equations to predict the liability of coal to spontaneous combustion. It is shown that the predictive equations derived by subdividing the data set according to rank classification can permit accurate prediction of temperature rise, thus evaluating the liability of coal to self-heating. The contribution made by various intrinsic factors to the self-heating potential of coal have also been evaluated by using isolated factor analysis techniques. 12 figs., 3 tabs., 4 refs.

Singh, R.N.; Demirbilek, S.

1987-01-01

274

ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING EXCHANGE RATE VARIABILITY IN PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Paper examines/analyzed the factors contributing exchange rate vitality in Pakistan. The study was conducted on some major factors contributing to exchange rate volatility, and their relative importance. Annual data for the period 1975-2010 is used, taken from Economic Survey of Pakistan (various issues) and International Financial Statistics. The main variables used to check variability are inflation, Growth rate, imports and exports on exchange rate volatility. Simple Linear Regression model with ordinary least method (OLS) is used to analyze the results. The study revealed that inflation is the main factor affecting exchange rate in Pakistan. The study further show that the second important variable which bring more variation in exchange rate is economic growth, while order of export and import in variation lies at third and fourth position. Based on the finding of the study it is recommended to harmonize fiscal policies with monetary policy first and then make effective link of both these policies with trade policy.

ShabanaParveen; Abdul Qayyum Khan; Muammad Ismail

2012-01-01

275

Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

Maurer M; Wolfram M; Anja H

2010-01-01

276

Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures. PMID:20595751

Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

2010-01-01

277

Studying on the Factors Affecting the Benefit of Agricultural Research Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural research and extension programs have been built in most of the world’s economies because agricultural science and technology innovation is the source to push agricultural development. Since 2004 China has increased gradually agricultural research investment, which promoted agriculture to develop rapidly. However, China’s agricultural research investment has been lagging behind that of developed countries in proportion of investment or benefit of agricultural programs. In this paper, the factors affecting the Benefit of Agricultural research programs are been studied by Principal component analysis. It showed that research management and production factors are majors factors that impacting benefit of agricultural programs. So, the government should build scientific management system of agricultural programs and improve subsidiarity production factors to ensure the benefits of agricultural research projects could be effectively.

Chunmei Wang

2014-01-01

278

Factors Affecting Location Decisions of Food Processing Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to examine the determinants of location choices for food processing plants using the results of 59 personal surveys. The 61.3% of the food processing plants that were interviewed are small scale plants, 9.1% are large scale plants and 29.6% are medium scale plants. Sixteen of the firms process vegetables, 12 process poultry, 12 process dairy and 9 process seafood products. Business climate factors are divided into six categories (market, infrastructure, raw material, labor, personal and environmental) and 17 specific location factors are considered. The survey responses are analyzed by types of raw materials processed and by plant size. 43.7, 55.3 and 42.2% of the respondents cited categories of Market, Raw Material and Infrastructure respectively as important, while 44.3, 50.7 and 74.4% of the respondents cited, labor, personal and environmental regulation categories of as not important. Thus survey findings indicate that plant location choices are mainly driven by market, raw material and infra structural factors. Environmental factors such as environmental regulations and permissions are relatively insignificant.

Sule Turhan; Basak Canan Ozbag; Bahattin Cetin

2007-01-01

279

Cocaine affects prostaglandin production in human umbilical cord cell cultures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible effects of cocaine on prostacyclin and prostaglandin (PG) E2 production from endothelial cells derived from human umbilical cord. STUDY DESIGN: First-passaged endothelial cells derived from the umbilical vein were incubated with various doses of cocaine, procaine and lidocaine and 24 h later the supematants were assayed for prostacyclin metabolites 6-keto-PGF1alpha and PGE2. Cocaine concentrations tested were 0, 10, 100, 500 and 1000 microg/ml. RESULTS: Cocaine produced a dose-dependent reduction in prostacyclin and PGE2 production from endothelial cells (p) < 0.05). Acetylcholinesterase (a possible detoxifier of cocaine) abolished the effect of cocaine on prostacyclin production. Procaine, an esterol-type anesthetic, produced a similar effect on prostacyclin production, an effect not observed with lidocaine. CONCLUSION: It is speculated that, when present in high concentrations, cocaine may affect vascular tone by inhibition of endothelial cell prostacyclin and PGE2 release.

Mastrogiannis DS; O'Brien WF

2003-10-01

280

Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7%) decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2%) students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%), 17 (11.8%), and 16 (11.1%) students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4%) of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8%) and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3%) were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065) more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002). Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

Rawan Al-Fouzan; Sarah Al-Ajlan; Yousef Marwan; Mervat Al-Saleh

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Factors affecting readmission for acute asthmatic attacks in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Readmission following acute asthmatic attack has an impact on children's quality of life and the cost of hospitalization. The objective of this study was to define the risk factors associated with readmission following acute asthmatic attacks in children. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study in children who were admitted because of acute asthmatic attacks at the Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. The admissions were classified into 2 groups, admission and readmission within one-month to one-year after the first admission. The medical records were reviewed and the factors that might affect readmission were evaluated. RESULTS: Seventy six children, 49 males and 27 females, were included. There were 56 children who were admitted only once and 20 children who were readmitted. The 1-year readmission rate for children with asthma was 26.3 %. The risk factors which made readmission more likely were a parental history of allergic disease (Odd Ratio, OR, = 3.17; 95% CI 1.10-9.10), a history of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission (OR 29.62; 95% CI 3.35-262.18), methylprednisolone usage during the 1st admission (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.46-28.19) and the level of asthma control. Increased risk of readmission was found in partly controlled asthma (OR 4.83; 95% CI 1.24-18.88) and uncontrolled asthma (OR 29; 95% CI 2.25-373.77). The factor that decreased the chances of readmission was a history of influenza vaccination (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.16-0.36). CONCLUSION: A history of ICU admission at the first admission and the level of asthma control (partly controlled and uncontrolled according to Global of Initiative for Asthma guideline) increased the chances of readmission while influenza vaccination reduced the chances of readmission.

Visitsunthorn N; Lilitwat W; Jirapongsananuruk O; Vichyanond P

2013-06-01

282

FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction & suggestions to improve them.

Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin; M M Nurul Kabir

2011-01-01

283

Human papillomavirus vaccines: factors that affect vaccine knowledge and delivery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Although both vaccines are designed to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV2 and HPV4 have different indications. This study sought to determine HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge among providers and examine factors affecting HPV vaccine delivery. METHODS: An e-mail survey was sent to adolescent health care providers via listserv. RESULTS: Provider HPV vaccine knowledge level and number of providers offering vaccine to males (84%) were high. The ability of providers to correctly distinguish between the two vaccines was associated with years in practice, proportion of female patients, provider subspecialty status, and practicing in a hospital setting. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that adolescent medicine providers, in particular, are knowledgeable about HPV and HPV vaccines. They reported routinely offering HPV vaccine to male patients during the time before the recent change in recommendation for universal, routine HPV vaccination of males by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.

Holder NA; Katzenellenbogen R; Middleman AB

2013-09-01

284

Developing worksheet based on science process skills: Factors affecting solubility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at Giresun University, Turkey. Action research methodology was used in this study. Thoughts from experts were received during the development of the worksheet. The study had some limitations in providing concrete evidence as to how the WS based on SPS effects the PST SPS, since the paper is a suggestion. For this reason, to investigate its effectiveness in a comparative manner, further research should be undertaken.

Fethiye KARSLI; Çi?dem ?AH?N

2009-01-01

285

Investigation of the Factors Affecting Real Exchange Rate in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available his paper intends to investigate the factors affecting the real exchange rate in Iran in the period of 1978-2008. In this part, the econometric methodology and vector autoregressive model that is known as VAR is used to investigate the effect of proper variables on the real exchange rate. The results of Johansson-Jousilious test confirmed co-integration between variables, and thus long-run equilibrium relationship was confirmed among proper variables. Overall, the impulse and response functions showed that the shocking of variables, oil price and volume of money flows, has a positive impact on the real exchange rate and put it above its permanent level in the whole period of study. The results of variance decomposition showed that the most effects belonged to oil price and then volume of money flow that in fact represents greater relative importance of these variables in comparison with other variables among all model variables.

Komeil Khanarinejad; Mostafa Goudarzi; Zahra Ardakani

2012-01-01

286

Investigation of the Factors Affecting Real Exchange Rate in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper intends to investigate the factors affecting the real exchange rate in Iran in the period of 1978-2008. In this part, the econometric methodology and vector autoregressive model that is known as VAR is used to investigate the effect of proper variables on the real exchange rate. The results of Johansson-Jousilious test confirmed co-integration between variables, and thus long-run equilibrium relationship was confirmed among proper variables. Overall, the impulse and response functions showed that the shocking of variables, oil price and volume of money flows, has a positive impact on the real exchange rate and put it above its permanent level in the whole period of study. The results of variance decomposition showed that the most effects belonged to oil price and then volume of money flow that in fact represents greater relative importance of these variables in comparison with other variables among all model variables.

Mostafa Goudarzi; Komeil Khanarinejad; Zahra Ardakani

2012-01-01

287

SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively

Tarek FOUDA; Assad DERBALA; Mohamed GHONAME

2013-01-01

288

Factors Affecting Linear Type Traits of Valdostana Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four composite and 22 individual linear type traits, measured between 1997 and 2012 on 33,206 Aosta Red Pied (ARP) and 19,551 Aosta Black Pied and Aosta Chestnut (ABP-CN) strains of Valdostana cattle, were used to investigate the non-genetic factors affecting morphological evaluation. Average values for type traits ranged from 2.81 (teat placement rear view and foot angle) to 3.34 (thinness) for ARP, and from 2.48 (teat placement side view) to 3.67 (udder depth) for ABP-CN. Results from the ANOVA showed significant effect of herd-year-classifier on type traits of both ARPand ABP-CN, and of days in milk and age at calving for almost all traits, with few exceptions. The model used in this study is a useful starting point to calculate genetic parameters for Valdostana cattle.

Serena Mazza; Cristina Sartori; Donagh Berry; Roberto Mantovani

2013-01-01

289

Factors Affecting Mortality in Endosulfan Ingestion With Suicidal Intent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Most pesticides containing Endosulfan have either been restricted or prohibited due to the fact that they remain active longer in nature, and have a long half-life and mid-level toxicity in the body. Acute or chronic exposure to Endosulfan, which may be life-threatening or at times fatal, has rarely been reported. Our aim was to analyze the affective factors of endosulfan toxicity on clinical findings and mortality cases.Materials and Methods: In the study, all patients who called upon the emergency service due to suicidal endosulfan ingestion were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-seven patients over the age of 15 years with definite proof that they used medicine containing an endosulfan substance were included into the study. Results: The average age of our patients was 26.56±13.6 years (15-68). The number of male patients was 10 (37.1%), while that of female patients was 17 (62.9%). There were 17 patients (62.9%) who presented with nausea and vomiting complaints, 12 (44.4%) patients with seizure, and 15 (55.5%) with loss of consciousness. The 5 patients who died had loss of consciousness and seizure, and required mechanical ventilation support during seizure and follow-up. In the surviving group, however, loss of consciousness was detected in 10 patients, seizure during follow-up in 5, and ventilation support was required in 5 patients. Conclusion: Loss of consciousness following suicidal endosulfan ingestion, seizure on arrival and/or during follow-up and need for mechanical ventilation support were the factors which affected mortality.

Murat Orak; Mehmet Üstünda?; Ayhan Özhasenekler; Yusuf Ali Altunc?; Cahfer Gülo?lu; Yusuf Tamam

2010-01-01

290

Factors Affecting Treatment Seeking Behaviour of Individuals with Locomotor Disabilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Among the different types of disabilities, the prevalence of locomotor disability is highest in the country. Quality of life and disability limitation is affected by the availability and utility of rehabilitative services. Thus knowledge of the treatment seeking behaviour will help in implementing successful intervention programmes. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional observation study was conducted in an urban slum of Mumbai. Total sample of 3665 individuals were screened. 205 were identified with loco motor disabilities who were subjected to a structured questionnaire. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months. The data was analysed using SPSS software (Version 17). 95 % confidence limits for prevalence was calculated to estimate the prevalence in the general population and Chi-square test was applied to identify the association between two variables. Results: The prevalence of loco motor disabilities is found to be 5.59 %. Females were more affected than the males.75% of the sample was unemployed and 49.3 % was illiterate. Utility of rehabilitative services was found to be poor (35.6%). 50.7 % of these were treated by General practitioners. Very few approached speciality rehabilitative services. Low literacy levels and poor awareness of rehabilitation facilities were the major factors affecting treatment seeking pattern of individuals with locomotor disability (p<0.001) Conclusion: Improving literacy rates, developing community based rehabilitation services and training medical under-graduates, creating awareness regarding the available facilities, will lead to greater utilization of rehabilitative services and thus early diagnosis and disability limitation. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000): 145-148

Padhyegurjar Mansi S; Padhyegurjar Shekhar B

2012-01-01

291

Factors affecting the valve movements in freshwater unionids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to avoid harmful conditions, freshwater unionids are able to close their valves and to resist extended long periods of complete anoxia. Xenobiotics and diverse abiotic and biotic factors can change the rhythm of valve movements and thus affect the accumulation of heavy metals in these bivalves. When bivalves are used a bioindicators in the field and when the accumulation of toxicants are studied under the laboratory conditions, the effects of valve movements and shell closure have to be involved. In this study, the authors have recorded valve movements of two different unionid species (Anodonta anatina, Unio tumidus) in the field and in the laboratory using a digital monitoring system. Several experimental arrangements were compared (caged mussels vs. sediment dwelling mussels, flow-through vials vs. static aquaria with and without sediment). Some parameters of the mussel hemolymph, such as electrolytes, gases and acid base status, were compared with the results on the valve activity (time with valves open, number of adductions). The natural valve activity of the two unionid species differed clearly. In the field, effects of transfer and caging were found, and in the laboratory, sediment and water flow changed their behavior. The level of the blood oxygen was most affected, whereas, the acid-base status and the concentrations of electrolytes were effectively regulated by the unionids. The correlation between valve movements and the hemolymph parameters was weaker than expected.

Pynnoenen, K.S.; Englund, V.P.M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

1994-12-31

292

Institutional factors affecting DOE waste management and environmental restoration planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The magnitude and impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) waste management and environmental restoration program requires a drastic change in DOE's culture to include the participation of all levels of government, public forum representatives, and the public. Early in the process of developing a new, comprehensive five-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management, Secretary Watkins invited affected States, Indian Nations, and organizations of elected officials to form the State and Tribal Government Working Group to comment on two formulative drafts of the plan. Management Systems Laboratories of Virginia Tech was asked to help plan and facilitate two review sessions in the spring and summer of 1989, based on perception of impartiality, experience with similar groups, and active affiliations with State governments. A third session in the fall was devoted to reviewing the draft applied R D plan and guiding institutional factors affecting DOE's future: the need for ongoing, pervasive culture change; the need to display this change through truly cooperative planning; and the need to involve the regulatory community in the process of technology development so innovative solutions can be applied with the least possible delay.

Walker, J. A.; Middleman, L. I.

1990-01-01

293

Some factors affecting the cost of irradiation services in thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The future of food irradiation in developing countries depends to a large extent on cost considerations. Although food irradiation technology itself is widely known and appears to offer many advantages, concrete evidence on the economic viability of a multi-product irradiation plant is presently not readily available to the private sector in developing countries. It is doubtful whether such evidence exists in a form which is comprehensible to industrialists outside the radiation technology circle. With respect to the economic aspects of food irradiation, information available from the literature appears to be based largely on a summing-up of studies of single products on a case-by-case basis. In an agricultural country, the main inputs to an irradiation service facility are likely to be agricultural produce which vary in kind and quantity with cropping seasons. Moreover, in most developing countries, uncontrollable factors play an important role in the production of annual crops and their transportation. Thus, it is hardly possible to make a credible long term forecast on the throughput required for the multi-product service plant, let alone determine with confidence the return on investment. Accordingly, as far as the private sector is concerned, investment decisions regarding the establishment of a commercial food irradiation service plant have to be considered as 'decision making under risk'. This paper attempts to raise questions to which the author cannot yet find clear and practical answers from the available literature. It is intended to stimulate a more thorough and objective discussion on the subject of economic viability of a multi-product food irradiation plant under the prevailing environment in ASEAN

1985-01-01

294

Factors Affecting the Adoption of Genetically Modified Animals in the Food and Pharmaceutical Chains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scoping study was conducted to assess research relevant to understanding the main drivers influencing the adoption of GM applications and their potential risks and benefits. Public and producers’ acceptance, public policies, human health, animal welfare, environmental impact and sustainability are considered as the main factors affecting the application of GM animal techniques in livestock and pharmaceutical chains.

Cristina Mora; Davide Menozzi; Gijs Kleter; Lusine H. Aramyan; Natasha I. Valeeva; Karin l. Zimmermann; Giddalury Pakki Reddy

2013-01-01

295

Environmental factors affecting methyl mercury accumulation in zooplankton  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship between environmental factors and methyl mercury accumulation in filter-feeding macrozooplankton was investigated in an effort to obtain an integrated measure of the bioavailability of methyl mercury in the water column. Since macrozooplankton are an important food source for fish, the factors that affect their bioaccumulation of mercury are directly relevant to the contamination of fish. Methyl mercury accumulation in zooplankton collected from 24 lakes in south-central Ontario ranged from 19 to 448 ng.g dry mass{sup -}1{sup ,} and was highest in acidic brown-water lakes. Water color and pH were found to be the best predictors of methyl mercury levels, being positively correlated with water color and inversely correlated with pH. There was a positive correlation with drainage ratio and per cent wetland in the catchment. Zooplankton methyl mercury levels were also well correlated with mercury concentrations in smallmouth bass and largemouth bass, confirming that zooplankton is a good indicator of mercury bioavailability at the base of the food chain. 67 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

Westcott, K.; Kaiff, J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1996-10-01

296

Spatial factors affecting statistical power in testing marine fauna displacement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Impacts of offshore wind farms on marine fauna are largely unknown. Therefore, one commonly adheres to the precautionary principle, which states that one shall take action to avoid potentially damaging impacts on marine ecosystems, even when full scientific certainty is lacking. We implement this principle by means of a statistical power analysis including spatial factors. Implementation is based on geostatistical simulations, accommodating for zero-inflation in species data. We investigate scenarios in which an impact assessment still has to be carried out. Our results show that the environmental conditions at the time of the survey is the most influential factor on power. This is followed by survey effort and species abundance in the reference situation. Spatial dependence in species numbers at local scales affects power, but its effect is smaller for the scenarios investigated. Our findings can be used to improve effectiveness of the economical investment for monitoring surveys. In addition, unnecessary extra survey effort, and related costs, can be avoided when spatial dependence in species abundance is present and no improvement on power is achieved.

Pérez Lapeña B; Wijnberg KM; Stein A; Hulscher SJ

2011-10-01

297

Evaluation of hydraulic factors affecting flow accelerated corrosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is known as a complex phenomena of hydraulics and electro-chemicals. Essential mechanism of the hydraulic factors affecting FAC is the mass transfer of ferrous ions dissolved from the pipe surface. To predict the FAC rate in susceptible pipe elements, evaluation of the mass transfer in those geometry with eccentric flow is required. For this purpose, new model of mass transfer coefficient was proposed by combining knowledges of previous studies and consideration of local turbulent velocity. In this process, Chilton-Colburn analogy of heat and mass transfer and Blasius' friction factor were referred to. To validate the model, FAC experiment and flow numerical calculation were conducted. In the experiment, carbon steel test specimens were set in the downstream of a flow contraction in small rectangular flow ducts, and FAC rate profiles on the specimens were observed in PWR condensate condition. In the calculation, flow field for the experiment was calculated with the in-house code 'MATIS-I' utilizing LES turbulence model, and mean and turbulent velocity profiles on the specimen's surface were evaluated. By comparing these results, the new mass transfer coefficient showed good correlation with the local FAC rate, and the effect of introducing the turbulent velocity to the model was confirmed. (author)

2009-10-02

298

The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship. (author)

Chang, Dong-Shang; Chen, Yi-Tui [National Central University, Department of Business Administration 300, Jhongda Road, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Den [Professor of Tunghai University, Department of Economics, No. 181, Section 3, Taichung Harbor Road, Taichung 40704, Taiwan (China)

2009-12-15

299

[Exploring factors affecting meaning of life perceptions among ESRD elders].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The number of patient with end stage renal disease (ESRD) has been growing in Taiwan. Nearly 50% of ESRD sufferers are 65 years of age or older. The disease as well as issues related to patient physiology, psychology, and spiritual well-being are worth taking seriously. While research into this topic area has been conducted, most studies addressed issues in the physiological and psychological dimensions. Studies addressing the domain of spiritual well-being remain inadequate. The purpose of this study was to explore factors affecting meaning of life perceptions in ESRD elders. METHODS: Using a descriptive-correlation research approach, we employed purposive sampling to collect data from 80 ESRD elders currently under the care of a hemodialysis center in southern Taiwan. Research instruments used included a demographic questionnaire and Meaning in Life Scale. Data were analysed using SPSS 12.0 software. RESULTS: Findings showed that ESRD elders had relatively low meaning in life scores compared to the overall ESRD population in Taiwan. Influencing factors included education level, socio-economic status, and level of participation in leisure activities. CONCLUSION: Study findings may provide health professionals a better understanding of meaning of life perceptions amongst elders with ESRD, and, as a result, help them target better spiritual care and supportive interventions.

Hsieh LY; Lin SY

2009-10-01

300

Factors Affecting Participation in Population-Based Mammography Screening  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to investigate the demographic or risk factors affecting participation in a population-based breast screening with mammography program in a rural area of Turkey.Patients and Methods: This definitive epidemiological study was carried out between December 2002 and August 2003, in a town of Ankara. Of the 784 women, 710 were interviewed and 462 (58.9%) of them participated in the screening. A questionnaire was used for collecting data.Results: The mean age of the women was 50.7±10.0 years. Fifty four percent of the single, widowed or divorced women (p=0.001), 62.5% of those aged 60 years or older (p<0.001), and 42.8% of the illiterate or literate women (p<0.001) did not participate the screening. Women, who were elder had a 1.1-fold greater risk of nonparticipation in mammography screening than younger ones (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.09), and those who were postmenopausal had 1.5-fold greater risk than those who were premenopausal (95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.22).Conclusion: Age, marital, educational and menopausal statuses seem to be effective on participation in the population-based study. Screening programs should be planned considering these factors.

Is?l MARAL

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Multivariate analysis of factors affecting survival in pelvic exenteration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Of 153 patients with primary or recurrent pelvic malignancy referred for consideration of exenteration, only 40.6% (62 patients) were found to be suitable for exenteration after full assessment. Thirty percent (46 patients) were found to be inoperable on examination under anesthesia. Of the remaining 107 patients, 33% (35 patients) were found to be inoperable at laparotomy, 9% (10 patients) underwent radical hysterectomy and 58% (62 patients) had an exenterative procedure. One patient had no active disease found on final histologic review of the exenteration surgical specimen and was excluded, as the aim of this study was to look at the prognostic factors affecting survival. There remained 61 patients in the exenteration group who were analyzed. The 2-year survival rate was less than 2% for patients with inoperable disease, 48% for patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and 54.1% for patients who underwent exenteration. The 5-year survival rate for all patients undergoing exenteration for pelvic malignancies was 44% and that for cervical cancer only was 52%. Multivariate analysis of patients who had undergone exenteration showed four significantly poor prognostic factors influencing survival. They were: (a) aged older than 69 years, (b) recurrence of the tumor within 3 years, (c) persistent recurrence, and (d) positive resection margins.

Shepherd JH; Ngan HY; Neven P; Fryatt I; Woodhouse CR; Hendry WF

1994-11-01

302

Intrinsic factors that affect amino acid geochronology: protein diagenesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Use of alloisoleucine/isoleucine ratios as a geochronological tool has been the basis of many stratigraphic studies of the Quaternary. In a number of these studies, the amino acid dates have been remarkably good, allowing chronologies to be established and sequences checked, at least in limited geographic locations. However, in other studies the variability and scatter of dates have obscured or confounded interpretation of the geochronology. A number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors may contribute to this variability. One intrinsic factor may be the varying rates of epimerization and breakdown of the many proteins within the shell matrix of the organism that is being analyzed; the shell matrix of planktonic foraminifera contains at least two classes, or types, of proteins and up to 40 protein components. Individual proteins differ in stability based on differences of structure. This stability will have direct ramifications on racemization rates. Traditionally, amino acid ratios have been analyzed from the remnants of the total organic material of shells, such as mollusk or planktonic foraminifera. To examine how the diagenetic breakdown of specific proteins may affect allisoleucine/isoleucine ratios of the total organic matrix, different classes of proteins from fossil planktonic foraminifera were analyzed and compared. Although planktonic foraminifera were used as a model system, the molluscan shell is analogous.

Robbins, L.L.

1989-03-01

303

Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future.

Kim, Chang Ho; Jeong, Won Mee [Inha Hospital, Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seung Hum; Lee Sun Hee [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Tae Yong [Yuhan College, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-02-01

304

Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future.

1997-01-01

305

Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the material. After exposure, the detectors were subjected to a chemical etching process. The detectors were washed, dried and after that, the tracks caused by alpha particle were counted using an optical Olympus microscope at magnification 600X. Using the track density produced the parameters like radon diffusion coefficients and diffusion lengths through these building construction materials have been calculated in each case under study. The results of present investigations provide better insight into the selection of building construction materials capable of controlling the indoor radon levels. (author)

2011-01-01

306

What is Impulse Buying? An analytical network processing framework for prioritizing factors affecting impulse buying  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most important issues affecting profitability is to determine the impact of different factors influencing purchasing activities. In this paper, we perform an extensive literature survey to detect different purchasing factors influencing customers' behavior. The factors are categorized in three different groups and they are ranked using analytical network process. The results of our survey indicate that three factors of personal, product and situational play important roles in purchasing impulse. The personal item includes different factors where demographic characteristic factors receive the highest ranking (35%) followed by other factors are feelings, excitement and fun, self identify, education and novelty. There are also three sub-factors associated with demographic characteristics including gender, age and race and the weights are 0.46748, 0.42668 and 0.10584, respectively, which means gender is the most important factor followed by age and race. Finally, the other factor is associated with situational factors' group, which includes presence of others, culture, design of store, time available, local market condition, sales staff and self service with the relative importance of 0.04296, 0.08733, 0.12130, 0.22217, 0.05643, 0.15346 and 0.31635, respectively.

Sahel Ehsani Masouleh; Marzieh Pazhang; Javad Siahkali Moradi

2012-01-01

307

Production of cercosporin toxin by the phytopathogenic Cercospora fungi is affected by diverse environmental signals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cercosporin is a polyketide phytotoxin produced by many phytopathogenic Cercospora spp. We investigated environmental signals that have elaborate control of cercosporin production. Light is the most critical factor for cercosporin production. Cercospora nicotianae accumulated substantial quantities of cercosporin only when grown on a particular potato dextrose agar under light but produced little cercosporin on other brands of potato dextrose agar or media with defined ingredients. In addition to light regulation, numerous factors including salts, buffers, and ions markedly affected cercosporin production. By contrast, pH had little effect on cercosporin production. Depletion or alteration of the carbon or nitrogen sources also affected cercosporin production. Production of cercosporin was elevated to varying levels by metal ions, such as cobalt, ferric, manganese, and zinc. Significant differences in cercosporin production were observed among various Cercospora species. Further, regulation of cercosporin production by phosphate buffer, ammonium, LiCl, but not metal ions appeared to occur at transcriptional levels. Expression of the genes involved in cercosporin biosynthesis and regulation decreased markedly and was closely concomitant with the amounts of cercosporin reduced as the fungus was grown on medium containing phosphate, LiCl, ammonium, or dimethyl sulfoxide. The results reveal the complexity of cercosporin production at the physiological and genetic levels. A model delineating regulatory controls of cercosporin biosynthesis is proposed and discussed. PMID:18388998

You, Bang-Jau; Lee, Miin-Hui; Chung, Kuang-Ren

2008-04-01

308

Environmental and nutritional factors affecting geosmin synthesis by Anabaena sp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cyanobacterium isolated from a source-water reservoir during a spring odor and taste episode and identified as Anabaena sp. consistently produced geosmin during laboratory culture on modified BG-11 liquid medium. Maximal geosmin/biomass occurred at 20 degrees C and a light intensity of 17 microE/m2/s; geosmin/chla values directly correlated with increasing light intensity (r2 = 0.95, P < 0.01). It was concluded that at 20 degrees C, increasing light intensity favors less chla synthesis and higher geosmin synthesis; at 17 microE/m2/s, increasing temperature stimulates chla production (to 25 degrees C) while repressing geosmin synthesis (above 20 degrees C). Nutritional factors promoting biomass, chla, and geosmin synthesis by Anabaena sp. were also investigated. For cultures grown at 17 microE/m2/s and 20 degrees C for 20 days, both ammonium-N and nitrate-N generally enhanced the growth of Anabaena sp. Nitrate-N promoted more chla production (r2 = 0.99) than ammonium-N. Geosmin synthesis was directly correlated with ammonium-N concentrations (r2 = 0.89), with low nitrate-N (123.5 micrograms/l) favoring maximal geosmin production (2.8 micrograms/l). Increasing nitrate-N concentrations promoted a three-fold increase in chla content with geosmin synthesis decreased by two-fold. Geosmin/mg biomass was directly related to ammonium-N concentration; high nitrate-N levels suppressed geosmin production. No geosmin was detected at or below 118 micrograms phosphate-phosphorus/l. Geosmin, dry weight biomass, and chla production were correlated with increasing phosphorus (P) concentration (r2 = 0.76, 0.96 and 0.98, respectively). No geosmin was detected when copper was present in growth media at or above 6.92 micrograms Cu2+/l (CuSO4.5H2O). Dry weight biomass and chla production were negatively correlated with Cu2+ ion concentrations.

Saadoun IM; Schrader KK; Blevins WT

2001-04-01

309

The Economic and Social Factors Affecting Deforestation In Selected Countries: Using Environmental Kuznets Curve  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deforestation has been recognized as one of the biggest environmental problems in the world. It is also one of the main elements of land productivity changes and one of the biggest factors which threaten world's environmental diversity. In this study, based on environmental Kuznets theory, factors which may affect deforestation have been investigated. Results obtained from 71 studied countries show that environmental Kuznets curve was not true for them. Population growth helps the speed of deforestation while higher rate of GDP growth decreases its rate. Institutions which help with the improvement of democracy, individual assets, civil right and political liberty can decrease the pressure on natural recourses and deforestation.

A Esmaeili; F Nasrnia

2009-01-01

310

Factors affecting the outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY QUESTION: Which clinical and laboratory factors affect live birth rate (LBR) after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Top quality embryo characteristics, endometrial preparation protocol, number of embryos transferred and BMI affected independently the LBR in FET. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FET is an important part of present-day IVF/ICSI treatment. There is limited understanding of the factors affecting success rates after FET. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This is a two-centre retrospective cohort study. Analysis was carried out on 1972 consecutive FET cycles in 1998-2007, with embryos frozen on Day 2. The primary outcome was LBR per cycle. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We assessed the independent effect on LBR of the following variables: female age, female age at embryo freezing, BMI, diagnosis, primary versus secondary infertility, fertilization by IVF versus ICSI, pregnancy in the fresh cycle, type (spontaneous, spontaneous with luteal progesterone and estrogen/progesterone substitution) and rank of the FET cycle, as well as number and presence (yes versus no) of top quality embryo(s) at freezing, thawing and transfer, damaged thawed embryos and overnight culture. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In 78% of the cycles with top quality embryos frozen (n = 1319), at least one embryo still had high-quality morphology after thawing. Top quality embryo morphology observed at any stage of culture improved the outcome even if high-quality characteristics disappeared before transfer. LBRs after the transfer of a top quality embryo were similar in the FET (24.9%) and fresh cycles of the same period (21.9%). The chance of live birth increased significantly if ?1 top quality embryo was present at freezing (odds ratio (OR) 1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-3.14), at thawing (OR 1.93, CI 1.20-3.11) or at transfer (OR 3.41, CI 2.12-5.48). Compared with spontaneous cycles with luteal support, purely spontaneous cycles (OR 0.58, CI 0.40-0.84) and hormonally substituted FET (OR 0.47, CI 0.32-0.69) diminished the odds of pregnancy. BMI (OR 0.96, CI 0.92-0.99) and transfer of two embryos versus one (OR 1.45, CI 1.08-1.94) were other factors that improved LBR after FET. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The sample sizes available in some subanalyses were small, limiting the power of the study. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The presence of ?1 top quality embryo at any step of the freezing and thawing process increases the chance of pregnancy. The data do not support the freezing of all embryos for transfer in order to improve the outcome. A top quality embryo transferred in FET may even have the same potential as in a fresh cycle. On the contrary, LBR in the group with no top quality embryos frozen was quite low (10.4%), raising the question of whether a re-evaluation of freezing criteria is necessary to avoid costly treatments with a low success rate. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The Sigrid Jusélius Foundation, the Academy of Finland, Oulu University Hospital. No conflict of interest to declare.

Veleva Z; Orava M; Nuojua-Huttunen S; Tapanainen JS; Martikainen H

2013-09-01

311

Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

Pyo, Katrina A.

312

Analysis of factors affecting ventriculoperitoneal shunt survival in pediatric patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Management of hydrocephalus with insertion of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is associated with significant complications in both adult and pediatric patients. These may be more common in developing countries due to poor economic conditions and a dearth of available resources. We report a 6 years' experience with VP shunt insertion in pediatric patients from a developing country, focusing particularly on factors affecting shunt failure. METHODS: Patients aged below 15 years, who had undergone insertion of VP shunts for hydrocephalus during the years 2006 to 2011, were included. A retrospective analysis of shunt survival was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Logrank (Cox-Mantel) test. RESULTS: Among the total 113 patients, the most common etiologies of hydrocephalus were congenital hydrocephalus (19.5 %), brain tumors (14.2 %), and postcranial surgery (13.3 %). Overall shunt failure at a mean follow-up of 11 months was 23 % with the median time to first shunt failure being 68 days. Shunt survival was worse in patients with meningitis (p?=?0.024), aqueductal stenosis (p?=?0.008), postcranial surgery hydrocephalus (p?=?0.006), Caesarean mode of delivery (p?=?0.036), congenital abnormalities (p?=?0.031), and a past history of surgical excision of mass lesion (p?=?0.044).Frequency of shunt failure was also significantly affected by the location of brain tumor (p?=?0.015) and prematurity (p?=?0.015). CONCLUSION: Premature infants still have a higher rate of shunt failure. Patients with meningitis, aqueductal stenosis, postcranial surgery hydrocephalus, congenital abnormalities, and a past history of surgical excision of mass lesion may have early shunt failure. However, the frequency of shunt failure that we observed (23 %) was much lower than that quoted earlier in the literature and this may be a consequence of rigorous periodic evaluation of patients with VP shunt in situ.

Khan F; Shamim MS; Rehman A; Bari ME

2013-05-01

313

Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD).Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years) participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29).Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs) pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001), but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL), disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.

Azin Ayatollahi; Mohammad Reza Mohajeri-Tehrani; Shahriar Nafissi

2013-01-01

314

Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

2010-12-01

315

Environmental factors affecting the degradation of Dyfonate by soil fungi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability of selected fungi to degrade the soil insecticide Dyfonate (O-ethyl S-phenyl ethylphosphonodithioate) into water-soluble, noninsecticidal metabolites was found to be dependent on the supply of nutrients, incubation time, temperature, pH, as well as other factors. With yeast extract as the carbon source (5 g/liter) and ammonium nitrate (1 g/liter) as the nitrogen source, both Rhizopus arrhizus and Penicillium notatum degraded the insecticide to a larger extent than with any other combination of nutrients used. With glucose as the carbon source, concentrations of ammonium nitrate above 5 g/liter inhibited the degradation of Dyfonate by R. arrhizus. Time-course studies on the metabolism of the insecticide indicated that Dyfonate was first absorbed by the fungal mycelium, where it was metabolized followed by the release of water-soluble, noninsecticidal, breakdown products into the culture media. The degradation appeared to involve the breakdown of Dyfonate into ethyl acetate soluble metabolites, such as ethylethoxyphosphonothioic acid, ethylethoxyphosphonic acid, methyl phenyl sulfoxide, and methyl phenyl sulfone. These compounds were then further degraded into water-soluble products. The optimum conditions for the degradation of the insecticide by R. arrhizus were observed at pH 6.0 to 7.0 and at 15-25 degrees C. Aged fungal mycelia were as active as mycelia in the logarithmic growth phase.

Flashinski SJ; Lichtenstein EP

1975-01-01

316

Environmental factors affecting the degradation of Dyfonate by soil fungi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of selected fungi to degrade the soil insecticide Dyfonate (O-ethyl S-phenyl ethylphosphonodithioate) into water-soluble, noninsecticidal metabolites was found to be dependent on the supply of nutrients, incubation time, temperature, pH, as well as other factors. With yeast extract as the carbon source (5 g/liter) and ammonium nitrate (1 g/liter) as the nitrogen source, both Rhizopus arrhizus and Penicillium notatum degraded the insecticide to a larger extent than with any other combination of nutrients used. With glucose as the carbon source, concentrations of ammonium nitrate above 5 g/liter inhibited the degradation of Dyfonate by R. arrhizus. Time-course studies on the metabolism of the insecticide indicated that Dyfonate was first absorbed by the fungal mycelium, where it was metabolized followed by the release of water-soluble, noninsecticidal, breakdown products into the culture media. The degradation appeared to involve the breakdown of Dyfonate into ethyl acetate soluble metabolites, such as ethylethoxyphosphonothioic acid, ethylethoxyphosphonic acid, methyl phenyl sulfoxide, and methyl phenyl sulfone. These compounds were then further degraded into water-soluble products. The optimum conditions for the degradation of the insecticide by R. arrhizus were observed at pH 6.0 to 7.0 and at 15-25 degrees C. Aged fungal mycelia were as active as mycelia in the logarithmic growth phase. PMID:46772

Flashinski, S J; Lichtenstein, E P

1975-01-01

317

Factors affecting the cost and competitiveness of nuclear electricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general context in which are carried out the investment choices of the electric sector has evolved in a significant way during these last years and the changes are to a certain extent irreversible. Economic globalization, deregulation of the electricity market, privatisation of electricity producers, and increasing awareness of environmental issues are modifying the policy-making landscape and the criteria and priorities of decision-makers in the power sector. Competitiveness remains a cornerstone for evaluating and choosing alternative technologies in the process of planning and decision-making for electricity system expansion or power plant replacement. Nevertheless, the production costs analysis inserts factors which were not taking before into account as for instance social impacts, health and environmental effects. These new approaches better reveal the total costs of the different production means. They will certainly lead to different choices than those based on the whole comparison of direct costs supported by producers. The economic studies carried out by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (NEA) cover all the preceding aspects and give objective information on the competitiveness of nuclear electricity. The nuclear industry has today the necessary means to take up the challenges of the electricity new markets. (O.M.).

1996-10-02

318

Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojection are investigated: (1) image uniformity (flood) corrections, (2) image sampling (pixel size) and (3) count allocation methods. An analytic expression for uniformity correction is developed that incorporates factors for spatial-dependent detector sensitivity and geometric effects from acceptance angle limits on coincidence events. There is good agreement between experimental floods from a PEM system with a pixellated detector and numerical simulations. The analytic uniformity corrections are successfully applied to image reconstruction of compressed breast phantoms and reduce the necessity for flood scans at different image planes. Experimental and simulated compressed breast phantom studies show that lesion contrast is improved when the image pixel size is half of, rather than equal to, the detector pixel size, though this occurs at the expense of some additional image noise. In PEM reconstruction counts usually are allocated to the pixel in the image plane intersected by the line of response (LOR) between the centers of the detection pixels. An alternate count allocation method is investigated that distributes counts to image pixels in proportion to the area of the tube of response (TOR) connecting the detection pixels that they overlay in the image plane. This TOR method eliminates some image artifacts that occur with the LOR method and increases tumor signal-to-noise ratios at the expense of a slight decrease in tumor contrast. Analysis of image uniformity, image sampling and count allocation methods in PEM image reconstruction points to ways of improving image formation. Further work is required to optimize image reconstruction parameters for particular detection or quantitation tasks.

2001-01-01

319

Factors affecting the adoption of quality assurance technologies in healthcare.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: In the light of public concern and of strong policy emphasis on quality and safety in the nursing care of patients in hospital settings, this paper aims to focus on the factors affecting the adoption of innovative quality assurance technologies. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Two sets of complementary literature were mined for key themes. Next, new empirical insights were sought. Data gathering was conducted in three phases. The first involved contact with NHS Technology Hubs and other institutions which had insights into leading centres in quality assurance technologies. The second phase was a series of telephone interviews with lead nurses in those hospitals which were identified in the first phase as comprising the leading centres. The third phase comprised a series of face to face interviews with innovators and adopters of healthcare quality assurance technologies in five hospital trusts. FINDINGS: There were three main sets of findings. First, despite the strong policy push and the templates established at national level, there were significant variations in the nature and robustness of the quality assurance toolkits that were developed, adapted and adopted. Second, in most of the adopting cases there were important obstacles to the full adoption of the toolkits that were designed. Third, the extent and nature of the ambition of the developers varied dramatically - some wished to see their work impacting widely across the health service; others had a number of different reasons for wanting to restrict the impact of their work. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The general concerns about front-line care and the various inquiries into care quality failures emphasise the need for improved and consistent care quality assurance methodologies and practice. The technology adoption literature gives only partial insight into the nature of the challenges; this paper offers specific insights into the factors inhibiting the full adoption of quality assurance technologies in ward-based care.

Storey J

2013-01-01

320

Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojection are investigated: (1) image uniformity (flood) corrections, (2) image sampling (pixel size) and (3) count allocation methods. An analytic expression for uniformity correction is developed that incorporates factors for spatial-dependent detector sensitivity and geometric effects from acceptance angle limits on coincidence events. There is good agreement between experimental floods from a PEM system with a pixellated detector and numerical simulations. The analytic uniformity corrections are successfully applied to image reconstruction of compressed breast phantoms and reduce the necessity for flood scans at different image planes. Experimental and simulated compressed breast phantom studies show that lesion contrast is improved when the image pixel size is half of, rather than equal to, the detector pixel size, though this occurs at the expense of some additional image noise. In PEM reconstruction counts usually are allocated to the pixel in the image plane intersected by the line of response (LOR) between the centers of the detection pixels. An alternate count allocation method is investigated that distributes counts to image pixels in proportion to the area of the tube of response (TOR) connecting the detection pixels that they overlay in the image plane. This TOR method eliminates some image artifacts that occur with the LOR method and increases tumor signal-to-noise ratios at the expense of a slight decrease in tumor contrast. Analysis of image uniformity, image sampling and count allocation methods in PEM image reconstruction points to ways of improving image formation. Further work is required to optimize image reconstruction parameters for particular detection or quantitation tasks.

Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Andrew G. Weisenberger; Douglas A. Kieper; Raymond R. Raylman; Timothy G. Turkington

2001-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

Factors affecting length of stay in the pediatric emergency department.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A large volume of visits can cause an emergency department (ED) to become overcrowded, resulting in a longer length of stay (LOS). The objective of this study was to analyze factors affecting the LOS in the pediatric ED. METHODS: Records of all visits to the pediatric ED of the study hospital, from July 1, 2006 to June 31, 2007, were retrospectively retrieved. Data were collected from the hospital's computerized records system. Eta-squared correlation ratio and Cramer's V test evaluated the associations between variables. Two-thirds of the database was randomized for the classification and regression tree (CART) model-building dataset, and one-third was used for the validation dataset. RESULTS: A total of 29,035 patients visited the pediatric ED during the evaluation period. Of the total visits, 61.1% were due to complaints of fever. The mean LOS was 2.6 ± 4.67 hours, and 74.3% of visits had an LOS of shorter than 2 hours. The CART analysis selected five factors (waiting time for hospitalization, laboratory tests, door-to-physician time, gastrointestinal symptoms, and patient outcome) to produce a total of nine subgroups of patients. The mean LOS of the model-building dataset closely correlated with that of the validation dataset (r(2) = 0.999). CONCLUSION: Patients who were waiting for hospitalization for less than 8 hours or were not admitted, those without any laboratory tests, those having door-to-physician time less than 60 minutes, and those without any gastrointestinal symptoms had the shortest LOS. Patients who waited for hospitalization for more than 16 hours had the longest LOS.

Li ST; Chiu NC; Kung WC; Chen JC

2013-06-01

322

Assessment of factors affecting industrial electricity demand. Final report (revision version)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Chapter 2, we identify those factors affecting the industrial product mix - taste, relative output prices, and relative input prices - and isolate several determinants which have not been adequately accounted for to date in industrial electricity demand forecasts. We discuss how the lower energy prices of foreign producers affect domestic producers and how the growth in the number of substitutes for intermediate products such as steel and aluminum with plastics and composites affects the composition of production and, hence, the demand for electricity. We also investigate how the changing age structure of the population brought on by the baby boom could change the mix of outputs produced by the industrial sector. In Chapter 3, we review the history of the 1970s with regard to changes in output mix and the manufacturing demand for electricity, and with regard to changes in the use of electricity vis-a-vis the other inputs in the production process. In Chapter 4, we generate forecasts using two models which control for efficiency changes, but in different ways. In this chapter we present the sensitivity of these projections using three sets of assumptions about product mix. The last chapter summarizes our results and draw from those results implications regarding public policy and industrial electricity demand. Two appendices present ISTUM2 results from selected electricity intensive industries, describes the ISTUM and ORIM models.

None

1983-07-01

323

Factors affecting orthodontists' management of the retention phase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: To test the null hypothesis that orthodontist characteristics and factors related to retainer choice do not influence the management of the retention phase with regard to frequency and duration of follow-up care provided. Materials and Methods: Orthodontists (n ?=? 1000) were randomly selected to participate in an online survey divided into three categories: background, retainer choice, and time management. Results: Of the 1000 selected participants, 894 responded. When deciding the type of retainer to use, the following were considered most frequently: pretreatment malocclusion (91%), patient compliance (87%), patient oral hygiene (84%), and patients' desires (81%). Orthodontists who considered the presence of third molars (P ?=? .03) or "special needs" patients (P ?=? .02) had significantly more follow-up visits than those who did not. When vacuum-formed retainers (VFRs) were prescribed, there were significantly fewer visits (P ?=? .02) compared to when other types of retainers were used. As practitioner experience increased, so did the number of visits (P < .0001). Orthodontists who considered the primary responsibility of retention to fall on the patient had significantly fewer follow-up visits (P < .0001) than those who considered it either a joint or orthodontist-only responsibility. Conclusions: The null hypothesis was rejected because the number of follow-up visits during the retention phase was affected by practitioner experience, whether VFRs were used, whether the orthodontist considered the presence of third molars or special-needs patients when choosing the type of retainer, and to whom the orthodontist attributed responsibility during the retention phase.

Bibona K; Shroff B; Best AM; Lindauer SJ

2013-08-01

324

Factors affecting the motivation of smokers to quit smoking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available smoking. Success of smoking cessation depends mainly on the balance between motivation and the degree of nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the motivation of smokers to stop smoking. Method: Data were collected from 139 smokers, aged 18-69 divided in two groups. Questionnaires were completed about the demographic data, smoking history, anthropometric characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, motivation degree and alcohol consumption. Results: Body Mass Index was positively correlated with the dependence degree and heavy smoking, while those who were overweight in adolescence showed a lower degree of motivation for smoking cessation. Individuals with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption, those who smoked in their working environment and were heavier smokers needed greater motivation. The low degree of dependence was associated with a lower degree of motivation, while those who showed medium dependence were moderately motivated. Conclusions: Health care professionals should take into account all the above components with the aim of motivating smokers to stop smoking.

Mplouchou P.; Goudouva E.; Apostolidou E.; Gourgoulianis K.; Chatzoglou C.

2011-01-01

325

Factors affecting the erosion resistance of weld overlays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research was conducted to study factors affecting the solid particle erosion resistance of weld overlay coatings. Eleven weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process and erosion tested at 400 C. Erosion resistance was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. Ultimet, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings showed the best erosion resistance at 30 and 90{degree} impact angles. Microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples below the erosion surface to determine the size of the plastically deformed zone and it was found that one group of coatings deformed plastically as a result of the particle impact while the others did not. No correlations were found between average microhardness at 400 C and volumetric erosion rates for plastically deformed weld overlays. For this group of overlays erosion resistance was correlated to the area under the curve of microhardness versus distance from the eroded surface. The physical significance of this parameter is discussed. For coatings that did not deform plastically, an increase in average microhardness at 400 C led to an increase in their volumetric erosion rates. The possible erosion mechanisms for these coating groups are discussed.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

326

Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

2013-10-01

327

Factors affecting precipitation of vancomycin and ceftazidime on intravitreal injection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that affect the precipitation of vancomycin and ceftazidime which are currently used in intravitreal injections for infectious endophthalmitis. METHODS: The minimum concentration required for precipitation of the 2 antibiotics was estimated by 2-fold dilution. In addition, the amount of the precipitate that formed was measured at 4, 3, 2, and 1?mL volumes, temperatures (37°C or 4°C), and in different medias (balanced salt solution plus and normal saline). RESULTS: When 2-fold serial dilutions of vancomycin and ceftazidime were mixed, precipitates started forming at a concentration of 12.5?mg/mL for ceftazidime and 10?mg/mL for vancomycin. The precipitation of vancomycin and ceftazidime increased at lower temperatures (4°C) and lower media volumes (1?mL). However, using a micropipette with a complete mixed media and an antibiotic (vancomycin or ceftazidime) prevented the formation of a precipitate when the other antibiotic was added. CONCLUSION: The formation of a precipitate associated with intravitreal injections was correlated with the diffusion rate of the antibiotics in the media. Precipitation increased at lower temperatures, lower media volumes, and at higher antibiotic concentrations.

Park I; Lee SJ

2013-02-01

328

Factors affecting medication adherence in patients with hypertension.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study descriptive study was to evaluate concordance with medication and those factors that affect the use of medicine in patients with hypertension. Data were collected using a questionnaire completed by 750 patients with hypertension between December 25, 2003, and April 30, 2004, in an outpatient hypertension clinic in Erzincan, Turkey. It was found that 57.9% of the patients did not use their medicines as prescribed. Forgetfulness, aloneness, and negligence were ranked as the top three reasons for this non-concordance, accounting for almost half (49.3%) of all patients with hypertension studied; price (expensive medicines) accounted for another quarter (26.5%). A statistically significant relationship with non-concordance was found for age, education level and profession. Patients' lack of knowledge related to the complications of hypertension was also found to have a statistically significant relationship with not taking medicines as prescribed. Gender, location of residence and salary were not found to be statistically related to concordance. These results indicate the need to educate patients with hypertension on how to use their medicine regularly and indicate also the target populations for this. PMID:23127428

Karakurt, Papatya; Ka?ikçi, Ma?firet

2012-12-01

329

Chordoma: review of clinico radiological features and factors affecting survival  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study reviews the clinico radiological features of cranial and sacrospinal chordomas and identifies factors affecting survival. Nineteen patients seen between January 1980 and December 2000 with histopathological diagnosis of chordomas were retrospectively reviewed with reference to clinical presentation, imaging features, treatment modalities and post-therapy status. Eight had tumours in the skull base while 11 patients had spinal and sacro-coccygeal lesions. Surgical resection was performed in 16 patients whose subsequent natural history was used to identify clinical indicators that may influence survival. Completeness of resection, age, gender and postoperative irradiation were subjected to analysis using the Cox proportional hazard models. Kaplan-Meir survival curves illustrate the survival distributions. Diplopia and facial pain are prime clinical presentations in cranial lesions, while extremity weakness and a sacrogluteal mass are common complaints in the sacrospinal group. Lesional calcifications are present in 40% while an osteolytic soft tissue mass is detectable by CT in all cases. Heterogeneous signals and internal septations on T2-weighted MRI are predominant features. In sacrospinal tumours, complete excision with adjuvant radiotherapy achieves the best results with a disease-free survival of more than 5 years. The clinical and imaging findings in this study are in accordance with those of other series. Except for complete surgical excision followed by radiotherapy in the subset of patients with sacrospinal tumours, none of the other clinical indicators show a statistical significant influence on survival. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

2001-01-01

330

Smoking prevalence in military men, and factors affecting this.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to determine smoking prevalence among noncommissioned officers and privates and the factors affecting it. This study was carried out in a division of 20,000 soldiers. One of every 10 names on the roster was chosen at random. Responses were received from 1,822 subjects (91.1%), all male, in the final month of their 18-month military service with a mean age of 20.3 +/- 2.2 years. Individuals performing their military service were surveyed using a self-administered, anonymous, personal, and voluntary questionnaire. It was determined that 1,160 (63.7%) of the participants were smokers: 180 (9.9%) were occasional smokers, and 980 (53.8) were heavy smokers. For the fathers of the participants, these rates were 15.4% and 40.5%, respectively. The frequency of smoking was found to be higher in subjects who had high incomes, who had high levels of education, whose fathers smoked, and who were raised in environments in which there were many smokers. It was determined that 31.4% of subjects had begun smoking within the previous 2 years during their period of military service.

Tekbas F; Vaizo?lu SA; Guleç M; Hasde M; Güler C

2002-09-01

331

Non-auditory factors affecting urban soundscape evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception.

Jeon JY; Lee PJ; Hong JY; Cabrera D

2011-12-01

332

Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS) on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels), artificial insemination stud (4 levels) and sire of bull (137 levels). All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

Mara Battagin; Mauro Penasa; Martino Cassandro

2012-01-01

333

Degradation products of extracellular matrix affect cell migration and proliferation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are utilized in numerous regenerative medicine applications to facilitate the constructive remodeling of tissues and organs. The mechanisms by which the host remodeling response occurs are not fully understood, but recent studies suggest that both constituent growth factors and biologically active degradation products derived from ECM play important roles. The objective of the present study was to determine if degradation of ECM scaffold materials in vitro by methods that are biochemically and physiologically relevant can yield products that possess chemotactic and/or mitogenic activities for fully differentiated mammalian endothelial cells and undifferentiated multipotential progenitor cells. ECM harvested from porcine urinary bladder was degraded enzymatically with pepsin/hydrochloric acid or papain. The ECM degradation products were tested for chemoattractant properties utilizing either 48-well chemotaxis filter migration microchambers or fluorescence-based filter migration assays, and were tested for mitogenic properties in cell proliferation assays. Results showed that ECM degradation products possessed chemotactic and mitogenic activities for multipotential progenitor cells and that the same degradation products inhibited both chemotaxis and proliferation of differentiated endothelial cells. These findings support the concept that degradation products of ECM bioscaffolds are important modulators of the recruitment and proliferation of appropriate cell types during the process of ECM scaffold remodeling.

Reing JE; Zhang L; Myers-Irvin J; Cordero KE; Freytes DO; Heber-Katz E; Bedelbaeva K; McIntosh D; Dewilde A; Braunhut SJ; Badylak SF

2009-03-01

334

Total factor productivity - a misleading concept  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper criticises the concept of total factor productivity as a measure of technical change and economic performance on two grounds: (i) theoretical, because it shares all the weaknesses of the neoclassical production function from which it is derived; (ii) its relevance in helping to understand the present technological revolution in computer and information technologies, since it concerns only disembodied technical change. The practical conclusion is that total factor productivity is more a measure of "noise" than a genuine indicator of technical progress. In spite of the above drawbacks, total factor productivity is still widely used in empirical work on technical change. This is all the more surprising since the alternative concept ofproductivity of labour not only avoids the above mentioned criticisms but is theoretically superior to its rival concept because it captures the true nature of present technical change.

Angelo Reati

2001-01-01

335

Factors affecting the Patronage of Insurance Services in Borno State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study investigated into the factors affecting the patronage of insurance services in Borno state. A sample of four hundred was drawn from the population using qouta sampling techniques. Tables, simple percentage and mean were used for data analysis. The result of the study indicated that lack of trust and confidence on insurance institutions, low educational background, low level of income, ignorance of different types of insurance services among others are the factors affecting patronage of insurance services in Borno state. It was recommended that strong and dynamic marketing strategy will help to reposition insurance industries enhance the patronage of the general public if they want to improve their productivity in this current economic meltdown.

Garba, J. S.; Abdulsalam Jibril; Watifa, H.

2011-01-01

336

[Suitable distribution area of Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) in China and related affecting factors].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) is an important quarantine insect of apple tree, and usually causes serious economic losses in apple production area every year. To predict the suitable distribution area of E. lanigerum and the environmental factors affecting the insect' s colonization and dispersal could provide references for the forecast of the insect's distribution area, the constitution of effective quarantine measures, and the control decisions. In this study, niche model MaxEnt and ArcGIS were applied to analyze and predict the suitable distribution area of E. lanigerum, ROC was used to evaluate the prediction model and the prediction results, and Jackknife analysis was made to analyze the most important environmental factors affecting the occurrence of E. lanigerum. The results showed that E. lanigerum had a wide distribution area in China, its suitable distribution index was the highest in Liaoning, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Shaanxi provinces, and the most important environmental factors affecting the occurrence of E. lanigerum were temperature-dependent factors.

Hong B; Wang YL; Zhao HY

2012-04-01

337

Factors Affecting Perceptual Threshold in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Subjects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis has been developed to provide partial restoration of vision to subjects blinded from outer retinal degenerative disease. Participants were surgically implanted with the system in the United States and Europe in a single arm, prospective, multicenter clinical trial. The purpose of this investigation was to determine which factors affect electrical thresholds in order to inform surgical placement of the device. METHODS: Electrode-retina and electrode-fovea distances were determined using SD-OCT and fundus photography, respectively. Perceptual threshold to electrical stimulation of electrodes was measured using custom developed software, in which current amplitude was varied until the threshold was found. Full field stimulus light threshold was measured using the Espion D-FST test. Relationships between electrical threshold and these three explanatory variables (electrode-retina distance, electrode-fovea distance, and monocular light threshold) were quantified using regression. RESULTS: Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between electrical threshold and electrode-retina distance (R (2) = 0.50, P = 0.0002; n = 703 electrodes). 90.3% of electrodes in contact with the macula (n = 207) elicited percepts at charge densities less than 1 mC/cm(2)/phase. These threshold data also correlated well with ganglion cell density profile (P = 0.03). A weaker, but still significant, inverse correlation was found between light threshold and electrical threshold (R (2) < 0.52, P = 0.01). Multivariate modeling indicated that electrode-retina distance and light threshold are highly predictive of electrode threshold (R (2) = 0.87; P < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that while light threshold should be used to inform patient selection, macular contact of the array is paramount. TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: Reported Argus II clinical study results are in good agreement with prior in vitro and in vivo studies, and support the development of higher-density systems that employ smaller diameter electrodes. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00407602).

Ahuja AK; Yeoh J; Dorn JD; Caspi A; Wuyyuru V; McMahon MJ; Humayun MS; Greenberg RJ; Dacruz L

2013-04-01

338

SWITCHGRASS FOR BIOMASS: FARM SCALE PRODUCTION PRACTICES AFFECT FEEDSTOCK COSTS AND QUANTITIES IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS  

Science.gov (United States)

Switchgrass was managed as a biomass energy crop for five years on 10 farms in Nebraska and South and North Dakota during the period 2000 to 2005. Primary production factors that affected feedstock costs were stand establishment which affected first and second year yields, fertilization and harvest...

339

Electromagnetic strangeness production and hadronic form factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a phenomenological approach based on an isobaric model including s, u, and t-channels, a thorough study of the associated strangeness electromagnetic production has been performed. The sensitivity to the hadronic form factors of the reactions ep ? e'K+Y, with Y ? ?, ?0 in the few GeV region is discussed. The results corresponding to the baryonic form factors by Gari and Kruempelmann are reported. (K.A.). 8 refs., 1 fig

1995-01-01

340

Factors affecting the absorption of hydrogen by zircaloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A proton model has been employed to calculate how the elements Sn, Fe, Cr and Ni in Zircaloy affect the absorption of hydrogen compared with in zirconium. It is found that Fe, Cr and Ni reduce the absorption of hydrogen by almost equal amounts per atom added, whereas Sn has little or no affect on the absorption. (orig.)

1979-03-09

 
 
 
 
341

Alpha radiolysis and other factors affecting hydrolysis of tributyl phosphate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary purpose of this study was to identify the principal degradation products produced by Pu(IV) loading in 30% tributyl phosphate/dodecane (TBP-DD) solutions and to determine the formation rates of these species as a function of temperature. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate HNO/sub 3/ hydrolysis of TBP as a function of temperature and to compare the effects resulting from plutonium solvent loading with effects due to loading with uranium and zirconium. The results indicate that four factors are of particular significance: (1) dibutyl phosphate (DBP) is the principal plutonium-complexing species formed at temperatures of 50/sup 0/C or lower, while significant concentrations of monobutyl phosphate (MBP) are also formed at higher temperatures; (2) the TBP degradation rate due to alpha radiolysis or chemical hydrolysis is strongly dependent on temperature; (3) plutonium promotes TBP hydrolysis by two mechanisms, alpha radiolysis and metal-ion-induced hydrolysis, and, of these, metal-ion-induced hydrolysis can be the major effect; and (4) small amounts of an unidentified plutonium-complexing species are formed in experiments using plutonium of high specific activity (about 4 x 10/sup 8/ counts per minute per milligram (c/min dot mg)). This species cannot be removed from 30% TBP-DD by Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ washing or other solvent cleanup procedures. The TBP degradation rates (determined as grams of plutonium complexed by degradation products) increased from 0.125 mg Pu/L dot h at 25/sup 0/C to 47.9 mg Pu/L dot h at 80/sup 0/C in 30% TBP-DD solutions that contained only 0.68 M HNO/sub 3/. In solutions that additionally contained approx.20 g/L of plutonium (specific activity = 9 x 10/sup 7/ c/min dot mg) TBP degradation rates increased from 2.46 mg Pu/L dot h at 25/sup 0/C to 127.1 mg Pu/L dot h at 80/sup 0/C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Lloyd, M.H.; Fellows, R.L.

1985-06-01

342

Alpha radiolysis and other factors affecting hydrolysis of tributyl phosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary purpose of this study was to identify the principal degradation products produced by Pu(IV) loading in 30% tributyl phosphate/dodecane (TBP-DD) solutions and to determine the formation rates of these species as a function of temperature. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate HNO3 hydrolysis of TBP as a function of temperature and to compare the effects resulting from plutonium solvent loading with effects due to loading with uranium and zirconium. The results indicate that four factors are of particular significance: (1) dibutyl phosphate (DBP) is the principal plutonium-complexing species formed at temperatures of 500C or lower, while significant concentrations of monobutyl phosphate (MBP) are also formed at higher temperatures; (2) the TBP degradation rate due to alpha radiolysis or chemical hydrolysis is strongly dependent on temperature; (3) plutonium promotes TBP hydrolysis by two mechanisms, alpha radiolysis and metal-ion-induced hydrolysis, and, of these, metal-ion-induced hydrolysis can be the major effect; and (4) small amounts of an unidentified plutonium-complexing species are formed in experiments using plutonium of high specific activity [about 4 x 108 counts per minute per milligram (c/min dot mg)]. This species cannot be removed from 30% TBP-DD by Na2CO3 washing or other solvent cleanup procedures. The TBP degradation rates (determined as grams of plutonium complexed by degradation products) increased from 0.125 mg Pu/L dot h at 250C to 47.9 mg Pu/L dot h at 800C in 30% TBP-DD solutions that contained only 0.68 M HNO3. In solutions that additionally contained approx.20 g/L of plutonium (specific activity = 9 x 107 c/min dot mg) TBP degradation rates increased from 2.46 mg Pu/L dot h at 250C to 127.1 mg Pu/L dot h at 800C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

1985-01-01

343

Factors Affecting Students' Choice of Science and Engineering in Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper presents the results of a study undertaken in Portugal to determine the influence of different factors on students' (n=499) decisions to study or refuse to study in one of the physical sciences or engineering. Some influencing factors are related to what goes on in school and during science lessons, and other factors are related to the…

de Almeida, Maria Jose B. M.; Leite, Maria Salete S. C. P.; Woolnough, Brian E.

344

AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING CREDIT MARKET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigate through an econometric approach the credit market and the factors that interact with it. The current research is beyond the minor aspects of the behavior and determinants of credit market in Romania and our concerns go to macroeconomic factors, consumption, investments and capital market. Results demonstrate a relationship between complex factors such as monetary policy and the credit market.

CRISTIAN-FLORIN DANANAU

2012-01-01

345

Controlled Experiment to Determine Factors Affecting Tracer Performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report details efforts to determine what process variables had the greatest impact on 7.62-mm M276 Trace performance. The report includes a brief discussion of production problems encountered, efforts to resolve the problems and reinitiate production...

J. R. Middleton K. Vogelsang

1995-01-01

346

Factors affecting contact-angle measurement of reservoir rocks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Much attention has been devoted to the study of the improved oil recovery (IOR) method(s). However, it still remains a challenge to evaluate the reservoir wettability quantitatively using actual core samples. Contact angle is considered as one of the most common methods to measure the preferential affinity of reservoir rocks. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the influence of droplet volume, brine salinity, liquid saturated rocks, oil acid number, and temperature on rock wettability of carbonate reservoir rock using sessile droplet method. Sixteen runs were undertaken using oil droplet volumes of 10, 15, 20, and 25 ml with different brine salinities of zero, 50,000, 100,000, and 150,000 ppm of NaCl, respectively. This has been done to study the effect of droplet volume and salinity on contact angle. In three runs, different crude oils having acid numbers of 0.374, 0.561, and 0.986 mg KOH/g samples were performed to investigate the influence of acid number on the contact angle. Three runs were carried out using brine, crude oil, and polymer solutions to study the effect of liquid-type saturated rock on contact angle. Finally, two runs were used to study the effect of temperature on contact angle. In all experiments, actual rock and crude oil samples were used. Results indicated that there is a specific droplet volume attained at critical water salinity. This critical water salinity is defined as the salinity at which the oil droplet volume has no effect on contact angle. Rock wettability decreases below the critical salinity and increases above it, depending on the droplet volume. The attained results indicate that liquid saturated rock has an important role on measured values of contact angle. Results also show that an increase in acid number of the crude oil decreases the contact angle. Therefore, carbonate oil reservoirs containing oils of low acid number are expected to be more oil-wet than that ones containing oils of higher acid number. The increase of temperature and bath liquid viscosity reduced the measured contact angle.The results of this study developed a new concept of critical salinity and provided better understanding of some factors affecting wettability measurements using contact-angle technique.

Shedid, Shedid A.; Ghannam, Mamdouh T. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, College of Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17555, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

2004-11-15

347

CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: ¿CÓMO AFECTA LA PRODUCCIÓN GANADERA? (Climatic change: How affect the livestock production?)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ResumenEl cambio climático es un proceso inequívoco; se dice cómo la producción bovina estimula uno de los factores que lo produce: el efecto invernadero; sin embargo es importante conocer su efecto contrario: cómo el cambio climático afecta la ganadería.SummaryClimate change is a distinct process; it’s knew how the cattle production stimulates one of the factors that produced it: the greenhouse effect, however it’s important to know the opposite effect: how climate change affects livestock.

Garzón Alfonso, J.E.

2011-01-01

348

Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By comparing five ecosystem types in the Czech Republic over several years, we recorded the highest carbon sequestration potential in an evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). Because of a massive ecosystem respiration, the final carbon gain of the grassland was negative. Climate was shown to be an important factor of carbon uptake by ecosystems: by varying the growing season length (a 22-d longer season in 2005 than in 2007 increased carbon sink by 13%) or by the effect of short- term synoptic situations (e.g. summer hot and dry days reduced net carbon storage by 58% relative to hot and wet days). Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy which is demonstrated by the comparison of seasonal course of carbon uptake between coniferous (Norway spruce) and deciduous (European beech) stands. - Highlights: ? Highest carbon sequestration potential in evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). ? The final carbon gain of the grassland was negative (massive ecosystem respiration). ? Climate is important factor of net primary productivity. ? Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy of ecosystem. - Identification of the apparent differences in the carbon storage by different ecosystem types.

2011-01-01

349

Factors Affecting the Adoption of the Organic Dried Fig Agriculture System in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the factors affecting the adoption of organic dried fig agriculture in Turkey were investigated. These factors were divided into three groups, these being social, structural and intellectual factors. The effect of these factors was established using the probit analysis method. It was found that, of the social factors, the education status, age and fig-growing experience of producers were important parameters in the adoption of organic dried fig agriculture. Meanwhile, among the structural/economic factors fig production amount stands out as an important parameter. As for intellectual factors, it was observed that the extent to which producers were conversant with subvention policies, kept up to date with dried fig export prices and/or were knowledgeable an the subject of aflatoxin were important parameters. As a result, in the diffusion of organic dried fig agriculture in Turkey education project about organic farming need to be increased. It was vital that producers be made aware of sustainable farming practices, quality and standards, export demand and expectations and the European Union and its practices. On the other hand, it is very important that producer be provided with financial support in the transition to organic farming and be given guarantees regarding the marketing of their produce.

Ferruh Isin; Tayfun Cukur; Goksel Armagan

2007-01-01

350

Soil surface properties affected by organic by-products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The beneficial effects of amending soils with organic by-products include improvement of both chemical and physical factors. Very few studies have investigated changes in the soil specific surface area (SSA) after amendments with manures or composts. Soil samples were taken from plots before and after four years? application of manures, composts or nitrogen fertilizer. A corn-wheat-soybean rotation was grown. Soil samples were tested for changes in water retention at ?15 bar, bulk density, C content and SSA using nitrogen gas adsorption at 73 K. Both the increase in water retention and decrease in bulk density were related to total organic matter amendment. Increases in SSA were noted in all soils sampled. SSA changes were not related to either C increases or ash amendments. An amendment of crab waste compost increased SSA most, i.e., soil C increased by 4.45 m2 g?1. The fertilizer increased SSA to 0.5 m2 g?1 soil C increase. Although the calcium mineral content of crab waste compost may be the prime factor in the increasing of SSA, no single factor appeared to explain the increase of SSA in these field soils.

Sikora L.J.; Filgueira R.R.; Fournier L.L.; Rawls W.J.; Pachepsky Ya.A.

2002-01-01

351

Factors affecting the quantitation of organic compounds in laser mass spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Factors affecting the reproducibility of organic laser mass spectrometry have been studied. Laser focus, laser power density, sample preparation. Defocusing the laser enhances production of structurally significant organic ions. The yield of organic molecular ions is a nonlinear function of power density. The use of a polymer matrix (5% nitrocellulose) for dissolving an analyte(s) was determined to be the optimum method of sample preparation. Using such a polymer matrix, along with internal standards, permitted relative standard deviations of +/- 15% to be obtained.

Wilk, Z.A.; Viswanadham, S.K.; Sharkey, A.G.; Hercules, D.M.

1988-11-01

352

Factors relevant in bacterial pyrroloquinoline quinone production.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quinoprotein content and levels of external pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) were determined for several bacteria under a variety of growth conditions. From these data and those from the literature, a number of factors can be indicated which are relevant for PQQ production. Synthesis of PQQ is only st...

van Kleef, M A; Duine, J A

353

Factors determining production (FDP) in basketball  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to introduce a simple and easily computable metric to assess the performance of basketball players through non-scoring box-score statistics. This metric was called Factors Determining Production (FDP). FDP was created through separating points made from the remaining variables which may bequantitatively recorded. FDP was derived from the outcome of several games, it considers both teams’ statistics, and it reflects the final result of a game with noticeable merit. This metric provides a simple linear weight formula which, together with the points made by each player, yields a comprehensible picture of how well a worker(player) performed. FDP has been validated through different statistical procedures and it overcomes Win Score from a theoretical viewpoint, because it departs production (points) from factors facilitating production.

Jose A. Martinez

2012-01-01

354

ACCURACY OF PESTICIDE REFERENCE STANDARD SOLUTIONS. PART I. FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIC SOLVENT EVAPORATION  

Science.gov (United States)

A gravimetric experiment was undertaken to identify the factors affecting solvent evaporation from analytical reference standard solutions and to establish the magnitude of the resultant solvent evaporation. The evaporation of organic solvent from standard solutions is affected b...

355

Factors and pharmaceuticals that affect the radiopharmaceuticals bio distributions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The pattern of biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals may be affected by various agents and therapeutical procedures, chemotherapy agents, thyroid hormones, metals, radiotherapy, surgery, anesthetic agents, dialysis other radiopharmaceutical interactions. Recommendations for the detection of altered biodistribution in patients by causes not directly related with the pathology itself was given. pathology itself was given

1994-07-01

356

Factors Affecting the Reporting of Sexual Harassment in the Navy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Only a small fraction of Navy members who experience sexual harassment use the Navy's formal grievance channels to report it. This study was conducted to identify factors associated with reporting of sexual harassment and with the filing of formal sexual ...

S. Booth-Kewley

1995-01-01

357

Factors That Affect Feed Intake of Meat Birds: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feed intake is the major factor that influences both the body weight gain and feed efficiency in meat-type poultry. Because so many factors can influence feed intake, it is often difficult to correct a problem of poor feed intake unless a complete review of feed and management practices is made. Management and flock health issues are usually more likely to reduce feed intake than dietary factors. Dietary factors that influence feed intake would be common among all flocks in a complex rather than on individual flocks. In contrast, environmental or immunological stresses have the most profound effects on flock variation in feed intake. Any management protocol that would alleviate these stressors will improve feed intake. To improve flock feed intake, initially investigate the source of greatest stress or disease challenge.

Peter R. Ferket; Abel G. Gernat

2006-01-01

358

[The Factors which Affect the Neurological Condition in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The factors which were related to the neurological condition were analyzed in 233 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Bivariate analysis and multiple(binomial)logistic regression analysis were performed as for Hunt & Kosnik grade, modified Rankin Scale at discharge and modified Rankin Scale in the out-patient department to detect the factors which were related to the neurological condition. Hematoma-filled intraventricular hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage with midline shift, acute subdural hematoma and aneurysm of the vertebrobasilar system were the representative factors which caused poor neurological condition. Hunt & Kosnik grade was poor when rebleeding occurred or hematoma was formed in the sylvian fissure. Hunt & Kosnik grade and modified Rankin Scale at discharge tended to be poor in the cases with acute hydrocephalus. The elevation of intracranial pressure was the major factor in neurological deterioration.

Oyama H; Wada K; Kito A; Maki H; Noda T

2013-10-01

359

Factors Affecting Malaysian Mobile Banking Adoption: An Empirical Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This empirical study aims to investigate the factors that influence Malaysians’ intention to adopt mobile banking by extending the renowned framework of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A self-administrated questionnaire had been developed and distributed in Malaysia. Out of the 400 questionnaires, only 175 usable questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 43.75 percent. Results were subsequently analyzed by using multiple regression and factor analysis. Factors such as perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), relative advantages (RA) and personal innovativeness (PI) were found positively related with theintention to adopt mobile banking services. However, social norms (SN) were the only factor found insignificant. As expected, perceived risks (PR) was negatively associated with the mobile banking adoption. The research findings provide several important implications for banks, service developers, and software engineer with better strategic insights to design and implement mobile banking services to yield higher consumer acceptance towards mobile banking in Malaysia.

Ching Mun Cheah; Aik Chuan Teo; Jia Jia Sim; Kam Hoe Oon; Boon In Tan

2011-01-01

360

Erythropoietin does not affect TNF and IL-6 production directly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The tissue-protective action of erythropoietin (EPO) in animal models is often associated with reduced inflammation. However, there are many contrasting reports of the effect of EPO on the production of inflammatory cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro, with different papers reporting an inhibition, an upregulation, or a lack of effect. Negative results are likely underestimated by a publication bias. As EPO has anti-inflammatory actions in models associated with tissue injury, we hypothesized that EPO could specifically inhibit the induction of inflammatory cytokines by danger signals associated with cell death, and investigated its effect on the induction of IL-6 or TNF by high-mobility group-box 1 protein (HMGB1) or by necrotic cells. We did not observe any significant effect of EPO in these models; neither EPO affected the response induced by TLR agonists different from LPS, or by extracellular ATP-mediated activation of the inflammasome. We conclude that the inhibition of inflammation by EPO is likely to be an indirect effect, secondary to its tissue-protective activity, or that it requires a prior priming induced by the injury.

Cervellini I; Sacre S; Ghezzi P; Mengozzi M

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Factors affecting the composition of oligosaccharides produced in chitosan hydrolysis using immobilized chitosanases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrolysis reaction of chitosan using immobilized chitosanases with regard to the composition of its products and the yield of the intermediate target products, pentamer and hexamer of chitosan oligosaccharides, was investigated. Chitosanase was immobilized onto agar or agarose gel particles by the multipoint attachment method. In batch experiments, surface enzyme density, support particle size, temperature, agitator speed, and initial substrate concentration significantly affected the composition of the oligosaccharides produced. It was believed that these factors all related to the reaction rate and mass transfer rate at the surface of the support materials immobilizing the enzymes. These effects were summarized as a correlation with Damköhler number (Da), defined as the ratio of the maximum reaction rate to the maximum mass transfer rate. The result showed that the reaction conditions that give a low value of Da provide a high yield of pentamer and hexamer oligosaccharides. PMID:12363347

Kuroiwa, Takashi; Ichikawa, Sosaku; Hiruta, Osamu; Sato, Seigo; Mukataka, Sukekuni

362

Factors Affecting the Yield of Sunflower in the Province of Punjab (Pakistan)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pakistan spends major chunk of its foreign exchange reserves on the import of edible oil due to poor domestic base of oilseed production. Considering bleak economic condition of Pakistan, it is very essential to save forex reserves by enhancing domestic oilseed production. Among various types of oilseeds grown in the country, the sunflower, a non-traditional oilseeds has the potential to bridge the gap that exists between the domestic demand and supply due to its high oil contents and agronomic suitability to the climatic conditions of Pakistan. This research article attempts to investigate the factor affecting the yield performance of sunflower in the province of Punjab (Pakistan). A Cobb-Douglas type of function has been employed for estimation purpose.

Muhammad Siddique Javed; Asghar Ali; Hammad Badar

2001-01-01

363

Soil factors affecting tree growth on former opencast coal land  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growth of three tree species (Alnus glutinosa, Betula spp. and Quercus spp.) was related to soil factors on two restored opencast coal sites in South Wales, UK. The main factors favouring tree growth were greater soil depth and organic content. Factors limiting growth included poor site drainage and high magnesium levels. Whilst all species were related to most of the above factors, soil depth was of particular importance for Alnus glutinosa and Betula spp., whilst site drainage had the greatest influence for Betula spp. Soil-tree associations tended to be closer on the older of the two sites. Combinations of soil depth, percentage clay and percentage organic content in a multiple regression predicted around 40% of the growth variation in Alnus glutinosa, between 6.9 and 32% of that for Betula spp. and between 14.5 and 32.6% of that for Quercus spp. Growth prediction for Betula spp. improved to 40.9 and 34.8% when a site drainage factor was included in the regression. The development of such predictive relationships might contribute to the planning of site reinstatement for tree planting after opencast mining, and to a better `matching` of tree species to site characteristics.

Scullion, J.; Malinovszky, K.M. [University of Wales, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom). Inst. of Biological Sciences, Soil Science Unit

1995-12-01

364

Discrimination, Affect, and Cancer Risk Factors among African Americans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether stress or depressive symptoms mediated associations between perceived discrimination and multiple modifiable behavioral risk factors for cancer among 1363 African American adults. METHODS: Nonparametric bootstrapping procedures, adjusted for sociodemographics, were used to assess mediation. RESULTS: Stress and depressive symptoms each mediated associations between discrimination and current smoking, and discrimination and the total number of behavioral risk factors for cancer. Depressive symptoms also mediated the association between discrimination and overweight/obesity (p values < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Discrimination may influence certain behavioral risk factors for cancer through heightened levels of stress and depressive symptoms. Interventions to reduce cancer risk may need to address experiences of discrimination, as well as the stress and depression they engender.

Cuevas AG; Reitzel LR; Adams CE; Cao Y; Nguyen N; Wetter DW; Watkins KL; Regan SD; McNeill LH

2014-01-01

365

FACTORS AFFECTING THE OUTCOME OF OOCYTE DONATION CYCLES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The success of oocyte donation is influenced by multiple factors. We performed a retrospective analysis to evaluate prognostic factors in oocyte donation cycles. The main outcome measurements including recipient age, donor age, estradiol level in midcycle, the day of transfer and number of transferred embryos were not different in pregnant and non pregnant groups. Endometrial pattern but not endometrial thickness was useful in predicting pregnancy outcome. Clinical pregnancy rates were not different relative to etiology of infertility. Clinical pregnancy rates in poor responders and patients with ovarian failure were 23.8% and 26.7%, respectively. Clinical pregnancy rate for zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) and rapid ZIFT was 31% vs 11.1% for uterine embryo transfer.Predictive factors for pregnancy in oocyte donation cycle were endometrial pattern and route of transfer (ZIFT and rapid ZIFT).

L. Safdarian; S. Peyvandi

2005-01-01

366

The Effects of Buildability Factors on Rebar Fixing Labour Productivity of Beamless Slabs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 Buildability is an important factor affecting labour productivity. Nevertheless, a thorough search of the literature revealed a dearth of research into its effects on in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the activity lev...

Abdulaziz M Jarkas

367

Factors affecting subjective memory complaints in the AIBL aging study: biomarkers, memory, affect, and age.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in the diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer's type is unclear. While some studies have found an association between SMCs and cognitive decline, many have found a stronger association with depression, which raises questions about their diagnostic utility. METHODS: We examined the cross-sectional association between SMC severity (as measured using the MAC-Q, a brief SMC questionnaire) and affect, memory, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers (?-amyloid deposition and the apolipoprotein E ?4 (APOE?4) allele) in healthy elderly controls (HC; M = 78.74 years, SD = 6.7) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; M = 72.74 years, SD = 8.8). We analyzed a subset of individuals drawn from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Study of Aging. RESULTS: SMCs were more severe in MCI patients than in HCs. SMC severity was related to affective variables and the interaction between age and group membership (HC/MCI). Within the HC group, SMC severity was related to affective variables only, while severity correlated only with age in the MCI group. SMCs were not related to cognitive variables or AD biomarkers. CONCLUSION: SMCs were related to solely by poorer mood (greater depressive and anxious symptomatology) in the cognitively healthy elderly however mean levels were subclinical. This finding argues for the assessment of affective symptomatology in conjunction with cognitive assessment in elderly memory complainers. Future AIBL research will focus on assessing other AD biomarkers, such as brain atrophy and A? plasma markers, in relation to complaint severity. Once our 36-month follow-up data are collected, we propose to assess whether SMCs can predict future cognitive decline.

Buckley R; Saling MM; Ames D; Rowe CC; Lautenschlager NT; Macaulay SL; Martins RN; Masters CL; O'Meara T; Savage G; Szoeke C; Villemagne VL; Ellis KA

2013-08-01

368

A Unique Prime Decomposition Result for Wreath Product Factors  

CERN Document Server

We use malleable deformations combined with spectral gap rigidity theory, in the framework of Popa's deformation/rigidity theory to prove unique tensor product decomposition results for II$_1$ factors arising as tensor product of wreath product factors.

Sizemore, James Owen

2011-01-01

369

An evaluation of factors affecting duration of orthodontic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One of the first questions asked by new orthodontic patients is: How long will I need to wear my braces? A multitude of factors have the potential to influence the answer to this question. The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify some of the primary factors that influence orthodontic treatment duration. Few studies have attempted to evaluate these factors. Data were gathered from 140 consecutively completed, comprehensive treatment patient records in five orthodontic offices. Thirty-one variables related to patient characteristics, diagnostic factors, modality of treatment, and patient cooperation were evaluated. Average treatment time was 28.6 months with a range of 23.4 to 33.4 months among the five offices. Nearly half (46.9%) of the variation in treatment duration was explained by a five-step multiple regression analysis. Included in the regression equation were the number of missed appointments, the number of replaced brackets and bands, the number of treatment phases, the number of negative chart entries regarding oral hygiene, and the prescription of headgear wear during treatment. An additional 6.7% of the variance was explained by variation among the five offices. Six of the 31 variables examined made a statistically significant (alpha =.01) contribution to the explanation of variation in treatment time. The quality of the finished cases and the appropriateness of the original diagnosis and treatment plan were not evaluated. Developing an objective assessment to evaluate these areas may be important for increasing our understanding of treatment time variation.

Beckwith FR; Ackerman RJ Jr; Cobb CM; Tira DE

1999-04-01

370

Factors affecting the implementation of green specifications in construction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Green specifications constitute one of the important elements in green construction. New sustainability requirements and changing priorities in construction management have spurred the emerging green specifications to a faster pace of development. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted in Hong Kong in 2007 to identify principal factors leading to the success of preparing green specifications. Based on extensive construction management literature, 20 variables concerning sustainable construction were summarized. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, the subtle differences between stakeholders in specifying construction work have been detected even with the high consistency of the responses among the groups. Moreover, five independent factors for successful specification of green construction have been categorized by factor analysis. They are related to (1) green technology and techniques, (2) reliability and quality of specification, (3) leadership and responsibility, (4) stakeholder involvement, and (5) guide and benchmarking systems. Whilst the first and fourth factors are generally more important, different stakeholder groups have different emphases. The results of the survey have been validated against established principles.

Lam PT; Chan EH; Poon CS; Chau CK; Chun KP

2010-01-01

371

Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors

Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

2013-01-01

372

Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.

Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine

2006-01-01

373

Factors affecting cosmic-ray doses at aircraft altitudes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cosmic rays make a significant, but not normally a dominant, contribution to the radiation dose of people all over the world. However, doses rise with altitude and the earth's magnetic field means that latitude also becomes important. Solar activity imposes a further, time dependent, variation. This article gives more details of these factors in the context of radiation protection as applied to air travel.

Kendall GM

2000-11-01