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Sample records for factors affecting productivity

  1. Factors Affecting Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    M.Mathiyazhagan; A.Ganapathi

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable alternate fuel to diesel engines that could be partially orfully replace or reduce the use of petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be produced fromplant and animal fats through transesterification reaction. The transesterification reaction isaffected by molar ratio of alcohol, presence of water and Free Fatty Acid content, reactiontemperature, catalyst concentration and agitation speed. This review paper discuss aboutthe factors involved in transesterification reaction.

  2. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING LABOR PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Prashant Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many problems arises in the construction based projects. The complex factors like cost, time duration, quality, safety and satisfaction may affect the quality of the building construction projects. In this paper, we will study the factors that affect the labor productivity in the field of building construction projects. The survey was distributed to Project Manager, Project Engineer, Architecture, and Others (Scheduler, and Estimator. It was concluded, final cost of the projects were higher than estimated cost. It’s recommended to develop human resources through proper and continuous training programs frame a well-built jobs, vision and a planned approach to overcome the disturbances on the performance of the construction projects. The conversed factors are estimated to support in carrying out construction projects productively.

  3. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  4. Factors Affecting Milk Production in Buffaloes: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maqsood Hussain, Abdul Ghafoor And Abdul Saboor

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified the effect of major factors affecting the milk production in buffaloes. The important factors considered for the estimation of milk production included the value of dry fodder, the value of green fodder, the value of concentrate, number of lactations and the value of labour hours. A production function for milk was estimated by employing Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression. In the estimated model among all the relevant variables, green fodder, lactation number and lab...

  5. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    Sohail, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

  6. Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas C. Soteriou; George C. Hadjinicola

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM) groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as ...

  7. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    OpenAIRE

    Eda Atilgan-Inan; Aslihan Buyukkupcu; Serkan Akinci

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspec...

  8. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

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    Eda Atilgan-Inan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of management in the related periods. The results indicated that organizational factors have always been important for new product development process, which is in line with the nature of the innovation process. But the emphasis on internal factors has increased in the 21st century which is congruent with the change in management perspective foregrounding resource based view. The study differs from the similar literature review studies on the point that it deals with the topic from international marketing perspective. Therefore, R&D and other marketing studies are not included in the review and the study proposes the important factors from international firms’ point of view.

  9. Factores grupales que inciden en la productividad / Group factors affecting productivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cequea, Mirza Marvel; Miguel, Núñez Bottini; Carlos, Rodríguez-Monroy.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las organizaciones en la actualidad están sometidas permanentemente a cambios acelerados, obligándolas a incrementar su flexibilidad y adaptabilidad para mantener su posición competitiva, sobrevivir a estas presiones lograr sus objetivos y ser más productivas. Por estas razones, la productividad del [...] factor humano es fundamental, ya que son las personas las que realizan los procesos creativos que generan resultados en las organizaciones. Cuando las personas interactúan en la organización se generan unos procesos de carácter psicosocial que incide en el desempeño de individuos, grupos y organización y se denominan Factores grupales, porque son producto de la actuación de las personas en grupos de trabajo. Dichos factores tienen impacto en la productividad, por lo que resulta de interés el estudio de estas relaciones. Con el fin de analizar este impacto, se presenta relaciones Factores Grupales-Productividad, mediante un Modelo de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM), donde los Factores Grupales y la Productividad son constructos o variables latentes explicadas por variables observables o indicadores. El modelo planteado, es aceptado de acuerdo con los índices globales de ajuste y a las cargas factoriales de las variables del modelo resultante. Se corroboró que los factores grupales, tales como Cohesión, Conflicto, Consenso y Moral, inciden en la productividad. Abstract in english Organizations today are undergoing rapid change permanently, forcing them to increase their flexibility and adaptability to stay competitive, to survive these pressures, achieve their goals and be more productive. For these reasons, the productivity of the human factor is critical because it is the [...] people doing the creative processes those results in organizations. When people interact in the organization are a generated psychosocial process that affects the performance of individuals, groups and organization and are called group factors, because they are the product of individual behavior in work groups. These factors have an impact on productivity, so it is interesting to study these relationships. To analyze this impact is presented group factors-productivity relationships through a Structural Equation Model (SEM), where the group factors and productivity are constructs or latent variables explained by observable variables or indicators. The proposed model is accepted in accordance with the global fit indices and factor loadings of the variables of the resulting model. It was confirmed that the group factors, such as Cohesion, Conflict, Consensus and Moral affect productivity.

  10. Factors affecting CFC end-user conversion to substitute products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the issues facing CFC end-users as they convert to non-CFC systems. The various end use applications for CFCs are quite diverse (e.g., refrigerants, blowing agents foam plastics, aerosol propellant, solvent cleaning); each of the applications will likely have different substitute solutions. For most applications there appears to be both a short-term and long-term solution to the problem, whereas in other applications no suitable replacement for CFCs are apparent. Other fluorocarbons, (i.e., HCFCs and HCFs) are under consideration for many applications. Some of the factors to be addressed that affect the conversion time include: substitute performance in end use application, equipment conversions required to use the substitutes, as well as commercial availability of substitutes

  11. Applying total interpretive structural modeling to study factors affecting construction labour productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Sayali Shrikrishna Sandbhor; Rohan P. Botre

    2014-01-01

    Construction sector has always been dependent on manpower. Most of the activities carried out on any construction site are labour intensive. Since productivity of any project depends directly on productivity of labour, it is a prime responsibility of the employer to enhance labour productivity. Measures to improve the same depend on analysis of positive and negative factors affecting productivity. Major attention should be given to factors that decrease the productivity of labour. Factor anal...

  12. Affecting Factors and Security System of Food Production - A Case Study of Mingshan County

    OpenAIRE

    Lin zheng; Wenxiu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The Grey Relational Analysis of food production has been established based on the data of grain production in Mingshan County, Sichuan province, collected from 2003 to 2008. According to the Relational Grade, factors that affect the County’s input on grain production and the degree of their influence have been analyzed. The conclusion is that unit grain yield, sown area of grain, and rural labor force is important factors affecting the county’s food production. Thus many advices were prop...

  13. Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as an elite set. The results show that three factors increase both the research productivity and the quality of the articles published by professors of a POM group. These factors are (a the presence of a POM research center, (b funding received from external sources for research purposes, and (c better library facilities. Doctoral students do assist in improving research quality and productivity, but they are not the driving force. These results have important implications for establishing policy guidelines for business schools. For example, real-world problems are funded by external sources and have a higher probability of publication. Furthermore, schools could place more emphasis on external funding, as most engineering schools do, since groups receiving external funding are more productive in terms of research.

  14. Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas C. Soteriou

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as an elite set. The results show that three factors increase both the research productivity and the quality of the articles published by professors of a POM group. These factors are (a the presence of a POM research center, (b funding received from external sources for research purposes, and (c better library facilities. Doctoral students do assist in improving research quality and productivity, but they are not the driving force. These results have important implications for establishing policy guidelines for business schools. For example, real-world problems are funded by external sources and have a higher probability of publication. Furthermore, schools could place more emphasis on external funding, as most engineering schools do, since groups receiving external funding are more productive in terms of research.

  15. Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly

  16. Some factors affecting tannase production by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hamada A., Aboubakr; Malak A., El-Sahn; Amr A., El-Banna.

    Full Text Available One variable at a time procedure was used to evaluate the effect of qualitative variables on the production of tannase from Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem. These variables including: fermentation technique, agitation condition, tannins source, adding carbohydrates incorporation with tannic acid, nitr [...] ogen source type and divalent cations. Submerged fermentation under intermittent shaking gave the highest total tannase activity. Maximum extracellular tannase activity (305 units/ 50 mL) was attained in medium containing tannic acid as tannins source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source at 30 ºC for 96 h. All added carbohydrates showed significant adverse effects on the production of tannase. All tested divalent cations significantly decreased tannase production. Moreover, split plot design was carried out to study the effect of fermentation temperature and fermentation time on tannase production. The results indicated maximum tannase production (312.7 units/50 mL) at 35 ºC for 96 h. In other words, increasing fermentation temperature from 30 ºC to 35 ºC resulted in increasing tannase production.

  17. Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Njeri Gathura

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text...

  18. Factors affecting future crude oil production in South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the face of booming regional demand, crude oil production in the South East Asian region will decline from a 1996 peak of 5.7 million barrels a day to 3.5 million barrels a day in 2005 unless major new exploration investments are undertaken. The current fiscal terms for such investment will not attract continued significant funds to the region given the low crude price outlook, tough competitive global environment for the upstream industry, and the emergence of more attractive fiscal terms in politically and commercially stable countries with proven prospectivity. There is evidence from the emerging trend toward fiscal terms softening and differentiation around risk in some countries, that the commercial reality is becoming accepted. It remains to be seen if the various national political, bureaucratic and industry constituencies guiding these decisions within the region can respond decisively to mitigate the growing crude import dependency. (author). 2 tabs

  19. Factors affecting industrial wood, material production yield in Turkey’s natural beech forests

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    Atilla Atik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to determine the most important factors affecting industrial wood material production yield in natural oriental beech forests in Turkey using a multifaceted approach and to help entrepreneurs consider these factors to develop more sensitive and realistic production plans. In Günye Forest Management in Bart?n province of the West Black Sea Region of Turkey, 41 production units were chosen as the study area. The 1277 ha study area was included in the 2007 and 2010 production management plan. The general state of the stand, natural stand structure, and production methods and tools are the factors thought most strongly affect industrial wood material production yield; 26 variables representing these factors were evaluated in the study. Through multidimensional statistical analyses, including main components, factor and regression  analysis, we found that the most important factors affecting production yield were fertility, aspect of land, skidding method, stand structure, skidding distance, growing stock, transportation and harmful abiotic factors. Production units were divided into three groups based on yield rates and the 26 variables, using discriminate analysis. From the results of the study, a sample model can be developed to help forest managers predict and plan annual industrial wood production more sensitively and realistically.

  20. Applying total interpretive structural modeling to study factors affecting construction labour productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayali Shrikrishna Sandbhor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Construction sector has always been dependent on manpower. Most of the activities carried out on any construction site are labour intensive. Since productivity of any project depends directly on productivity of labour, it is a prime responsibility of the employer to enhance labour productivity. Measures to improve the same depend on analysis of positive and negative factors affecting productivity. Major attention should be given to factors that decrease the productivity of labour. Factor analysis thus is an integral part of any study aiming to improve productivity.  Interpretive structural modeling is a methodology for identifying and summarizing relationships among factors which define an issue or problem. It provides a means to arrange the factors in an order as per their complexity. This study attempts to use the latest version of interpretive structural modeling i.e. total interpretive structural modeling to analyze factors negatively affecting construction labour productivity. It establishes interpretive relationship among these factors facilitating improvement in the overall productivity of construction site.

  1. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Eller, Fred J.; Palmquist, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-?-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about...

  2. Production of Uricase Enzyme from Aspergillus niger and Determination of Some Factors Affecting the Activity

    OpenAIRE

    ERTAN, Figen

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to obtain uricase enzyme from Aspergillus niger and also to determine the production conditions and the effects of some factors on enzyme activity. The results of the experiments, in consideration of the production of the uricase enzyme and the factors affecting the production, demonstrated that enzyme activity was maximum when the production time was 3 days at a temperature of 30ºC with the initial pH at 6.0 and inductor concentration at 0.1%. It was determined th...

  3. Affecting Factors and Security System of Food Production - A Case Study of Mingshan County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Grey Relational Analysis of food production has been established based on the data of grain production in Mingshan County, Sichuan province, collected from 2003 to 2008. According to the Relational Grade, factors that affect the County’s input on grain production and the degree of their influence have been analyzed. The conclusion is that unit grain yield, sown area of grain, and rural labor force is important factors affecting the county’s food production. Thus many advices were proposed, like giving priority to food security, strictly implementing farmland protection system, increasing grain yield through the improvement of per capita output, and improving preferential policies relating to grain production.

  4. Main factors that affect the economic efficiency of broiler breeder production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EH, Carvalho; JB, Zilli; AS, Mendes; GM, Morello; DV, Bonamigo.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the factors that affect the economic efficiency of broiler breeder production using the analysis of stochastic profit frontier function. Data were collected in 48 broiler breeder farms contracted by a commercial company located in southwestern Paraná, Brazil. The coll [...] ected data refer to the last batch of fertile eggs that was delivered to the company, between January, 2008, and July, 2009. The following parameters were evaluated: production of hatching eggs per hen (number of eggs/hen), hatchability (hatch %), feed intake per hatching egg (g feed/ egg), production scale (number of birds/batch), farmer's experience in production activities, and labor type. Factors, such as area of occupied land, electricity costs, and invested capital were also evaluated. Results showed that the cost of electricity, as well as area of occupied land, production scale, and feed intake per hatching egg significantly affect the economic efficiency of the broiler breeder farms in Southwestern Paraná, Brazil.

  5. Factors affecting pheromone production by the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and collection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several factors which might affect pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were investigated. Included were a comparison of porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), the effect of male age, the effect of time of day, the effect of mal...

  6. Factors affecting phaeomelanin production by a melanin-producing (mel) mutant of Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivins, B. E.; Holmes, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    In a previous study we isolated melanin-producing (mel) mutants of Vibrio cholerae and demonstrated that production of melanin during growth on solid media was stimulated by L-tyrosine and L-cysteine. In the studies reported here we analyzed factors that affected melanin production in liquid media and determined the abilities of radioactively labeled amino acids to serve as precursors for the formation of melanin by V. cholerae. Radioactivity from L-cysteine and from L-tyrosine was preferenti...

  7. Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Njeri Gathura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text books and factory publications. The target population was over 700,000 small-scale coffee producers in Kenya out of which the accessible population of 10,000 producers drawn from Githunguri District in Kiambu County was selected which a sample size of 120 respondents was sampled. Stratified sampling technique was employed to compare views among coffee producers from the various coffee societies in the area. Data analysis was both qualitative and quantitative using descriptive statistics. Data presentation was in form of tables to help interpret findings and generate conclusions that aided solutions to identified problems. The research established that marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources greatly affected coffee production. The study recommended that the government should encourage coffee production by formulating favorable marketing factors and other policies and provide finances to small scale coffee producers. Producers on the other hand should strive to provide conducive working environment to their workers so as to sustain them in their farms. This will help to improve coffee yields and quality.

  8. Export of Pharmaceutical Products : An analysis of which factors that affects Sweden’s export of pharmaceutical products

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfsson, Per

    2007-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is one of Sweden’s most important export industries with 6% of total exports. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse which factors affect Sweden’s ex-port of pharmaceutical products. Further, the different pharmaceutical products group Sweden exports will be identified. The modern trade theory, the monopolistic competition model, the product life cycle theory and the gravity equation are used to explain and to un-derstand the problem at hand. To analyse the p...

  9. Commercially Grown Short Rotation Coppice Willow in Denmark : Biomass Production and Factors Affecting Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Sevel, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate biomass production in commercially grown short rotation coppice willow in Denmark and to investigate effects of site and management factors on willow yield. Biomass production assessed by non-destructive sampling on 296 plots from 25 plantations was analyzed using a mixed model approach. Average production in the stands varied between 2.4 and 15.1 odt ha?1 year?1, and average second rotation growth (8.2 odt ha?1 year?1) was significantly higher than first rotation growth (6.5 odt ha?1 year?1). Annual production was significantly correlated with clone, soil texture, soil drainage, fertilization, weeds, rotation number, and shoot age. Further, interactions between clone and soil drainage as well as between clone and soil texture were significant, indicating the importance of a site-specific choice of clones.

  10. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Collection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred J. Eller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q, male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-?-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on” and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h. Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

  11. Factors affecting remote handling productivity during installation of the ITER-like wall at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The paper describes the challenges to achieve the installation of the ILW beryllium sliced wall. ? Examines the factual difference between estimated remote handling in-vessel durations and those achieved, with a view to quantifying the typical disparity between the two. ? The paper will elaborate and highlight the contributing factors. This offers an opportunity to provide provenance for availability estimates of devices such as ITER and DEMO. ? The paper will identify and describe the factors influencing the ratio between estimated versus the actual durations for remote handling operations. -- Abstract: Remote handling operations at JET have encountered many challenges to achieve the installation of the ILW beryllium sliced wall during the Enhanced Performance stage 2 (EP2) shutdown of JET. This was a demanding and challenging activity which was based on the experience gained from a period of over 15 years (20,000 h operations) of JET In-Vessel remote handling operations. This paper describes the difference between estimated remote handling in-vessel durations and those actually achieved with a view to quantifying the typical disparity between them. There are many factors that affect productivity of the remote handling operations and it is important to accommodate these either in the design of the component or within the production of the operational procedures with a view to minimise all impact on the final task duration. Some factors that affect the efficiency are outside the control of the design and operational procedures. These are unforeseen anomalies that were encountered during the removal, naked wall survey and installation of the components. Recoveries from these anomalies are extremely challenging and need to be addressed efficiently in order to minimise the impact on the shutdown duration and prevent optimised panned activities from becoming inefficient by fragmentation

  12. Factors affecting the production of L-xylulose by resting cells of recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usvalampi, Anne; Kiviharju, Kristiina; Leisola, Matti; Nyyssölä, Antti

    2009-10-01

    Factors affecting the production of the rare sugar L-xylulose from xylitol using resting cells were investigated. An E. coli BPT228 strain that recombinantly expresses a gene for xylitol dehydrogenase was used in the experiments. The ratio of xylitol to L-xylulose was three times lower in the cytoplasm than in the medium. The effects of pH, temperature, shaking speed, and initial xylitol concentration on L-xylulose production were investigated in shaking flasks using statistical experimental design methods. The highest production rates were found at high shaking speed and at high temperature (over 44 degrees C). The optimal pH for both productivity and conversion was between 7.5 and 8.0, and the optimal xylitol concentration was in the range 250-350 g l(-1). A specific productivity of 1.09 +/- 0.10 g g(-1) h(-1) was achieved in a bioreactor. The response surface model based on the data from the shake flask experiments predicted the operation of the process in a bioreactor with reasonable accuracy. PMID:19603212

  13. Cassava sector development in Cameroon: Production and marketing factors affecting price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Stephanie Meyo Mvodo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Regular and available supply is the prerequisite of an effective and efficient commercialization process. Using multivariate regression analysis on field data, this research appraises the production and marketing factors that influence cassava market price. The production factors include cultivated area, planting material, yield, and farmers’ field schools; while farmers access to a paved road, having a telephone, the transportation costs of fresh roots, the level of root perishability, and the prices of rice and maize stand as marketing factors. The results show that farmers who attended farmers’ field school adopted improved planting materials, propagated them in their localities and the yields in these communities increased significantly. The farm size also has a significant influence on the availability of fresh roots. On the marketing side, transportation costs, access to a paved road, the prices of rice and maize significantly affect cassava’s market price and tighten the relationship between producers and marketers. We conclude that to increase fresh roots supply, roads leading to cultivating areas should be paved, better transportation provided, communication costs reduced, even distribution of planting materials and appropriate warehouses.

  14. Factors Affecting sex pheromone production in female cotton leaf worm moth, Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors influencing sex pheromone production in the cotton leaf worm female moth with emphasis on gamma radiation were investigated. To determine the effect of age on sex pheromone production, ether extracts of the female abdominal tips were prepared from virgin females of various ages in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. Each female extract was tested against 1-2 days-old males. The obtained results indicated that virgin females could secrete sex pheromone early at the beginning of their life. The pheromone production increased rapidly to reach its maximum on the second day. To study the effect of daytime on sex pheromone production, the ether extracts of 1-2 days old virgin female abdominal tips were prepared at 3 hour-intervals, throughout the photo phase and scotophase in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. The obtained results indicated that pheromone production showed a minimum concentration at mid-day during the photo phase. It then increased to a moderate concentration from 7:0 p.m. to 10:0 p.m. and reached its maximum titer at almost mid-night. The obtained data on the effect of gamma irradiation indicated that irradiation of 3 and 6-day-old female pupae with doses of 60 and 120 Gy, respectively caused a reduction of 28.1 and 27.3 % in male response, respectively, to female sex pheromone extracts. When full-grown female pupae were irradiated with 200 and 350 Gy, a reduction of 15.6 and 75% in male response, respectively, was reached. Thus, an irradiation dose of 350 Gy applied to full-grown female pupae could severely affect pheromone production of the emerging female moths

  15. Factors Affecting Egg Production in Broiler Breeders from Start to Peak of Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of environment, nutrition and management on egg production of broiler breeders from start to peak of production. Rearing and production records of 11 Arian broiler breeder flocks, in 3 farms between 1993 and 2000, including age of broiler breeder, age of maturity, flock number, farm number, density, feeder space/hen, body weight at 20, 22 and 24 weeks, protein and energy intake/day and week, cumulative feed intake in each age, weekly body weight, season effect, diet energy and presence or lack of canal under waterers were used. All records processed in excel software and transferred to JMP 3.1.2 software for analysis. Records tested for normality and then analyzed with multiple regression analysis procedure. The results of the current study indicated that, age of broiler breeders has a dramatic effect on egg production. By delaying age of maturity after 24 weeks, uniformity and egg production in Arian broiler breeders increased. Canals under waterer in some of the farms had a negative effect on mean egg production (63 vs 52%. In the seasons of spring and autumn, mean egg production was higher than those of summer and winter (80.03, 81.08, 50.16 and 60%, respectively. The result showed that body weight at 24 weeks is a better indication of subsequent flock performance than body weight at 20 or 22 weeks. By increasing age and protein intake from 23 to 27 g/hen/day, egg production decreased. Conversely, by increasing age and energy intake, egg production increased. Under the conditions of this study, it was concluded that protein intake should not be increased from 23g/hen/day at this period. Heavier broiler breeders, who get more energy intake/day, may produce more eggs too.

  16. Analysis of Factors Affecting Total Factor Productivity of Rural Small Industries Sponsored by Jihad Agriculture Organization of Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dehghani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to measure the total factor productivity (TFP of the rural small industries in Isfahan province comprising six types of industries: food, textile, metal, non-metal mineral, chemical, and cellulose. Among the 166 rural small industries sponsored by Jihad-Agriculture Organization of Isfahan in 2001(1380, 60 plants were selected. Cross-section information collected from the 60 plants by a questionnaire in that year confirmed the body of data for this study. The distribution of the types of the 60 selected plants followed the distribution of the types in the plant population. The analytical part of this research consisted of two sections. In the first section, the TFP of the rural small industries was established by applying Cobb-Douglas production function in which the value of the plant production was the dependent variable and the investment costs, total hours of labor, costs of raw materials, and the costs of energy and water were the independent variables. Factors affecting TFP were analyzed in the second section. The estimated coefficients of the first section and the actual data of the variables, were used to calculate the TFP for each plant. Then, another regression model was worked out in which the calculated TFPs were the dependent variable. The independent variables included the mean of the number of the employees' children, the percentage of the production employees with at least primary school level of education, annual number of the off days, dummy variable for the members of the cooperative association, and a few other variables. The results of the first section showed that the TFP of food industries was higher than that of other types of industries and there was no significant difference between the TFP of textile, metal, non metal mineral, chemical and cellulose industries. The results of the analysis for determining the factors affecting the TFP, showed that the existence of a research section in the plant, the insurance of the employees and the mean of the number of employees' children had a positive effect on the TFP. But, the level of the education of the production workers, the area of the plant buildings, and the number of the days off in plant had negative effects.

  17. Factors Affecting Alternate Rice-Fish Production of Mymensingh District in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobb-Douglas production function has been used to measure the effect of various factors on alternate rice-fish production. The chosen factors were of fingerlings cost, cost of cow dung, cost of rice bran, cost of oil cake, cost of lime, cost of urea cost of human labour and cost of netting for fish production and for rice production the factors were human labour, animal labour. Cow dung, urea, TSP, MP, seed and irrigation cost. It was found that except cost of rice bran and lime for fish production all the factors were statistically significant and for the rice production animal labour, TSP and irrigation cost were the insignificant.

  18. THE TAGUCHI APPROACH IN OPTIMIZING ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTIVITY IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N.A. Rahman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the dominance effects of environmental factors such as illuminance, humidity and WBGT on operators’ productivity in the Malaysian automotive industry. A case study was carried out at an automotive components assembly factory. The environmental factors examined were the illuminance (lux, humidity and WBGT of the surrounding workstation area. Two sets of representative data including the illuminance, humidity and WBGT level and production rate were collected during the study. The production rate data were collected through observations and survey questionnaires while the illuminance level was measured using photometer model RS 180-7133, and the humidity and WBGT level were measured by using Quest Temp apparatus and humidity. The Taguchi method was utilized to find the sequence of dominant factors that contributed to the productivity of the operator at that specified production workstation. The study reveals that the dominant factor that contributed to the productivity was humidity, followed by illuminance and WBGT.

  19. THE TAGUCHI APPROACH IN OPTIMIZING ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTIVITY IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M. N. A.; Deros, B. M.; Ismail, A. R.; Haniff, M. H. M.; Kardigama, K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the dominance effects of environmental factors such as illuminance, humidity and WBGT on operators’ productivity in the Malaysian automotive industry. A case study was carried out at an automotive components assembly factory. The environmental factors examined were the illuminance (lux), humidity and WBGT of the surrounding workstation area. Two sets of representative data including the illuminance, humidity and WBGT level and production rate wer...

  20. Analyzing factors Affecting Consumers’ Attitude & Intention to Purchase Counterfeit products of luxury Brands In clothing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Ebrahimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit products & then the impact of attitude toward counterfeit products on intention to buy such products have been measured. The study method is a Survey type & in order to collect study data, a questionnaire designed with a combination of different available resources in literature has been used. To achieve the study goals, 384 individuals who purchased counterfeit products intentionally were chosen from Sari. To analyze data & test hypotheses, Study model & questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient tests, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM, Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA & one-way Variance analysis (ANONA have been applied & two Software Packages SPSS & LISREL were used. Through reviewing the literature available & analyzing experts’ views, generally, 11 variables have been identified: Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Ethical Issues, Risk averseness, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, as the influencing factors on attitude toward counterfeit products. Study Findings have indicated that the factors as Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Ethical Issues, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, have meaningful effect on attitude to counterfeit products & the impact of Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Risk averseness, was not meaningfull on view about counterfeit products. Besides, the findings have shown that attitude toward counterfeit products has a meaningful effect on intention to purchase such products.

  1. Factors Affecting Kenya Alpine Dairy Goat Milk Production in Nyeri Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mburu Monica

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Kenya use of exotic dairy goats in breeding programmes for smallholder production systems has become popular, but information on the milk production is scarce. A study was carried out to assess the milk yield of dairy goats reared in high potential and semi arid areas of Nyeri County. This involved 190 smallholder farmers rearing Alphine dairy goats in Nyeri County and registered with Dairy Goat association of Kenya (DGAK. Which formed 100% sampling of the population under study. The grade, feeding practices and age of the dairy goats were evaluated. The dairy goat average milk production was 1.90 litres per day, with the appendix grade in Kieni East giving the highest production of 2.69 liters per day while foundation grade in Mukurweini gave the lowest, 0.98 litres per day. The higher milk production in Kieni East, which is a semi arid area, was noted to be due to good feeding practices where 43% of the farmers used concentrates during milking and also 48% supplemented the feed with minerals. In the high potential area of Mukurweini none of the farmers used mineral supplements with only 5% using concentrates during milking. The age of the dam significantly affected the average milk production, with the onset of production being the age of 2.0 years, reaching the peak at the age of 6.5 years. Kieni East, gave the highest production of 4.2 litres at the age of 6 years. The results demonstrated that the low-input farming conditions affected the Alphine goats milk production.

  2. Factors affecting dystocia in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborski, D; Grzesiak, W; Szatkowska, I; Dybus, A; Muszynska, M; Jedrzejczak, M

    2009-06-01

    The paper reviews the various factors affecting dystocia in cattle. It is based mainly on the recent studies found in the literature of the subject but refers occasionally to some older papers as well. The factors are grouped into four main categories: direct factors, phenotypic factors related to calf and cow, non-genetic and genetic factors. The first group includes malpresentations and uterine torsion. The second one includes: calf birth weight, multiple calvings, perinatal mortality, cow pelvic area, cow body weight and body condition at calving, gestation length. The non-genetic factors are: cow age and parity, year and season of calving, place of calving, maintenance practises, disorders, calf sex and nutrition. Other non-genetic factors are the level of hormones in the periparturient period, in vitro production of embryos and embryo cloning. Finally, the genotypes of cow, bull and calf, inbreeding, muscular hypertrophy, selection and quantitative trait loci form the fourth group of genetic factors. PMID:19055561

  3. Tannin Biodegradation and Some Factors Affecting Tannase Production by Two Aspergillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. EL-Tanash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study two local isolates Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus oryzae were investigated for tannase production on synthetic medium containing tannic acid as sole carbon source. Optimizations of intracellular tannase production at different culture conditions using batch and submerged fermentation techniques were studied. The highest levels of tannase were detected after 2 and 3 days from A. japonicus and A. oryzae, respectively. A. japonicus degrade tannins 3.79 times faster than A. oryzae. Tannase production was optimum 2.0% tannic acid, 0.3% NH4Cl, 0.1% CaCl2 and pH 4.5. Addition of glucose adversely affected the rate of enzyme production by A. japonicus; however, A. oryzae tannase was stimulated at lower glucose levels (0.05-0.4%. Extract of 3% of China green tea was suitable for tannase production compared with other tannins. Finally, parametric optimization of tannase yielded 1.77 and 1.70 fold increase in case of A. oryzae and A. japonicus, respectively. Biodegradation of tannic acid during the fermentation course of A. oryzae indicated that, di-gallolyglucose, tri-gallolyglucose and tetra-galloylglucose appeared in the culture filtrates during the first 12 h. However, mono-gallolyglucose was the end product after 6 days.

  4. Environmental Factors Affecting Milk Production in the Holstein-Friesian Population of Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kunaka; S.M. Makuza

    2005-01-01

    The milk production of a cow is a result of the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors. Lactation records for calvings from 1979 to 1998, from Zimbabwe Dairy services Association were used to estimate the effects of the non-genetic effects on milk production. The model fitted had the fixed effects of herd, season of calving, parity and days in milk. Herd effects were significant (< 0.001). The effect of herd was found to be ranging from 14 to 47% of the total variation in th...

  5. Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Drew S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism in order to (1 determine its maximum theoretical plasmid-producing capacity, and to (2 identify factors that significantly impact plasmid production. Results Such a model was developed for the production of a high copy plasmid under conditions of batch aerobic growth on glucose minimal medium. The objective of the model was to maximize plasmid production. By employing certain constraints and examining the resulting flux distributions, several factors were determined that significantly impact plasmid yield. Acetate production and constitutive expression of the plasmid's antibiotic resistance marker exert negative effects, while low pyruvate kinase (Pyk flux and the generation of NADPH by transhydrogenase activity offer positive effects. The highest theoretical yield (592 mg/g resulted under conditions of no marker or acetate production, nil Pyk flux, and the maximum allowable transhydrogenase activity. For comparison, when these four fluxes were constrained to wild-type values, yields on the order of tens of mg/g resulted, which are on par with the best experimental yields reported to date. Conclusion These results suggest that specific plasmid yields can theoretically reach 12 times their current experimental maximum (51 mg/g. Moreover, they imply that abolishing Pyk activity and/or transhydrogenase up-regulation would be useful strategies to implement when designing host strains for plasmid production; mutations that reduce acetate production would also be advantageous. The results further suggest that using some other means for plasmid selection than antibiotic resistance, or at least weakening the marker's expression, would be beneficial because it would allow more precursor metabolites, energy, and reducing power to be put toward plasmid production. Thus far, the impact of eliminating Pyk activity has been explored experimentally, with significantly higher plasmid yields resulting.

  6. Factors Affecting Pasture and Meat Production Imbalance in Fars Province: A Case Study of Koohnamak Pastures in Darab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shirvanian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the process of agricultural development, sustainability of pasture utilization to ensure sustained production of meat and dairy products has become increasingly important. This article aims to study factors affecting pasture and meat production imbalances in Fars province. For this purpose, the transcendental production function was used. Data was collected by using two stage cluster random sampling from 71 producers. The results revealed that present method of pasture utilization is not compatible with increasing live animal meat production objective. To optimize pasture utilization, the pasture users should be advised to stop overgrazing. In addition, the results indicated that increasing livestock and pasture mismanagement causes damage to pastures and consequently would decrease meat production in the long-run.

  7. Environmental Factors Affecting Milk Production in the Holstein-Friesian Population of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kunaka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk production of a cow is a result of the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors. Lactation records for calvings from 1979 to 1998, from Zimbabwe Dairy services Association were used to estimate the effects of the non-genetic effects on milk production. The model fitted had the fixed effects of herd, season of calving, parity and days in milk. Herd effects were significant (< 0.001. The effect of herd was found to be ranging from 14 to 47% of the total variation in the records. The contribution of the herd on fat and protein percent was lower compared to the contribution to yield traits. Month of calving had a significant effect on milk, fat and protein yield (<0.0001, but had no effect on fat percent and protein percent. The highest yields were in the months of May to August. The Temperature Humidity Index (THI ranged from 55.95 to 67.78, which is within the range for breed in under study. It had no effect on protein percent. Milk production increased up to parity 5. Protein percent increased from parity one to parity two and then remained almost constant. Fat percent declined from parity one. Milk production and component production increased with increasing days in milk. However, days in milk had no significant effect on fat percent and protein percent. The effect of days dry, days open and calving interval were not studied as they were serious confounding effects which made it impossible to estimate the effects of each one of them. The results indicate that outside economic constraints Zimbabwe can produce milk without the need for strong environmental modifications.

  8. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production by Comamonas sp. EB172 Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azman Mohd Johar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Statistical approach, central composite design (CCD was used to investigate the complex interaction among temperature (25-37 °C, initial medium pH (5-9, inoculum size (4-10 % (v/v, concentration of (NH42SO4 (0-1 g/L and concentration of mixed organic acids (5-10 g/L in the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Comamonas sp. EB172.Methodology and Results: Mixed organic acids derived from anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME containing acetic:propionic:butyric (ratio of 3:1:1 were used as carbon source in the batch culture of Comamonas sp. EB172 to produce polyhydoxyalkanoates (PHAs. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that all five factors were significantly important in the batch fermentation by shake flask with a P value of less than 0.001. The optimal temperature, initial medium pH, inoculum size, concentration of (NH42SO4 and concentration of mixed organic acids were 30 °C, 7.04, 4.0 % (v/v, 0.01 g/L and 5.05 g/L respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Optimization of the production medium containing mixed organic acids has improved the PHA production for more than 2 folds. Under optimal condition in the shake flask fermentation, the predicted growth is 2.98 g/L of dry cell weight (DCW with 47.07 wt % of PHA content. The highest yield of PHA was 0.28 g of PHA per g mixed organic acids.

  9. Factors affecting the production of nanostructure lipid carriers of valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Eskandari, Sharareh; Kennedy, Ross; Tabbakhian, Majid; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize a nano-lipid carrier (NLCs) of valproic acid for nasal delivery using statistical methods. NLCs were prepared by solvent diffusion method followed by ultrasonication. After a preliminary screening study using Taguchi design, the Box-Behnken statistical model using desirability function was applied to evaluate variables affecting key specifications (minimum particle size, maximum drug loading and optimum release) of nano-lipid carriers of valproic acid. Each variable was assessed at three levels of surfactant concentration, acetone/ethanol volume ratio and organic/aqueous phase volume ratio. The best predicted model for particle size and drug release was quadratic model, while for drug loading, 2 factor interaction model fitted better. The measured results for the optimized formulation were a mean size of 154 nm, 47% payload and 75% of drug content released within 21 days. The optimum formulation was obtained using 1% of Poloxamer-188 as surfactant, organic/aqueous phase volume ratio of 1/5 and acetone/ethanol volume ratio of 3/1. Overall, the results show that entrapment of valproic acid in nano-lipid carriers was achieved. Such carriers might be a promising delivery system in the treatment of seizures via the nasal route of administration. PMID:23627046

  10. Abiotic and biotic factors affect efficacy of chlorfenapyr for control of stored-product insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Hatzikonstantinou, Ann N; Kavallieratou, Helen N

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to assess pyrole chlorfenapyr as a potential grain protectant against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae, Prostephanus truncatus, Tribolium confusum, and Liposcelis bostrychophila. Factors such as dose (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 ppm), exposure interval (7 and 14 days), temperature (20, 25, and 30°C), relative humidity (RH; 55 and 75%), and commodity (wheat, maize, barley, and paddy rice) were evaluated. Progeny production was assessed after 74 days of exposure. For L. bostrychophila and T. confusum the increase of dose increased mortality. After 7 or 14 days of exposure, mortality was low at doses of ? 1 ppm and did not exceed 23 or 36%, respectively, for L. bostrychophila or 13 or 58%, respectively, for T. confusum. After 14 days of exposure, mortality of S. oryzae at 30°C and 75% RH was 82.2%. Mortality of P. truncatus was considerably higher than that of the other species. At 0.5 ppm, mortality exceeded 81% after 7 days of exposure and 91% after 14 days of exposure. Progeny production of L. bostrychophila was extremely high. Very few progeny were found for T. confusum. For S. oryzae, offspring emergence was high, except at 20°C and 55% RH. For P. truncatus, progeny production in the treated maize was not avoided, even at 10 ppm. In the case of S. oryzae, at 0.1 ppm and after 14 days of exposure, mortality in wheat was higher than in the other three commodities. For R. dominica, mortality was low at 0.1 and 1 ppm for paddy rice but reached 74.4% in barley after 14 days of exposure. For T. confusum, mortality was low at 0.1 and 1 ppm in all commodities. For progeny production counts, for S. oryzae or R. dominica, adult emergence was higher in paddy rice than in the other three commodities. Finally, overall T. confusum progeny was low. Chlorfenapyr efficacy varied remarkably among the combinations tested, and it may be a viable grain protectant in combination with other insecticides. PMID:21819655

  11. Factors Affecting the Biomass and Lipid Production from Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 under Mixotrophic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ariful HAQUE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of media compositions on biomass and lipid accumulation of the isolate Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 were investigated under a Plackett-Burman experimental design with mixotrophic cultivation conditions. Under this experimental design there were 15 different runs with ten factors-yeast extract, KH2PO4, MgSO4, FeSO4, MnCl2, CuSO4, Na2MoO4, H3BO3, ZnSO4 and pH. Cultures were grown mixotrophically under 16 h light and 8 h dark regime at 30 ºC for a period of 7 days. During the light regime, the light intensity at the surface of the vessels and agitation speed were set to 67.5 µmol photons m-2s-1 and 150 rpm, respectively. Initial cell concentration was set to an absorbance (A540 of 0.5. For high biomass production (2.2 g/L, run no. 6, the most effective and significant factors were yeast extract, KH2PO4, FeSO4 and ZnSO4 at concentrations 0.3 g/L, 0.3 g/L, 3 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. Whereas for high lipid accumulation (19.59 %DCW, run no. 2, these were KH2PO4, pH and yeast extract, at a level of 1.7 g/L, 6.0 and 0.1 g/L, respectively. No significant factors were obtained for higher lipid content. The best treatment for biomass and lipid content was run no. 6, whose medium formula consisted of 0.3 g/L yeast extract, 1.7 g/L KH2PO4, 1.7 g/L MgSO4, 1 mg/L FeSO4, 0.9 mg/L MnCl2, and pH 7.0, together with fixed concentrations of glucose, NaHCO3 and KNO3 at 5 g/L, 0.05 g/L and 0.5 g/L, respectively.

  12. Population dynamics of dechlorinators and factors affecting the level and products of PCB dechlorination in sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.S.; Sokol, R.C.; Liu, X.; Bethoney, C.M.; Rhee, G.Y. [State Univ. of New York and New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) often stops although a significant number of removable chlorines remain. To determine the reason for the cessation, we investigated the limitation of organic carbon, PCB bioavailability, and inhibition by metabolic products. Enrichment with carbon sources did not induce additional chlorination, indicating the plateau was not due to depletion of organic carbon. The bioavailability was not limiting, since a subcritical micelle concentration of the surfactant, which enhanced desorption without inhibiting dechlorinating microorganisms, failed to lower the plateau. Neither was it due to accumulation of metabolites, since no additional dechlorination was detected when plateau sediments were incubated with fresh medium. Similarly, dechlorination was not inhibited in freshly spiked sediment slurries. Dechlorination ended up at the same level with nearly identical congener profiles, regardless of treatment. These results indicate that cessation of dechlorination was due to the accumulation of daughter congeners, which cannot be used as electron acceptors by microbes. To determine whether the decreasing availability affected the microorganisms, we determined the population dynamics of dechlorinators using the most probable number technique. The growth dynamics of the dechlorinators mirrored the time course of dechlorination. It started when the population increased by two orders of magnitude. Once dechlorination stopped the dechlorinating population also began to decrease. When dechlorinators were inoculated into PCB-free sediments, the population decreased over time. The decrease of the population as dechlorination ceased confirms that the diminishing availability of congeners was the reason for the incomplete dechlorination. Recent findings have shown that a second phase of dechlorination of certain congeners can occur after a long lag. 45 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Some factors affecting production and milk composition characters in a crossbreeding experiment involving Gabali and V- line rabbits in Egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    Iraqi, M.M.; Shenana, M.E.; Baselga, M

    2007-01-01

    Data from 662 litters and 221 samples (two replicates per each sample) of rabbit milk were collectedfrom three different genetic groups [Gabali (G), V-line (V) and GxV (F1)] to study the effect of line and of somenon-genetic factors affecting production and milk composition traits. The studied traits were: number bornalive (LSBA); litter size at weaning (LSW); litter weight born alive (LWBA); litter weight at weaning (LWW); totalmilk yield (TMY) and protein, fat, total solids (TS), ash, phosp...

  14. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, C H; Vu, C C; Sommer, S G; Bruun, S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. PMID:25050049

  15. Factors affecting process temperature and biogas production in small-scale rural biogas digesters in winter in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuong, Pham Hung; Vu, C.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. © 2014 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.

  16. Factors Affecting Kenya Alpine Dairy Goat Milk Production in Nyeri Region

    OpenAIRE

    Mburu Monica; Mugendi Beatrice; Makhoka Anselimo; Muhoho Simon

    2014-01-01

    In Kenya use of exotic dairy goats in breeding programmes for smallholder production systems has become popular, but information on the milk production is scarce. A study was carried out to assess the milk yield of dairy goats reared in high potential and semi arid areas of Nyeri County. This involved 190 smallholder farmers rearing Alphine dairy goats in Nyeri County and registered with Dairy Goat association of Kenya (DGAK). Which formed 100% sampling of the population under study. The grad...

  17. Factors affecting mycelial biomass and exopolysaccharide production in submerged cultivation of Antrodia cinnamomea using complex media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, En-Shyh; Chen, Yueh-Hsiang

    2007-09-01

    Submerged cultures were used to identify growth-limiting nutrients by Antrodia cinnamomea strains. The mycelial biomass and EPS production by A. cinnamomea BCRC 35396 were markedly higher than other A. cinnamomea strains. A relatively high C/N ratio was favorable for both the mycelial growth (5.41 g/l) and EPS production (0.55 g/l); the optimum ratio was 40. The glucose was available utilized preferentially for mycelial growth, rather than for EPS production. Flushing the culture medium with nitrogen had a stimulating effect on both mycelial growth and EPS production. In addition, peptone, yeast extract and malt extract appeared to be important and significant component for EPS production. Phosphate ion, magnesium ion and thiamine were probably not essential for mycelial growth. By optimizing the effects of additional nutrition, the results showed that 5% (w/v) glucose, 0.8% (w/v) peptone, 0.8% (w/v) yeast extract, 0.8% (w/v) malt extract, 0.03% (w/v) KH2PO4, 0.1% (w/v) MgSO4 .7H2O and 0.1% (w/v) thiamine could lead to the maximum production of EPS (1.36 g/l). PMID:17071080

  18. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING GROUNDNUT PRODUCTION IN SABONGARI LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Usman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundnut an important oil seed crop provides significant sources of cash through the sales of seed, cakes, oil and haulms. Groundnut plays an important role in the diets of rural populations. Groundnut pod yields from farmer’s field are low, averaging about 800 kg per ha, less than one-third the potential yield of 3000 kg per ha. This large gap is of concern and in view of this, the study was carried out to assess the socio economic characteristics of groundnut farmers, determine the level of profitability of groundnut production, the resource use efficiency as well as to find out problems encountered in groundnut production in Sabon-gari local government area. Seventy-nine farmers involved in groundnut production were randomly selected from the various farms located within the local government area. Data were collected using primary and secondary sources. To examine the profitability of groundnut production, the gross margin and cost benefit analysis were carried out. The result of the study shows that experienced farmers are less involved in groundnut production and most groundnut farmers are engaged in other form of businesses. The cost, availability, and lack of technical knowledge of inputs requirements are responsible for poor use of the inputs. Labour, fertilizer, seed and herbicides are all over utilized except insecticide which is underutilized. Among the problems encountered in groundnut production in the study are lacks of capital and extension services. These two problems accounted for over 78% of the problem of groundnut in the study area. It is therefore recommended that government and research institutes should strengthen extension services to deliver improved technologies to the farmers. Farmers are also advised to source for loans through cooperatives, banks and other available sources at low charges and the procedure for loan should be made simple to enable farmers’ access loans so that groundnut production can be improved.

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTOR THAT AFFECT TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimjel Zalkuwi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 250 farmers using purposive and simple random sampling with aid of structured schedule .The result of the stochastic frontier production 2 function analysis shows that the variance parameters, that is the sigma squared (? and the gamma (? were statistically significant at 1 % level for cowpea production. The coefficient of farm size, labour, seed and chemical were positive and significant at 1% level while family and hired labor was negative and insignificant. Profit level can be increased by increasing the amount of farm size, labour, quantity of seed and chemical, and decreasing the use of fertilizer. Mean efficiency were 0.73, Farmers operate at 27% below frontier level due to variation in technical efficiency. The inefficiency model shows that the coefficient of Age, family size and farming experience have negative apriori sign and in consonance with the apriori expectation

  20. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting production potential of Butana dairy cows at Atbara Research Station, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Badri,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of year and season of calving and cows' parity order on milk yield, lactation period, persistency and longevity were studied using 1338 records of 222 Butana dairy cows. Estimates of heritability and repeatability of these traits were also studied. Data were classified according to years of calving into 1949 –1959, 1960-1969, 1970-1979, 1980-1989 and 1990–1999 groups. Further data classification was done according to season of calving into dry summer (March–June, wet summer (July-October and winter (November-February groups. Data were also classified according to cow's parity order into ten parity groups. General linear model was conducted to examine the significance of the tested effects. Overall means of total milk yield, lactation period, persistency and longevity were 1709.50 ± 892.10 kg, 248.40 ± 91.30 days, 75.16 ± 48.58% and 6.56 ± 3.18 years, respectively. Milk yield was significantly affected by year of calving and parity order, persistency was not affected by any of the studied factors, while longevity was affected by year and season of calving. Heritability of these traits was low (ranged between 0.01 and 0.14 while repeatability ranged between 0.17 and 0.23. The study concluded that Butana breed are promising dairy cows and their production potential traits were mainly affected by the non genetic environmental factors such as managerial changes during years, seasonal variations and age of cows. However, the traits values were repeatable during the animal’s life.

  1. Factors affecting productivity of research-based pharmaceutical companies following mergers and acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandrawinata, Raymond R.; Simanjuntak, Destrina Grace

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) activities in research-based pharmaceutical companies, specifically the impact of R&D expenditure, profitability, and sales revenue on firms’ productivity, R&D intensity, in pharmaceutical industries following M&A activities. The model was estimated using annual data, gathered from seven large research-based pharmaceutical companies pre and post-M&A, during the period 2003 until 2010. The regression analysis method uses a fixe...

  2. Factors affecting growth performance in beef production: an on farm survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ramanzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate sources of variation of average daily gain in beef cattle, with an on farm approach, in the Veneto region. Data of 38707 animals fattened in 29 farms and belonging to 5 genotypes (Charolais, Charolais Female, French Crossbred, Limousin and Polish Friesian were analysed considering type of farm, farm nested within type, genotype, housing system, arrival live weight, percentage of dead and injured animals, season of sale and diet. Genotype, farm, percentage of unhealthy animals and season of sale significantly affected average daily gain. Charolais and French Crossbred showed the highest values of average daily gain, Charolais Female the lowest. The effect of farm suggests that management is very important for growth performance in beef cattle. Moreover, batches of animals with high percentage of dead and injured presented lower values of average daily gain. In spring-summer 2003 an extremely hot climate was unfavourable for growth performance.

  3. Factors Affecting the Biomass and Lipid Production from Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 under Mixotrophic Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ariful HAQUE; Phuwadol BANGRAK; Sarote SIRISANSANEEYAKUL; Wanna CHOORIT

    2012-01-01

    Effects of media compositions on biomass and lipid accumulation of the isolate Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 were investigated under a Plackett-Burman experimental design with mixotrophic cultivation conditions. Under this experimental design there were 15 different runs with ten factors-yeast extract, KH2PO4, MgSO4, FeSO4, MnCl2, CuSO4, Na2MoO4, H3BO3, ZnSO4 and pH. Cultures were grown mixotrophically under 16 h light and 8 h dark regime at 30 ºC for a period of 7 days. During the light regime, ...

  4. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production by Comamonas sp. EB172 Using Central Composite Design

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Azman Mohd Johar; Mohd. Ali Hassan; Mohd Rafein Zakaria; Phang Lai Yee; Yoshihito Shirai; Hidayah Ariffin

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Statistical approach, central composite design (CCD) was used to investigate the complex interaction among temperature (25-37 °C), initial medium pH (5-9), inoculum size (4-10 % (v/v)), concentration of (NH4)2SO4 (0-1 g/L) and concentration of mixed organic acids (5-10 g/L) in the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Comamonas sp. EB172.Methodology and Results: Mixed organic acids derived from anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME) containing acetic:propionic:butyric (ra...

  5. Factors affecting production of mold mycelium and protein in synthetic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D C; Steinkraus, K H; Hackler, L R

    1976-01-01

    The effects of certain cultural conditions on the yield of dry mycelium, protein, and total amino acid content of Rhizopus oligosporus Saito (NRRL 2710), Rhizopus rhizopodiformis (Cohn apud Lichtheim) Zopf (NRRL 6246), and Absidia corymbifera (Cohn) Sacc. et Trotter (NRRL 6247) were studied. The yield of mycelium was found to significantly increase as the spore inoculum was increased from 187,500 to 2,250,000 spores. But the total amino acids (grams/liter) did not change significantly, whereas the percentage of crude protein decreased. An inoculum containing approximately 750,000 spores/ml was used in all of the other experiments. Mycelial production was highest at 37 degrees C for all three molds. However, the best temperature for percentage of crude protein and total amino acids varied with the organism. The mycelial yield and total crude protein of R. oligosporus showed some significant changes as the C/N ratio was increased in 3% glucose medium. In a synthetic medium having a 15:1 C/N ratio, the strains of R. oligosporus, R. rhizopodiformis, and A. corymbifera had better yields from falactose than glucose, not only in dry mycelium but also in total crude protein (grams/liter) and total amino acids (grams/liter). R. oligosporus grew very well on several ammonium salts. but the maximum yield of dry mycelium, total crude protein (grams/liter), and total amino acids (grams/liter) occurred with ammonium sulfate. The optimum pH for both Rhizopus species was 4.0, although R. oligosporus grew equally well at pH 3.0 and slightly less at pH 5.0. The highest yield of mycelium for A. corymbifera was obtained in a medium with an initial pH of 8.0. It was calculated that a fermenter chanrged with an adequate medium and 1,000 lb (about 450 kg) of R. oligosporus or A. corymbifera cells could produce 88 or 90 lb of protein (on a dry-weight basis) per h if the product was removed continuously. PMID:10836

  6. Some Factors Affecting the Production of Carotenoids by Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr A. El-Banna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new yeast strain isolated from pin cushion flower (Scabiosa atropurpura in our laboratory was selected from 200 yeast isolates as carotenoids producer and identified as Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis. The selected isolate was grown in synthetic medium to study the effect of carbon to nitrogen ratio, sources of nitrogen and carbon, mineral salts and incubation temperature on carotenoids production. The results indicated the following optimal conditions: carbon to nitrogen ratio of 5, ammonium sulphate as nitrogen source, sucrose as carbon source, presence of zinc sulphate in the medium and cultivation temperature of 25?C. The studied factors affected the dry biomass as well as the proportion of carotenoids and consequently the colour of pellets of the yeast. The yeast strain was grown under the optimal conditions to study the changes occurring in the medium and the pellets during carotenoids production for 6 days. Carotenoids production started after the first day of incubation and most of the carotenoids content in the yeast cells was produced during stationary phase. The highest cellular (861 ?g?g–1 and volumetric (1.9 mg?L–1 carotenoids content were ob- tained after 5 days of growth.

  7. Factors affecting productivity and the role of customer relationship management: A case study of home appliance manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Mirzamohammadi; Forough Basirat Fard

    2012-01-01

    In today's competitive world, productivity- as a core source of production - is the most important target of the organization. Experimental studies in developed industrial countries prove that productivity improvements resulted from development of management systems play a more important role in production than physical increases in labor and capital factors. This paper, while focusing on productivity from a CRM perspective, employs a European Organizational Excellence Model framework to iden...

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  9. Reproductive status following artificial insemination and factors affecting conception rate in dairy cows in smallholder production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted to evaluate the reproductive status following artificial insemination (AI) and factors affecting conception rate (CR) in dairy cows under the smallholder production system, using the concentration of progesterone (P4) in milk samples taken on the day of AI (Sample 1), day 10-12 after AI (Sample 2) and day 22-24 after AI (Sample 3). The survey involved 115 cows in 33 farms. A follow-up study was carried out on four farms with interventions to improve record keeping, feed supplementation, heat detection and timely pregnancy diagnosis. Based on Sample 1 (n = 115), 93% of the cows had low P4 and were likely to have been in or close to oestrus at AI. Based on Samples 1 and 2 (n = 107), 85% of the cows had ovulatory oestrus. Based on all three samples (n = 59), 54.2% of the cows appeared to have conceived, 18.6% had either non-fertilization or early embryonic mortality and 18.6% had late embryonic mortality, luteal cyst or a persistent corpus luteum. The incidence of AI on pregnant animals was 1.7% and on those in doubtful reproductive status was 6.8%. The overall CR was 35.5% from 121 inseminations done on 115 cows. Mean intervals from calving to first AI (n = 77) and to conception (n = 43) were 90.7 and 113.6 days, respectively. The effects of level of milk production, lactation state and site of semen deposition on CR were significant (p 0.05) but CR tended to be lower in first parity cows and in cows with excessive body condition. The CR was also lower in farms that practice AI only in the afternoon, in farms where relatively less time was spent on dairy activities and in those farms practicing grazing and supplementation with concentrate only, as compared to those providing additional roughage supplementation. CR tended to be higher when AI was carried out by technicians with longer formal training. The survey showed that there was a high occurrence of ovulatory oestrus in cows under the smallholder production system but the CR obtained was low. This result can be attributed to factors related to the cow, nutrition, management and AI procedures. The interventions done on four farms resulted in shorter intervals from calving to first AI and conception, lower number of services per conception and higher CR, when compared with findings from the survey. (author)

  10. Factors Affecting Swedish Forest Property Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Carlsson; Lars Lönnstedt; Torbjörn Sundelin

    2014-01-01

    Historically the price of a forest estate has, at least in Sweden, been closely related to the financial return from the estate, but this connection no longer seems to be that strong, other factors that previously had limited influence on prices now add to the price. Factors like site productivity and age distribution affect the financial return of a forest estate but is it obvious that these factors still influence prices as they once did? Over the last 20 years, the p...

  11. Analysis of Factors Affecting on Risk Management of Wheat Production Among Wheat Farmers (Razavieh Region, Khorasan-E-Razavi Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sarani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to analyze the Factors Affecting on risk management in wheat production among farmers of Razavieh region (Khorasan-E-Razavi province, Iran. Statistical population of the study was 1520 farmers that they had water cultivation. By using of stratified proportional random sampling 156 respondents were selected from 8 villages. For the calculation of the risk-aversion coefficient degree among farmers, the Safety First Rule model was used. The findings revealed that the dominant respondents (65% were risk-averse. The results of exploratory factorial analysis showed that five factors determined about 74.267 % from total variance for wheat farmers' risk management that consist of: economy & marketing management factor, planting management factor, harvest management factor, infrastructure management of farming and risk-sharing management factor. From among of the above mentioned factors, the most important factor of risk management in study region was factor of economy & marketing management

  12. The sigma factor sigma s affects antibiotic production and biological control activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarniguet, A; Kraus, J; Henkels, M D; Muehlchen, A M; Loper, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5, a rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium that suppresses several soilborne pathogens of plants, produces the antibiotics pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin, and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. A gene necessary for pyrrolnitrin production by Pf-5 was identified as rpoS, which encodes the stationary-phase sigma factor sigma s. Several pleiotropic effects of an rpoS mutation in Escherichia coli also were observed in an RpoS- mutant of Pf-5. These included sensitivities of stationary-p...

  13. A Study of Factors Affecting on Men’s Skin Care ProductsPurchasing, Particularly in Karlstad, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Surakiatpinyo, Jiraporn; Moungkhem, Chanintorn

    2010-01-01

    This study examines in some depth the influences of marketing mix, social factors, emergence of the metrosexual, evolution of femininity and masculinity, self-esteem and customer decision making on the male consumer behavior in purchasing skin care products in Sweden, particular in Karlstad. In do so, the theories of masculinity and femininity, customer behavior theory, customer decision making’s theory, theory of metrosexual and theory of the four Ps in marketing mix strategy are employed ...

  14. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, C. H.; Vu, C. C.; Sommer, S. G.; S. Bruun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the s...

  15. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  16. The level of fertilizer use in sunflower production and the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the factors affecting the amount of fertilizer used in sunflower production have been investigated. Average sunflower production area was determined as 21.91 da and sunflower was grown in irrigated conditions. Average plant nutrients was 20.92 kg N/da, 14.33 kg P2O5/da, and 2.22 kg K2O/da. As a result of the study, it has been determined that farmers used excess fertilizer in sunflower production. In addition, in the use of plant nutrients, the factors such as farm size, sources of fertilizer, irrigation possibilities, credit use situation, and the quality of land were statistically significant contrary to the factors such as land usage situation, educational level of farmers and deciding on fertilization. Refs. 6 (author)

  17. Analysis of Factors Affecting on Risk Management of Wheat Production Among Wheat Farmers (Razavieh Region, Khorasan-E-Razavi Province, Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sarani; M. Sookhtanlo

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the Factors Affecting on risk management in wheat production among farmers of Razavieh region (Khorasan-E-Razavi province, Iran). Statistical population of the study was 1520 farmers that they had water cultivation. By using of stratified proportional random sampling 156 respondents were selected from 8 villages. For the calculation of the risk-aversion coefficient degree among farmers, the Safety First Rule model was used. The findings revealed t...

  18. Factors Affecting Hydrogen Production from Cassava Wastewater by a Co-Culture of Anaerobic Sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissara Reungsang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of batch experiments were used to investigate the effects of environmental factors i.e., total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations, initial pH, illumination pattern and stirring conditions on hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by a co-culture of anaerobic sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum. The maximum of the hydrogen yield of 150.46 and 340.19 mL g-COD-1 was obtained at the total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations of 0.2 and 0.04 M, respectively. An effect of initial pH was investigated at COD:N:P ratio of 100:10:1. Results indicated that an optimum initial pH for hydrogen production was pH 7 with a high hydrogen yield of 158.78 mL g-COD-1 was obtained. No significantly different (p<0.05 in the effect of illumination pattern (24 h of light and 12 h dark/light cycle on hydrogen production were observed under continuous-illumination and periodic-illumination with hydrogen yield of 131.84 and 126.92 mL g-COD-1, respectively. Therefore, a periodic-illumination was applicable in hydrogen fermentation due to its cost-effective. Hydrogen fermentation with a stirring at 100 rpm provided more effective hydrogen production (164.83 mL g-COD-1 than static-fermentation (93.93 mL g-COD-1. The major soluble products from hydrogen fermentation were acetic and butyric acids, in the ranges of 28.33-48.30 and 35.23-66.07%, respectively, confirming an ability of a co-culture to produce hydrogen from cassava wastewater.

  19. Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sertac Gonenc; Harun Tanrivermis

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It h...

  20. Genetic Factors in Rhizobium Affecting the Symbiotic Carbon Costs of N2 Fixation and Host Plant Biomass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SkØt, L.; Hirsch, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of genetic factors in Rhizobium on host plant biomass production and on the carbon costs of N2 fixation in pea root nodules was studied. Nine strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum were constructed, each containing one of three symbiotic plasmids in combination with one of three different genomic backgrounds. The resulting strains were tested in symbiosis with plants of Pisum sativum using a flow-through apparatus in which nodule nitrogenase activity and respiration were measured simultaneously under steady state conditions. Nodules formed by strains containing the background of JI6015 had the lowest carbon costs of N2 fixation (7.10–8.10 ?mol C/?mol N2), but shoot dry weight of those plants was also smaller than that of plants nodulated by strains with the background of B151 or JI8400. Nodules formed by these two strain types had carbon costs of N2 fixation varying between 11.26 and 13.95 ?mol C/?mol N2. The effect of symbiotic plasmids on the carbon costs was relatively small. A time-course experiment demonstrated that nodules formed by a strain derived from JI6015 were delayed in the onset of nitrogenase activity and had a lower rate of activity compared to nodules induced by a strain with the background of B151. The relationship between nitrogenase activity, carbon costs of N2 fixation and host plant biomass production is discussed.

  1. Factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F Y; Tsao, P H; Wang, D C; Lin, S; Wu, J S; Cheng, Y K

    2006-06-01

    Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth factors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essential to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity. Therefore, we investigated the factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among the 5 breeds of dairy goats tested, milk from Nubian goats had the highest growth factor activity. Tight-junction leakage induced by a 24-h milking interval did not increase growth factor activity in the milk. Milk collected from pregnant does had a significantly higher growth factor activity than milk collected postpartum. Growth factor activity decreased during the first 8 wk of lactation, fluctuated thereafter, and then increased dramatically after natural mating. During wk 1 to 8, growth factor activity was inversely correlated with milk yield and week of lactation. No correlation was observed during wk 9 to 29. After natural mating of the goats, the growth factor activity in the milk correlated significantly with somatic cell count and conductivity (a measure of membrane permeability), and correlated inversely with milk yield. Based on the above data, goat milk with higher growth factor activity could be selectively collected from Nubian pregnant does. PMID:16702258

  2. Factors affecting production of an antilisterial bacteriocin by Carnobacterium piscicola strain A9b in laboratory media and model fish systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Himelbloom, B.; Nilsson, Lilian

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To investigate factors influencing bacteriocin production and bacteriocin stability of the bioprotective culture Carnobacterium piscicola strain A9b. Methods and Results: Maximum activity was obtained in MRS7 broth (MRS adjusted to pH 7.2), with or without glucose. No bacteriocin was produced in APT broth when a low inoculum level (0.001%) was used. In contrast, inoculum level did not influence bacteriocin production in BHI and MRS7 without glucose. Bacteriocin production in APT was induced by the presence of an extracellular compound present in the sterile, filtered, cell- free supernatant fluid of a stationary-phase culture. Increasing concentrations of NaCl (2-7%) reduced bacteriocin production and maximum cell density of C. piscicola A9b when grown in cooked fish juice at VC. Conclusions: Media composition, inoculum level and sodium chloride concentration affected production. Significance and Impact of the Study: The influence of NaCl on bacteriocin production may negate the inhibitory effect of C. piscicola A9b against Listeria monocytogenes in salty foods.

  3. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    OpenAIRE

    Fethi Ahmet INAN; Erman YUKSELTURK

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention ...

  4. An analysis of the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use in crop production. A case study of Tokat - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, socio-economic factors (size of land, number of irrigation, age of farmers, educational level of farmers, soil analysis, and extension services) to be effected to the level of fertilizer use have been investigated. It has been determined that socio-economic factors have an important effect on fertilizer use in tomatoes growing. However, their effects on fertilization in wheat and sugar beet growing is limited due to traditional and contract farming. And also, there is no effect of extension services in the region on the level of fertilizer use in all crops. The quantity of fertilizer used was 51.64 kg/da in sugar beet, 18.20 kg/da in wheat (dry), 19.03 kg/da in wheat (irrigated) and 73.77 kg/da in tomatoes growing. Refs. 5 (author)

  5. Factors Affecting Dynamics of Metacercarial Productivity of Fasciola gigantica from its Snail Host

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaby, Ismail M.; Hassan, Mohamed G.; Soliman, Maha F. M.; Sherif, Nour E.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental infections of preadult and adult Lymnaea cailliaudi snails using the same isolates of Fasciola gigantica miracidia were performed under laboratory conditions to determine whether the temperature, intensity of infection and age of snail host of F. gigantica in Egypt had an effect on the dynamics of metacercarial productivity. Preadult snails were divided into 3 groups kept at 18-20, 24-26 and 29-31?C, respectively and the adult snails were represented by a single group kept at 2...

  6. Some Factors Affecting the Production of Carotenoids by Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis

    OpenAIRE

    El-banna, Amr A.; Abd El-razek, Amal M.; El-mahdy, Ahmed R.

    2012-01-01

    A new yeast strain isolated from pin cushion flower (Scabiosa atropurpura) in our laboratory was selected from 200 yeast isolates as carotenoids producer and identified as Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis. The selected isolate was grown in synthetic medium to study the effect of carbon to nitrogen ratio, sources of nitrogen and carbon, mineral salts and incubation temperature on carotenoids production. The results indicated the following optimal conditions: carbon to nitrogen ratio of 5, am...

  7. SUBTASK 1.7 EVALUATION OF KEY FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL OIL PRODUCTION IN THE BAKKEN FORMATION, NORTH DAKOTA PHASE II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen; Damion J. Knudsen; John A. Harju; Edward N. Steadman

    2011-10-31

    Production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations continues to trend upward as forecasts predict significant production of oil from unconventional resources nationwide. As the U.S. Geological Survey reevaluates the 3.65 billion bbl technically recoverable estimate of 2008, technological advancements continue to unlock greater unconventional oil resources, and new discoveries continue within North Dakota. It is expected that the play will continue to expand to the southwest, newly develop in the northeastern and northwestern corners of the basin in North Dakota, and fully develop in between. Although not all wells are economical, the economic success rate has been near 75% with more than 90% of wells finding oil. Currently, only about 15% of the play has been drilled, and recovery rates are less than 5%, providing a significant future of wells to be drilled and untouched hydrocarbons to be pursued through improved stimulation practices or enhanced oil recovery. This study provides the technical characterizations that are necessary to improve knowledge, provide characterization, validate generalizations, and provide insight relative to hydrocarbon recovery in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. Oil-saturated rock charged from the Bakken shales and prospective Three Forks can be produced given appropriate stimulation treatments. Highly concentrated fracture stimulations with ceramic- and sand-based proppants appear to be providing the best success for areas outside the Parshall and Sanish Fields. Targeting of specific lithologies can influence production from both natural and induced fracture conductivity. Porosity and permeability are low, but various lithofacies units within the formation are highly saturated and, when targeted with appropriate technology, release highly economical quantities of hydrocarbons.

  8. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  9. Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furkan Dincer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most important factors that affecting efficiency of solar cells. These effects are cell temperature, MPPT (maximum power point tracking and energy conversion efficiency. The changing of these factors improves solar cell efficiency for more reliable applications.

  10. Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Furkan Dincer; Mehmet Emin Meral

    2010-01-01

    A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most important factors that affecting efficiency of solar cells. These effects are cell temperature, MPPT (maximum power point tracking) and energy conversion efficiency. The changing of these factors i...

  11. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Bagher Kamali; Farideh Azimi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural developmentin Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have abetter insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as alearning forum for bringing about changes for all participants,they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciativeinquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting thefacilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors andpr...

  12. Factors Affecting Calves Suckling Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Ionel Neamt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of paper was to assess effects of environmental and physiological related factors on suckling behavior patterns. The study was carried out on 120 Romanian Spotted calves. Two behavioral traits were considered: total daily required interval and required interval for each meal. Traits were studied according to: calves viability, calving season, type of calving, calving ease and meal sequence. Significant differences were recorded for calves viability (viable vs morbid, p?0.001, type of calving (single vs twinning, p?0.001, and calving ease (eutocya vs dystocia, p?0.001, being a proof of welfare, conferred by adaptability to new environment. No significant effect was recorded for season of calving (summer vs winter, p?0.05. Significant differences concerning required suckling interval, were recorded between meals, both seasons. for viable (p?0.001, morbid (p?0.05, singles (p?0.05 and calves born from eutocya births (p?0.001. No significant differences (p?0.05 recorded for twins and calves born from dystocia. Multifactorial regression model used, reveals that main effects on studied traits had viability (p?0.001, type of calving (p?0.01 and calving ease (p?0.05. It is reasonable to assume that the knowledge of suckling behavior contributes to optimal management of calves. Knowledge of these factors helps to develop adequately systems to improve calves suckling response.

  13. 29 CFR 784.118 - The exemption is intended for work affected by natural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...work affected by natural factors. 784.118 Section...INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS PROVISIONS...OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions...Fishing and Aquatic Products General Character...affected by natural factors. As...

  14. Factors Affecting Profitability of Layer Hens Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebraheem Altahat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Layer hen enterprises suffer from low profitability or losses in many of developing countries all over the world. Jordan is not an acceptance. Approach: This study aimed at investigating the influence of ten main factors affecting the profitability of layer hen producers. The investigated factors include price of purchased pullet, feed price, cost of labor, cost of veterinary service and medicine, building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, length of production cycle, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate, egg sale price and laying percentage. Results: The study used a multiple regression profit model to estimate the effect of the above mentioned factors on profit per kg egg produced. The direction and quantity of relationship between profit per kg egg and variables affecting profit were investigated. Data from 40 operating and randomly selected egg production enterprises in the country was collected. Data was obtained directly from the producers during April to mid August 2010. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a pre-tested questionnaire. The data obtained via interview surveys were processed to calculate profit per kg egg and other relevant information for inclusion in a profit function model. Fifteen eggs are registered to be 1 kg in the study. Cost and income items used to calculate profit in the study. The results of the study revealed that the feed price was found to be the factor which has the highest negative impact on the profitability showing the coefficient-3.01. The egg sale price was with high positive impact on profitability showing the coefficient 2.633. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results of the study it could be concluded that higher prices of purchased or breeding pullet, higher feed price, higher cost of labor, higher cost of veterinary service and medicine, higher other costs including building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, higher feed quantity to be converted to eggs and higher mortality rate are associated with lower profitability of laying hen enterprises, while higher length of production cycle, higher egg sale price and higher laying percentage are associated with higher profitability. Critical limits indicated for various cost components should be used as a guideline to adjust budget in commercial egg operation thereby, ensuring higher net profit per bird.

  15. Factors affecting road crash modeling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Malaya, Mohanty; Ankit, Gupta.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Road accident fatalities have been on an increasing trend for the last decade or so in India. Hence traffic safety management has emerged as a topic of discussion for researchers all over the world. Hence accident modelling on different factors causing them has to be conducted. Accident mod [...] elling helps us to know the real causative agents behind an accident to occur. The effect of one cause can be greater than the other. And those causes can only be known from accident modelling. In this paper we have tried to divide this accident modelling techniques into two different categories based on the location of road i.e. accidents on urban roads and on rural roads. In both urban and rural road accident studies it was seen that mainly regression techniques like linear, multi-linear, logit and poisons regression have been used for modelling the road crashes. It was also marked that mostly authors have tried to research on one cause and go deep into it rather considering all factors at a time. From the studies it was found that speed and age along with gender has been the area of study for accident causes in urban areas whereas in rural roads mostly all authors have limited their studies to speed on roads and has been noted as the major cause of accidents in rural areas. This paper has tried to review as much papers as possible and various gaps in research along with future scope of study in this area has been indicated. Starting from the basic models like negative binomial/Poisson's model to the logistic and linear regressions to the new modeling techniques involving genetic mining and fuzzy logics have been discussed explicitly in the paper.

  16. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Ahmet INAN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

  17. Factors affecting calculation of L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotola, Mark P.

    2001-08-01

    A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient, radio signals from billions of stars. SETI could succeed tomorrow, or it may be an endeavor for multiple generations. We are a very young technology in a very old galaxy. While our own leakage radiation continues to outshine the Sun at many frequencies, we remain detectable to others. When our use of the spectrum becomes more efficient, it will be time to consider deliberate transmissions and the really tough questions: Who will speak for Earth? What will they say?

  18. Factors Affecting Employment of Welfare Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrissinger, Marlene Sonju

    1980-01-01

    Examined the relationship between the length of time worked by mothers receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children and three categories of variables. Only economic factors appeared to significantly affect the mothers' decision whether to work. (Author)

  19. The factors affecting women's contraceptive choices

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtog?lu, Emel; Arpaci, Haldun

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting women’s contraceptive choices. In this study, we included 507 subjects, of whom 108 were nulliparous and 399 of whom were multiparous. All were married women who were between 15-49 years old and had applied to the Ministry of Health Konya Eregli Hospital Obstetric and Gynaecology Polyclinic. An inquiry form was filled in during a face-to-face conversation which included their contraceptive choices, the factors affecting them,...

  20. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  1. Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

  2. Factors affecting the production and regeneration of protoplasts from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum / Fatores que afetam a produção e regeneração de protoplastos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francine Hiromi, Ishikawa; Quélen de Lima, Barcelos; Elaine Aparecida de, Souza; Eustáquio Souza, Dias.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta os fatores que afetam a produção e regeneração de protoplastos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. O isolamento de protoplastos é muito relevante para diferentes aplicações, principalmente, em procedimentos que envolvem a manipulação genética. Estabilizadores osmóticos, e [...] nzimas líticas, tempo de incubação e idade micelial foram testados com relação ao efeito na liberação de protoplastos. As condições otimizadas para produção de protoplastos foram incubação de micélio jovem (48 h) em estabilizador osmótico NaCl 0.6 mol l-1, acrescido de 30 mg ml-1 da enzima Lysing Enzymes de Trichoderma harzianum incubado, durante 3 h. Nessas condições, a obtenção de protoplastos foi maior que 10(6) protoplatos ml-1 na mistura de digestão, número suficientemente adequado para experimentos de transformação em fungos. Sacarose nas concentrações de 1.2 mol l-1 e 1 mol l-1 foram os estabilizadores mais apropriados para a regeneração, após 48 h, sendo as taxas de regeneração de 16.35% e 14.54%, respectivamente. Este estudo produziu um método eficiente para produção e reversão de protoplastos à morfologia micelial típica de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum utilizando o isolado LV115. Abstract in english The present work reports factors affecting the production and regeneration of protoplasts from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The usefulness of protoplast isolation is relevant for many different applications and has been principally used in procedures involving genetic manipulation. Osmotic stabili [...] zers, lytic enzymes, incubation time and mycelial age were evaluated in terms of their effects on protoplast yield. The optimal condition for protoplast production included the incubation of young mycelia (48 h) in 0.6 mol l-1 NaCl as the osmotic stabilizer, with 30 mg ml-1 Lysing Enzymes from Trichoderma harzianum for 3 h of incubation. In these conditions protoplasts production was higher than 10(6) protoplatos ml-1 in the digestion mixture, number suitable enough for experiments of transformation in fungi. Sucrose concentrations of 1.2 mol l-1 and 1 mol l-1 were the most suitable osmotic stabilizers for the regeneration after 48 h, with rates of 16.35% and 14.54%, respectively. This study produced an efficient method for protoplast production and reverted them into a typical mycelial morphology using a Colletotrichum lindemuthianum LV115 isolate.

  3. Fluorescein. Physiochemical factors affecting its fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, K G

    1982-01-01

    Fluorescein's property of fluorescence is reviewed. Of the many factors which affect its fluorescence, concentration is probably the most important and it best explains why leaking aqueous turns fluorescein bright green during Seidel's test. The intensity and pattern of fluorescein staining of corneal lesions is probably due to the concentration and distribution of fluorescein in the cornea. The concentration of fluorescein achieved in the retinal blood vessels during fluorescein angiography affects its fluorescence. PMID:7046118

  4. A Survey on Factors Affecting on Consumer’s Potential Willingness to Pay for Organic Products in Iran (A Case Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani, M.; Hamraz, S.

    2009-01-01

    This study determined factors influencing on consumer’s potential willingness to pay for organic products in Iran. Data collected with filling 240 questionnaires in 2006 from Mashhad’s households and analyzed using Tobit model. Results showed that product appearance and measure of consumers’ information is effective on willingness to pay for organic products. In addition, consumers’ anxieties from chemical residue in nutrition have positive effect on willingn...

  5. Factors affecting Internet development: An Asian survey

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoming, Hao; Kay, Chow

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the Internet development and various social, economic and political factors that are hypothesized to affect the Internet growth. Using secondary data for 28 sampled Asian countries, this study tested seven hypotheses about the impact of various factors on Internet growth. The findings show that the Internet penetration is related to a country’s wealth, telecommunication infrastructure, urbanization and stability of the government, but not related...

  6. The factors affecting the recarburization process indicators

    OpenAIRE

    K. Janerka; J. Szajnar; J. Jezierski; D. Bartocha

    2011-01-01

    The article presents the factors affecting the carburizing rates obtained (rate and efficiency) during the process of melting cast iron. The analysis includes the recarburizer type (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke) and particle size. Further factors considered in work are the methods of recarburization (recarburizer introduction to a solid charge and on the surface of the metal bath) and the parameters of the melt (temperature and chemical composition). The analysis...

  7. Geologic and porous media factors affecting the 2007 production response characteristics of the JOGMEC/NRCan/AURORA Mallik gas hydrate production research well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallimore, S. R.; Wright, J. F.; Nixon, F. M. [Natural Resources Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Kurihara, M. [Japan Oil Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, K.; Fujii, T.; Fujii, K.; Numasawa, M.; Yasuda, M. [Japan Oil, Gas, Metals National Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technical Research Centre; Imasato, Y. [Schlumberger K.K., Fuchinombe (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    The joint research project between Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC), Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and the Aurora Research Institute was conducted in an effort to measure and monitor the response of a terrestrial gas hydrate reservoir to pressure draw down. This paper reviewed the geologic setting and porous media conditions of a concentrated gas hydrate production interval between 1093 and 1105 m. The short-duration production test was conducted at the Mallik site in Canada's Mackenzie Delta in April 2007. The production interval consists of a sand-dominated succession with occasional silty sand interbeds. Gas hydrate occurs primarily within the sediment pore spaces, with concentrations ranging between 50-90 per cent. Experiments on pore water salinity and porous media conditions on pressure-temperature stability suggest that the partition between gas hydrate stability and instability should be considered as a phase boundary zone rather than a discrete threshold. The experiment revealed that there are significant changes to the physical properties following gas hydrate dissociation, with sediments containing no hydrate behaving as unconsolidated sands. A strong reservoir response to pressure draw down was observed with increasing gas flow during the testing period. Sand inflow to the well during the test may be attributed to loss of sediment strength during gas hydrate dissociation, with the sediment behaving as a gasified slurry. It was concluded that the gas flow response observed during the 2007 production test at Mallik was highly influenced by porous media properties and by the geological heterogeneities which may initiate high permeability conduits in sediments within the production interval of the Mallik gas hydrate reservoir. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Factors Affecting Decisions on Practice Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, June E.; Miller, Deborah A.

    1986-01-01

    Questionnaires to determine the factors affecting the choice of practice were mailed to graduates of the University of Oklahoma Tulsa Medical College and their spouses. The results showed that graduates reared in large communities chose similar-sized communities as practice sites and placed high priority on their spouses' desires (Author/MLW)

  9. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  10. SCREENING OF SELECTED OLEAGINOUS YEASTS FOR LIPID PRODUCTION FROM GLYCEROL AND SOME FACTORS WHICH AFFECT LIPID PRODUCTION BY YARROWIA LIPOLYTICA STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinee Sriwongchai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of eight yeast strains to utilize glycerol as a sole carbon source and accumulate lipids in a chemically defined medium was screened. Among the yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 grew to high cell densities on glycerol. These strains were further tested for lipid accumulation under varying nutritional conditions in Erlenmeyer flasks. The results showed that strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 accumulated lipids up to 37.1 % and 54.4 % of total cell dry weight, respectively, when the defined medium was supplemented with 1 g/L urea and 2 g/L yeast extract. The lipids accumulated by the two yeasts contained a high proportion of C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:0 fatty acids. The results suggest that Y. lipolytica strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 have the potential for converting crude glycerol into fatty acids which can in turn be utilized as substrate for biodiesel production.

  11. Analysis and Measurement of Buildability Factors Affecting Edge Formwork

    OpenAIRE

    Jarkas, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Labour productivity is affected by several factors, but buildability is among the most important. Nevertheless, a thoroughexamination of the literature revealed a dearth of research into the influence of buildability factors on labour productivityof in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Although edge formwork is an importantlabour intensive activity, most often, its labour cost is either crudely estimated or lumped within the formwork cost of othera...

  12. The factors affecting the recarburization process indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janerka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the factors affecting the carburizing rates obtained (rate and efficiency during the process of melting cast iron. The analysis includes the recarburizer type (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke and particle size. Further factors considered in work are the methods of recarburization (recarburizer introduction to a solid charge and on the surface of the metal bath and the parameters of the melt (temperature and chemical composition. The analysis was based on experiments performed, the calculation results of computer simulations and literature data.

  13. Factors that affect toilet training in children

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar Önen; ?lknur Aksoy; Ays?in Tas?ar, M.; Y?ld?z Dallar Bilge

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify age of initiation of toilet training and affecting factors for children. Material and Methods: 861 children were included in this study. "Chi square test", "Mann-Whitney U Test" and "Kruskall-Wallis Variance Analysis" statistical analysis methods have been applied. Ethical permission has been provided by local ethical committee. Results: 861 children under age of five were evaluated in this study (average age was 4±0.9); 433 children were boy (50.3%), 428 children were...

  14. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having th...

  15. Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar Sarkut; Sadik Kilicturgay; Ali Ozer; Ersin Ozturk; Tuncay Yilmazlar

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG) in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP). METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age ...

  16. Which Factors Affect Adolescent Food Preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main There are various factors that affect food preferences. Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main factors affecting food preferences. Additionally, general nutritional habits, family, friends, commercials, and availability of the food are also important for food preferences. Also, past experiences with foods are related to preferring or rejecting some foods. Socializing more with increasing age causes change in the food preferences of adolescents. Unhealthy nutrition habits form as a result of the adolescents consuming fast foods, spending time with their friends outside the house, and consuming more ready-made foods. Current developments in the food industry result in an increase in variety and consumption of snacks such as cookies, chocolate, chips, and crackers in adolescents. Considering all these, in this rewiev article, environmental and personal factors affecting food preferences have been investigated. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2013; 11: 121-7

  17. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Kamali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural developmentin Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have abetter insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as alearning forum for bringing about changes for all participants,they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciativeinquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting thefacilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors andpreventing factors. The former are: two-way communication,election of rural eligible facilitators, participation, sense ofresponsibility, and the latter are: cultural and tribal fanaticism,lack of permanent female extension workers and frequentmanagement changes. Appreciative inquiry as a positive modeof action research could facilitate the process of education andcommunication for all stakeholders. We suggested that thereshould be a shift from the extension as a knowledge transfer tofacilitation as people’s own knowledge creation. This studyshowed that appreciative inquiry could facilitate the process ofchange and gender-awareness. This research method couldalso facilitate mutual communication between the rural facilitatorsand extension workers.

  18. Factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tadeu Silva de, Oliveira; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; Cássio José da, Silva; Danielle Ferreira, Baffa; José Carlos, Pereira; Joanis Tilemahos, Zervoudakis.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry [...] matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistical analyses involved the application of descriptive and dispersion measures besides Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. The analyzed variables were highly correlated with feed efficiency. The feed efficiency of lactating goats was affected by the milk fat correction, dry matter digestibility, dietary fiber content, proportion of roughage in the diet and body weight. Among these factors, standardization of the milk fat appeared to be the most efficient in correcting the feed efficiency in lactating goats. Correction of some of these factors implies greater precision in the measurement of feed efficiency.

  19. Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Bowman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1 public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2 support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3 the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1 and 2, as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

  20. AN OVERVIEW ON FACTORS AFFECTING GLOBAL HRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Gondane

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mounting economic interdependence of countries globally through rising volume and multiplicity of cross border transactions in goods and services and international capital flows, and also through the more rapid and prevalent diffusion of technology had influences organizations that compete for customers with high expectations for performance, quality, and cost. The globe trade and industry order is changing speedily. Evolutionary transformations are taking place at revolutionary speed, principally pressed by strong external forces, arising out of a desire to rising competitiveness and competence. The organizations of world are no longer defined by national boundaries. Globalization also put forth stress on the Human Resource Management (HRM function to adjust to changing organizational needs, add greater value and hence, HRM is especially involved with those employees who are working across national boundaries in multinational or global enterprises. Functioning on an international level entails that the assumption of a universality of HR policies and practices and the faith in to administer in one best way has become indefensible. Aglobal organization wishes a worldwide HRM system that features decision making from a global point of view, managers from across national boundaries, and thoughts contributed by people from a diversity of cultures. The participants from different countries and cultures contribute ideas from a position of equality, rather than the home country's culture dominating. Organizations that function in more than one country must be acquainted with the countries that are not identical and differ in terms of many factors. This present research paper is an attempt to reviews major factors affecting HRM. The intention of this study is to examine the challenges/factors affecting the role of HRM.

  1. Factors Affecting Electricity Demand in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Awad Momani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 1 The paper examines the relationship between electricity demand and climate/non-climate related factors using statistical regression analysis. 2 It focuses on the environmental, demographic, policy (energy pricing and technological factors as the main factors affecting the consumption pattern in Jordan. 3 The paper also presents the variations occurred in the electricity demand over the period 1994-2008. The variations that are observed during the period of study are: Shifting of the peak load occurrence from evening to morning period, Modification in the annual daily load curve especially in winter season, Variation in relationship between space temperature and demand especially in winter, and dramatic increase in electric generation after year 2003. The shift in peak load from evening to morning period is mainly due to technological factor as a result of wide use of the air conditions in houses, services and government offices for cooling in summer instead of ordinary air fans. The variations in consumption pattern between 2000 and 2007 are mainly associated with economic, social and demographic factors. The high demand at lower space temperature is governed by introducing new appliances for heating in winter as a result of low electricity pricing comparing with gasoline price. The dramatic increase in electric generation after 2003 is probably due to demographic factors as a result of high growth of population after the Gulf war II. 4 The correlation between the daily maximum loads in morning and evening periods with the differential temperature (?T above 20?C threshold in summer and below 15?C threshold in winter, shows pronounced changes in 2007 compared with year 2000. The regression tests show that a decrease of 1?C below 15?C threshold in winter 1 increases the morning demand by only 2 MW/?C in 2000 and 16.7 MW/?C in 2007, 2 decreases the evening peak by ?2.6 MW/1?C in 2000 and increases the evening peak by 22.9 MW/1?C in 2007. Results show that the demographic, technological, environmental and national energy pricing factors play a vital rule in consumption pattern in Jordan. Moreover, the paper reveals that planners and decision makers should be careful when applying new tariff in the developing countries such as Jordan.

  2. Factors Affecting Hoteliers’ Decision to Advertise in Travel Magazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Faiz Hilmi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a paid, mass-mediated attempt to persuade. That mean Advertising is paid communication by a company or organization that wants its information disseminated through a communication medium designed to reach more than one person, typically a large number or mass of people and advertising includes an attempt to persuade consumer to like the brand and because of that liking to eventually buy the brand. Advertising in travel magazine is one of the promotional methods to promote hoteliers products or services to the market place. By advertising in travel magazine, it can reach the target audience, educate them about the products or services, and move them closer to make a purchase. The purpose of the research is to recognize and rank the factors affecting hotelier’s decision to advertise in travel magazine. The respondents for the research are those hoteliers operating in Malaysia. The factors for this research are reached target readers, cost of advertising, contents of the magazine, frequency of advertising and media of advertising. The result of the research shows two of the factors significantly affecting hoteliers advertising decision. Furthermore, cost of advertising ranks the first follow by reach target readers, contents of magazine, media of advertising and frequency of advertising ranks the last. This research will help the publisher of travel magazine to understand and recognize the ranking of factors affecting hoteliers’ decision to advertise in travel magazine.

  3. Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

  4. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. PMID:20696504

  5. Factors affecting success of agricultural producers groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chlebicka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor organisation of agricultural markets in Poland remains one of the biggest problems for agricultural sector. There are about 510 agricultural producer groups, but only 2% of Polish farmers selling for market are members. Knowledge on cooperation determinants and different aspects of producer groups performance is crucial to build references for policy makers and producer groups’ managers. The aim of the article was to discuss factors affecting success of producers groups understood as a level of members’ satisfaction. Data for 2006 and 2011 from 30 producers groups in fruit and vegetable sector were analysed using logit model. Three determinants occurred to be statistically important: scope of a group functions, informal cooperation with farmers before starting a formal cooperation and homogeneity of farms.

  6. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

  7. Factors Affecting E-Service Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mufaddy Al-Kasasbeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available User satisfaction is an important predictor of online consumer behavior and the success of a web-based system. If customers are satisfied with the services received through the online system, it is likely they will keep using the system. To examine factors affecting user satisfaction with e-services, a questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of (615 students out of (5918 at Petra University in Jordan to explore their perceptions. Regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results indicated that website design, navigation, and personalization were found to be predictors of e-service satisfaction. The results of this study provide a comprehensive set of implications for practitioners and researchers. This study shows how the website design, navigation, and personalization play a crucial role in the overall evaluation of e-service satisfaction. Management of universities need to be aware that a bad experience with website design, navigation, and personalization can affect satisfaction, if a student has a bad experience regarding interactivity, customization, or website design, then a student might make an overall e-service judgment even before a transaction can take place. If customers believe that an organization’s website is hard to use, poorly designed, and doesn’t take into consideration distinguished services for each user, then customers are likely to move to other organizations’ websites.

  8. Factors affecting the microstructure of porous ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSAN TRIPKOVIC

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, porous ceramics were produced by using two methods: the polymeric sponge and foam method. Astudy of the effect of viscosity on the characteristics of the final product produced using the polymeric sponge method revealed that the microstructure of porous ceramics is highly affected by the viscosity of the slurry. The optimal ratio between porosity and the strength of the porous material was achieved by subsequently repeating the immersing and drying processes. Astudy of the porous material obtained using the foam method revealed that the pore size and foam volume can be controlled by varying the amounts of anhydride and thermal blowing agent. The problem related to foam collapsing was solved by using a thermal blowing agent. The microstructure of the samples was characterized by SEM.

  9. FACTORS AFFECTING PHARMACOKINETIC DISPOSITION OF DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Hiren R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is a complex process the variability of which is influenced by many physicochemical and physiologic factors. The two most important physicochemical factors that affect both the extent and the rate of absorption are lipophilicity and solubility. The rate and extent of absorption are governed by the solubility, permeability and stability of the drug, with solubility being a pH-dependent parameter for weak acids and bases. The gastrointestinal tract can be viewed as discrete sections with a variety of differential local pH environments ranging from the acidic stomach to the more basic small intestine. The multiple peaking, double peaking or secondary peaking phenomena can occur in the disposition of a variety of xenobiotics during drug development (the pre-clinical phase and in subsequent clinical studies and use. The physicochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence of this phenomenon are often multi factorial and include but are not limited to solubility-limited absorption, modified-release formulations, complexation, enterohepatic recirculation, gastric emptying and the intestinal transit time, site-specific absorption, gastric secretion-enteral reabsorption. Double peak absorption has been described with several orally administered drugs such as cimetidine furosemide, piroxicam, ranitidine, talinolol, alprazolam and phenazopyridine.

  10. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Liutvinavi?ius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  11. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Sakalauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  12. Analysis and Measurement of Buildability Factors Affecting Edge Formwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Jarkas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Labour productivity is affected by several factors, but buildability is among the most important. Nevertheless, a thoroughexamination of the literature revealed a dearth of research into the influence of buildability factors on labour productivityof in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Although edge formwork is an importantlabour intensive activity, most often, its labour cost is either crudely estimated or lumped within the formwork cost of otheractivities. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate and quantify the effects and relative influence of the followingbuildability factors on its labour productivity: (a depth of slab being edge-formed; (b slab geometric factor; and (ctype of formwork material used. To achieve this objective, a sufficiently large volume of productivity data was collected andanalyzed using the multiple categorical-regression method. As a result, the effects and relative influence of the buildabilityfactors investigated are determined. The findings show significant effects of these factors on edge formwork labour productivity,which can be used to provide designers feedback on how well their designs consider the requirements of buildabilityprinciples, and the consequences of their decisions on labour efficiency. On the other hand, the depicted patterns of resultsmay provide guidance to construction managers for effective activity planning and efficient labour utilization.

  13. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magdalene H., Awases; Marthie C., Bezuidenhout; Janetta H., Roos.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors inf [...] luencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. METHOD: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. RESULTS: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  14. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  15. The marketing implications of affective product design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seva, Rosemary R; Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Helander, Martin G

    2007-11-01

    Emotions are compelling human experiences and product designers can take advantage of this by conceptualizing emotion-engendering products that sell well in the market. This study hypothesized that product attributes influence users' emotions and that the relationship is moderated by the adherence of these product attributes to purchase criteria. It was further hypothesized that the emotional experience of the user influences purchase intention. A laboratory study was conducted to validate the hypotheses using mobile phones as test products. Sixty-two participants were asked to assess eight phones from a display of 10 phones and indicate their emotional experiences after assessment. Results suggest that some product attributes can cause intense emotional experience. The attributes relate to the phone's dimensions and the relationship between these dimensions. The study validated the notion of integrating affect in designing products that convey users' personalities. PMID:17303064

  16. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül P?nar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Ba?kent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  17. Factors affecting liver uptake of gallium-67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From our clinical experience, we have suggested that the absence of liver uptake during Ga-67 scintigraphy was mainly due to markedly decreased unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC). We have succeeded in producing a rat model of absent liver uptake by administration of iron and vincristine to markedly decrease UIBC. However, the possibility of decreased liver uptake of Ga-67 due to liver dysfunction caused by these drugs can not be denied, so we performed further experiments. The changes of uptake by liver and other tissues, and UIBC induced by administration of apotransferrin (ATF) and deferoxamine (DEF) before the second scan were determined. The abscess uptake of Ga-67 during the absence of liver uptake was also determined. The administration of ATF one day before the second scan made liver uptake recover to almost normal levels and UIBC recover considerably. No recovery was produced by administration of DEF. The mechanism of Ga-67 uptake in various tissues is not completely clear. The theory that the amount of strage iron in the liver affects liver uptake has been proposed. The possibility is also suggested that antineoplastic agents may damage the synthesis of transferrin (TF) and intracellular Ga-67 carrier molecules, and/or block TF receptors in the hepatocyte to decrease liver uptake. The fact that liver uptake recovered rapidly after administration of ATF refutes these hypotheses, at least in vivo, and serum UIBC level is the decisive factor in liver uptakevel is the decisive factor in liver uptake of Ga-67. The lack of significant decrease in abscess uptake of Ga-67 during the absence of liver uptake may suggest that the pathway to the abscesses is different from that to the liver. (author)

  18. Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; HaugbØlle, Kim

    2013-01-01

    With all the advances in professionalism, methods, technology, and human resource training, we should have seen an increase in productivity. However, this has not happened and the construction industry is losing the battle to be competitive and has instead become a high-cost, low-productivity sector. By applying the theory that insufficient cooperation is the result of low trust the aim was to investigate how conditions for formation of positive and lasting trustful relationships can be created. A questionnaire survey including clients, contractors, architects, engineers and client design advisor was carried out. The analysis showed that the ability to be trustful can be developed through the experience of different factors (e.g. control mechanisms, mutual respect, repeated cooperation, shared understanding and communication). Furthermore, the ability to trust other parties depends on knowledge of others' skillsets. Interdisciplinary collaboration through education would limit the formation of negative stereotypes and the overall trust level increases, due to more and better knowledge of other disciplines.

  19. Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Te-chato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. were investigated. Types of explants, strains and densities of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and co-culture methods were examined to optimize gene transformation. The results showed that among strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tested, LBA 4404 containing pBI 121 gave the calli with the highest resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin at the concentration of 50-100 mg/l was the best range for selection of transformants. Higher density of agrobacteria tended to promote higher frequency of transformation. The best co-culture method was dipping the explant in a solution of agrobacteria for 10 minutes, followed by culturing onto co-culture medium without antibiotic for 48 hours. Among the explants used to co- culture with bacteria, half leaf treatment gave the best result for transformation; however, callus proliferation and plantlet regeneration were inferior to whole leaf treatment. Activity of ?-Glucuronidase (GUS could not be detected, thus resistance to kanamycin was used for detecting transformability. Shoot primordia could be induced from kanamycin-resistant calli grown in regeneration medium. After maintenance by subculturing to the same medium 2 to 3 times in 2-3 months, the developed shoots turned brown and finally died. Hence, the transformed plant of mangosteen was not obtained from this experiment.

  20. Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkut, Pinar; Kilicturgay, Sadik; Ozer, Ali; Ozturk, Ersin; Yilmazlar, Tuncay

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG) in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP). METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age of the patients (older or younger than 50 years old) and polyp size (bigger or smaller than 10 mm) and characteristics of the polyps (pseudopolyp or real polyps). ?2 tests were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. RESULTS: The median age was 50 (26-85) years and 91 of patients were female. Of 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy with GP diagnosis, only 99 had a histopathologically defined polyp; 77 of them had pseudopolyps and 22 had true polyps. Twenty-one patients had adenocarcinoma. Of these 21 patients, 11 were male, their median age was 61 (40-85) years and all malignant polyps had diameters > 10 mm (P 10 mm, 22 had true polyps. The sensitivity of USG was 84.6% for polyps with diameters > 10 mm (P 10 mm. PMID:23901228

  1. Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Sarkut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP. METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age of the patients (older or younger than 50 years old and polyp size (bigger or smaller than 10 mm and characteristics of the polyps (pseudopolyp or real polyps. ?2 tests were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. RESULTS: The median age was 50 (26-85 years and 91 of patients were female. Of 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy with GP diagnosis, only 99 had a histopathologically defined polyp; 77 of them had pseudopolyps and 22 had true polyps. Twenty-one patients had adenocarcinoma. Of these 21 patients, 11 were male, their median age was 61 (40-85 years and all malignant polyps had diameters > 10 mm (P 10 mm, 22 had true polyps. The sensitivity of USG was 84.6% for polyps with diameters > 10 mm (P 10 mm.

  2. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were used to divide the metabolites into the following three groups: 1) correlated to growth, 2) correlated to color formation, and 3) formed at high pH. Subsequently, a full factorial experiment with factors P, Mg and Cu, showed that low P concentrations (2000 mg/kg) induced yellow color formation. Among the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the yellow discoloration phenomenon observed in the dairy industry.

  3. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien T. Supangco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality of position does not augur well for women. This result implies that despite the fact that the women in the sample were intelligent (that is, they passed the stringent MBA screening, motivated and obviously were able to manage their time well-being able to balance work, school and in some cases, family responsibilities-they were still far removed from the top. These women still faced some hostile environment that prevented them from fully contributing to making decisions that matter.

  4. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    Poland joined the EU in 2004 and still has one of the Europe’s least developed information societies. Broadband penetration in Poland is still amongst the lowest in the EU and significantly below the EU average. Considering the present state of information technology, the key challenge for Poland is to reduce the gap between Poland and other EU Member Countries in the area of the development and implementation of information and communication technologies. However, Poland’s accession to the European Union and the implementation of EU regulation mechanisms accelerate the integration of Poland’s telecommunications market with the European market. The market reflects all the global trends, a gradually growing significance of mobile telecommunications services, broadband Internet access, construction of offers directed towards clients’ needs, and a strong trend towards market consolidation, which will gradually change the previous balance of power. The specific problem of the Polish market is its very poor infrastructure development and the lack of competitors on the fixed market. This translates into limited access to services for end users particularly in the rural areas. A much lower level of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level/distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined – with the ‘lightest’forms of intervention first and the ‘strongest’at the end. Furthermore, empirical evidence on the developments in access technologies and the policy initiatives taken by the Polish government are presented. Finally, there is a conclusion regarding the importance of the different types of public policy initiatives for broadband take-up in Poland.

  5. Does Labour Diversity affect Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2011-01-01

    Using a matched employer-employee dataset, we analyze how workforce diversity in cultural background, education and demographic characteristics affects productivity of firms in Denmark. Implementing a structural estimation of the firms' production function (Ackerberg et al., 2006) we find that labor diversity in education significantly enhances a firm's value added. Conversely, diversity in ethnicity and demographics induces negative effects on firm productivity. Hence, the negative effects, coming from communication and integration costs connected to a more culturally and demographically diverse workforce, seem to outweigh the positive effects coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers.

  6. Factors affecting newborn care practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Md; Ahmed, M Ranzu; Rahman, M Mokhlesur; Afroz, Afsana

    2012-01-01

    Newborn care is of immense importance for the proper development and healthy life of a baby. Although child and infant mortality in South Asia has reduced substantially, the rate of neonatal mortality is still high, although these deaths can be prevented by adopting simple interventions at the community level. The aim of the study was to identify the associated factors which affect newborn care practices. Data for the study were drawn from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007, in which 6150 mothers were considered. The mean age of the mothers was 18 (±3.2) years. A little over 62% of the pregnant women received at least one antenatal check-up during the entire period of their pregnancy. About 70% of deliveries were conducted at home either by unskilled family members or by relatives. A clean instrument was used for cutting the cord of 87% of the newborn babies, while about 34% of them were reported to have had their first bath immediately after delivery. Initiation of breast feeding immediately after birth was practised in only about 19% of the cases. Compared with mothers with no education, those with secondary or higher levels were associated with clean cord care [odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 1.9] and early breast feeding [OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2, 2.2]. The study revealed an urgent need to educate mothers, and train traditional birth attendants and health workers on clean delivery practices and early neonatal care. Increasing the number of skilled birth attendants can be an effective strategy to increase safe delivery practices, and to reduce delivery complications. PMID:22150703

  7. External factors affecting investment decisions of companies

    OpenAIRE

    Bialowolski, Piotr; Weziak-bialowolska, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to investigate the importance of certain external factors on the investment decisions made by Polish companies. With the use of data from the tailor-made Survey on Receivables, we (1) examine factors influencing investment decisions of companies in Poland; (2) assess the relation between branch, company size and investment factors; (3) evaluate the importance of the investment factors; and (4) determine the relative influence of these factors on the company-level inv...

  8. Does Labor Diversity Affect Firm Productivity?

    OpenAIRE

    Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario; Pytlikova, Mariola

    2010-01-01

    Using an employer-employee dataset, we analyze how diversity in cultural background, skills and demographic characteristics a?ects total factor productivity (TFP) of ?rms in Denmark. Implementing structural estimation of ?rms' production function, we ?nd evidence that labor diversity in skills/education signi?cantly enhances ?rm performance as measured by ?rm TFP. Conversely, diversity in demographics and ethnicity brings mixed results - both dimensions of workforce diversity have either no o...

  9. The knowledge - as production factor

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Enachi

    2009-01-01

    In the current economic context, knowledge becomes the new nucleus of progress. If in the traditional economy the production factors were land, labor and capital, in the new economy knowledge is the major component of the productive system. Through the present study we try to clarify the position of knowledge in the production system and its role as a production factor, by explaining how it effective acts and contributes to the increase of welfare at the organizational and national levels.

  10. Some factors affecting the abundance of mycorrhizas in grassland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly one quarter of the world's land surface is occupied by permanent grassland, and possible ways of increasing the productivity of grassland deserve attention. Since permanent grasslands rarely receive phosphorus fertilizer, mycorrhizas could be important. Research in Britain has shown that mycorrhizal abundance is related to grazing intensity and to the percentage of ground area covered by vegetation. Infection levels in a plant are also influenced by what other species are growing nearby. Knowledge of factors affecting mycorrhizal abundance could allow grasslands to be managed for greater abundance of indigenous mycorrhizas. (author)

  11. Factors affecting chromatin stability of bovine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, T A A; Rekkas, C A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Sioga, A; Dimitriadis, I; Papanikolaou, Th

    2008-03-01

    The structural stability of transcriptionally inert paternal chromatin is of vital importance for the fertilization process and early embryonic development. Accordingly, a series of eight experiments were conducted during a 7-month period to investigate: (1) effects of bull breed, individuality, successive ejaculations, semen quality characteristics (SQC), semen dilution rates and hypothermic storage of semen in a Tris-egg yolk extender on incidence of sperm nuclear chromatin instability (NCI), and (2) effects of the interaction between variation of NCI within a frozen ejaculate and variation of oocytes quality due to maturation time and/or season on the efficiency of in vitro embryo production (IVEP). Semen samples were collected once a week from six bulls using an AV and only ejaculates (n=220) of >0.30x10(9) sperm/ml and >or=60% motility were used. NCI was measured by: (1) detection of lysine-rich histones in sperm chromatin using aniline blue staining, (2) sperm susceptibility to acid-induced nuclear DNA denaturation in situ using acridine orange test, and (3) sperm susceptibility to nuclear chromatin decondensation (NCD). Bovine oocytes (n=695) were matured in vitro for 18 or 24 h, fertilized after sperm selection through a swim-up procedure and cultured for 72 h. The results showed that the 2nd ejaculates were superior to the 1st ones with respect to chromatin stability. Dilution of semen to 49.67+/-8.56x10(6) sperm/ml (1:19) decreased resistance of sperm to NCD. Cooling of semen had no significant effect on chromatin stability. Cryopreservation of semen augmented sperm vulnerability to DNA denaturation. Improvement of SQC (semen volume, sperm motility, velocity, viability and morphological normalcy) was generally concomitant with increase of sperm resistance to NCI. While Blonde d'Aquitaine bulls had a resistance to NCD higher than Limousine bulls in fresh semen, the former showed a greater susceptibility to DNA denaturation than the latter in cooled semen. Individuality significantly influenced NCI. The variability of NCI within a frozen ejaculate affected efficiency of IVEP. Significant negative correlations were observed between incidence of NCI and both fertilization rate and developmental capacity of embryos after maturation of oocytes for 18 h. The significant variation in IVEP traits due to season was independent of the effect of sperm chromatin instability. PMID:17398042

  12. Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Youngmo, Kang; Mingook, Lee; Sungjoo, Lee.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service syste [...] m such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT) and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - 'wireless internet' and 'mobile applications' - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

  13. Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmo Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service system such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - ‘wireless internet’ and ‘mobile applications’ - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

  14. Key weather extremes affecting potato production in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Oort, P.A.J., van; Timmermans, B.G.H.; Meinke, H.; Ittersum, M.K., van

    2012-01-01

    The possible impact of climate change on frequency and severity of weather extremes is hotly debated among climate scientists. Weather extremes can have a significant impact on agricultural production, but their effect is often unclear; this due to interaction with other factors that affect yield and due to lack of precise definitions of relevant weather extremes. We show that an empirical analysis of historical yields can help to identifying such rare, high impact climate events. A reconstru...

  15. Factors affecting laboratory test use and prices

    OpenAIRE

    Danzon, Patricia Munch; Manning, Willard G.; Marquis, M. Susan

    1984-01-01

    The use of clinical laboratory tests has more than doubled during the past decade. Some observers of the health system feel that this growth is excessive and is a result of current payment systems. This article examines the effects of current reimbursement policies with regard to the use of laboratory tests and prices charged for tests. The results suggest the following: The method of financing medical care, including cost sharing and prepaid group practice arrangements, affects the volume...

  16. Examining Factors Affecting Classroom Attendance and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tze-Ming Chou; Ya-Hui Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This study examined the relationship between four class attitudinal variables and how it affects class attendance and performance. A questionnaire was administered to 134 undergraduate students at medium sized college in Taiwan. The data included questions about the participant’s rating of the level of difficulty of the course (Difficulty), the topics covered in the course (Topics), their motivation towards attending the course (Motivation), and whether or not t...

  17. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating positio...

  18. Optimization of physical factors affecting the production of thermo-stable organic solvent-tolerant protease from a newly isolated halo tolerant Bacillus subtilis strain Rand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Abu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many researchers have reported on the optimization of protease production; nevertheless, only a few have reported on the optimization of the production of organic solvent-tolerant proteases. Ironically, none has reported on thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease to date. The aim of this study was to isolate the thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease and identify the culture conditions which support its production. The bacteria of genus Bacillus are active producers of extra-cellular proteases, and the thermostability of enzyme production by Bacillus species has been well-studied by a number of researchers. In the present study, the Bacillus subtilis strain Rand was isolated from the contaminated soil found in Port Dickson, Malaysia. Results A thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease producer had been identified as Bacillus subtilis strain Rand, based on the 16S rRNA analysis conducted, as well as the morphological characteristics and biochemical properties. The production of the thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease was optimized by varying various physical culture conditions. Inoculation with 5.0% (v/v of (AB600 = 0.5 inoculum size, in a culture medium (pH 7.0 and incubated for 24 h at 37°C with 200 rpm shaking, was the best culture condition which resulted in the maximum growth and production of protease (444.7 U/ml; 4042.4 U/mg. The Rand protease was not only stable in the presence of organic solvents, but it also exhibited a higher activity than in the absence of organic solvent, except for pyridine which inhibited the protease activity. The enzyme retained 100, 99 and 80% of its initial activity, after the heat treatment for 30 min at 50, 55, and 60°C, respectively. Conclusion Strain Rand has been found to be able to secrete extra-cellular thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease into the culture medium. The protease exhibited a remarkable stability towards temperature and organic solvent. This unique property makes it attractive and useful to be used in industrial applications.

  19. Some Factors Affecting the Production of Carotenoids by <i>Rhodotorula glutinis</i> var. <i>glutinis</i>

    OpenAIRE

    El-banna, Amr A.; Abd El-razek, Amal M.; El-mahdy, Ahmed R.

    2012-01-01

    A new yeast strain isolated from pin cushion flower (Scabiosa atropurpura) in our laboratory was selected from 200 yeast isolates as carotenoids producer and identified as Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis. The selected isolate was grown in synthetic medium to study the effect of carbon to nitrogen ratio, sources of nitrogen and carbon, mineral salts and incubation temperature on carotenoids production. The results indicated the following optimal conditions: carbon to nitrogen ratio of 5, am...

  20. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  1. Econometrics Analysis on Factors Affecting Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyi Sun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to identify school-level variables that influence academic outcomes, and to determine the extent of their influence. Using state-level panel data, this study estimates a simple achievement function to explore the nexus between three identified factors (percentage of students eligible for reduced/free lunch program, school enrolment and per-pupil expenditure and student achievement (percentage of satisfactory of 4th grade math and read in the United States. Method: Based on literature reference and rational hypotheses, the effects of the percentage of student eligible for reduced or free lunch, school enrolment and per-pupil expenditure on the percentage of 4th grade student satisfactory in math and read were tested for a certain group of students separately. Ordinary Least Squares regression model was used to determine the validity and strength of each relationship. Result: The data set consisted of 1823 observations located in different districts. Final test result shows that: 1       Significant negative effect on student achievement is found under the factor of percentage of students eligible for reduced or free lunch. 2       Slight negative effect on student achievement is found under the factor of school enrollment. 3       Slight positive effect on student achievement is found under the factor of per-pupil expenditure. Students in school with lower percentage of students eligible for reduced or free lunch program, lower enrolment record, and more per-pupil expenditure will have better academic performance.

  2. Systematic factors that affect ostrich egg incubation traits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Z., Brand; S.W.P., Cloete; C.R., Brown; I.A., Malecki.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock maintained at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate environmental and genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), water loss of incubated eggs up to 21 days (WL21), water loss up to 35 days (WL35), pipping time (PT) and weight of day-old chicks (C [...] WT). Between 13806 and 19913 artificially incubated ostrich eggs during the 2003 to 2006 production years were used. Systematic factors affecting these traits such as production year, breeding season, female age, incubator type, storage time and ostrich breed, were initially assessed in single-trait-analyses, using ASREML. Eggs and chicks produced by Zimbabwean Blue (ZB) females were 5 and 7% heavier, respectively, than those produced by South African Black (SAB) females. WL21 and WL35 were not significantly different between ZB and SAB birds. There were trends for within-season effects on EWT and CWT, but no general, robust trend applicable to all years could be discerned. Season had a significant effect on WL21, WL35 and PT. An increase was apparent in EWT, CWT and PT with an increase in female age. There was a linear increase in pipping time as egg storage time prior to incubation increased. Incubator type had an effect on WL21 and WL35. Systematic factors affect traits such as WL21, WL35 and PT and should be accounted for before the estimation of genetic parameters. These factors should be considered when planning commercial ostrich husbandry and artificial incubation operations.

  3. Factors affecting the maintenance dose of warfarin.

    OpenAIRE

    James, A. H.; Britt, R. P.; Raskino, C. L.; Thompson, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    AIM: To identify the possible factors determining the dose of warfarin prescribed in patients receiving anticoagulant treatment. METHODS: The computerised records of 2305 patients maintained on the drug in seven hospitals were amalgamated and classified into one of seven diagnostic groups. The associations with the dose of warfarin prescribed were investigated by univariate and multiple regression analysis. Differences between hospitals were studied with regard to the coagulometric method and...

  4. Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm Jordaan; Margie Sutherland

    2004-01-01

    One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do n...

  5. Factors affecting fin damage of farmed rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Cvetkovikj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the influence of the factors affecting fin damage under different rainbow trout production systems and to compare the findings with the known experimental reports. The study was based on a questionnaire that included information about the main factors i.e. oxygen level in exit water, water temperature, stocking density, daily feed ration, number of meals and grading frequency on seven rainbow trout farms. Standard multiple regression analysis, based on a previously published fi n damage dataset, was used to assess the relationship between the level of fin damage per fin and the factors. Daily feed ration received the strongest weight in the model for the caudal, anal and both pectoral fins, whereas number of meals received the strongest weight in the model for both pelvic fins. Grading frequency received the strongest weight only in the dorsal fin model. Lower levels of daily feed ration and number of meals combined with higher water temperature increased the level of fin damage, whereas stocking density had no effect. The results conform to the experimental research on fin damage in rainbow trout. The research model contributes to the overall assessment of fish welfare and the regression analysis used in this study could be used on rainbow trout farms to evaluate the effect of the main factors on the level of fin damage.

  6. Risk factors that affect recurrence in strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Bayba?

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent stroke is defined as a new cerebrovascular event which occurs after the stabilization of the previous stroke. Recurrence of stroke increases likelihood of disability-mortality associated with stroke. Systematic evaluation of stroke cases can help to reduce the risk of recurrence. Objective: In order to predict strokes which carry the risk of recurrence, we aimed to compare data related to risk factors, stroke type, etiology and disability-mortality rates associated with stroke. Material And Method: Patients with stroke who referred to Bak?rkoy Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases Training and Research State Hospital between June 1, 2002 and February 28, 2003 were recorded into the stroke database in a consecutive and prospective manner. Strokes were classified as ischemic/hemorrhagic and first/recurrent. For recurrent strokes, information about previous strokes was also recorded. Risk factors were classified as hypertension (HT, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation (AF, coronary artery disease (CAD, migraine, transient ischemic accident (TIA, family history of cerebrovascular accident (CVA, oral contraceptive use, PAD, congestive heart failure (CHF, other heart diseases, smoking cigarette and alcohol consumption. Disability-mortality rates associated with stroke were evaluated. All data were compared for first and recurrent strokes. Results: In our study, 631 patients were evaluated, 52.3% of whom were female and 47.7% male. Frequency of stroke was statistically high (p<0.001 in females over 70 years old. Recurrent strokes were of the same type. For the first and recurrent strokes, HT was the highest risk factor. AF frequency increased with age (p<0.001. The rate of disability-mortality was found high in strokes of undetermined and cardioembolic origin. Conclusion: Knowledge of etiologic group can help to predict recurrence of stroke and prevent death. We think that effective treatment of modifiable risk factors identified in stroke groups where recurrence is the highest, and prioritising the investigation of cardioembolic risk factors in elderly women are significant in terms of primary and secondary stroke prevention.

  7. Study of Factors Affecting Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Kazem Naisi; Ali Moazami-Goodarzi; Maryam Zarra-Nezhad

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the simple and multiple relationships between role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload and mental health considering the moderating role of type A personality and sense of coherence. To this end correlation and regression analysis is utilized. Research sample includes 196 personnel working in Ahvaz Pipe-production factory during year 2007. Research results revealed that there is a significant relation between role ambiguity and mental health deficie...

  8. Factors affecting goat milk yield and composition

    OpenAIRE

    Boro Mio?; Zvonimir Prpi?; Ivan Vnu?ec; Zdravko Bara?; Dubravka Samaržija; Vesna Pavi?

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the effects of breed, stage of lactation, season of kidding and parity on goat milk yield and composition. A total of 25255 records of daily milk production and 25065 records of fat percentage, 25382 records of protein percentage and 24810 records of lactose percentage were obtained, at approximately monthly intervals, from 3702 Alpine and 411 Saanen goats in Croatia. The analysed data were recorded during 2006. Saanen breed had significantly (P

  9. Factors affecting the plasmin-plasminogen system in milk obtained from three Greek dairy sheep breeds with major differences in milk production capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, G; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of breed, stage of lactation, and health status of the udder on the plasmin-plasminogen system in ovine milk. A total of 38 ewes were used from 3 breeds [Boutsiko (n = 12), Chios (n = 12), and a synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 14)] with major differences in their genetic potential with respect to milk yield. Milk samples were collected every 2 wk throughout the lactation period and were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell count (SCC). In addition, milk plasmin (PL), plasminogen (PG), and plasminogen activator (PA) activities were determined. The Chios breed had the greatest average daily milk yield, the synthetic breed had an intermediate milk yield, and ewes of the Boutsiko breed had the lowest milk yield. Milk samples obtained from the Boutsiko breed had similar PL and PA activities, compared with those obtained from the other 2 breeds. The ratio of PG:PL was less in milk samples from the Boutsiko breed compared with the other 2 breeds, indicative of an increased rate of conversion of PG to PL for this breed. There was no correlation between PL activity and daily milk yield in ewes from all 3 breeds. Activities of PL, PG, and PA were greater in ovine milk with elevated SCC (>300,000/mL) compared with activities in milk with low SCC (milk (mo 5 to 6) when compared with early or mid lactation milk (mo 1 to 4). Thus, the PL-PG system is affected by breed, stage of lactation, and the health status of the udder. No relationship was found between PL activity and daily milk yield in the 3 Greek dairy sheep breeds. Plasmin is not a marker for gradual involution in the Greek sheep breeds studied. PMID:17582110

  10. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in highith retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  11. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail. PMID:22530712

  12. Electronic invoicing in SMEs: Assessing the factors affecting the adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Seppa?, Marja

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to find out what factors affect the adoption of electronic invoicing. In addition, the opportunities and drawbacks of adopting e-invoicing are examined. The framework for the study is based on earlier research and literature covering the topic of electronic invoicing and different factors affecting the decision to adopt. The factors presented in the framework are perceived benefits, organizational readiness, and external pressure. Especially external pressure will be under car...

  13. Key factors affecting on bio-hydrogen production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste and kitchen wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Ahmed; El-Qelish, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The effects of sludge residence time (SRT) and dilution ratio (DR) on the continuous H2 production (HP) from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and kitchen wastewater (KWW) via mesophilic anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was investigated. Increasing DR from 1:2 to 1:3 significantly (P<0.1) increased the H2 yield (HY) from 116.5±76 to 142.5±54 ml H2/g CODremoved d, respectively. However, at a DR of 1:4, the HY was dropped to 114.5±65 ml H2/g CODremoved d. Likewise, HY increased from 83±37 to 95±24 ml H2/g CODremoved d, when SRT increased from 3.6 to 4.0 d. Further increase in HY of 148±42 ml H2/g CODremoved d, was occurred at a SRT of 5.6d. Moreover, hydrogen fermentation facilitated carbohydrate, lipids, protein and volatile solids removal efficiencies of 87±5.8%, 74.3±9.12%, 76.4±11.3% and 84.8±4.1%, respectively. PMID:24656489

  14. Does Labor Diversity Affect Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Using an employer-employee dataset, we analyze how diversity in cultural background, skills and demographic characteristics a?ects total factor productivity (TFP) of ?rms in Denmark. Implementing structural estimation of ?rms' production function, we ?nd evidence that labor diversity in skills/education signi?cantly enhances ?rm performance as measured by ?rm TFP. Conversely, diversity in demographics and ethnicity brings mixed results - both dimensions of workforce diversity have either no or negative e?ects on ?rm TFP. Hence, it seems as if the negative e?ects, coming from communication and integration costs connected to a more demographically and culturally diverse workforce, counteract the positive e?ects of diversity on ?rm TFP, coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers. However, we ?nd that ethnic diversity is valuable for ?rms operating in industries characterized by above-average trade openness, giving support to the hypothesis that an ethnically diverse workforce provides information and accessto global markets.

  15. The poplar basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BEE3 - Like gene affects biomass production by enhancing proliferation of xylem cells in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seol Ah; Choi, Young-Im; Cho, Jin-Seong; Lee, Hyoshin

    2015-06-19

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development, including regulation of vascular cambium activities and cell elongation. BR-induced BEE3 (brassinosteroid enhanced expression 3) is required for a proper BR response. Here, we identified a poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) BEE3-like gene, PagBEE3L, encoding a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factor. Expression of PagBEE3L was induced by brassinolide (BL). Transcripts of PagBEE3L were mainly detected in stems, with the internode having a low level of transcription and the node having a relatively higher level. The function of the PagBEE3L gene was investigated through phenotypic analyses with PagBEE3L-overexpressing (ox) transgenic lines. This work particularly focused on a potential role of PagBEE3L in stem growth and development of polar. The PagBEE3L-ox poplar showed thicker and longer stems than wild-type plants. The xylem cells from the stems of PagBEE3L-ox plants revealed remarkably enhanced proliferation, resulting in an earlier thickening growth than wild-type plants. Therefore, this work suggests that xylem development of poplar is accelerated in PagBEE3L-ox plants and PagBEE3L plays a role in stem growth by increasing the proliferation of xylem cells to promote the initial thickening growth of poplar stems. PMID:25935487

  16. Examining Factors Affecting Classroom Attendance and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tze-Ming Chou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This study examined the relationship between four class attitudinal variables and how it affects class attendance and performance. A questionnaire was administered to 134 undergraduate students at medium sized college in Taiwan. The data included questions about the participant’s rating of the level of difficulty of the course (Difficulty, the topics covered in the course (Topics, their motivation towards attending the course (Motivation, and whether or not the participants felt that the course is practical and useful to their future (Practicality. The results of the Pearson correlation coefficients showed that 4 out of the 15 correlations were statistically significant. The negative correlation found between motivation and topics; and practicality and topics suggest the attitude that when choosing courses, students tend to choose courses that they think would easy to pass. The finding that none of the variables were significantly correlated to course attendance and course performance suggests that the strongest predictor of success of a course is based on the student’s level of attendance. This lead to the discussion in the conclusion about pedagogical implications for what teachers can do in their classrooms.

  17. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S

    2004-01-01

    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed. PMID:15222095

  18. Factors affecting virus plaque confirmation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahling, D R; Sullivan, G; Freyberg, R W; Safferman, R S

    1989-01-01

    Direct plaque counts obtained by using the monolayer cell culture assay technique reliably confirmed the number of viruses isolated. Analysis revealed some significant differences in the false-positive rate, depending on the test method used or virus samples evaluated. Plaques from laboratory stock viruses showed a higher confirmation rate than sewage plaque isolates. Test results with laboratory stock viruses suggested that confirmation rates may be affected by virus types present in the sample. Plaques picked by the stab and scrape method and immediately passed into cell culture tubes produced the most reliable counts as compared to those picked by the stab only method or those stored at -70 degrees C in Earle's balanced salt solution with or without fetal calf serum. Plaque confirmation using this method was 90% or better. Although the term 'false positive plaque' has been applied to a particular plaque that was not confirmed, five of ten plaques picked by the stab and scrape method in one series of experiments were confirmed when repicked by the same method from original plaque bottles, indicating that a substantial number of unconfirmed plaques may be caused by plaque transfer techniques. PMID:2547809

  19. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdun Kuyucu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  20. Treatment Compliance Affecting Factors in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Hacihasanoglu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is to be responsible for death which accounts for 6% of adult deaths all over the world. It is the third ranks among causes of death. These ranks are similar both in developed and developing countries. Hypertension has important role causes of death. But, hypertension can be prevented to great extent. On the other hand, a lot of countries in the world hypertension control rates are reported to be inadequate in sample communities representing the general society and in patients treated under health service conditions. Patient no adherence to treatment is one of the significant factors in failing to raise blood pressure (BP control over 25% around the world and in our country. No adherence reason of hypertension treatment was examined in this review article. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(2.000: 167-172

  1. Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Jordaan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. Opsomming
    Een van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

  2. Factores no Genéticos y de Grupo Racial que Afectan el Peso al Nacer en un Sistema de Producción con Vacunos de Carne / Non Genetic and Breed Group Factors Affecting Birth Weight in a Beef Cattle System Production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco, Pacheco; Luis, Depablos; Gonzalo, Martínez; Daniel, Vargas.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar el efecto de factores no genéticos y de grupo racial sobre el peso al nacer (PN), se analizaron 5136 datos de becerros nacidos en una zona de bosque seco tropical. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando un modelo lineal aditivo por el método de máxima verosimilitud restringida que inclu [...] yó los efectos fijos: año de nacimiento (AN; 2001,..,2007); mes de nacimiento (MN; enero, febrero, octubre, noviembre y diciembre); edad de la madre al parto (EM; 3,..,11 años ó más), sexo (S; hembra-macho); grupo racial del becerro (GR1: mestizos Bos taurus de las razas Angus, Braunvieh, Carora, Holstein, Simmental, Romosinuano y Senepol; GR2: predominantemente Bos indicus de las razas Brahman, Nelore, Guzerat y Gyr). El AN, MN, EM y S afectaron (P Abstract in english To evaluate the effect of non-genetic factors and of breed group on birth weight (BW), 5136 records of calves born in a dry tropical forest were analyzed. The data was analyzed using an additive linear model by the restricted maximum verisimilitude method, that included the fixed effects of: year of [...] birth (YB; 2001,..., 2007); month of birth (MB; January, February, October, November, December); age of the mother at calving (AM; 3.., 11 years or more); sex (S; female - male); breed group of the calf (BG1: Crossbred Bos taurus of the breeds Angus, Braunvieh, Carora, Holstein, Simmental, Romosinuano, Senepol; BG2: mainly Bos indicus of the breeds Brahman, Nelore, Guzerat and Gyr). The YB, MB, AM and S affected (P

  3. Study of Factors Affecting Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Kazem Naisi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the simple and multiple relationships between role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload and mental health considering the moderating role of type A personality and sense of coherence. To this end correlation and regression analysis is utilized. Research sample includes 196 personnel working in Ahvaz Pipe-production factory during year 2007. Research results revealed that there is a significant relation between role ambiguity and mental health deficiency, but no one was found between role conflict and role overload and mental health deficiency; nevertheless, higher correlation level between role stressors and mental Health deficiency in low-level sense of coherence in comparison with high-level sense of coherence personnel was found. Also, a higher multiple correlations between role stressors and MH deficiency in personnel having further type A personality in comparison with personnel having not as much of mentioned group’s type A personality was observed.

  4. Factors Affecting Penetrating Captive Bolt Gun Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session. PMID:25415241

  5. Factors Affecting Software Cost Estimation in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Javed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cost is the main driving factor for all projects. When it is done correctly, it helps in the successful completion of the project. In this research we have discussed various factors that affect the estimation procedure. These include team structure, team culture, managerial style, project type (Core application or integrated application, client’s working environment. Accurate estimation is far difficult in developing countries where most of the organizations follow local standards. These inaccurate estimations lead to late delivery, less profit or in worst case complete failure. Software requirement gathering, development, maintenance, quality assurance and cost of poor quality are major groups responsible for overall cost in software production process. The exact proportion among them varies significantly in consecutive software releases, which is caused by many factors. The ever increasing need for the reliability of the software systems, especially mission critical applications in the public safety domain, raises the bar for the accuracy of prediction and estimation techniques. The accuracy of estimations in many areas brings about more concerns regarding techniques already used in the software industry. Widely deployed techniques, such as Wideband Delphi method, stress the engineering and technical aspects of the process of how estimates are prepared.

  6. Factors affecting proximal tubular reabsorption during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies performed in several animal species have demonstrated that glomerulotubular balance is maintained throughout development despite the many changes that occur in the factors known to control it. In an attempt to understand the nature of this phenomenon the authors quantified the magnitude and described the profile of these changes in guinea pigs. The changes in physical forces were assessed from measurements of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, whereas those in the permeability characteristics of the proximal tubule epithelium were estimated from permanence to radioactivity-labelled macromolecules of graded radii, histologic measurements of the intercellular channels, and measurements of end-proximal ratio of tubular fluid-to-plasma osmolality (TF/P/sub osm/). Between 1 and 50 days of age the net pressure for reabsorption increased from 15.0 to 30.9 mmHg with the major change occurring during the first 2-3 wk of postnatal life. The urinary recovery of [3H]inulin, [14C]sucrose, and [14C]creatinine, injected in the early segment of proximal tubules did not vary with age. The urinary recovery of [14C]mannitol increased from 92% at birth to 100% at 49 days of age. The length of the zonulae occludens and the width of the intercellular channels did not change during this period. The findings support the hypothesis that during early postnatal life glomerulotubular balance is made possible by a high permeability of the proximsible by a high permeability of the proximal tubule, which compensates for the low net reabsorptive pressure. As the animal matures and the proximal tubule epithelium becomes tighter, for glomerulotubular balance to be maintained, an increase in the number of intercellular channels and in the active transport of sodium need to be postulated

  7. Factors affecting goat milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mio?

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the effects of breed, stage of lactation, season of kidding and parity on goat milk yield and composition. A total of 25255 records of daily milk production and 25065 records of fat percentage, 25382 records of protein percentage and 24810 records of lactose percentage were obtained, at approximately monthly intervals, from 3702 Alpine and 411 Saanen goats in Croatia. The analysed data were recorded during 2006. Saanen breed had significantly (P<0.01 higher lactation and daily milk yield than Alpine breed (720 kg and 2.63 kg/day versus 577 kg and 2.08 kg/day, respectively. The contents of protein and lactose were similar between investigated breeds, while Alpine goats had significantly higher (P<0.05 milk fat content than Saanen goats (3.47 % versus 3.25 %, respectively. Least square analyses showed significant effects of stage of lactation, season of kidding and parity on almost all variables. Milk lactose content tended to decline as the lactation period progressed and milk yield decreased. Milk protein content tended to increase with the lactation period. The lowest content of milk fat was established in the mid stage of lactation, whereas the highest fat content was recorded at the end of lactation. The effect of parity on total lactation and daily milk yield shows an almost steady growing trend from first to fourth lactation. Goats kidding early in the year had better milking performances (longer lactation period, higher milk yield, higher content of milk fat than goats kidding in the spring. In order to improve lactation performances of their animals, the goat farmers should apply earlier mating season and use the appropriate breeding programmes.

  8. Factors that affect the in vitro production of bovine embryos: A review Factores que afectan la producción in vitro de embriones bovinos: una revisión Fatores que afetam a produção in vitro de embriões bovinos: A revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F M Pfeifer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro embryo production (IVP represents a way to increase gamete use from animals with high zootechnical value. In spite of the advances obtained in IVP over the last few years, production of transferable embryos is still low. The aim of this review is to discuss ways to produce in vitro embryos, as well as oocytes formation and maturation processes that can be related to the effectiveness of obtained results. Some studies show the influence of follicular growth factors, gonadotropins, steroids and other hormones on the follicular development and the quality of the cumulus oocyte complex (COC. The follicular phase of slow growth is critical for the development of the oocyte capacity to reach the final competence and diameter. Information about endocrine influences, or likewise, the dependence of growth of small antral follicles when a loss in the oocyte or follicle functionality occurs is scarce in the literature. A variable number of different techniques and protocols for treatment of oocytes donors are described with the aim of improve the results, the COCs recovering rate and the developmental competence in vitro of collected oocytes. From the considerations presented in this review, it is possible to verify the importance of better understanding the factors involved in the IVP process, with the aim of allow new alternatives to increase the results obtained in programs of animal assisted reproduction.La producción in vitro de embriones (PIV representa una manera de aumentar el uso de gametos de animales con alto valor zootécnico. A pesar de los avances obtenidos en PIV en los últimos años, la producción de embriones tranferibles sigue siendo baja. El objetivo de esta revisión es discutir maneras de producir embriones in vitro, así como los procesos de formación y de maduración de los oocitos que se pueden relacionar con la eficacia de los resultados obtenidos. Algunos estudios demuestran la influencia de los factores foliculares del crecimiento, gonadotrofinas, esteroides y otras hormonas en el desarrollo folicular y la calidad del complejo del cumulus oocito (CCO. La fase folicular del crecimiento lento es crítica para el desarrollo de la capacidad del oocito de alcanzar la capacidad y el diámetro final. Información sobre influencias endocrinas, o además, la dependencia del crecimiento de pequeños folículos antrales cuando ocurre una pérdida en la funcionalidad del oocito o del folículo, es escasa en la literatura. Un número variable de diversas técnicas y los protocolos para el tratamiento de oocitos de las donantes son descritos en esta revisión, con lo objetivo de mejorar los resultados, el índice de la recuperacion de CCOs y la capacidad de desarrollo in vitro de oocitos recogidos. De las consideraciones presentadas en esta revisión, es posible verificar la importancia de entender los factores implicados en el proceso de PIV, para permitir el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas que mejoren los resultados obtenidos en programas de la reproducción animal asistida.A produção in vitro (PIV de embriões representa uma maneira de incrementar o uso de gametas de animais de alto valor zootécnico. Apesar dos avanços obtidos na PIV nos últimos anos, a produção de embriões transferíveis ainda é baixa. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir maneiras de produzir embriões in vitro, assim como o processo de formação e maturação de oócitos, que pode estar relacionado a eficácia dos resultados obtidos. Aguns estudos demonstram a influência de fatores de crescimento, gonadotrofinas, esteróides e outros hormônios no desenvolvimento folicular e na qualidade do complexo cumulus oócito (CCO. A fase folicular de crescimento lento é critica para o desenvolvimento da capacidade do oócito de atingir a competência e o diâmetro finais. Informação sobre as influências endócrinas, ou seja, da dependência do crescimento de pequenos folículos antrais quando ocorre perda da funcionalidade do oócito ou folículo são escassas na literatura. Um número variável de diferent

  9. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript ...

  10. Factors affecting the prognosis of meniscectomy in soccer players.

    OpenAIRE

    Muckle, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    Meniscectomy is a frequent surgical procedure in young soccer players but the results are unpredictable. A long-term survey was carried out to assess certain fundamental features and to establish the predictive factors which affect the prognosis after meniscectomy.

  11. Factors Affecting Brand Identification and Loyalty in Online Community

    OpenAIRE

    Chieh-Min Chou

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the factors of online community characteristics which affect customer loyalty through the mediate effects of brand identification. By employing online questionnaire survey, hundreds of observations were collected from online brand communities in Taiwan for hypothetical model test. Research results show that brand loyalty is positively affected by stronger online brand identification which is enhanced by online community interactivity, satisfied custo...

  12. Factors that affect the in vitro production of bovine embryos: A review / Fatores que afetam a produção in vitro de embriões bovinos: A revisão / Factores que afectan la producción in vitro de embriones bovinos: una revisión

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz F, M Pfeifer; Augusto, Schneider; Marcio N, Corrêa.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A produção in vitro (PIV) de embriões representa uma maneira de incrementar o uso de gametas de animais de alto valor zootécnico. Apesar dos avanços obtidos na PIV nos últimos anos, a produção de embriões transferíveis ainda é baixa. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir maneiras de produzir embriões [...] in vitro, assim como o processo de formação e maturação de oócitos, que pode estar relacionado a eficácia dos resultados obtidos. Aguns estudos demonstram a influência de fatores de crescimento, gonadotrofinas, esteróides e outros hormônios no desenvolvimento folicular e na qualidade do complexo cumulus oócito (CCO). A fase folicular de crescimento lento é critica para o desenvolvimento da capacidade do oócito de atingir a competência e o diâmetro finais. Informação sobre as influências endócrinas, ou seja, da dependência do crescimento de pequenos folículos antrais quando ocorre perda da funcionalidade do oócito ou folículo são escassas na literatura. Um número variável de diferentes técnicas e protocolos para o tratamento de doadoras de ovóctios são descritos com o objetivo de melhorar os resultados, a taxa de recuperação de CCOs e o desenvolvimento da competência in vitro dos oócitos coletados. Das considerações apresentadas nesta revisão é possível verificar a importância do conhecimento dos fatores envolvidos no processo de PIV, com o objetivo de possibilitar que novas alternativas incrementem os resultados obtidos em programas de reprodução animal assistida. Abstract in spanish La producción in vitro de embriones (PIV) representa una manera de aumentar el uso de gametos de animales con alto valor zootécnico. A pesar de los avances obtenidos en PIV en los últimos años, la producción de embriones tranferibles sigue siendo baja. El objetivo de esta revisión es discutir manera [...] s de producir embriones in vitro, así como los procesos de formación y de maduración de los oocitos que se pueden relacionar con la eficacia de los resultados obtenidos. Algunos estudios demuestran la influencia de los factores foliculares del crecimiento, gonadotrofinas, esteroides y otras hormonas en el desarrollo folicular y la calidad del complejo del cumulus oocito (CCO). La fase folicular del crecimiento lento es crítica para el desarrollo de la capacidad del oocito de alcanzar la capacidad y el diámetro final. Información sobre influencias endocrinas, o además, la dependencia del crecimiento de pequeños folículos antrales cuando ocurre una pérdida en la funcionalidad del oocito o del folículo, es escasa en la literatura. Un número variable de diversas técnicas y los protocolos para el tratamiento de oocitos de las donantes son descritos en esta revisión, con lo objetivo de mejorar los resultados, el índice de la recuperacion de CCOs y la capacidad de desarrollo in vitro de oocitos recogidos. De las consideraciones presentadas en esta revisión, es posible verificar la importancia de entender los factores implicados en el proceso de PIV, para permitir el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas que mejoren los resultados obtenidos en programas de la reproducción animal asistida. Abstract in english In vitro embryo production (IVP) represents a way to increase gamete use from animals with high zootechnical value. In spite of the advances obtained in IVP over the last few years, production of transferable embryos is still low. The aim of this review is to discuss ways to produce in vitro embryos [...] , as well as oocytes formation and maturation processes that can be related to the effectiveness of obtained results. Some studies show the influence of follicular growth factors, gonadotropins, steroids and other hormones on the follicular development and the quality of the cumulus oocyte complex (COC). The follicular phase of slow growth is critical for the development of the oocyte capacity to reach the final competence and diameter. Information about endocrine influences, or likewise, the dependence of growth of small antral follicles when a loss i

  13. Factors potentially affecting fertility of lactating dairy cow recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, J L M; Demétrio, D G B; Santos, R M; Chiari, J R; Rodrigues, C A; Sá Filho, O G

    2006-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to evaluate factors that could affect pregnancy rate after embryo transfer (ET) in lactating dairy cow recipients. The trial was conducted at a dairy farm located in Descalvado, SP, Brazil from October 2003 to September 2004. From 1037 cows with CL that were treated with an injection of PGF2alpha, 43.3% were detected in heat; 263 were previously assigned at day of PGF2alpha injection for AI and 186 for ET. Ovulation rate was 85.7% (385/449). Pregnancy rate for cows with CL for AI and embryo transfer recipients were 36.5% (84/230) and 58.7% (91/155) at day 25 and 33.0% (76/230) and 45.8% (71/155) at day 46, respectively. Embryonic loss were 9.5% (8/84) for the AI group and 21.9% (20/91) for the ET group. Average milk production was 31.4 L/day/cow. Average daily milk production from 7 days before PGF2alpha injection to 7 days after ET tended (P milk production from the day of embryo transfer to 7 days after influenced embryonic loss (P milk production had lower probability of pregnancy and higher probability of embryonic loss. Cows with higher days in milk had higher probability of pregnancy. Cows with higher rectal body temperature had lower probability of pregnancy and higher probability of embryonic loss. The influence of high milk yield and body temperature on fertility in lactating dairy cow recipients suggests that these effects can occur also after embryo reaches the blastocyst stage. PMID:16290259

  14. Preslaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality chapter 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry meat quality is affected by numerous antemortem factors, in particular those occurring during the last 24 hours that the bird is alive. These short term factors influence carcass yield (live shrink), carcass defects (bruising, broken/dislocated bones), carcass microbiological contamination, ...

  15. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  16. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, rchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  17. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  18. Environmental Factors Affecting Performance Traits of Sahiwal Cattle in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rehman*§ and M. S. Khan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on 23925 lactations of 5897 Sahiwal cows in five Government herds of Punjab (Pakistan viz. Livestock Experiment Station (LES Allahdad, LES Bahadurnagar, LES Fazalpur, LES Jahangirabad and LES Khizerabad (1964-2004 were collected to document the behavior of various productive and reproductive traits of Sahiwal cows with respect to herd, year and season of calving and parity. A linear model was used to determine the effects of various environmental factors on performance traits. The 305-day milk yield, total milk yield, lactation length, dry period, calving interval and service period averaged 1530.5±12.36 kg, 1552.1±12.15 kg, 235±1.4 days, 218±2.1 days, 438±2.7 days and 151±2.8 days, respectively. All the productive and reproductive traits were affected (P<0.01 by herd, year, season of calving and parity. Lactation length was important covariable for yield traits while yield was important for dry period, service period and calving interval. Maximum yield was recorded for 5th parity cows. Calving interval differed by two months among herds. Cows calving in most frequent calving season (winter produced more milk than summer calvers (1608.6±12.91 kg vs 1474.1±13.63 kg. The phenotypic trends for 305-day milk yield, total milk yield, lactation length, dry period, calving interval and service period were -1.33 kg, -0.21 kg, -1.27 days, +1.52 days, +0.32 days and +0.59 days, respectively. Lactation length (244.5 days was used as covariable. Improvement in feeding and breeding management and culling on productivity may improve the performance of Sahiwal cows.

  19. Factors Affecting Acceptance of Smartphone Application for Management of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The factors affecting the acceptance of mobile obesity-management applications (apps) by the public were analyzed using a mobile healthcare system (MHS) technology acceptance model (TAM). Methods The subjects who participated in this study were Android smartphone users who had an intent to manage their weight. They used the obesity-management app for two weeks, and then completed an 18-item survey designed to determine the factors influencing the acceptance of the app. Three questions were asked pertaining to each of the following six factors: compatibility, self-efficacy, technical support and training, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavior regarding intention to use. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the reliability of the scales. Pathway analysis was also performed to evaluate the MHS acceptance model. Results A total of 94 subjects participated in this study. The results indicate that compatibility, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected the behavioral intention to use the mobile obesity-management app. Technical support and training also significantly affected the perceived ease of use; however, the hypotheses that self-efficacy affects perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use were not supported in this study. Conclusions This is the first attempt to analyze the factors influencing mobile obesity-management app acceptance using a TAM. Further studies should cover not only obesity but also other chronic diseases and should analyze the factors affecting the acceptance of apps among healthcare consumers in general. PMID:25995959

  20. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3 (-)) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3 (-) addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3 (-) and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

  1. Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzke Susan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions, physical activity (eight dimensions, and stress management (eight dimensions. Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American and white mothers in community settings.

  2. Turn on the Lights: Macroeconomic Factors Affecting Renewable in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Ihtisham Abdul; Siyal, Ghamz-e-ali; Abdullah, Alias Bin; Alam, Arif; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Baloch, Siraj Ullah; Shams, Tauqeer

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between macroeconomic factors (i.e., population growth; urbanization, industrialization, exchange rate, price level, food production index and live stock production index) and renewable energy in Pakistan over a period of 1975-2012. In addition, this study uses oil rent as an intervening variable to overcome the biasness of the single equation model. The results indicate that macroeconomic factors positively contributed to renewable en...

  3. Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kashif Ud Din Khan; Shazia Gulzar; Farzan Yahya

    2013-01-01

    Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods. Re...

  4. Variability in wheat: factors affecting its nutritional value

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.; Verstegen, M W A; Hartog, L.A.; Villamide, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Wheat is a common raw material used to provide energy in broiler diets. Its apparent metabolisable energy and its influence on broiler performance varies between wheat samples. Reasons for that variability can be classified as intrinsic (variety, chemical composition) and extrinsic factors (growing conditions, storage, etc.), both of which affect nutrient digestibility and availability. However, these factors are not always considered when formulating the diets for broiler chickens. Moreover,...

  5. Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.

    OpenAIRE

    Ash, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. METHODS: A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at th...

  6. Factors Affecting The Profitability Rate of Leading Firms in Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhman, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to investigate the factors which affecting firms’ profitability in Makassar. The factors are amount of capital, growth of sales, net working capital, leverage ratio, and current ratio. The sample involved in the survey 45 companies which identified as leading companies in Makassar. The result outlined that the leading businesses tended to consider financial ratio in implementing financial policy. The findings indicated that growth of sales, current ratio a...

  7. Factors Affecting Employment and Job Satisfaction of Vietnamese Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Nguyen T.; Healy, Charles C.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 210 Vietnamese refugees to determine factors affecting employment and job satisfaction. Results showed Vietnamese subjects reporting job satisfaction had been in the U.S. longer. They were more proficient in speaking English than dissatisfied refugees but not more positive about job-seeking resources. (Author/BH)

  8. Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüközer, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A).…

  9. Institutional and Managerial Factors Affecting International Student Recruitment Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Mitchell; Heaney, Joo-Gim; Cooper, Maxine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate international student recruitment from an institutional perspective and to consider institutional factors that may affect recruitment. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study is undertaken in which education marketing practitioners are interviewed regarding aspects of international…

  10. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  11. Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergis, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

  12. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  13. Motivational Factors Affecting Online Learning by Japanese MBA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hisayo

    2006-01-01

    In Japan, Internet based learning is still at an early stage. However, adult learners in Japanese society expect the development of flexible e-learning programs. This case study examines motivational factors affecting online learning in a Japanese and Australian MBA program, using observations, interviews and a questionnaire survey. The data were…

  14. Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

  15. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  16. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  17. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  18. Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

  19. Relationship between Factors of Construction Resources Affecting Project Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Abdul Rahman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of any construction project highly depends on how proper and effective the management of construction resources flow. Studies show that various resources factors affected cost management and have resulted to significant amount of cost overrun worldwide. However, a few investigations had been carried out in Malaysia regarding the effect of resources in construction industry. Hence, this study focuses on identifying significant resource factors causing construction cost overrun and also assessing the relationship between these factors. Data collection was carried out through a structured questionnaire survey consisting of 20 factors identified through a comprehensive literature review. Data was analyzed using statistical software package SPSS. The Cronbach’s alpha of the data was 0.910 which means that the collected data was highly reliable. The factors were ranked through mean rank approach and it was found that 3 most significant factors are “fluctuation of prices of materials”, “cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors” and “shortages of materials”. While the least significant factors in causing cost overrun are “insufficient numbers of equipment”, “relationship between management and labour”, and “labour absenteeism”. The result of Spearman test indicates that “cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors” with “financial difficulties of owner” correlate strongly at a significant level of 0.752. This identification of factors and relationships will help construction community in controlling resopurce factors for achieving project completion within the budget.

  20. Factors Affecting the Habitability of Earth-like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria; NAI-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team

    2014-03-01

    Habitability is a measure of an environment's potential to support life. For exoplanets, the concept of habitability can be used broadly - to inform our calculations of the possibility and distribution of life elsewhere - or as a practical tool to inform mission designs and to prioritize specific targets in the search for extrasolar life. Although a planet's habitability does depend critically on the effect of stellar type and planetary semi-major axis on climate balance, work in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology has identified many additional factors that can affect a planet's environment and its potential ability to support life. Life requires material for metabolism and structures, a liquid medium for chemical transport, and an energy source to drive metabolism and other life processes. Whether a planet's surface or sub-surface can provide these requirements is the result of numerous planetary and astrophysical processes that affect the planet's formation and evolution. Many of these factors are interdependent, and fall into three main categories: stellar effects, planetary effects and planetary system effects. Key abiotic processes affecting the resultant planetary environment include photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2003; 2005), stellar effects on climate balance (e.g. Joshii et al., 2012; Shields et al., 2013), atmospheric loss (e.g. Lopez and Fortney, 2013), and gravitational interactions with the star (e.g. Barnes et al., 2013). In many cases, the effect of these processes is strongly dependent on a specific planet's existing environmental properties. Examples include the resultant UV flux at a planetary surface as a product of stellar activity and the strength of a planet's atmospheric UV shield (Segura et al., 2010); and the amount of tidal energy available to a planet to drive plate tectonics and heat the surface (Barnes et al., 2009), which is in turn due to a combination of stellar mass, planetary mass and composition, planetary orbital parameters and the gravitational influence of other planets in the system. A thorough assessment of a planet's environment and its potential habitability is a necessary first step in the search for biosignatures. Targeted environmental characteristics include surface temperature and pressure (e.g. Misra et al., 2013), a census of bulk and trace atmospheric gases, and whether there are signs of liquid water on the planetary surface (e.g. Robinson et al., 2010). The robustness of a planetary biosignature is dependent on being able to characterize the environment sufficiently well, and to understand likely star-planet interactions, to preclude formation of a biosignature gas via abiotic processes such as photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2007; Domagal-Goldman et al., 2011; Grenfell et al., 2012). Here we also discuss potential false positives for O2 and O3, which, in large quantities, are often considered robust biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. There is clearly significant future work required to better identify and understand the key environmental processes and interactions that allow a planet to support life, and to distinguish life's global impact on an environment from the environment itself.

  1. Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahieh Moradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

  2. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  3. Productive Parasites: Thinking of Noise as Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Thompson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from Michel Serres’ notion of the parasite, this article provides a nuanced explanation for noise that distinguishes itself from prevailing negative narratives, which often seek to define noise as unwanted, undesirable or damaging sound. Such narratives have left noise vulnerable to moralising polemics, which construct silence and noise as a dichotomy between the past and present, natural and cultural, relaxing and disturbing, and, fundamentally, good and bad. This article facilitates a reconsideration of noise’s ethical connotations by proposing the notion of noise as affect.

  4. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  5. Recession barely affects refined product demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, A

    1991-02-18

    An annual review and forecast of the petroleum products market situation in Canada is presented. Demand for refined petroleum products in Canada experienced a small decline in 1990 with the advent of adverse economic conditions. Total estimated requirements were 264,940 m{sup 3}/d, or 0.5% less than in 1989. A further 0.2% reduction in consumption is forecast for 1991. On a regional basis, statistics indicate that consumption in all regions was lower than in 1989, with the largest drop occurring in the Atlantic provinces. Refiners' sales increased in 3 of the 5 reporting regions. Canada maintained its status as a net exporter of refined products for the 18th consecutive year. Net refinery output was reduced in 1990 to 271,930 m{sup 3}/d, although 3 of the 5 regions reported increased throughput. Canadian dependence on foreign oil could slacken in 1991, except for Quebec and the Atlantic provinces. Imported oil had a 1.5% greater share of the Canadian market in 1990 compared to 1989, but a cutback of ca 1,050 m{sup 3}/d of imports is expected for 1991. Among the refinery products sold, gasoline ranks first in sales; compared to 1990, gasoline sales registered a marginal downturn of 0.5%. A drop of ca 0.7% is forecast for 1991. Lead-free regular gasoline continues to assume an ever-increasing share of the market, reaching 75.9% of total gasoline demand in 1990 compared to 66.5% in 1989. 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  6. Factors Affecting the Ethical Judgment of Business Ethics’ Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine the factors that affect the ethical judgment of Business Ethics students. The factors are year of study, gender, academic major, overall academic performance and Business Ethics result. A questionnaire survey was administered to 209 students taking Business Ethics course in a higher learning institution in Malaysia. Ethical vignettes obtained from Emerson and Conroy (2004 were used to capture how students evaluate the ethical behavior depicted in the vignettes. A multiple regression analysis revealed that Business Ethics result and year of study are factors that have a significant effect on the ethical judgment of students. The study reveals that Business Ethics result and year of study are significant factors that affect the ethical judgment of the students. The findings of this study may assist accounting practitioners and future employers in recruiting prospective employees. Employers may want to emphasis the significant factors in the hiring process future employees to ensure that the employees they employ have an appropriate level of ethical behavior.

  7. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

  8. Factors affecting the noise from small propeller driven aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    The factors affecting noise from small propeller driven airplanes are reviewed to quantify their affects where possible, and to indicate the potential for noise reduction. The main sources of external noise are noted to be the propellers and engines; the airframe being of less importance for both aural detection and community annoyance. Propeller noise is a strong function of tip speed and is affected adversely by nonuniform inflows. Reciprocating engine exhausts are noisier than those of comparably rated turboshaft engines, but their noise can be reduced by the use of flight certified exhaust mufflers. Presently, there are no generally accepted engineering methods for development of optimized propellers and exhaust muffler designs from weight and performance penalty standpoints. Flight demonstration results, however, suggest that required noise reductions for future certification should be possible with potentially small penalties.

  9. A Quantitative Model to Determine Factors Affecting Profits of Broiler Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    CEVGER, Yavuz; YALÇIN, Cengiz

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of the profit function regression model as a decision support tool in commercial broiler production. The fact that the estimated impact factors affecting profitability on the profit per kg live-weight were similar to those observed in the field indicates the power of the model as a decision support tool in broiler production. Because the marginal impact of each independent variable on profit was the estimated coefficient value, they could...

  10. Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

  11. Factors affecting uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.; Taylor, B.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study factors affecting uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation. DESIGN--Cohort study using data from computerised child health systems. SETTING--10 health districts in North East Thames and North West Thames regions. SUBJECTS--7841 children born in January to March 1990 and resident in the districts up till the end of October 1991. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Overall uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation, variation of uptake among groups of children, and odds...

  12. Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shariq Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab Nati...

  13. Factors affecting adolescents’ choice of branded vs. fashionable clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Mo?nica Sofia Ramos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project is to analyse the importance of branded and fashionable clothing, and which of them is the most important for adolescents when choosing their clothes, according with gender and age. The research analysed how three factors (peers’ influence, materialistic behaviour and self-esteem) affected adolescents’ clothing choices in the Portuguese market. 148 adolescents (12 and 16 years old) participated in the research, by answering a questionnaire. Results show th...

  14. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Rawan Al-Fouzan; Sarah Al-Ajlan; Yousef Marwan; Mervat Al-Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression wer...

  15. Statistical Analysis of the Different Factors Affecting the Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, Qamruz; Khan, Imtiaz

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhea is a worldwide problem facing both developing countries and developed countries, especially in pediatric population. Because of shortage of health facilities and lack of good food in developing countries, it is known fact that developing countries are facing this death taking problem more. The main purpose of this study was to examine the various factors which affect the recovery time of diarrhea. A multiple linear regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a model. The...

  16. Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    K. Abu-Alruz; I.A. Afaneh; J.M. Quasem; M.A. Hmidat; J. Abbady; A.S. Mazahreh

    2011-01-01

    The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol) contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ...

  17. Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2013-01-01

    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129

  18. Factors affecting absorption, transport, and form of plutonium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption of Pu by plants was related primarily to differences in soil properties and to the presence of natural and synthetic organic ligands that partially stabilized Pu against hydrolysis in soil. Plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) were also affected by a series of secondary processes related to plant growth rate and production of biomass. The valence state of Pu added to soil did not affect CR values due to reduction of Pu(VI) to Pu(IV). The Pu was transported in plant xylem fluid to aerial leaf tissue as Pu(IV) organic acid complexes. Variables affecting the chemical form of Pu in plants after uptake included plant age, plant species, and the presence of nutrient elements (especially Fe, Zn, and Cu) that competed for reaction sites on plant organic ligands. Test plants used were alfalfa, peas, soybeans, squash, and bushbeans

  19. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user’s committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user’s committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

  20. LED light sources: a survey of quality-affecting factors and methods for their assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, after nearly half a century of rapid and sustained development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), conventional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps are beginning to be replaced by LEDs. Therefore, understanding and assessing all the relevant factors that affect the quality of LEDs is becoming increasingly important for design, production and maintenance of various LED products. The most adverse quality-affecting factors are the initial variability of the optical and electrical properties in a batch of LEDs, temperature and electrical dependence and temporal degradation with corresponding variability. In this paper, we survey the most important quality-affecting factors and corresponding methods for their assessment. First, initial variability of the optical and electrical properties in a new batch of LEDs and the corresponding assessment methods are outlined. Next, the temperature stability of optical and electrical properties of LEDs is discussed. Moreover, the most frequently studied methods for spectral degradation and corresponding degradation variability prediction are reviewed according to the accuracy, applicability and specificity. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the established models of part stress analysis are pointed out. In this way, all the major factors affecting the quality of LED products are summarized and the corresponding methods for their assessment are outlined. (topical review)opical review)

  1. Factors Affecting Business Success of Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuthamas Chittithaworn

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to identify factors that are affecting business success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in Thailand. The intention of this study is to provide the understanding on how people should start their business by looking at all the factors affecting business success hence help to reduce the risk of failure and increase chances of success. The study examined eight factors that influence the SMEs business success. These factors are: SMEs characteristic, management and know-how, products and services, Customer and Market, the way of doing business and cooperation, resources and finance, Strategy, and external environment. The theoretical framework has been drawn out and questionnaire was designed based on the factors chosen. Eight hypotheses were developed to find out factors that are affecting Business Success of SMEs in Thailand. The entire hypotheses were successfully tested with SPSS and five hypotheses were accepted. The regression analysis result shown that the most significant factors affecting business success of SMEs in Thailand were SMEs characteristics, customer and market, the way of doing business, resources and finance, and external environment.

  2. A conceptual model for factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Ghafari Ashtiani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain is a widely used concept around the world. Nowadays, companies need to integrate their production processes, from the raw materials to the end-user. Supply chain management is a phenomenon that achieves this in a way that ensures customers get reliable and fast service and high quality products at the lowest possible cost. There is very limited and sporadic research on supply chain integration and how it affects supply chain performance. Therefore there is no real understanding of the concept of supply chain integration and how it affects supply chain performance nor is there a holistic model. This paper thus aims to present a model that identifies factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. After analyzing the collected data on supply chain integration and customer delivery performance, the preliminary model was proposed and completed, and using expert opinion in the Imam Khomeini Oil Refinery the final model and for factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance were presented. To determine how these factors interrelate with each other, the DEMATEL method was then used. The statistical population included the staff at Imam Khomeini Oil Refinery in Shazand. The data, collected through the standard DEMATEL questionnaire, were analyzed using the DEMATEL method and a MATLAB program. The DEMATEL results indicate that intra-organizational factors, institutional norms, technological certainties are causal factors which influence other factors that affect the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. Intra-organizational factor have a greater influence also among effect factors, substructures have the greatest influence.

  3. A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study of possible reduction in irradiation dose to patients during medical treatments, the following two methods can be considered: (1) To obtain absorbed doses for each part of a body in diagnostic X-ray examinations. (2) To obtain data on factors such as the tube voltage which may affect patient dose. There are a number of reports both at home and abroad concerning the above (1), but very few reports are available concerning the above (2). Moreover, most of them are on fragmentary aspects of each factor and no systematic reports have been made. For this reason, we have taken up, as factors affecting the patient dose, the field size, the tube voltage, and by checking them again, we wanted to obtain some systematic data. Our aim has been fully attained by conducting an experiment. In the ICRP's Publ. 26 issued last year, the idea of the critical organ which had not been fully elucidated in the Publ. 9 was abandoned. As a result, assessment of the irradiation doses has become more rational and the total risk for an individual was obtained. In Japan, the idea proposed in the Publ. 9 is adopted. Therefore, in this paper, we will raise some questions regarding the assessment of the irradiation doses, pointing out at the same time the rationality of the idea put forward in Publ. 26. (author)

  4. Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abu-Alruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ended in July 2008. The following 11 factors were taken into consideration during sample collection: olive fly infection, topography, olive storage before pressing, geographical area, effect of olive seeds during oil extraction, effect of pressing temperature, presence of olive leaves during oil extraction, soil type, maturity index of the olive fruit, olive variety and oil preservation and storage in terms of storage container types. The results show that soil type, region, maturity index and olive fly infection are the main factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol. Pressing temperature, olive storage before pressing, olive variety and oil storage showed a moderate effect. Olive seeds, topography and presence of olive leaves had a negligible effect on D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil.

  5. Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Avis J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

  6. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  7. Factors Affecting The Entrepreneurial Behavior Of TUMS Research Centers Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Khayatan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Aim: Entrepreneurial roles can be performed by managers at different levels. In fact, entrepreneurship can be interpreted as a tendency adopted by managers towards their environment in which they should have the ability to discover new opportunities for their innovative activities. This study aims to identify factors affecting entrepreneurial behavior of research centers managers at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS.  Materials and Methods: Considering the sample size determined through Cochran’s formula, 90 questionnaires were distributed among TUMS research centers managers. The data were analyzed based on structural equation modeling applying partial least squares approach through Smartpls.2 software.  Results: Of the 90 questionnaires distributed, 67 were acceptable for study. The model created for effective factors enjoyed an acceptable goodness of fit index (GOF=0.49. Factors loading for the observed variables were above 0.4 and the constructs had an acceptable level of reliability and validity.  Conclusion : The results show that contextual and behavioral factors have a positive effect on entrepreneurial behavior and that structural factors have a negative effect on it. 

  8. Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Junker, Michael Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are commonly used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP). DEAP films are used in making actuators, generators and sensors. In the large scale manufacture of DEAP films, release of films from the substrate (carrier web) induces some defects and pre-strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities of perfluoroether allylamide (PFE) lowered the surface energy which could ease the release. This is further investigated together with an evaluation of the resulting change in actuator performance. The relationship between the adhesive energy, surface energy, Young’s modulus and peel force of the films is analyzed.

  9. Crop production in salt affected soils: A biological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant are susceptible to deleterious effects of various abiotic and biotic stresses, thus grossly affecting the growth and productivity. Amongst the abiotic stresses, soil salinity is most significant and prevalent in both developed and developing countries. As a consequences, good productive lands are being desertified at a very high pace. To combat this problem various approaches involving soil management and drainage are underway but with little success. It seems that a durable solution of the salinity and water-logging problems may take a long time and we may have to learn to live with salinity and to find other ways to utilize the affected lands fruitfully. A possible approach could be to tailor plants to suit the deleterious environment. The saline-sodic soils have excess of sodium, are impermeable, have little or no organic matter and are biologically almost dead. Introduction of a salt tolerant crop will provide a green cover and will improve the environment for biological activity, increase organic matter and will improve the soil fertility. The plant growth will result in higher carbon dioxide levels, and would thus create acidic conditions in the soil which would dissolve the insoluble calcium carbonate and will help exchange sodium with calcium ions on the soil complex. The biomass produced could be used directly as fodder or by the use of biotechnological and other procedures it could be converted into other value added products. However, in order to tail added products. However, in order to tailor plants to suit these deleterious environments, acquisition of better understanding of the biochemical and genetic aspects of salt tolerance at the cellular/molecular level is essential. For this purpose model systems have been carefully selected to carry out fundamental basic research that elucidates and identifies the major factors that confer salt tolerance in a living system. With the development of modern biotechnological methods it is now possible to introduce any foreign genetic material known to confer salt tolerance into crop plants. Some of the approaches and results obtained are being discussed. (author). 43 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  10. Chinese multinationals: how do institutional factors affect their location patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Quer Ramón

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of various host country institutional factors on the location patterns of 29 large Chinese multinationals. From a sample of 127 outward foreign direct investment (FDI decisions made in 52 countries, our findings suggest that a greater difficulty in doing business and a high political risk in the host country do not discourage Chinese multinationals. However, the presence of overseas Chinese in the host country, a larger absolute host market size and a higher volume of Chinese exports to that country affect positively.

  11. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  12. SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek FOUDA; Assad DERBALA; Mohamed GHONAME

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850....

  13. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  14. Environmental Factors Affecting Performance Traits of Sahiwal Cattle in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Rehman*§ and M. S. Khan

    2012-01-01

    Data on 23925 lactations of 5897 Sahiwal cows in five Government herds of Punjab (Pakistan) viz. Livestock Experiment Station (LES) Allahdad, LES Bahadurnagar, LES Fazalpur, LES Jahangirabad and LES Khizerabad (1964-2004) were collected to document the behavior of various productive and reproductive traits of Sahiwal cows with respect to herd, year and season of calving and parity. A linear model was used to determine the effects of various environmental factors on performance traits. The 305...

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN NILI RAVI BUFFALOES

    OpenAIRE

    IMTIAZ A. KHAN, A. KHAN1, A. MUBARAK AND S. ALI

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to find out the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Nili Ravi buffaloes at a livestock experimental station in the Punjab, Pakistan. On the basis of the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT), prevalence of BTB was found to be 10.06%. Epidemiological factors including old age, high milk production and parity played a significant role in the prevalence of the disease. Significantly (P

  16. Factors Affecting Consumers for Purchasing Electricity inSweden

    OpenAIRE

    Anis, Waqas; Kalair, Akmal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose As Sweden is one of the countries who pays a lot of attention towards the sustainability ofthe society, eco green businesses and also promotes environmental friendly products. So thepurpose of this study is to analyze the factors which influence consumers before choosingany electricity supplier, whether it is low price, better services, environmental friendly oravailability. And in this way we can check finally that how much people concern aboutenvironment and environmental friendly p...

  17. Common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes: some implications for teaching psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert; Heiman, Noa; Yager, Joel

    2015-05-01

    The number of psychotherapies classified as "empirically supported treatments" has increased significantly. As the number and scope of empirically supported treatments multiply, it has become impossible to train therapists in all of these specific modalities. Although the current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements for psychiatric residents follow an approach based on specific schools of psychotherapy (emphasizing competency in cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and supportive treatments), evidence suggests that we are failing even in these efforts. In developing a specialized Psychotherapy Scholars Track in the residency program at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, we opted to focus initially on teaching the common factors in psychotherapy that positively affect psychotherapy outcomes. This article reviews 6 such broad common factors. PMID:25955260

  18. Factors affecting individual injury experience among petroleum drilling workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, B A; Mohr, D L; Rice, J C; Clemmer, D I

    1987-02-01

    To identify factors affecting the number of injuries experienced by petroleum drilling workers, we carried out a 44-month incidence density study on a cohort employed in January 1979 on mobile drilling units in the Gulf of Mexico. To control for job-related hazards, we computed a standardized ratio of observed to expected injuries for each worker based on his job history. The effect of personal and work history factors was then examined using analysis of variance. Age, rate of job changes, and rate of rig transfers had independent effects on injury rates. Length of service had little effect when age was controlled. The findings suggest that younger workers under stress such as job change may be more susceptible to injury than older workers, regardless of job. If so, targeted changes in procedures and environment which protect workers of all ages are important alternatives to reliance on supervision and experience in injury reduction. PMID:3819892

  19. A Study on Factors Affecting Turnover Intention of Hotel Empolyees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chang Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available his study used linear structural modeling to explore the factors affecting the turnover intention of hotel employees in Taiwan. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed to hotel employees. Among these, 350 were valid samples, a valid return rate of 87.50%. The empirical results showed that (1 more harmonious coworker relationships between hotel employees and a higher level of satisfaction regarding their work environment have a significantly positive effect on job satisfaction; (2 a higher level of organizational commitment among hotel employees has a significantly negative effect on turnover intention; (3 the direct effect of employee job satisfaction and salary level on turnover intention has not reached a significant level. Nevertheless, the two factors have indirect negative effects on turnover intention.

  20. Factors affecting the prevalence of obesity among primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kürtüncü

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the risk factors affecting obesity in students in the 6-15 years old age group. There were 868 students registered at Bahçelievler Elementary School in Zonguldak and were present for face-to-face meetings on the days the research data was collected. Data was collected using demographic questionary forms and weight-length measurements from March to April in 2010. Results: Difference is found to be statistically meaningful with respect to the relationship between obesity of children and their age, gender, number of siblings, fathers’ jobs, education level of their mothers, fast food consumption and family history of obesity (p<0.05. Conclusions: The study concludes that there are certain ciriteria related to the development of obesity during a specific period of childhood and that taking certain precautions are effective in preventing the development of obesity. Keywords: Body Mass Index; Children; Obesity; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Turkey.

  1. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged. PMID:25039397

  2. Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

  3. A review of factors affecting vaccine preventable disease in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Ching, Michael S L

    2014-12-01

    Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded "routine" (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay "voluntary" groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

  4. Factors Affecting Success and Complication of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yalç?nkaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL is the first choice renal stones especially larger than 2 cm, and high success rates can be achieved after PNL. But several severe complications may be occurred. In this study, factors which affect the success rate and complications were investigated. Material and Method: Between July 2004 and August 2007, 176 patients (102 men/74 women underwent PNL operation. Because of the bilateral renal stones PNL was performed in two separate sessions of 9 patients. Percutaneous access was doing in prone position. Factors affecting the success and complication data were collected. Results: Mean age was 47.610,7 (17%uFFFD76 year, median=47. Complete success rate was detected 77.8% with the direct X-rays taken in the first postoperative day. The success rate was up to 87% after the additional post-treatment therapy. Success rates were 83.1% for complex stones and 89.4% for simple stones (p

  5. 11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Erdo?an

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality.Methods: Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively.Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery,operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN related complications.The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined.Findings: Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but notmortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section.Conclusion: In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

  6. Factors Affecting Longevity of Tunneled Central Venous Cathe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate factors which affect the longevity of tunneled central venous catheters (T-CVCs). A retrospective study was conducted on 363 T-CVCs. We evaluated the relevant factors affecting the longevity of the T-CVCs, such as age, gender, indication for catheterization, site of entry vessel, diameter and type of T-CVC, catheter tip position, and underlying diseases. Of the 363 T-CVCs which had been inserted, 331 (91%) were placed through the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The catheter tip position was the strongest predictor for the longevity of the T-CVC. The short limb of the catheter tip placed either at the cavoatrial junction (CA junction) or below the lower margin of the right main bronchus had a good prognosis. The vessel through which the T-CVC was placed significantly influenced the longevity of the T-CVC; the RIJV was associated with better results than the left internal jugular vein. Also, a split-type catheter was significantly associated with a better result. A two distinct and separate type T-CVC placed through the RIJV in which the short limb catheter tip position was at the level of the CA junction, significantly increased the longevity of T-CVCs.

  7. Factors Affecting Longevity of Tunneled Central Venous Cathe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate factors which affect the longevity of tunneled central venous catheters (T-CVCs). A retrospective study was conducted on 363 T-CVCs. We evaluated the relevant factors affecting the longevity of the T-CVCs, such as age, gender, indication for catheterization, site of entry vessel, diameter and type of T-CVC, catheter tip position, and underlying diseases. Of the 363 T-CVCs which had been inserted, 331 (91%) were placed through the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The catheter tip position was the strongest predictor for the longevity of the T-CVC. The short limb of the catheter tip placed either at the cavoatrial junction (CA junction) or below the lower margin of the right main bronchus had a good prognosis. The vessel through which the T-CVC was placed significantly influenced the longevity of the T-CVC; the RIJV was associated with better results than the left internal jugular vein. Also, a split-type catheter was significantly associated with a better result. A two distinct and separate type T-CVC placed through the RIJV in which the short limb catheter tip position was at the level of the CA junction, significantly increased the longevity of T-CVCs.

  8. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  9. Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P4) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (?2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (?4.1 ng/mL) P4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

  10. Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diff therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the material. After exposure, the detectors were subjected to a chemical etching process. The detectors were washed, dried and after that, the tracks caused by alpha particle were counted using an optical Olympus microscope at magnification 600X. Using the track density produced the parameters like radon diffusion coefficients and diffusion lengths through these building construction materials have been calculated in each case under study. The results of present investigations provide better insight into the selection of building construction materials capable of controlling the indoor radon levels. (author)

  11. Geolocation by light: accuracy and precision affected by environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisovski, Simeon; Hewson, Chris M.

    2012-01-01

    1. Geolocation by light allows for tracking animal movements, based on measurements of light intensity over time by a data-logging device (‘geolocator’). Recent developments of ultra-light devices (<2 g) broadened the range of target species and boosted the number of studies using geolocators. However, an inherent problem of geolocators is that any factor or process that changes the natural light intensity pattern also affects the positions calculated from these light patterns. Although the most important factors have been identified, estimation of their effect on the accuracy and precision of positions estimated has been lacking but is very important for the analyses and interpretation of geolocator data. 2. The ‘threshold method’ is mainly used to derive positions by defining sunrise and sunset times from the light intensity pattern for each recorded day. This method requires calibration: a predefined sun elevation angle for estimating latitude by fitting the recorded day / night lengthsto theoretical values across latitudes. Therewith, almost constant shading can be corrected for by finding the appropriate sun elevation angle. 3. Weather, topography and vegetation are the most important factors that influence light intensities. We demonstrated their effect on the measurement of day /night length, time of solar midnight /noon and the resulting position estimates using light measurements from stationary geolocators at known places and from geolocators mounted on birds. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of different calibration methods on the accuracy of the latitudinal positions. 4. All three environmental factors can influence the light intensity pattern significantly. Weather and an animal’s behaviour result in increased noise in positioning, whereas topography and vegetation result in systematic shading and biased positions. Calibration can significantly shift the estimated latitudes and potentially increase the accuracy, but detailed knowledge about the particular confounding factors and the behaviour of the studied animal is crucial for the choice of the most appropriate calibration method.

  12. Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Ud Din Khan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods. Respondents were undergraduate students of university with different demographics. Results has presented graphically, descriptively and inferentially using SPSS and Excel. Pearson’s chi-square and correlation has applied to verify the relationship between stress factors and demographics. Results show that living persuasively under strict rules and regulations can be a family stressor. Unavailability of best choices and paramount match to live with as a partner can be an emotional stress. Less income students find difficulty to spend money on buying and enjoying which is a predictor of financial stress. Pressurized life and squat admiration from people has lied under Social stress. Other verdicts are also deemed according to Pakistani cultural context.

  13. Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Tabatabaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated questionnaires. First a modified version of The Attitude/Motivation Test Battery Questionnaire (AMTB originally developed by Gardner (2004 was used to determine the degree of learners’ motivation. Second a modified version of Warrington's (2005 questionnaire was administered to determine the demotivating factors from the students' point of view. Then, the IOPT (Interchange Objective Placement Test was administered to measure the general proficiency of the subjects under study. The comparison of the IOPT score means of the two groups revealed a significant difference in the results of IOPT of students with higher scores in the AMTB and those with lower scores. That is, the more motivated the students were, the higher their IOPT scores were. Furthermore, factors such as the improper method of English teaching, frequency of classes in a week, problems in understanding listening materials and lack of use of English in students’ real life were found to be the essential demotivating factors among Iranian seminary students. Having known the barriers of learning, the teachers and Islamic Propagation Office materials developers can organize their activities so that they would lead to better understanding of the lessons and improvement of teaching programs.

  14. The influence of sensory product properties on affective and symbolic product experience:

    OpenAIRE

    Fenko, A.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    Creating pleasurable products requires understanding of the influence of sensory product properties on affective user experience and symbolic meaning of products. This paper gives an overview of a series of studies, in which we investigated the impact of sensory product properties (color, material, sound, smell, and taste) on affective user experiences (pleasure, annoyance, satisfaction, and surprise) and symbolic meanings of products (freshness, warmth, and noisiness). The results demonstrat...

  15. Rice Farms Efficiency and Factors Affecting the Efficiency in MADA Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lira Mailena; Mad Nasir Shamsudin; Alias Radam; Ismail Latief

    2014-01-01

    Malaysian rice farming is still constrained by the low productivity despite many supports and subsidies that have been enacted to this sector. The difficulties in improving the yield is potentially caused by the unintensive use of inputs due to the inefficient management on the rice farm. Thus this study aims to measure the rice farm efficiency and factors affecting that efficiency. Two stage analysis was adopted whereas in the first stage data envelopment analysis was used and corrected by t...

  16. Factors Affecting the Choice of Marketing Channel by Vegetable Farmers in Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Xaba, Bongiwe G.; Masuku, Micah B.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetables as a group of horticultural crops are important for their contribution as an income support to a large proportion of the rural households. However, enhancing vegetable farmers to reach markets and actively engage in the markets is a key challenge influencing vegetable production in Swaziland. The perishable nature of vegetables necessitates effective marketing channels. The aim of this paper was to investigate factors affecting farmers’ choice of marketing channels using survey d...

  17. Factors Affecting Location Decisions of Food Processing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Sule; Canan Ozbag, Basak; Cetin, Bahattin

    The main aim of this study is to examine the determinants of location choices for food processing plants using the results of 59 personal surveys. The 61.3% of the food processing plants that were interviewed are small scale plants, 9.1% are large scale plants and 29.6% are medium scale plants. Sixteen of the firms process vegetables, 12 process poultry, 12 process dairy and 9 process seafood products. Business climate factors are divided into six categories (market, infrastructure, raw material, labor, personal and environmental) and 17 specific location factors are considered. The survey responses are analyzed by types of raw materials processed and by plant size. 43.7, 55.3 and 42.2% of the respondents cited categories of Market, Raw Material and Infrastructure respectively as important, while 44.3, 50.7 and 74.4% of the respondents cited, labor, personal and environmental regulation categories of as not important. Thus survey findings indicate that plant location choices are mainly driven by market, raw material and infra structural factors. Environmental factors such as environmental regulations and permissions are relatively insignificant.

  18. Factors affecting recombinant frequency in protoplast fusion of Streptomyces coelicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimum concentration of polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG) for the production of recombinants through protoplast fusion in Streptomyces coelicolor was about 50% (w/v). The addition of 14% (v/v) dimethyl sulphoxide to the fusion mixture enhanced recombination frequencies, but only a sub-optimal PEG concentrations. After treatment of protoplasts with 50% PEG for 1 min, the frequency of recombinants in a multi-factor 'cross' sometimes exceeded 20% of the total progeny. The frequency of recombinants in the progeny could be significantly enhanced by ultraviolet irradiation of the parental protoplast suspensions immediately before fusion. (author)

  19. Factors Affecting Location Decisions of Food Processing Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sule Turhan; Basak Canan Ozbag; Bahattin Cetin

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to examine the determinants of location choices for food processing plants using the results of 59 personal surveys. The 61.3% of the food processing plants that were interviewed are small scale plants, 9.1% are large scale plants and 29.6% are medium scale plants. Sixteen of the firms process vegetables, 12 process poultry, 12 process dairy and 9 process seafood products. Business climate factors are divided into six categories (market, infrastructure, raw mater...

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction & suggestions to improve them.

  1. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Al-Fouzan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7% decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2% students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%, 17 (11.8%, and 16 (11.1% students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4% of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8% and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3% were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065 more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002. Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

  2. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Genetically Modified Animals in the Food and Pharmaceutical Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha I. Valeeva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of genetically modified (GM animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scoping study was conducted to assess research relevant to understanding the main drivers influencing the adoption of GM applications and their potential risks and benefits. Public and producers’ acceptance, public policies, human health, animal welfare, environmental impact and sustainability are considered as the main factors affecting the application of GM animal techniques in livestock and pharmaceutical chains.

  3. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  4. SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively

  5. Investigation of factors affecting RNA-seq gene expression calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, Sahar; Phan, John H; Wang, May D

    2014-08-01

    RNA-seq enables quantification of the human transcriptome. Estimation of gene expression is a fundamental issue in the analysis of RNA-seq data. However, there is an inherent ambiguity in distinguishing between genes with very low expression and experimental or transcriptional noise. We conducted an exploratory investigation of some factors that may affect gene expression calls. We observed that the distribution of reads that map to exonic, intronic, and intergenic regions are distinct. These distributions may provide useful insights into the behavior of gene expression noise. Moreover, we observed that these distributions are qualitatively similar between two sequence mapping algorithms. Finally, we examined the relationship between gene length and gene expression calls, and observed that they are correlated. This preliminary investigation is important for RNA-seq gene expression analysis because it may lead to more effective algorithms for distinguishing between true gene expression and experimental or transcriptional noise. PMID:25571173

  6. Five Factors Affecting Stability and Security in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Alshammari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are five factors that affect security and stability in the Middle East. The first of these is the ticking bomb of sectarianism between the Sunni and Shiite strands of Islam, which have become more widespread in recent years due to the politisation of sectarian tensions and their transformation among some actors to a means to achieve political demands. Secondly, the impact of the Arab revolutions and the accompanying rise of Islamist groups through the new democratic tendencies encouraged by those revolutions. Thirdly, Iran’s behaviour through the use of both direct and indirect threats to several countries in the region. Fourthly, the existence of a fertile environment for terrorist groups in Yemen. Finally, the struggle between Arabs and Israelis over the existence of the State of Israel and the plight of the Palestinians. This article provides a clear set of linkages between these and investigates them with the intention of enhancing understanding and encouraging debate.

  7. Developing worksheet based on science process skills: Factors affecting solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye KARSLI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS. The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at Giresun University, Turkey. Action research methodology was used in this study. Thoughts from experts were received during the development of the worksheet. The study had some limitations in providing concrete evidence as to how the WS based on SPS effects the PST SPS, since the paper is a suggestion. For this reason, to investigate its effectiveness in a comparative manner, further research should be undertaken.

  8. Major factors affecting severity of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Boo-Young; Han, Jung Ju; Hwang, Jae Hyung; Jung, Kihwan; Kim, Min; Kim, Soo Whan

    2015-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become a common method for evaluating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between CT parameters and clinical parameters in OSA patients to determine major factors affecting the severity of OSA. The records of 128 consecutive snoring patients (98 males, 30 females) diagnosed with OSA were retrospectively reviewed. Polysomnography was performed for each patient. On CT scans, airway areas were measured at the level of the hard palate, the soft palate, and the base of the tongue. Polysomnographic parameters were compared by gender and age using the Mann-Whitney U test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to analyze relationships between variables and the AHI in each age group. The women were significantly older than the men (p epidemiological characteristics and anatomical structures. PMID:25621265

  9. Factors Affecting Treatment Seeking Behaviour of Individuals with Locomotor Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhyegurjar Mansi S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among the different types of disabilities, the prevalence of locomotor disability is highest in the country. Quality of life and disability limitation is affected by the availability and utility of rehabilitative services. Thus knowledge of the treatment seeking behaviour will help in implementing successful intervention programmes. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional observation study was conducted in an urban slum of Mumbai. Total sample of 3665 individuals were screened. 205 were identified with loco motor disabilities who were subjected to a structured questionnaire. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months. The data was analysed using SPSS software (Version 17. 95 % confidence limits for prevalence was calculated to estimate the prevalence in the general population and Chi-square test was applied to identify the association between two variables. Results: The prevalence of loco motor disabilities is found to be 5.59 %. Females were more affected than the males.75% of the sample was unemployed and 49.3 % was illiterate. Utility of rehabilitative services was found to be poor (35.6%. 50.7 % of these were treated by General practitioners. Very few approached speciality rehabilitative services. Low literacy levels and poor awareness of rehabilitation facilities were the major factors affecting treatment seeking pattern of individuals with locomotor disability (p<0.001 Conclusion: Improving literacy rates, developing community based rehabilitation services and training medical under-graduates, creating awareness regarding the available facilities, will lead to greater utilization of rehabilitative services and thus early diagnosis and disability limitation. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 145-148

  10. Somatic cell counts: associated factors and relationship to production.

    OpenAIRE

    Salsberg, E.; Meek, A. H.; Martin, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    Factors affecting somatic cell counts and the association between somatic cell counts and milk production were evaluated. Data were collected from 748 Ontario Dairy Herd Improvement Corporation supervised herds that were on production and somatic cell count programs between April 1981 and March 1983. Two data files were created; one, the lactation summary file, contained one record per cow on each of 9406 Holsteins and the other, the test day file, included results of all tests during the com...

  11. Capital misallocation and aggregate factor productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Azariadis, Costas; Kaas, Leo

    2009-01-01

    We propose a sectoral-shift theory of aggregate factor productivity for a class of economies with AK technologies, limited loan enforcement, a constant production possibilities frontier, and finitely many sectors producing the same good. Both the growth rate and total factor productivity in these economies respond to random and persistent endogenous fluctuations in the sectoral distribution of physical capital which, in turn, responds to persistent and reversible exogenous shifts in relativ...

  12. Total factor productivity and Bio Economy effects

    OpenAIRE

    Zuniga Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a new measure of total factor productivity growth in agricultural Production which incorporates Bio Economic components effects.The new measure is called the Bio Economic-Oriented Total Factor Productivity (BTFP) index, and incorporates components of Bio Economic as liquid biofuels. BTFP measure changes in Bio Economic efficiency and can be decomposed into bio economy efficiency change (BEC), and Bio Economic technological change (BTC) components.An empirical analysis, inv...

  13. Some factors affecting the cost of irradiation services in thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future of food irradiation in developing countries depends to a large extent on cost considerations. Although food irradiation technology itself is widely known and appears to offer many advantages, concrete evidence on the economic viability of a multi-product irradiation plant is presently not readily available to the private sector in developing countries. It is doubtful whether such evidence exists in a form which is comprehensible to industrialists outside the radiation technology circle. With respect to the economic aspects of food irradiation, information available from the literature appears to be based largely on a summing-up of studies of single products on a case-by-case basis. In an agricultural country, the main inputs to an irradiation service facility are likely to be agricultural produce which vary in kind and quantity with cropping seasons. Moreover, in most developing countries, uncontrollable factors play an important role in the production of annual crops and their transportation. Thus, it is hardly possible to make a credible long term forecast on the throughput required for the multi-product service plant, let alone determine with confidence the return on investment. Accordingly, as far as the private sector is concerned, investment decisions regarding the establishment of a commercial food irradiation service plant have to be considered as 'decision making under risk'. This paper attempts to raise questions to which the author cannot yet finestions to which the author cannot yet find clear and practical answers from the available literature. It is intended to stimulate a more thorough and objective discussion on the subject of economic viability of a multi-product food irradiation plant under the prevailing environment in ASEAN

  14. The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship.

  15. Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the futuors involving job satisfaction in the future

  16. Evaluation of hydraulic factors affecting flow accelerated corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is known as a complex phenomena of hydraulics and electro-chemicals. Essential mechanism of the hydraulic factors affecting FAC is the mass transfer of ferrous ions dissolved from the pipe surface. To predict the FAC rate in susceptible pipe elements, evaluation of the mass transfer in those geometry with eccentric flow is required. For this purpose, new model of mass transfer coefficient was proposed by combining knowledges of previous studies and consideration of local turbulent velocity. In this process, Chilton-Colburn analogy of heat and mass transfer and Blasius' friction factor were referred to. To validate the model, FAC experiment and flow numerical calculation were conducted. In the experiment, carbon steel test specimens were set in the downstream of a flow contraction in small rectangular flow ducts, and FAC rate profiles on the specimens were observed in PWR condensate condition. In the calculation, flow field for the experiment was calculated with the in-house code 'MATIS-I' utilizing LES turbulence model, and mean and turbulent velocity profiles on the specimen's surface were evaluated. By comparing these results, the new mass transfer coefficient showed good correlation with the local FAC rate, and the effect of introducing the turbulent velocity to the model was confirmed. (author)

  17. Studies and Research on Friction, Friction Factor and Affecting Factors : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil J. Kulkarni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The friction and friction factors are very significant factors in flow through pipes, channels, heat exchangers . From the pumping cost point of view, minimum friction is desirable as it will decrease the energy loss. In the rotating components like axle-shaft arrangements, the friction and slip are important factors. In case of heat exchanger, the friction factor is important as the heat transfer depends on it. The research was also reported on effect of submerged vegetation on friction for river. The friction coefficient was a function of flow depth and velocity. Also various models were suggested by investigators to predict friction coefficient based on their research related to factors affecting the friction coefficient and the nature and gravity of their effect on friction.

  18. Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposiate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

  19. Clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chae Min; Yang, Sun Hye; Lee, Sun Pyo; Hwang, Byung Chul

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies in order to minimize perinatal complications. Methods A retrospective study involved 163 twin pregnancies delivered from January 2006 to September 2011 at Gachon University Gil Medical Center. These cases were divided into three groups based on the delivery timing: less than 32 weeks' gestation (group A), between 32 and 35+6 weeks' gestation (group B), and over 36 weeks' gestation (group C). Clinical factors including maternal age, parity, presence of premature uterine contraction, presence of premature rupture of membrane, white blood cell, high sensitive C-reactive protein level, cervical dilatation, maternal complication, chorionicity, twin specific complication, and perinatal complication were analyzed for each group. Results In group B, the timing of delivery was postponed for 14 days or more from the time of admission, and there were fewer numbers of babies with low Apgar score at birth compared with other groups. The frequency of uterine contraction (P<0.001), presence of premature rupture of membranes (P=0.017), dilatation of cervix (P<0.001), increased white blood cell and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels (P=0.002, P<0.001) were important clinical factors during decision making process of delivery timing in twin pregnancies. Twin specific fetal conditions, such as twin-twin transfusion syndrome and discordant growth (over 25% or more) were shown more frequently in group A. However, there were no significant statistical differences among three groups (P=0.06, P=0.14). Conclusion Proper management for preventing premature contraction and inflammation can be essential in twin pregnancies until 32 weeks' gestation, and may decrease maternal and perinatal complications. PMID:25469330

  20. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku are definedtogether withshowing the optimal ways of development.

  1. Geographical factors affecting variability of precipitation regime in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabziparvar, A. A.; Movahedi, S.; Asakereh, H.; Maryanaji, Z.; Masoodian, S. A.

    2015-04-01

    This study compares the precipitation regimes by using harmonic analysis during the last four decades (1965-2004). We used the measured precipitation data from 428 rain-gauge sites and weather stations distributed across Iran by applying 15 × 15 km spatial grids to generate the interpolated data. Data validations were carried out by statistical tests. In this study, first three harmonics of precipitation variances were evaluated. Variability of precipitation regime was explored by using three harmonic analysis methods. In addition, the effect of geographical factors (GF) (site elevation, latitude, and longitude) affecting the precipitation regime (P) was verified by multivariate regression method. The resulted regression equation between P and GF for spring showed the highest correlation coefficient ( r = 0.79). For other seasons, r was lower than for spring and varied between 0.26 (summer) to 0.58 (autumn). Analysis of the first harmonic proved that the main precipitation regime in Iran tends to concentrate in one specific season (winter) as a result of large-scale Mediterranean systems passing over the country. In other words, the first harmonic is able to explain most of the precipitation variations which are caused by large-scale atmospheric circulation. For all the three harmonics, variances of precipitation were mainly a function of the geographical factors. This effect was more evident in the third harmonic; in such a way that increasing the latitudes caused higher precipitation variance. This means that the precipitation regime in northern sites is more sensitive to the local factors than those of southern sites. The results of this research can be used for reliable estimation of precipitation in ungauged sites.

  2. Examining Extrinsic Factors that Influence Product Acceptance: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Drivers of liking (DOL) studies are useful for product development to formulate acceptable products; however, DOL alone are insufficient for understanding why a product is purchased and repurchased, which is ultimately the indication of a successful product. Ultimately sensory attributes drive product success (that is, repeat and continued purchase). However, ignoring the importance of extrinsic factors may neglect the vital product attributes responsible for the initial purchase, which may in turn, affect repeat purchase. The perception of sensory attributes assessed by DOL is mitigated by external perceptions of quality. If the sensory attributes do not deliver based upon the quality cues, the product will not be acceptable. Four key extrinsic factors that affect DOL are the perceived satiety, brand and labeling, price, and the emotional impact to decision making. In order to more thoroughly understand what the DOL for a product is, these 4 product cues should be considered in conjunction with sensory attribute perception to gain a holistic understanding of product acceptance. PMID:25959688

  3. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  4. Assessment of factors affecting industrial electricity demand. Final report (revision version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-07-01

    In Chapter 2, we identify those factors affecting the industrial product mix - taste, relative output prices, and relative input prices - and isolate several determinants which have not been adequately accounted for to date in industrial electricity demand forecasts. We discuss how the lower energy prices of foreign producers affect domestic producers and how the growth in the number of substitutes for intermediate products such as steel and aluminum with plastics and composites affects the composition of production and, hence, the demand for electricity. We also investigate how the changing age structure of the population brought on by the baby boom could change the mix of outputs produced by the industrial sector. In Chapter 3, we review the history of the 1970s with regard to changes in output mix and the manufacturing demand for electricity, and with regard to changes in the use of electricity vis-a-vis the other inputs in the production process. In Chapter 4, we generate forecasts using two models which control for efficiency changes, but in different ways. In this chapter we present the sensitivity of these projections using three sets of assumptions about product mix. The last chapter summarizes our results and draw from those results implications regarding public policy and industrial electricity demand. Two appendices present ISTUM2 results from selected electricity intensive industries, describes the ISTUM and ORIM models.

  5. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Quality of an E-commerce Website Using Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Mishra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors which affect the quality and effectiveness of an e commerce website which also majorly affect customer satisfaction and ultimately customer retention and loyalty. This research paper examines a set of 23 variables and integrates them into 4 factors which affect the quality of a website. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to generate statistics regarding the preferences of the e-commerce website users.The 23 variables taken from customer survey are generalized into 4 major factors using exploratory factor analysis which are content, navigation, services and interface design. The research majorly consists of the responses of students between the age group of 18-25 years and considers different B2C commercial websites. Identified variables are important with respect to the current competition in the market as service of an e-commerce website also play a major role in ensuring customer satisfaction. Further research in this domain can be done for websites’ version for mobile devices.

  6. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  7. KLE Translog production function and total factor productivity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klacek, J.; Vošvrda, Miloslav; Schlosser, Š.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 87, ?. 4 (2007), s. 261-274. ISSN 0322-788X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : total factor productivity * translog production function * aggregate production function * least squares method * ridge regression Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  8. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.

  9. Factors affecting the morphology of benzoyl peroxide microsponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhodchi, Ali; Jelvehgari, Mitra; Siahi, M Reza; Mozafari, M Reza

    2007-01-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is primarily used in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. However, its application is associated with skin irritation. It has been shown that encapsulation and controlled release of BPO could reduce the side effect while also reducing percutaneous absorption when administered to the skin. The aim of the present investigation was to design and formulate an appropriate encapsulated form of BPO, using microsponge technology, and explore the parameters affecting the morphology and other characteristics of the resultant products employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Benzoyl peroxide particles were prepared using an emulsion solvent diffusion method by adding an organic internal phase containing benzoyl peroxide, ethyl cellulose and dichloromethane into a stirred aqueous phase containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Different concentrations of BPO microsponges were incorporated in lotion formulations and the drug release from these formulations were studied. The SEM micrographs of the BPO microsponges enabled measurement of their size and showed that they were spherical and porous. Results showed that the morphology and particle size of microsponges were affected by drug:polymer ratio, stirring rate and the amount of emulsifier used. The results obtained also showed that an increase in the ratio of drug:polymer resulted in a reduction in the release rate of BPO from the microsponges. The release data showed that the highest and the lowest release rates were obtained from lotions containing plain BPO particles and BPO microsponges with the drug:polymer ratio of 13:1, respectively. The kinetics of release study showed that the release data followed Peppas model and the main mechanism of drug release from BPO microsponges was diffusion. PMID:17692528

  10. Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct identification from the surface measurements.

  11. Analysis of factors affecting the development of food crop varieties bred by mutation method in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research developed a production function on crop varieties developed by mutation method in order to explore factors affecting the development of new varieties. It is found that the research investment, human capital and radiation facilities were the most important factors that affected the development and cultivation area of new varieties through the mutation method. It is concluded that not all institutions involved in the breeding activities using mutation method must have radiation facilities and the national government only needed to invest in those key research institutes, which had strong research capacities. The saved research budgets can be used in the entrusting the institutes that have stronger research capacities with irradiating more breeding materials developed by the institutes that have weak research capacities, by which more opportunities to breed better varieties can be created

  12. Analysis of Factors Affecting Use of Bumble Bees for the Pollination in Glasshouse Tomatoes Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yilmaz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study, a binary logit model was employed to determine factors affecting the use of bumble bees for the pollination in glasshouse tomatoes production in Antalya province of Turkey. Tomatoes yield, education level of farmer, experience in greenhouse vegetable production, knowledge level of farmers about bumble bee using, adoption level of new other production technologies, specialization and level of hired labor cost were fitted in the model as explanatory variables. The results indicated that yield, knowledge level of farmers about bumble bee using, adoption level of new production technologies are statistically significant, while other variables are not. In the model, only level of hired labor cost variable is negatively and other variables are positively associated with the probability of bumble bee adoption.

  13. Factors affecting the cost and competitiveness of nuclear electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general context in which are carried out the investment choices of the electric sector has evolved in a significant way during these last years and the changes are to a certain extent irreversible. Economic globalization, deregulation of the electricity market, privatisation of electricity producers, and increasing awareness of environmental issues are modifying the policy-making landscape and the criteria and priorities of decision-makers in the power sector. Competitiveness remains a cornerstone for evaluating and choosing alternative technologies in the process of planning and decision-making for electricity system expansion or power plant replacement. Nevertheless, the production costs analysis inserts factors which were not taking before into account as for instance social impacts, health and environmental effects. These new approaches better reveal the total costs of the different production means. They will certainly lead to different choices than those based on the whole comparison of direct costs supported by producers. The economic studies carried out by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (NEA) cover all the preceding aspects and give objective information on the competitiveness of nuclear electricity. The nuclear industry has today the necessary means to take up the challenges of the electricity new markets. (O.M.)

  14. Factors Affecting Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) Synthesis via the Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M.; Shariff, S. M.

    2007-08-01

    Several studies have shown that the presence and type/size of catalysts affect the growth mechanism and the nanotubes structures. The catalysts are believed to affect the catalytic decomposition of the carbon feedstock into carbon atoms and subsequent diffusion of these atoms through the catalyst particles. Numerous studies have also demonstrated that saturated hydrocarbon gases such as methane and CO tend to produce fewer nanotube walls and hence are a more favourable feedstock for single wall nanotube growth. Likewise, unsaturated gases with higher carbon content such as acetylene and benzene are typically used to grow multi wall carbon nanotubes. Other factors such as reaction time and temperature, inert gas source and gas flow rates are also known to affect the synthesis process. Major trends will be outlined to show the correlation between some of these different parameters with respect to the synthesis process and final products yield in order to achieve the optimum processing condition for CNTs.

  15. Factors affecting hospital mortality in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mohammed

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective analysis studied the records of 564 consecutive patients admitted to Gastrointestinal Bleeding Unit of Riyadh Medical Complex with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a 2-year period (May 1996-April 1998. The purpose of the study was to analyze the mortality with an aim to identify the risk factors affecting mortality in these patients. Majority of patients were men (82% and Saudis (54%. Their mean age was 52.46 + 17.8 years. Esophageal varices (45% were the main causes of bleeding followed by duodenal ulcers (24%. Overall mortality in this series was 15.8% (89 patients. Comorbid diseases were responsible for death in 68 (76% patients, whereas, bleeding was considered to be directly responsible for death in 21 (24% patients. On analysis of data from this study, old age (>60 years, systolic pressure < 90 mm Hg on admission, comorbid disease, variceal bleeding and Child?s grade C in patients with chronic liver disease were associated with adverse outcome.

  16. Potential factors affecting accumulation of unsupported 210Pb in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne 210Pb, daughter of 222Rn, is frequently used as a tracer in different studies concerning atmospheric transport, sedimentation, soil erosion, dating, etc. Concentration of 210Pb was measured in 40 soil samples collected in urban and industrial areas in order to get evidence of possible influence of some factors on accumulation of airborne 210Pb in soil. Different soil properties such as the content of organic matter, free CaCO3, and available phosphorus (P2O5) were measured to explore their possible correlation with the amount of 210Pb. Special attention was given to the correlation between 210Pb and stable lead accumulated in the soil. Several samples were taken near a battery manufacturer to check if extremely high concentrations of lead can affect the uptake of the airborne 210Pb in soil. Soil samples were also taken at different depths to investigate the penetration of lead through the soil. - Highlights: • 210Pb and 137Cs were measured in samples of urban soil. • Organic matter, free CaCO3 content, available phosphorus, and lead were measured in soil samples. • There is no statistically significant correlation between 210Pb and lead, CaCO3 and phosphorus. • A strong positive correlation between 210Pb and organic matter was observed

  17. Hydrologic and geologic factors affecting land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    At an extensometer site near Eloy, Arizona, 1.09 m of land subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal were measured by leveling in 1965-83. The extensometer, which partially penetrates the compressible sediments, recorded 0.82 m of compaction during the same period. By use of a one-dimensional model, cumulative daily compaction values were simulated to within an average of 0.0038 m of the actual values. Land subsidence was simulated to within an average of 0.011 m using the same model in conjunction with geohydrologic data of the sediments below the extensometer. A highly compressible clay layer that is 24.38 m thick was partially penetrated by the extensometer. The simulation indicated that the layer was driving compaction and land subsidence linearly with respect to time, despite the presence of other compacting layers. Because of its thickness and compressibility, this layer can be expected to continue to compact after applied vertical stresses have stopped increasing and other layers have stopped compacting. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the compressibility of fine-grained sediments (expressed as specific storage) is one of the factors to which compact is most sensitive. Preconsolidation stress and hydraulic conductivity also affect land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Factors Affecting Mandatory Audit Rotation: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munther Al-Nimer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to examine the effect of specific contingency variables upon mandatory audit rotation represented by external auditor rotation, namely; audit independence, financial interests, audit Fees, and litigation from the perception of external auditors. The study contribution based on tackling debatable subject and its importance as most the studies examined the external auditor rotation as independent variable and attempted to find out its effect on audit quality through audit independence. In addition, by examine the effect from the external auditor’s perception. In order to attain the study objectives the study utilized a questionnaire. The study population consists from the Jordanian audit firms including big four audit firms and the sample will be selected randomly with taking into account comprising the big four. The study distributed 80 questionnaires, the returned and accepted for analyzing questionnaires were 52 questionnaires which gives 65% respond rate. The study indicated that the following variables audit independence, financial interests, litigation have a significant impact on the external auditor rotation in the Jordanian audit firms. In addition, the study indicated that there is insignificant impact of audit fees variable upon external auditor rotation. As accumulated impact of all the examined variables the study revealed that there is significant impact between on factors influence of the audit and external auditor rotation. Finally, the study suggested carrying out more studies on this subject by tackling more variables which might affect audit rotation.

  19. Non-auditory factors affecting urban soundscape evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Hong, Joo Young; Cabrera, Densil

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception. PMID:22225033

  20. Factors affecting the motivation of smokers to quit smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis K.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available smoking. Success of smoking cessation depends mainly on the balance between motivation and the degree of nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the motivation of smokers to stop smoking. Method: Data were collected from 139 smokers, aged 18-69 divided in two groups. Questionnaires were completed about the demographic data, smoking history, anthropometric characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, motivation degree and alcohol consumption. Results: Body Mass Index was positively correlated with the dependence degree and heavy smoking, while those who were overweight in adolescence showed a lower degree of motivation for smoking cessation. Individuals with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption, those who smoked in their working environment and were heavier smokers needed greater motivation. The low degree of dependence was associated with a lower degree of motivation, while those who showed medium dependence were moderately motivated. Conclusions: Health care professionals should take into account all the above components with the aim of motivating smokers to stop smoking.

  1. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of starch in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, P; O'Dea, K

    1981-12-01

    After accurate determination of the content of available carbohydrate in a wide variety of cereals, as in vitro method was used to study factors that influence hydrolysis rates of starch in foods. Fiber, physical form, cooking, and the possible presence of a natural amylase inhibitor were all shown to affect hydrolysis rates of starch. Fiber only exerted an inhibiting effect on the rate of hydrolysis when it formed a physical barrier to limit access of the hydrolytic enzymes to the starch (as in whole brown rice, for example). Particle size played an important role in determining the rate of hydrolysis. Cooking made the starch much more readily available for enzymic hydrolysis presumably by gelatinizing it. Stoneground wholemeal flour was hydrolyzed more slowly than white flour. This is consistent with the presence of a natural amylase inhibitor that has been isolated from wheat germ in the whole grain. Our results suggest that such amylase inhibitor activity is destroyed by passage through the roller mill, since the starch in wheat germ and standard wholemeal flour (i.e., not stoneground but reconstituted after passage through the roller mill) was hydrolyzed at a rate identical to white flour. PMID:6172034

  2. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  3. Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, K M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

  4. [Aerodynamic parameters and their affecting factors over Panjin reed wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qi-Jin; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yun-Long

    2008-03-01

    Based on the observation data from eddy covariance tower and meteorological gradient tower in Panjin reed wetland observation plot, and by the method combined eddy covariance with microclimate gradient observation, two fundamental aerodynamic parameters, i. e., zero-plane displacement (d) and roughness length (z0), were evaluated, with their affecting factors analyzed. The results showed that the method adopted was suitable for estimating the aerodynamic parameters. There existed obvious seasonal variations in d and z0, with the maximum (1.85 and 0.24 m) in September and the minimum (0.02 and 0.03 m) in December, respectively. The seasonal variations were closely related to vegetation characteristics, plant height (h) and leaf area index (LAI). There was a close linear relationship between d and h, and a conic relationship between z0 and h. Both d/h and d/z0 had power relationships with LAI, and the R2 values were 0.99 and 0.78, respectively. PMID:18533513

  5. Factors affecting development of a motion imagery quality metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, John M.; Fenimore, Charles; Cannon, David; Roberts, John; Israel, Steven A.; Simon, Larry; Watts, Charles; Miller, James D.; Aviles, Ana I.; Tighe, Paul F.; Behrens, Richard J.; Haverkamp, Donna

    2005-05-01

    The motion imagery community would benefit from the availability of standard measures for assessing image interpretability. The National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) has served as a community standard for still imagery, but no comparable scale exists for motion imagery. Several considerations unique to motion imagery indicate that the standard methodology employed in the past for NIIRS development may not be applicable or, at a minimum, require modifications. Traditional methods for NIIRS development rely on a close linkage between perceived image quality, as captured by specific image interpretation tasks, and the sensor parameters associated with image acquisition. The dynamic nature of motion imagery suggests that this type of linkage may not exist or may be modulated by other factors. An initial study was conducted to understand the effects target motion, camera motion, and scene complexity have on perceived image interpretability for motion imagery. This paper summarizes the findings from this evaluation. In addition, several issues emerged that require further investigation: - The effect of frame rate on the perceived interpretability of motion imagery - Interactions between color and target motion which could affect perceived interpretability - The relationships among resolution, viewing geometry, and image interpretability - The ability of an analyst to satisfy specific image exploitation tasks relative to different types of motion imagery clips Plans are being developed to address each of these issues through direct evaluations. This paper discusses each of these concerns, presents the plans for evaluations, and explores the implications for development of a motion imagery quality metric.

  6. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimi...

  7. Human Factors in the Management of Production

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Per Langå; Alting, Leo

    2007-01-01

    The ‘Human factor’ is a major issue when optimizing manufacturing systems. The development in recommendations on how to handle this factor in the management of production reflects the change in dominating challenges faced by production in society. Presently, industrial societies are meeting new challenges. Qualitative interviews with Danish stakeholders in the education of engineers (BA & MA) confirm the picture given in international literature. Therefore, the didactics concerning the ?...

  8. Norms of products and factors polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Pritsker, Igor E.

    2001-01-01

    We study inequalities connecting a product of uniform norms of polynomials with the norm of their product. Generalizing Gel'fond-Mahler inequality for the unit disk and Kneser-Borwein inequality for the segment $[-1,1]$, we prove an asymptotically sharp inequality for norms of products of algebraic polynomials over an arbitrary compact set in plane. Applying similar techniques, we produce a related inequality for the norm of a single monic factor of a monic polynomial. The b...

  9. Factors affecting the next generation of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For both financial, environmental and health reasons, and because of external and internal factors affecting this nation's energy supply, nuclear power will likely play a part in supplying this nation's energy in the coming decades. I believe this to be true for some other parts of the world as well. Even some severe critics of the nuclear power industry and the NRC might agree with me on this point. Increasing concern with the environmental consequences of the burning of fossil fuels has led some former opponents of the use of nuclear power to balance anew the risks and benefits of nuclear power and to modify to some degree their former opposition. A related concern with the adequacy of the energy supply is leading others to modify their positions. According to analyses done by the U.S. Department of Energy, after 1994 the United States will no longer be able to assure all its citizens a reliable supply of electricity. Already, many areas of the country are in need of additional electric capacity. In both Sweden and Switzerland, similar concerns have led to the adoption by many of more compromising positions. Some critics of nuclear power may in the end still reject it as an alternative, but, with the increased pressures on the environment and on our energy supply, nuclear power is an alternative which cannot be rejected without the most serious consideration. This should be, I believe, a point of consensus among us. In sum, there is a future for nuclear power in the sense that there is a use for it

  10. Factors affecting lactate and malate utilization by Selenomonas ruminantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J D; Martin, S A

    1997-12-01

    Lactate utilization by Selenomonas ruminantium is stimulated in the presence of malate. Because little information is available describing lactate-plus-malate utilization by this organism, the objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting utilization of these two organic acids by two strains of S. ruminantium. When S. ruminantium HD4 and H18 were grown in batch culture on DL-lactate and DL-malate, both strains coutilized both organic acids for the initial 20 to 24 h of incubation and acetate, propionate, and succinate accumulated. However, when malate and succinate concentrations reached 7 mM, malate utilization ceased, and with strain H18, there was a complete cessation of DL-lactate utilization. Malate utilization by both strains was also inhibited in the presence of glucose. S. ruminantium HD4 was unable to grow on 6 mM DL-lactate at extracellular pH 5.5 in continuous culture (dilution rate, 0.05 h-1) and washed out of the culture vessel. Addition of 8 mM DL-malate to the medium prevented washout on 6 mM DL-lactate at pH 5.5 and resulted in succinate accumulation. Addition of malate also increased bacterial protein, acetate, and propionate concentrations in continuous culture. These results suggest that 8 mM DL-malate enhances the ability of strain HD4 to grow on 6 mM DL-lactate at extracellular pH 5.5. PMID:9471965

  11. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN NILI RAVI BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMTIAZ A. KHAN, A. KHAN1, A. MUBARAK AND S. ALI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to find out the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB in Nili Ravi buffaloes at a livestock experimental station in the Punjab, Pakistan. On the basis of the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT, prevalence of BTB was found to be 10.06%. Epidemiological factors including old age, high milk production and parity played a significant role in the prevalence of the disease. Significantly (P7 litres per day (75.00%. A total of nine out of 16 (56.25% animals were found positive by mycobacteriological studies. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from four (44.44% milk samples, M. tuberculosis from one faecal and two milk samples (33.33%, while atypical mycobacteria were isolated from two (22.22% milk samples. It can be concluded from the present study that BTB is present in indigenous buffaloes; old age and high milk yield greatly influence its prevalence. M. bovis was the principal cause of tuberculosis in buffaloes. Furthermore, atypical mycobacteria also contribute to BTB to a considerable proportion.

  13. Factors Affecting the Outcome of Bronchiectasis in Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Bilan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bronchiectasis is a common problem in children and early diagnosis can lead to early treatment and prevent of its complications. This study was aimed to evaluate factors effective on outcome of bronchiectasis in children. Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 347 children with bronchiectasis Underwent the study. the patients were diagnosed based on chronic suppurative cough and CT scan findings. . Results: Disease etiology was asthma in 55.6%, Gastroesophagial reflux (GERD in 7.8%, Cystic fibrosis (CF in 4.8%, other causes in 11.2% and idiopathic in 20.6%. All cases complained of chronic cough. The most common sign was daily sputum production (79.1% and common symptoms were ral/crackle in 47.1% and wheezing in 25.4%. Mean treatment period was 32.82±11.56 months. At the end of follow-up, complete improvement occurred in 35.6%, partial improvement in 40.9% and no improvement in 23.5%. Conclusion: In children with chronic cough and crackle in physical examination, consideration of bronchiectasis could be helpful in early diagnosis and complementary evaluations and treatment initiation. Treating the underlying disease could prevent the occurrence and increase the response to treatment of bronchiectasis.

  14. Factors affecting nuclear research reactor utilization across countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the worldwide declining trend of research reactor utilization and the fact that many reactors in developing countries are under-utilised, a question naturally arises as to whether the investment in a research reactor is justifiable. Statistical analyses were applied to reveal relationships between the status of reactor utilization and socio-economic conditions among countries, that may provide a guidance for reactor planning and cost benefit assessment. The reactor power has significant regression relationships with size indicators such as GNP, electricity consumption and R and D expenditure. Concerning the effectiveness of investment in research reactors, the number of reactor operation days per year only weakly correlates with electricity consumption and R and D expenditure, implying that there are controlling factors specific of each group of countries. In the case of less developed countries, the low customer demands on reactor operation may be associated with the failure in achieving quality assurance for the reactor products and services, inadequate investment in the infrastructure for reactor exploitation, the shortage of R and D funding and well trained manpower and the lack of measures to get the scientific community involved in the application of nuclear techniques. (author)

  15. Factors Affecting Women’s Capacities as Traditional Sago Starch Processors in Maluku, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inta P.N. Damanik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to describe the capacity level of women as traditional sago starch processors and to analyze factors which affected women’s capacity in processing sago starch as traditional home industry. Research was conduct in the Districts of Central Maluku and West Seram involved 204 households of sago starch processing as respondents which determined from population (416 households by Slovin formula with degree of error 5% and drawn by simple random sampling method. Data collection was undertaken in January until April 2012. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS v.20. Result showed that characteristics of social economic of traditional sago starch processor (namely age, length of time in business, informal education, motivation, family size, and individual beliefs about the social and cultural values of sago and support from institution of agriculture extension affected personal capacity. Personal capacity affected business capacity and in the next term business capacity affected productivity. Increasing productivity will increase income. This means that the sago starch processors with higher personal capacity will do better in business.

  16. Development of Food Retailing and Factors Affecting the Competition in Food Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Kilic

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Retailing is a dynamic and complex sector that offers wide range of products and services to consumers. This sector which includes different types of enterprises, has an important position within the supply chain. Food retailing has also a big potential within retailing sector. On the other hand, an intensive competition exists in food retailing. Taking place in the competitive market, food retailers attempt to gain a competitive advantage against their rivals with their geographic location, product selection and type, offered service quality and pricing alternatives. Additionally, food retailers also incline to develop their own branded products. The purpose of this study is to examine the development of food retailing sector, competitive structure and the main factors affecting this structure.

  17. Factors Affecting the Adoption of the Organic Dried Fig Agriculture System in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruh Isin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the factors affecting the adoption of organic dried fig agriculture in Turkey were investigated. These factors were divided into three groups, these being social, structural and intellectual factors. The effect of these factors was established using the probit analysis method. It was found that, of the social factors, the education status, age and fig-growing experience of producers were important parameters in the adoption of organic dried fig agriculture. Meanwhile, among the structural/economic factors fig production amount stands out as an important parameter. As for intellectual factors, it was observed that the extent to which producers were conversant with subvention policies, kept up to date with dried fig export prices and/or were knowledgeable an the subject of aflatoxin were important parameters. As a result, in the diffusion of organic dried fig agriculture in Turkey education project about organic farming need to be increased. It was vital that producers be made aware of sustainable farming practices, quality and standards, export demand and expectations and the European Union and its practices. On the other hand, it is very important that producer be provided with financial support in the transition to organic farming and be given guarantees regarding the marketing of their produce.

  18. Factors affecting polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation in mesophyll cells of sugarcane and switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyhydroxyalkanoates are linear biodegradable polyesters produced by bacteria as a carbon store and used to produce a range of bioplastics. Widespread polyhydroxyalkanoate production in C4 crops would decrease petroleum dependency by producing a renewable supply of biodegradable plastics along with residual biomass that could be converted into biofuels or energy. Increasing yields to commercial levels in biomass crops however remains a challenge. Previously, lower accumulation levels of the short side chain polyhydroxyalkanoate, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), were observed in the chloroplasts of mesophyll (M) cells compared to bundle sheath (BS) cells in transgenic maize (Zea mays), sugarcane (Saccharum sp.), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) leading to a significant decrease in the theoretical yield potential. Here we explore various factors which might affect polymer accumulation in mesophyll cells, including targeting of the PHB pathway enzymes to the mesophyll plastid and their access to substrate. Results The small subunit of Rubisco from pea effectively targeted the PHB biosynthesis enzymes to both M and BS chloroplasts of sugarcane and switchgrass. PHB enzyme activity was retained following targeting to M plastids and was equivalent to that found in the BS plastids. Leaf total fatty acid content was not affected by PHB production. However, when fatty acid synthesis was chemically inhibited, polymer accumulated in M cells. Conclusions In this study, we provide evidence that access to substrate and neither poor targeting nor insufficient activity of the PHB biosynthetic enzymes may be the limiting factor for polymer production in mesophyll chloroplasts of C4 plants. PMID:25209261

  19. The Affectional Component of Sexual Permissiveness: A Factor-Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kathleen M.; Houlihan, John

    1978-01-01

    The Reiss Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Scale was administered to 51 male and 54 female undergraduates. Factor analysis revealed three major factors: intercourse with affection, kissing with affection, and nonaffectional sexual activity. It is suggested that permissiveness be defined as lack of affection. (Author)

  20. Factors affecting the absorption of hydrogen by zircaloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proton model has been employed to calculate how the elements Sn, Fe, Cr and Ni in Zircaloy affect the absorption of hydrogen compared with in zirconium. It is found that Fe, Cr and Ni reduce the absorption of hydrogen by almost equal amounts per atom added, whereas Sn has little or no affect on the absorption. (orig.)

  1. To Invest Or Not Invest? : Factors affecting IT investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Tarabay, Raymond; Eigbire, Raphael

    2009-01-01

      Introduction Many studies indicate that there are numerous factors that promote or hamper the adoption of IT applications and are a prime concern for many researchers and practitioners (Abrahamson, 1991). Two main factors which need to be examined closely when making decisions about IT investments are the internal and external factors. Since these factors play a great role in decision making of IT investments, it is imperative to study their impact on the strategic planning because this fo...

  2. Influential Factors in Long-term Product Service System Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini Taklimi, Seyed Reza

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents different aspects of long-term contract for product service system (PSS); also different issues that companies are dealt for implementation of PSS. The study consists of literature review for understanding factors which can affect long-term PSS contracts. Different generic categories of green business models which are used in PSS contracts have been addressed and in addition, various models of contracts for PSS in industries have been identified too. The important f...

  3. Alpha radiolysis and other factors affecting hydrolysis of tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify the principal degradation products produced by Pu(IV) loading in 30% tributyl phosphate/dodecane (TBP-DD) solutions and to determine the formation rates of these species as a function of temperature. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate HNO3 hydrolysis of TBP as a function of temperature and to compare the effects resulting from plutonium solvent loading with effects due to loading with uranium and zirconium. The results indicate that four factors are of particular significance: (1) dibutyl phosphate (DBP) is the principal plutonium-complexing species formed at temperatures of 500C or lower, while significant concentrations of monobutyl phosphate (MBP) are also formed at higher temperatures; (2) the TBP degradation rate due to alpha radiolysis or chemical hydrolysis is strongly dependent on temperature; (3) plutonium promotes TBP hydrolysis by two mechanisms, alpha radiolysis and metal-ion-induced hydrolysis, and, of these, metal-ion-induced hydrolysis can be the major effect; and (4) small amounts of an unidentified plutonium-complexing species are formed in experiments using plutonium of high specific activity [about 4 x 108 counts per minute per milligram (c/min dot mg)]. This species cannot be removed from 30% TBP-DD by Na2CO3 washing or other solvent cleanup procedures. The TBP degradation rates (determined as grams of plutonium complexed by degradation products) increased from 0.125 mg Pu/L dot h at 250C to 47.9 mg Pu/L dot h at 800C in 30% TBP-DD solutions that contained only 0.68 M HNO3. In solutions that additionally contained approx.20 g/L of plutonium (specific activity = 9 x 107 c/min dot mg) TBP degradation rates increased from 2.46 mg Pu/L dot h at 250C to 127.1 mg Pu/L dot h at 800C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2002-02-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving customer satisfaction of the clod steak. Flavor Like was the sensory trait most highly correlated to Overall Like, followed by Tenderness, Flavor Amount, and Juiciness. Flavor Like was the first variable to enter into the stepwise regression equation for predicting Overall Like, followed by Tenderness and Flavor Amount. For the clod steak, it is likely that preparation techniques that improve flavor without reducing tenderness positively affect customer satisfaction. PMID:11881929

  5. Production of Tuber-Inducing Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Yorio, Neil C.

    2006-01-01

    A process for making a substance that regulates the growth of potatoes and some other economically important plants has been developed. The process also yields an economically important by-product: potatoes. The particular growth-regulating substance, denoted tuber-inducing factor (TIF), is made naturally by, and acts naturally on, potato plants. The primary effects of TIF on potato plants are reducing the lengths of the main shoots, reducing the numbers of nodes on the main stems, reducing the total biomass, accelerating the initiation of potatoes, and increasing the edible fraction (potatoes) of the overall biomass. To some extent, these effects of TIF can override environmental effects that typically inhibit the formation of tubers. TIF can be used in the potato industry to reduce growth time and increase harvest efficiency. Other plants that have been observed to be affected by TIF include tomatoes, peppers, radishes, eggplants, marigolds, and morning glories. In the present process, potatoes are grown with their roots and stolons immersed in a nutrient solution in a recirculating hydroponic system. From time to time, a nutrient replenishment solution is added to the recirculating nutrient solution to maintain the required nutrient concentration, water is added to replace water lost from the recirculating solution through transpiration, and an acid or base is added, as needed, to maintain the recirculating solution at a desired pH level. The growing potato plants secrete TIF into the recirculating solution. The concentration of TIF in the solution gradually increases to a range in which the TIF regulates the growth of the plants.

  6. Prioritization of the Factors Affecting Sport Tourism Development

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjadi, S. N.; Arefeh Jamshidi; Akbar Heidary

    2012-01-01

    Today, tourism and sport enjoy a complementary interrelationship directly affecting the nations` economy. Also sport tourism is, nowadays, considered as the most lucrative industry worldwide. In addition, it may affect all the social strata economically and politically. Thus, needless to say that much more attention should be directed to the industry through clear-cut policies, visions and constructive plans in this regard. To this end, in this paper, the authors investigated and offered the ...

  7. Rice Farms Efficiency and Factors Affecting the Efficiency in MADA Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lira Mailena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian rice farming is still constrained by the low productivity despite many supports and subsidies that have been enacted to this sector. The difficulties in improving the yield is potentially caused by the unintensive use of inputs due to the inefficient management on the rice farm. Thus this study aims to measure the rice farm efficiency and factors affecting that efficiency. Two stage analysis was adopted whereas in the first stage data envelopment analysis was used and corrected by the bootstrap method. Then in the second stage a Tobit model was employed to estimate factors affecting the efficiency. On average, the technical efficiency score estimated by DEA was about 0.6375 and implied with a given amount of inputs, the rice farms could increase its output by 57.31%. However, after correcting for the bias, the technical efficiency score was about 0.5366 and indicated that rice farms in MADA could increase its output at 86.35%. Further, by considering the lower and the higher bounds of efficiency scores, on the average, the rice farms could increase its output in the range from 20.13-99.12 with 95% confidence interval. Three factors that significantly affect the rice farm efficiency were the household size, land ownership and secondary level of education of sampled farmers. The positive significant effect of household size implied that farms with more household member was appeared to be more efficiently manage their production. Then, the negative effect of land ownership to the efficiency implied farmers who had the own land were tend to be more inefficient than those who rent the land. It was related to their motivation on the production whereas tenant farmers were more motivated to improve their production and get higher income so that they strived to manage the production in a professional manner and receptive to new technology as well. Further, farmers with secondary education level more efficiently managed the rice farm than others because of their passion for managing their production.

  8. Factors affecting the moisture permeability of lipid-based edible films: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillon, Valérie; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Blond, Geneviève; Capelle, Martine; Voilley, Andrée

    2002-01-01

    Moisture transfers inside food products could be controlled or limited by the use of edible films. These are usually based on hydrophobic substances such as lipids to improve barrier efficiency. Water permeability of films is affected by many factors, depending on both the nature of barrier components, the film structure (homogeneous, emulsion, multilayer, etc.), crystal type, shape, size and distribution of lipids, and thermodynamics such as temperature, vapor pressure, or the physical state of water in contact to the films. After a brief presentation of lipids and hydrophobic substances used as moisture barrier, cited in the scientific literature, this article reviews all of the parameters affecting barrier performances of edible films and coatings. PMID:11833637

  9. Factorization and resummation for color octet production

    OpenAIRE

    idilbi, Ahmad; Kim, Chul

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the production of heavy colored paricles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through gluon-gluon fusion process. A factorization theorem is obtained for this process using Soft Collinear Effective Theory. Our factorization theorem does not depend on any assumptions regarding the physics above the mass of the heavy colored particle. In this sense it is universal. The matching coefficient at the heavy particle mass scale depends however on the unkown physics above th...

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHERS’ USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Mojgan Afshari; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Wong Su Luan; Bahaman Abu Samah; Foo Say Fooi

    2009-01-01

    Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers’ decisions to use ICT in the classroom: non-manipulative and manipulative school and teacher factors. These factors are interrelated. The success of the implementation of ICT is no...

  11. Factors Affecting Malaysian Mobile Banking Adoption: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Boon In Tan; Kam Hoe Oon; Aik Chuan Teo; Jia Jia Sim; Ching Mun Cheah

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study aims to investigate the factors that influence Malaysians’ intention to adopt mobile banking by extending the renowned framework of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A self-administrated questionnaire had been developed and distributed in Malaysia. Out of the 400 questionnaires, only 175 usable questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 43.75 percent. Results were subsequently analyzed by using multiple regression and factor analysis. Factors such as per...

  12. Innovation Barriers and Enablers that Affect Productivity in Uganda Building Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe, , and; Kristian Widén; Jackson Mwakali; Bengt Hansson

    2007-01-01

    The construction industry has of recent been blamed for lack of innovation. Lack of innovation in the industry is believed to be responsible for the decreasing or stagnant levels of productivity in comparison with other industries. This paper reviews the major barriers and enablers to innovation in general. Propositions were made about the factors that affect innovation in the construction industry which were then formulated into a questionnaire. A survey was made on building contractors in U...

  13. Factors affecting the fertility of high producing dairy herds in northeastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J L; Nogareda, C; López-Béjar, M

    2007-02-01

    Infertility has been often correlated to a rising milk yield in high producing dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, using logistic regression procedures, the effects of several management indicators on the fertility of four dairy herds in northeastern Spain. Data derived from 10,965 artificial insemination (AI). The factors examined were: herd, milking frequency (three versus two milkings per day), lactation number, previous twinning and disorders such as placenta retention and pyometra, milk production at AI, the inseminating bull, season (warm versus cool period) and year effects, AI technician and repeat breeding syndrome (cows undergoing four or more AI). Our findings indicated no effects on fertility of the herd, year of AI, previous twining, placenta retention and pyometra and milk production at AI. Based on the odds ratios, the likelihood of pregnancy decreased: in cows milked three times per day (by a factor of 0.62); for each one unit increase in lactation number (by a factor of 0.92); for inseminations performed during the warm period (by a factor of 0.67); in repeat breeder cows (by a factor of 0.73); and when 3 of the 45 inseminating bulls included in the study were used (by factors of 0.35, 0.43 and 0.44, respectively). Of the 13 AI technicians participating in the study, 3 were related to a fertility rate improved by odds ratios of 1.86, 1.84 and 1.30, respectively, whereas 2 technicians gave rise to fertility rates reduced by odds ratios of 0.64 and 0.49, respectively. Under our study conditions, management practices were able to compensate for the effects of previous twining and reproductive disorders such as placenta retention and pyometra. However, fertility was significantly affected by the factors milking frequency, AI technician, inseminating bull, repeat breeding syndrome, lactation number and AI season. PMID:17118434

  14. Factors affecting the flowability of fertilizers through orifices

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstee J.W.; Kara M.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of some significant factors on the flow of fertilizers through orifices, such as orifice diameter, orifice shape, particle diameter, fertilizer type, air temperature, and air relative humidity were investigated. The effect of air temperature on the flow rate was small as the effects of the other factors were significant.

  15. A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the grid is employed in radiography, the exposure and the patient dose naturally increase. The rate of increase of the exposure resulting from the use of the grid is usually expressed by the Bucky factor. The Bucky factor is commonly known to change depending on the grid ratio and the tube voltage, but its change due to other factor has been hardly reported. Therefore, authors have measured changes in the Bucky factor due to the thickness of a patient and the irradiation field size, and added a few comments on the patient dose. (Conclusion) (1) The Bucky factor is not constant because it is greatly influenced by the tube voltage, grid ratio, thickness of the patient and the field size. (2) The Bucky factor increases if the tube voltage is low and the grid ratio is high, and also if the patient thickness is great and the field size is large. (3) If the field size is enlarged, the Bucky factor increases, but the surface dose usually decreases, resulting in a conflicting phenomenon. This fact must be born in mind in using the Bucky factor as an indicator of the exposure or the patient dose. (author)

  16. Factors Affecting the Use of Instructional Television in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, E. Joseph

    A study of 36 factors which could possibly limit the use of instructional television (ITV) in elementary schools consisted of an analysis of the responses to a questionnaire administered to 318 teachers who taught in kindergarten through grade six. Chi-square tests were computed for each factor in relationship to the average frequency of classroom…

  17. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…

  18. Do ICTs Affect Workforce Productivity in Egyptian Industrial Organizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elsaadani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the influence of Information Communication Technologies-ICTs’ dimensions (Information Technology (IT, Management Information System (MIS, Office automation (OA, Intranet and Internet on workforce productivity for a group of industrial organizations in Alexandria - Egypt. The population of the study included managers and staff members working in different areas related to ICTs in selected industrial organizations at various managerial levels. A descriptive-statistical combined research study was conducted. Simple random sampling was used for the selection of the participating industrial organization. A questionnaire was used as the data collection method. Expert comments were used to check the validity of study instrument, and the reliability of questions was calculated as 79% using Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient. Single variable t-test, Friedman and variance analysis tests were used for the analysis. Study findings revealed that the specified dimensions of ICTs positively affect workforce productivity of industrial organizations in Alexandria - Egypt.

  19. Review of the factors affecting the selection and implementation of waste management technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this publication is to identify and critically review the factors affecting the selection of waste management strategies and technologies; summarize and discuss the options available, and offer a systematic approach for considering these factors to design, install and operate appropriate technologies for waste streams generated. The scope of this publication includes the management of radioactive waste from all orientations including low and intermediate level waste arising from the production of radionuclides and their application in industry, agriculture, medicine, education and research; waste generated from research reactors, power reactors and from nuclear fuel cycle activities including reprocessing high level waste. Although waste from decommissioning is not specifically addressed, the management of this waste is not significantly different from other types of waste in the same category

  20. Non-nutritional factors affecting lactation persistency in dairy ewes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cannas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk production is largely related to the shape of the lactation curve. Key elements of the lactation pattern are peak yield, which is the maximum daily yield reached during lactation, and lactation persistency, which is the medium rate of milk yield decrease after the lactation peak. The ideal lactation curve should have a reasonably high peak and a flat trend afterwards. A more persistent lactation is desirable because it is related to better animal health and reduction of feeding costs. Effective strategies to improve lactation persistency require a deep understanding of the main factors that affect this trait, including genetics, hormonal status and administration, udder morphology, seasonal changes, management, animal health (e.g. mastitis, stress and nutrition. This review covers the effects of non-nutritional factors on lactation persistency in dairy sheep.

  1. Factors Affecting the Yield of Sunflower in the Province of Punjab (Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Siddique Javed

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan spends major chunk of its foreign exchange reserves on the import of edible oil due to poor domestic base of oilseed production. Considering bleak economic condition of Pakistan, it is very essential to save forex reserves by enhancing domestic oilseed production. Among various types of oilseeds grown in the country, the sunflower, a non-traditional oilseeds has the potential to bridge the gap that exists between the domestic demand and supply due to its high oil contents and agronomic suitability to the climatic conditions of Pakistan. This research article attempts to investigate the factor affecting the yield performance of sunflower in the province of Punjab (Pakistan. A Cobb-Douglas type of function has been employed for estimation purpose.

  2. Analysis on the Main Factors Affecting the Reliability of Test Papers

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Zhu; Lemeng Han

    2011-01-01

    Reliability is an important factor to evaluate test papers. This paper analyzes the factors which affect the reliability of test papers and discusses the methods to increase the reliability of test papers.

  3. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene risk factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... many of these same gene variants are known risk factors for diseases that occur later in life, including ...

  4. Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

    2011-01-01

    Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

  5. Cognitive and Affective Factors of TV Advertising's Influence on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the research on children's understanding of the intent of advertising, the persuasive impact of television commercials, and children's cognitive defenses and resistance to such persuasion. Concludes that any model which tries to account for advertising's influence on children must incorporate affective as well as cognitive components. (PD)

  6. Factors and pharmaceuticals that affect the radiopharmaceuticals bio distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals may be affected by various agents and therapeutical procedures, chemotherapy agents, thyroid hormones, metals, radiotherapy, surgery, anesthetic agents, dialysis other radiopharmaceutical interactions. Recommendations for the detection of altered biodistribution in patients by causes not directly related with the pathology itself was given. pathology itself was given

  7. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  8. Organizational factors affecting safety implementation in food companies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinda, Thanwadee

    2014-01-01

    Thai food industry employs a massive number of skilled and unskilled workers. This may result in an industry with high incidences and accident rates. To improve safety and reduce the accident figures, this paper investigates factors influencing safety implementation in small, medium, and large food companies in Thailand. Five factors, i.e., management commitment, stakeholders' role, safety information and communication, supportive environment, and risk, are found important in helping to improve safety implementation. The statistical analyses also reveal that small, medium, and large food companies hold similar opinions on the risk factor, but bear different perceptions on the other 4 factors. It is also found that to improve safety implementation, the perceptions of safety goals, communication, feedback, safety resources, and supervision should be aligned in small, medium, and large companies. PMID:24934418

  9. World Food Prices after WTO Foundation: Deterministic and Non-deterministic Factors in Production

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Stefan; Yu, Xiaohua

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a two-step method to estimate the influence of non-deterministic factors in production on subsequent food prices, and finds that non-deterministic factors of wheat production do significantly affect both wheat and corn prices in the world and, however, those of corn do not.

  10. Factors determining production (FDP in basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Martinez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to introduce a simple and easily computable metric to assess the performance of basketball players through non-scoring box-score statistics. This metric was called Factors Determining Production (FDP. FDP was created through separating points made from the remaining variables which may bequantitatively recorded. FDP was derived from the outcome of several games, it considers both teams’ statistics, and it reflects the final result of a game with noticeable merit. This metric provides a simple linear weight formula which, together with the points made by each player, yields a comprehensible picture of how well a worker(player performed. FDP has been validated through different statistical procedures and it overcomes Win Score from a theoretical viewpoint, because it departs production (points from factors facilitating production.

  11. Factors Affecting Business Success of Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chuthamas Chittithaworn; Md Aminul Islam; Thiyada Keawchana; Dayang Hasliza Muhd Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to identify factors that are affecting business success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. The intention of this study is to provide the understanding on how people should start their business by looking at all the factors affecting business success hence help to reduce the risk of failure and increase chances of success. The study examined eight factors that influence the SMEs business success. These factors are: SMEs characteristic, management and know-...

  12. Factors affecting interstate use of inpatient care by Medicare beneficiaries.

    OpenAIRE

    Buczko, W.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which interstate inflow and outflow of patients affects their observed use of Medicare Part A inpatient care. Interstate patient flow can bias utilization rates and may be due to seasonal migration, interstate inpatient care market areas, or purposive seeking of specialized/high-quality care. Examination of state level patient flow data drawn from 1987 Medicare discharge indicate that most interstate patient flow occurs between adjacent states probably as a...

  13. Factors affecting the cerebral network in brain tumor patients

    OpenAIRE

    Heimans, J. J.; Reijneveld, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Brain functions, including cognitive functions, are frequently disturbed in brain tumor patients. These disturbances may result from the tumor itself, but also from the treatment directed against the tumor. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy all may affect cerebral functioning, both in a positive as well as in a negative way. Apart from the anti-tumor treatment, glioma patients often receive glucocorticoids and anti-epileptic drugs, which both also have influence on brain functioning. The...

  14. Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Tabatabaei; Ahmad Molavi

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated questionnaires. First a modified version of The Attitude/Motivation Test Battery Questionnaire (AMTB) originally developed by Gardner (2004) was used to dete...

  15. Discriminant Analysis of Factors Affecting Telecoms Customer Churn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Oghojafor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge facing telecoms business providers in Nigeria today is the continuous growing competition and customers’ expectation of service quality and as such customers are able to choose among multiple service providers based on the level of satisfaction, affordability, and service quality of service providers. Customer demand and competition are forcing firms to cut loose from the traditional customer satisfaction paradigm, to adopt proactive strategies which will assist them to take the lead in the market-place. This study aims at identifying factors that discriminate among subscribers exhibiting willingness to drop their current service provider and those willing to stay. The study also examines the effect of socio-economic and demographic factors associated with the identified discriminants. The major factors identified are high call rate, poor service facilities, off-beam advertisement medium, availability of superior service provider and unattractive service plan.

  16. Factors affecting the spontaneous mutational spectra in somatic mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ?????????

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  In our survey of references we are discussed the influence of factors biological origin on the spontaneous mutation specters in mammalian. Seasonal and age components influence on the frequence of cytogenetic anomalies. The immune and endocrinous systems are take part in control of the alteration of the spontaneous mutation specters. Genetical difference of sensibility in animal and human at the alteration of factors enviroment as and  genetical differences of repair systems activity are may influence on individual variation of spontaneous destabilization characters of chromosomal apparatus.

  17. Factors affecting outcome in proximal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, P V; Shepard, A D; Pipinos, I I; Nypaver, T J; Cho, J S; Reddy, D J

    2001-09-01

    Sixty-five consecutive patients undergoing nonemergent repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) originating above the visceral and/or renal arteries were studied to determine operative results and identify factors influencing outcome of proximal AAA repair. Factors associated with postoperative morbidity were analyzed using multivariate analysis. There were no postoperative deaths, paraplegia/paraparesis, or symptomatic visceral ischemia. Proximal AAA repair can be accomplished with acceptable mortality. If renal artery bypass or reimplantation is anticipated, cold renal perfusion may protect against renal dysfunction. Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction can be reduced by avoiding radial division of the diaphragm. PMID:11665433

  18. Assessing the Total Factor Productivity of Cotton Production in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Xosé A.; Elasraag, Yahia H.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to decompose the productivity growth of Egyptian cotton production. We employ the stochastic frontier approach and decompose the changes in total factor productivity (CTFP) growth into four components: technical progress (TP), changes in scale component (CSC), changes in allocative efficiency (CAE), and changes in technical efficiency (CTE). Considering a situation of scarce statistical information, we propose four alternative empirical models, with the purpose of looking for convergence in the results. The results provide evidence that in this production system total productivity does not increase, which is mainly due to the negative average contributions of CAE and TP. Policy implications are offered in light of the results. PMID:25625318

  19. Accessible protocol for practice classroom about physical and chemical factors that affect the biomembranes integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Barros Galvão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work is to review a protocol used in practical classes to demonstrate some factors that affect biomembrane integrity. Sugar-beet fragments were utilized as the experimental model as membrane damage could be visualized by leakage of betacyanins, hydrophilic pigments accumulated in the cell vacuoles. The tests were carried out as discrete experiments utilizing physical agents and chemical products present in the student daily routine. To test the effect of temperature, sugar-beet fragments were submitted to heat, cold or both at different times of exposition. When chemical products were tested, sugar-beet fragments were exposed to organic solvents (common alcohol and acetone or polar and amphipathic substances (disinfectant, detergent, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite. The obtained results were discussed in terms of the capacity of the physical and chemical factors to cause membrane damage. The review of this protocol using reagents that are present in the student daily routine were able to demonstrate clearly the effect of the different tested factors, allowing the utilization of this practical class under limited conditions.

  20. Factors affecting the acquisition of plural morphology in Jordanian Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albirini, Abdulkafi

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the development of plural morphology in Jordanian Arab children, and explores the role of the predictability, transparency, productivity, and frequency of different plural forms in determining the trajectory that children follow in acquiring this complex inflectional system. The study also re-examines the development of the notion of default over several years. Sixty Jordanian children, equally divided among six age groups (three to eight years), completed an oral real-word pluralization task and a nonsense-word pluralization task. The findings indicate that feminine sound plurals are acquired before and extended to the other plural forms. Productivity and frequency seem to shape the acquisition patterns among younger children, but predictability becomes more critical at a later age. Younger children use the most productive plural as the default form, but older children tend to use two default forms based on frequency distributions in the adult language. The theoretical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25158792

  1. Factors Affecting the Misperception of Friendliness Cues in Initial Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, Richard J.; And Others

    Some researchers have found men to attribute more sexual meaning to heterosexual interactions than do women. This study was conducted to examine factors which may enhance or diminish this gender difference on perceptions of sexual intent by considering the three variables of physical attractiveness of target, similarity of target's personality to…

  2. Factors affecting sleep/vigilance behaviour in incubating mallards.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jav?rková, V.; Ho?ák, D.; Kreisinger, J.; Klva?a, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 117, ?. 4 (2011), s. 345-355. ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KJB601110803; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mallard * vigilance * antipredation behaviour * incubation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2011

  3. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

  4. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  5. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors

  6. Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine

    2006-01-01

    Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.

  7. An Analysis of Factors That Affect the Educational Performance of Agricultural Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to student achievement. This study focuses on three areas: how students learn, how student personality type affects performance, and how course format affects performance outcomes. The analysis sought to improve understanding of the direction and magnitude with which each of these factors impacts student success. Improved…

  8. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukselturk, Erman; Inan, Fethi Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students…

  9. Affecting factors analysis of major equipment erection key path in PWR NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The affecting factors of major equipment erection in PWR NPP exist impersonally, especially the design and equipment supply has produced some effects on major equipment erection of PWR nuclear power plant. Through the analysis of key path and affecting factors on major equipment erection of PWR NPP, the paper puts forward some countermeasures. (authors)

  10. Attitudes to and Factors Affecting Unauthorized Copying of Computer Software in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siponen, M.T.; Vartiainen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Several quantitative studies have sought to determine the factors affecting the unauthorized copying of software, particularly in North America. However, we find no statistically reliable studies on the situation in Europe. In order to address this gap in the literature, we explored the attitudes to and factors affecting the unauthorized copying…

  11. Factors Affecting Perceived Stigma in Leprosy Affected Persons in Western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bipin; Kaehler, Nils; Robert S. Chapman; Raut, Shristi; Roche, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A total of 135 leprosy affected persons were interviewed with a questionnaire containing EMIC questions designed to assess the level of perceived stigma and the questionnaire containing variables for socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about leprosy and the clinical presentations of the participants. Clinical presentation as disability was graded according to WHO guidelines, where grade 0 means no disability found, grade I means loss of sensation has been noted in the hand or foot wh...

  12. Factors that affect social workers' job satisfaction, stress and burnout

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Taetske, Calitz; Adrie, Roux; Herman, Strydom.

    Full Text Available Social work was classified as a scare skill and the retention of social workers is an important aspect that needs urgent attention. The research goal of this study was to determine what degree of work engagement and job satisfaction South African social workers experience in their current positions [...] and how this influences job turnover, burnout and the intention to leave the profession. The purpose was to determine the needs social workers experience that will affect turnover in the profession. The needs/problems social workers experienced were stress, burnout, lower job satisfaction and work engagement.

  13. Environmental factors that can affect sleep and breathing: allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David T; Soose, Ryan J

    2014-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis and associated symptomatic nasal obstruction negatively affect sleep through a variety of mechanisms and may contribute to persistent symptoms and poor adherence with medical device therapy for sleep apnea. A history of sinonasal symptoms, particularly those that occur at night or in the supine position, is the cornerstone of the medical evaluation. Further research into the relationship between allergic rhinitis and sleep disturbance would benefit from improved anatomic and pathophysiologic phenotyping as well as more advanced outcome measures such as spectral electroencephalogram analysis or other polysomnography variables beyond the apnea-hypopnea index. PMID:25156773

  14. Chemical and biological factors affecting bioavailability of contaminants in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the influence that salinity has on the bioavailability of the two largest classes of contaminants, trace metals and organic compounds will be discussed. Although data on contaminant toxicity will be used to draw inferences about chemical availability, this discussion will focus on the properties that contaminants are likely to exhibit in waters of varying salinities. In addition, information on physiological changes that are affected by salinity will be used to illustrate how biological effects can alter the apparent availability of contaminants

  15. Factores que pueden afectar la seguridad del paciente / Factors that may affect patient's safety

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José A, Betancourt Betancourt; Raúl J, Cepero Morales; Clara Mirella, Gallo Borrero.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la seguridad del paciente es la garantía de las personas de estar libres de sufrir cualquier tipo de daño cuando interactúan con alguno de los servicios de salud. Objetivo: determinar factores que podrían afectar la seguridad del paciente a través de una investigación realizada en el Hos [...] pital Provincial y en el Hospital Pediátrico. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, mediante la búsqueda de información bibliográfica sobre la temática de la seguridad del paciente, en las bases de datos disponibles en INFOMED. Para la primera etapa se diseña e implementa una encuesta de 49 preguntas que se les realiza en el año 2009 a trabajadores vinculados a la atención de salud. Para la segunda etapa se implementa una encuesta de 23 preguntas derivadas de las preguntas más relevantes de la primera etapa que se implementó en el Hospital Pediátrico y se va a realizar en el Hospital Provincial Univerrsitario Manuel Ascunce Domenech. El método analítico utilizado para ambas encuestas fue la técnica de componentes principales que permitió valorar la coincidencia de cada pregunta en relación a las posibles afectaciones a la seguridad del paciente. Resultados: la encuesta aplicada, para evaluar factores que afectan la seguridad del paciente fue adecuada. La técnica de componentes principales permitió valorar la importancia de cada pregunta en relación a las posibles afectaciones a la seguridad del paciente, las variables de respuesta se agruparon en seis constructos con un 62,1 % de varianza explicada. Las encuestas arrojaron que las afectaciones del ambiente laboral, el nivel general de interconexión y comunicación, el nivel de gestión del conocimiento, la capacidad de enfrentar imprevistos, la capacidad técnica, el cansancio y la pérdida de concentración podrían afectar la seguridad del paciente. Conclusiones: es posible obtener información in situ a partir del instrumento final obtenido en la última etapa que permita corregir de forma precoz algunas fallas que pudieran afectar la seguridad del paciente y corregirlas. La técnica de componentes principales resultó adecuada para evaluar estas respuestas en conjunto. Abstract in english ABSTRACT Background: patient's safety is the guarantee of people to be free of suffering any kind of damage when interacting any of the health services. Objective: to determine factors that may affect patient's safety. Method: a descriptive study through a bibliographic review on patient's safety wa [...] s conducted. The study was divided into two stages, in which surveys according to the technique of main components were implemented; this allowed value the coincidence of each question in relation to the possible impact to the patient´s safety. Results: the applied survey was appraised of adequate; response variables were grouped into six, with a 62.1 % of explained variance. The survey showed that affectations on labor atmosphere, general level of interconnection and communication, level on knowledge management, the capacity to face accidental facts, technical capacity, fatigue and loss of concentration could affect patient's safety. Conclusions: the information was obtained from the final instrument in the last stage. Some failures that could affect patient´s safety may be corrected early. The technique of main components was adequate to evaluate the answers as a whole.

  16. Factors that Affect the Microbiology of Commercial Shell Egg Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intact shell eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents, protecting a developing embryo, but also contributing to their wholesomeness as human food. In order for eggs to be involved in human enteritis, there is often temperature abuse of raw product followed by consumption o...

  17. Factors that affect Commercial Shell Egg Processing Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intact shell eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents, protecting a developing embryo, but also contributing to their wholesomeness as human food. In order for eggs to be involved in human enteritis, there is often temperature abuse of raw product followed by consumption o...

  18. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro M., Marra; Silvia M. de, Oliveira-Longatti; Cláudio R.F.S., Soares; José M. de, Lima; Fabio L., Olivares; Fatima M.S., Moreira.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization o [...] f calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization.

  19. Prioritization of the Factors Affecting Sport Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Sajjadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, tourism and sport enjoy a complementary interrelationship directly affecting the nations` economy. Also sport tourism is, nowadays, considered as the most lucrative industry worldwide. In addition, it may affect all the social strata economically and politically. Thus, needless to say that much more attention should be directed to the industry through clear-cut policies, visions and constructive plans in this regard. To this end, in this paper, the authors investigated and offered the guidelines for sport tourism development in Zanjan from economic, social and cultural perspectives. This was an applied research carried out as a field study. The statistical sample was divided into 2 groups: 1 Experts including physical education teachers, cultural heritage and physical education department employees and, 2 Customers including different sportsmen and sportswomen traveling to Zanjan. The research tool was a 43 item researcher-made questionnaire in Likert scale whose reliability and validity were confirmed by the board of university professors. We applied descriptive to describe the demography and T-test and Friedman to determine the differences and prioritize both groups` viewpoints regarding sport tourism development in Zanjan.

  20. Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could be reduced approximately 200-fold at pH 6 as compared to pH 10, leaving only 0.1 mg/mL in solution. Solubility could also be dramatically manipulated using salts. The choice of anions was found to be more important than of the cations, and the lowest solubility was found using sodium sulphate. For the anions, solubility followed the order expected from the Hofmeister series, however, a more complex behaviour was seen for the cations. With the exception of lithium, their efficiency to influence the solubility was reversed to what was expected. The polydispersity of the solution was reduced by salt addition and zeta potential measurements indicated a shift in pI caused by lithium. Possible explanations for the observations are discussed, extending our present understanding of how salts affect the solubility of proteins, one that to date is primarily based on experiments with lysozyme. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Importance of Affective Factors in Self-Access Language Learning courses

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Valdivia; David McLoughlin; Jo Mynard

    2011-01-01

    In this short summary, we investigate the importance of learners’ emotional involvement in self-directed learning. We begin by briefly examining the literature related to affective factors in self-access language learning. We then describe two examples of institutions with self-access centres that place particular importance on affective factors in courses of self-directed study. The first example is in a university in Japan, where affective strategies are introduced through self-directed l...

  2. Factors affecting visualization of posterior rib fractures in abused infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rib fractures in abused infants commonly occur in the posterior rib arcs. Fractures occurring near the costovertebral articulations are usually identified radiographically only once callus has formed. To assess the factors influencing the visibility of fractures near the costovertical articulations, the authors studied 103 posterior rib fractures occurring in 16 abused infants. Radiologic findings were correlated with CT findings and pathologic material from nine ribs in four patients. The limited visibility of fractures relates to (1) the frequent superimposition of the transverse process over the rib fracture site, (2) a fracture line that crosses at an obliquity to the x-ray beam, and (3) nondisplacement of rib fragments due to preservation of the posterior periosteum. Fresh rib fractures invisible on a frontal projection may be clearly defined on axial CT scans, or on postmortem radiographs. A knowledge of the factors influencing the visibility of these important injuries is useful in planning an appropriate diagnostic evaluation of suspected infant abuse

  3. Pareto analysis of critical factors affecting technical institution evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gambhir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With the change of education policy in 1991, more and more technical institutions are being set up in India. Some of these institutions provide quality education, but others are merely concentrating on quantity. These stakeholders are in a state of confusion about decision to select the best institute for their higher educational studies. Although various agencies including print media provide ranking of these institutions every year, but their results are controversial and biased. In this paper, the authors have made an endeavor to find the critical factors for technical institution evaluation from literature survey. A Pareto analysis has also been performed to find the intensity of these critical factors in evaluation. This will not only help the stake holders in taking right decisions but will also help the management of institutions in benchmarking for identifying the most important critical areas to improve the existing system. This will in turn help Indian economy.

  4. Tautomerism in porphycenes: analysis of rate-affecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci??ka, Piotr; Fita, Piotr; Listkowski, Arkadiusz; Kijak, Micha?; Nonell, Santi; Kuzuhara, Daiki; Yamada, Hiroko; Radzewicz, Czes?aw; Waluk, Jacek

    2015-02-12

    Double hydrogen transfer occurring in both ground and the lowest electronically excited singlet states was studied for a series of 19 differently substituted porphycenes. The rates of tautomerization have been determined using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy with polarized light. The values vary by over 3 orders of magnitude, suggesting the importance of tunneling. Good correlation exists between the values of the rates and the parameters characterizing the strength of two intramolecular hydrogen bonds: proton NMR shift, distance between the hydrogen-bonded nitrogen atoms, and the NH stretching frequency. While hydrogen-bond strength is the main factor determining the rate of double hydrogen transfer, other factors, such as static and dynamic symmetry breaking and the population of low-frequency vibrations also have to be taken into account. PMID:25105931

  5. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.

    1991-12-31

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  6. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  7. Factors Affecting the Real Estate Prices in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmood khan kakar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the effect of factors influencing the prices of real estate inQuetta city. Hypothetically, this study is based upon five observed factors(urbanization, refugees’ influx, monetary, lack of investment alternatives and inflow offoreign remittances in relation to the prices of real estate. Questionnaire developed onthe basis of above variables were administered to a heterogeneous sample of 50property dealers and Quetta Development Authority. Descriptive statistics (percentage,percentile and frequency distribution were used to identify the level of influence andthe relation of above mentioned attributes towards the prices of real estate. The resultsrevealed that the prices of real estate in the region have been on an increasing trendand strong influence of all variables especially of government’s monetary and fiscalpolices and urbanization was found significant on the prices of real estate in Quetta.

  8. Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Abdel Aziem A; Okud Amira

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012....

  9. Factors affecting the growth of bifidobacteria in human milk.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ro?ková, Š.; Nevoral, J.; Rada, V.; Maršík, Petr; Sklená?, Jan; Hlinková, A.; Vlková, E.; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 7 (2011), s. 504-508. ISSN 0958-6946 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA523/07/0572; GA ?R GD525/08/H060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : OLIGOSACCHARIDES * INFANTS * PREBIOTICS Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.401, year: 2011

  10. Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Patients' Satisfaction with Their Dialysis Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Al Eissa, M.; Al Sulaiman, M.; Jondeby, M.; Karkar, A.; Barahmein, M.; F. A. M. Shaheen; Al Sayyari, A

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To assess the degree of satisfaction among hemodialysis patients and the factors influencing this satisfaction. Methods. Patients were recruited from 3 Saudi dialysis centers. Demographic data was collected. Using 1 to 10 Likert scale, the patients were asked to rate the overall satisfaction with, and the overall impact of, their dialysis therapy on their lives and to rate the effect of the dialysis therapy on 15 qualities of life domains. Results. 322 patients were recruited (72...

  11. A human soluble suppressor factor affecting lymphocyte responses in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Shou, L; Schwartz, S.A.; Good, R A; PENG, R; C. L. Chen

    1980-01-01

    A soluble suppressor factor (SSF) has been demonstrated in the supernatant of normal human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures that exhibits suppressive activity toward the proliferative response of normal lymphocytes to concanavalin A or alloantigens in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) or toward pokeweed mitogen-stimulated immunoglobulin synthesis and secretion in vitro. Suppression of the proliferative response in MLC reached maximal levels when added SSF-containing supernatant approximated ...

  12. Factors affecting statistical power in the detection of genetic association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Derek; Finch, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    The mapping of disease genes to specific loci has received a great deal of attention in the last decade, and many advances in therapeutics have resulted. Here we review family-based and population-based methods for association analysis. We define the factors that determine statistical power and show how study design and analysis should be designed to maximize the probability of localizing disease genes. PMID:15931375

  13. Factors Affecting Blood Glucose Monitoring: Sources of Errors in Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, Barry H

    2009-01-01

    Glucose monitoring has become an integral part of diabetes care but has some limitations in accuracy. Accuracy may be limited due to strip manufacturing variances, strip storage, and aging. They may also be due to limitations on the environment such as temperature or altitude or to patient factors such as improper coding, incorrect hand washing, altered hematocrit, or naturally occurring interfering substances. Finally, exogenous interfering substances may contribute errors to the system eval...

  14. Spatial and Temporal Factors Affecting Human Visual Recognition Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The current thesis investigated the effects of a variety of spatial and temporal factors on visual recognition memory in human adults. Continuous recognition experiments investigated the effect of lag (the number of items intervening between study and test) on recognition of a variety of stimulus sets (common objects, face-like stimuli, fractals, trigrams), and determined that recognition of common objects was superior to that of other stimulus types. This advantage was largely eradicated whe...

  15. Factors affecting mothers' choice of infant feeding method / S. Schoonwinkel.

    OpenAIRE

    Schoonwinkel, Susanna

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding are well known. It has been shown that HIV is transmitted through breast milk. The HIV epidemic is threatening exclusive breastfeeding in South Africa. It is important that mothers make the right infant feeding choice. There are three basic infant feeding methods available for HIV infected mothers namely; breastfeeding, replacement feeding or formula feeding and heat treatment of breast milk. There are many risk factors for the transmission of HIV through breast ...

  16. Specialty Preference Among Medical Students and Factors Affecting It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gour

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical education is one of the core part of educational system of any country. Medical education requires undergraduate students to study a wide range of medical specialties. It is often assumed that students do not make their career preferences until after they have graduated from medical school. So the reasons and factors responsible for preferences need to be found out among medical students. Material and Methods: It was a Cross sectional study on 180 medical students to assess preference for specialty and factors responsible. Results: Out of total 190 medical students more or less everyone (97.89% wanted to pursue specialization and majority of them (96.84% wanted to pursue the same in Medical Field(p>0.05. majority of male students were interested to pursue their specialization in the field of medicine (37.63%, surgery (23.65% and pediatrics (13.97%. On the other hand female students were more interested in medicine (24.17%, pediatrics (32.96% and obstetrics & gynecology (24.17%(p<0.05. Interest, by far was found to be most common factor (76.63% responsible for the preference of particular medical specialty among all four groups of students (1st professional-25.27%, 2nd professional-75.92%, final professional-89.47%, interns-68.42%.Conclusion: It is thus concluded there are many factors playing role in the specialty selection and preference among the medical students and should be equally justified and addressed.

  17. Factors affecting early unplanned readmission of elderly patients to hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, E. I.; Fitton, F.

    1988-01-01

    A random sample of 133 elderly patients who had an unplanned readmission to a district general hospital within 28 days of discharge from hospital was studied and compared with a matched control sample of patients who were not readmitted. The total group was drawn from all specialties in the hospital, and by interviewing the patients, their carers, the ward sisters, and the patients' general practitioners the factors causing early unplanned readmission for each patient were identified. Seven p...

  18. Examination of Factors Affecting Success of Singapore Education System

    OpenAIRE

    Levent, Faruk; Yazici, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Singapore is a country which attracts attention with the success it gains at the internationalstudent assessment tests like PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS in recent years. Success of Singaporeeducation system at the international student assessment tests which give information about theresults of educational policy and implementation, has aroused curiosity all over the world. Thesuccess factors of Singapore education system are important for many countries like Turkey whichimplements reform initiative...

  19. International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigurdson, A.J.; Ha, M.; Hauptmann, M.; Bhatti, P.; Šrám, Radim; Beskid, Olena; Tawn, E.J.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Lindholm, C.; Nakano, M.; Kodama, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Vorobtsova, I.; Oestreicher, U.; Stephan, G.; Yong, L.C.; Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Chung, H.W.; Darroudi, F.; Roy, L.; Voisin, P.; Barquinero, J.F.; Livingston, G.; Blakey, D.; Hayata, I.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Ch.; Benett, L.M.; Littlefield, L.G.; Edwards, A.A.; Kleinerman, R.A.; Tucker, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 652, ?. 2 (2008), s. 112-121. ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SI/340/2/00; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Chromosome translocations * FISH * Background frequency Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.363, year: 2008

  20. SOCIOECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC HEALTH OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    MORALES, LEO S.; Lara, Marielena; KINGTON, RAYNARD S.; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; Escarce, José J.

    2002-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of t...

  1. Factors affecting haematological indices in free-living fish populations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, V?ra

    1998-01-01

    Ro?. 67, ?. 4 (1998), s. 249-255. ISSN 0001-7213. [International ichthyohaematology conference /5./. Protivín, 30.11.1998-03.12.1998] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA514/95/0203; GA AV ?R IAA6087704 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.288, year: 1998 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol67/249-98.htm

  2. Factors That Affect Body Mass Index of Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Esma Asil; Metin Saip Surucuoglu; Funda Pinar Cakiroglu; Asli Ucar; Ayse Ozfer Ozcelik; Mustafa Volkan Yilmaz; Lale Sariye Akan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the factors that contribute to the body mass index (BMI) of adults and evaluate the eating habits of the individuals. The study was conducted on 498 adults whose ages were ranging from 20 to 85 (39.1±14.9 year). The data were collected using a questionnaire form that consisted of questions concerning general characteristics of individuals, frequency of food consumption and eating habits. Food types in the food consumption ...

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin; Nurul Kabir, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that sal...

  4. Trends Analyses for Several Factors Affected by Tropical Cyclones

    OpenAIRE

    Md. T. Islam; Md. Z. Hossain; Masaaki Ishida

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study presents an analytical investigation for the trends of several factors such as number of death of peoples, damages of wealth, flood surge heights, wind speed and radius of the severe storm due to tropical cyclones in Bangladesh. Approach: The study is performed by conducting the field visits to cyclone site, collected data and information on damages and deaths of peoples during field visits, necessary data related to tropical cyclones obtained...

  5. Factors affecting the retention of nurses. A survival analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alonazi, Noufa A.; Omar, Maye A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and explore factors that mostly influence nurses’ turnover and retention, and to estimate the length of employment for nurses in the hospital. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study examining the standard Exit Questionnaires completed by all the female pediatric nurses who joined and left the hospital during the period between January 2006 and October 2010. The Developed Questionnaires where completed by nurses who were still employees in October 2010. The nur...

  6. Factors Affecting Investment Decision Making of Equity Fund Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Salman Ali; Rehman, Kashif Ur; Hunjra, Ahmed Imran

    2012-01-01

    Traditional theories of finance assume that investors use all available information and make rational investment decision but in reality the scenario is different. Based upon the growing importance of behavioral finance the present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of behavioral factors such as heuristics, risk aversion, use of financial tools and firm level corporate governance on the decision making of equity fund managers of Pakistan. The study collected response from 327 eq...

  7. STUDY ON FACTORS AFFECTING CUSTOMER CHOICE OF RETAIL BANKING IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIMLA VIRPARIA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to analyze the factors that affect the choice of customers inchoosing the retail banks by the customers. The study involves a survey of 150 bankcustomers using questionnaire as the research instrument. In the study, I have tried toidentify various factors and also analyze as to which of these factors exert the greatest,moderate, and relatively lower influence as choice criteria. factors that could beidentified, approximately in the order of their importance, are (1 Safety of Deposits (2Security of Environment (3 Cordiality of Staff (4 Accuracy (5 Product Packing (6General Service Quality (7 Size and strength (8 Advertisement and Publicity (9Friendship with Staff (10 Face lift (11 Proximity (12 Price and Service Charges (13Speed of Delivery (14 Peer Group Impression (15 General Group Impression as per theMean score technique. According to the findings, based on the empirical study, the threefactors exert the greatest influence, next six have moderate importance, and the rest sixhave relatively lower influence.

  8. Matrix factorizations, minimal models and Massey products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a method to compute the full non-linear deformations of matrix factorizations for ADE minimal models. This method is based on the calculation of higher products in the cohomology, called Massey products. The algorithm yields a polynomial ring whose vanishing relations encode the obstructions of the deformations of the D-branes characterized by these matrix factorizations. This coincides with the critical locus of the effective superpotential which can be computed by integrating these relations. Our results for the effective superpotential are in agreement with those obtained from solving the A-infinity relations. We point out a relation to the superpotentials of Kazama-Suzuki models. We will illustrate our findings by various examples, putting emphasis on the E6 minimal model

  9. Major factors influencing craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a research study whose objective was to determine the most influential factors adversely affecting craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction from the perspective of the tradesmen employed at the sites. Data were collected through the use of a questionnaire survey and group interview sessions, predominantly with workmen, at six nuclear power plant construction projects. Craftsmen were chosen as the major data base because of their awareness of how their time would actually be spent on the project. Topics considered include the factors influencing craft productivity, material availability, redoing work, crew interfacing, overcrowded work areas, instruction time, inspection delays, craft turnover, craft absenteeism, foreman changes, foreman incompetence, engineering design lead time, comprehensive scheduling of the design function, the responsibility of the utility, value engineering, plant standardization, the effective utilization of the planning and scheduling system, and the labor-management committee

  10. Factors affecting Myrica faya Aiton demography in the Azores

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Lui?s; Tavares, Joa?o

    1997-01-01

    Myrica faya (Myricaceae) is a small tree considered as an ibero-macaronesian endemic, a relic of the tethiano-tertiary flora. In the Azores M. faya stands are submitted to deforestation and to invasion by alien plants. In many stands density of Pittosporum undulatum, introduced from Australia, is higher than that of M. faya. In others, Hedychium gardneranum covers space between shrubs, impairing regeneration. Fruit production reaches 15x1000000 fruits/ha/year, and seed bank is ...

  11. Identifying factors affecting consumers purchase incidence at retail trade shows

    OpenAIRE

    Tafesse, Wondwesen; Korneliussen, Tor

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine variables influencing purchase incidences at retail trade shows. To this end, retailer and consumer related antecedent variables are proposed. The retailer related variables are represented by store environmental cues of sales staff services, store atmosphere and product assortment. The consumer related variables are represented by impulse buying tendency and perceived time pressure. Drawing on relevant literature, hypotheses are developed to link eac...

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TOLERANCE IN CROSSBRED CATTLE IN CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the adaptation traits in common crosses of crossbred dairy cattle in central Brazil. Twenty animals of each of three genetic groups were used: zebu (Bos indicus, Simmental x Zebu (SZ and Holstein x Zebu (HZ. The test measured variations in rectal temperature (RT, respiration rate (RR and heart rate (HR of animals in the shade and after exposure to the sun, as well as mean daily milk production throughout the lactation period. The procedure was repeated three times. There were significant interactions between test group and genetic group for the traits investigated and the correlations among traits were low. The RR of the crossbred groups may be controlling body temperature in such a way as not to cause an increase in RT. Milk production influenced RR in crossbred cows exposed to the sun, confirming their poorer adaptation in comparison with zebu cows. We observed that the adaptation can be measured in terms of production within the same genetic group. In conclusion, the crosses with European breeds produced more milk than zebu, although they were influenced by heat/solar radiation.

  13. Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

  14. Statistical Study on Principal Factors Affecting Employment of Chinese Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Meng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heavy employment pressure in china, the employment of the undergraduates attracts much attention in recent years. Accordingly, this study proposes a SPSS-based statistical method to study the employment issue, where thirteen parameters are carefully chosen to construct the employment database. The proposed method first performs the quantitative and the standardized operations and then calculates the correlated matrix of parameters. Moreover, after proving that the correlated matrix satisfies Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO condition, we perform eigenvalue decomposition and compute the variance contribution rate through Principal Component Analysis (PCA techniques. Both the eigenvalue and the variance contribution rate are used to study the importance of each parameter and finally lead to an importance sort. Therefore, we can quantificationally study the influence of each parameter thrown on the undergraduate employment and find three most important parameters affecting undergraduate employment: university, major and family location.

  15. Feasibility Analysis of Critical Factors Affecting Cloud Computing in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustace Manayi Dogo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an evolving and new way of delivering computing services and resources over the internet which are managed by third parties at remote sites. Cloud computing is based on existing technologies like web services, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA, web3.0, grid computing and virtualization, etc. Computing services includes data storage, processing and software. Cloud computing is enjoying a lot of buzz in Nigeria due to its perceived economic and operational benefits and stakeholders believe that it will transform the IT industry in Nigeria. Despite all its promises there still exist so many challenges before Cloud computing see the light of the day in Nigeria. This paper delivers an overview of Cloud computing together with its advantages and disadvantages. Thereafter, the challenges and drivers affecting the adoption of Cloud computing in Nigeria are outlined. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of Cloud computing is discussed with Nigeria as a case study.

  16. Factors affecting virus dynamics and microbial host-virus interactions in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Kristina D A; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2014-09-01

    Marine microorganisms constitute the largest percentage of living biomass and serve as the major driving force behind nutrient and energy cycles. While viruses only comprise a small percentage of this biomass (i.e., 5%), they dominate in numerical abundance and genetic diversity. Through host infection and mortality, viruses affect microbial population dynamics, community composition, genetic evolution, and biogeochemical cycling. However, the field of marine viral ecology is currently limited by a lack of data regarding how different environmental factors regulate virus dynamics and host-virus interactions. The goal of the present minireview was to contribute to the evolution of marine viral ecology, through the assimilation of available data regarding the manner and degree to which environmental factors affect viral decay and infectivity as well as influence latent period and production. Considering the ecological importance of viruses in the marine ecosystem and the increasing pressure from anthropogenic activity and global climate change on marine systems, a synthesis of existing information provides a timely framework for future research initiatives in viral ecology. PMID:24754794

  17. Factors affecting potential market penetration of laser fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mini-model has been constructed to estimate the optimal size of laser fusion power plants and to estimate the allowable cost of the first such plant in relation to the next best alternative. In estimating the costs of laser fusion, the mini-model incorporates such factors as market penetration, learning, economies of scale, system size, transmission costs, reserve requirements, development and licensing costs and site costs. The results of the mini-model simulations indicate that the optimal laser fusion plant size is approximately 3 GWe; risk considerations unincorporated in the mini-model suggest an optimal size closer to 2.5 GWe

  18. GENDER DIFFERENTIALS IN FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN LAGOS STATE – NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuff Olabisi Sherifat

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of empirical data segregation on factors affecting gender as the variable of interest. However, previous research had indicated several factors that affect business performances among small-scale enterprise owners. Using feminist theory and a descriptive survey research design, data were collected from fifty (50) small-scale enterprise owners that were purposively chosen across the study area. The findings show that the factors that were significant for female were significant...

  19. Factors affecting Succession Planning in Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Mutunga; Hazel Gachunga

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya. Specific objects of the study included establishing how nurturing and development is a factor influencing Succession Planning in Small and Medium EnterprisesThe study will be significant to the Small and Medium-scale Enterprises, and the government who will appreciate and understand the factors affecting Succession Planning of Small and Medium Enterprises. This will enable policy make...

  20. Chromatin factors affecting DNA repair in mammalian cell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are investigating chromatin factors that participate in the incision step of DNA repair in eukaryotic cells. Localization of repair activity within nuclei, the stability and extractability of activity, the specificity for recognizing damage in chromatin or purified DNA as substrates are of interest in this investigation of human cells, CHO cells, and their radiation sensitive mutants. We have developed procedures that provide nuclei in which their DNA behaves as a collection of circular molecules. The integrity of the DNA in human nuclei can be maintained during incubation in appropriate buffers for as long as 60 minutes. When cells or nuclei are exposed to uv light prior to incubation, incisions presumably associated with DNA repair can be demonstrated. Incision activity is stable to prior extraction of nuclei with 0.6 M NaCl, which removes many nonhistone proteins. Our studies are consistent with an hypothesis that factors responsible for initiating DNA repair are localized in the nuclear matrix. 18 references, 3 figures

  1. Factors affecting the selection of tour destination in Bangladesh:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shah Azam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Although multifaceted problems are causing the frustrating scenario of the country’s tourism sector, Bangladesh has the potentials to develop its tourism sector and earn huge foreign currency and generate employment opportunities like the neighboring countries, such as India, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Nepal who attract substantial number of tourists every year and thus generates huge amount of foreign currencies. The paper looks at different preferences of the tourist and examines the tour intention in selecting different tour destination. The study utilizes both exploratory and empirical research approach. The study collects data through interview with a structured self-administered questionnaire from 146 tourists, in utilizing convenient sampling technique. A multiple regression model was estimated to examine the effects of different factors on the tourists tour intention where nine factors related to different aspects of tourism such as service quality, natural beauty, known destination, convenient lodging, adventure, security, effective and efficient transportation, safe and quality food and shopping facility were used as indigenous variables where tour intention was used as exogenous variable of the model.  The regression result shows that Service quality, Natural Beauty, Security and Shopping Facility are statistically significant indicating 24.6% of the variation in explaining the intention to select a tour destination in Bangladesh. The study outlines some policy implications.

  2. Factors Affecting Detection Probability of Acoustic Tags in Coral Reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Bermudez, Edgar F.

    2012-05-01

    Acoustic telemetry is an important tool for studying the movement patterns, behaviour, and site fidelity of marine organisms; however, its application is challenged in coral reef environments where complex topography and intense environmental noise interferes with acoustic signals, and there has been less study. Therefore, it is particularly critical in coral reef telemetry studies to first conduct a long-term range test, a tool that provides informa- tion on the variability and periodicity of the transmitter detection range and the detection probability. A one-month range test of a coded telemetric system was conducted prior to a large-scale tagging project investigating the movement of approximately 400 fishes from 30 species on offshore coral reefs in the central Red Sea. During this range test we determined the effect of the following factors on transmitter detection efficiency: distance from receiver, time of day, depth, wind, current, moon-phase and temperature. The experiment showed that biological noise is likely to be responsible for a diel pattern of -on average- twice as many detections during the day as during the night. Biological noise appears to be the most important noise source in coral reefs overwhelming the effect of wind-driven noise, which is important in other studies. Detection probability is also heavily influenced by the location of the acoustic sensor within the reef structure. Understanding the effect of environmental factors on transmitter detection probability allowed us to design a more effective receiver array for the large-scale tagging study.

  3. The factors affecting mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Demirci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH occurs usually from the rupture of vessels into the brain parenchyma and accounts for approximately 10% of all strokes. ICH occurs more commonly in Turkey than in other western countries and carries a significantly high mortality than ischemic strokeMaterials and methods: We evaluated 86 consecutive patients with ICH who were admitted to Neurology Clinics of SDU University Medical Faculty. The factors studied were age, gender, risk factors, electrocardiography results, blood pressure, fever, blood cells, biochemistry, hematoma volume and localization, clinical findings, and demographic characteristics.Results: ICH is a 30-day mortality rate between approximately 50%, with half of the deaths occurring within 48 hour from the onset.Conclusion: It was found that age, site and volume of hematoma, initial level of consciousness and drainage of hematoma into the ventricular cavity have significant effects on the prognosis. The prognosis of ICH remains frequently poor despite the best medical management, control of vital functions and infections. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 404-407

  4. Risk factors affecting somatosensory function after sagittal split osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Torben Henrik; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate potential individual and intraoperative risk factors associated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) and to correlate the findings with postoperative changes in somatosensory function. Patients and Methods A total of 18 men and 29 women (mean age, 31 ± 10 years) scheduled for BSSO participated in 1 session before BSSO and 5 sessions after BSSO (at 2 and 14 days and 3, 6, and 12 months). At each session, subjective oral sensation was scored and quantitative sensory tests were performed. Results The results showed that complete exposure and free dissection of the inferior alveolar nerve during BSSO increased self-reported changes in lower lip sensation and lower lip tactile threshold after BSSO (P < .01). Long surgical movements reduced self-perceived jaw-opening function and impaired 2-point discrimination (P < .05). Significant correlations were noted between preoperative values for somatosensory function and changes in these variables after BSSO. Patients with low sensory thresholds before BSSO experienced more impairment than those patients with higher preoperative sensory thresholds. Conclusion These findings imply that somatosensory function after BSSO is dependent on both intraoperative risk factors and preoperative sensation levels.

  5. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention among UniSZA Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharah Ghazali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Graduates contributions to entrepreneurship would stimulate the country’s economic growth. The aim of this study is to determine and investigate factors influence on students’ perception of the entrepreneurial intention, in order to present the most contemporary future generation of entrepreneurs that can shape the future of the economy and the country. The area of this study covers demographic profiles, attitudinal and behavioral factors, and how these influence the intentions of students to become entrepreneurs. The finding suggests that the female students had significantly higher attitude and social skill and desire to succeed as compared to the male students. There was no significant difference with regards to race, age, parental working background, family and relative engaged in business, and heard about entrepreneurship ensuring that entrepreneurs are not clustered in any of these variables. Another major finding indicates that those who attended entrepreneurship course/training had significantly higher attitude and social skill. Most importantly, marketing skill, desire to success, leadership skill, and innovation and creativity inspire graduates in choosing entrepreneurship. Thus, examining the selected key unemployment of graduates’ issues from an entrepreneurship perspective can help to establish harmony and meaningful cooperation between entrepreneurs and learning institutions.

  6. Intangible Factors Affecting the Success of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Hee Song Ng

    2012-01-01

    Since SMEs play a vital role in the development of a nation, it is important to gain a better understanding of the success factors involved. Authors have categorized the factors that influence enterprises success into tangible and intangible factors. Quite a number of studies have therefore investigated the tangible factors and how they affect enterprises success. However, intangible factors have not been given considerable attention despite their importance in determining enterprise success....

  7. Factors Affecting the Adoption of the Organic Dried Fig Agriculture System in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ferruh Isin; Tayfun Cukur; Goksel Armagan

    2007-01-01

    In this study the factors affecting the adoption of organic dried fig agriculture in Turkey were investigated. These factors were divided into three groups, these being social, structural and intellectual factors. The effect of these factors was established using the probit analysis method. It was found that, of the social factors, the education status, age and fig-growing experience of producers were important parameters in the adoption of organic dried fig agriculture. Meanwhile, amon...

  8. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy after vitrectomy early factors affect IOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bo Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore possible causes of early postoperative elevated intraocular pressure caused by proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDRvitrectomy. METHODS:Totally 72 cases(100 eyeswhich have performed vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy were retrospectively analyzed to observe the incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension, and the relevant factors that caused postoperative high intraocular pressure were statistically analyzed. Early postoperative ocular hypertension diagnostic criteria: any time after 2 weeks of non-contact tonometer measured IOP> 25mmHg(1mmHg=0.133kPa. RESULTS:High intraocular pressure after vitrectomy occurred in 27 eyes(27%, the incidence of male and female were 27.27%, 26.79%, the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. Eyes filled with balanced liquid filling incidence rate of 30.95%, 6.25%, and the difference was statistically significant(P0.05. Incidences of intraoperative panretinal photocoagulation and additional retinal photocoagulation group were 41%, 20%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Preoperative retinopathy of four, five, six groups of incidence were 9.52%, 23.81%, 40.56%, and the groups were statistically significant(P<0.05. Unconsolidated preoperative retinal detachment and retinal detachment incidence rate of 19%, 41%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Surgery in the united lens resection with intraoperative unfederated lens the resection group's incidence rate of 34%, 15%, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that retinal detachment preoperative and intraoperative intraocular filling were independent risk factors that caused early postoperative ocular hypertension after vitrectomy. CONCLUSION:Post-operative ocular hypertension after PDR vitrectomy is related to preoperative retinal detachment, intraoperative lensectomy, intraoperative intraocular filling, and intraoperative panretinal photocoagulation. Retinal detachment preoperative and intraoperative intraocular filling are independent risk factors that caused early postoperative ocular hypertension after vitrectomy. Incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension after PDR vitrectomy is high, harmful. Early detection and individualized treatment can improve the success rate of vitrectomy and the patient's vision.

  9. A Psychological Factor Affecting a Cardiac Condition in a Psychotherapist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Waxman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that intense emotions can affect the development and course of cardiac arrhythmias. This study sought to convey that a lack of expression of emotion can also have an effect on arrhythmias. A psychotherapist with Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation and an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator measured his rate of Premature Ventricular Contractions using a Holter monitor during three separate six-week periods and in three domains: A work days vs. off days, B a 27 hour work week vs. 22 hour work week, and C in 5 different modalities including 1 Meeting with department head 2 Individual psychotherapy with patients 3 Group therapy with patients 4 Supervision of residents 5 Personal psychoanalysis. The results showed more than a 3-fold increase of arrhythmogenic activity during the 27-hour work week vs. 22 and a 5-fold increase in arrhythmogenic activity on work days compared to days off. Department Head meetings were found to be most arrhythmogenic and personal psychoanalysis was least. The data suggest that the psychiatrist’s lack of emotional expression in his clinical work has been demonstrated to markedly worsen his arrhythmia. The results also point to the potential ameliorating effects of the therapist’s own psychotherapy.

  10. Factors affecting aromatic VOC removal by electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been conducted to investigate the effects of dose, humidity, and temperature on the decomposition of representative volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by electron beam irradiation. For this study, toluene--a commonly used VOC in the various industrial coating processes, was selected as a representative VOC. The degradation characteristics under different concentrations and irradiation doses were extensively investigated to determine and improve VOC removal efficiencies. In general, this study illustrates that the removal efficiencies of aromatic VOCs increase as their concentrations decrease and the irradiation doses increase. Addition of water vapor and/or aerosol moisture into the reactor of a flow system results in 10-20% increase in VOC removal efficiencies compared to the experiments run without moisture added, presumably due to OH radical formation leading to additional degradation pathways. The level of decomposition was higher with the addition of water vapor compared to those observed with added aerosol moisture. The temperature variations from 30 deg. C to 130 deg. C did not significantly affect the decomposition rates of the toluene compound at 160 ppm C. However, there was a significant decrease in toluene decomposition rate at a higher temperature of 170 deg. C

  11. Importance Degree Evaluation of the Affecting Factors on Exhibition Security Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of exhibition security accidents is the result of the mutual coupling factors of "man-machine-environment-management". This study is going to elaborate 11 influencing factors of exhibition security accidents from four aspects, i.e., man, mechanical equipment, environment and management. With the help of grey relational analysis, this study evaluates the importance degree of the affecting factors in exhibitions. The result shows that affecting factors of facilities and equipments failure is of the greatest importance degree and site maintenance personnel, site design, building material quality are the secondary important factors; another important factors are safety management body, social environment, activity organization management, safety management system, natural environment and event participant behavior which are considered as the third important ones. Evaluation of the importance degree of affecting factors on exhibition security incidents will provide a theoretical basis for exhibition security control.

  12. Factors affecting pregnancy rates in infertile women performed abdominal myomectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali irfan Guzel

    2014-08-01

    Patients and Methods:This retrospective study included 76 infertile women underwent abdominal myomectomy. The cases were divided into two groups according to postoperative pregnancy (Group 1, n=22, and cases with no postoperative pregnancy (Group 2, n=54. Risk factors recorded were; age, parity, size of the fibroids, body mass index (BMI, tumor markers and serum blood values. Results:A total of 76 infertile women underwent abdominal myomectomy during the study period. Of all cases 22 (28.94 % became pregnant. There was statically significant difference between the groups in terms of age, BMI, diameter of the fibroids (p5 cm the treatment modality should be abdominal myomectomy to increase the chance of postoperative pregnancy. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 801-806

  13. ??????????????? The Research of Factors Affecting Consumer Channel Migration Behavior

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    ??

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????PPM???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The advent of network economy, make the consumer formed a trend of movement from offline to online channels. This paper uses PPM model in the theory of migration and analyzes the factors influencing consumers from offline to online from the characteristic of consumers and channel characteristics, the study found that there are the positive correlation between the push effects of offline, pull effects of online and the migration intention and effect of pulling more obvious, there are the negative relationship between mooring effects of channels and migration intentions, indicating that the mooring effects will impede movement be-tween the consumer channel. Accordingly, the paper brings up multi-channel enterprise’s marketing enlighten-ment and limitations of the study and the future research direction.

  14. A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the preceding report, we dealt with the field size and the tube voltage. This paper covers the differences in patient dose due to the focus to film distance (FFD), the patient thickness and whether the grid is used or not. Regarding the FFD, 100 cm is most commonly employed except in X-ray examinations of the chest, but from the viewpoint of the patient dose, this requires special consideration as to whether there is any theoretical basis for it. The patient thickness has a great bearing on the patient dose, but there is an individual difference, and it is almost impossible to change it artificially. However, there has been no detailed report on the relation between the patient thickness and the patient dose, therefore, this report treats of such relationship as well. Concerning the grid, consideration is given to the exposure times (Bucky factor). (author)

  15. Factors that affect voluntary vaccination of children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide

    2015-03-10

    Some important vaccinations are not included in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Japan. Voluntary vaccinations are usually paid as an out-of-pocket expense. Low voluntary vaccination coverage rates and high target disease incidence are assumed to be a consequence of voluntary vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with voluntary vaccination patterns in children. We conducted an online survey of 1243 mothers from a registered survey panel who had at least one child 2 months to Financial support, especially for low income households and households with more than one child, may motivate parents to vaccinate their children. Communication is also an important issue. More opportunities for education and information about voluntary vaccinations should be provided to mothers without distinguishing between voluntary and routine vaccination. PMID:25529291

  16. Factors Affecting Learning of Mexican Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan B. Anderson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los factores que afectan la tasa de repetición del año escolar en escuelas primarias en México, y sus resultados en la educación, medidos a través de las calificaciones de un examen estandarizado de gramática y matemáticas. Estimamos una función de producción econométrica para la educación primaria, donde las variables endógenas son los logros en gramática y matemáticas de un niño, y la probabilidad de que repitiera el año. Los resultados indican que el sexo del niño, su nivel socio-económico, el grado de educación de los padres, y reiteradas repeticiones de un año escolar, son determinantes significativas de las variables endógenas. Este trabajo también muestra que un aumento en el número de horas de enseñanza, y en la interacción entre maestra y alumno, junto con mejores bibliotecas e infraestructura elevan las calificaciones en gramática y matemáticas de los niños. Se discuten brevemente las implicaciones de este trabajo para la política educativa

  17. An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Huck’s Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Sang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Huckleberry Finn is one of Mark Twain’s outstanding masterpieces. Superficially, it tells a story about a 13 or 14 year old boy’s adventures with Negro Jim on the Mississippi river. In fact, it reflects the growth process of Huck through adventures. His growth is embodied by his choice on independence, his change of attitude towards Jim, his moral growth, and the different social roles he plays. Huck’s growth is influenced by the inner and outer factors. On the one hand, friendship, nature and society make up the outer environment for Huck’s growth. They have great effect on the development of his growth. On the other hand, his own instinct and his sound heart finally decide the direction of his growth.

  18. Factors affecting the academic progression of associate degree graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkvold, Julia; Tanner, Christine A; Herinckx, Heidi

    2012-04-01

    The Oregon Consortium for Nursing Education (OCNE) is a coalition of community colleges and the campuses of the Oregon Health & Sciences University (OHSU), created to share a competency-based curriculum by which associate degree graduates from an OCNE campus are eligible to complete requirements for the bachelor's degree after 1 year of additional full-time study. Since 2006, three graduating classes from consortium community college programs have graduated 760 students eligible for direct transfer to OHSU; however, only 228 (30%) have actually transferred. This study aimed to explore the factors that influenced the 208 graduates in the class of 2010 not to transfer. The primary reasons for discontinuing their nursing education, in ranked order, were financial concerns, conflict with time and energy for work, and conflict with time and energy for family. This study has implications for achieving the academic progression goals recommended in the Institute of Medicine's The Future of Nursing report. PMID:22356360

  19. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

    2014-01-15

    Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

  20. Influence of paragenetic factors on production and chemical composition of Paška sheep milk

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Samaržija; Boro Mio?; Neven Antunac; Marija Pecina; Darija Bendelja; Zdravko Bara?

    2011-01-01

    Since the produced Paška sheep milk is entirely processed in Pag cheese, it is of great importance to ensure a uniform milk production of prescribed chemical composition and hygienic quality. In addition to genotype, as the most important factor, the production and quality of sheep milk is affected by numerous physiological factors, so the aim of this research was to determine the influence of paragenetic factors (stage and number of lactation) on daily milk yield and chemical composition (t...

  1. Factors affecting the shape of the lactation curve in Reggiana cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Franceschi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Reggiana is a local breed of cattle, reared in Northern Italy, with a low population size (916 milk recorded cows during 2001. The breed is appreciated because of milk composition characteristics for transformation, particularly for colloidal Ca and P content, rheological properties and k-CASB gene frequency (Mariani et al., 1998.Mean productive levels are 5401 kg milk, 3.51% fat, 3.38% protein (AIA, 2001. The breed is selected mainly for protein yield (kg, but literature about lactation curve is not available. Objectives of the research are to describe the lactation curve of Reggiana cattle by applying the Wood model and to evaluate some factors affecting its shape.

  2. Factors affecting success of embryo collection and transfer in large dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebel, R C; Demétrio, D G B; Metzger, J

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate factors that affected the success of embryo transfer programs in large dairy herds. Non-lactating donor cows produced a larger number of ova/embryos (Pmilk yield and response to superstimulation. Although the interval between superstimulation protocols was correlated with the number of ova/embryos (P=0.03), there was no correlation with the number of viable embryos. Pregnancy per embryo transfer (P/ET) in heifer recipients was correlated with embryo quality grade (PMilk yield was not correlated with P/ET. The use of heat abatement systems is critical to improve embryo production and P/ET. Synchronization protocols that optimized synchrony of ovulation may increase fertility of recipient cows and eliminate the need for estrous detection. PMID:18023856

  3. A review of the factors affecting the costs of bovine mastitis : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Buneski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent production diseases affecting the dairy cattle industry worldwide. Its occurrence is associated with direct and indirect losses and expenditures. When estimating the cost of mastitis to the dairy industry the cost of the control programmes must be added. The direct losses of mastitis are the only costs obvious to the farmer. The difference between the costs of mastitis on one side and the benefits of mastitis control on the other side will give us a picture of the economic efficacy of the mastitis control programme. Continuing education of the farmer is needed for better mastitis control programmes. This article is an attempt to review briefly all relevant factors included in the economics of bovine mastitis and to illustrate the authors' view of some of the costs.

  4. Determine the Factors that Affect the Enrichment Process of High Bioactive Substance from Pangasius Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Tien Luc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to isolate the fatty acid from pangasius fish oil by hydrolysis method and determine the factors that affect the enrichment of the high bioactive chemical elements such as Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA which are two polyunsaturated fatty acids in Omega-3 group by urea complexation process. At the same time, the optimization determined the relationship between mathematics and technology to choose the best technological solution. The recovery efficiency of fish oil reached maximum value at the urea-to-fatty acid ratio of 3.2, complexation time of 16 hours and complexation temperature of -10.6°C. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment ratio of DHA and EPA also reached maximum value of 75.5 and 78.9% in order to enhance the value of pangasius oil raw material and significantly improve the quality of final product.

  5. FACTORES QUE AFECTAN LA CALIDAD SEMINAL EN TOROSFACTORS AFFECTING SEMINAL QUALITY IN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano Marquez Harvey

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available La calidad seminal de los toros se puede ver afectada por múltiples causas tanto de origen infeccioso o no infeccioso. El entendimiento adecuado de estas causas es de gran importancia ya que de este modo se pueden tomar los correctivos necesarios ya sea para tratar al toro, o en otros casos para descartarlo del sistema productivo del cual haga parte. No se debe olvidar como la presencia física del toro se puede dar a partir de un banco de germoplasma (semen congelado, el cual puede tener problemas de calidad no inherentes al proceso de criopreservación sino a factores infecciosos o no infecciosos previos a la congelación. Los problemas de calidad seminal se verán reflejados en los diferentes parámetros reproductivos del sistema productivo, lo que a su véz será de gran relevancia al hacer un balance de pérdidas y ganancias de una ganadería tanto de ganado de carne como de leche.Semen quality of bulls can be affected by multiple causes, both infectious and non infectious. Proper understanding of these causes is imperative, either to take the necessary correctives to treat the bull or to discard it from the productive system. It is important not to forget that the physical presence of the bull can be from a germoplasm bank (frozen semen which can have quality problems not related to the cryopreservation procedure but to infectious or not infectious factors before freezing. Seminal quality problems will be reflected on different reproductive parameters of the productive system and these will be highly relevant when estimating earnings and losses of the productive system, both for beef or milk production.

  6. Case Study of Factors Affecting Chinese Students’ English Communication Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping LIU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available For ESL teaching in China’s universities, not enough emphasis is put on verbal communication as a yardstick of language mastery and methodological success. Developing student’s communication competence is not only concerned with the nature of language learning from linguistic perspectives, but also could be influenced by such exogenous factors as learning environment, learning psychology, and learning strategies. It is necessary to investigate whether these factors have an impact on Chinese university students’ English communication performance. This paper tries to examine the relationships among social needs, system inefficiencies, learning objectives, learning strategies, and effort, according to a constructed model. The model’s hypotheses are drawn from theories as diverse as person-environment (PE fit (Caplan, 1987, intrinsic motivation (Ryan and Deci, 2000, conceptions about learning approach (Entwistle, 1990, and “learning strategy” (Biggs, Kember, & Leung, 2001. The sample was collected from one of the Chinese universities in Southeast for a case study to shed light on how to improve English teaching and learning in TESL of China. The quantitative research method is used with SPSS system in this essay to report the statistical analyses of the model. Among the eight hypotheses tested, six were confirmed to be true, and two could not be validated.
    Key words: communication performance; 5-factor model; person-environment (PE fit; intrinsic motivation; learning strategies

    Résumé: Dans les universités chinoises où l’anglais est enseigné comme la deuxième langue, l'accent n'est pas suffisamment mis sur la communication verbale en tant qu’un critère de maîtrise de la langue et du succès méthodologique. Le développement de la compétence communicative des élèves n'est pas seulement concerné par la nature de l'apprentissage des langues du point de vue linguistique, mais pourrait aussi être influencé par des facteurs exogènes comme l'environnement d'apprentissage, la psychologie de l'apprentissage et les stratégies d'apprentissage. Il est nécessaire d'examiner si ces facteurs ont une influence sur la performance de communication en anglais des étudiants chinois. Le présent document tente d'étudier les relations entre les besoins sociaux, l'inefficacité du système, les objectifs d'apprentissage, les stratégies d'apprentissage et des efforts, selon un modèle construit. L’hypothèse du modèle vient de diverses théories, telles que la théorie de l’adaptation peronne-environnement-(PE (Caplan, 1987, la motivation intrinsèque (Ryan et Deci, 2000, les conceptions sur l''approche de l’apprentissage ( Entwistle, 1990, et les stratégies d'apprentissage (Biggs, Kember, & Leung, 2001. Les sujets d’études viennent de l'une des universités chinoises situées dans le Sud-est pour montrer la façon d'améliorer l'enseignement et l'apprentissage de l'anglais en tant que la deuxième langue en Chine. La méthode de recherche quantitative est utilisée avec le système de SPSS dans cet essai pour montrer des analyses statistiques du modèle. Parmi les huit hypothèses testées, six ont été confirmées d’être vraies et deux n'ont pas pu être validées.
    Mots-Clés: performance de communication; modèle de 5-facteurs; le modèle de l’adaptation personne-environment(PE; motivation intrinsèque; stratégies d’apprentissage

  7. Factors Affecting Purchase Intention of Organic Food in Malaysia’s Kedah State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rizaimy Shaharudin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the discoveries on the factors affecting purchase intention of organic food in Malaysia. Nowadays, in today’s modern world a new consumer lifestyle has emerged especially in the attitude of consuming organic food. This phenomenon has occurred because people are beginning to be aware of the importance of consuming healthy food in their daily lives. A natural, clean and good healthy food is important as there are a lot of ordinary foods that are mostly prepared with the use of unsafe additives, preservatives, flavor and coloring. The research aims to identify factors such as health consciousness, perceived value, food safety concern and religious factors and its impact towards the customer purchase intention. The findings of the study indicated that out of four factors, only perceived value and health consciousness influenced the customer purchase intention. However, food safety concern and religious factors were found to have less impact on customer purchase intention. People perceived that organic food has more nutritional value because the breeding and growth of organic food such as chicken is being done naturally without involving the use of any hormones and chemical. Furthermore, health consciousness factors are now becoming the national issues to combat the increasing obesities that are known to bring of diabetes and hypertension among people. Through the national and NGO’s campaigns, people start to be aware of their responsibility to ensure good health and protect themselves from those diseases by taking healthy food and appropriate diet in their daily lives. The result has shown some differences with the previous literature where all factors (health consciousness, perceived value, food safety concern and religious were found to have significant impact towards the customers’ satisfaction. Future research should focus on a similar study of factors affecting customer purchase intention towards organic food products with the extended scope to all states in Malaysia. Additional variables such as freshness, presentation, taste and innovativeness of organic food products can be further examined to increase the accuracies and effectiveness of the study findings. Key words: Organic Food; Health Consciousness; Perceived Value; Food Safety; ReligiousRésumé: Cette étude porte sur les découvertes sur les facteurs affectant l'intention d'achat d'aliments biologiques en Malaisie. Aujourd'hui, dans le monde moderne, un nouveau mode de vie des consommateurs a émergé en particulier dans l'attitude de consommation d'aliments biologiques. Ce phénomène se produit parce que les gens commencent à être conscients de l'importance de consommer des aliments sains dans leur vie quotidienne. Par rapport à une alimentation saine, les aliments ordinaires sont le plus souvent préparés avec des additifs dangereux, des conservateurs, des arômes et des colorants. La recherche vise à identifier les facteurs, tels que la conscience de la santé, la valeur perçue, la préoccupation de sécurité alimentaire et les facteurs religieux et leur impact sur l'intention d'achat des consommateurs. Les résultats de l'étude ont indiqué que parmi ces quatre facteurs, seulement la valeur perçue et la conscience de la santé ont influencé l'intention d'achat des consommateurs. Toutefois, la préoccupation de sécurité alimentaire et les facteurs religieux ont été trouvés d'avoir moins d'impact sur l'intention d'achat des consommateurs. Les gens se sont rendus compte que les aliments biologiques ont plus de valeur nutritionnelle, parce que la reproduction et la croissance des produits biologiques tel que le poulet se font naturellement sans impliquer l'utilisation de hormones et de produits chimiques. En outre, les facteurs de conscience de la santé sont en train de devenir un sujet national de lutter contre l'augmentation de l'obésité qui peut produire le diabète et l'hypertension chez les gens. Grâce aux campagnes nationales et aux celles des ONG, les gens commencent à être conscients d

  8. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  9. Environmental factors affecting starch encapsulated herbicide rates of release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch-encapsulation (SE) is an experimental control release technology designed to extend the period of time over which a herbicide is released into the soil environment. The objectives of controlled release are to improve efficacy and reduce negative environmental impacts. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to evaluate how environmental factors influence the release rate of SE-atrazine and SE-alachlor. Decreasing water availability, significantly reduced swelling and subsequent rates-of-release for both herbicides. As starch granules imbibe water they swell, allowing the herbicide to diffuse more readily out of the granule. Decreasing temperature also resulted in decreased rates of herbicide release. Soil microbial activity increased rates-of-release for both herbicides, likely the result of enzymatic breakdown of the starch matrix. The enhanced release of alachlor relative to atrazine under varied environmental conditions was attributed to alachlor's greater solubility in water. Although the SE-formulations are experimental, modification of herbicide behavior was observed that could reduce negative environmental impacts. 20 refs, 9 figs

  10. Substrate stiffness together with soluble factors affects chondrocyte mechanoresponses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Xie, Jing; Deng, Linhong; Yang, Liu

    2014-09-24

    Tissue cells sense and respond to differences in substrate stiffness. In chondrocytes, it has been shown that substrate stiffness regulates cell spreading, proliferation, chondrogenic gene expression, and TGF-? signaling. But how the substrate stiffness together with soluble factors influences the mechanical properties of chondrocyte is still unclear. In this study, we cultured goat articular chondrocytes on polyacrylamide gels of 1, 11, and 90 kPa (Young's modulus), and measured cellular stiffness, traction force, and response to stretch in the presence of TGF-?1 or IL-1?. We found that TGF-?1 increased cellular stiffness and traction force and enhanced the response to stretch, while IL-1? increased cellular stiffness, but lowered traction force and weakened the response to stretch. Importantly, the effects of TGF-?1 on chondrocyte mechanics were potent in cells cultured on 90 kPa substrates, while the effects of IL-1? were potent on 1 kPa substrates. We also demonstrated that such changes of chondrocyte mechanoresponse were due to not only the changes of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion, but also the alteration of chondrocyte extracellular matrix synthesis. Taken together, these results provide insights into how chondrocytes integrate physical and biochemical cues to regulate their biomechanical behavior, and thus have implications for the design of optimized mechanical and biochemical microenvironments for engineered cartilage. PMID:25162787

  11. Factors affecting urinary calculi treatment by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarawneh Emad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL is still the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteric stones; however the outcome depends on multiple factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stone density, as measured by Hounsfield Units (H.U by non-contrast Computerized Tomography (CT, stone size and stone location on ESWL treatment outcome of urinary calculi in Jordanian patients. 65 patients underwent clinical, biochemical and radiological assessments followed by ESWL treatment. Statistical analyses including chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, correlation, regression were performed for statistical significance between ESWL treatment, stone fragmentation and stone density, size and location in the renal pelvis. ESWL success rate was high (94% for low density stones (< 500 Hounsfield units. In general CT densities of 750 Hounsfield units or less were almost always successfully treated by ESWL. An inverse association between ESWL treatment outcome and stone size was also documented. CT stone density and stone size combined account for nearly 73% of the variation in the number of shock waves required to attain fragmentation. Stones located in lower calyceal area had less success rates. In conclusion, stones with higher density, large size and lower location may better be managed by percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  12. Risk factors affecting the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-neoplasia sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig S; Ujiki, Michael B

    2015-05-16

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma has the fastest growing incidence rate of any cancer in the United States, and currently carries a very poor prognosis with 5 years relative survival rates of less than 15%. Current curative treatment options are limited to esophagectomy, a procedure that suffers from high complication rates and high mortality rates. Metaplasia of the esophageal epithelium, a condition known as Barrett's esophagus (BE), is widely accepted as the precursor lesion for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Recently, radio-frequency ablation has been shown to be an effective method to treat BE, although there is disagreement as to whether radio-frequency ablation should be used to treat all patients with BE or whether treatment should be reserved for those at high risk for progressing to esophageal adenocarcinoma while continuing to endoscopically survey those with low risk. Recent research has been targeted towards identifying those at greater risk for progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma so that radio-frequency ablation therapy can be used in a more targeted manner, decreasing the total health care cost as well as improving patient outcomes. This review discusses the current state of the literature regarding risk factors for progression from BE through dysplasia to esophageal adenocarcinoma, as well as the current need for an integrated scoring tool or risk stratification system capable of differentiating those patients at highest risk of progression in order to target these endoluminal therapies. PMID:25992184

  13. Trends Analyses for Several Factors Affected by Tropical Cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. T. Islam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents an analytical investigation for the trends of several factors such as number of death of peoples, damages of wealth, flood surge heights, wind speed and radius of the severe storm due to tropical cyclones in Bangladesh. Approach: The study is performed by conducting the field visits to cyclone site, collected data and information on damages and deaths of peoples during field visits, necessary data related to tropical cyclones obtained from available publications and news-study. The data since the period of the independence of Bangladesh (nearly 40 years are analyzed. Results: The analyses showed that the 17 major cyclones have been occurred since 1970. Among these 17 major cyclones, the 5 cyclones were tragically severe that killed over 400 thousand peoples. It is observed that the coast of the Bay of Bengal is particularly vulnerable to tropical cyclones. It is revealed that Bangladesh is more vulnerable to devastating cyclones in the recent years because the frequency of the severe cyclones has increased remarkably. Conclusion/Recommendation: The return period of the major cyclones was decreased drastically in recent years and the country, especially, the Bengal Bay is predominantly helpless during the cyclone seasons.

  14. Factors affecting the regulation of pacing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauger AR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexis R Mauger Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Kent, Chatham, UK Abstract: During prolonged dynamic and rhythmic exercise, muscular pain and discomfort arises as a result of an increased concentration of deleterious metabolites. Sensed by peripheral nociceptors and transmitted via afferent feedback to the brain, this provides important information regarding the physiological state of the muscle. These sensations ultimately contribute to what is termed "exercise-induced pain". Despite being well recognized by athletes and coaches, and suggested to be integral to exercise performance, this construct has largely escaped attention in experimental work. This perspective article highlights the current understanding of pacing in endurance performance, and the causes of exercise-induced pain. A new perspective is described, which proposes how exercise-induced pain may be a contributing factor in helping individuals to regulate their work rate during exercise and thus provides an important construct in pacing. Keywords: pain, exercise-induced pain, discomfort, exercise performance, self-paced

  15. Phenotypic factors affecting coagulation properties of milk from Sarda ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzola, M; Dettori, M L; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G; Vacca, G M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, milk-coagulation properties (MCP) were characterized in the Sarda sheep breed. Milk composition and MCP [rennet-coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time [time to reach a curd firmness of 20mm (k20)], and curd firmness (a30), (a45), and (a60)] were obtained extending the lactodynamographic analysis from 30 to 60 min from a population of 1,121 ewes from 23 different farms. Managerial characteristics of farms and parity, individual daily milk yields and stage of lactation of ewes were recorded. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model procedure with fixed effects of days in milk, parity, daily milk yield, and flock size and the random effect of the flock/test day nested within flock size. Sampled farms were classified as small (600 ewes), often operated through hired workers. Daily milk yield was, on average, 1.58 ± 0.79 L/d and variability for this trait was very high. The average content of fat, protein, and casein was respectively 6.41, 5.39, and 4.20%. The class of flock size had a significant effect only on curd firmness, whereas days in milk affected RCT and k20. The flock test day, parity, and daily milk yield were important sources of variation for all MCP. The mean value of RCT (8.6 min) and the low occurrence of noncoagulating samples (0.44%) confirmed the excellent coagulation ability of sheep milk compared with cattle milk. A more rapid coagulation was observed in mid-lactating, primiparous, and high-yielding ewes. The k20 was usually reached in less than 2 min after gelation, with the most favorable values at mid lactation. The mean value of curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition (a30) was, on average, 50mm and decreased to 46 and 42 mm respectively after 45 (a45) and 60 min (a60). The decreasing value of curd-firmness traits was likely to be caused by curd syneresis and whey expulsion. The correlation between RCT and a30 was much lower than in dairy cows and about null for a45 and a60. This means that curd firmness in dairy ewes is almost independent of gelation time and this can provide specific information for this species. In conclusion, this study showed that milk from Sarda sheep is characterized by an earlier gelation, a faster increase in curd firmness with time, and greater curd firmness after 30 min compared with dairy cows. Furthermore, correlations between MCP in sheep are much lower than in bovines and some of the assumptions and interpretations related to cows cannot be applied to sheep. PMID:25151884

  16. A cross-sectional study of factors affecting seasonality in bipolar disorder

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P K, Mittal; S, Mehta; R K, Solanki; M K, Swami; P S, Meena.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Researchers have evinced interest in the effect of seasonal variations on mood and behavioural patterns in affective disorders. OBJECTIVE: To study seasonality in bipolar disorder (BD) patients and also the factors affecting this seasonality. METHOD: Forty-nine patients with BD in euthym [...] ic phase were recruited and analysed using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire and Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. RESULTS: Most of the patients were morning types but chronotype had no influence on seasonality. Age of patient and number of episodes were the most important factors affecting seasonality in BD. CONCLUSION: Seasonality and its influencing factors must be considered while managing bipolar disorder.

  17. Factors affecting the levels of hydrogen peroxide in rainwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and several meteorological and chemical parameters were made for 34 rain events which occurred in Miami, Florida between April, 1995 and October, 1996. The measured H2O2 concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 38.6 ?M with an average concentration of 6.9 ?M. A strong seasonal dependence for H2O2 concentrations was observed during this period, with highest concentrations in the summer and lower levels in the winter, which corresponds to the stronger solar radiation and higher vaporization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the summer and fall, and the weaker sunlight and lower vaporization in the winter and spring. Measurements also showed a significant increase trend of H2O2 with increasing ambient rainwater temperature. Rains that were out from lower latitude were exposed to higher solar irradiation and contained relatively higher levels of H2O2 than those from the north. All these observations indicate that photochemical reactions that involved volatile organic compounds are the predominant source of H2O2 observed in rainwater. During several individual rainstorms, H2O2 concentration was found to increase as a function of time due to electrical storm activities. This finding suggests that lightning could be an important factor that determines the level of H2 during thunderstorms. Statistical data showed that the highest concentrations of H2O2 were observed only in rains containing low levels of nonsea-salt sulfate (NSS), nitrate and hydrogen ion. H2O2 concentrations in continental originated rains were much lower than marine originated ones, indicating that air pollutants in continental rains could significantly deplete the H2O2 concentration in atmospheric gas-phase, clouds and rainwater. (author)

  18. Factors affecting insulin adherence to type I glass bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some physicochemical factors that could account for insulin adherence to type I glass bottles from admixtures of insulin with 5% dextrose (D5W) and 0.9% sodium chloride (NS) injections were studied. Samples of three volumes of NS or D5W containing insulin 125I were mixed in three sizes of bottles to test the effect of surface area and volume. Appropriate volumes of insulin were combined with insulin 125I and D5W or NS to yield solutions containing nine concentrations of insulin to test the effect of insulin concentration. Appropriate volumes of KCl injection to yield six concentrations were combined with insulin 125I and NS or D5W to test the effect of KCl concentration. All samples were assayed by gamma scintillation. In general, there was a direct relationship between the percentage of insulin adhering and the container surface area. In D5W admixtures, as the fill volume at constant insulin 125I concentration was doubled and quadrupled, the adherence of insulin decreased in all three bottle sizes (200, 250, and 500 ml). In NS admixtures, however, this effect was seen only with the 250-ml bottle. Increasing insulin concentrations over the range of 50-300 units/liter in D5W and 0-50 units/liter in NS resulted in decreased adherence. The addition of 1-60 meq/liter of KCl resulted in a significant decrease of insulin adhering from D5W and an insignificant decrease from NS admixtures. The percentage of insulin adhering to type he percentage of insulin adhering to type I glass surfaces may be reduced to 25% or less by preparing i.v. admixtures in full bottles of D5W or NS at insulin concentrations of 25 to 300 units/liter. The addition of KCl, when therapeutically appropriate, will further decrease the extent of insulin adherence

  19. Innovation Barriers and Enablers that Affect Productivity in Uganda Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe, , and

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has of recent been blamed for lack of innovation. Lack of innovation in the industry is believed to be responsible for the decreasing or stagnant levels of productivity in comparison with other industries. This paper reviews the major barriers and enablers to innovation in general. Propositions were made about the factors that affect innovation in the construction industry which were then formulated into a questionnaire. A survey was made on building contractors in Uganda, a developing country, targeting those with financial strength, large in size, and with high capacity to carry out big projects. The identified factors were then ranked and correlated. The level of training in science, engineering and technical education, and the level of research and development at the industry level are looked at as the greatest innovation enablers in building that will drive forward labour productivity. The size of the domestic market and the level of security are the worst innovation barriers that lead to low productivity in the building industry in Uganda. Contractors, policy makers and the government should address the identified factors in order to improve productivity.

  20. Factors affecting farmers’ decisions on utilization of rice straw compost in Northeastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poungchompu Supaporn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is used in Northeastern Thailand as an alternative to organic fertilizer for crop production. This enables farmers to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers which leads to a decrease in production costs. In spite of the beneficial effects in agricultural production, rice straw compost cannot be produced in large amounts because the burning of rice straws is a common farming practice. The decisions of farmers who use rice straw compost have been investigated by interviewing 120 households belonging to the members of an organic fertilizer user group using a household questionnaire. The study was conducted to evaluate the factors that affect the use of rice straw compost in Khon Kaen Province in Northeastern Thailand. Results of the logit model showed that the farmers’ education, number of rice straw compost trainings in which the farmer participated, lack of knowledge about technology, insufficient labour and difficulty in making rice straw compost had a significant impact on the farmer’s decision to use rice straw compost. Difficulty in making rice straw compost appeared to be the root cause because the procedure of making rice straw compost is complex and labour intensive. Repeated trainings thus, will have a positive and significant influence on farmers’ adoption of the technology. Training provides more knowledge and will presumably change the perception of the farmers towards new technologies and the awareness of positive effects of rice straw compost utilization.

  1. Factors Affecting the Choice of Marketing Channel by Vegetable Farmers in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongiwe G Xaba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables as a group of horticultural crops are important for their contribution as an income support to a large proportion of the rural households. However, enhancing vegetable farmers to reach markets and actively engage in the markets is a key challenge influencing vegetable production in Swaziland. The perishable nature of vegetables necessitates effective marketing channels. The aim of this paper was to investigate factors affecting farmers’ choice of marketing channels using survey data gathered during the 2011 production season. Data were collected from 100 randomly selected vegetable farmers. Descriptive and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used. The results indicated that age of the farmer, quantity of baby corn produced and level of education were significant predictors of the choice to sell vegetables to NAMBoard market channel instead of selling to other-wholesale market channel. The age of the farmer, distance from production area to market, membership in farmer organization and marketing agreement were significant determinants of the choice to use non-wholesale market channel over other-wholesale market channel. It is therefore important to promote collective action as an institutional vehicle for linking farmers to agribusiness supply chains. Farmers should establish networks since they aid in sharing knowledge, farmers can improve produce grades as required by market.

  2. Case Factors Affecting Hearing Aid Recommendations by Hearing Care Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gioia, Carmine; Ben-Akiva, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Professional recommendations to patients concerning hearing instrument (HI) technology levels are not currently evidence-based. Pre-fitting parameters have not been proven to be the primary indicators for optimal patient outcome with different HI technology levels. This results in subjective decision-making as regards the technology level recommendation made by professionals. Purpose: The objective of this study is to gain insight into the decision-making criteria utilized by professionals when recommending HI technology levels to hearing-impaired patients. Research design: A set of patient variables (and their respective levels) was identified by professionals as determinant for their recommendation of HIs. An experimental design was developed and 21 representative patient cases were generated. The design was based on a contrastive vignette technique according to which different types of vignettes (patient cases) were randomly presented to respondents in an online survey. Based on these patientcases, professionals were asked in the survey to make a treatment recommendation. Study sample: The online survey was sent to approximately 3,500 professionals from the US, Germany, France, and Italy. The professionals were randomly selected from the databases of Oticon sales companies. The manufacturer sponsoring the survey remained anonymous and was only revealed after completing the survey, if requested by the respondent. The response rate was 20.5%. Data collection and analysis: Data comprised of respondent descriptions and patient case recommendations that were collected from the online survey. A binary logit modeling approach was used to identify the variables that discriminate between the respondents' recommendations of HI technology levels. RESULTS: The results show that HI technology levels are recommended by professionals based on their perception of the patient's activity level in life, the level of HI usage for experienced users, their age, and their speech discrimination score. Surprisingly, the patient's lifestyle as perceived by the hearing care professional, followed by speech discrimination, were the strongest factors in explaining treatment recommendation. An active patient with poor speech discrimination had a 17% chance of being recommended the highest technology level HI. For a very active patient with good speech discrimination, the probability increases to 68%. Conclusions: The discrepancies in HI technology level recommendations are not justified by academic research or evidence of optimal patient outcome with a different HI technology level. The paradigm of lifestyle as the significant variable identified in this study is apparently deeply anchored in the mindset of the professional despite the lack of supporting evidence. These results call for a shift in the professional's technology level recommendation practice, from nonevidence-based to a proven practice that can maximize patient outcome.

  3. Factors affecting calcium oxalate dihydrate fragmented calculi regrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchis P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL to treat calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD renal calculi gives excellent fragmentation results. However, the retention of post-ESWL fragments within the kidney remains an important health problem. This study examined the effect of various urinary conditions and crystallization inhibitors on the regrowth of spontaneously-passed post-ESWL COD calculi fragments. Methods Post-ESWL COD calculi fragments were incubated in chambers containing synthetic urine varying in pH and calcium concentration: pH = 5.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM, pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM, pH = 6.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM or pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM. Fragment growth was evaluated by measuring increases in weight. Fragment growth was standardized by calculating the relative mass increase. Results Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals formed on COD renal calculi fragments under all conditions. Under pH = 5.5 normocalciuria conditions, only COM crystals formed (growth rate = 0.22 ± 0.04 ?g/mg·h. Under pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria and under pH = 6.5 normocalciuria conditions, COM crystals and a small number of new COD crystals formed (growth rate = 0.32 ± 0.03 ?g/mg·h and 0.35 ± 0.05 ?g/mg·h, respectively. Under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions, large amounts of COD, COM, hydroxyapatite and brushite crystals formed (growth rate = 3.87 ± 0. 34 ?g/mg·h. A study of three crystallization inhibitors demonstrated that phytate completely inhibited fragment growth (2.27 ?M at pH = 5.5 and 4.55 ?M at pH = 6.5, both under hypercalciuria conditions, while 69.0 ?M pyrophosphate caused an 87% reduction in mass under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. In contrast, 5.29 mM citrate did not inhibit fragment mass increase under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. Conclusion The growth rate of COD calculi fragments under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions was approximately ten times that observed under the other three conditions. This observation suggests COD calculi residual fragments in the kidneys together with hypercalciuria and high urinary pH values may be a risk factor for stone growth. The study also showed the effectiveness of specific crystallization inhibitors in slowing calculi fragment growth.

  4. Factors Affecting Availability of Essential Medicines among Community Health Workers in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda: Solving the Last Mile Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Chandani, Yasmin; Noel, Megan; Pomeroy, Amanda; Andersson, Sarah; Pahl, Michelle K.; Williams, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    To understand how supply chain factors affect product availability at the community level, the Improving Supply Chains for Community Case Management of Pneumonia and Other Common Diseases of Childhood Project developed a theory of change (TOC) framework for gathering, organizing, and interpreting evidence about supply constraints to community case management (CCM). Baseline assessments in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda conducted in 2010 provided information on the strengths and weaknesses of ex...

  5. The multiple factors affecting the association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; McFadden, J P

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis are both common skin diseases having an immune pathogenesis. There has been considerable interest about their inter-relationships with regard to altered susceptibility. Recent investigations have shed new light on this important question, and in this article, we explore whether there is evidence that atopic dermatitis affects the risk of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. The use of topical products to treat xerotic and inflamed skin in atopic dermatitis often results in a higher prevalence of sensitization to, for example, fragrances and other ingredients in emollients. Moreover, the prevalence of metal allergy seems to be increased, probably due to compromised chelation of the metals in the stratum corneum of patients with atopic dermatitis. However, conversely, the T-helper cell 2 bias that characterizes immune responses in atopic dermatitis appears to lower the risk of contact sensitization compared to healthy controls. Based on these observations, we conclude that multiple factors affect the association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization, and that these need to be appreciated in the clinical management of atopic dermatitis patients.

  6. Factors affecting somatic cell counts and their relations with milk and milk constituent yield in buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón-Muñoz, M; Tonhati, H; Duarte, J; Oliveira, J; Muñoz-Berrocal, M; Jurado-Gámez, H

    2002-11-01

    Data concerning daily milk yield (MY), percentage of milk fat (%F), protein (%P), lactose (%LT), and total solids (%TS), and somatic cell counts (SCC) for a herd of 222 Murrah buffalo reared in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were collected monthly from 1997 to 2000 in order to study the factors affecting SCC and their relation to milk production and constituents during lactation. SCC decreased in the second month of lactation and increased thereafter, up to the ninth month of lactation. The interaction of month of lactation x order of calving was significant. Mean MY observed during the first month of lactation was 6.87 kg, which increased to 7.65 kg during the second month, and then decreased until the ninth month of lactation (3.83 kg). During the different months of lactation, %F, %P, %LT, and %TS ranged from 6.28 to 8.38%, 4.05 to 4.59%, 4.96 to 5.34%, and 16.94 to 18.55%, respectively. Calving year, calving order, and order of month of lactation significantly affected MY, %F, %P, %LT, and %TS. The regression coefficients of transformed SCC on MY and %LT were negative and significant during all months of lactation, showing that milk and lactose yield decreased with increased transformed SCC, causing losses to buffalo milk producers. PMID:12487456

  7. Demand Side Management in Pellet Production: Internal and External Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigants, Haralds; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a demand side management case study: how to save energy and how research and data analysis help to create an energy management system in a pellet production facility; and shows ways to implement the EU energy efficiency directive in production facilities. The study carried out in this research serves as a far-reaching step that can be taken to improve energy efficiency during the operation mode of technological equipment. The benchmarking methodology is used for analysis of results. Internal and external factors and indicators, which affect energy management potential in pellet production are analysed. Analysis of external factors is based on the state legal framework regulating the development of the energy sector. Methodology on the analysis of energy demand includes the internal energy management of an enterprise. The experimental results discussed in this paper show that particular steps, which are oriented to specific use of technological equipment, could play significant role in energy efficiency improvement in industry which is illustrated by the pre-milling process in the pellet production system using power.

  8. Knowledge of Repetitions Range Affects Force Production in Trained Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Halperin, Saied J. Aboodarda, Fabien A. Basset, David G. Behm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies have examined pacing strategies with cyclical activities (running and cycling. It has been demonstrated that males employ different pacing strategies during repeated maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs dependent upon a known endpoint. Since different fatiguing mechanisms have been identified between the genders, it is not known if females use comparable pacing strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine if informing female subjects regarding the number of MVCs to perform would affect force and electromyography (EMG. Twenty well-trained females completed 3 fatiguing protocols in a randomized order. In the control condition participants were informed they would perform twelve MVCs and then actually completed twelve. In the unknown condition they were not told how many MVCs to perform but were stopped after twelve. In the deception condition they were initially informed to perform 6 MVCs, but after the 6th MVC they were asked to perform a few more MVCs and were stopped after twelve. During the first 6 MVCs, forces in the deception condition were greater compared to the unknown (p = 0.021, ES = 0.65, 5% and control (p = 0.022, ES = 0.42, 3% conditions. No differences were found between conditions in the last 6 MVCs. A main effect for repetitions showed force deficits during the first 6 MVCs (p = 0.000, ES = 1.81, 13% and last 6 MVCs (p = 0.05, ES = 0.34, 3%. No differences were found between conditions in biceps and triceps EMG. However, EMG decreased during the first 6 MVCs for biceps (p = 0.001, ES = 1.0, 14% and triceps (p = 0.001, ES = 0.76, 14% across conditions. No differences were found in the last 6 MVCs. The anticipation of performing fewer MVCs led to increased force, whereas no endpoint led to decreased force production.

  9. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

  10. Studies and Research on Friction, Friction Factor and Affecting Factors : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil J. Kulkarni; Ajaygiri K. Goswami

    2014-01-01

    The friction and friction factors are very significant factors in flow through pipes, channels, heat exchangers . From the pumping cost point of view, minimum friction is desirable as it will decrease the energy loss. In the rotating components like axle-shaft arrangements, the friction and slip are important factors. In case of heat exchanger, the friction factor is important as the heat transfer depends on it. The research was also reported on effect of submerged vegetation ...

  11. Control and manipulation of factors affecting small ruminant reproductive performance in tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tropical areas, reproductive efficiency in small ruminants is affected by various factors, including season, rainfall, male effect, nutritional state or corporal condition (CC) and physiological factors such as post-partum interval, milk production, lactational stages and suckling. Animals with good CC show early puberty, shorter anoestrous periods and better response to male effect and synchronized treatment than animals with low CC; reproductive efficiency is increased by 33% in sheep with CC over 2 (on a scale of 0 to 5) and lambing is 20% lower in the dry than in the rainy season. These data suggest that seasonal sexual inhibition is not too deep in a tropical environment. The response to male effect is good in the different seasons but in animals with low CC this effect is not enough to compensate for the negative influence of undernutrition. Hormonal treatments are effective if animals have adequate CC but the cost is too high. In animals with low CC these treatments must be combined with nutritional flushing. Male introduction at the beginning or 48 h before the end of treatment improves efficiency. Oestrus-ovulation dissociation is observed in tropical sheep after hormonal synchronization and male introduction (9.3%); this is higher in animals with low CC (11.9 vs. 6.8%). Embryo mortality in synchronized goats was affected by nutritional state, being twice as frequent in goats with low CC (26.3 vs. 11.5%). In tropical conditions, appropriate use of male effal conditions, appropriate use of male effect and CC can improve reproductive performance by strategic programming of breeding and parturition during the season with better conditions and pasture availability. (author). 35 refs, 8 tabs

  12. Studies into the Factors that Affects the Service Integrity of Galvanizing Kettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The finding of studies into the factors that affects optimal performance of galvanizing kettle is presented in this paper. The production schedule and history of a failed galvanizing kettle for 3-consecutively years in a hot-dip galvanizing industry was collated and analyzed. The analysis of the collated data revealed that average galvanizing temperatures for the 3-year under review were 483.9°C (2003, 482.25°C (2004 and 482°C (2005 respectively. The amount of flux, and dross produced in the corresponding years were 169.15kg and 31.6 tons, 56.31kg and 10.5 tons and 101.14 and 18.91 tonnes for 2003, 2004 and 2005 respectively. During these years, zinc consumed averaged 647, 334 and 446 tonnes respectively.Stochiometry evaluation of flux, and dross in a hot-dip galvanizing process determined flux required as 60 kg/year and dross produced as 90 slabs / month.The study revealed that the lifespan of galvanizing kettle is greatly reduced by temperature fluctuation, dross formation, excess flux additions and combinations of these factors.It is recommended that improved service integrity of galvanizing kettle is assured at galvanizing temperature of 460°C, flux consumption of 0.15 –0.20kg daily and constant removal of dross at 3-5 slabs per day. This reduces the formation of skim lines, which leads to pits on the walls of the kettle.

  13. Some factors affecting the number of days open in Argentinean dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, M; Funes, A Capitaine; Balzarini, M; Bó, G A

    2013-03-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative contribution of factors affecting how quickly cattle become pregnant in Argentine dairy herds. Data from 76,401 cows from 249 dairy herds were analyzed. A hazard model was used to explore days open (DO). The factors considered were milk yield, lactation number, calving season, and breeding technique (i.e., type of service: artificial insemination [AI], or combined service). Cows with lower milk yield had 1.09 to 1.38 higher likelihood to become pregnant than those with higher milk yield (P milk yield was smaller when dairies used AI as the main breeding technique than when they used combined service. Furthermore, dairies using mainly combined service had lower milk yield (5693.7 L) than those using mainly AI (7684.4 L). Although lactation number and calving season contributed to explain the number of DO, the influence of production level, the type of service, and the interaction between them was also associated with reproductive efficiency in Argentine dairy herds. PMID:23290433

  14. Factors affecting the health of migrants and their impact on Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasopoulou M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globalization from a public health perspective, has endangered the health of migrants due to the deteriorating socio-economic conditions of living and working. The protection of health is a fundamental human right, which must be guaranteed by institutions, without distinction. Purpose: the present study is to investigate the factors that affect the health of migrants and their impact on public health. Method: A search was made in electronic databases for review and research studies using the keywords «Aggravating Health Factors», «Immigrants» and «Public Health» alone or in combination. The search was extended to include the databases of the European Union (EU, the World Health Organization (WHO and the United Nations (UN. Conclusions: The review findings, since the majority of the research studies show that for the protection of Public Health, interventions awareness of migrants about the importance of prevention, the adoption of healthy lifestyles and behavior modification. are necessary. The ultimate goal of interventions, should be the full integration of special operations in the existing National Health System and the smooth integration of immigrants in the productive, despite of social exclusion.

  15. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Campanula carpatica: factors affecting transformation and regeneration of transgenic shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriskandarajah, Sridevy; Frello, Stefan; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Serek, Margrethe

    2004-08-01

    An efficient transformation system for Campanula carpatica was developed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains LBA4404 (harbouring the plasmid pBI121), and AGL0 (harbouring the plasmid pBEO210). This is the first report on the transformation of C. carpatica. Various factors affecting the transformation efficiency and subsequent regeneration were identified. The age of seedlings from which the explants for transformation studies were taken, and the growth conditions under which the seedlings were grown had a significant influence on the production of transformed shoots. Hypocotyls taken from 12-day-old seedlings grown in the dark were the most productive, with up to 25% of hypocotyls producing transformed shoots. Explants taken from 5-week-old seedlings produced only transformed callus. The medium used for co-cultivation and incubation also had a significant influence on transformation frequency and shoot regeneration. The cultivar "Blue Uniform" was more responsive than "White Uniform". Both bacterial strains and plasmids were equally effective in producing transformed tissue. Transformed shoots were selected on kanamycin medium, and the presence of the uidA and nptII genes in those selected shoots was confirmed by beta-glucuronidase and ELISA analyses, respectively. PMID:15114492

  16. Observations of nitric acid removal that strongly affects the relationship between ozone and NOx oxidation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, J.; Nowak, J. B.; Zheng, W.; Flocke, F.; Ryerson, T.; Trainer, M.; Holloway, J.; Parrish, D.; Fehsenfeld, F.

    2007-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the relationship between ozone formation and NOx precursors has been examined in order to understand the factors that control ozone pollution. Understanding the fate of NOx and its oxidation products is necessary to accurately determine the dependence of ozone upon NOx. Measurements of ozone, NOx, and NOx oxidation products were obtained from the NOAA WP-3 aircraft during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study under a variety of meteorological conditions in plumes downwind from Houston, Texas. Over 50 crosswind transects of coalesced plumes from the Houston urban and industrial areas were examined. Nitric acid, which is one of the primary NOx oxidation products, can be removed rapidly from the atmosphere by deposition. This deposition affects reactive nitrogen partitioning and causes an increase in the slope of the correlation between ozone and the products of NOx oxidation (often interpreted as ozone production efficiency). During this study, nitric acid loss increased when wind speeds were high, causing the ozone to NOy-NOx correlation slopes to increase dramatically. Accounting for this loss is necessary to use correlation slopes of ozone versus NOy-NOx to represent an ozone production efficiency that describes the NOx-VOC chemistry.

  17. Rural-Urban Differences in Factors Affecting Fertility: A Case Study of Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-O W.

    The study examined whether significant rural-urban differences still persisted in selected factors affecting a community's fertility level. The factors selected were education, occupational class, income, and the participation of women in the labor force. Tested was the hypothesis that the educational development, occupational class, economic…

  18. Factors Affecting Service Provision to Parents with Intellectual Disability: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Brigden, Diane

    1995-01-01

    This article examines factors affecting the provision of mainstream family support services to parents with intellectual disability in Australia. Qualitative procedures resulted in identification of common issues and a conceptual matrix. The three key factors were: client characteristics, resources available, and the involvement of other agencies.…

  19. Factors Affecting the Full Use of Library and Information Management Systems by Library Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skretas, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a general list of factors that affects and determines the full use of library information management systems (LIMS) by library staff. Design/methodology/approach: The factors, which were identified mainly during participation in the implementation of automation projects in Greece, are listed and briefly analysed in categories…

  20. Does Mixed Reimbursement Schemes Affect Hospital Activity and Productivity? An Analysis of the Case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Xenia Brun; Bech, Mickael

    2013-01-01

    The majority of public hospitals in Scandinavia are reimbursed through a mixture of two prospective reimbursement schemes, block grants (a fixed amount independent of the number of patients treated) and activity-based financing (ABF). This article contributes theoretically to the existing literature with a deeper understanding of such mixed reimbursement systems as well as empirically by identifying key design factors that determines the incentives embedded in such a mixed model. Furthermore, we describe how incentives vary in different designs of the mixed reimbursement scheme and assess whether different incentives affects the performance of hospitals regarding activity and productivity differently. Information on Danish reimbursement schemes has been collected from documents provided by the regional governments and through interviews with regional administrations. The data cover the period from 2007-2010. A theoretical framework identified the key factors in an ABF/block grant model to be the proportionof the national Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) tariff above and below a predefined production target (i.e. the baseline); baseline calculations; the presence of kinks/ceilings; and productivity requirements. A comparative case study across the five regions in Denmark demonstrated presence of inter-regional variation in the design of reimbursement schemes. This variation creates different incentives regarding activity and productivity. Using gender-age standardized rates across year and region we show that there have not been any significant changes in the number of hospital discharges for any of the regions from 2007 to 2010 within any of the treatment groups.