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Sample records for factors affecting productivity

  1. Factors Affecting Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    M.Mathiyazhagan; A.Ganapathi

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable alternate fuel to diesel engines that could be partially orfully replace or reduce the use of petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be produced fromplant and animal fats through transesterification reaction. The transesterification reaction isaffected by molar ratio of alcohol, presence of water and Free Fatty Acid content, reactiontemperature, catalyst concentration and agitation speed. This review paper discuss aboutthe factors involved in transesterification reaction.

  2. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Nazir; Ghulam Ali Jariko; Mumtaz Ali Junejo

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by u...

  3. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Sohail, Muhammad; Khan, Abdur Rashid

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of exper...

  4. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    Sohail, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

  5. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    OpenAIRE

    Eda Atilgan-Inan; Aslihan Buyukkupcu; Serkan Akinci

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of...

  6. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Atilgan-Inan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of management in the related periods. The results indicated that organizational factors have always been important for new product development process, which is in line with the nature of the innovation process. But the emphasis on internal factors has increased in the 21st century which is congruent with the change in management perspective foregrounding resource based view. The study differs from the similar literature review studies on the point that it deals with the topic from international marketing perspective. Therefore, R&D and other marketing studies are not included in the review and the study proposes the important factors from international firms’ point of view.

  7. Factores grupales que inciden en la productividad / Group factors affecting productivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cequea, Mirza Marvel; Miguel, Núñez Bottini; Carlos, Rodríguez-Monroy.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las organizaciones en la actualidad están sometidas permanentemente a cambios acelerados, obligándolas a incrementar su flexibilidad y adaptabilidad para mantener su posición competitiva, sobrevivir a estas presiones lograr sus objetivos y ser más productivas. Por estas razones, la productividad del [...] factor humano es fundamental, ya que son las personas las que realizan los procesos creativos que generan resultados en las organizaciones. Cuando las personas interactúan en la organización se generan unos procesos de carácter psicosocial que incide en el desempeño de individuos, grupos y organización y se denominan Factores grupales, porque son producto de la actuación de las personas en grupos de trabajo. Dichos factores tienen impacto en la productividad, por lo que resulta de interés el estudio de estas relaciones. Con el fin de analizar este impacto, se presenta relaciones Factores Grupales-Productividad, mediante un Modelo de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM), donde los Factores Grupales y la Productividad son constructos o variables latentes explicadas por variables observables o indicadores. El modelo planteado, es aceptado de acuerdo con los índices globales de ajuste y a las cargas factoriales de las variables del modelo resultante. Se corroboró que los factores grupales, tales como Cohesión, Conflicto, Consenso y Moral, inciden en la productividad. Abstract in english Organizations today are undergoing rapid change permanently, forcing them to increase their flexibility and adaptability to stay competitive, to survive these pressures, achieve their goals and be more productive. For these reasons, the productivity of the human factor is critical because it is the [...] people doing the creative processes those results in organizations. When people interact in the organization are a generated psychosocial process that affects the performance of individuals, groups and organization and are called group factors, because they are the product of individual behavior in work groups. These factors have an impact on productivity, so it is interesting to study these relationships. To analyze this impact is presented group factors-productivity relationships through a Structural Equation Model (SEM), where the group factors and productivity are constructs or latent variables explained by observable variables or indicators. The proposed model is accepted in accordance with the global fit indices and factor loadings of the variables of the resulting model. It was confirmed that the group factors, such as Cohesion, Conflict, Consensus and Moral affect productivity.

  8. Factors affecting CFC end-user conversion to substitute products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the issues facing CFC end-users as they convert to non-CFC systems. The various end use applications for CFCs are quite diverse (e.g., refrigerants, blowing agents foam plastics, aerosol propellant, solvent cleaning); each of the applications will likely have different substitute solutions. For most applications there appears to be both a short-term and long-term solution to the problem, whereas in other applications no suitable replacement for CFCs are apparent. Other fluorocarbons, (i.e., HCFCs and HCFs) are under consideration for many applications. Some of the factors to be addressed that affect the conversion time include: substitute performance in end use application, equipment conversions required to use the substitutes, as well as commercial availability of substitutes

  9. ASSESMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF AMBER CHARKHA AND ERGONOMIC EVALUATION OF WORKERS

    OpenAIRE

    G. V. THAKRE; Patil, S.G.; D. N. AGRAWAL

    2011-01-01

    Increasing demands of the cotton fabrics, now a day has made it necessary to increase the production of cotton fabrics. To increase the production it is necessary to study the factors affecting the performance of the women workers working on Amber charkha. Most of the Amber charkha in rural areas are hand operated (i.e. they runwith the help of human energy input). There are various medical, technical and environmental factors which affect the productivity of women workers working on Amber ch...

  10. Identifying key factors affecting success in international food product markets

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Christian

    2002-01-01

    This study explores globalisation of food and drink product markets at the end of the millennium. It is divided into two main parts: the first analyses international food product markets at the aggregate level, and the other deals with the management of international food product trade at the company level. International trade in consumer-oriented food and drink items is today the main driver of worldwide agricultural trade, however no complete theoretical framework exists to explain this kin...

  11. Ranking factors affecting the productivity of human resources using MADM techniques

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. Shekari; S. Khayat Moghadam; Adeleh Hakimzadeh; S. Salahshour; A. K. Keifi

    2012-01-01

    For improving and efficient uses of various resources such as labor, capital, materials, energy and information, productivity is the purpose of all economic and industrial organizations and service enterprises. The human factor is the main strategic resource and the realization axis of productivity for each type of organization. Therefore the factors affecting the productivity, depends on suitable conditions for labor. This study is performed to identification and prioritization the factors a...

  12. Some factors affecting rabbit production under egyptian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work was carried out in the rabbit of the department of animal production, faculty of agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt, Blood biochemical analysis and hormonal assay were conducted in tracer bio climatology Unit., Department of radiobiology, nuclear research centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt. Eighty male New Zealand white (NZW) and 80 male californian (Cal) rabbits aged 5-6 weeks were used. The animals were housed in rabbit building, naturally ventilated. Rabbits cages were provided with automatic nipple drinkers and drinking and drinking water ad libitum.Rabbits were fed ad libitum on balanced growing pelted rabbit ration. 21 tabs.,13 figs.,158 refs

  13. Study of some factors affecting potato microtuber production in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of variety, growth regulators, sucrose, and low doses of gamma irradiation on the production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) microtubers in vitro were investigated. Nodal segments from virus free explants of 3 potato varieties were placed on six different media and irradiated with 4 doses of gamma radiation (2.5, 5, 10, 15 Gy).Potato varieties used in the study differed in their ability to produce microtubers. Variety Diamant was the best in microtuber production followed by Draga and Spunta. Kinetin played a significant role in inducing tuberization in vitro especially at a concentration of 4 mg-1. Tuberization was also enhanced by sucrose especially when its level was increased from 3% to 6%. Irradiating the explants with 2.5 Gy of gamma radiation leads to a significant increase in number of microtubers (34% increase over the control). Weight of microtubers was not significantly influenced by low doses of gamma irradiation or media components. Draga microtubers were the largest followed by Diamant and Spunta. Microtubers resembled mature tubers in shape (Spunta was elongated and Draga and Diamant were round). Size of microtubers was crucial for sprouting in vivo. It is suggested that only microtubers larger than 250 mg (5 mm in diameter) can be used to produce minitubers in vivo. Since 2.5 Gy is a low dose, it can be used to enhance tuberization in vitro without fear of genetic changes in the used varieties. (author)

  14. Factors affecting future crude oil production in South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the face of booming regional demand, crude oil production in the South East Asian region will decline from a 1996 peak of 5.7 million barrels a day to 3.5 million barrels a day in 2005 unless major new exploration investments are undertaken. The current fiscal terms for such investment will not attract continued significant funds to the region given the low crude price outlook, tough competitive global environment for the upstream industry, and the emergence of more attractive fiscal terms in politically and commercially stable countries with proven prospectivity. There is evidence from the emerging trend toward fiscal terms softening and differentiation around risk in some countries, that the commercial reality is becoming accepted. It remains to be seen if the various national political, bureaucratic and industry constituencies guiding these decisions within the region can respond decisively to mitigate the growing crude import dependency. (author). 2 tabs

  15. Factors affecting industrial wood, material production yield in Turkey’s natural beech forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Atik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to determine the most important factors affecting industrial wood material production yield in natural oriental beech forests in Turkey using a multifaceted approach and to help entrepreneurs consider these factors to develop more sensitive and realistic production plans. In Günye Forest Management in Bart?n province of the West Black Sea Region of Turkey, 41 production units were chosen as the study area. The 1277 ha study area was included in the 2007 and 2010 production management plan. The general state of the stand, natural stand structure, and production methods and tools are the factors thought most strongly affect industrial wood material production yield; 26 variables representing these factors were evaluated in the study. Through multidimensional statistical analyses, including main components, factor and regression  analysis, we found that the most important factors affecting production yield were fertility, aspect of land, skidding method, stand structure, skidding distance, growing stock, transportation and harmful abiotic factors. Production units were divided into three groups based on yield rates and the 26 variables, using discriminate analysis. From the results of the study, a sample model can be developed to help forest managers predict and plan annual industrial wood production more sensitively and realistically.

  16. ASSESMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF AMBER CHARKHA AND ERGONOMIC EVALUATION OF WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. THAKRE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demands of the cotton fabrics, now a day has made it necessary to increase the production of cotton fabrics. To increase the production it is necessary to study the factors affecting the performance of the women workers working on Amber charkha. Most of the Amber charkha in rural areas are hand operated (i.e. they runwith the help of human energy input. There are various medical, technical and environmental factors which affect the productivity of women workers working on Amber charkha. This paper discusses some of those factors which are responsible for this. The various factors that are affecting the productivity are health factors,sitting posture, working environment, raw material properties, and man machine system. Each of these factors plays an important role in the overall performance of the women workers. Analysis is carried out by comparing the actual readings with the standard norms available in the literature. The detailed project work is carried out to study the different factors affecting the productivity of Amber charkha. The basic necessity of this study is to provide comfortable sitting arrangement and good working environment which would help the workers for achieving better productivity with work satisfaction.

  17. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fred J. Eller; Debra E. Palmquist

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-?-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about ...

  18. Production of Uricase Enzyme from Aspergillus niger and Determination of Some Factors Affecting the Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ertan (?nceo?lu), Figen

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to obtain uricase enzyme from Aspergillus niger and also to determine the production conditions and the effects of some factors on enzyme activity. The results of the experiments, in consideration of the production of the uricase enzyme and the factors affecting the production, demonstrated that enzyme activity was maximum when the production time was 3 days at a temperature of 30ºC with the initial pH at 6.0 and inductor concentration at 0.1%. It was determined th...

  19. Main factors that affect the economic efficiency of broiler breeder production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EH, Carvalho; JB, Zilli; AS, Mendes; GM, Morello; DV, Bonamigo.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the factors that affect the economic efficiency of broiler breeder production using the analysis of stochastic profit frontier function. Data were collected in 48 broiler breeder farms contracted by a commercial company located in southwestern Paraná, Brazil. The coll [...] ected data refer to the last batch of fertile eggs that was delivered to the company, between January, 2008, and July, 2009. The following parameters were evaluated: production of hatching eggs per hen (number of eggs/hen), hatchability (hatch %), feed intake per hatching egg (g feed/ egg), production scale (number of birds/batch), farmer's experience in production activities, and labor type. Factors, such as area of occupied land, electricity costs, and invested capital were also evaluated. Results showed that the cost of electricity, as well as area of occupied land, production scale, and feed intake per hatching egg significantly affect the economic efficiency of the broiler breeder farms in Southwestern Paraná, Brazil.

  20. Factors affecting industrial wood, material production yield in Turkey’s natural beech forests

    OpenAIRE

    Atilla Atik; Bülent Y?lmaz

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the present study are to determine the most important factors affecting industrial wood material production yield in natural oriental beech forests in Turkey using a multifaceted approach and to help entrepreneurs consider these factors to develop more sensitive and realistic production plans. In Günye Forest Management in Bart?n province of the West Black Sea Region of Turkey, 41 production units were chosen as the study area. The 1277 ha study area was included in the 2007...

  1. Export of Pharmaceutical Products : An analysis of which factors that affects Sweden’s export of pharmaceutical products

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfsson, Per

    2007-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is one of Sweden’s most important export industries with 6% of total exports. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse which factors affect Sweden’s ex-port of pharmaceutical products. Further, the different pharmaceutical products group Sweden exports will be identified. The modern trade theory, the monopolistic competition model, the product life cycle theory and the gravity equation are used to explain and to un-derstand the problem at hand. To analyse the probl...

  2. Factors affecting wild rabbit production in extensive breeding enclosures: how can we optimise efforts?

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero-Casado, José; Ruiz-Aizpurua, Leire; Carpio, Antonio J.; Tortosa, Francisco S.

    2013-01-01

    The declining rabbit population in the Iberian Peninsula has led hunters and authorities to rear rabbits in captivity systems for their subsequent release. One alternative method to intensive rabbitry systems is the use of extensive breeding enclosures, since they produce animals of greater quality for hunting and conservation purposes. However, some of the factors that affect rabbit production in breeding enclosures are still unknown. The present study used partial least squares regression (...

  3. Commercially Grown Short Rotation Coppice Willow in Denmark : Biomass Production and Factors Affecting Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Sevel, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate biomass production in commercially grown short rotation coppice willow in Denmark and to investigate effects of site and management factors on willow yield. Biomass production assessed by non-destructive sampling on 296 plots from 25 plantations was analyzed using a mixed model approach. Average production in the stands varied between 2.4 and 15.1 odt ha?1 year?1, and average second rotation growth (8.2 odt ha?1 year?1) was significantly higher than first rotation growth (6.5 odt ha?1 year?1). Annual production was significantly correlated with clone, soil texture, soil drainage, fertilization, weeds, rotation number, and shoot age. Further, interactions between clone and soil drainage as well as between clone and soil texture were significant, indicating the importance of a site-specific choice of clones.

  4. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Collection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred J. Eller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q, male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-?-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on” and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h. Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

  5. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Fred J; Palmquist, Debra E

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-?-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after "lights on") and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils. PMID:26462948

  6. Factors affecting the milk production of dairy cattle in northern rural areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Begum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted to observe the factors affecting the productive performance of dairy cattle from northern rural areas of Bangladesh during July and September 2013. Data of 105 cows, 85 (80.95% from local and 20 (19.05% cows from cross breed, were randomly selected for the study. A binary logistic regression, expressed by odds ratio with 95% confidence interval, was done to determine the association of daily milk production categorized into ? 2 and > 2 liters (L, based on median, with the significant explanatory variables of body weight, age at first calving, lactation period, vitamin use, type of floor and milking person. The result demonstrated that the probability of milk production of >2 L was 6.16, 4.5, 20.65 and 5.7 times higher from the with animal body weight of >140 kg, age at first calving of >36 m, lactation period of >8 m and vitamin use than that of body weight of 140 kg, age at first calving of ?36 m, lactation period of ? 8 m, and not vitamin used respectively. The chance of milk production of > 2 L was 0.25 and 0.22 times lower for mud floor, and owner milking than that of brick floor and gowala (professional milking person respectively.

  7. Factors Affecting sex pheromone production in female cotton leaf worm moth, Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors influencing sex pheromone production in the cotton leaf worm female moth with emphasis on gamma radiation were investigated. To determine the effect of age on sex pheromone production, ether extracts of the female abdominal tips were prepared from virgin females of various ages in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. Each female extract was tested against 1-2 days-old males. The obtained results indicated that virgin females could secrete sex pheromone early at the beginning of their life. The pheromone production increased rapidly to reach its maximum on the second day. To study the effect of daytime on sex pheromone production, the ether extracts of 1-2 days old virgin female abdominal tips were prepared at 3 hour-intervals, throughout the photo phase and scotophase in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. The obtained results indicated that pheromone production showed a minimum concentration at mid-day during the photo phase. It then increased to a moderate concentration from 7:0 p.m. to 10:0 p.m. and reached its maximum titer at almost mid-night. The obtained data on the effect of gamma irradiation indicated that irradiation of 3 and 6-day-old female pupae with doses of 60 and 120 Gy, respectively caused a reduction of 28.1 and 27.3 % in male response, respectively, to female sex pheromone extracts. When full-grown female pupae were irradiated with 200 and 350 Gy, a reduction of 15.6 and 75% in male response, respectively, was reached. Thus, an irradiation dose of 350 Gy applied to full-grown female pupae could severely affect pheromone production of the emerging female moths

  8. Factors affecting the corrosion of SiC layer by fission product palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HTR is one of the advanced nuclear reactors which has inherent safety system, graphite moderated and helium gas cooled. In general, these reactors are designed with the TRISO coated particle consist of four coating layers that are porous pyrolytic carbon (PyC). inner dense PyC (IPyC), silicon carbide (SiC), and outer dense PyC (OPyC). Among the four coating layers, the SiC plays an important role beside in retaining metallic fission products, it also provides mechanical strength to fuel particle. However, results of post irradiation examination indicate that fission product palladium can react with and corrode SiC layer, This assessment is conducted to get the comprehension about resistance of SiC layer on irradiation effects, especially in order to increase the fuel bum-up. The result of this shows that the corrosion of SiC layer by fission product palladium is beside depend on the material characteristics of SiC, and also there are other factors that affect on the SiC layer corrosion. Fuel enrichment, bum-up, and irradiation time effect on the palladium flux in fuel kernel. While, the fuel density, vapour pressure of palladium (the degree depend on the irradiation temperature and kernel composition) effect on palladium migration in fuel particle. (author)

  9. Analysis of Factors Affecting Total Factor Productivity of Rural Small Industries Sponsored by Jihad Agriculture Organization of Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dehghani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to measure the total factor productivity (TFP of the rural small industries in Isfahan province comprising six types of industries: food, textile, metal, non-metal mineral, chemical, and cellulose. Among the 166 rural small industries sponsored by Jihad-Agriculture Organization of Isfahan in 2001(1380, 60 plants were selected. Cross-section information collected from the 60 plants by a questionnaire in that year confirmed the body of data for this study. The distribution of the types of the 60 selected plants followed the distribution of the types in the plant population. The analytical part of this research consisted of two sections. In the first section, the TFP of the rural small industries was established by applying Cobb-Douglas production function in which the value of the plant production was the dependent variable and the investment costs, total hours of labor, costs of raw materials, and the costs of energy and water were the independent variables. Factors affecting TFP were analyzed in the second section. The estimated coefficients of the first section and the actual data of the variables, were used to calculate the TFP for each plant. Then, another regression model was worked out in which the calculated TFPs were the dependent variable. The independent variables included the mean of the number of the employees' children, the percentage of the production employees with at least primary school level of education, annual number of the off days, dummy variable for the members of the cooperative association, and a few other variables. The results of the first section showed that the TFP of food industries was higher than that of other types of industries and there was no significant difference between the TFP of textile, metal, non metal mineral, chemical and cellulose industries. The results of the analysis for determining the factors affecting the TFP, showed that the existence of a research section in the plant, the insurance of the employees and the mean of the number of employees' children had a positive effect on the TFP. But, the level of the education of the production workers, the area of the plant buildings, and the number of the days off in plant had negative effects.

  10. Factors Affecting Alternate Rice-Fish Production of Mymensingh District in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbani M.G.; Hossain, M I; Islam, M S; T.M.B. Hossain; M. A. Mannan

    2004-01-01

    Cobb-Douglas production function has been used to measure the effect of various factors on alternate rice-fish production. The chosen factors were of fingerlings cost, cost of cow dung, cost of rice bran, cost of oil cake, cost of lime, cost of urea cost of human labour and cost of netting for fish production and for rice production the factors were human labour, animal labour. Cow dung, urea, TSP, MP, seed and irrigation cost. It was found that except cost of rice bran and lime for fish prod...

  11. Optimization of factors affecting the production of biodiesel from crude palm kernel oil and ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Kuwornoo, Julius C. Ahiekpor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, studies on the sources of biodiesel and their properties as a substitute for fossil diesel have tended to be limited to Jatropha oil. This paper, however, reports the parameters that influences the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil, one of the vegetable oils obtained from oil palm which is the highest vegetable oil source in Ghana. The parameters studied are; mass ratio of ethanol to oil, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and reaction time using completely randomized 24 factorial design. Results indicated that ethanol to oil mass ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time were the most important factors affecting the ethyl ester yield. There was also an interaction effect between catalyst and time and ethanol- oil ratio and time on the yield. Accordingly, the optimal conditions for the production of ethyl esters from crude palm kernel oil were determined as; 1:5 mass ratio of ethanol to oil, 1% catalyst concentration by weight of oil, 90 minutes reaction time at a temperature of 30 oC.

  12. Factors affecting wild rabbit production in extensive breeding enclosures: how can we optimise efforts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guerrero-Casado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The declining rabbit population in the Iberian Peninsula has led hunters and authorities to rear rabbits in captivity systems for their subsequent release. One alternative method to intensive rabbitry systems is the use of extensive breeding enclosures, since they produce animals of greater quality for hunting and conservation purposes. However, some of the factors that affect rabbit production in breeding enclosures are still unknown. The present study used partial least squares regression (PLSR to analyse the effects of plot size, scrub cover, slope, initial rabbit abundance, the resources needed to dig warrens, predation and proximity to other enclosures on rabbit abundance. The results of our study show a positive effect of the number of other fenced plots within a radius of 3 km, a positive relationship with the availability of optimal resources for building warrens and a positive influence of intermediate values of scrub cover. According to our results, to maximise rabbit production in the enclosures it would be advisable to concentrate the restocking effort by ensuring that the restocking plots are close to each other, thus avoiding isolated enclosures. Furthermore, the selection of plots with an appropriate scrub cover and high availability of elements that favour the construction of warrens, such as large stones, sloping land or tall shrubs, may optimise results.

  13. THE TAGUCHI APPROACH IN OPTIMIZING ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTIVITY IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N.A. Rahman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the dominance effects of environmental factors such as illuminance, humidity and WBGT on operators’ productivity in the Malaysian automotive industry. A case study was carried out at an automotive components assembly factory. The environmental factors examined were the illuminance (lux, humidity and WBGT of the surrounding workstation area. Two sets of representative data including the illuminance, humidity and WBGT level and production rate were collected during the study. The production rate data were collected through observations and survey questionnaires while the illuminance level was measured using photometer model RS 180-7133, and the humidity and WBGT level were measured by using Quest Temp apparatus and humidity. The Taguchi method was utilized to find the sequence of dominant factors that contributed to the productivity of the operator at that specified production workstation. The study reveals that the dominant factor that contributed to the productivity was humidity, followed by illuminance and WBGT.

  14. Advanced Glycation End-Products affect transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puddu, A., E-mail: alep100@hotmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Viale Benedetto XV 6, 16132 Genova (Italy); Storace, D.; Odetti, P.; Viviani, G.L. [Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Viale Benedetto XV 6, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2010-04-23

    Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) are generated by the covalent interaction of reducing sugars with proteins, lipids or nucleic acids. AGEs are implicated in diabetic complications and pancreatic {beta}-cell dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that exposure of the pancreatic islet cell line HIT-T15 to high concentrations of AGEs leads to a significant decrease of insulin secretion and content. Insulin gene transcription is positively regulated by the beta cell specific transcription factor PDX-1 (Pancreatic and Duodenal Homeobox-1). On the contrary, the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 inhibits PDX-1 gene transcription. Activity of FoxO1 is regulated by post-translational modifications: phosphorylation deactivates FoxO1, and acetylation prevents FoxO1 ubiquitination. In this work we investigated whether AGEs affect expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1 and FoxO1. HIT-T15 cells were cultured for 5 days in presence of AGEs. Cells were then lysed and processed for subcellular fractionation. We determined intracellular insulin content, then we assessed the expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1, FoxO1, phosphoFoxO1 and acetylFoxO1. As expected intracellular insulin content was lower in HIT-T15 cells cultured with AGEs. The results showed that AGEs decreased expression and nuclear localization of PDX-1, reduced phosphorylation of FoxO1, and increased expression and acetylation of FoxO1. These results suggest that AGEs decrease insulin content unbalancing transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression.

  15. Advanced Glycation End-Products affect transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) are generated by the covalent interaction of reducing sugars with proteins, lipids or nucleic acids. AGEs are implicated in diabetic complications and pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that exposure of the pancreatic islet cell line HIT-T15 to high concentrations of AGEs leads to a significant decrease of insulin secretion and content. Insulin gene transcription is positively regulated by the beta cell specific transcription factor PDX-1 (Pancreatic and Duodenal Homeobox-1). On the contrary, the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 inhibits PDX-1 gene transcription. Activity of FoxO1 is regulated by post-translational modifications: phosphorylation deactivates FoxO1, and acetylation prevents FoxO1 ubiquitination. In this work we investigated whether AGEs affect expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1 and FoxO1. HIT-T15 cells were cultured for 5 days in presence of AGEs. Cells were then lysed and processed for subcellular fractionation. We determined intracellular insulin content, then we assessed the expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1, FoxO1, phosphoFoxO1 and acetylFoxO1. As expected intracellular insulin content was lower in HIT-T15 cells cultured with AGEs. The results showed that AGEs decreased expression and nuclear localization of PDX-1, reduced phosphorylation of FoxO1, and increased expression and acetylation of FoxO1. These results suggest that AGEs decrease insulin content unbalancing transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression.

  16. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  17. Analyzing factors Affecting Consumers’ Attitude & Intention to Purchase Counterfeit products of luxury Brands In clothing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Ebrahimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit products & then the impact of attitude toward counterfeit products on intention to buy such products have been measured. The study method is a Survey type & in order to collect study data, a questionnaire designed with a combination of different available resources in literature has been used. To achieve the study goals, 384 individuals who purchased counterfeit products intentionally were chosen from Sari. To analyze data & test hypotheses, Study model & questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient tests, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM, Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA & one-way Variance analysis (ANONA have been applied & two Software Packages SPSS & LISREL were used. Through reviewing the literature available & analyzing experts’ views, generally, 11 variables have been identified: Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Ethical Issues, Risk averseness, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, as the influencing factors on attitude toward counterfeit products. Study Findings have indicated that the factors as Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Ethical Issues, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, have meaningful effect on attitude to counterfeit products & the impact of Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Risk averseness, was not meaningfull on view about counterfeit products. Besides, the findings have shown that attitude toward counterfeit products has a meaningful effect on intention to purchase such products.

  18. Exploration of Lexical-Semantic Factors Affecting Stress Production in Derived Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether lexical frequency, semantic knowledge, or sentence context affect children's production of primary stress in derived words with stress-changing suffixes (e.g., "-ity"). Method: Thirty children (M[subscript age] = 9;1 [years;months]) produced a limited set of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) derived…

  19. Descriptive study of production factors affecting performance traits in growing-finishing pgis in Spain.

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, P. S.; GASA, J.; Manzanilla, E. G.; Da Silva, C. A.; Blas Beorlegui, Juan Carlos de

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to build up a data set including productive performance and production factors data of growing-finishing (GF) pigs in Spain in order to perform a representative and reliable description of the traits of Spanish growing-finishing pig industry. Data from 764 batches from 452 farms belonging to nine companies (1,157,212 pigs) were collected between 2008 and 2010 through a survey including five parts: general, facilities, feeding, health status and performance. Mos...

  20. Statistical analysis of factors affecting crop production in Navrongo, Tono irrigation dam a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. JAKPERIK

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identified the essential factors of production in the Tono irrigation dam of the Upper East Region. The accessibility and patronage of these factors by farmers in this area was studied and how they influence crop production in the Region. A total of two hundred questionnaires designed by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture for farmers in Navrongo were administered. A snowball sampling design was employed to identify farmers on these facilities in the study area. Pearson correlation coefficient, principal component analysis, and subset regression analysis were used to unveil the relevant information in the study. The results revealed a high correlation between the factors of production being studied with each pair having a probability level less than 0.0001. The full general linear model was highly significant (F=662.50, psmaller tahn 0.0001 with only two factors (Farm size and Fertilizer accounting for 98.86% of the total variation in yield. This is a clear indication of multicollinearity and a subset regression analysis was used to identify the best subset that improves yield in the irrigation dam. The best subset comprised of Age, Farm size, seed, and Fertilizer accounting for 97.75% of the total variation in crop production in Navrongo. To enhance yield in Navrongo therefore, high yielding seeds, timely granting of fertilizer credit to farmers who mature enough and responsible with reasonable farm sizes should be encouraged.

  1. Critical Factors Affecting the Success of Cloning, Expression, and Mass Production of Enzymes by Recombinant E. coli

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Fakruddin; Reaz Mohammad Mazumdar; Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin Mannan; Abhijit Chowdhury; Md. Nur Hossain

    2013-01-01

    E. coli is the most frequently used host for production of enzymes and other proteins by recombinant DNA technology. E. coli is preferable for its relative simplicity, inexpensive and fast high-density cultivation, well-known genetics, and large number of compatible molecular tools available. Despite all these advantages, expression and production of recombinant enzymes are not always successful and often result in insoluble and nonfunctional proteins. There are many factors that affect the s...

  2. Factors affecting productivity and the role of customer relationship management: A case study of home appliance manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mirzamohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's competitive world, productivity- as a core source of production - is the most important target of the organization. Experimental studies in developed industrial countries prove that productivity improvements resulted from development of management systems play a more important role in production than physical increases in labor and capital factors. This paper, while focusing on productivity from a CRM perspective, employs a European Organizational Excellence Model framework to identify factors affecting productivity and the role of CRM systems. We perform an empirical study for a case study of home appliance manufacturing and using a questionnaire computed present status and compared with desired status of CRM components such as customer leadership, strategy, skill and motivation of labor work, effective use of information technology and process management.

  3. Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Drew S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism in order to (1 determine its maximum theoretical plasmid-producing capacity, and to (2 identify factors that significantly impact plasmid production. Results Such a model was developed for the production of a high copy plasmid under conditions of batch aerobic growth on glucose minimal medium. The objective of the model was to maximize plasmid production. By employing certain constraints and examining the resulting flux distributions, several factors were determined that significantly impact plasmid yield. Acetate production and constitutive expression of the plasmid's antibiotic resistance marker exert negative effects, while low pyruvate kinase (Pyk flux and the generation of NADPH by transhydrogenase activity offer positive effects. The highest theoretical yield (592 mg/g resulted under conditions of no marker or acetate production, nil Pyk flux, and the maximum allowable transhydrogenase activity. For comparison, when these four fluxes were constrained to wild-type values, yields on the order of tens of mg/g resulted, which are on par with the best experimental yields reported to date. Conclusion These results suggest that specific plasmid yields can theoretically reach 12 times their current experimental maximum (51 mg/g. Moreover, they imply that abolishing Pyk activity and/or transhydrogenase up-regulation would be useful strategies to implement when designing host strains for plasmid production; mutations that reduce acetate production would also be advantageous. The results further suggest that using some other means for plasmid selection than antibiotic resistance, or at least weakening the marker's expression, would be beneficial because it would allow more precursor metabolites, energy, and reducing power to be put toward plasmid production. Thus far, the impact of eliminating Pyk activity has been explored experimentally, with significantly higher plasmid yields resulting.

  4. Factors affecting growth and phenolic pigment production by Alternaria alternata (Fr. Keissler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwant Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of factors such as composition of medium, pH, temperature and inoculation time on the amount of mycelial mass quantity and nature of phenolic pigments produced by the fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr. Keissler has been studied. Alternaria alternata had maximum mycelial growth when the basal synthetic medium at pH 5.5, a temperature of 25° and incubation period of 12 days was used. The production of total phenolic pigment was maximum at temperature of 35° when the fungus was incubated for 9 days using basal synthetic medium. Addition of phenolic compouns such as tyrosine and gallic acid to the medium markedly increased the mycelial mass production but resulted in a suppression of phenolic pigment production of the fungus while salicylic acid, cinnamic acid and catechol completely suppressed the growth.

  5. Factors Affecting Pasture and Meat Production Imbalance in Fars Province: A Case Study of Koohnamak Pastures in Darab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shirvanian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the process of agricultural development, sustainability of pasture utilization to ensure sustained production of meat and dairy products has become increasingly important. This article aims to study factors affecting pasture and meat production imbalances in Fars province. For this purpose, the transcendental production function was used. Data was collected by using two stage cluster random sampling from 71 producers. The results revealed that present method of pasture utilization is not compatible with increasing live animal meat production objective. To optimize pasture utilization, the pasture users should be advised to stop overgrazing. In addition, the results indicated that increasing livestock and pasture mismanagement causes damage to pastures and consequently would decrease meat production in the long-run.

  6. Factors affecting the reproducibility and validity of colposcopy for product development: review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballagh, Susan

    2004-10-01

    Colposcopy has been adapted from cervical cytology screening as a tool to assess the tolerance of vaginal products in development for anti-infective and contraceptive indications. As the vagina is poorly enervated, symptoms do not correlate well with visual findings, which increases the importance of secondary assessment. Dysplasia screening has used biopsy liberally to verify the colposcopic diagnostic impression. The few studies that include correlative biopsy with colposcopy performed for product development are reviewed. A recent study of the reproducibility of two observations at a single visit by a single or two different physicians is discussed. The review points to magnification and experience of the observer as factors in improving the agreement between observations. Observers are more likely to agree on areas greater than 1 cm in diameter. Variation is reduced when fewer observers are used and they report findings as dichotomous or categorical data. PMID:16419264

  7. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Consumer’s Some Traditional Food Products Preferences by Multidimensional Scaling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Oraman G. Unak?tan E. Y?lmaz B. Ba?aran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate consumer behaviour towards factors affecting purchase decision of some traditional food products and grouping those consumer attitudes. The original data was obtained from results of a survey conducted in 14 different districts in Tekirdag. The survey consisted of face-to-face interviews conducted within a total sample of 166 households randomly. In the study, multidimensional scaling analysis is used for evaluating the effective factors of consumer preferences for traditional products and grouping their preferences. It is found that taste, food safety and freshness have similar effects on consumer preferences for yogurt, molasses and noodles. Price has an important and positive loaded effect on other variables for the three products.

  8. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production by Comamonas sp. EB172 Using Central Composite Design

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    Noor Azman Mohd Johar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Statistical approach, central composite design (CCD was used to investigate the complex interaction among temperature (25-37 °C, initial medium pH (5-9, inoculum size (4-10 % (v/v, concentration of (NH42SO4 (0-1 g/L and concentration of mixed organic acids (5-10 g/L in the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Comamonas sp. EB172.Methodology and Results: Mixed organic acids derived from anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME containing acetic:propionic:butyric (ratio of 3:1:1 were used as carbon source in the batch culture of Comamonas sp. EB172 to produce polyhydoxyalkanoates (PHAs. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that all five factors were significantly important in the batch fermentation by shake flask with a P value of less than 0.001. The optimal temperature, initial medium pH, inoculum size, concentration of (NH42SO4 and concentration of mixed organic acids were 30 °C, 7.04, 4.0 % (v/v, 0.01 g/L and 5.05 g/L respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Optimization of the production medium containing mixed organic acids has improved the PHA production for more than 2 folds. Under optimal condition in the shake flask fermentation, the predicted growth is 2.98 g/L of dry cell weight (DCW with 47.07 wt % of PHA content. The highest yield of PHA was 0.28 g of PHA per g mixed organic acids.

  9. Factors affecting the production of nanostructure lipid carriers of valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Eskandari, Sharareh; Kennedy, Ross; Tabbakhian, Majid; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize a nano-lipid carrier (NLCs) of valproic acid for nasal delivery using statistical methods. NLCs were prepared by solvent diffusion method followed by ultrasonication. After a preliminary screening study using Taguchi design, the Box-Behnken statistical model using desirability function was applied to evaluate variables affecting key specifications (minimum particle size, maximum drug loading and optimum release) of nano-lipid carriers of valproic acid. Each variable was assessed at three levels of surfactant concentration, acetone/ethanol volume ratio and organic/aqueous phase volume ratio. The best predicted model for particle size and drug release was quadratic model, while for drug loading, 2 factor interaction model fitted better. The measured results for the optimized formulation were a mean size of 154 nm, 47% payload and 75% of drug content released within 21 days. The optimum formulation was obtained using 1% of Poloxamer-188 as surfactant, organic/aqueous phase volume ratio of 1/5 and acetone/ethanol volume ratio of 3/1. Overall, the results show that entrapment of valproic acid in nano-lipid carriers was achieved. Such carriers might be a promising delivery system in the treatment of seizures via the nasal route of administration. PMID:23627046

  10. Population dynamics of dechlorinators and factors affecting the level and products of PCB dechlorination in sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.S.; Sokol, R.C.; Liu, X.; Bethoney, C.M.; Rhee, G.Y. [State Univ. of New York and New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) often stops although a significant number of removable chlorines remain. To determine the reason for the cessation, we investigated the limitation of organic carbon, PCB bioavailability, and inhibition by metabolic products. Enrichment with carbon sources did not induce additional chlorination, indicating the plateau was not due to depletion of organic carbon. The bioavailability was not limiting, since a subcritical micelle concentration of the surfactant, which enhanced desorption without inhibiting dechlorinating microorganisms, failed to lower the plateau. Neither was it due to accumulation of metabolites, since no additional dechlorination was detected when plateau sediments were incubated with fresh medium. Similarly, dechlorination was not inhibited in freshly spiked sediment slurries. Dechlorination ended up at the same level with nearly identical congener profiles, regardless of treatment. These results indicate that cessation of dechlorination was due to the accumulation of daughter congeners, which cannot be used as electron acceptors by microbes. To determine whether the decreasing availability affected the microorganisms, we determined the population dynamics of dechlorinators using the most probable number technique. The growth dynamics of the dechlorinators mirrored the time course of dechlorination. It started when the population increased by two orders of magnitude. Once dechlorination stopped the dechlorinating population also began to decrease. When dechlorinators were inoculated into PCB-free sediments, the population decreased over time. The decrease of the population as dechlorination ceased confirms that the diminishing availability of congeners was the reason for the incomplete dechlorination. Recent findings have shown that a second phase of dechlorination of certain congeners can occur after a long lag. 45 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Genetic, Physiological, and Environmental Factors Affecting Acrylamide Concentration in Fried Potato Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery of acrylamide in processed potato products has brought increased interest in the controlling Maillard reaction precursors (reducing sugars and amino acids) in potato tubers. Because of their effects on nonenzymatic browning of fried potato products, reducing sugars and amino acids have...

  12. Factors affecting process temperature and biogas production in small-scale rural biogas digesters in winter in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuong, Pham Hung; Vu, C.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. © 2014 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.

  13. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING GROUNDNUT PRODUCTION IN SABONGARI LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Usman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundnut an important oil seed crop provides significant sources of cash through the sales of seed, cakes, oil and haulms. Groundnut plays an important role in the diets of rural populations. Groundnut pod yields from farmer’s field are low, averaging about 800 kg per ha, less than one-third the potential yield of 3000 kg per ha. This large gap is of concern and in view of this, the study was carried out to assess the socio economic characteristics of groundnut farmers, determine the level of profitability of groundnut production, the resource use efficiency as well as to find out problems encountered in groundnut production in Sabon-gari local government area. Seventy-nine farmers involved in groundnut production were randomly selected from the various farms located within the local government area. Data were collected using primary and secondary sources. To examine the profitability of groundnut production, the gross margin and cost benefit analysis were carried out. The result of the study shows that experienced farmers are less involved in groundnut production and most groundnut farmers are engaged in other form of businesses. The cost, availability, and lack of technical knowledge of inputs requirements are responsible for poor use of the inputs. Labour, fertilizer, seed and herbicides are all over utilized except insecticide which is underutilized. Among the problems encountered in groundnut production in the study are lacks of capital and extension services. These two problems accounted for over 78% of the problem of groundnut in the study area. It is therefore recommended that government and research institutes should strengthen extension services to deliver improved technologies to the farmers. Farmers are also advised to source for loans through cooperatives, banks and other available sources at low charges and the procedure for loan should be made simple to enable farmers’ access loans so that groundnut production can be improved.

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTOR THAT AFFECT TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimjel Zalkuwi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 250 farmers using purposive and simple random sampling with aid of structured schedule .The result of the stochastic frontier production 2 function analysis shows that the variance parameters, that is the sigma squared (? and the gamma (? were statistically significant at 1 % level for cowpea production. The coefficient of farm size, labour, seed and chemical were positive and significant at 1% level while family and hired labor was negative and insignificant. Profit level can be increased by increasing the amount of farm size, labour, quantity of seed and chemical, and decreasing the use of fertilizer. Mean efficiency were 0.73, Farmers operate at 27% below frontier level due to variation in technical efficiency. The inefficiency model shows that the coefficient of Age, family size and farming experience have negative apriori sign and in consonance with the apriori expectation

  15. Microorganisms and dietary factors affecting biohydrogenation and conjugated linoleic acid production in the rumen ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Margarida Rosa Garcez

    2010-01-01

    RESUMO - Microrganismos e factores alimentares que afectam a bioidrogenação e a produção de isómeros conjugados do ácido linoleico no ecossistema ruminal. - A crescente incidência de doenças cardiovasculares, obesidade e diabetes, tem sido associada com o elevado consumo de gorduras, nomeadamente de origem animal. Os produtos edíveis dos ruminantes, leite e carne, são ricos em gordura saturada, devido à bioidrogenação dos ácidos gordos (AG) da dieta pela população microbiana d...

  16. Factors affecting mining costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: investment decision-making, unit cost factors (declining ore grade, low-price contracts, ore grade/output relationship, above average cost increases). Economic, environmental, sociological and political aspects are considered. (U.K.)

  17. Lipid quality and oxidative stability in food products from animal origin, as affected by breeding factor

    OpenAIRE

    Funaro, Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays it is requested more investigations on alternative rearing systems that are able to improve poultry welfare and to warrant high-quality and safe meat products. This thesis work was focused on the evaluation of the oxidative stability of poultry meats, obtained with different rearing systems, diets (supplemented with bioactive compounds), and packaging conditions. The thesis work was divided into the following parts: - Evaluation of the effects of different rearing systems on ...

  18. Factors Affecting Students' Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Harb, Nasri; El-Shaarawi, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Determinants of students' performance have been the subject of ongoing debate among educators, academics, and policy makers. There have been many studies that sought to examine this issue and their findings point out to hard work, previous schooling, parents’ education, family income and self motivation as factors that have a significant effect on the students GPA. Most of those studies have focused on students' performance in the U.S. and Europe. However, since cultural differences may p...

  19. Factors affecting alkali jarosite precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrizac, J. E.

    1983-12-01

    Several factors affecting the precipitation of the alkali jarosites (sodium jarosite, potassium jarosite, rubidium jarosite, and ammonium jarosite) have been studied systematically using sodium jarosite as the model. The pH of the reacting solution exercises a major influence on the amount of jarosite formed, but has little effect on the composition of the washed product. Higher temperatures significantly increase the yield and slightly raise the alkali content of the jarosites. The yield and alkali content both increase greatly with the alkali concentration to about twice the stoichiometric requirement but, thereafter, remain nearly constant. At 97 °C, the amount of product increases with longer retention times to about 15 hours, but more prolonged reaction times are without significant effect on the amount or composition of the jarosite. Factors such as the presence of seed or ionic strength have little effect on the yield or jarosite composition. The amount of precipitate augments directly as the iron concentration of the solution increases, but the product composition is nearly independent of this variable. A significant degree of agitation is necessary to suspend the product and to prevent the jarosite from coating the apparatus with correspondingly small yields. Once the product is adequately suspended, however, further agitation is without significant effect. The partitioning of alkali ions during jarosite precipitation was ascertained for K:Na, Na:NH4, K:NH4, and K:Rb. Potassium jarosite is the most stable of the alkali jarosites and the stability falls systematically for lighter or heavier congeners; ammonium jarosite is slightly more stable than the sodium analogue. Complete solid solubility among the various alkali jarosite-type compounds was established.

  20. Factors affecting productivity and the role of customer relationship management: A case study of home appliance manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Mirzamohammadi; Forough Basirat Fard

    2012-01-01

    In today's competitive world, productivity- as a core source of production - is the most important target of the organization. Experimental studies in developed industrial countries prove that productivity improvements resulted from development of management systems play a more important role in production than physical increases in labor and capital factors. This paper, while focusing on productivity from a CRM perspective, employs a European Organizational Excellence Model framework to iden...

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  2. Reproductive status following artificial insemination and factors affecting conception rate in dairy cows in smallholder production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted to evaluate the reproductive status following artificial insemination (AI) and factors affecting conception rate (CR) in dairy cows under the smallholder production system, using the concentration of progesterone (P4) in milk samples taken on the day of AI (Sample 1), day 10-12 after AI (Sample 2) and day 22-24 after AI (Sample 3). The survey involved 115 cows in 33 farms. A follow-up study was carried out on four farms with interventions to improve record keeping, feed supplementation, heat detection and timely pregnancy diagnosis. Based on Sample 1 (n = 115), 93% of the cows had low P4 and were likely to have been in or close to oestrus at AI. Based on Samples 1 and 2 (n = 107), 85% of the cows had ovulatory oestrus. Based on all three samples (n = 59), 54.2% of the cows appeared to have conceived, 18.6% had either non-fertilization or early embryonic mortality and 18.6% had late embryonic mortality, luteal cyst or a persistent corpus luteum. The incidence of AI on pregnant animals was 1.7% and on those in doubtful reproductive status was 6.8%. The overall CR was 35.5% from 121 inseminations done on 115 cows. Mean intervals from calving to first AI (n = 77) and to conception (n = 43) were 90.7 and 113.6 days, respectively. The effects of level of milk production, lactation state and site of semen deposition on CR were significant (p 0.05) but CR tended to be lower in first parity cows and in cows with excessive body condition. The CR was also lower in farms that practice AI only in the afternoon, in farms where relatively less time was spent on dairy activities and in those farms practicing grazing and supplementation with concentrate only, as compared to those providing additional roughage supplementation. CR tended to be higher when AI was carried out by technicians with longer formal training. The survey showed that there was a high occurrence of ovulatory oestrus in cows under the smallholder production system but the CR obtained was low. This result can be attributed to factors related to the cow, nutrition, management and AI procedures. The interventions done on four farms resulted in shorter intervals from calving to first AI and conception, lower number of services per conception and higher CR, when compared with findings from the survey. (author)

  3. Analysis of Factors Affecting on Risk Management of Wheat Production Among Wheat Farmers (Razavieh Region, Khorasan-E-Razavi Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sarani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to analyze the Factors Affecting on risk management in wheat production among farmers of Razavieh region (Khorasan-E-Razavi province, Iran. Statistical population of the study was 1520 farmers that they had water cultivation. By using of stratified proportional random sampling 156 respondents were selected from 8 villages. For the calculation of the risk-aversion coefficient degree among farmers, the Safety First Rule model was used. The findings revealed that the dominant respondents (65% were risk-averse. The results of exploratory factorial analysis showed that five factors determined about 74.267 % from total variance for wheat farmers' risk management that consist of: economy & marketing management factor, planting management factor, harvest management factor, infrastructure management of farming and risk-sharing management factor. From among of the above mentioned factors, the most important factor of risk management in study region was factor of economy & marketing management

  4. Gaining Competitiveness Trough Understanding Critical Factors Affecting the Production System : A Case study in cooperation with GKN Driveline Köping AB

    OpenAIRE

    Rosén, Jan-Peter; Haukirauma, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Globalization and the increasing time to market have led to ever-higher requirements on the production systems. More than often the short-term thinking and the chase for profit lead to cheap quick fixes. The manufacturing industry changes slowly while the market is changing rapidly, which requires long-term planning for capacity increase but at the same time the ability to rapidly respond to changes. The most crucial factors determining the ability to efficiently produce and deliver a product...

  5. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    OpenAIRE

    McBride Sebastian D; Mills Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...

  6. Factors Affecting Radon Concentration in Houses

    OpenAIRE

    AL-SHARIF, A.

    2001-01-01

    The dangers to the human health upon exposure to radon and its daughter products is the main motivation behind the vast number of studies performed to find the concentration of radon in our living environment, including our houses. The presence of radon and its daughter products in houses are due to various sources including building materials and the soil under the houses. Many factors affect radon concentration in our houses, the elevation above ground level,ventilation, building mater...

  7. A Study of Factors Affecting on Men’s Skin Care ProductsPurchasing, Particularly in Karlstad, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    SURAKIATPINYO, JIRAPORN; MOUNGKHEM, CHANINTORN

    2010-01-01

    This study examines in some depth the influences of marketing mix, social factors, emergence of the metrosexual, evolution of femininity and masculinity, self-esteem and customer decision making on the male consumer behavior in purchasing skin care products in Sweden, particular in Karlstad. In do so, the theories of masculinity and femininity, customer behavior theory, customer decision making’s theory, theory of metrosexual and theory of the four Ps in marketing mix strategy are employed as...

  8. Factors affecting process temperature and biogas production in small-scale rural biogas digesters in winter in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuong, Pham Hung; Vu, C.C.; Sommer, Sven G.; Bruun, Sander

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil ...

  9. The sigma factor sigma s affects antibiotic production and biological control activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarniguet, A; Kraus, J.; Henkels, M D; Muehlchen, A M; Loper, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5, a rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium that suppresses several soilborne pathogens of plants, produces the antibiotics pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin, and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. A gene necessary for pyrrolnitrin production by Pf-5 was identified as rpoS, which encodes the stationary-phase sigma factor sigma s. Several pleiotropic effects of an rpoS mutation in Escherichia coli also were observed in an RpoS- mutant of Pf-5. These included sensitivities of stationary-p...

  10. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  11. Pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation of MG63 osteoblast-like cells affects differentiation and local factor production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, C H; Schwartz, Z; Liu, Y; Guerkov, H; Dean, D D; Simon, B; Boyan, B D

    2000-07-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation has been used to promote the healing of chronic nonunions and fractures with delayed healing, but relatively little is known about its effects on osteogenic cells or the mechanisms involved. The purpose of this study was to examine the response of osteoblast-like cells to a pulsed electromagnetic field signal used clinically and to determine if the signal modulates the production of autocrine factors associated with differentiation. Confluent cultures of MG63 human osteoblast-like cells were placed between Helmholtz coils and exposed to a pulsed electromagnetic signal consisting of a burst of 20 pulses repeating at 15 Hz for 8 hours per day for 1, 2, or 4 days. Controls were cultured under identical conditions, but no signal was applied. Treated and control cultures were alternated between two comparable incubators and, therefore, between active coils; measurement of the temperature of the incubators and the culture medium indicated that application of the signal did not generate heat above the level found in the control incubator or culture medium. The pulsed electromagnetic signal caused a reduction in cell proliferation on the basis of cell number and [3H]thymidine incorporation. Cellular alkaline phosphatase-specific activity increased in the cultures exposed to the signal, with maximum effects at day 1. In contrast, enzyme activity in the cell-layer lysates, which included alkaline phosphatase-enriched extracellular matrix vesicles, continued to increase with the time of exposure to the signal. After 1 and 2 days of exposure, collagen synthesis and osteocalcin production were greater than in the control cultures. Prostaglandin E2 in the treated cultures was significantly reduced at 1 and 2 days, whereas transforming growth factor-beta1 was increased; at 4 days of treatment, however, the levels of both local factors were similar to those in the controls. The results indicate enhanced differentiation as the net effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on osteoblasts, as evidenced by decreased proliferation and increased alkaline phosphatase-specific activity, osteocalcin synthesis, and collagen production. Pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation appears to promote the production of matrix vesicles on the basis of higher levels of alkaline phosphatase at 4 days in the cell layers than in the isolated cells, commensurate with osteogenic differentiation in response to transforming growth factor-beta1. The results indicate that osteoblasts are sensitive to pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation, which alters cell activity through changes in local factor production. PMID:11052501

  12. Major Factors Affecting on the Productivity of Faculty Members and their Ranking using Multiple Criteria Decision Method. Case Study: Universities and Higher Education Centers of the Ardabil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delshad Namin Shirin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research has examined differences between factors affecting productivity of faculty of universities and higher education centers of the Ardabil based on three groups involved means faculty, staff of educational and research units and students, and are considered as basis of rankings. Based on components of NASIRI POUR model (2011 and using ANOVA test unanimity of different aspects affecting efficiency in terms of the three groups studied. Due to significant differences in means, LSD post hoc test was used and it was determined that in organizational culture, the mean of student than the other two groups, in empowering, the mean of employees than other groups, in the motivational factors, the mean of student than another groups and in the way of managing, the mean of employees than other two groups are different. Finally, using the technique of TOPSIS, factors affecting productivity of faculty were ranked. The results showed that the components of empowerment, environmental conditions, organizational culture, leadership method (management and motivational factors are most important in enhancing the productivity of faculty members of Ardebil universities, respectively.

  13. The level of fertilizer use in sunflower production and the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the factors affecting the amount of fertilizer used in sunflower production have been investigated. Average sunflower production area was determined as 21.91 da and sunflower was grown in irrigated conditions. Average plant nutrients was 20.92 kg N/da, 14.33 kg P2O5/da, and 2.22 kg K2O/da. As a result of the study, it has been determined that farmers used excess fertilizer in sunflower production. In addition, in the use of plant nutrients, the factors such as farm size, sources of fertilizer, irrigation possibilities, credit use situation, and the quality of land were statistically significant contrary to the factors such as land usage situation, educational level of farmers and deciding on fertilization. Refs. 6 (author)

  14. Factors Affecting Hydrogen Production from Cassava Wastewater by a Co-Culture of Anaerobic Sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissara Reungsang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of batch experiments were used to investigate the effects of environmental factors i.e., total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations, initial pH, illumination pattern and stirring conditions on hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by a co-culture of anaerobic sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum. The maximum of the hydrogen yield of 150.46 and 340.19 mL g-COD-1 was obtained at the total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations of 0.2 and 0.04 M, respectively. An effect of initial pH was investigated at COD:N:P ratio of 100:10:1. Results indicated that an optimum initial pH for hydrogen production was pH 7 with a high hydrogen yield of 158.78 mL g-COD-1 was obtained. No significantly different (p<0.05 in the effect of illumination pattern (24 h of light and 12 h dark/light cycle on hydrogen production were observed under continuous-illumination and periodic-illumination with hydrogen yield of 131.84 and 126.92 mL g-COD-1, respectively. Therefore, a periodic-illumination was applicable in hydrogen fermentation due to its cost-effective. Hydrogen fermentation with a stirring at 100 rpm provided more effective hydrogen production (164.83 mL g-COD-1 than static-fermentation (93.93 mL g-COD-1. The major soluble products from hydrogen fermentation were acetic and butyric acids, in the ranges of 28.33-48.30 and 35.23-66.07%, respectively, confirming an ability of a co-culture to produce hydrogen from cassava wastewater.

  15. Psychological Factors Affecting Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sati Unal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed to determine the psychological factors affecting infertile women presenting at the infertility outpatients department. METHOD: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women who presented at the IVF center of a special branch hospital or a university hospital, March 2008 through September 2008, as determined by the non-random sampling method. All participating women gave their informed consent. The data were collected using the Data Form that consisted of questions on socio-demographic features and the Infertility Distress Scale (IDS. In the results, percentages were provided along with the Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation tests. RESULTS: The mean IDS was 39.01±9.6. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the mean IDS score and age (r=0.106, p=0.048, marriage duration (r=0.232, p<0.001 and duration of desire to have a child (r=0.217, p<0.001. Women who were primary school graduates (X²=13.03, p=0.004, did not work (p=0.007, had no social security benefits (p=0.021 or from low socioeconomic status (X²=24.85, p<0.001 had significantly higher mean IDS scores. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show women become more adversely affected by infertility as their age, duration of marriage, and duration of desire to have a child increase. Women who are primary school graduates, do not work, have no social security benefits or have lower income are affected more negatively. We believe that taking these features into account when evaluating and planning supportive approaches for women presenting at the infertility treatment center and determining the psychological state of the women using the IDS will increase treatment success. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 481-486

  16. Genetic Factors in Rhizobium Affecting the Symbiotic Carbon Costs of N2 Fixation and Host Plant Biomass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SkØt, L.; Hirsch, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of genetic factors in Rhizobium on host plant biomass production and on the carbon costs of N2 fixation in pea root nodules was studied. Nine strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum were constructed, each containing one of three symbiotic plasmids in combination with one of three different genomic backgrounds. The resulting strains were tested in symbiosis with plants of Pisum sativum using a flow-through apparatus in which nodule nitrogenase activity and respiration were measured simultaneously under steady state conditions. Nodules formed by strains containing the background of JI6015 had the lowest carbon costs of N2 fixation (7.10–8.10 ?mol C/?mol N2), but shoot dry weight of those plants was also smaller than that of plants nodulated by strains with the background of B151 or JI8400. Nodules formed by these two strain types had carbon costs of N2 fixation varying between 11.26 and 13.95 ?mol C/?mol N2. The effect of symbiotic plasmids on the carbon costs was relatively small. A time-course experiment demonstrated that nodules formed by a strain derived from JI6015 were delayed in the onset of nitrogenase activity and had a lower rate of activity compared to nodules induced by a strain with the background of B151. The relationship between nitrogenase activity, carbon costs of N2 fixation and host plant biomass production is discussed.

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING INTERNATIONAL LABOR MIGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ???????

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  The article reviews the evolution of the main theories that explain the labor migration system impacts on international labor migration are shown. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of external labor migration factors in Ukraine based on the use of the basic tenets of the "push and pull factors" theory.

  18. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    OpenAIRE

    Fethi Ahmet INAN; Erman YUKSELTURK

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention ...

  19. An analysis of the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use in crop production. A case study of Tokat - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, socio-economic factors (size of land, number of irrigation, age of farmers, educational level of farmers, soil analysis, and extension services) to be effected to the level of fertilizer use have been investigated. It has been determined that socio-economic factors have an important effect on fertilizer use in tomatoes growing. However, their effects on fertilization in wheat and sugar beet growing is limited due to traditional and contract farming. And also, there is no effect of extension services in the region on the level of fertilizer use in all crops. The quantity of fertilizer used was 51.64 kg/da in sugar beet, 18.20 kg/da in wheat (dry), 19.03 kg/da in wheat (irrigated) and 73.77 kg/da in tomatoes growing. Refs. 5 (author)

  20. A review of factors affecting productivity of bald eagles in the Great Lakes region: implications for recovery.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowerman, W W; Giesy, J P; Best, D A; Kramer, V J

    1995-01-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population in North America declined greatly after World War II due primarily to the eggshell thinning effects of p,p'-DDE, a biodegradation product of DDT. After the banning of DDT in the United States and Canada during the early 1970s, the bald eagle population started to increase. However, this population recovery has not been uniform. Eagles nesting along the shorelines of the North American Great Lakes and rivers open to spawning runs of anadromo...

  1. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  2. SUBTASK 1.7 EVALUATION OF KEY FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL OIL PRODUCTION IN THE BAKKEN FORMATION, NORTH DAKOTA PHASE II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen; Damion J. Knudsen; John A. Harju; Edward N. Steadman

    2011-10-31

    Production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations continues to trend upward as forecasts predict significant production of oil from unconventional resources nationwide. As the U.S. Geological Survey reevaluates the 3.65 billion bbl technically recoverable estimate of 2008, technological advancements continue to unlock greater unconventional oil resources, and new discoveries continue within North Dakota. It is expected that the play will continue to expand to the southwest, newly develop in the northeastern and northwestern corners of the basin in North Dakota, and fully develop in between. Although not all wells are economical, the economic success rate has been near 75% with more than 90% of wells finding oil. Currently, only about 15% of the play has been drilled, and recovery rates are less than 5%, providing a significant future of wells to be drilled and untouched hydrocarbons to be pursued through improved stimulation practices or enhanced oil recovery. This study provides the technical characterizations that are necessary to improve knowledge, provide characterization, validate generalizations, and provide insight relative to hydrocarbon recovery in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. Oil-saturated rock charged from the Bakken shales and prospective Three Forks can be produced given appropriate stimulation treatments. Highly concentrated fracture stimulations with ceramic- and sand-based proppants appear to be providing the best success for areas outside the Parshall and Sanish Fields. Targeting of specific lithologies can influence production from both natural and induced fracture conductivity. Porosity and permeability are low, but various lithofacies units within the formation are highly saturated and, when targeted with appropriate technology, release highly economical quantities of hydrocarbons.

  3. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Bagher Kamali; Farideh Azimi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural developmentin Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have abetter insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as alearning forum for bringing about changes for all participants,they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciativeinquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting thefacilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors andpreventi...

  4. Factors affecting road crash modeling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Malaya, Mohanty; Ankit, Gupta.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Road accident fatalities have been on an increasing trend for the last decade or so in India. Hence traffic safety management has emerged as a topic of discussion for researchers all over the world. Hence accident modelling on different factors causing them has to be conducted. Accident mod [...] elling helps us to know the real causative agents behind an accident to occur. The effect of one cause can be greater than the other. And those causes can only be known from accident modelling. In this paper we have tried to divide this accident modelling techniques into two different categories based on the location of road i.e. accidents on urban roads and on rural roads. In both urban and rural road accident studies it was seen that mainly regression techniques like linear, multi-linear, logit and poisons regression have been used for modelling the road crashes. It was also marked that mostly authors have tried to research on one cause and go deep into it rather considering all factors at a time. From the studies it was found that speed and age along with gender has been the area of study for accident causes in urban areas whereas in rural roads mostly all authors have limited their studies to speed on roads and has been noted as the major cause of accidents in rural areas. This paper has tried to review as much papers as possible and various gaps in research along with future scope of study in this area has been indicated. Starting from the basic models like negative binomial/Poisson's model to the logistic and linear regressions to the new modeling techniques involving genetic mining and fuzzy logics have been discussed explicitly in the paper.

  5. Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Furkan Dincer; Mehmet Emin Meral

    2010-01-01

    A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most important factors that affecting efficiency of solar cells. These effects are cell temperature, MPPT (maximum power point tracking) and energy conversion efficiency. The changing of these factors i...

  6. Factors Affecting Hurricane Evacuation Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Protective actions for hurricane threats are a function of the environmental and information context; individual and household characteristics, including cultural worldviews, past hurricane experiences, and risk perceptions; and motivations and barriers to actions. Using survey data from the Miami-Dade and Houston-Galveston areas, we regress individuals' stated evacuation intentions on these factors in two information conditions: (1) seeing a forecast that a hurricane will hit one's area, and (2) receiving an evacuation order. In both information conditions having an evacuation plan, wanting to keep one's family safe, and viewing one's home as vulnerable to wind damage predict increased evacuation intentions. Some predictors of evacuation intentions differ between locations; for example, Florida respondents with more egalitarian worldviews are more likely to evacuate under both information conditions, and Florida respondents with more individualist worldviews are less likely to evacuate under an evacuation order, but worldview was not significantly associated with evacuation intention for Texas respondents. Differences by information condition also emerge, including: (1) evacuation intentions decrease with age in the evacuation order condition but increase with age in the saw forecast condition, and (2) evacuation intention in the evacuation order condition increases among those who rely on public sources of information on hurricane threats, whereas in the saw forecast condition evacuation intention increases among those who rely on personal sources. Results reinforce the value of focusing hurricane information efforts on evacuation plans and residential vulnerability and suggest avenues for future research on how hurricane contexts shape decision making. PMID:26299597

  7. Factors Affecting Students' Retention at Kuwait University

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKandari, Nabila

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…

  8. Factors affecting calculation of L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotola, Mark P.

    2001-08-01

    A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient, radio signals from billions of stars. SETI could succeed tomorrow, or it may be an endeavor for multiple generations. We are a very young technology in a very old galaxy. While our own leakage radiation continues to outshine the Sun at many frequencies, we remain detectable to others. When our use of the spectrum becomes more efficient, it will be time to consider deliberate transmissions and the really tough questions: Who will speak for Earth? What will they say?

  9. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Ahmet INAN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

  10. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color form...

  11. Factors Predicting Educational Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Carol E.; Jordan, K. Forbis

    Since 1968 educational productivity studies at the University of Florida have been analyzing data from six States and one city. Linear regression was used to identify high and low productive units by measuring the relationship between statistically selected input factors and a measure of student achievement. Discriminant analysis was employed to…

  12. Factors affecting the production and regeneration of protoplasts from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum / Fatores que afetam a produção e regeneração de protoplastos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francine Hiromi, Ishikawa; Quélen de Lima, Barcelos; Elaine Aparecida de, Souza; Eustáquio Souza, Dias.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta os fatores que afetam a produção e regeneração de protoplastos de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. O isolamento de protoplastos é muito relevante para diferentes aplicações, principalmente, em procedimentos que envolvem a manipulação genética. Estabilizadores osmóticos, e [...] nzimas líticas, tempo de incubação e idade micelial foram testados com relação ao efeito na liberação de protoplastos. As condições otimizadas para produção de protoplastos foram incubação de micélio jovem (48 h) em estabilizador osmótico NaCl 0.6 mol l-1, acrescido de 30 mg ml-1 da enzima Lysing Enzymes de Trichoderma harzianum incubado, durante 3 h. Nessas condições, a obtenção de protoplastos foi maior que 10(6) protoplatos ml-1 na mistura de digestão, número suficientemente adequado para experimentos de transformação em fungos. Sacarose nas concentrações de 1.2 mol l-1 e 1 mol l-1 foram os estabilizadores mais apropriados para a regeneração, após 48 h, sendo as taxas de regeneração de 16.35% e 14.54%, respectivamente. Este estudo produziu um método eficiente para produção e reversão de protoplastos à morfologia micelial típica de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum utilizando o isolado LV115. Abstract in english The present work reports factors affecting the production and regeneration of protoplasts from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The usefulness of protoplast isolation is relevant for many different applications and has been principally used in procedures involving genetic manipulation. Osmotic stabili [...] zers, lytic enzymes, incubation time and mycelial age were evaluated in terms of their effects on protoplast yield. The optimal condition for protoplast production included the incubation of young mycelia (48 h) in 0.6 mol l-1 NaCl as the osmotic stabilizer, with 30 mg ml-1 Lysing Enzymes from Trichoderma harzianum for 3 h of incubation. In these conditions protoplasts production was higher than 10(6) protoplatos ml-1 in the digestion mixture, number suitable enough for experiments of transformation in fungi. Sucrose concentrations of 1.2 mol l-1 and 1 mol l-1 were the most suitable osmotic stabilizers for the regeneration after 48 h, with rates of 16.35% and 14.54%, respectively. This study produced an efficient method for protoplast production and reverted them into a typical mycelial morphology using a Colletotrichum lindemuthianum LV115 isolate.

  13. Factors affecting Internet development: An Asian survey

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoming, Hao; Kay, Chow

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the Internet development and various social, economic and political factors that are hypothesized to affect the Internet growth. Using secondary data for 28 sampled Asian countries, this study tested seven hypotheses about the impact of various factors on Internet growth. The findings show that the Internet penetration is related to a country’s wealth, telecommunication infrastructure, urbanization and stability of the government, but not related t...

  14. Factors affecting production of an antilisterial bacteriocin by Carnobacterium piscicola strain A9b in laboratory media and model fish systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Himelbloom, B.; Nilsson, Lilian; Gram, Lone

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To investigate factors influencing bacteriocin production and bacteriocin stability of the bioprotective culture Carnobacterium piscicola strain A9b. Methods and Results: Maximum activity was obtained in MRS7 broth (MRS adjusted to pH 7.2), with or without glucose. No bacteriocin was produced in APT broth when a low inoculum level (0.001%) was used. In contrast, inoculum level did not influence bacteriocin production in BHI and MRS7 without glucose. Bacteriocin production in APT was induce...

  15. Factors Affecting Smoking Tendency and Smoking Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…

  16. CLIL Learning: Achievement Levels and Affective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully pupils had learned content in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and to assess pupils' affective learning factors, such as motivation and self-esteem, in CLIL. Learning was presented in terms of achievement level, which was described as the relationship between measured levels…

  17. Factors Affecting the Speed of Free Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Jonathan; Horne, Joanna; Singleton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting the free writing speed of 11-year-old students were investigated using the Group and Individual Assessment of Handwriting Speed. Intelligence, gender, legibility and whether the student has special educational needs or speaks English as an additional language were all found to impact on writing speed to a significant extent. In…

  18. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  19. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside. FP has been successful in Yingshan County in Hubei Province because education was given a priority and farmers' consciousness about population was raised. PMID:12317921

  20. SCREENING OF SELECTED OLEAGINOUS YEASTS FOR LIPID PRODUCTION FROM GLYCEROL AND SOME FACTORS WHICH AFFECT LIPID PRODUCTION BY YARROWIA LIPOLYTICA STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinee Sriwongchai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of eight yeast strains to utilize glycerol as a sole carbon source and accumulate lipids in a chemically defined medium was screened. Among the yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 grew to high cell densities on glycerol. These strains were further tested for lipid accumulation under varying nutritional conditions in Erlenmeyer flasks. The results showed that strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 accumulated lipids up to 37.1 % and 54.4 % of total cell dry weight, respectively, when the defined medium was supplemented with 1 g/L urea and 2 g/L yeast extract. The lipids accumulated by the two yeasts contained a high proportion of C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:0 fatty acids. The results suggest that Y. lipolytica strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 have the potential for converting crude glycerol into fatty acids which can in turn be utilized as substrate for biodiesel production.

  1. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette; Peacock, Linda; Jacobi, Marianne; Hassenbalch, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases. A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made acco...

  2. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having th...

  3. Factors affecting breeding in captive Carnivora

    OpenAIRE

    Schmalz-Peixoto, Karin E. von.; Dawkins, Marian Stamp; Macdonald, David W.; Stephen J. Simpson; Prof. Marian Dawkins; Prof. David MacDonald; Prof. Stephen Simpson

    2003-01-01

    ?Captive carnivores pose a challenge for conservationists and institutions alike, presenting many problems that range from diseases to poor welfare and unsuccessful breeding. Available databases of captive populations are rich sources of information that can help determine which factors can affect breeding success and the real potential of these populations in conservation programmes. Some species, such as tigers Panthera tigris, seem to preserve in captivity the same reprod...

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING THE SPORT RELATED CONSUMER EXPENDITURES

    OpenAIRE

    Aykan CANDEM?R; Ali Erhan ZALLUHO?LU

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a significant change in the importance given to economic and social role of sport related economic activities since sport has changed to a much broader concept involving sport clubs, associations, organizations and businesses where the implementation of carefully designed marketing strategies became vital for success. This study aims to explore the factors affecting the sport related consumer expenditures. Empirical results were obtained by means of a questionna...

  5. An experiment on the factors affecting simple reaction time

    OpenAIRE

    Hale Akkocao?lu; Burcu Kaya; Ufuk Türen

    2013-01-01

    Reaction time is considered as an important measure that affects performance of an individual both in business and private life. Especially, reaction time, which can be defined as a period of time being required for giving appropriate responses to the perceived stimuli, is an important factor in terms of efficiency of organization and also health and safety at work. Moreover, reaction time is regarded as an important factor in product design. In this study, an experiment is designed to reveal...

  6. Which Factors Affect Adolescent Food Preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main There are various factors that affect food preferences. Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main factors affecting food preferences. Additionally, general nutritional habits, family, friends, commercials, and availability of the food are also important for food preferences. Also, past experiences with foods are related to preferring or rejecting some foods. Socializing more with increasing age causes change in the food preferences of adolescents. Unhealthy nutrition habits form as a result of the adolescents consuming fast foods, spending time with their friends outside the house, and consuming more ready-made foods. Current developments in the food industry result in an increase in variety and consumption of snacks such as cookies, chocolate, chips, and crackers in adolescents. Considering all these, in this rewiev article, environmental and personal factors affecting food preferences have been investigated. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2013; 11: 121-7

  7. Factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tadeu Silva de, Oliveira; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; Cássio José da, Silva; Danielle Ferreira, Baffa; José Carlos, Pereira; Joanis Tilemahos, Zervoudakis.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry [...] matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistical analyses involved the application of descriptive and dispersion measures besides Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. The analyzed variables were highly correlated with feed efficiency. The feed efficiency of lactating goats was affected by the milk fat correction, dry matter digestibility, dietary fiber content, proportion of roughage in the diet and body weight. Among these factors, standardization of the milk fat appeared to be the most efficient in correcting the feed efficiency in lactating goats. Correction of some of these factors implies greater precision in the measurement of feed efficiency.

  8. How Employee Turnover Affects Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Bo

    Research on employee turnover suggests that turnover results in negative organization-level outcomes. This paper provides a firm-level analysis of the impact of the in- and outflows of human resources on productivity and how the presence of organizational slack resources moderates the effects of employee turnover. Drawing on a unique longitudinal dataset of 2,926 Danish manufacturing firms that combine individual-level data with firm-level data, the paper shows that job turnover has a substantial negative effect on total productivity but that the firm’s size, its capital intensity, and its age moderate this effect so that the negative consequences of employee turnover are less severe for larger, older and capital intensive firms. These moderating variables indicate the presence of slack resources in the firm, and thus that the accumulation of slack reduces the efficiency losses from employee turnover.

  9. How Employee Turnover Affects Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Research on employee turnover suggests that turnover results in negative organization-level outcomes. This paper provides a firm-level analysis of the impact of the in- and outflows of human resources on productivity and how the presence of organizational slack resources moderates the effects of employee turnover. Drawing on a unique longitudinal dataset of 2,926 Danish manufacturing firms that combine individual-level data with firm-level data, the paper shows that job turnover has a substantia...

  10. AN OVERVIEW ON FACTORS AFFECTING GLOBAL HRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Gondane

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mounting economic interdependence of countries globally through rising volume and multiplicity of cross border transactions in goods and services and international capital flows, and also through the more rapid and prevalent diffusion of technology had influences organizations that compete for customers with high expectations for performance, quality, and cost. The globe trade and industry order is changing speedily. Evolutionary transformations are taking place at revolutionary speed, principally pressed by strong external forces, arising out of a desire to rising competitiveness and competence. The organizations of world are no longer defined by national boundaries. Globalization also put forth stress on the Human Resource Management (HRM function to adjust to changing organizational needs, add greater value and hence, HRM is especially involved with those employees who are working across national boundaries in multinational or global enterprises. Functioning on an international level entails that the assumption of a universality of HR policies and practices and the faith in to administer in one best way has become indefensible. Aglobal organization wishes a worldwide HRM system that features decision making from a global point of view, managers from across national boundaries, and thoughts contributed by people from a diversity of cultures. The participants from different countries and cultures contribute ideas from a position of equality, rather than the home country's culture dominating. Organizations that function in more than one country must be acquainted with the countries that are not identical and differ in terms of many factors. This present research paper is an attempt to reviews major factors affecting HRM. The intention of this study is to examine the challenges/factors affecting the role of HRM.

  11. Factors affecting success of agricultural producers groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chlebicka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor organisation of agricultural markets in Poland remains one of the biggest problems for agricultural sector. There are about 510 agricultural producer groups, but only 2% of Polish farmers selling for market are members. Knowledge on cooperation determinants and different aspects of producer groups performance is crucial to build references for policy makers and producer groups’ managers. The aim of the article was to discuss factors affecting success of producers groups understood as a level of members’ satisfaction. Data for 2006 and 2011 from 30 producers groups in fruit and vegetable sector were analysed using logit model. Three determinants occurred to be statistically important: scope of a group functions, informal cooperation with farmers before starting a formal cooperation and homogeneity of farms.

  12. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

  13. Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING PHARMACOKINETIC DISPOSITION OF DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Hiren R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is a complex process the variability of which is influenced by many physicochemical and physiologic factors. The two most important physicochemical factors that affect both the extent and the rate of absorption are lipophilicity and solubility. The rate and extent of absorption are governed by the solubility, permeability and stability of the drug, with solubility being a pH-dependent parameter for weak acids and bases. The gastrointestinal tract can be viewed as discrete sections with a variety of differential local pH environments ranging from the acidic stomach to the more basic small intestine. The multiple peaking, double peaking or secondary peaking phenomena can occur in the disposition of a variety of xenobiotics during drug development (the pre-clinical phase and in subsequent clinical studies and use. The physicochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence of this phenomenon are often multi factorial and include but are not limited to solubility-limited absorption, modified-release formulations, complexation, enterohepatic recirculation, gastric emptying and the intestinal transit time, site-specific absorption, gastric secretion-enteral reabsorption. Double peak absorption has been described with several orally administered drugs such as cimetidine furosemide, piroxicam, ranitidine, talinolol, alprazolam and phenazopyridine.

  15. Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biscontin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

  16. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Sakalauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  17. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Liutvinavi?ius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  18. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  19. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  20. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magdalene H., Awases; Marthie C., Bezuidenhout; Janetta H., Roos.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors inf [...] luencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. METHOD: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. RESULTS: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  1. Factors that affect toilet training in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Önen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify age of initiation of toilet training and affecting factors for children. Material and Methods: 861 children were included in this study. "Chi square test", "Mann-Whitney U Test" and "Kruskall-Wallis Variance Analysis" statistical analysis methods have been applied. Ethical permission has been provided by local ethical committee. Results: 861 children under age of five were evaluated in this study (average age was 4±0.9; 433 children were boy (50.3%, 428 children were girl (49.7%. Age of initiation of toilet training was younger than 1 years old for 45 children (5.2%, between 13-18 month for 223 children (25.9%, between 19-24 month for 307 children (35.7%, between 25-30 month for 201 children (23.3% and older than 30 month for 85 children (9.9%. That families who live below hunger threshold and small families initiate toilet training earlier that other families were determined (p=0.001. Children in 19-24 month have shorter duration of toilet training than other groups (p<0.05. That children who live in shanty have longer duration of toilet training than children who live in apartment were determined (p=0,031. That 219 children (25.4% who had faced traumatic experiences which may affect training process, recently have longer duration of toilet training than other children (p=0,008. Duration of the training is shorter for f amilies who did not use toilet training methods than families who used methods. Conclusion: In our study, we found that age of initiation of toilet training is smaller for children who belong to family which has low level of income and small families. Duration of training is the longer for children whose initiation of toilet training was earlier than 18 month and later than 30 month, live in shanty, faced traumatic experiences.

  2. Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; HaugbØlle, Kim

    2013-01-01

    With all the advances in professionalism, methods, technology, and human resource training, we should have seen an increase in productivity. However, this has not happened and the construction industry is losing the battle to be competitive and has instead become a high-cost, low-productivity sector. By applying the theory that insufficient cooperation is the result of low trust the aim was to investigate how conditions for formation of positive and lasting trustful relationships can be created. A questionnaire survey including clients, contractors, architects, engineers and client design advisor was carried out. The analysis showed that the ability to be trustful can be developed through the experience of different factors (e.g. control mechanisms, mutual respect, repeated cooperation, shared understanding and communication). Furthermore, the ability to trust other parties depends on knowledge of others' skillsets. Interdisciplinary collaboration through education would limit the formation of negative stereotypes and the overall trust level increases, due to more and better knowledge of other disciplines.

  3. Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Te-chato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. were investigated. Types of explants, strains and densities of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and co-culture methods were examined to optimize gene transformation. The results showed that among strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tested, LBA 4404 containing pBI 121 gave the calli with the highest resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin at the concentration of 50-100 mg/l was the best range for selection of transformants. Higher density of agrobacteria tended to promote higher frequency of transformation. The best co-culture method was dipping the explant in a solution of agrobacteria for 10 minutes, followed by culturing onto co-culture medium without antibiotic for 48 hours. Among the explants used to co- culture with bacteria, half leaf treatment gave the best result for transformation; however, callus proliferation and plantlet regeneration were inferior to whole leaf treatment. Activity of ?-Glucuronidase (GUS could not be detected, thus resistance to kanamycin was used for detecting transformability. Shoot primordia could be induced from kanamycin-resistant calli grown in regeneration medium. After maintenance by subculturing to the same medium 2 to 3 times in 2-3 months, the developed shoots turned brown and finally died. Hence, the transformed plant of mangosteen was not obtained from this experiment.

  4. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    Poland joined the EU in 2004 and still has one of the Europe’s least developed information societies. Broadband penetration in Poland is still amongst the lowest in the EU and significantly below the EU average. Considering the present state of information technology, the key challenge for Poland is to reduce the gap between Poland and other EU Member Countries in the area of the development and implementation of information and communication technologies. However, Poland’s accession to the European Union and the implementation of EU regulation mechanisms accelerate the integration of Poland’s telecommunications market with the European market. The market reflects all the global trends, a gradually growing significance of mobile telecommunications services, broadband Internet access, construction of offers directed towards clients’ needs, and a strong trend towards market consolidation, which will gradually change the previous balance of power. The specific problem of the Polish market is its very poor infrastructure development and the lack of competitors on the fixed market. This translates into limited access to services for end users particularly in the rural areas. A much lower level of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level/distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined – with the ‘lightest’forms of intervention first and the ‘strongest’at the end. Furthermore, empirical evidence on the developments in access technologies and the policy initiatives taken by the Polish government are presented. Finally, there is a conclusion regarding the importance of the different types of public policy initiatives for broadband take-up in Poland.

  5. Factors affecting radiolytic effects in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On basis of radiation chemical considerations supported by model system studies, several general predictions can be made regarding the influence of specific parameters on the chemical effects in irradiated foods. Among the parameters considered are: food composition, physical state of components, irradiation temperature, dose-rate, and total dose. Composition determines the type and extent of reactions initiated by both direct and indirect radiolytic interaction. The multiphasic character of foods influences cross reactions between components. State of hydration introduces both physical and chemical aspects into these considerations. Irradiating systems in which the water is frozen changes substantially the chemical effects because the diffusion of reactive entities is impeded. Temperature, especially in frozen systems, has a specific effect on the type and extent of reactions that could occur. Dose and dose-rate, insofar as they affect the pathways for reaction of intermediate species with the original or new components, also determine the type and amount of final radiolysis products. Illustrations of many of these features of the chemistry have been drawn from experiments on model systems of proteins, frozen aqueous solutions, and compounds derived from lipids, as well as from irradiated meats and poultry. These considerations and related experimental results explain the validity of using chemical data to obtain clearances and to extend clearances from approved food to other foods or to other irradiation conditions. (author)

  6. Factors affecting newborn care practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Md; Ahmed, M Ranzu; Rahman, M Mokhlesur; Afroz, Afsana

    2012-01-01

    Newborn care is of immense importance for the proper development and healthy life of a baby. Although child and infant mortality in South Asia has reduced substantially, the rate of neonatal mortality is still high, although these deaths can be prevented by adopting simple interventions at the community level. The aim of the study was to identify the associated factors which affect newborn care practices. Data for the study were drawn from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007, in which 6150 mothers were considered. The mean age of the mothers was 18 (±3.2) years. A little over 62% of the pregnant women received at least one antenatal check-up during the entire period of their pregnancy. About 70% of deliveries were conducted at home either by unskilled family members or by relatives. A clean instrument was used for cutting the cord of 87% of the newborn babies, while about 34% of them were reported to have had their first bath immediately after delivery. Initiation of breast feeding immediately after birth was practised in only about 19% of the cases. Compared with mothers with no education, those with secondary or higher levels were associated with clean cord care [odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 1.9] and early breast feeding [OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2, 2.2]. The study revealed an urgent need to educate mothers, and train traditional birth attendants and health workers on clean delivery practices and early neonatal care. Increasing the number of skilled birth attendants can be an effective strategy to increase safe delivery practices, and to reduce delivery complications. PMID:22150703

  7. The knowledge - as production factor

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Enachi

    2009-01-01

    In the current economic context, knowledge becomes the new nucleus of progress. If in the traditional economy the production factors were land, labor and capital, in the new economy knowledge is the major component of the productive system. Through the present study we try to clarify the position of knowledge in the production system and its role as a production factor, by explaining how it effective acts and contributes to the increase of welfare at the organizational and national levels.

  8. Human factors for pleasure in product use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, P W

    1998-02-01

    Traditionally, human factors have tended to concentrate on making products 'usable'--focusing on utilitarian, functional product benefits. This paper reports an interview-based study looking at the issue of 'pleasure' in product use. The study was a 'first pass' at addressing the hedonic and experiential benefits and penalties associated with product use, and at identifying the properties of a product that influence how pleasurable or displeasurable it is to use. Feelings associated with using pleasurable products included security, confidence, pride, excitement and satisfaction. Displeasurable products, meanwhile, were associated with feelings that included annoyance, anxiety, contempt and frustration. The properties of products that were salient in terms of influencing the level of pleasure/displeasure with a product included features, usability, aesthetics, performance and reliability. Responses to questions investigating behavioural correlates to pleasure in product use suggested that pleasurable products were used more regularly and that future purchase choices would be affected by the level of pleasure in product use. It is concluded that the issue of pleasure in product use involves more than usability alone. As the user's representative in the product creation process, the human factors specialist should consider many other factors in order to ensure that the user's experience of product use is maximised. PMID:9769086

  9. Factors affecting hazardous waste solidification/stabilization: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malviya, Rachana; Chaudhary, Rubina

    2006-09-01

    Solidification/stabilization is accepted as a well-established disposal technique for hazardous waste. As a result many different types of hazardous wastes are treated with different binders. The S/S products have different property from waste and binders individually. The effectiveness of S/S process is studied by physical, chemical and microstructural methods. This paper summarizes the effect of different waste stream such as heavy metals bearing sludge, filter cake, fly ash, and slag on the properties of cement and other binders. The factors affecting strength development is studied using mix designs, including metal bearing waste alters the hydration and setting time of binders. Pore structure depends on relative quantity of the constituents, cement hydration products and their reaction products with admixtures. Carbonation and additives can lead to strength improvement in waste-binder matrix. PMID:16530943

  10. Factors affecting the reactivity of organolanthanide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors affecting the reactivity of organolanthanide and organoyttrium complexes were probed by hydrogenolysis and thermal reactions. Hydrogenolysis of the complexes [(C5H4R)2LnCH3]2 (R = H, CH3; Ln = Er, Lu, Y, Yb), (C5H4R)>LnR' (R = H, CH3; Ln = Lu, Y, Yb; R' = CH2SiMe3, CMe3) and [(C5H4R)2LnR'2] [Li[S]4] (R = H, CH3; Ln = Y, Yb; R' = CH3, CH2SiMe3, [S] = dimethoxyethane, tetramethylethylenediamine) revealed the importance of steric effects and solvation to the reactivity of biscyclopentadienyl alkyl and dialkyl complexes. Using these data, optimum conditions for obtaining ytterbium hydrides were determined, and the ytterbium hydride analogues of [(C5H5)2YH(THF)]2 and {[(C5H4)YH]3H}{Li(THF)4} were prepared. Thermolysis of the complexes (C5H4R)2 Y(CH2SiMe3) (THF) and (C5H5)2 YbCH3 (THF) resulted in the formation of the enolate complexes [(C5H4R)2Ln(?-OCH = CH2]2. These complexes can also be generated by the metathesis reaction involved LiOHC = CH2 and [(C5H4R)2LnCl]2. The effect of coordinating solvent upon the stability of organolanthanide complexes is also discussed. Application of the principles revealed by these investigated led to the successful synthesis of the monocyclopentadienyl complexes [(C5H4R)Y(CH2SiMe3)3][Li[S]4] (R = H, CH3' S4 = (DME)2, (THF)4). Over the course of these investigations, the crystal structures of (C5H5)2YbCH3 (THF), [(CH3C5H4)2Y(?-OCH = CH2]2, [(C5H5)2Y(CH2SiMe3)2]2Li2(CH3OCH2CH2OCH3)2(?-1,4-C4H8O2) and [(C5H5)3Y]2(?-1,4-C4H8O2) were obtained

  11. Does Labour Diversity affect Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2011-01-01

    Using a matched employer-employee dataset, we analyze how workforce diversity in cultural background, education and demographic characteristics affects productivity of firms in Denmark. Implementing a structural estimation of the firms' production function (Ackerberg et al., 2006) we find that labor diversity in education significantly enhances a firm's value added. Conversely, diversity in ethnicity and demographics induces negative effects on firm productivity. Hence, the negative effects, coming from communication and integration costs connected to a more culturally and demographically diverse workforce, seem to outweigh the positive effects coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers.

  12. Factors Affecting Degradation of Aldicarb and Ethoprop

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Russell L.; Norris, Frank A.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical and microbial degradation of the nematicides-insecticides aldicarb and ethoprop has been studied extensively in both laboratory and field studies. These studies show that temperature is the most important variable affecting the degradation rate of aldicarb and its carbamate metabolites in surface soils. Temperature and organic matter appear to be the most important variables affecting degradation rates of ethoprop in soils under normal agricultural conditions, with organic matter bei...

  13. How Student Satisfaction Factors Affect Perceived Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C.

    2010-01-01

    Data from students in two sections of a general education course offered at a research university in spring 2009 were used to explore whether student satisfaction factors are associated with perceived learning as rated by students. A list of 22 elements in the learning environment was explored. The 22 were used in creating 3 satisfaction factors

  14. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    A review is given of the factors determining placental oxygen transfer and the oxygen supply to the fetus. In the case of continuous variables, such as the rate of placental blood flow, it is not possible to trace evolutionary trends. Discontinuous variables, for which we can define character states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into...

  15. Spatialization of climate, physical and socioeconomic factors that affect the dairy goat production in Brazil and their impact on animal breeding decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando B. Lopes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has high climate, soil and environmental diversity, as well as distinct socioeconomic and political realities, what results in differences among the political administrative regions of the country. The objective of this study was to determine spatial distribution of the physical, climatic and socioeconomic aspects that best characterize the production of dairy goats in Brazil. Production indices of milk per goat, goat production, milk production, as well as temperature range, mean temperature, precipitation, normalized difference vegetation index, relative humidity, altitude, agricultural farms; farms with native pasture, farms with good quality pasture, farms with water resources, farms that receive technical guidance, family farming properties, non-familiar farms and the human development index were evaluated. The multivariate analyses were carried out to spatialize climatic, physical and socioeconomic variables and so differenciate the Brazilian States and Regions. The highest yields of milk and goat production were observed in the Northeast. The Southeast Region had the second highest production of milk, followed by the South, Midwest and North. Multivariate analysis revealed distinctions between clusters of political-administrative regions of Brazil. The climatic variables were most important to discriminate between regions of Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to implement animal breeding programs to meet the needs of each region.

  16. Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmo Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service system such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - ‘wireless internet’ and ‘mobile applications’ - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

  17. Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Youngmo, Kang; Mingook, Lee; Sungjoo, Lee.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service syste [...] m such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT) and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - 'wireless internet' and 'mobile applications' - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

  18. On the factors affecting product distribution in laccase-catalyzed oxidation of a lignin model compound vanillyl alcohol: experimental and computational evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Maarit; Heinonen, Petri; Oivanen, Mikko; Karhunen, Pirkko; Kruus, Kristiina; Sipilä, Jussi

    2013-09-01

    Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are multicopper oxidases, which can oxidize phenolic substrates by the concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The phenolic substructures of lignin are also oxidized by laccases, resulting mainly in various polymerized products. Several model compound studies indicate that variations in the reaction media, such as the pH and the enzyme dosage used, have an impact on the observed product distribution of laccase promoted oxidation, but no detailed study has been reported to explain these results. In the present study, a monomeric lignin model compound, vanillyl alcohol, was oxidized in laccase-catalyzed reactions by varying the pH, enzyme dosage and temperature. The energies of all the observed products and potential intermediates were calculated by applying density functional theory (DFT) and the polarizable continuum solvation model (PCM). The observed predominant product at pH 4.5 to 7.5 was clearly the 5-5' dimer, although the thermodynamic product according to the calculated free energies was vanillin, the difference being 5.6 kcal mol(-1). The hydrogen bonding is shown to give an additional stabilizing effect on the transition state leading to the 5-5' dimer, but also a kinetic barrier reduces the formation of vanillin. Based on the calculated pKa-values of the proposed intermediates we suggest that the rearomatization reactions of the quinones formed in the radical reactions under mildly acidic and neutral conditions would preferentially occur through deprotonation rather than through protonation. PMID:23851662

  19. Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; Haugbølle, Kim; Bejder, Erik

    2013-01-01

    With all the advances in professionalism, methods, technology, and human resource training, we should have seen an increase in productivity. However, this has not happened and the construction industry is losing the battle to be competitive and has instead become a high-cost, low-productivity sector. By applying the theory that insufficient cooperation is the result of low trust the aim was to investigate how conditions for formation of positive and lasting trustful relationships can be created....

  20. Factors Affecting Quality of Life Following Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlen PEKER; Soner AVCILAR; Gozde Ozcan SOYLEV; Ozlem EL; Senocak, Ozlem

    2008-01-01

    Stroke is a chronic and important health problem affecting all aspects of an individual’s life. Neurological impairment resulting from stroke leads to functional disability in patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of age, gender, duration of stroke and side of hemiplegia on the quality of life and the correlation between disability indices and the quality of life. Sixty-eight patients followed by the Stroke Policlinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department ...

  1. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Richard A. Watson

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position,...

  2. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  3. Some Factors Affecting the Production of Carotenoids by <i>Rhodotorula glutinis</i> var. <i>glutinis</i>

    OpenAIRE

    Amr A. El-Banna; Amal M. Abd El-Razek; Ahmed R. El-Mahdy

    2012-01-01

    A new yeast strain isolated from pin cushion flower (Scabiosa atropurpura) in our laboratory was selected from 200 yeast isolates as carotenoids producer and identified as Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis. The selected isolate was grown in synthetic medium to study the effect of carbon to nitrogen ratio, sources of nitrogen and carbon, mineral salts and incubation temperature on carotenoids production. The results indicated the following optimal conditions: carbon to nitrogen ratio of 5, am...

  4. Factors Affecting the Textural Properties of Pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, Sean Frederick

    2009-01-01

    Research concerning rate and extent of tenderization has focused on beef or lamb. However, it is critical to understand these processes in pork, especially as retailers move towards minimally processed or non-enhanced product. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the textural properties of pork (firmness and tenderness) by examining…

  5. Econometrics Analysis on Factors Affecting Student Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Yueyi Sun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to identify school-level variables that influence academic outcomes, and to determine the extent of their influence. Using state-level panel data, this study estimates a simple achievement function to explore the nexus between three identified factors (percentage of students eligible for reduced/free lunch program, school enrolment and per-pupil expenditure) and student achievement (percentage of satisfactory of 4th grade math and read) in the United States. Method: B...

  6. Risk factors that affect recurrence in strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Bayba?

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent stroke is defined as a new cerebrovascular event which occurs after the stabilization of the previous stroke. Recurrence of stroke increases likelihood of disability-mortality associated with stroke. Systematic evaluation of stroke cases can help to reduce the risk of recurrence. Objective: In order to predict strokes which carry the risk of recurrence, we aimed to compare data related to risk factors, stroke type, etiology and disability-mortality rates associated with stroke. Material And Method: Patients with stroke who referred to Bak?rkoy Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases Training and Research State Hospital between June 1, 2002 and February 28, 2003 were recorded into the stroke database in a consecutive and prospective manner. Strokes were classified as ischemic/hemorrhagic and first/recurrent. For recurrent strokes, information about previous strokes was also recorded. Risk factors were classified as hypertension (HT, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation (AF, coronary artery disease (CAD, migraine, transient ischemic accident (TIA, family history of cerebrovascular accident (CVA, oral contraceptive use, PAD, congestive heart failure (CHF, other heart diseases, smoking cigarette and alcohol consumption. Disability-mortality rates associated with stroke were evaluated. All data were compared for first and recurrent strokes. Results: In our study, 631 patients were evaluated, 52.3% of whom were female and 47.7% male. Frequency of stroke was statistically high (p<0.001 in females over 70 years old. Recurrent strokes were of the same type. For the first and recurrent strokes, HT was the highest risk factor. AF frequency increased with age (p<0.001. The rate of disability-mortality was found high in strokes of undetermined and cardioembolic origin. Conclusion: Knowledge of etiologic group can help to predict recurrence of stroke and prevent death. We think that effective treatment of modifiable risk factors identified in stroke groups where recurrence is the highest, and prioritising the investigation of cardioembolic risk factors in elderly women are significant in terms of primary and secondary stroke prevention.

  7. Analysis of a Modern Hybrid and an Ancient Sugarcane Implicates a Complex Interplay of Factors in Affecting Recalcitrance to Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci-Silva, Maria Esther; Rhys Williams, Thomas Christopher; Alves Peçanha, Diego; Contin Ventrella, Marília; Rencoret, Jorge; Ralph, John; Pereira Barbosa, Márcio Henrique; Loureiro, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Abundant evidence exists to support a role for lignin as an important element in biomass recalcitrance. However, several independent studies have also shown that factors apart from lignin are also relevant and overall, the relative importance of different recalcitrance traits remains in dispute. In this study we used two genetically distant sugarcane genotypes, and performed a correlational study with the variation in anatomical parameters, cell wall composition, and recalcitrance factors between these genotypes. In addition we also tracked alterations in these characteristics in internodes at different stages of development. Significant differences in the development of the culm between the genotypes were associated with clear differential distributions of lignin content and composition that were not correlated with saccharification and fermentation yield. Given the strong influence of the environment on lignin content and composition, we hypothesized that sampling within a single plant could allow us to more easily interpret recalcitrance and changes in lignin biosynthesis than analysing variations between different genotypes with extensive changes in plant morphology and culm anatomy. The syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio was higher in the oldest internode of the modern genotype, but S/G ratio was not correlated with enzymatic hydrolysis yield nor fermentation efficiency. Curiously we observed a strong positive correlation between ferulate ester level and cellulose conversion efficiency. Together, these data support the hypothesis that biomass enzymatic hydrolysis recalcitrance is governed by a quantitative heritage rather than a single trait. PMID:26252208

  8. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  9. Evaluation of factors affecting on lipid extraction for recovery of fatty acids from Nannochloropsis oculata micro-algae to biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed at determining the appropriate method for dewatering and drying biomass and selecting a suitable organic solvent for lipid extraction. Methods: NannochloropsisOculata was cultured in Gillard F/2 medium and after reaching the end of the stationary growth phase, algal biomass was separated from aqueous by centrifuge and dried through three methods: Oven, Air-dried and Lyophilized. Soxhlet apparatus achieved lipid extraction of all samples: diethyl ether, n-hexane and n-pentane using three solvents. At each stage, the quantity and quality of the extracted lipids were determined by Gas Chromatography. Results: In all three drying methods, palmitic acid and palmitoleic acid, and most significantly fatty acid composition of microalgae were extracted. The fatty acid composition of palmitic acid extracted by Diethyl ether was significantly more than the other two solvents. Maximum production of triglyceride was observed in Lyophilized and air-dried microalgae where lipid extraction was performed with diethyl ether solvents and are 75.03% and 76.72% of fatty acid. Conclusion: The use of Lyophilized method for dewatering and drying of biomass and Diethyl ether as solvent for the extraction of lipids from biomass, studied in this paper, as compared to other methods, had higher yields and researches proved that the production of biodiesel from microalgae’s lipid was more efficient.

  10. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  11. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail. PMID:22530712

  12. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdun Kuyucu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  13. Factors affecting home range of mallard pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechmann, J.H.

    1976-06-01

    Certain habitat and social factors were investigated for their effect on home range size of mallard (Anas platyhynchos) pairs breeding in a forested region of north-central Minnesota during the spring of 1971--72. Data from 31 radio-marked hens and drakes were used, but primary emphasis was placed on 8 pairs (5 with both members of the pair marked). Pairs were radio-tracked on river marsh areas, river channels, and large sand lakes to provide comparative data for evaluating home range size differences. Home ranges varied from an average of 53 ha for pairs using primarily river habitat to 871 ha for pairs using only large sand lakes. River and lake shorelines varied considerably in species and density of vegetation. Interaction between pairs as well as density of flocked males appeared to be influenced by these habitat differences with resultant effects on home range sizes.

  14. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsa M.E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol is one of the major risk factors for individuals’ and society’s health. Alcohol consumption is present since ancient years in Europe, constituting tradition, with Europeans preferring different kinds of alcohol depending on the geographic location of their country. The economic crisis that European citizens are undergoing nowadays, has an impact on their health and more specifically there has been a significant increase in alcohol consumption. Material and Methods: The purpose of this study is to explore the factors which effect the alcohol consumption and consequences of this consumption in Europe. Literature review of relevant articles, published from 2005 to 2013, to these databases: WHO, Google scholar, PubMed. Finally, 42 studies were used to our review. Results: The alcohol consumption is connected with the economic situation of the country, the availability of alcohol, the restrictions and taxes of each country. Alcohol consumption is also related with the gender and age of each individual. In Central-eastern Europe, in contrast to the south Europe, the greatest percentage of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption is found. 35,95% is the mortality rate which is found in Europe. Regarding Greece in recent years, alcohol consumption has declined, while the rates of intoxication have shown as light increase. Conclusions: The lack of legislation, the non-existence of a minimum sale price and the increased availability, can lead to increased incidence of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption. Further research regarding the correlation of economic crisis and alcohol consumption is necessary.

  15. Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Sutherland

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. OpsommingEen van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

  16. Factors affecting haemoglobin synthesis in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, S.; Cauchi, M.N.

    1982-10-01

    The effect of various forms of haematopoietic stress on haemoglobin production was studied in mice. During acute anaemia, recovery from polycythaemia or irradiation, there was an increase in the number of reticulocytes, and this was associated with a marked increase in the total protein synthesis. The specific activity in reticulocytes increased up to 20-fold from the normal. The maximum specific activity usually preceded the maximum peak of reticulocytosis. The proportion of minor haemoglobin increased by up to 30%, and there was a significant correlation between the specific activity in reticulocytes and the proportion of minor haemoglobin synthesized. These results indicate that erythropoietic stress results in the release of a new population of reticulocytes that are very active in protein synthesis as measured by markedly increased specific activity, and that this coincides with an increase in the proportion of minor haemoglobin produced.

  17. The poplar basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BEE3 - Like gene affects biomass production by enhancing proliferation of xylem cells in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seol Ah; Choi, Young-Im; Cho, Jin-Seong; Lee, Hyoshin

    2015-06-19

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development, including regulation of vascular cambium activities and cell elongation. BR-induced BEE3 (brassinosteroid enhanced expression 3) is required for a proper BR response. Here, we identified a poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) BEE3-like gene, PagBEE3L, encoding a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factor. Expression of PagBEE3L was induced by brassinolide (BL). Transcripts of PagBEE3L were mainly detected in stems, with the internode having a low level of transcription and the node having a relatively higher level. The function of the PagBEE3L gene was investigated through phenotypic analyses with PagBEE3L-overexpressing (ox) transgenic lines. This work particularly focused on a potential role of PagBEE3L in stem growth and development of polar. The PagBEE3L-ox poplar showed thicker and longer stems than wild-type plants. The xylem cells from the stems of PagBEE3L-ox plants revealed remarkably enhanced proliferation, resulting in an earlier thickening growth than wild-type plants. Therefore, this work suggests that xylem development of poplar is accelerated in PagBEE3L-ox plants and PagBEE3L plays a role in stem growth by increasing the proliferation of xylem cells to promote the initial thickening growth of poplar stems. PMID:25935487

  18. Factors affecting mortality in patients with burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erbi?

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increase in life quality and expectancy causes an increase in the elderly population. Improvements in burn treatment resulted in decreased mortality in children and young adults but in elderly patients burns are still an important trauma that should be handed differently than other age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors effecting mortality in patients with burns over 45 years old. Methods: Fifty-eight patients over 45 years of age, who were treated in our burns unit in the last 3 years were included in our study. Their age, burn percentage and depth, coexisting diseases and mortality rates were examined retrospectively. Results: The average age of surviving patients was 57.4 years while it was 70 years for nonsurviving patients (p=0.002. The width of burn area was 21.1 % in surviving and 50 % in nonsurviving patients (p<0.01. The effect of additional coexistent diseases on mortality was significant (p=0.001. The most common reasons of mortality were sepsis and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: We found out that the age, percentage of burns and coexistent diseases had a negative effect on success of treatment and mortality. Mortality rates will decrease in these cases with careful follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 240-243

  19. Physical factors affecting chloroquine binding to melanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R L; Pendleton, P; Gerber, J P

    2015-10-01

    Chloroquine is an antimalarial drug but is also prescribed for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Long-term users risk toxic side effects, including retinopathy, thought to be caused by chloroquine accumulation on ocular melanin. Although the binding potential of chloroquine to melanin has been investigated previously, our study is the first to demonstrate clear links between chloroquine adsorption by melanin and system factors including temperature, pH, melanin type, and particle size. In the current work, two Sepia melanins were compared with bovine eye as a representative mammalian melanin. Increasing the surface anionic character due to a pH change from 4.7 to 7.4 increased each melanin's affinity for chloroquine. Although the chloroquine isotherms exhibited an apparently strong interaction with each melanin, isosteric heat analysis indicated a competitive interaction. Buffer solution cations competed effectively at low surface coverage; chloroquine adsorption occurs via buffer cation displacement and is promoted by temperature-influenced secondary structure swelling. PMID:26141438

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING VASECTOMY ACCEPTABILITY IN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Admasu , Negalign chekol , Temesegen Chekol , Z. Shewamene*, Zelalem Eteffa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is one of the most effective but less utilized types of contraception method which could addresses the involvement of males to the family planning. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the awareness about and practice of men towards vasectomy among workers in Dashen brewery, Ethiopia. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using pre tested self-administered questioner to assess the Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with low utilization of vasectomy. A total of 187 study participants were included to this study using single population proportion formula and random sampling technique. Majority of the participants 155 (82.9% never heard about vasectomy as a contraception method. Their knowledge about vasectomy is generally very poor as large proportion of respondents didn’t know how it works, its effectiveness and its effect on their sexual performance. None of the respondents have ever used vasectomy as a modern male contraception method. Misleading information towards its impact on sexual performance/desire was reported as a main reason not to use this method. Among others need of more children, unavailability of services, lack of information, spouse refusal and religious concerns were mentioned as a potential reasons for their negative perception towards vasectomy. Lack of awareness, myths and rumors, limited access to services, and indifference and bias on the part of providers about vasectomy limit its popularity in Ethiopia. Therefore, it is vital to introduce appropriate educational plan to increase awareness and usage of vasectomy in Ethiopia.

  1. Factores no Genéticos y de Grupo Racial que Afectan el Peso al Nacer en un Sistema de Producción con Vacunos de Carne / Non Genetic and Breed Group Factors Affecting Birth Weight in a Beef Cattle System Production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco, Pacheco; Luis, Depablos; Gonzalo, Martínez; Daniel, Vargas.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar el efecto de factores no genéticos y de grupo racial sobre el peso al nacer (PN), se analizaron 5136 datos de becerros nacidos en una zona de bosque seco tropical. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando un modelo lineal aditivo por el método de máxima verosimilitud restringida que inclu [...] yó los efectos fijos: año de nacimiento (AN; 2001,..,2007); mes de nacimiento (MN; enero, febrero, octubre, noviembre y diciembre); edad de la madre al parto (EM; 3,..,11 años ó más), sexo (S; hembra-macho); grupo racial del becerro (GR1: mestizos Bos taurus de las razas Angus, Braunvieh, Carora, Holstein, Simmental, Romosinuano y Senepol; GR2: predominantemente Bos indicus de las razas Brahman, Nelore, Guzerat y Gyr). El AN, MN, EM y S afectaron (P Abstract in english To evaluate the effect of non-genetic factors and of breed group on birth weight (BW), 5136 records of calves born in a dry tropical forest were analyzed. The data was analyzed using an additive linear model by the restricted maximum verisimilitude method, that included the fixed effects of: year of [...] birth (YB; 2001,..., 2007); month of birth (MB; January, February, October, November, December); age of the mother at calving (AM; 3.., 11 years or more); sex (S; female - male); breed group of the calf (BG1: Crossbred Bos taurus of the breeds Angus, Braunvieh, Carora, Holstein, Simmental, Romosinuano, Senepol; BG2: mainly Bos indicus of the breeds Brahman, Nelore, Guzerat and Gyr). The YB, MB, AM and S affected (P

  2. Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Faculty-Doctoral Student Coauthorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Michelle A.; Timmerman, Briana Crotwell; Feldon, David F.; Strickland, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Using faculty narratives, this study identifies factors affecting the occurrence of faculty-doctoral student coauthorship. Norms of the discipline, resources, faculty goals for students, faculty goals for themselves, and institutional expectations emerged as dominant factors. Each factor is explored separately and as part of an interlocking…

  3. Factors affecting the tissues composition of pork belly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzi?ski, K; Knecht, D; Lisiak, D; Janiszewski, P

    2015-11-01

    Bellies derived from the commercial population of pig carcasses are diverse in terms of tissue composition. Knowledge of the factors influencing it and the expected results, permits quick and easy evaluation of raw material. The study was designed to determine the factors affecting the tissues composition of pork bellies and to estimate their lean meat content. The research population (n=140 pig carcasses) was divided into groups according to sex (gilts, barrows), half-carcass mass (<40, 40 to 43.9, 44 to 46.9, ?47 kg) and lean meat content class: S (?60%), E (55% to 60%), U (50% to 55%), R (<50%). Bellies were subjected to a detailed dissection. Half-carcass mass affected the levels of all the analysed parameters. The only exception was the mass of the fat with the skin in the 40 to 43.9 kg group, for which the value did not differ statistically between the two groups <40 and 44 to 46.9 kg. Decrease in lean meat content affected the growth of the fat and skin mass in a linear way. No differences were observed between class S and E in terms of belly muscle mass. A 0.37% higher share of belly in the half-carcass was found for barrows (P<0.001), although bellies issued from barrows were characterized by a higher proportion of fat with skin compared with gilts (P=0.02). Interactions were observed between sex and half-carcass mass, so the sex of heavy half-carcasses becomes an important determinant for conditioning the muscle content. Equations were calculated and allow a fast and highly accurate determination of the lean meat content in bellies, suggesting they may be used directly in the production line. PMID:26215158

  4. Factors Affecting Software Cost Estimation in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Javed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cost is the main driving factor for all projects. When it is done correctly, it helps in the successful completion of the project. In this research we have discussed various factors that affect the estimation procedure. These include team structure, team culture, managerial style, project type (Core application or integrated application, client’s working environment. Accurate estimation is far difficult in developing countries where most of the organizations follow local standards. These inaccurate estimations lead to late delivery, less profit or in worst case complete failure. Software requirement gathering, development, maintenance, quality assurance and cost of poor quality are major groups responsible for overall cost in software production process. The exact proportion among them varies significantly in consecutive software releases, which is caused by many factors. The ever increasing need for the reliability of the software systems, especially mission critical applications in the public safety domain, raises the bar for the accuracy of prediction and estimation techniques. The accuracy of estimations in many areas brings about more concerns regarding techniques already used in the software industry. Widely deployed techniques, such as Wideband Delphi method, stress the engineering and technical aspects of the process of how estimates are prepared.

  5. Factorization in exclusive quarkonium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present factorization theorems for two exclusive heavy-quarkonium production processes: production of two quarkonia in e+e- annihilation and production of a quarkonium and a light meson in B-meson decays. We describe the general proofs of factorization and supplement them with explicit one-loop analyses, which illustrate some of the features of the soft-gluon cancellations. We find that violations of factorization are generally suppressed relative to the factorized contributions by a factor v2mc/Q for each S-wave charmonium and a factor mc/Q for each L-wave charmonium with L>0. Here, v is the velocity of the heavy quark or antiquark in the quarkonium rest frame, Q=?(s) for e+e- annihilation, Q=mB for B-meson decays, ?(s) is the e+e- center-of-momentum energy, mc is the charm-quark mass, and mB is the B-meson mass. There are modifications to the suppression factors if quantum-number restrictions apply for the specific process.

  6. Does Labor Diversity Affect Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Using an employer-employee dataset, we analyze how diversity in cultural background, skills and demographic characteristics a?ects total factor productivity (TFP) of ?rms in Denmark. Implementing structural estimation of ?rms' production function, we ?nd evidence that labor diversity in skills/education signi?cantly enhances ?rm performance as measured by ?rm TFP. Conversely, diversity in demographics and ethnicity brings mixed results - both dimensions of workforce diversity have either no or negative e?ects on ?rm TFP. Hence, it seems as if the negative e?ects, coming from communication and integration costs connected to a more demographically and culturally diverse workforce, counteract the positive e?ects of diversity on ?rm TFP, coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers. However, we ?nd that ethnic diversity is valuable for ?rms operating in industries characterized by above-average trade openness, giving support to the hypothesis that an ethnically diverse workforce provides information and accessto global markets.

  7. Factors that affect the in vitro production of bovine embryos: A review Factores que afectan la producción in vitro de embriones bovinos: una revisión Fatores que afetam a produção in vitro de embriões bovinos: A revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F M Pfeifer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro embryo production (IVP represents a way to increase gamete use from animals with high zootechnical value. In spite of the advances obtained in IVP over the last few years, production of transferable embryos is still low. The aim of this review is to discuss ways to produce in vitro embryos, as well as oocytes formation and maturation processes that can be related to the effectiveness of obtained results. Some studies show the influence of follicular growth factors, gonadotropins, steroids and other hormones on the follicular development and the quality of the cumulus oocyte complex (COC. The follicular phase of slow growth is critical for the development of the oocyte capacity to reach the final competence and diameter. Information about endocrine influences, or likewise, the dependence of growth of small antral follicles when a loss in the oocyte or follicle functionality occurs is scarce in the literature. A variable number of different techniques and protocols for treatment of oocytes donors are described with the aim of improve the results, the COCs recovering rate and the developmental competence in vitro of collected oocytes. From the considerations presented in this review, it is possible to verify the importance of better understanding the factors involved in the IVP process, with the aim of allow new alternatives to increase the results obtained in programs of animal assisted reproduction.La producción in vitro de embriones (PIV representa una manera de aumentar el uso de gametos de animales con alto valor zootécnico. A pesar de los avances obtenidos en PIV en los últimos años, la producción de embriones tranferibles sigue siendo baja. El objetivo de esta revisión es discutir maneras de producir embriones in vitro, así como los procesos de formación y de maduración de los oocitos que se pueden relacionar con la eficacia de los resultados obtenidos. Algunos estudios demuestran la influencia de los factores foliculares del crecimiento, gonadotrofinas, esteroides y otras hormonas en el desarrollo folicular y la calidad del complejo del cumulus oocito (CCO. La fase folicular del crecimiento lento es crítica para el desarrollo de la capacidad del oocito de alcanzar la capacidad y el diámetro final. Información sobre influencias endocrinas, o además, la dependencia del crecimiento de pequeños folículos antrales cuando ocurre una pérdida en la funcionalidad del oocito o del folículo, es escasa en la literatura. Un número variable de diversas técnicas y los protocolos para el tratamiento de oocitos de las donantes son descritos en esta revisión, con lo objetivo de mejorar los resultados, el índice de la recuperacion de CCOs y la capacidad de desarrollo in vitro de oocitos recogidos. De las consideraciones presentadas en esta revisión, es posible verificar la importancia de entender los factores implicados en el proceso de PIV, para permitir el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas que mejoren los resultados obtenidos en programas de la reproducción animal asistida.A produção in vitro (PIV de embriões representa uma maneira de incrementar o uso de gametas de animais de alto valor zootécnico. Apesar dos avanços obtidos na PIV nos últimos anos, a produção de embriões transferíveis ainda é baixa. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir maneiras de produzir embriões in vitro, assim como o processo de formação e maturação de oócitos, que pode estar relacionado a eficácia dos resultados obtidos. Aguns estudos demonstram a influência de fatores de crescimento, gonadotrofinas, esteróides e outros hormônios no desenvolvimento folicular e na qualidade do complexo cumulus oócito (CCO. A fase folicular de crescimento lento é critica para o desenvolvimento da capacidade do oócito de atingir a competência e o diâmetro finais. Informação sobre as influências endócrinas, ou seja, da dependência do crescimento de pequenos folículos antrais quando ocorre perda da funcionalidade do oócito ou folículo são escassas na literatura. Um número variável de diferent

  8. Factors affecting the prognosis of meniscectomy in soccer players.

    OpenAIRE

    Muckle, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    Meniscectomy is a frequent surgical procedure in young soccer players but the results are unpredictable. A long-term survey was carried out to assess certain fundamental features and to establish the predictive factors which affect the prognosis after meniscectomy.

  9. Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

  10. Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

  11. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This type of intervention—maintaining a substantial percent reduction in caloric intake—has been shown to substantially extend the longevity ...

  12. Factors Affecting Wedding Banquet Venue Selection of Thai Wedding Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkanya Napompech

    2014-01-01

    The wedding day is one of the most important days for couples, so they want their ceremony to be as near to perfect as possible. Finding a venue for the wedding banquet is the first stage of the couple’s planning and many factors affect this decision. The objective of this research was to study the factors that affect the selection of wedding banquet venues among Thai wedding couples. This study obtained data via questionnaires and used statistical tests such ...

  13. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Cusimano, Michael D; Ahmed Faress; Wilson P. Luong; Khizer Amin; Joanne Eid; Tamer Abdelshaheed; Kelly Russell

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs). A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers) and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action) that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One h...

  14. Fatherhood Across Two Generations Factors Affecting Early Family Roles

    OpenAIRE

    GOLDSCHEIDER, FRANCES; Hofferth, Sandra; Spearin, Carrie; Curtin, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the determinants of men's early parental roles, distinguishing factors that affect being a father versus being childless, and factors that affect being a resident versus a nonresident father, in the context of having a partner or not. We also consider whether these patterns have changed between 1985 and 2004. The data come from the linked Child-Mother and Young Adult Samples of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), which provide information on the chil...

  15. Factors that affect the in vitro production of bovine embryos: A review / Fatores que afetam a produção in vitro de embriões bovinos: A revisão / Factores que afectan la producción in vitro de embriones bovinos: una revisión

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz F, M Pfeifer; Augusto, Schneider; Marcio N, Corrêa.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A produção in vitro (PIV) de embriões representa uma maneira de incrementar o uso de gametas de animais de alto valor zootécnico. Apesar dos avanços obtidos na PIV nos últimos anos, a produção de embriões transferíveis ainda é baixa. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir maneiras de produzir embriões [...] in vitro, assim como o processo de formação e maturação de oócitos, que pode estar relacionado a eficácia dos resultados obtidos. Aguns estudos demonstram a influência de fatores de crescimento, gonadotrofinas, esteróides e outros hormônios no desenvolvimento folicular e na qualidade do complexo cumulus oócito (CCO). A fase folicular de crescimento lento é critica para o desenvolvimento da capacidade do oócito de atingir a competência e o diâmetro finais. Informação sobre as influências endócrinas, ou seja, da dependência do crescimento de pequenos folículos antrais quando ocorre perda da funcionalidade do oócito ou folículo são escassas na literatura. Um número variável de diferentes técnicas e protocolos para o tratamento de doadoras de ovóctios são descritos com o objetivo de melhorar os resultados, a taxa de recuperação de CCOs e o desenvolvimento da competência in vitro dos oócitos coletados. Das considerações apresentadas nesta revisão é possível verificar a importância do conhecimento dos fatores envolvidos no processo de PIV, com o objetivo de possibilitar que novas alternativas incrementem os resultados obtidos em programas de reprodução animal assistida. Abstract in spanish La producción in vitro de embriones (PIV) representa una manera de aumentar el uso de gametos de animales con alto valor zootécnico. A pesar de los avances obtenidos en PIV en los últimos años, la producción de embriones tranferibles sigue siendo baja. El objetivo de esta revisión es discutir manera [...] s de producir embriones in vitro, así como los procesos de formación y de maduración de los oocitos que se pueden relacionar con la eficacia de los resultados obtenidos. Algunos estudios demuestran la influencia de los factores foliculares del crecimiento, gonadotrofinas, esteroides y otras hormonas en el desarrollo folicular y la calidad del complejo del cumulus oocito (CCO). La fase folicular del crecimiento lento es crítica para el desarrollo de la capacidad del oocito de alcanzar la capacidad y el diámetro final. Información sobre influencias endocrinas, o además, la dependencia del crecimiento de pequeños folículos antrales cuando ocurre una pérdida en la funcionalidad del oocito o del folículo, es escasa en la literatura. Un número variable de diversas técnicas y los protocolos para el tratamiento de oocitos de las donantes son descritos en esta revisión, con lo objetivo de mejorar los resultados, el índice de la recuperacion de CCOs y la capacidad de desarrollo in vitro de oocitos recogidos. De las consideraciones presentadas en esta revisión, es posible verificar la importancia de entender los factores implicados en el proceso de PIV, para permitir el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas que mejoren los resultados obtenidos en programas de la reproducción animal asistida. Abstract in english In vitro embryo production (IVP) represents a way to increase gamete use from animals with high zootechnical value. In spite of the advances obtained in IVP over the last few years, production of transferable embryos is still low. The aim of this review is to discuss ways to produce in vitro embryos [...] , as well as oocytes formation and maturation processes that can be related to the effectiveness of obtained results. Some studies show the influence of follicular growth factors, gonadotropins, steroids and other hormones on the follicular development and the quality of the cumulus oocyte complex (COC). The follicular phase of slow growth is critical for the development of the oocyte capacity to reach the final competence and diameter. Information about endocrine influences, or likewise, the dependence of growth of small antral follicles when a loss i

  16. What is Impulse Buying? An analytical network processing framework for prioritizing factors affecting impulse buying

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Siahkali Moradi; Sahel Ehsani Masouleh; Marzieh Pazhang

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important issues affecting profitability is to determine the impact of different factors influencing purchasing activities. In this paper, we perform an extensive literature survey to detect different purchasing factors influencing customers' behavior. The factors are categorized in three different groups and they are ranked using analytical network process. The results of our survey indicate that three factors of personal, product and situational play important roles in purch...

  17. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  18. Factors affecting attendance at population-based mammography screening

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerlund, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to explore factors affecting attendance at outreach mammography screening, and to assess possible associations between socioeconomic factors and breast cancer survival. The relation of non-attendance at mammography screening to sociodemographic factors, indicators of general health behavior, self-rated health, experience of cancer in others, and own cancer or breast problems was studied in a case-control study with 434 ...

  19. A study of epidemiological factors affecting low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Hayat, Humera; Khan, Parwez Sajad; Hayat, Gazala; Hayat, Rehana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. About half of all deaths in perinatal period aredirectly or indirectly related to low birth. A multifactorialinter-relationship exists between the pregnant mother’s environment and growthof fetus. There are numerous factors associated with low birth weight and ifthese factors are detected early and addressed properly, the low birth weightand the consequences thereof can be reduced. Toidentify the epidemiological factors affecting low birth weight in our set up.Thisa cross sectional ...

  20. Prioritizing the Factor Weights Affecting Tourism Performance by FAHP

    OpenAIRE

    Quang Hung Do; Jeng Fung Chen

    2013-01-01

    The allocation of limited resources to effectively promote tourism is one of the most important issues in the tourism industry, especially in tough economic times. This paper seeks to investigate the relative importance of the key factors affecting tourism performance by applying the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method. Specifically, the paper identifies the factors and sub-factors of the hierarchical structure from the literature relating to tourism performance. The framework base...

  1. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  2. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  3. Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Luc, J.E.; Crow, W. T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for eit...

  4. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Thi Nguyen; Wendy Warren; Heather Fehring

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study’s findings show that many factors hinder the quality of English teaching and learning: uninteresting teaching style; insufficient time for communicative activities; grammar...

  5. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by Rhizobium

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah M. K. Al-Falih

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports pointed to a decline in agricultural dependence on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and in the use of rhizobial inoculants. The aim of the present review was to study the environmental factors that affect the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium in soil. These factors included pH, salinity, moisture, temperature, microorganisms, organic matter and soil texture. The overall conclusion is that symbiotic nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium is a critical biological process...

  6. Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kashif Ud Din Khan; Shazia Gulzar; Farzan Yahya

    2013-01-01

    Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods. Re...

  7. Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.

    OpenAIRE

    Ash, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. METHODS: A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at th...

  8. Factors Affecting Software Cost Estimation in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Javed; Mirza Ahsan Ullah; Aziz-ur-Rehman,

    2013-01-01

    Cost is the main driving factor for all projects. When it is done correctly, it helps in the successful completion of the project. In this research we have discussed various factors that affect the estimation procedure. These include team structure, team culture, managerial style, project type (Core application or integrated application), client’s working environment. Accurate estimation is far difficult in developing countries where most of the organizations follow local standards. These in...

  9. Factores nutricionales que influyen sobre las variables productivas y el desarrollo del tracto gastrointestinal en pollitas comerciales rubias = Nutritional factors affecting productive performance and gastrointestinal tract traits in commercial brown-egg laying pullets

    OpenAIRE

    Frikha, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo general de esta Tesis doctoral fue estudiar la influencia de diversos factores nutricionales sobre los parámetros productivos y el desarrollo del tracto digestivo de pollitas rubias destinadas a la producción de huevos comerciales. Para alcanzar este objetivo se realizaron tres experimentos donde se estudió el cereal principal, el tamaño de partícula del cereal y el nivel de energía y la presentación de los piensos. En el experimento 1 se estudió la influencia del cereal (pi...

  10. Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergis, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

  11. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Use of Moodle: Students' Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damnjanovic, Vesna; Jednak, Sandra; Mijatovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of Moodle from the students' perspective. The research hypotheses derived from the suggested extended Seddon model have been empirically validated using the responses to a survey on e-learning usage among 255 users. We tested the model across higher education…

  12. Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

  13. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  14. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  15. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  16. Factors Affecting Soil Microbial Community Structure in Tomato Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in agroecosystems may be affected by soil, climate, plant species, and management. We identified some of the most important factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure in an agroecosystem utilizing tomato plants with the following nine tre...

  17. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  18. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  19. Factors Affecting Coefficient Alpha: A Mini Monte Carlo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Brian M.

    Factors affecting a lower-bound estimate of internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, are explored. Theoretically, coefficient alpha is an estimate of the correlation between two tests drawn at random from a pool of items like the items in the test under consideration. As a practical matter, coefficient alpha can be an index…

  20. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  1. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  2. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market.

  3. Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

  4. Factors Affecting Wedding Banquet Venue Selection of Thai Wedding Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkanya Napompech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wedding day is one of the most important days for couples, so they want their ceremony to be as near to perfect as possible. Finding a venue for the wedding banquet is the first stage of the couple’s planning and many factors affect this decision. The objective of this research was to study the factors that affect the selection of wedding banquet venues among Thai wedding couples. This study obtained data via questionnaires and used statistical tests such as the Mann-Whitney U test and one-way analysis of variance. Results showed that among the 30 factors that were assessed by 222 respondents, good service from employees, food quality, the venue’s atmosphere, size of the event room and facilities in the wedding room were the five most important factors determining the attractiveness of a wedding banquet venue. The results demonstrated that respondents who organized a wedding banquet at a hotel prioritized the atmosphere. In contrast, respondents who organized a wedding banquet at a restaurant placed highest priority on the facilities of the wedding room. Results showed that significant differences regarding the factors that affect the selection of wedding banquet venues exist across groups with different demographic variables (i.e., age, income, education level.

  5. A study of factors affecting indoor radon properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors affecting indoor radon properties in Hong Kong have been studied, including the radon concentration, the total potential alpha energy concentration of radon progeny, the equilibrium factor, and the fraction of unattached radon progeny. These factors fall into three categories, namely, (1) the building characteristics, including cooling method, age of the buildings, wall coverings and floor coverings; (2) the location of sites, including nearby environments, geological materials of the area, and the elevation of the sites; and (3) the meteorological parameters, including rainfall, relative humidity, pressure, temperature, and wind speeds. For category (1), only the ventilation is found to affect the indoor radon properties. For category (2), only the nearby environments have effects. For category (3), the rainfall and temperature are found to have significant effects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  6. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  7. Factors affecting functional prognosis of patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M T

    2011-01-01

    Having a hip fracture is considered one of the most fatal fractures for elderly people, resulting in impaired function, and increased morbidity and mortality. This challenges clinicians in identifying patients at risk of worse outcome, in order to optimise and intensify treatment in these patients. A variety of factors such as age, prefracture function and health status, fracture type, pain, anaemia, muscle strength, and the early mobility level have been shown to influence patient outcome. Thus, the outcome of patients with hip fracture is considered multi-factorial, and can therefore not be related to just one or two single factors. The current article reviews important factors affecting the functional prognosis, and clinicians are encouraged to include all factors potentially influencing the outcome of patients with hip fracture in their individualised treatment and rehabilitation plan. Especially, older age and having a low prefracture functional level are considered strong factors.

  8. Factors Affecting the Habitability of Earth-like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria; NAI-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team

    2014-03-01

    Habitability is a measure of an environment's potential to support life. For exoplanets, the concept of habitability can be used broadly - to inform our calculations of the possibility and distribution of life elsewhere - or as a practical tool to inform mission designs and to prioritize specific targets in the search for extrasolar life. Although a planet's habitability does depend critically on the effect of stellar type and planetary semi-major axis on climate balance, work in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology has identified many additional factors that can affect a planet's environment and its potential ability to support life. Life requires material for metabolism and structures, a liquid medium for chemical transport, and an energy source to drive metabolism and other life processes. Whether a planet's surface or sub-surface can provide these requirements is the result of numerous planetary and astrophysical processes that affect the planet's formation and evolution. Many of these factors are interdependent, and fall into three main categories: stellar effects, planetary effects and planetary system effects. Key abiotic processes affecting the resultant planetary environment include photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2003; 2005), stellar effects on climate balance (e.g. Joshii et al., 2012; Shields et al., 2013), atmospheric loss (e.g. Lopez and Fortney, 2013), and gravitational interactions with the star (e.g. Barnes et al., 2013). In many cases, the effect of these processes is strongly dependent on a specific planet's existing environmental properties. Examples include the resultant UV flux at a planetary surface as a product of stellar activity and the strength of a planet's atmospheric UV shield (Segura et al., 2010); and the amount of tidal energy available to a planet to drive plate tectonics and heat the surface (Barnes et al., 2009), which is in turn due to a combination of stellar mass, planetary mass and composition, planetary orbital parameters and the gravitational influence of other planets in the system. A thorough assessment of a planet's environment and its potential habitability is a necessary first step in the search for biosignatures. Targeted environmental characteristics include surface temperature and pressure (e.g. Misra et al., 2013), a census of bulk and trace atmospheric gases, and whether there are signs of liquid water on the planetary surface (e.g. Robinson et al., 2010). The robustness of a planetary biosignature is dependent on being able to characterize the environment sufficiently well, and to understand likely star-planet interactions, to preclude formation of a biosignature gas via abiotic processes such as photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2007; Domagal-Goldman et al., 2011; Grenfell et al., 2012). Here we also discuss potential false positives for O2 and O3, which, in large quantities, are often considered robust biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. There is clearly significant future work required to better identify and understand the key environmental processes and interactions that allow a planet to support life, and to distinguish life's global impact on an environment from the environment itself.

  9. Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahieh Moradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

  10. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  11. Confounding factors affect the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoram Elitsur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis is a newly diagnosed esophageal disease in adult and children. The clinical and pathological characteristics of this disease have been established and were recently summarized in the expert clinical guideline published in 2011. In spite of the wide knowledge accumulated on this disease, there are many areas where scientific data are missing, especially in regard to the disease’s pathophysiology. Recent publications have suggested that other confounding factors modify the disease and may affect its clinical-phenotypic presentation. Those factors may include place of living, air pollution, race, genetic factors and other. In the present report we discussed and review those confounding factors, the new developments, and what direction we should go to further advance our knowledge of this disease.

  12. Factors Affecting the Ethical Judgment of Business Ethics’ Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine the factors that affect the ethical judgment of Business Ethics students. The factors are year of study, gender, academic major, overall academic performance and Business Ethics result. A questionnaire survey was administered to 209 students taking Business Ethics course in a higher learning institution in Malaysia. Ethical vignettes obtained from Emerson and Conroy (2004 were used to capture how students evaluate the ethical behavior depicted in the vignettes. A multiple regression analysis revealed that Business Ethics result and year of study are factors that have a significant effect on the ethical judgment of students. The study reveals that Business Ethics result and year of study are significant factors that affect the ethical judgment of the students. The findings of this study may assist accounting practitioners and future employers in recruiting prospective employees. Employers may want to emphasis the significant factors in the hiring process future employees to ensure that the employees they employ have an appropriate level of ethical behavior.

  13. Analysis on Psychological Factors to Affect the Vocal Stage Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihong CHEN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The stage performance is an important part of artistic practice for vocal students. To perfectly express the music on stage is the dream of every vocal music performer. This essay is about analysis of the psychological factors to affect the vocal stage performance and to explore the reasons for stage fright and the methods to overcome this, to enable students to further enhance the level of their vocal music.

    Key words: Vocal music; Stage performance; Psychological factor

  14. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

  15. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  16. How organizational hierarchy affects information production

    OpenAIRE

    Skrastins, Janis; Vig, Vikrant

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates how organizational hierarchy affects the allocation of credit within a bank. Using an exogenous variation in organizational design, induced by a reorganization plan implemented in roughly 2,000 bank branches in India during 1999 - 2006, and employing a difference-in-differences research strategy, we find that increased hierarchization of a branch decreases its ability to produce "soft" information on loans, leads to increased standardization of loans and ra...

  17. Operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Chuan-udom

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses,which comprised rotor speed (RS, louver inclination (LI, grain moisture content (MC, feed rate (FR, and grain to materialother than grain ratio (GM. Seventeen Thai corn-shelling threshers were random-sampled during the late rainy season cropof 2008 and ten threshers were sampled in the early rainy season crop of 2009 in Loei province, Northeast of Thailand.The results of this study indicated that LI and MC affected shelling losses whereas RS, FR and GM did not affect losses.Increased LI or decreased MC tended to reduce shelling losses. In operating the Thai threshers for corn shelling, if shellinglosses have to be kept lower that 0.5%, the moisture content should not exceed 20%wb and the louver inclination should notbe less than 85 degrees.

  18. Analysis on Psychological Factors to Affect the Vocal Stage Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Xihong CHEN

    2012-01-01

    The stage performance is an important part of artistic practice for vocal students. To perfectly express the music on stage is the dream of every vocal music performer. This essay is about analysis of the psychological factors to affect the vocal stage performance and to explore the reasons for stage fright and the methods to overcome this, to enable students to further enhance the level of their vocal music.

    Key words: Vocal music; Stag...

  19. Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shariq Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab Nation...

  20. Tumour lysis as a factor affecting blood levels of CEA.

    OpenAIRE

    Quayle, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed that tumour lysis may be an important factor affecting blood levels of CEA. This has been explored in an experimental study with a model tumour system, consisting of immune-deprived mice bearing human CEA-producing tumours. Using agents such as irradiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, diphtheria toxin and techniques such as cryosurgery, it has been shown that tumour lysis is important when it is both rapid and extensive. The extent to which this may occur in patients rema...

  1. Factors affecting bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Azin Ayatollahi; Mohammad Reza Mohajeri-Tehrani; Shahriar Nafissi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD).Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years) pa...

  2. Factors Affecting the End-User Computing Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Dastgir; Ahmad S. Mortezaie

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate factors that are affecting the end-user computing of accounting information system satisfaction from financial managers' point of view. Our sample is selected from companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. This research is a descriptive - empirical field study. The required data is collected by sending out questionnaires to the financial managers of the sampled companies. Our findings indicate that, the information content, ease of using accounting in...

  3. Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

    1983-09-01

    An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

  4. Factors Affecting the Disposition Effect in Tehran Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Tehrani; Niloofar Gharehkoolchian

    2012-01-01

    Given the significance and perceived inevitability of disposition effect and its impact on investment decisions, we investigate factors affecting the disposition effect in the Tehran Stock Exchange. Four hypotheses were developed and the data used in the study were collected through availability sampling. One-sample t-test, two-sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were run to analyze the data while Pearson correlation test and multiple regressions were used to assess relationships among variables ...

  5. Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    K. Abu-Alruz; I.A. Afaneh; J.M. Quasem; M.A. Hmidat; J. Abbady; A.S. Mazahreh

    2011-01-01

    The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol) contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ...

  6. Environmental factors affecting tourists' experience in South African national parks

    OpenAIRE

    Saayman, Melville; Du Plessis, Liezel; Van Der Merwe, Petrus

    2012-01-01

    This study, the first of its kind involving South African National Parks, aimed to determine which environmental factors in these parks have a negative effect on tourists’ experience, and whether tourists who visit parks frequently are more aware of environmental impacts than those who visit only occasionally. The findings will help to inform South African National Parks (SANParks) management about the impacts of tourism in the parks and how these affect tourists’ experience. Data was obtaine...

  7. Factors affecting adolescents’ choice of branded vs. fashionable clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Mónica Sofia Ramos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project is to analyse the importance of branded and fashionable clothing, and which of them is the most important for adolescents when choosing their clothes, according with gender and age. The research analysed how three factors (peers’ influence, materialistic behaviour and self-esteem) affected adolescents’ clothing choices in the Portuguese market. 148 adolescents (12 and 16 years old) participated in the research, by answering a questionnaire. Results show that t...

  8. Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2013-01-01

    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129

  9. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user’s committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user’s committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

  10. Productive Parasites: Thinking of Noise as Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Thompson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from Michel Serres’ notion of the parasite, this article provides a nuanced explanation for noise that distinguishes itself from prevailing negative narratives, which often seek to define noise as unwanted, undesirable or damaging sound. Such narratives have left noise vulnerable to moralising polemics, which construct silence and noise as a dichotomy between the past and present, natural and cultural, relaxing and disturbing, and, fundamentally, good and bad. This article facilitates a reconsideration of noise’s ethical connotations by proposing the notion of noise as affect.

  11. Factors affecting Maillard induced gelation of protein-sugar systems

    OpenAIRE

    Azhar, Mat Easa

    1996-01-01

    Gelation due to the Maillard reaction took place when solutions containing a low level of bovine serum albumin were heated in the presence of carbonyl compounds. The Maillard reaction caused a change in colour, a decrease in the pH and induced gelation. These changes were dependent on the type and concentration of sugars or protein and on the heating conditions used. Reducing sugar and Maillard reaction products (e.g. glyoxal) affected these changes, yet their order of reactivity for browning...

  12. Piriformospora indica affects plant growth by auxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirrenberg, Anke; Göbel, Cornelia; Grond, Stephanie; Czempinski, Nadine; Ratzinger, Astrid; Karlovsky, Petr; Santos, Patricia; Feussner, Ivo; Pawlowski, Katharina

    2007-12-01

    Piriformospora indica has been shown to improve the growth of many plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana, but the mechanism by which this is achieved is still unclear. Arabidopsis root colonization by P. indica was examined in sterile culture on the medium of Murashige and Skoog. P. indica formed intracellular structures in Arabidopsis root epidermal cells and caused changes in root growth, leading to stunted and highly branched root systems. This effect was because of a diffusible factor and could be mimicked by IAA. In addition, P. indica was shown to produce IAA in liquid culture. We suggest that auxin production affecting root growth is responsible for, or at least contributes to, the beneficial effect of P. indica on its host plants. PMID:18251849

  13. Factors Affecting Business Success of Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuthamas Chittithaworn

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to identify factors that are affecting business success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in Thailand. The intention of this study is to provide the understanding on how people should start their business by looking at all the factors affecting business success hence help to reduce the risk of failure and increase chances of success. The study examined eight factors that influence the SMEs business success. These factors are: SMEs characteristic, management and know-how, products and services, Customer and Market, the way of doing business and cooperation, resources and finance, Strategy, and external environment. The theoretical framework has been drawn out and questionnaire was designed based on the factors chosen. Eight hypotheses were developed to find out factors that are affecting Business Success of SMEs in Thailand. The entire hypotheses were successfully tested with SPSS and five hypotheses were accepted. The regression analysis result shown that the most significant factors affecting business success of SMEs in Thailand were SMEs characteristics, customer and market, the way of doing business, resources and finance, and external environment.

  14. A conceptual model for factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Ghafari Ashtiani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain is a widely used concept around the world. Nowadays, companies need to integrate their production processes, from the raw materials to the end-user. Supply chain management is a phenomenon that achieves this in a way that ensures customers get reliable and fast service and high quality products at the lowest possible cost. There is very limited and sporadic research on supply chain integration and how it affects supply chain performance. Therefore there is no real understanding of the concept of supply chain integration and how it affects supply chain performance nor is there a holistic model. This paper thus aims to present a model that identifies factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. After analyzing the collected data on supply chain integration and customer delivery performance, the preliminary model was proposed and completed, and using expert opinion in the Imam Khomeini Oil Refinery the final model and for factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance were presented. To determine how these factors interrelate with each other, the DEMATEL method was then used. The statistical population included the staff at Imam Khomeini Oil Refinery in Shazand. The data, collected through the standard DEMATEL questionnaire, were analyzed using the DEMATEL method and a MATLAB program. The DEMATEL results indicate that intra-organizational factors, institutional norms, technological certainties are causal factors which influence other factors that affect the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. Intra-organizational factor have a greater influence also among effect factors, substructures have the greatest influence.

  15. An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuremoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

  16. Reproductive biology traits affecting productivity of sour cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Fotiric Aksic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate variability in reproductive biology traits and the correlation between them in genotypes of 'Obla?inska' sour cherry (Prunus cerasus. High genetic diversity was found in the 41 evaluated genotypes, and significant differences were observed among them for all studied traits: flowering time, pollen germination, number of fruiting branches, production of flower and fruit, number of flowers per bud, fruit set, and limb yield efficiency. The number of fruiting branches significantly influenced the number of flower and fruit, fruit set, and yield efficiency. In addition to number of fruiting branches, yield efficiency was positively correlated with fruit set and production of flower and fruit. Results from principal component analysis suggested a reduction of the reproductive biology factors affecting yield to four main characters: number and structure of fruiting branches, flowering time, and pollen germination. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of the 'Obla?inska' genotypes can be used to select the appropriate ones to be grown or used as parents in breeding programs. In this sense, genotypes II/2, III/9, III/13, and III/14 have very good flower production and satisfactory pollen germination.

  17. Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abu-Alruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ended in July 2008. The following 11 factors were taken into consideration during sample collection: olive fly infection, topography, olive storage before pressing, geographical area, effect of olive seeds during oil extraction, effect of pressing temperature, presence of olive leaves during oil extraction, soil type, maturity index of the olive fruit, olive variety and oil preservation and storage in terms of storage container types. The results show that soil type, region, maturity index and olive fly infection are the main factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol. Pressing temperature, olive storage before pressing, olive variety and oil storage showed a moderate effect. Olive seeds, topography and presence of olive leaves had a negligible effect on D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil.

  18. Factors Affecting The Entrepreneurial Behavior Of TUMS Research Centers Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Khayatan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Aim: Entrepreneurial roles can be performed by managers at different levels. In fact, entrepreneurship can be interpreted as a tendency adopted by managers towards their environment in which they should have the ability to discover new opportunities for their innovative activities. This study aims to identify factors affecting entrepreneurial behavior of research centers managers at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS.  Materials and Methods: Considering the sample size determined through Cochran’s formula, 90 questionnaires were distributed among TUMS research centers managers. The data were analyzed based on structural equation modeling applying partial least squares approach through Smartpls.2 software.  Results: Of the 90 questionnaires distributed, 67 were acceptable for study. The model created for effective factors enjoyed an acceptable goodness of fit index (GOF=0.49. Factors loading for the observed variables were above 0.4 and the constructs had an acceptable level of reliability and validity.  Conclusion : The results show that contextual and behavioral factors have a positive effect on entrepreneurial behavior and that structural factors have a negative effect on it. 

  19. Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Junker, Michael Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are commonly used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP). DEAP films are used in making actuators, generators and sensors. In the large scale manufacture of DEAP films, release of films from the substrate (carrier web) induces some defects and pre-strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities of perfluoroether allylamide (PFE) lowered the surface energy which could ease the release. This is further investigated together with an evaluation of the resulting change in actuator performance. The relationship between the adhesive energy, surface energy, Young’s modulus and peel force of the films is analyzed.

  20. The concept of and factors affecting transport accessibility of seaports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz D?browski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport accessibility of seaports is a frequently studied area in economic research. In practice, port operators and authorities use it to promote their services and compete in the market. Up to this day, theoretical basis of seaports transport accessibility has not been properly described. The article attempts to systematize and expend the knowledge in this field. New definitions of transport availability from wider and narrower perspectives were suggested; different types of accessibility and their mutual relations were explained. These ideas were complemented by introducing classification of factors affecting transport accessibility of seaports.

  1. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  2. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  3. Factors Affecting Palm Oil Price Based on Extremes Value Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kantaporn Chuangchid; Aree Wiboonpongse; Songsak Sriboonchitta; Chukiat Chaiboonsri

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the dependence structure of extreme realization of growth rate between palm oil prices and factors affecting, which are soybean oil and crude oil prices. We employ the Bivariate Extreme Value methods for daily palm oil, soybean oil and crude oil prices ranging from July 1988 to January 2012. The results provide that the growth rate of palm oil and soybean oil prices has some dependence in extremes, but the growth rate of palm oil and crude oil prices has fairly weak depend...

  4. Chinese multinationals: how do institutional factors affect their location patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Quer Ramón

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of various host country institutional factors on the location patterns of 29 large Chinese multinationals. From a sample of 127 outward foreign direct investment (FDI decisions made in 52 countries, our findings suggest that a greater difficulty in doing business and a high political risk in the host country do not discourage Chinese multinationals. However, the presence of overseas Chinese in the host country, a larger absolute host market size and a higher volume of Chinese exports to that country affect positively.

  5. Regulation of scatter factor production via a soluble inducing factor

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Scatter factor (SF) (also known as hepatocyte growth factor [HGF]) is a fibroblast-derived cytokine that stimulates motility, proliferation, and morphogenesis of epithelia. SF may play major roles in development, repair, and carcinogenesis. However, the physiologic signals that regulate its production are not well delineated. We found that various human tumor cell lines that do not produce SF secrete factors that stimulate SF production by fibroblasts, suggesting a paracrine mechanism for reg...

  6. Factors affecting the prevalence of obesity among primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kürtüncü

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the risk factors affecting obesity in students in the 6-15 years old age group. There were 868 students registered at Bahçelievler Elementary School in Zonguldak and were present for face-to-face meetings on the days the research data was collected. Data was collected using demographic questionary forms and weight-length measurements from March to April in 2010. Results: Difference is found to be statistically meaningful with respect to the relationship between obesity of children and their age, gender, number of siblings, fathers’ jobs, education level of their mothers, fast food consumption and family history of obesity (p<0.05. Conclusions: The study concludes that there are certain ciriteria related to the development of obesity during a specific period of childhood and that taking certain precautions are effective in preventing the development of obesity. Keywords: Body Mass Index; Children; Obesity; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Turkey.

  7. Factors that affect electric-utility stranded commitments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.; Baxter, L.

    1996-07-01

    Estimates of stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned utilities range widely, with many falling in the range of $100 to $200 billion. These potential losses exist because some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts and fuel-supply contracts, regulatory assets, and expenses for public-policy programs have book values that exceed their expected market values under full competition. This report quantifies the sensitivity of stranded- commitment estimates to the various factors that lead to these above- market-value estimates. The purpose of these sensitivity analyses is to improve understanding on the part of state and federal regulators, utilities, customers, and other electric-industry participants about the relative importance of the factors that affect stranded- commitment amounts.

  8. Factors affecting compliance with measles vaccination in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimmasane, Maniphet; Douangmala, Somthana; Koffi, Paulin; Reinharz, Daniel; Buisson, Yves

    2010-09-24

    In line with WHO objectives, the Lao Government is committed to eliminate measles by 2012. Yet from 1992 to 2007, the annual incidence of measles remained high while the vaccination coverage showed a wide diversity across provinces. A descriptive study was performed to determine factors affecting compliance with vaccination against measles, which included qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative study used a convenience sample of 13 persons in charge of the vaccination program, consisting of officials from different levels of the health care structure and members of vaccination teams. The quantitative study performed on the target population consisted of a matched, case-control survey conducted on a stratified random sample of parents of children aged 9-23 months. Overall, 584 individuals (292 cases and 292 controls) were interviewed in the three provinces selected because of low vaccination coverage. On the provision of services side (supply), the main problems identified were a lack of vaccine supply and diluent, a difficulty in maintaining the cold chain, a lack of availability and competence among health workers, a lack of coordination and a limited capacity to assess needs and make coherent decisions. In the side of the consumer (demand), major obstacles identified were poor knowledge about measles immunization and difficulties in accessing vaccination centers because of distance and cost. In multivariate analysis, a low education level of the father was a factor of non-immunization while the factors of good compliance were high incomes, spacing of pregnancies, a feeling that children must be vaccinated, knowledge about immunization age, presenting oneself to the hospital rather than expecting the mobile vaccination teams and last, immunization of other family members or friends' children. The main factors affecting the compliance with vaccination against measles in Laos involve both the supply side and the demand side. Obtaining an effective coverage requires upgrading and training the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) staff and a reinforcement of health education for target populations in all provinces. PMID:20692220

  9. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities within local school districts, the use of formal and informal professional development, and the needs of rural science teachers compared to urban and suburban teachers.

  10. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged. PMID:25039397

  11. Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

  12. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  13. Factors affecting the plasma ion implantation of metallic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UTK Plasma Science Laboratory has been engaged in a research program, under the sponsorship of the Army Research Office and the UTK Center for Materials Processing, to access the effects of plasma ion implantation on the corrosion resistance of common engineering materials. In this paper, the authors report on the research on the factors affecting the plasma ion implantation of metallic samples. The authors have considered 3 factors in the research: The geometry of the sample; the rate of implantation (or the frequency of the implantation pulses); and the method used to prepare the sample for electrochemical analysis to detect and measure any corrosion inhibition. The research indicates that samples flush with the surrounding surface of the sample holder have a better dose uniformity than ones that are raised above the sample holder. Circular samples are more uniform than a square shape. Samples raised above the surface of the sample have a less uniform dose due to the concentration of the electric field lines at edges, and at the corners of noncircular samples. Also, samples implanted at a lower pulse repetition frequency, from 1 to 20 Hz, have shown better results than ones implanted above 200 Hz. Thermal diffusion caused by heating of the sample resulting from high pulse repetition rates causes lower corrosion inhibition (pitting potential). Finally, before the sample is electrochemically tested for corrosion inhibition, it has to be passivated using nitric acid, which can affect the corrosion inhibition of the sample tested

  14. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cusimano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs. A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM. The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36, as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37. Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.

  15. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusimano, Michael D; Faress, Ahmed; Luong, Wilson P; Amin, Khizer; Eid, Joanne; Abdelshaheed, Tamer; Russell, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs). A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers) and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action) that may affect an athlete's decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36), as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37). Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players' willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs. PMID:26236986

  16. Factors affecting the leaching of lead from UPVC pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, L L; Wong, M K; Gan, L M; Yap, C T

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a series of studies on the various factors that affect the leaching of lead from unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (UPVC) pipes. Factors that were studied include temperature, pH and extractants. Results showed that, for a given UPVC pipe, the rate of leaching of lead depended primarily on temperature and the nature of extractants. While the rate of leaching of lead was quite low with distilled water, it was very much enhanced by the presence of low concentration of anions such as Cl(-), HPO inf4 (sup2-) HCO inf3 (sup-) , NO inf3 (sup-) , SO inf4 (sup2-) and EDTA. EDTA, being a strong complexing agent, was most effective. Rates of leaching were found to be higher at elevated temperature except in the cases of HPO inf4 (sup2-) and EDTA. Effect of pH was not pronounced. The temperature at which the UPVC pipes were extruded was found to affect the rate of leaching of lead. Pipes extruded at 190°C were found to have lower rate of leaching than those extruded at 180°C and 170°C. Analysis of the pipes by Scanning Electron Microscopy showed that the distribution of lead in the pipes extruded at 190°C was more uniform than those extruded at 170°C. PMID:24233940

  17. 11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Erdo?an

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality.Methods: Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively.Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery,operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN related complications.The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined.Findings: Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but notmortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section.Conclusion: In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

  18. Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P4) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (?2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (?4.1 ng/mL) P4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

  19. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, R., Levanon, D., Hadar, Y., and Chet, I. 1995. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta. Experimental Mycology 19, 61-70. Morchella esculenta was grown on square split plates, forming sclerotia on one side and mycelium on the other. After the fungus ceased to colonize and before sclerotial initials appeared, [14C]3-O-methyl glucose was added to the edge of the plate on the mycelial side. The effect of various activities in the mycelium (source) and sclerotia (sink) on sclerotial formation and translocation were examined using inhibitors and water potential changes of the media. Sodium azide or cycloheximide applied separately to both sides inhibited both sclerotial formation and translocation, showing that processes in the source and sink depend on metabolic activities as well as protein synthesis. The use of nikkomycin inhibited sclerotial formation, without affecting translocation to the sclerotia. Since the hyphal tips swelled and burst, the translocated compounds were lost to the media. In a strain defective in sclerotial formation, used as a control, no translocation took place, showing that there is a connection between sclerotial formation and translocation. Reversal of the water potential gradient between the two media (lower on the mycelial side), reduced the formation of sclerotia and translocation to them. Translocation to Morchella sclerotia takes place via turgor driven mass flow, but is nevertheless affected by activities in both the source and the sink. (author)

  20. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  1. Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Ud Din Khan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods. Respondents were undergraduate students of university with different demographics. Results has presented graphically, descriptively and inferentially using SPSS and Excel. Pearson’s chi-square and correlation has applied to verify the relationship between stress factors and demographics. Results show that living persuasively under strict rules and regulations can be a family stressor. Unavailability of best choices and paramount match to live with as a partner can be an emotional stress. Less income students find difficulty to spend money on buying and enjoying which is a predictor of financial stress. Pressurized life and squat admiration from people has lied under Social stress. Other verdicts are also deemed according to Pakistani cultural context.

  2. Somatic cell and factors which affect their count in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka ?a?i?

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is determined by chemical composition, physical characteristics and hygienic parameters. The main indicators of hygienic quality of milk are total number of microorganisms and somatic cell count (SCC. Environmental factors have the greatest influence on increasing SCC. The most important environmental parameters are status of udder infection, age of cow, stage of lactation, number of lactation, breed, housing, geographicalarea and seasons, herd size, stress, heavy physical activity and, milking. A farmer (milk producer himself can control a great number of environmental factors using good management practise and permanent education. Since SCC participate in creating the price of milk, it is necessary to inform milk producers how to organise their production so that they would produce maximum quantity of good hygienic quality milk.

  3. Factors Affecting Bank Switching Intentions in E-Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla ÖZER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify and examine the factors that contribute to bank switching intentions of e-banking customers and whether these intentions differ according to demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, marital status and income levels of customers. Regression results suggested that customer dissatisfaction, low service quality, high price, unfavorable bank reputation, limited product variety and involuntary switching factors were positively related to customers’ bank switching intentions in e-banking. On the other hand, promotion efforts were negatively related to customers’ switching intentions. In addition to this, bank switching intentions were revealed to be differing according to education levels. Bank switching intentions of well-educated customers were tend to be higher, while age, gender, marital status and income level didn’t make a difference on intentions. Based on the empirical results of current study, we will provide several theoretical and managerial implications in the area of service industry.

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction & suggestions to improve them.

  5. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Al-Fouzan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7% decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2% students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%, 17 (11.8%, and 16 (11.1% students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4% of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8% and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3% were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065 more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002. Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

  6. Factors Affecting Chinese Farmers' Decisions to Adopt a Water-Saving Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Herzfeld, T.; Glauben, T.; Zhang, Y; Hu, B

    2008-01-01

    Chinese farm households (N = 240) were interviewed to understand some of the factors affecting their adoption of a water-saving technology called the Ground Cover Rice Production System (GCRPS). A logit model was established on the basis of a survey to estimate the determinants of adoption and to simulate impacts of changes in these determinants on adoption potential. There are no significant influences of age and number of laborers on the probability of GCRPS adoption. Male farm managers had...

  7. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  8. Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation of osteoid osteomas: factors affecting therapeutic outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine factors which affect local recurrence of osteoid osteomas treated with percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation. A prospective study was carried out on 45 patients with osteoid osteoma who underwent percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation with a minimum follow-up of 12 months There were seven local recurrences (16%); all occurred within the first year. Local recurrence was significantly related to a non-diaphyseal location (P<0.01). There was no significant relationship (P=0.05) between local recurrence and age of the patient, duration of symptoms, previous treatment, size of the lesion, positive biopsy, radiofrequency generator used or the number of needle positions. There were no complications. Osteoid osteomas in a non-diaphyseal location are statistically more likely to recur than those in a diaphyseal location when treated with CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation. This relationship between local recurrence and location has not been previously reported. (orig.)

  9. Exploratory investigation of factors affecting the wing tip vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, J.; Megrail, J. L.; Shivers, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to study some factors affecting the tip vortex of a wing. It was found that there was a pronounced effect of Reynolds number on the tip-vortex core size. An attempt was made to determine what aerodynamic parameters, such as lift, drag, or induced drag, influence the size of the vortex core, but no particular function of the parameters was found to be superior to all others. Various spoilers placed on the upper and lower surfaces of the wing to increase the boundary-layer thickness resulted in a reduction in the vorticity as determined from the tuft grid. Various solid objects placed in the vortex core downstream of the wing tip seemed to decrease the vorticity within the vortex core.

  10. Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation of osteoid osteomas: factors affecting therapeutic outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribb, G.L.; Goude, W.H.; Cool, P.; Tins, B.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.; Mangham, D.C. [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    To examine factors which affect local recurrence of osteoid osteomas treated with percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation. A prospective study was carried out on 45 patients with osteoid osteoma who underwent percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation with a minimum follow-up of 12 months There were seven local recurrences (16%); all occurred within the first year. Local recurrence was significantly related to a non-diaphyseal location (P<0.01). There was no significant relationship (P=0.05) between local recurrence and age of the patient, duration of symptoms, previous treatment, size of the lesion, positive biopsy, radiofrequency generator used or the number of needle positions. There were no complications. Osteoid osteomas in a non-diaphyseal location are statistically more likely to recur than those in a diaphyseal location when treated with CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation. This relationship between local recurrence and location has not been previously reported. (orig.)

  11. Factors affecting sorption of radiocobalt by river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the principal factors affecting the interaction of radio cobalt with fresh water sediments and their importance for migration of radio cobalt in surface water streams. The uptake percent (U%) of radio cobalt by Ismailia Cannal bottom sediments (ICUBS) have been studied as a function of contact time, ph, competing ion, carrier concentration and natural ligands such as humic acid using batch technique. Mineralogical analyses of the sediment samples were carried out. The amount sorbed per gram sediment, (X/m), increased as the carrier concentration increased from 10-8 mol. Following a Freundlich type isotherm. The uptake of radio cobalt was found to be affected by changing in the ph of the aqueous phase. Presence of Mg24 ions as competing cation decreases the sorption of 60Co. Presence of humic acid shows a slight effect on the sorption of 60Co. Desorption of the investigated metal ion from the loaded sediment samples was also studied. A mathematical model for the migration of the investigated radioisotope in Ismailia canal water stream was developed to predict the concentrations of cobalt ion at different distances in X-direction

  12. The Study of Internal Factors Affecting Ethnic and National

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolali Lahsaeizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present paper aims at studying the internal factors affecting ethnic and national identityamong Arab people of Ahwaz using quantitative method and survey technique. The sample of thisstudy was 384 male and female Arabs aging 18 to 65 years old. In order to have a more precisestudy, a pretest questionnaire was given to 52 Arab people of Ahwaz. The final questionnaire wasgiven to the sample during autumn and winter of 2006. The theoretical framework of this study isbased on modernization, relative deprivation and internal exploitation theories. In this study, theeffect of age, sex, marital status, employment, family income, the rate of family ownership, relativedeprivation feeling in economic dimension, urban residence, neighborhood (Arab dominant ormixed,the rate of ethnic trust, abiding by ethnic norms, education, using media, satisfaction withpolitical system, participation in political issues and relative deprivation feeling in politicaldimension were measured by ethnic identity variable. Finally, the relationship between ethnicidentity variable and national identity variable was tested among samples. The result of bivariateanalysis (T test, variance analysis and simple regression revealed that above mentioned variable -except 3 variables including sex, marital status and urban residence record - were significant. Ethnicidentity and national identity are significant negative relationship. The results of multivariateregression analysis revealed that 11 out of 16 independent variables affected ethnic identity whichfinaly explained 67 percent of ethnic identity variance.

  13. Crop production in salt affected soils: A biological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant are susceptible to deleterious effects of various abiotic and biotic stresses, thus grossly affecting the growth and productivity. Amongst the abiotic stresses, soil salinity is most significant and prevalent in both developed and developing countries. As a consequences, good productive lands are being desertified at a very high pace. To combat this problem various approaches involving soil management and drainage are underway but with little success. It seems that a durable solution of the salinity and water-logging problems may take a long time and we may have to learn to live with salinity and to find other ways to utilize the affected lands fruitfully. A possible approach could be to tailor plants to suit the deleterious environment. The saline-sodic soils have excess of sodium, are impermeable, have little or no organic matter and are biologically almost dead. Introduction of a salt tolerant crop will provide a green cover and will improve the environment for biological activity, increase organic matter and will improve the soil fertility. The plant growth will result in higher carbon dioxide levels, and would thus create acidic conditions in the soil which would dissolve the insoluble calcium carbonate and will help exchange sodium with calcium ions on the soil complex. The biomass produced could be used directly as fodder or by the use of biotechnological and other procedures it could be converted into other value added products. However, in order to tailor plants to suit these deleterious environments, acquisition of better understanding of the biochemical and genetic aspects of salt tolerance at the cellular/molecular level is essential. For this purpose model systems have been carefully selected to carry out fundamental basic research that elucidates and identifies the major factors that confer salt tolerance in a living system. With the development of modern biotechnological methods it is now possible to introduce any foreign genetic material known to confer salt tolerance into crop plants. Some of the approaches and results obtained are being discussed. (author). 43 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  14. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GU?U

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.

  15. The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship.

  16. Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Ho; Jeong, Won Mee [Inha Hospital, Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seung Hum; Lee Sun Hee [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Tae Yong [Yuhan College, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future.

  17. Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future

  18. Clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chae Min; Yang, Sun Hye; Lee, Sun Pyo; Hwang, Byung Chul

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies in order to minimize perinatal complications. Methods A retrospective study involved 163 twin pregnancies delivered from January 2006 to September 2011 at Gachon University Gil Medical Center. These cases were divided into three groups based on the delivery timing: less than 32 weeks' gestation (group A), between 32 and 35+6 weeks' gestation (group B), and over 36 weeks' gestation (group C). Clinical factors including maternal age, parity, presence of premature uterine contraction, presence of premature rupture of membrane, white blood cell, high sensitive C-reactive protein level, cervical dilatation, maternal complication, chorionicity, twin specific complication, and perinatal complication were analyzed for each group. Results In group B, the timing of delivery was postponed for 14 days or more from the time of admission, and there were fewer numbers of babies with low Apgar score at birth compared with other groups. The frequency of uterine contraction (Ptwin pregnancies. Twin specific fetal conditions, such as twin-twin transfusion syndrome and discordant growth (over 25% or more) were shown more frequently in group A. However, there were no significant statistical differences among three groups (P=0.06, P=0.14). Conclusion Proper management for preventing premature contraction and inflammation can be essential in twin pregnancies until 32 weeks' gestation, and may decrease maternal and perinatal complications. PMID:25469330

  19. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Genetically Modified Animals in the Food and Pharmaceutical Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha I. Valeeva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of genetically modified (GM animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scoping study was conducted to assess research relevant to understanding the main drivers influencing the adoption of GM applications and their potential risks and benefits. Public and producers’ acceptance, public policies, human health, animal welfare, environmental impact and sustainability are considered as the main factors affecting the application of GM animal techniques in livestock and pharmaceutical chains.

  20. Some factors affecting the cost of irradiation services in thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future of food irradiation in developing countries depends to a large extent on cost considerations. Although food irradiation technology itself is widely known and appears to offer many advantages, concrete evidence on the economic viability of a multi-product irradiation plant is presently not readily available to the private sector in developing countries. It is doubtful whether such evidence exists in a form which is comprehensible to industrialists outside the radiation technology circle. With respect to the economic aspects of food irradiation, information available from the literature appears to be based largely on a summing-up of studies of single products on a case-by-case basis. In an agricultural country, the main inputs to an irradiation service facility are likely to be agricultural produce which vary in kind and quantity with cropping seasons. Moreover, in most developing countries, uncontrollable factors play an important role in the production of annual crops and their transportation. Thus, it is hardly possible to make a credible long term forecast on the throughput required for the multi-product service plant, let alone determine with confidence the return on investment. Accordingly, as far as the private sector is concerned, investment decisions regarding the establishment of a commercial food irradiation service plant have to be considered as 'decision making under risk'. This paper attempts to raise questions to which the author cannot yet find clear and practical answers from the available literature. It is intended to stimulate a more thorough and objective discussion on the subject of economic viability of a multi-product food irradiation plant under the prevailing environment in ASEAN

  1. Relations between affective music and speech: evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoluan; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory constraints are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory constraints interact with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role. PMID:26217252

  2. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),work, 4 h/week (5 h men, 4 h women) during leisure time and 1 h/week (1 h men, 1.5 h women) while commuting to work. Factors associated with increased occupational cold exposure among men were: being employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  3. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku are definedtogether withshowing the optimal ways of development.

  4. Geographical factors affecting variability of precipitation regime in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabziparvar, A. A.; Movahedi, S.; Asakereh, H.; Maryanaji, Z.; Masoodian, S. A.

    2015-04-01

    This study compares the precipitation regimes by using harmonic analysis during the last four decades (1965-2004). We used the measured precipitation data from 428 rain-gauge sites and weather stations distributed across Iran by applying 15 × 15 km spatial grids to generate the interpolated data. Data validations were carried out by statistical tests. In this study, first three harmonics of precipitation variances were evaluated. Variability of precipitation regime was explored by using three harmonic analysis methods. In addition, the effect of geographical factors (GF) (site elevation, latitude, and longitude) affecting the precipitation regime (P) was verified by multivariate regression method. The resulted regression equation between P and GF for spring showed the highest correlation coefficient ( r = 0.79). For other seasons, r was lower than for spring and varied between 0.26 (summer) to 0.58 (autumn). Analysis of the first harmonic proved that the main precipitation regime in Iran tends to concentrate in one specific season (winter) as a result of large-scale Mediterranean systems passing over the country. In other words, the first harmonic is able to explain most of the precipitation variations which are caused by large-scale atmospheric circulation. For all the three harmonics, variances of precipitation were mainly a function of the geographical factors. This effect was more evident in the third harmonic; in such a way that increasing the latitudes caused higher precipitation variance. This means that the precipitation regime in northern sites is more sensitive to the local factors than those of southern sites. The results of this research can be used for reliable estimation of precipitation in ungauged sites.

  5. The Economic and Social Factors Affecting Deforestation In Selected Countries: Using Environmental Kuznets Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Esmaeili

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation has been recognized as one of the biggest environmental problems in the world. It is also one of the main elements of land productivity changes and one of the biggest factors which threaten world's environmental diversity. In this study, based on environmental Kuznets theory, factors which may affect deforestation have been investigated. Results obtained from 71 studied countries show that environmental Kuznets curve was not true for them. Population growth helps the speed of deforestation while higher rate of GDP growth decreases its rate. Institutions which help with the improvement of democracy, individual assets, civil right and political liberty can decrease the pressure on natural recourses and deforestation.

  6. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  7. Responses to product features: An affective neuroscience perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Christoforidou, Despina; Motte, Damien

    2009-01-01

    Design aesthetics concerns the study of the way the features of a product are perceived by an observer. This paper shows that the moment of perception can be advantageously described with the help of results from affective neuroscience. It also shows, among other things, that the affective state of an individual is always prior to a later, slower, conscious cognition, and that it influences judgment during purchase and use. This can also be observed in great detail through the measurement tec...

  8. Factors Affecting Survival in Kidney Recipients at Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaei

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Purpose: To evaluate patient and graft survivals in kidney recipients and factors impacting on survival rates at Kermanshah.

    Materials and Methods: This study was done on 712 kidney transplants from 1989 through 2001 in Kermanshah. One of the most important applications of survival analysis is assessing the role of explanatory factors in the studied event. In this study Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate patient and graft survivals and in order to determine the factors affecting survival, Cox proportional hazard model was used. The iterations in Cox model was four times and the inclusion and exclusion criteria, calculated by forward conditional method were less than 5% and 10%, respectively.

    Results: Of the recipients, 47.6% were female and most of them (94.4% had received kidneys from living unrelated donors. One-year patient survivals in recipients from living unrelated donors (LURD and living related donors (LRD were 89.4% and 100%, 3-year survivals were 82% and 97.4%, and 10-year survivals were 61.4% and 72%, respectively. In addition, graft survival rates in one year were 85.6% and 97.4%, in three years were 77.2% and 92.3%, and in 10 years were 33.3% and 60.6% in LURD and LRD, respectively. In Cox model, four factors, including the presence of surgical or other complications, known primary disease, and donor-recipient relationship had significant association with patient survival and seven factors, including the presence of surgical complications, known primary disease, donor-recipient relationship, gender, weight, same side transplanted kidney, and donor's age had significant relationship with graft survival.

    Conclusion: In summary, it can be concluded that patient and donor demographic characteristics and transplantation conditions may affect patient and graft survival. With the use of multivariate regression analysis methods, the characteristics that have high probability for survival can be determined. Controlling these situations, where they have high survival probability, effectively help better treatment and high survival rate.

  9. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Quality of an E-commerce Website Using Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Mishra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors which affect the quality and effectiveness of an e commerce website which also majorly affect customer satisfaction and ultimately customer retention and loyalty. This research paper examines a set of 23 variables and integrates them into 4 factors which affect the quality of a website. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to generate statistics regarding the preferences of the e-commerce website users.The 23 variables taken from customer survey are generalized into 4 major factors using exploratory factor analysis which are content, navigation, services and interface design. The research majorly consists of the responses of students between the age group of 18-25 years and considers different B2C commercial websites. Identified variables are important with respect to the current competition in the market as service of an e-commerce website also play a major role in ensuring customer satisfaction. Further research in this domain can be done for websites’ version for mobile devices.

  10. 34 CFR 682.513 - Factors affecting coverage of a loan under the loan guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    34 Education 3 2010-07-01...2010-07-01 false Factors affecting coverage of a...Section 682.513 Education Regulations...FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL... § 682.513 Factors affecting coverage of...

  11. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  12. Examining Extrinsic Factors that Influence Product Acceptance: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Drivers of liking (DOL) studies are useful for product development to formulate acceptable products; however, DOL alone are insufficient for understanding why a product is purchased and repurchased, which is ultimately the indication of a successful product. Ultimately sensory attributes drive product success (that is, repeat and continued purchase). However, ignoring the importance of extrinsic factors may neglect the vital product attributes responsible for the initial purchase, which may in turn, affect repeat purchase. The perception of sensory attributes assessed by DOL is mitigated by external perceptions of quality. If the sensory attributes do not deliver based upon the quality cues, the product will not be acceptable. Four key extrinsic factors that affect DOL are the perceived satiety, brand and labeling, price, and the emotional impact to decision making. In order to more thoroughly understand what the DOL for a product is, these 4 product cues should be considered in conjunction with sensory attribute perception to gain a holistic understanding of product acceptance. PMID:25959688

  13. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.

  14. Procurement engineering - the productivity factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industry is several years on the road to implementation of the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) initiatives on commercial-grade item dedication and procurement. Utilities have taken several approaches to involve engineering in the procurement process. A common result for the approaches is the additional operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) cost imposed by the added resource requirements. Procurement engineering productivity is a key element in controlling this business area. Experience shows that 400 to 500% improvements in productivity are possible with a 2-yr period. Improving the productivity of the procurement engineering function is important in today's competitive utility environment. Procurement engineering typically involves four distinct technical evaluation responsibilities along with several administrative areas. Technical evaluations include the functionally based safety classification of replacement components and parts (lacking a master parts list), the determination of dedication requirements for safety-related commercial-grade items, the preparation of a procurement specification to maintain the licensed design bases, and the equivalency evaluation of alternate items not requiring the design-change process. Administrative duties include obtaining technical review of vendor-supplied documentation, identifying obsolete parts and components, resolving material nonconformances, initiating the design-change process for replacement items (as needed), and providing technical support to O ampersand M. Although most utilities may not perform or require all the noted activities, a large percentage will apply to each utility station

  15. Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

  16. Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojection are investigated: (1) image uniformity (flood) corrections, (2) image sampling (pixel size) and (3) count allocation methods. An analytic expression for uniformity correction is developed that incorporates factors for spatial-dependent detector sensitivity and geometric effects from acceptance angle limits on coincidence events. There is good agreement between experimental floods from a PEM system with a pixellated detector and numerical simulations. The analytic uniformity corrections are successfully applied to image reconstruction of compressed breast phantoms and reduce the necessity for flood scans at different image planes. Experimental and simulated compressed breast phantom studies show that lesion contrast is improved when the image pixel size is half of, rather than equal to, the detector pixel size, though this occurs at the expense of some additional image noise. In PEM reconstruction counts usually are allocated to the pixel in the image plane intersected by the line of response (LOR) between the centers of the detection pixels. An alternate count allocation method is investigated that distributes counts to image pixels in proportion to the area of the tube of response (TOR) connecting the detection pixels that they overlay in the image plane. This TOR method eliminates some image artifacts that occur with the LOR method and increases tumor signal-to-noise ratios at the expense of a slight decrease in tumor contrast. Analysis of image uniformity, image sampling and count allocation methods in PEM image reconstruction points to ways of improving image formation. Further work is required to optimize image reconstruction parameters for particular detection or quantitation tasks

  17. Assessment of factors affecting industrial electricity demand. Final report (revision version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-07-01

    In Chapter 2, we identify those factors affecting the industrial product mix - taste, relative output prices, and relative input prices - and isolate several determinants which have not been adequately accounted for to date in industrial electricity demand forecasts. We discuss how the lower energy prices of foreign producers affect domestic producers and how the growth in the number of substitutes for intermediate products such as steel and aluminum with plastics and composites affects the composition of production and, hence, the demand for electricity. We also investigate how the changing age structure of the population brought on by the baby boom could change the mix of outputs produced by the industrial sector. In Chapter 3, we review the history of the 1970s with regard to changes in output mix and the manufacturing demand for electricity, and with regard to changes in the use of electricity vis-a-vis the other inputs in the production process. In Chapter 4, we generate forecasts using two models which control for efficiency changes, but in different ways. In this chapter we present the sensitivity of these projections using three sets of assumptions about product mix. The last chapter summarizes our results and draw from those results implications regarding public policy and industrial electricity demand. Two appendices present ISTUM2 results from selected electricity intensive industries, describes the ISTUM and ORIM models.

  18. Factors affecting the cost and competitiveness of nuclear electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general context in which are carried out the investment choices of the electric sector has evolved in a significant way during these last years and the changes are to a certain extent irreversible. Economic globalization, deregulation of the electricity market, privatisation of electricity producers, and increasing awareness of environmental issues are modifying the policy-making landscape and the criteria and priorities of decision-makers in the power sector. Competitiveness remains a cornerstone for evaluating and choosing alternative technologies in the process of planning and decision-making for electricity system expansion or power plant replacement. Nevertheless, the production costs analysis inserts factors which were not taking before into account as for instance social impacts, health and environmental effects. These new approaches better reveal the total costs of the different production means. They will certainly lead to different choices than those based on the whole comparison of direct costs supported by producers. The economic studies carried out by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (NEA) cover all the preceding aspects and give objective information on the competitiveness of nuclear electricity. The nuclear industry has today the necessary means to take up the challenges of the electricity new markets. (O.M.)

  19. Parameters Affecting Ethyl Ester Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Fermentation?

    OpenAIRE

    Saerens, S. M. G.; Delvaux, F.; Verstrepen, K. J.; van Dijck, P; Thevelein, J. M.; Delvaux, F. R.

    2007-01-01

    Volatile esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages and thus constitute a vital group of aromatic compounds in beer and wine. Many fermentation parameters are known to affect volatile ester production. In order to obtain insight into the production of ethyl esters during fermentation, we investigated the influence of several fermentation variables. A higher level of unsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation medium resulted in a general decrease in ethyl ester pro...

  20. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

  1. Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank and State Bank of India and Canara Bank. The sample size of 450 has been taken from among the urban population of above 18 years of age. The result indicates that the educated respondents use the service of internet banking. Based on occupation we can say that the service class and the business class is the one who use internet banking service to nearly 2 times as other occupation. The high income respondents having more than 1 lack income prefer to use this service. The private sector bank account holders use this service as compared to public sector banks. The banking attributes i.e. convenience and security do have very attentive influence on the use of Internet banking.

  2. Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, K M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

  3. Factors Affecting the Disposition Effect in Tehran Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tehrani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the significance and perceived inevitability of disposition effect and its impact on investment decisions, we investigate factors affecting the disposition effect in the Tehran Stock Exchange. Four hypotheses were developed and the data used in the study were collected through availability sampling. One-sample t-test, two-sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were run to analyze the data while Pearson correlation test and multiple regressions were used to assess relationships among variables in question. The results of the analyses indicate that overconfidence and mental accounting were not significantly correlated with disposition effect. Regret aversion had a positive relationship with disposition effect while self control was negatively associated. It was also observed that there was a negative relationship between participants’ level of education and their disposition effect indicating that the higher the level of education, the less the rate of disposition effect. Furthermore, the results of the study show that males enjoy a higher level of overconfidence than females, and 20 to 30 year-old age groups displayed much overconfidence than other age groups.

  4. Statistical factors affecting the success of nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the authors present a statistical analysis to determine the operational, financial, technical, and managerial factors that most significantly affect the success of nuclear operations. The study analyzes data for over 70 nuclear plants and 40 operating companies over a period of five years in order to draw conclusions that they hope will be of interest to utility companies and public utility commissions as they seek ways to improve rates of success in nuclear operations. Some of these conclusions will not be surprising--for example, that older plants have heavier maintenance requirements--but others are less intuitive. For instance, the observation that operators of fewer plants have lower costs suggests that any experience curve benefits associated with managing multiple nuclear facilities is overshadowed by the logistic problems of multiple facilities. After presenting a brief history of nuclear power in America, the authors outline the motivations of the study and the methodology of their analysis. They end the article with the results of the study and discuss some of the managerial implications of these findings

  5. Some factors affecting accuracy of Canadian Home Fitness Test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R J; Cox, M; Corey, P; Smyth, R

    1979-09-01

    Factors affecting the accuracy of Canadian Home Fitness Test scores have been evaluated in male and female office workers. At a first attempt, the typical subject underestimates his 10 sec post-exercise pulse count by 1 beat, with a superimposed probable error of 2 beats. However, the modest experience of pulse counting gained in an employee fitness programme corrects the systematic error, while the probable random error is reduced to approximately 8 beats/min. Taking account also of variations in the fficiency of stepping, the probable error of an Astrand prediction of V O2(max) is approximately 10.3%. Comparison with directly measured values in a subsample of 22 men shows an actual random discrepancy of 9.5%, plus a systematic error of approximately 19% due to an increase of heart rate with anticipation of the maximum test. The Jetté prediction formula has a random discrepancy of approximately 8%, plus a systematic error of approximately 10.6%. Assuming the latter can be corrected by evaluation of a larger population, the fitness scores should give most people an indication of both their initial fitness and responses to a training regimen. PMID:540414

  6. Factors affecting graded and ungraded memory loss following hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris; Sekeres, Melanie J

    2013-11-01

    This review evaluates three current theories--Standard Consolidation (Squire & Wixted, 2011), Overshadowing (Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann, 2010), and Multiple Trace-Transformation (Winocur, Moscovitch, & Bontempi, 2010)--in terms of their ability to account for the role of the hippocampus in recent and remote memory in animals. Evidence, based on consistent findings from tests of spatial memory and memory for acquired food preferences, favours the transformation account, but this conclusion is undermined by inconsistent results from studies that measured contextual fear memory, probably the most commonly used test of hippocampal involvement in anterograde and retrograde memory. Resolution of this issue may depend on exercising greater control over critical factors (e.g., contextual environment, amount of pre-exposure to the conditioning chamber, the number and distribution of foot-shocks) that can affect the representation of the memory shortly after learning and over the long-term. Research strategies aimed at characterizing the neural basis of long-term consolidation/transformation, as well as other outstanding issues are discussed. PMID:24120426

  7. THEORIES AND FACTORS AFFECTING MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Amit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioadhesion is an interfacial phenomenon in which two materials, at least one of which is biological, are held together by means of interfacial forces. When the associated biological system is mucous, it is called mucoadhesion. This property of certain polymeric systems have got place in the drug delivery research in order to prolong contact time in the various mucosal route of drug administration, as the ability to maintain a delivery system at a particular location for an extended period of time has a great appeal for both local action as well as systemic drug bioavailability. A complete and comprehensive theory that can predict adhesion based on the chemical and/or physical nature of a polymer is not yet available. Several theories have been proposed to explain the fundamental mechanisms of adhesion such as glues, adhesives, and paints, have been adopted to study the mucoadhesion. Mucoadhesion is a complex process and numerous theories have been presented to explain the mechanisms involved. These theories include mechanical-interlocking, electrostatic, diffusion–interpenetration, adsorption and fracture processes. They are Electronic theory, Adsorption theory, Wetting theory, Diffusion theory, Fracture theory. The objective of the study is to explain the different mechanisms involved in mucoadhesion and various factors affecting mucoadhesion.

  8. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  9. Factors affecting chemical remediation of oil contaminated water-wetted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amro, M.M. [Petroleum Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2004-08-01

    The removal of hydrocarbons from contaminated soil is an essential practice because of environmental concerns, and in order to avoid surface and groundwater contamination. There are different methods applied to remove the hydrocarbons from the soil environment. However, the efficiency of soil remediation depends on several factors, such as the penetration depth of the oil into the soil, the type of oil and polluted soil and the age and degree of contamination. Chemical extraction is one of the approaches employed in handling contaminated sites. Many operations in the petroleum exploration, production and transportation have the potential to affect the environment in different degrees. Leakages from pipelines and stranded oil spills are the major sources of oil-contamination. If hydrocarbon contamination occurs in the soil, the affected portion of soil must be treated to prevent subsequent pollution of groundwater. In this study, a laboratory investigation of factors affecting the chemical extraction using different solvents was conducted to remove the hydrocarbon from artificially contaminated soil samples in presence of water. Moreover, two different types of crude oil were used to study the effect of oil composition on the removal process. The results have identified large variation in the removal efficiency of the applied solvents, depending mainly on the solvent and the type of oil. The main factors affecting the removal process are presented and investigated. In addition, these results were compared with those of dry soil samples. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Human Factors in the Management of Production

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Per Langå; Alting, Leo

    2012-01-01

    The ‘Human factor’ is a major issue when optimizing manufacturing systems. The development in recommendations on how to handle this factor in the management of production reflects the change in dominating challenges faced by production in society. Presently, industrial societies are meeting new challenges. Qualitative interviews with Danish stakeholders in the education of engineers (BA & MA) confirm the picture given in international literature. Therefore, the didactics concerning the ‘human...

  11. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimi...

  12. Principal Factors Affecting China Zero Environmental Risk: Behavior and Area Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find principal factors affecting CZER (China Zero Environmental Risk from behavior and area angle and the related advice can help people to solve environmental problems. So, in this study the factors’ selection, contribution and sequence by correlation, regression and principal component analysis, etc. were studied from behavior and area angle, which is different from the present work only studying individual behavior or individual area. To make sure this study applicable, data were collected by case study and such norms as KMO (KMO refers to Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy, etc., were abided by. By this study, principal factors from behavior angle can be ordered by contribution as follows: Production action, market management, living waste disposal, public management, living action and production waste disposal. Principal factors from area angle can be ordered by contribution as follows: Neimenggu, Jiangxi, Shanghai, Qinghai, Zhejiang and Shaanxi. And the related advice is as follows: First, strict surveillance on production of waste from such behaviors as enterprise production and human living action by market management and public management, etc. Secondly, great encouragement to technological innovations friendly with the environment in waste disposal. And thirdly different emphasis of management in different areas, such as natural resources deterioration in Neimenggu and Qinghai, food quality and farming pollution in Jiangxi, industry pollution and water pollution in Shanghai and Zhejiang and pollution of resources excavation and refinement in Shaanxi, etc.

  13. Initial solidification phenomena: Factors affecting heat transfer in strip casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolli, Paolo

    In the last few years a few companies have announced the final stage of the commercial development of strip casting of steels. In strip casting heat extraction and productivity are limited by the thermal resistance at the interface between processed material and moving mold (rolls for twin-roll strip casters). Among many factors influencing interfacial heat transfer, films of various composition, either formed during casting or deposited before casting on the surface of the rolls, melt superheat and gas atmosphere composition can have a significantly positive or negative effect on the achieved heat transfer rate. From an industrial point view, methods to improve interfacial heat transfer rates must be found, in order to increase productivity. The objective of this research project is to assess if it is feasible to improve heat transfer rates during solidification of steel in direct contact with a copper mold: (1) by the application of thin coatings on the mold surface; (2) by adding a reactive gas species containing sulfur in the gas shrouding where casting is performed. To address the former, solidification experiments were performed with the mold surface either kept uncoated or coated with coatings of different compositions. To address the latter, the experiments were performed in gas shrouding atmospheres with or without sulphydric acid. It was observed that the resulting heat extraction rates were improved by the application of certain coatings and by the addition of H2S to the gas atmosphere. These findings prove that the application of coatings and the use of small amounts of reactive gaseous species containing sulfur may be methods to increase productivity in strip casting. The effect of superheat and the effect of naturally deposited oxides (Mn-oxide) were also evaluated experimentally. A numerical study of the effect of the critical undercooling on the productivity of a twin-roll strip caster showed that the maximum allowable casting speed can be increased by increasing the critical undercooling, which in turns can be changed by changing the composition of the coating applied on the roll surface; this increase is significant when casting thicknesses are small (less than 1 mm). Finally, a procedure, based on Scheill's method, vaporization and liquation, to predict the composition of films depositing naturally during solidification, starting from the steel composition, is proposed.

  14. Family planning attitudes of women and affecting factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayaz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This descriptive research was conducted to determine the attitudes of women towards family planning and the factors affecting these attitudes. Material and Methods: Universe of the study has been composed of women who are married and older than 15 years and living in Ankara Kale district. 300 women were included. Kale district is a low socioeconomical slum area of the capital city of Turkey. Questionnaire and Family Planning Attitude Scale were used to collect data. Results: 38% of the women were in the 30-39 years age group and 66.7% of them were graduates of primary school. 73.3% of the women had information about some contraceptive method and 53% of them had used an effective method. Mean score taken from the Family Planning Attitude Scale was 120.11±13.8. The scores obtained from the scale were significantly higher in the women who were graduates of elementary school, whose husbands were graduates from high school and higher, who had heard about any contraceptive method and had been using some method and who had had 1-3 pregnancies (p0.05. Conclusion: It was found that the attitudes of the women towards family planning were at a good level, nearly half of the women were using an effective method, and the level of education, number of pregnancies, unwillingness to have another child in the future, having information about contraceptive methods and using some contraceptive method had influenced family planning attitudes. In order to turn this attitude into practice with high rate, family planning education programs and consultancy services must be planned and implemented.

  15. Factors affecting nuclear research reactor utilization across countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the worldwide declining trend of research reactor utilization and the fact that many reactors in developing countries are under-utilised, a question naturally arises as to whether the investment in a research reactor is justifiable. Statistical analyses were applied to reveal relationships between the status of reactor utilization and socio-economic conditions among countries, that may provide a guidance for reactor planning and cost benefit assessment. The reactor power has significant regression relationships with size indicators such as GNP, electricity consumption and R and D expenditure. Concerning the effectiveness of investment in research reactors, the number of reactor operation days per year only weakly correlates with electricity consumption and R and D expenditure, implying that there are controlling factors specific of each group of countries. In the case of less developed countries, the low customer demands on reactor operation may be associated with the failure in achieving quality assurance for the reactor products and services, inadequate investment in the infrastructure for reactor exploitation, the shortage of R and D funding and well trained manpower and the lack of measures to get the scientific community involved in the application of nuclear techniques. (author)

  16. Factors Affecting the Outcome of Bronchiectasis in Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Bilan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bronchiectasis is a common problem in children and early diagnosis can lead to early treatment and prevent of its complications. This study was aimed to evaluate factors effective on outcome of bronchiectasis in children. Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 347 children with bronchiectasis Underwent the study. the patients were diagnosed based on chronic suppurative cough and CT scan findings. . Results: Disease etiology was asthma in 55.6%, Gastroesophagial reflux (GERD in 7.8%, Cystic fibrosis (CF in 4.8%, other causes in 11.2% and idiopathic in 20.6%. All cases complained of chronic cough. The most common sign was daily sputum production (79.1% and common symptoms were ral/crackle in 47.1% and wheezing in 25.4%. Mean treatment period was 32.82±11.56 months. At the end of follow-up, complete improvement occurred in 35.6%, partial improvement in 40.9% and no improvement in 23.5%. Conclusion: In children with chronic cough and crackle in physical examination, consideration of bronchiectasis could be helpful in early diagnosis and complementary evaluations and treatment initiation. Treating the underlying disease could prevent the occurrence and increase the response to treatment of bronchiectasis.

  17. An Exploratory Study of the Factors That May Affect Female Consumers’ Buying Decision of Nail Polishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine what factors female consumers valued more when they buy nail polish. Ninety-eight female consumers participated in a nail polish consumer study at the Sensory Analysis Center, Kansas State University. A questionnaire containing a check-all-that-apply (CATA question, behavior questions and demographic questions was presented to each consumer. In the CATA question, the factors that may affect consumers’ decision to buy a nail polish were asked, including both sensory and non-sensory factors. The frequency in percent for the factors was calculated. Sensory appeal, price and convenience of usage were the top factors that affected consumers’ buying decisions. Consumers valued sensory appeal and convenience of usage; this suggested that a nail polish company’s product development and advertising departments may want to focus on these two areas, primarily. The information presented in this study could help a nail polish company understand more about consumer segmentation and advertising strategy.

  18. Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Consumers’ Attitude and Behaviors towards the Poultry Meat Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Topcu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the consumers’ attitude and behaviors towards poultry meat consumption and to analyze the factors affecting on their meat consumption. The data obtained from 385 households consuming the poultry meat and residing in Erzurum province. As the data set based on Principal Component Analysis to determine the main factors affecting the consumption according to the poultry meat attributes and K-means Cluster Analysis to constitute the homogenous segments related to their consumption frequencies were used. According to the results of the study; the heavy users (C1 consuming the poultry meat consumption constituted the desirous and sensitive consumer segments based on both product image and price-sensitive contributing to the regional and rural development under the augmented product mix registered with the origin of the region. On the other hand, while the medium users (C2 focused on the concept forming their diets under the core benefit and the disease risk of the poultry meat by considering the sensorial and main quality attributes, light users (C3 also tried to maximize their total utility through products with generic brand. Therefore, it could introduce the augmented product mix under the product strategies with local brand with the origin of region for C1, the private brand strategies meting ISO 9001 and HACCP standards for C2, and the generic branded product with the origin of region in accordance with the product image for C3. In this way, it could be contributed to the rural regional developments, and thus could be increased the welfare levels of the people living in the rural areas by providing both the producer and consumer satisfactions.

  19. To Invest Or Not Invest? : Factors affecting IT investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Tarabay, Raymond; Eigbire, Raphael

    2009-01-01

      Introduction Many studies indicate that there are numerous factors that promote or hamper the adoption of IT applications and are a prime concern for many researchers and practitioners (Abrahamson, 1991). Two main factors which need to be examined closely when making decisions about IT investments are the internal and external factors. Since these factors play a great role in decision making of IT investments, it is imperative to study their impact on the strategic planning because this for...

  20. Development of Food Retailing and Factors Affecting the Competition in Food Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Kilic

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Retailing is a dynamic and complex sector that offers wide range of products and services to consumers. This sector which includes different types of enterprises, has an important position within the supply chain. Food retailing has also a big potential within retailing sector. On the other hand, an intensive competition exists in food retailing. Taking place in the competitive market, food retailers attempt to gain a competitive advantage against their rivals with their geographic location, product selection and type, offered service quality and pricing alternatives. Additionally, food retailers also incline to develop their own branded products. The purpose of this study is to examine the development of food retailing sector, competitive structure and the main factors affecting this structure.

  1. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2002-02-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving customer satisfaction of the clod steak. Flavor Like was the sensory trait most highly correlated to Overall Like, followed by Tenderness, Flavor Amount, and Juiciness. Flavor Like was the first variable to enter into the stepwise regression equation for predicting Overall Like, followed by Tenderness and Flavor Amount. For the clod steak, it is likely that preparation techniques that improve flavor without reducing tenderness positively affect customer satisfaction. PMID:11881929

  2. Grape products and cardiovascular disease risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Jiménez, Jara; Saura Calixto, Fulgencio D.

    2008-01-01

    Many in vivo trials have evaluated the effects of grape products on different CVD risk factors. Most published studies have dealt with some specific aspects of mechanisms of grape flavonoid action or have focused only on one product, such as wine. The aim of the present paper is to review trials dealing with grape products and CVD published during the last 13 years (seventy-five trials). Polyphenols, alcohol and dietary fibre are the main constituents of the tested products. In animal and hum...

  3. Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By comparing five ecosystem types in the Czech Republic over several years, we recorded the highest carbon sequestration potential in an evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). Because of a massive ecosystem respiration, the final carbon gain of the grassland was negative. Climate was shown to be an important factor of carbon uptake by ecosystems: by varying the growing season length (a 22-d longer season in 2005 than in 2007 increased carbon sink by 13%) or by the effect of short- term synoptic situations (e.g. summer hot and dry days reduced net carbon storage by 58% relative to hot and wet days). Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy which is demonstrated by the comparison of seasonal course of carbon uptake between coniferous (Norway spruce) and deciduous (European beech) stands. - Highlights: ? Highest carbon sequestration potential in evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). ? The final carbon gain of the grassland was negative (massive ecosystem respiration). ? Climate is important factor of net primary productivity. ? Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy of ecosystem. - Identification of the apparent differences in the carbon storage by different ecosystem types.

  4. Factors affecting polyhydroxybutyrate accumulation in mesophyll cells of sugarcane and switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyhydroxyalkanoates are linear biodegradable polyesters produced by bacteria as a carbon store and used to produce a range of bioplastics. Widespread polyhydroxyalkanoate production in C4 crops would decrease petroleum dependency by producing a renewable supply of biodegradable plastics along with residual biomass that could be converted into biofuels or energy. Increasing yields to commercial levels in biomass crops however remains a challenge. Previously, lower accumulation levels of the short side chain polyhydroxyalkanoate, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), were observed in the chloroplasts of mesophyll (M) cells compared to bundle sheath (BS) cells in transgenic maize (Zea mays), sugarcane (Saccharum sp.), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) leading to a significant decrease in the theoretical yield potential. Here we explore various factors which might affect polymer accumulation in mesophyll cells, including targeting of the PHB pathway enzymes to the mesophyll plastid and their access to substrate. Results The small subunit of Rubisco from pea effectively targeted the PHB biosynthesis enzymes to both M and BS chloroplasts of sugarcane and switchgrass. PHB enzyme activity was retained following targeting to M plastids and was equivalent to that found in the BS plastids. Leaf total fatty acid content was not affected by PHB production. However, when fatty acid synthesis was chemically inhibited, polymer accumulated in M cells. Conclusions In this study, we provide evidence that access to substrate and neither poor targeting nor insufficient activity of the PHB biosynthetic enzymes may be the limiting factor for polymer production in mesophyll chloroplasts of C4 plants. PMID:25209261

  5. Affective and ergonomic quality of a new bedding product

    OpenAIRE

    Ayas Pinar, Ebru

    2008-01-01

    It is essential that design of bed clothes in healthcare and other industries e.g. hospitality are suitable for the personnel when they perform bedding tasks. The bed clothes are important not just for patients’ experience of healthcare service, but also for serving as tools for nurses satisfaction and performance in the bed making task. Ergonomics and work load of the nurses are directly affected from design and development of product characteristics (material, weight etc.) and related tasks...

  6. Production of Tuber-Inducing Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Yorio, Neil C.

    2006-01-01

    A process for making a substance that regulates the growth of potatoes and some other economically important plants has been developed. The process also yields an economically important by-product: potatoes. The particular growth-regulating substance, denoted tuber-inducing factor (TIF), is made naturally by, and acts naturally on, potato plants. The primary effects of TIF on potato plants are reducing the lengths of the main shoots, reducing the numbers of nodes on the main stems, reducing the total biomass, accelerating the initiation of potatoes, and increasing the edible fraction (potatoes) of the overall biomass. To some extent, these effects of TIF can override environmental effects that typically inhibit the formation of tubers. TIF can be used in the potato industry to reduce growth time and increase harvest efficiency. Other plants that have been observed to be affected by TIF include tomatoes, peppers, radishes, eggplants, marigolds, and morning glories. In the present process, potatoes are grown with their roots and stolons immersed in a nutrient solution in a recirculating hydroponic system. From time to time, a nutrient replenishment solution is added to the recirculating nutrient solution to maintain the required nutrient concentration, water is added to replace water lost from the recirculating solution through transpiration, and an acid or base is added, as needed, to maintain the recirculating solution at a desired pH level. The growing potato plants secrete TIF into the recirculating solution. The concentration of TIF in the solution gradually increases to a range in which the TIF regulates the growth of the plants.

  7. Insulin-like growth factor- I and factors affecting it in thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvement of blood transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis still occur in good number of thalassemic patients. Decreased IGF-1 secretion occurs in the majority of the thalassemic patients particularly those with growth and pubertal delay. Many factors contribute to this decreased synthesis of IGF-I including disturbed growth hormone (GH - insulin-like growth factor - I (IGF-I axis. The possible factors contributing to low IGF-I synthesis in thalassemia and the possible interaction between low IGF-I secretion and the occurrence of these complications is discussed in this mini-review. Improvement of IGF-I secretion in thalassemic patients should be intended to improve linear growth and bone mineral accretion in thalassemic patients. This can be attained through adequate correction of anemia and proper chelation, nutritional supplementation (increasing caloric intake, correction of vitamin D and zinc deficiencies, induction of puberty and correction of hypogonadism at the proper time and treating GH deficiency. This review paper provides a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding IGF-I and factors affecting it in patients with thalassaemia major (TM. Search on PubMed and reference lists of articles with the term ?IGF-I, GH, growth, thalassemia, thyroxine, anemia, vitamin D, and zinc? was carried out. A hundred and forty-eight articles were found and used in the write up and the data analyzed was included in this report.

  8. Coupling factor B affects the morphology of mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Belogrudov, Grigory I.

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic expression of coupling factor B in animal cells resulted in altered mitochondrial morphology. Cells expressing factor B fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) contained fragmented, balloon-shaped or thinned, filamentous mitochondria, terminating at one end with balloon-like structures. Ultrastructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy revealed changes in the organization of mitochondrial cristae in cells expressing factor B-GFP fusion protein.

  9. FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHERS’ USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Mojgan Afshari; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Wong Su Luan; Bahaman Abu Samah; Foo Say Fooi

    2009-01-01

    Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers’ decisions to use ICT in the classroom: non-manipulative and manipulative school and teacher factors. These factors are interrelated. The success of the implementation of ICT is not ...

  10. Factors Affecting Malaysian Mobile Banking Adoption: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Boon In Tan; Kam Hoe Oon; Aik Chuan Teo; Jia Jia Sim; Ching Mun Cheah

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study aims to investigate the factors that influence Malaysians’ intention to adopt mobile banking by extending the renowned framework of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A self-administrated questionnaire had been developed and distributed in Malaysia. Out of the 400 questionnaires, only 175 usable questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 43.75 percent. Results were subsequently analyzed by using multiple regression and factor analysis. Factors such as perce...

  11. Electromagnetic strangeness production and hadronic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a phenomenological approach based on an isobaric model including s, u, and t-channels, a thorough study of the associated strangeness electromagnetic production has been performed. The sensitivity to the hadronic form factors of the reactions ep ? e'K+Y, with Y ? ?, ?0 in the few GeV region is discussed. The results corresponding to the baryonic form factors by Gari and Kruempelmann are reported. (K.A.). 8 refs., 1 fig

  12. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…

  13. A new factor affecting free-radical of wood surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors took Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb.) as sample wood and studied the change of free-radical concentration of the sample wood surface by means of these factors: electromagnetic radiation, water, heat, oxygen, and ozone. The results showed that among above factors, the most important one which degraded the lignin and produced the free-radicals mainly is ultraviolet radiation

  14. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  15. Rice Farms Efficiency and Factors Affecting the Efficiency in MADA Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lira Mailena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian rice farming is still constrained by the low productivity despite many supports and subsidies that have been enacted to this sector. The difficulties in improving the yield is potentially caused by the unintensive use of inputs due to the inefficient management on the rice farm. Thus this study aims to measure the rice farm efficiency and factors affecting that efficiency. Two stage analysis was adopted whereas in the first stage data envelopment analysis was used and corrected by the bootstrap method. Then in the second stage a Tobit model was employed to estimate factors affecting the efficiency. On average, the technical efficiency score estimated by DEA was about 0.6375 and implied with a given amount of inputs, the rice farms could increase its output by 57.31%. However, after correcting for the bias, the technical efficiency score was about 0.5366 and indicated that rice farms in MADA could increase its output at 86.35%. Further, by considering the lower and the higher bounds of efficiency scores, on the average, the rice farms could increase its output in the range from 20.13-99.12 with 95% confidence interval. Three factors that significantly affect the rice farm efficiency were the household size, land ownership and secondary level of education of sampled farmers. The positive significant effect of household size implied that farms with more household member was appeared to be more efficiently manage their production. Then, the negative effect of land ownership to the efficiency implied farmers who had the own land were tend to be more inefficient than those who rent the land. It was related to their motivation on the production whereas tenant farmers were more motivated to improve their production and get higher income so that they strived to manage the production in a professional manner and receptive to new technology as well. Further, farmers with secondary education level more efficiently managed the rice farm than others because of their passion for managing their production.

  16. Factors affecting high resting pulse rate in military pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pilot terpajan pada keadaan yang memerlukan kewaspadaan yang meningkatkan kegiatan sistem saraf simpatis. Hal ini dapat berdampak pada sistem kardiovaskular manusia, yang antara lain tercermin pada peningkatan frekuensi denyut jantung. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh beberapa faktor yang meningkatkan frekuensi denyut jantung pada pilot. Metode:Penelitian nested case-control yang dilakukan pada pilot militer yang melakukan pemeriksaan fisik tahunan di Lembaga Kesehatan Penerbangan dan Ruang Angkasa (LAKESPRA Saryanto dari tahun 2003 sampai 2008. Data yang diperoleh dari rekam medik berupa umur, pangkat, jumlah jam terbang, rata-rata jam terbang per tahun, dan jenis pesawat. Hasil: Dari 539 pilot, terdapat 155 pilot dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi. Dibandingkan dengan pilot berumur 23-29 tahun, pilot berumur 30-39 tahun mempunyai risiko 66% lebih banyak untuk frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi [rasio odds suaian (ORa = 1,66; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 1,17-2,35, P = 0,004], sedangkan yang berumur 40-49 tahun berisiko 2,4 kali (ORa = 2,40; P = 0,000]. Dibandingkan pilot pesawat transport, pilot pesawat tempur berisiko 59% lebih banyak dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi (ORa = 1,59; P = 0,002. Kesimpulan:Umur pilot yang semakin tua dan jenis pesawat tempur meningkatkan risiko frekuensi nadi istirahat pada pilot. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:51-4Kata kunci:umur, jenis pesawat terbang, frekuensi nadi istirahat, pilotAbstractBackground:Pilots are almost constantly exposed to emergency situations which increase sympathetic activity. This will affect the cardiovascular system, which among others will be reflected by increased resting pulse rate. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that increase resting pulse rate in pilots. Methods:A nested case-control study was conducted on Indonesian Air Force military pilots doing annual medical check-ups at the Saryanto Institute for Medical and Health Aviation and Aerospace (LAKESPRA from 2003 to 2008. The data extracted from medical records were age, rank, total flight hours, average yearly flight hours, and type of aircraft. Results: Out of 539 pilots, there were 155 with high resting pulse rate. Compared to pilots aged 23-29 years, pilots aged 30-39 years had 66% more risk for high resting pulse rate [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.17-2.35, P = 0.004], and those aged 40-49 years had a 2.4 risk (ORa = 2.40; P = 0.000]. Compared to pilots of transport planes, jet fighter pilots had a 59% more risk for high resting pulse rate (ORa = 1.59; P = 0.002. Conclusion: Older  age  and  fighter  jets  increased  the  risk  of  high  resting  pulse  rate  in  pilots. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:51-4Key words: age, type of aircraft, resting pulse rate, pilots

  17. MARKET SUCCESS FACTORS OF SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Fleith de Medeiros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates dimensions and factors that according to the perception of business managers drive the market success of environmentally sustainable products. Initially, publications related to new products introduced to the market (with or without environmental focus were evaluated. Four complementary dimensions were identified as responsible for proper performance: (i Market Knowledge, (ii Interfunctional Collaboration, (iii Knowledge Integration Mechanisms, and (iv Generative Learning. Considering the above, an exploratory study following a qualitative approach was conducted with managers that work in the Brazilian market. For the choice of the respondents, some characteristics were considered, such as growth in the sector of activity where the organization works, and the area that they manage. Results lead to the validation and ranking of the factors and dimensions mentioned in the literature. They also allowed the identification of new factors as: technological domain, competitive price, quality, company's brand, and payback. Moreover, considering the variables described and the relationships established among them, it was inferred that technological domain can be considered as a dimension. This suggestion is based on the respondents' perception concerning "technological domain", such as: specialized people, research budget, and also budget for facilities and equipment. The study also shows deeper difference among practice areas than among sectors. Based on the list of factors that was generated, new studies are recommended to measure the impact of the factors and dimensions on the success of green products.

  18. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  19. Cognitive and Affective Factors of TV Advertising's Influence on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the research on children's understanding of the intent of advertising, the persuasive impact of television commercials, and children's cognitive defenses and resistance to such persuasion. Concludes that any model which tries to account for advertising's influence on children must incorporate affective as well as cognitive components. (PD)

  20. Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…

  1. Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

    2011-01-01

    Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

  2. Factors and pharmaceuticals that affect the radiopharmaceuticals bio distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals may be affected by various agents and therapeutical procedures, chemotherapy agents, thyroid hormones, metals, radiotherapy, surgery, anesthetic agents, dialysis other radiopharmaceutical interactions. Recommendations for the detection of altered biodistribution in patients by causes not directly related with the pathology itself was given. pathology itself was given

  3. Factors affecting healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair

    OpenAIRE

    Abtahi, Amir M; Granger, Erin K; Tashjian, Robert Z.

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff repair has been shown to have good long-term results. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of repairs still fail to heal. Many factors, both patient and surgeon related, can influence healing after repair. Older age, larger tear size, worse muscle quality, greater muscle-tendon unit retraction, smoking, osteoporosis, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have all shown to negatively influence tendon healing. Surgeon related factors that can influence healing include repair constru...

  4. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention among UniSZA Students

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharah Ghazali; Nor Asmahani Ibrahim; Fakhrul Anwar Zainol

    2012-01-01

    Graduates contributions to entrepreneurship would stimulate the country’s economic growth. The aim of this study is to determine and investigate factors influence on students’ perception of the entrepreneurial intention, in order to present the most contemporary future generation of entrepreneurs that can shape the future of the economy and the country. The area of this study covers demographic profiles, attitudinal and behavioral factors, and how these influence the intentions of students to...

  5. Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces?

    OpenAIRE

    Iriarte, F. B.; Balogh, B.; Momol, M.T.; Smith, L.M.; Wilson, M.; Jones, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated phage (phage mixed with skim milk) were evaluated. In field studies, copper caused significant phage reduction if applied on the day of phage application but not if applied 4 or 7 days in advance. S...

  6. Dietary factors that affect the bioavailability of carotenoids

    OpenAIRE

    Hof, K.H., van het; West, C.E.; Weststrate, J.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. Various dietary factors have an effect on the bioavailability of carotenoids. The type of food matrix in which carotenoids are located is a major factor. The bioavailability of ß-carotene from vegetables in particular has been shown to be low (14?rom mixed vegetables) compared with that of purified ß-carotene added to a simple matrix (e.g., salad dressing), whereas for lutein, the difference is...

  7. Review of the factors affecting the selection and implementation of waste management technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this publication is to identify and critically review the factors affecting the selection of waste management strategies and technologies; summarize and discuss the options available, and offer a systematic approach for considering these factors to design, install and operate appropriate technologies for waste streams generated. The scope of this publication includes the management of radioactive waste from all orientations including low and intermediate level waste arising from the production of radionuclides and their application in industry, agriculture, medicine, education and research; waste generated from research reactors, power reactors and from nuclear fuel cycle activities including reprocessing high level waste. Although waste from decommissioning is not specifically addressed, the management of this waste is not significantly different from other types of waste in the same category

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN CHINA AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Xie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the impact of factors determining the transition to organic farming and provide some recommendations for government’s policy relating to organic farming. Material and research method. An analysis was based on questionnaire survey on the willingness of organic farming by small farmers in the province of Jiangsu. Binary logistic regression model was used in the research. Concluding remarks. Five factors affecting organic agricultural production were discovered: farmers’ age, risk preferences, labour costs, expected benefi ts and the environment. On this ground, the authors suggest, that Chinese government should adopt policies assisting farmers in the transition to organic farming for the sustainable development of China’s organic agriculture. Cooperation of farmers’ cooperatives and research institutions to improve organic farming techniques should also be promoted.

  9. Factors determining production (FDP in basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Martinez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to introduce a simple and easily computable metric to assess the performance of basketball players through non-scoring box-score statistics. This metric was called Factors Determining Production (FDP. FDP was created through separating points made from the remaining variables which may bequantitatively recorded. FDP was derived from the outcome of several games, it considers both teams’ statistics, and it reflects the final result of a game with noticeable merit. This metric provides a simple linear weight formula which, together with the points made by each player, yields a comprehensible picture of how well a worker(player performed. FDP has been validated through different statistical procedures and it overcomes Win Score from a theoretical viewpoint, because it departs production (points from factors facilitating production.

  10. Analysis on the Main Factors Affecting the Reliability of Test Papers

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Zhu; Lemeng Han

    2011-01-01

    Reliability is an important factor to evaluate test papers. This paper analyzes the factors which affect the reliability of test papers and discusses the methods to increase the reliability of test papers.

  11. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Gene risk factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune ... many of these same gene variants are known risk factors for diseases that occur later in life, including ...

  12. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Adoption of Internet Banking. Case Study:Customers of Mellat Bank in Isfahan City

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh SALARI; Moslem SALAJEGHEH

    2011-01-01

    The growth in the use of the Internet as a distribution channel of products and services offered by various businesses has been phenomenal. One such application is Internet banking services. As more and more financial institutions are finding ways to utilize Internet technologies to launch Internet banking services, an important issue is to understand what factors will impact the decisions of customers in adopting the service. The aim of this study is to analysis the factors affecting the acc...

  13. Factors Affecting Business Success of Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chuthamas Chittithaworn; Md Aminul Islam; Thiyada Keawchana; Dayang Hasliza Muhd Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to identify factors that are affecting business success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. The intention of this study is to provide the understanding on how people should start their business by looking at all the factors affecting business success hence help to reduce the risk of failure and increase chances of success. The study examined eight factors that influence the SMEs business success. These factors are: SMEs characteristic, management and know-...

  14. Innovation Barriers and Enablers that Affect Productivity in Uganda Building Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe, , and; Kristian Widén; Jackson Mwakali; Bengt Hansson

    2007-01-01

    The construction industry has of recent been blamed for lack of innovation. Lack of innovation in the industry is believed to be responsible for the decreasing or stagnant levels of productivity in comparison with other industries. This paper reviews the major barriers and enablers to innovation in general. Propositions were made about the factors that affect innovation in the construction industry which were then formulated into a questionnaire. A survey was made on building contractors in U...

  15. Factors affecting the spontaneous mutational spectra in somatic mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ?????????

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  In our survey of references we are discussed the influence of factors biological origin on the spontaneous mutation specters in mammalian. Seasonal and age components influence on the frequence of cytogenetic anomalies. The immune and endocrinous systems are take part in control of the alteration of the spontaneous mutation specters. Genetical difference of sensibility in animal and human at the alteration of factors enviroment as and  genetical differences of repair systems activity are may influence on individual variation of spontaneous destabilization characters of chromosomal apparatus.

  16. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  17. Factors affecting sleep/vigilance behaviour in incubating mallards.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jav?rková, V.; Ho?ák, D.; Kreisinger, J.; Klva?a, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 117, ?. 4 (2011), s. 345-355. ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KJB601110803; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mallard * vigilance * antipredation behaviour * incubation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2011

  18. Students' Perceptions of Factors that Affect College Funding Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Julia Y.; Fossey, W. Richard; Davis, William E.; Burnett, Michael F.; Stuhlmann, Janice; Suchy, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the factors that college students perceive are important in helping them make good financial decisions about paying for a college education. The study categorizes and summarizes students' self-reported responses to an open-ended survey question about recommendations for changes in financial aid counseling practices.…

  19. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

  20. Factors Affecting the Success of Hmong College Students in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Soua; Lam, Sarah K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores barriers and success factors of Hmong students in American colleges by interviewing five Hmong graduate students from refugee families in the US. Emerging themes revolve around academic, cultural and financial barriers. Professors, advisors, classmates, academic support programmes, family, financial aid and their own…

  1. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors

  2. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  3. Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine; Jakubcionyte, Rita; Kuliesyte, Esmeralda; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2006-01-01

    Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.

  4. Do ICTs Affect Workforce Productivity in Egyptian Industrial Organizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elsaadani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the influence of Information Communication Technologies-ICTs’ dimensions (Information Technology (IT, Management Information System (MIS, Office automation (OA, Intranet and Internet on workforce productivity for a group of industrial organizations in Alexandria - Egypt. The population of the study included managers and staff members working in different areas related to ICTs in selected industrial organizations at various managerial levels. A descriptive-statistical combined research study was conducted. Simple random sampling was used for the selection of the participating industrial organization. A questionnaire was used as the data collection method. Expert comments were used to check the validity of study instrument, and the reliability of questions was calculated as 79% using Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient. Single variable t-test, Friedman and variance analysis tests were used for the analysis. Study findings revealed that the specified dimensions of ICTs positively affect workforce productivity of industrial organizations in Alexandria - Egypt.

  5. Factors Affecting Mitigation of Methane Emission from Ruminants: Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar Mirzaei-Aghsaghali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, greenhouse gas emission which results in elevating global temperature is an important subject of worldwide ecological and environmental concern. Among greenhouse gases, methane is considered a potent greenhouse gas with 21 times more global warming potential than carbon dioxide. Worldwide, ruminant livestock produce about 80 million metric tons of methane each year, accounting for about 28% of global emissions from human related activities. Therefore it is impelling animal scientists to finding solutions to mitigate methane emission from ruminants. It seems that solutions can be discussed in four topics including: nutrition (feeding, biotechnology, microbiology and management strategies. We have already published the first review article on feeding strategies. In the current review, management strategies such as emphasizing on animals - type and individual variability, reducing livestock numbers, improving animal productivity and longevity as well as pasture management; that can be leads to decreasing methane production from ruminant animal production are discussed.

  6. Factors affecting the acquisition of plural morphology in Jordanian Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albirini, Abdulkafi

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the development of plural morphology in Jordanian Arab children, and explores the role of the predictability, transparency, productivity, and frequency of different plural forms in determining the trajectory that children follow in acquiring this complex inflectional system. The study also re-examines the development of the notion of default over several years. Sixty Jordanian children, equally divided among six age groups (three to eight years), completed an oral real-word pluralization task and a nonsense-word pluralization task. The findings indicate that feminine sound plurals are acquired before and extended to the other plural forms. Productivity and frequency seem to shape the acquisition patterns among younger children, but predictability becomes more critical at a later age. Younger children use the most productive plural as the default form, but older children tend to use two default forms based on frequency distributions in the adult language. The theoretical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25158792

  7. Factors that affect social workers' job satisfaction, stress and burnout

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Taetske, Calitz; Adrie, Roux; Herman, Strydom.

    Full Text Available Social work was classified as a scare skill and the retention of social workers is an important aspect that needs urgent attention. The research goal of this study was to determine what degree of work engagement and job satisfaction South African social workers experience in their current positions [...] and how this influences job turnover, burnout and the intention to leave the profession. The purpose was to determine the needs social workers experience that will affect turnover in the profession. The needs/problems social workers experienced were stress, burnout, lower job satisfaction and work engagement.

  8. Chemical and biological factors affecting bioavailability of contaminants in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the influence that salinity has on the bioavailability of the two largest classes of contaminants, trace metals and organic compounds will be discussed. Although data on contaminant toxicity will be used to draw inferences about chemical availability, this discussion will focus on the properties that contaminants are likely to exhibit in waters of varying salinities. In addition, information on physiological changes that are affected by salinity will be used to illustrate how biological effects can alter the apparent availability of contaminants

  9. Accessible protocol for practice classroom about physical and chemical factors that affect the biomembranes integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Barros Galvão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work is to review a protocol used in practical classes to demonstrate some factors that affect biomembrane integrity. Sugar-beet fragments were utilized as the experimental model as membrane damage could be visualized by leakage of betacyanins, hydrophilic pigments accumulated in the cell vacuoles. The tests were carried out as discrete experiments utilizing physical agents and chemical products present in the student daily routine. To test the effect of temperature, sugar-beet fragments were submitted to heat, cold or both at different times of exposition. When chemical products were tested, sugar-beet fragments were exposed to organic solvents (common alcohol and acetone or polar and amphipathic substances (disinfectant, detergent, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite. The obtained results were discussed in terms of the capacity of the physical and chemical factors to cause membrane damage. The review of this protocol using reagents that are present in the student daily routine were able to demonstrate clearly the effect of the different tested factors, allowing the utilization of this practical class under limited conditions.

  10. Factors Affecting the Acquisition of Plural Morphology in Jordanian Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albirini, Abdulkafi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the development of plural morphology in Jordanian Arab children, and explores the role of the predictability, transparency, productivity, and frequency of different plural forms in determining the trajectory that children follow in acquiring this complex inflectional system. The study also re-examines the development of the…

  11. Factors that Affect the Microbiology of Commercial Shell Egg Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intact shell eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents, protecting a developing embryo, but also contributing to their wholesomeness as human food. In order for eggs to be involved in human enteritis, there is often temperature abuse of raw product followed by consumption o...

  12. Factors Affecting Perceived Stigma in Leprosy Affected Persons in Western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bipin; Kaehler, Nils; Chapman, Robert S; Raut, Shristi; Roche, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A total of 135 leprosy affected persons were interviewed with a questionnaire containing EMIC questions designed to assess the level of perceived stigma and the questionnaire containing variables for socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about leprosy and the clinical presentations of the participants. Clinical presentation as disability was graded according to WHO guidelines, where grade 0 means no disability found, grade I means loss of sensation has been noted in the hand or foot wh...

  13. Pareto analysis of critical factors affecting technical institution evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gambhir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With the change of education policy in 1991, more and more technical institutions are being set up in India. Some of these institutions provide quality education, but others are merely concentrating on quantity. These stakeholders are in a state of confusion about decision to select the best institute for their higher educational studies. Although various agencies including print media provide ranking of these institutions every year, but their results are controversial and biased. In this paper, the authors have made an endeavor to find the critical factors for technical institution evaluation from literature survey. A Pareto analysis has also been performed to find the intensity of these critical factors in evaluation. This will not only help the stake holders in taking right decisions but will also help the management of institutions in benchmarking for identifying the most important critical areas to improve the existing system. This will in turn help Indian economy.

  14. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.

    1991-12-31

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  15. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  16. Factors affecting visualization of posterior rib fractures in abused infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rib fractures in abused infants commonly occur in the posterior rib arcs. Fractures occurring near the costovertebral articulations are usually identified radiographically only once callus has formed. To assess the factors influencing the visibility of fractures near the costovertical articulations, the authors studied 103 posterior rib fractures occurring in 16 abused infants. Radiologic findings were correlated with CT findings and pathologic material from nine ribs in four patients. The limited visibility of fractures relates to (1) the frequent superimposition of the transverse process over the rib fracture site, (2) a fracture line that crosses at an obliquity to the x-ray beam, and (3) nondisplacement of rib fragments due to preservation of the posterior periosteum. Fresh rib fractures invisible on a frontal projection may be clearly defined on axial CT scans, or on postmortem radiographs. A knowledge of the factors influencing the visibility of these important injuries is useful in planning an appropriate diagnostic evaluation of suspected infant abuse

  17. Socioeconomic, cultural, and behavioral factors affecting Hispanic health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Leo S; Lara, Marielena; Kington, Raynard S; Valdez, Robert O; Escarce, José J

    2002-11-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher porverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of the epidemiological paradox. They find substantial support for the existence of the epidemiological paradox, particularly among Mexican Americans. Census undercounts of Hispanics, misclassification of Hispanic deaths, and emigration of Hispanics do not fully account for the epidemiological paradox. Identifying protective factors underlying the epidemiological paradox, while improving access to care and the economic conditions among Hispanics, are important research and policy implications of this review. PMID:12407964

  18. Factors Affecting the Real Estate Prices in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmood khan kakar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the effect of factors influencing the prices of real estate inQuetta city. Hypothetically, this study is based upon five observed factors(urbanization, refugees’ influx, monetary, lack of investment alternatives and inflow offoreign remittances in relation to the prices of real estate. Questionnaire developed onthe basis of above variables were administered to a heterogeneous sample of 50property dealers and Quetta Development Authority. Descriptive statistics (percentage,percentile and frequency distribution were used to identify the level of influence andthe relation of above mentioned attributes towards the prices of real estate. The resultsrevealed that the prices of real estate in the region have been on an increasing trendand strong influence of all variables especially of government’s monetary and fiscalpolices and urbanization was found significant on the prices of real estate in Quetta.

  19. Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could be reduced approximately 200-fold at pH 6 as compared to pH 10, leaving only 0.1 mg/mL in solution. Solubility could also be dramatically manipulated using salts. The choice of anions was found to be more important than of the cations, and the lowest solubility was found using sodium sulphate. For the anions, solubility followed the order expected from the Hofmeister series, however, a more complex behaviour was seen for the cations. With the exception of lithium, their efficiency to influence the solubility was reversed to what was expected. The polydispersity of the solution was reduced by salt addition and zeta potential measurements indicated a shift in pI caused by lithium. Possible explanations for the observations are discussed, extending our present understanding of how salts affect the solubility of proteins, one that to date is primarily based on experiments with lysozyme. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors affecting the retention of nurses. A survival analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Noufa A. Alonazi; Omar, Maye A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and explore factors that mostly influence nurses’ turnover and retention, and to estimate the length of employment for nurses in the hospital. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study examining the standard Exit Questionnaires completed by all the female pediatric nurses who joined and left the hospital during the period between January 2006 and October 2010. The Developed Questionnaires where completed by nurses who were still employees in October 2010. The nurse...

  1. Review of factors affecting sustainability in the universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajilian, Hosna

    Understanding the factors which influence adopting sustainability practices in IHE is an important issue to develop more effective sustainability's methods and policies. The focus of this research is to find out a meaningful relationship between adopting sustainability practices and some of the characteristics of institutions of higher education (IHE). IHE can be considered as the best place to promote sustainability and develop the culture of sustainability in society. Thus, this research is conducted to help developing sustainability in IHE which have significant direct and indirect impact on society and the environment. First, the sustainability letter grades were derived from "Greenreportcard.org" which have been produced based on an evaluation of each school in nine main categories including: Administration, Climate Change & Energy, Food & Recycling, etc. In the next step, the characteristics of IHE as explanatory variables were chosen from "The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System" (IPEDS) and respective database was implemented in STATA Software. Finally, the "ordered-Probit Model" is used through STATA to analyze the impact of some IHE's factor on adopting sustainability practices on campus. The results of this analysis indicate that variables related to "Financial support" category are the most influential factors in determining the sustainability status of the university. "The university features" with two significant variables for "Selectivity" and "Top 50 LA" can be classified as the second influential category in this table, although the "Student influence" is also eligible to be ranked as the second important factor. Finally, the "Location feature" of university was determined with the least influential impact on the sustainability of campuses.

  2. Factors Affecting Juvenile Movement in a House Sparrow Metapopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Myhre, Ane Marlene

    2012-01-01

    Dispersal propensity can vary considerably between individuals in a population. Understanding which individuals disperse- and under what circumstances these individuals disperse is valuable for conservation. Factors influencing juvenile movement and natal dispersal were studied in individually marked house sparrows, Passer domesticus, in an archipelago off the coast of Helgeland, northern Norway. Sex, clutch size, body size and body mass did not significantly explain variation in movement. Mo...

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin; M M Nurul Kabir

    2011-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that sal...

  4. Factors affecting the species composition of arable field boundary vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Kleijn, D.; Verbeek, M

    2000-01-01

    1. In recent decades the botanical diversity of arable field boundaries has declined drastically. To determine the most important factors related to the species composition of arable field boundaries, the vegetation composition of 105 herbaceous boundaries, 1-m wide, in the central and eastern Netherlands was surveyed. Biomass samples of the boundary were taken at 0-33, 34-66 and 67-100 cm from the adjacent arable field. 2. Farmers were interviewed with respect to boundary management and lan...

  5. Factors affecting the growth of bifidobacteria in human milk.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ro?ková, Š.; Nevoral, J.; Rada, V.; Maršík, Petr; Sklená?, Jan; Hlinková, A.; Vlková, E.; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 7 (2011), s. 504-508. ISSN 0958-6946 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA523/07/0572; GA ?R GD525/08/H060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : OLIGOSACCHARIDES * INFANTS * PREBIOTICS Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.401, year: 2011

  6. Social factors affecting women's susceptibility to HIV in India

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, Priya

    2014-01-01

    India is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Asia. Previous research indicates that the majority of HIV-positive women in India were infected by their husbands, their only sexual partner, which makes them difficult identify as a high-risk population. This paper seeks to assess social factors associated with the transmission of HIV based on demographic determinants, such as age; sexual behavior; and gendered discrimination, such as domestic violence. Research for this paper consists of s...

  7. The factors affecting effectiveness of treatment in phages therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ly-Chatain, Mai Huong

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine, and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such ...

  8. Factors Affecting Investment Decision Making of Equity Fund Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Salman Ali; Rehman, Kashif ur; Hunjra, Ahmed Imran

    2012-01-01

    Traditional theories of finance assume that investors use all available information and make rational investment decision but in reality the scenario is different. Based upon the growing importance of behavioral finance the present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of behavioral factors such as heuristics, risk aversion, use of financial tools and firm level corporate governance on the decision making of equity fund managers of Pakistan. The study collected response from 327 eq...

  9. Trends Analyses for Several Factors Affected by Tropical Cyclones

    OpenAIRE

    Md. T. Islam; Md. Z. Hossain; Masaaki Ishida

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study presents an analytical investigation for the trends of several factors such as number of death of peoples, damages of wealth, flood surge heights, wind speed and radius of the severe storm due to tropical cyclones in Bangladesh. Approach: The study is performed by conducting the field visits to cyclone site, collected data and information on damages and deaths of peoples during field visits, necessary data related to tropical cyclones obtained...

  10. Spatial and Temporal Factors Affecting Human Visual Recognition Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The current thesis investigated the effects of a variety of spatial and temporal factors on visual recognition memory in human adults. Continuous recognition experiments investigated the effect of lag (the number of items intervening between study and test) on recognition of a variety of stimulus sets (common objects, face-like stimuli, fractals, trigrams), and determined that recognition of common objects was superior to that of other stimulus types. This advantage was largely eradicated whe...

  11. Cognitive factors affecting student understanding of geologic time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

    2003-04-01

    A critical element of the earth sciences is reconstructing geological structures and systems that have developed over time. A survey of the science education literature shows that there has been little attention given to this concept. In this study, we present a model, based on Montagnero's ([1996]) model of diachronic thinking, which describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. For geology, three schemes of diachronic thinking are relevant: 1. Transformation, which is a principle of change; in geology it is understood through actualistic thinking (the idea that present proceeses can be used to model the past). 2. Temporal organization, which defines the sequential order of a transformation; in geology it is based on the three-dimensional relationship among strata. 3. Interstage linkage, which is the connections between successive stages of a transformation; in geology it is based on both actualism and causal reasoning. Three specialized instruments were designed to determine the factors which influence reconstructive thinking: (a) the GeoTAT which tests diachronic thinking skills, (b) the TST which tests the relationship between spatial thinking and temporal thinking, and (c) the SFT which tests the influence of dimensional factors on temporal awareness. Based on the model constructed in this study we define the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (a) the transformation scheme which influences the other diachronic schemes, (b) knowledge of geological processes, and (c) extracognitive factors. Among the students tested, there was a significant difference between Grade 9-12 students and Grade 7-8 students in their ability to reconstruct geological phenomena using diachronic thinking. This suggests that somewhere between Grades 7 and 8 it is possible to start teaching some of the logical principles used in geology to reconstruct geological structures.

  12. Factors That Affect Body Mass Index of Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Esma Asil; Metin Saip Surucuoglu; Funda Pinar Cakiroglu; Asli Ucar; Ayse Ozfer Ozcelik; Mustafa Volkan Yilmaz; Lale Sariye Akan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the factors that contribute to the body mass index (BMI) of adults and evaluate the eating habits of the individuals. The study was conducted on 498 adults whose ages were ranging from 20 to 85 (39.1±14.9 year). The data were collected using a questionnaire form that consisted of questions concerning general characteristics of individuals, frequency of food consumption and eating habits. Food types in the food consumption ...

  13. Oxytocin and Psychological Factors Affecting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kontoangelos; A. E. Raptis; C. C. Papageorgiou; Tsiotra, P. C.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; A. D. Rabavilas; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of oxytocin with trait and state psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. OXT and psychological variables were analyzed from 86 controlled diabetic patients (glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7%) from 45 uncontrolled diabetic patients (HbA1c ? 7). Psychological characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), while state psychological characteristics were measured with t...

  14. Factors affecting early unplanned readmission of elderly patients to hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, E I; Fitton, F.

    1988-01-01

    A random sample of 133 elderly patients who had an unplanned readmission to a district general hospital within 28 days of discharge from hospital was studied and compared with a matched control sample of patients who were not readmitted. The total group was drawn from all specialties in the hospital, and by interviewing the patients, their carers, the ward sisters, and the patients' general practitioners the factors causing early unplanned readmission for each patient were identified. Seven p...

  15. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Martino Cassandro; Mauro Penasa; Mara Battagin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS) on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data we...

  16. Confounding factors affect the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoram Elitsur

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a newly diagnosed esophageal disease in adult and children. The clinical and pathological characteristics of this disease have been established and were recently summarized in the expert clinical guideline published in 2011. In spite of the wide knowledge accumulated on this disease, there are many areas where scientific data are missing, especially in regard to the disease’s pathophysiology. Recent publications have suggested that other confounding factors ...

  17. Factors Affecting The Intensity of Solar Energetic Particle Events

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2011-01-01

    This paper updates the influence of environmental and source factors of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are likely to influence the solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The intensity variation due to CME interaction reported in [1] is confirmed by expanding the investigation to all the large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The large SEP events are separated into two groups, one associated with CMEs running into other CMEs, and the other with CMEs running ...

  18. International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigurdson, A.J.; Ha, M.; Hauptmann, M.; Bhatti, P.; Šrám, Radim; Beskid, Olena; Tawn, E.J.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Lindholm, C.; Nakano, M.; Kodama, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Vorobtsova, I.; Oestreicher, U.; Stephan, G.; Yong, L.C.; Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Chung, H.W.; Darroudi, F.; Roy, L.; Voisin, P.; Barquinero, J.F.; Livingston, G.; Blakey, D.; Hayata, I.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Ch.; Benett, L.M.; Littlefield, L.G.; Edwards, A.A.; Kleinerman, R.A.; Tucker, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 652, ?. 2 (2008), s. 112-121. ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SI/340/2/00; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Chromosome translocations * FISH * Background frequency Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.363, year: 2008

  19. Somatic cell and factors which affect their count in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Zrinka ?a?i?; Samir Kalit; Neven Antunac; Mato ?a?i?

    2003-01-01

    Milk quality is determined by chemical composition, physical characteristics and hygienic parameters. The main indicators of hygienic quality of milk are total number of microorganisms and somatic cell count (SCC.) Environmental factors have the greatest influence on increasing SCC. The most important environmental parameters are status of udder infection, age of cow, stage of lactation, number of lactation, breed, housing, geographicalarea and seasons, herd size, stress, heavy physical activ...

  20. Comparing Faculty and Student Perceptions Regarding Factors That Affect Student Retention in Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytan, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study compared faculty and student perceptions regarding factors that affect student retention in online courses in an attempt to more effectively address the problem of attrition. A grounded study method was used to interview students taking online courses, analyze their responses related to the critical factors that affect

  1. An Analysis of Factors That Affect the Educational Performance of Agricultural Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to student achievement. This study focuses on three areas: how students learn, how student personality type affects performance, and how course format affects performance outcomes. The analysis sought to improve understanding of the direction and magnitude with which each of these factors impacts student success. Improved…

  2. Factors affecting the adoption of healthcare information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phichitchaisopa, Nisakorn; Naenna, Thanakorn

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and performance of healthcare services, healthcare information technology is among the most important technology in healthcare supply chain management. This study sets out to apply and test the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), to examine the factors influencing healthcare Information Technology (IT) services. A structured questionnaire was developed and distributed to healthcare representatives in each province surveyed in Thailand. Data collected from 400 employees including physicians, nurses, and hospital staff members were tested the model using structural equation modeling technique. The results found that the factors with a significant effect are performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating conditions. They were also found to have a significant impact on behavioral intention to use the acceptance healthcare technology. In addition, in Thai provincial areas, positive significance was found with two factors: social influence on behavioral intention and facilitating conditions to direct using behavior. Based on research findings, in order for healthcare information technology to be widely adopted and used by healthcare staffs in healthcare supply chain management, the healthcare organizational management should improve healthcare staffs' behavioral intention and facilitating conditions. PMID:26417235

  3. CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: ¿CÓMO AFECTA LA PRODUCCIÓN GANADERA? (Climatic change: How affect the livestock production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzón Alfonso, J.E.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl cambio climático es un proceso inequívoco; se dice cómo la producción bovina estimula uno de los factores que lo produce: el efecto invernadero; sin embargo es importante conocer su efecto contrario: cómo el cambio climático afecta la ganadería.SummaryClimate change is a distinct process; it’s knew how the cattle production stimulates one of the factors that produced it: the greenhouse effect, however it’s important to know the opposite effect: how climate change affects livestock.

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TOLERANCE IN CROSSBRED CATTLE IN CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the adaptation traits in common crosses of crossbred dairy cattle in central Brazil. Twenty animals of each of three genetic groups were used: zebu (Bos indicus, Simmental x Zebu (SZ and Holstein x Zebu (HZ. The test measured variations in rectal temperature (RT, respiration rate (RR and heart rate (HR of animals in the shade and after exposure to the sun, as well as mean daily milk production throughout the lactation period. The procedure was repeated three times. There were significant interactions between test group and genetic group for the traits investigated and the correlations among traits were low. The RR of the crossbred groups may be controlling body temperature in such a way as not to cause an increase in RT. Milk production influenced RR in crossbred cows exposed to the sun, confirming their poorer adaptation in comparison with zebu cows. We observed that the adaptation can be measured in terms of production within the same genetic group. In conclusion, the crosses with European breeds produced more milk than zebu, although they were influenced by heat/solar radiation.

  5. Feasibility Analysis of Critical Factors Affecting Cloud Computing in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustace Manayi Dogo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an evolving and new way of delivering computing services and resources over the internet which are managed by third parties at remote sites. Cloud computing is based on existing technologies like web services, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA, web3.0, grid computing and virtualization, etc. Computing services includes data storage, processing and software. Cloud computing is enjoying a lot of buzz in Nigeria due to its perceived economic and operational benefits and stakeholders believe that it will transform the IT industry in Nigeria. Despite all its promises there still exist so many challenges before Cloud computing see the light of the day in Nigeria. This paper delivers an overview of Cloud computing together with its advantages and disadvantages. Thereafter, the challenges and drivers affecting the adoption of Cloud computing in Nigeria are outlined. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of Cloud computing is discussed with Nigeria as a case study.

  6. Statistical Study on Principal Factors Affecting Employment of Chinese Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Meng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heavy employment pressure in china, the employment of the undergraduates attracts much attention in recent years. Accordingly, this study proposes a SPSS-based statistical method to study the employment issue, where thirteen parameters are carefully chosen to construct the employment database. The proposed method first performs the quantitative and the standardized operations and then calculates the correlated matrix of parameters. Moreover, after proving that the correlated matrix satisfies Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO condition, we perform eigenvalue decomposition and compute the variance contribution rate through Principal Component Analysis (PCA techniques. Both the eigenvalue and the variance contribution rate are used to study the importance of each parameter and finally lead to an importance sort. Therefore, we can quantificationally study the influence of each parameter thrown on the undergraduate employment and find three most important parameters affecting undergraduate employment: university, major and family location.

  7. Evaluation of factors affecting diffusion in compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information available from the open literature and studies on exclusion, sorption and diffusion mechanisms of ionic and neutral species in bentonite has been compiled and re-examined in relation to the microstructure of bentonite. The emphasis is placed on a more thorough understanding of the diffusion processes taking place in compacted bentonite. Despite the scarcity of experiments performed with neutral diffusants, these imply that virtually all the pores in compacted bentonite are accessible to neutral species. Anion exclusion, induced by the overlap of electrical double layers, may render the accessible porosity for anions considerably less than the porosity obtained from the water content of the clay. On the basis of the compiled data, it is highly probable that surface diffusion plays a significant role in the transport of cations in bentonite clays. Moreover, easily soluble compounds in bentonite can affect the ionic strength of porewater and, consequently, exclusion, equilibrium between cations, and surface diffusion

  8. Factors affecting the occurrence of canine parvovirus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carla; Carvalheira, Júlio; Parrish, Colin R; Thompson, Gertrude

    2015-10-22

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important enteric virus infecting canids worldwide. The purpose of this study was to detect CPV in naturally infected dogs from several veterinary clinics distributed throughout Portugal between 2012 and 2014 and to identify risk factors associated with CPV infection. From 209 dogs suspected of being infected with CPV, historical data and clinical signs were collected. Fecal samples were screened for CPV by PCR assay and those positive were confirmed by sequencing. The data was analyzed using logistic regression to investigate associations between each of the predisposing factors and CPV status. Of the samples collected, 77.5% tested CPV-positive. Statistical analysis showed that animals in the three age categories (p<0.001) were at list 12 times more likely to be CPV-positive than older animals. The anthelminthic treatment [OR=0.45, p=0.04] and the rectal temperature (hypothermia, [OR=0.12, p=0.004]) contributed to decrease the likelihood of the dogs be infected with CPV. On the other hand, clinical signs such as depression [OR=4.4, p=0.02] and dehydration status [OR=2.38, p=0.001] made dogs more likely to be CPV-infected. The results indicate that although having a high morbidity, only 18% of the Portuguese dog population died in the study. Some of the risk factors identified in this study have not been commonly reported, yet they are easy to obtain and can be used as prognostic indicators in the veterinary practice. PMID:26294318

  9. STUDY ON FACTORS AFFECTING CUSTOMER CHOICE OF RETAIL BANKING IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIMLA VIRPARIA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to analyze the factors that affect the choice of customers inchoosing the retail banks by the customers. The study involves a survey of 150 bankcustomers using questionnaire as the research instrument. In the study, I have tried toidentify various factors and also analyze as to which of these factors exert the greatest,moderate, and relatively lower influence as choice criteria. factors that could beidentified, approximately in the order of their importance, are (1 Safety of Deposits (2Security of Environment (3 Cordiality of Staff (4 Accuracy (5 Product Packing (6General Service Quality (7 Size and strength (8 Advertisement and Publicity (9Friendship with Staff (10 Face lift (11 Proximity (12 Price and Service Charges (13Speed of Delivery (14 Peer Group Impression (15 General Group Impression as per theMean score technique. According to the findings, based on the empirical study, the threefactors exert the greatest influence, next six have moderate importance, and the rest sixhave relatively lower influence.

  10. Analysis of Factors Affecting Log Band Saw Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Rajka Karan; Ružica Beljo Lu?i?; Matija Jug; Josip Ištvani?

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this research was to measure the capacity of the log band saw by monitoring the sawing process per operation for each log and to determine what the influencing factors were and their effect on the technological capacity of the log band saw, based on recorded and processed data. The analysis of the recorded data shows that the processed log volume, whose increase also increases the saw capacity, has the most important effect on log band saw capacity. It is imperative to take into a...

  11. Factors affecting the in vitro dissolution of cobalt oxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, C.G.; Pearce, M. J.; HODGSON, A; A. Ball

    1992-01-01

    In a recent interspecies comparison of the lung clearance of cobalt oxide (57Co3O4), differences of up to 4-fold were found in the translocation rates of 57Co to blood between seven different animal species, including man. This study investigated some factors that could influence the dissolution of this material in vitro. The effect of bicarbonate and citrate concentrations (over physiological ranges) and medium pH on in vitro dissolution of 57Co from 57Co3O4 particles was measured in a simpl...

  12. Factors affecting potential market penetration of laser fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mini-model has been constructed to estimate the optimal size of laser fusion power plants and to estimate the allowable cost of the first such plant in relation to the next best alternative. In estimating the costs of laser fusion, the mini-model incorporates such factors as market penetration, learning, economies of scale, system size, transmission costs, reserve requirements, development and licensing costs and site costs. The results of the mini-model simulations indicate that the optimal laser fusion plant size is approximately 3 GWe; risk considerations unincorporated in the mini-model suggest an optimal size closer to 2.5 GWe

  13. Factors affecting the retirement of commercial transport jet aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    The historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is reviewed in order to determine whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet era. Significant differences between the two periods are noted. New factors are identified and examined. Topics discussed include concern over current policies regarding deregulation, regulatory reform, and retroactive noise regulations; financing and compliance legislation; aging; economic environment and inflation; technological progress; fuel efficiency and cost; and a financial perspective of replacement decisions.

  14. Prioritizing the Factor Weights Affecting Tourism Performance by FAHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Hung Do

    2013-10-01

    determine the relative weights of the factors and subfactors in contributing to tourism performance. An application case related to the Vietnamese context is used to illustrate the proposed framework. The results of this study consolidated the tourism theory and suggested recommendations and solutions for the Vietnamese tourism industry. The proposed framework could be used by a group of decision-makers to achieve a consensus, as well as deal with uncertainty in the decision-making process. The findings of the study may serve as a tool for assistance for planners in improving the efficiency of tourism performance.

  15. Investigating factors affecting students’ performance to PISA Science items

    OpenAIRE

    V. Hatzinikita; C. Apostolopoulos; Psalidas, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate, on the one hand, the extent to which PISA Science items validly assess the knowledge and skills of 15 year-old Greek students, while, on the other hand, to examine the effect of the following factors: student’s gender, scientific processes and contexts (situations) on the students’ performance in these PISA items. The research used paper-and-pencil test with published PISA Science items, conducted individual semi-structured interviews with 15 year-old st...

  16. Factors Affecting Detection Probability of Acoustic Tags in Coral Reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Bermudez, Edgar F.

    2012-05-01

    Acoustic telemetry is an important tool for studying the movement patterns, behaviour, and site fidelity of marine organisms; however, its application is challenged in coral reef environments where complex topography and intense environmental noise interferes with acoustic signals, and there has been less study. Therefore, it is particularly critical in coral reef telemetry studies to first conduct a long-term range test, a tool that provides informa- tion on the variability and periodicity of the transmitter detection range and the detection probability. A one-month range test of a coded telemetric system was conducted prior to a large-scale tagging project investigating the movement of approximately 400 fishes from 30 species on offshore coral reefs in the central Red Sea. During this range test we determined the effect of the following factors on transmitter detection efficiency: distance from receiver, time of day, depth, wind, current, moon-phase and temperature. The experiment showed that biological noise is likely to be responsible for a diel pattern of -on average- twice as many detections during the day as during the night. Biological noise appears to be the most important noise source in coral reefs overwhelming the effect of wind-driven noise, which is important in other studies. Detection probability is also heavily influenced by the location of the acoustic sensor within the reef structure. Understanding the effect of environmental factors on transmitter detection probability allowed us to design a more effective receiver array for the large-scale tagging study.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHT IN LOHI SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Babar, Z. Ahmad, A. Nadeem and M. Yaqoob

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on 3984 lambing records of 1285 Lohi ewes kept at the Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara for he period 1960-90 were analyzed by using Harvey’s Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood Computer Program. The purpose was to estimate the magnitude of various environmental sources of variation influencing weaning weight in this breed of sheep. The least squares mean for 120-day adjusted weaning weight was 23.09 ? 0.13 kg. The trait was significantly (P<0.01 influenced by the year and season of birth, type of birth and the sex of the lamb born.

  18. Non Genetic Factors Affecting Local Kids` Growth Curve under Pastoral Mode in Tunisian Arid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najari Sghaier

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available About 5000 individual weights issued from periodical survey of 722 indigenous kids in 8 herds and during 4 years were analyzed in the present study. The aim is to identify the non genetic effects upon the growth curve of local goat population raised under arid conditions as a necessary step to improve kids` meat production on range lands. The Gompertz model was adopted to assess individual kids` growth curves. A non linear regression iterative procedure allows estimating 688 kids curves parameters and convergence criteria was 10-8. For each kid, curve parameters, asymptotic weight, inflexion age and weight, were considered as quantitative traits. A GLM procedure was applied to decompose the total variance of the kid`s traits. A means comparison test (SNK, ? = 0.05 was applied to identify homogenous class by factor. Results show that the GLM determination coefficient remains lower than 67% of all studied traits due to the observed data structure. All traits seem to be affected by the significant effects (p< 0.001 or 0.05 of the factors related to the restrictions and the irregularity of the technical and natural environment of pastoral husbandry. Specially, growth traits varied with year, herd, month of birth and natural region. Herd mobility contributes to stamp climatic stresses and resources irregularities. Equally, the year factor plays an important role upon the kids weight and it evolution till 6 months age. Kids growth curve loses its S-shape and becomes linear under harsh conditions of dry years. Also, the non-genetic factors impact increases with kids age and requirements. The sex, birth mode and mother age acts only during first 2 months age. So, arid environment affects both quantitatively and qualitatively individual kid`s growing behaviour and have to be considered for local goat rational genetic improvement modeling and planning.

  19. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy after vitrectomy early factors affect IOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bo Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore possible causes of early postoperative elevated intraocular pressure caused by proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDRvitrectomy. METHODS:Totally 72 cases(100 eyeswhich have performed vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy were retrospectively analyzed to observe the incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension, and the relevant factors that caused postoperative high intraocular pressure were statistically analyzed. Early postoperative ocular hypertension diagnostic criteria: any time after 2 weeks of non-contact tonometer measured IOP> 25mmHg(1mmHg=0.133kPa. RESULTS:High intraocular pressure after vitrectomy occurred in 27 eyes(27%, the incidence of male and female were 27.27%, 26.79%, the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. Eyes filled with balanced liquid filling incidence rate of 30.95%, 6.25%, and the difference was statistically significant(P0.05. Incidences of intraoperative panretinal photocoagulation and additional retinal photocoagulation group were 41%, 20%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Preoperative retinopathy of four, five, six groups of incidence were 9.52%, 23.81%, 40.56%, and the groups were statistically significant(P<0.05. Unconsolidated preoperative retinal detachment and retinal detachment incidence rate of 19%, 41%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Surgery in the united lens resection with intraoperative unfederated lens the resection group's incidence rate of 34%, 15%, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that retinal detachment preoperative and intraoperative intraocular filling were independent risk factors that caused early postoperative ocular hypertension after vitrectomy. CONCLUSION:Post-operative ocular hypertension after PDR vitrectomy is related to preoperative retinal detachment, intraoperative lensectomy, intraoperative intraocular filling, and intraoperative panretinal photocoagulation. Retinal detachment preoperative and intraoperative intraocular filling are independent risk factors that caused early postoperative ocular hypertension after vitrectomy. Incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension after PDR vitrectomy is high, harmful. Early detection and individualized treatment can improve the success rate of vitrectomy and the patient's vision.

  20. Factors affecting Succession Planning in Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Mutunga; Hazel Gachunga

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya. Specific objects of the study included establishing how nurturing and development is a factor influencing Succession Planning in Small and Medium EnterprisesThe study will be significant to the Small and Medium-scale Enterprises, and the government who will appreciate and understand the factors affecting Succession Planning of Small and Medium Enterprises. This will enable policy make...

  1. A Study on Students’ Affective Factors in Junior High School English Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Biyi Zhu; Yaping Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Affect is considered as aspects of emotion, feeling, mood or attitude which condition behaviors in second language acquisition. Positive affect is good for studying while negative affect will inevitably hinder learners’ learning process. As we know, students in junior high school are special groups as they are experiencing great changes both in physiology and psychology. Their affect can be easily influenced by external and internal factors. Therefore, it is of vital importance to pay close a...

  2. Factors Affecting Junior High School Students' Interest in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-03-01

    We report the results of a study on students' interest in physics at the end of their compulsory schooling in Israel carried out in the framework of the ROSE Project. Factors studied were their opinions about science classes, their out-of-school experiences in physics, and their attitudes toward science and technology. Students' overall interest in physics was "neutral" (neither positive nor negative), with boys showing a higher interest than girls. We found a strong correlation between students' "neutral" interest in physics and their negative opinions about science classes. These findings raise serious questions about the implementation of changes made in the Israeli science curriculum in primary and junior high school, especially if the goal is to prepare the young generation for life in a scientific-technological era. A more in-depth analysis of the results led us to formulate curricular, behavioral, and organizational changes needed to reach this goal.

  3. Factors affecting pregnancy rates in infertile women performed abdominal myomectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali irfan Guzel

    2014-08-01

    Patients and Methods:This retrospective study included 76 infertile women underwent abdominal myomectomy. The cases were divided into two groups according to postoperative pregnancy (Group 1, n=22, and cases with no postoperative pregnancy (Group 2, n=54. Risk factors recorded were; age, parity, size of the fibroids, body mass index (BMI, tumor markers and serum blood values. Results:A total of 76 infertile women underwent abdominal myomectomy during the study period. Of all cases 22 (28.94 % became pregnant. There was statically significant difference between the groups in terms of age, BMI, diameter of the fibroids (p5 cm the treatment modality should be abdominal myomectomy to increase the chance of postoperative pregnancy. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 801-806

  4. Analysis of Factors Affecting Log Band Saw Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Karan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to measure the capacity of the log band saw by monitoring the sawing process per operation for each log and to determine what the influencing factors were and their effect on the technological capacity of the log band saw, based on recorded and processed data. The analysis of the recorded data shows that the processed log volume, whose increase also increases the saw capacity, has the most important effect on log band saw capacity. It is imperative to take into account the volume of logs being processed when calculating the capacity of the log band saw. When monitoring the work of the operator, the use of fixed norms is not recommended and it is imperative that norms are connected to the volume of logs being processed.

  5. Factors affecting the rheology and processability of highly filled suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyon, Dilhan M; Akta?, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Suspensions filled with rigid particles at volume-loading levels that approach their maximum packing fraction are widely encountered, especially in the energetics, ceramics, pharmaceutical, magnetics, composites, food, and personal care industries. Highly filled suspensions, regardless of industrial application, exhibit a number of common rheological and processability traits, including viscoplasticity and wall slip, that necessitate special rheometers and appropriate characterization and numerical simulation methods. Furthermore, various factors, including the dispersion and distribution of the particles and their agglomerates, the entrainment of air, the filtration-based migration of the binder phase, and the shear-induced migration of particles, play important roles and must be considered in the design and optimization of manufacturing operations for processing of highly filled suspensions. PMID:24910916

  6. Factors affecting the performance of undergraduate medical students: A perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Performance of medical students in developing nations like India is perceived to have largely declined. Aims: We attempted to assess the reasons behind such trends. Settings and Design: Students in their third year of medical study were given a predesigned, pretested structured and validated questionnaire that they filled in anonymously. The key areas assessed were concentration, interest and understanding of the subject and other perceived causes of poor performance. Tests for descriptive statistics were applied for evaluation. Results and Conclusions: One hundred and fifty students participated in the study. Fifty-five (36.66% students performed poorly. Male gender, inability to clear the previous professional examination at the first attempt, difficulty in understanding medium of instruction, self-assessed depression, sleep disorders and perceived parental and peer pressure and dissatisfaction with career choice were significantly linked with poor performance (P<0.05 for each factor. Socioeconomic status and regularity in class were not linked to academic performance.

  7. A Psychological Factor Affecting a Cardiac Condition in a Psychotherapist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Waxman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that intense emotions can affect the development and course of cardiac arrhythmias. This study sought to convey that a lack of expression of emotion can also have an effect on arrhythmias. A psychotherapist with Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation and an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator measured his rate of Premature Ventricular Contractions using a Holter monitor during three separate six-week periods and in three domains: A work days vs. off days, B a 27 hour work week vs. 22 hour work week, and C in 5 different modalities including 1 Meeting with department head 2 Individual psychotherapy with patients 3 Group therapy with patients 4 Supervision of residents 5 Personal psychoanalysis. The results showed more than a 3-fold increase of arrhythmogenic activity during the 27-hour work week vs. 22 and a 5-fold increase in arrhythmogenic activity on work days compared to days off. Department Head meetings were found to be most arrhythmogenic and personal psychoanalysis was least. The data suggest that the psychiatrist’s lack of emotional expression in his clinical work has been demonstrated to markedly worsen his arrhythmia. The results also point to the potential ameliorating effects of the therapist’s own psychotherapy.

  8. Factors affecting aromatic VOC removal by electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been conducted to investigate the effects of dose, humidity, and temperature on the decomposition of representative volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by electron beam irradiation. For this study, toluene--a commonly used VOC in the various industrial coating processes, was selected as a representative VOC. The degradation characteristics under different concentrations and irradiation doses were extensively investigated to determine and improve VOC removal efficiencies. In general, this study illustrates that the removal efficiencies of aromatic VOCs increase as their concentrations decrease and the irradiation doses increase. Addition of water vapor and/or aerosol moisture into the reactor of a flow system results in 10-20% increase in VOC removal efficiencies compared to the experiments run without moisture added, presumably due to OH radical formation leading to additional degradation pathways. The level of decomposition was higher with the addition of water vapor compared to those observed with added aerosol moisture. The temperature variations from 30 deg. C to 130 deg. C did not significantly affect the decomposition rates of the toluene compound at 160 ppm C. However, there was a significant decrease in toluene decomposition rate at a higher temperature of 170 deg. C

  9. Factors affecting the color stability of restorative resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmussen, E

    1983-01-01

    The color change resulting from storage in water was measured on a number of experimental and proprietary complex resins. The experimental resins contained varying amounts of amine (DEPT or DEBA), benzoyl-peroxide (BPO) and inhibitor (MHQ). The proprietary resins had earlier been analyzed as regards the composition of the monomer and the content of amine and peroxide. The color change of DEPT-containing resins was positively correlated with the DEPT/BPO ratio, and negatively correlated with the monomer content of BISGMA. DEBA-containing resins were more color stable than resins containing equimolar concentrations of DEPT. The color change was independent of MHQ up to a certain concentration; above this the color change increased with the amount of MHQ. In general, the light activated materials were more color stable than the chemically activated materials. The color change was not affected by pH, but decreased when the oxygen had been removed from the storage water. The test for color stability using UV-light irradiation gave results for proprietary resins that were not correlated with the results obtained by water storage. PMID:6575570

  10. Elucidating key factors affecting radionuclide aging in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanistic studies allow at present to describe the processes governing the short-term interaction of radiostrontium and radiocaesium in soils. The initial sorption step can be described through the estimation of the soil-soil solution distribution coefficient from soil parameters, as cationic exchange capacity, radiocaesium interception potential and concentration of competing ions in the soil solution. After the initial soil-radionuclide interaction, a fraction of radionuclide is no longer available for exchange with the solution, and it remains fixed in the solid fraction. At present, the initial fixed fraction of a radionuclide in a given soil cannot be predicted from soil properties. Besides, little is known about soil and environmental factors (e.g., temperature; hydric regime) provoking the increase in the fixed fraction with time, the so-called aging process. This process is considered to control the reduction of food contamination with time at contaminated scenarios. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to predict the radionuclide aging in the medium and long term for a better risk assessment, especially when a decision has to be made between relying on natural attenuation versus implementing intervention actions. Here we study radiostrontium and radiocaesium aging in a set of soils, covering a wide range of soil types of contrasting properties (e.g., loamy calcareous; podzol; chernozem, organic). Three factors are separately and simultaneously tested: time elapsed since contamination, temperature and hydric regime. Changes in the radionuclide fixed fraction are estimated with a leaching test based on the use of a mild extractant solution. In addition to this, secondary effects on the radiocaesium interception potential in various soils are also considered. (author)

  11. Key factors affecting urban runoff pollution under cold climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtanen, Marjo; Sillanpää, Nora; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    Urban runoff contains various pollutants and has the potential of deteriorating the quality of aquatic ecosystems. In this study our objective is to shed light on the factors that control the runoff water quality in urbanized catchments. The effects of runoff event characteristics, land use type and catchment imperviousness on event mass loads (EML) and event mean concentrations (EMC) were studied during warm and cold periods in three study catchments (6.1, 6.5 and 12.6 ha in size) in the city of Lahti, Finland. Runoff and rainfall were measured continuously for two years at each catchment. Runoff samples were taken for total nutrients (tot-P and tot-N), total suspended solids (TSS), heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn) and total organic carbon (TOC). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis (SMLR) was used to identify general relationships between the following variables: event water quality, runoff event characteristics and catchment characteristics. In general, the studied variables explained 50-90% of the EMLs but only 30-60% of the EMCs, with runoff duration having an important role in most of the SMLR models. Mean runoff intensity or peak flow was also often included in the runoff quality models. Yet, the importance (being the first, second or third best) and role (negative or positive impact) of the explanatory variables varied between the cold and warm period. Land use type often explained cold period concentrations, but imperviousness alone explained EMCs weakly. As for EMLs, the influence of imperviousness and/or land use was season and pollutant dependent. The study suggests that pollutant loads can be - throughout the year - adequately predicted by runoff characteristics given that seasonal differences are taken into account. Although pollutant concentrations were sensitive to variation in seasonal and catchment conditions as well, the accurate estimation of EMCs would require a more complete set of explanatory factors than used in this study.

  12. Intangible Factors Affecting the Success of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Hee Song Ng

    2012-01-01

    Since SMEs play a vital role in the development of a nation, it is important to gain a better understanding of the success factors involved. Authors have categorized the factors that influence enterprises success into tangible and intangible factors. Quite a number of studies have therefore investigated the tangible factors and how they affect enterprises success. However, intangible factors have not been given considerable attention despite their importance in determining enterprise success....

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BIRTH WEIGHT IN LOHI SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Babar, Z. Ahmad, A. Nadeem and M. Yaqoob

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on 3984 lambing records of 1285 Lohi ewes kept at the Livestock Production Reserch Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara for the period 1960-90 were analyzed by using Harvey’s Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood Computer Programme. The purpose was to estimate the magnitude of various environmental sources of variation influencing birth weight in this breed of sheep. The least squares mean for birth weight was 3.59 ? 0.02 kg. The trait was significantly (P< 0.01 influenced by the year and season of birth, type of birth and the sex of the lamb born. The age of the dam also had significant effect on birth weight of the lamb; the younger ewes produced lighter (3.48 ? 0.02 kg lambs than older ewes (3.67 ? 0.03 kg.

  14. Factors affecting injuries to amateur volleyball players volleyball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Cunha dos Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this diagnostic study was to evaluate the number of impacts per training session undergone by two amateur volleyball teams while performing spikes and blocks, and to relate the number of impacts to the number of injuries they suffered over the previous two years. The study recruited 24 athletes from the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina first teams, 12 from the men’s and 12 from the women’s volleyball teams, sampled intentionally. Data were collected using a questionnaire, a video camera and assessment sheets fi lled out by a talent scout. Data were collected at the practice ground and presented in the form of descriptive statistics in means, standard deviations and simple frequencies and inferential statistics were applied in the form of Pearson’s correlation and Student’s t test, both to p?0.05. The results allowed for the conclusions that both teams exhibited similar duration of practice and that their training characteristics were similar in terms of duration and frequency. The ankles were most often affected by injuries and blocks were the most common causative mechanisms of injuries in both teams. The majority of athletes use protective equipment and the great majority underwent physiotherapy once injured. The number of impacts per training session, including spike and block jumps, was low when compared with high level teams. It appears that the number of impacts did not affect the number of injuries in either team. The two teams did not differ either in terms of the number of injuries or the number of impacts per training session. RESUMO Este estudo diagnóstico teve como objetivo avaliar o número de repetições de impacto por treino, em atletas de duas equipes amadoras de voleibol, realizando cortadas e bloqueios, bem como relacionar o número de impactos com o número de lesões sofridas pelos mesmos nos últimos dois anos. Participaram do estudo 24 atletas titulares, sendo 12 da equipe feminina e 12 da equipe masculina de voleibol da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, escolhidas de forma intencional. Como instrumento de medida, foi utilizado um questionário, uma filmadora e fi chas de avaliação de escalte técnico. Os dados foram coletados no local de prática e tratados mediante a estatística descritiva em termos de média, desvio padrão e freqüência simples e com a estatística inferencial, por meio da correlação de Pearson e teste “t” de Student, ambos a p?0,05. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que as equipes apresentam tempo de prática e características de treino similares em termos de duração e freqüência; o tornozelo foi o local mais afetado por lesões e os bloqueios foram os mecanismos mais causadores de lesões para ambas as equipes; a maioria dos atletas usa equipamentos de proteção e a grande maioria, após lesionada, fez fi sioterapia; o número de impactos por treino, incluindo saltos de cortadas e bloqueios, é pouco quando comparado com equipes de alto nível; parece que o número de impactos não interferiu no número de lesões nas duas equipes; as duas equipes não diferem tanto no número de lesões quanto no número de impactos por treino.

  15. Factors affecting the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis following intense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Shaun; Jenkins, David

    2002-01-01

    Within the skeletal muscle cell at the onset of muscular contraction, phosphocreatine (PCr) represents the most immediate reserve for the rephosphorylation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). As a result, its concentration can be reduced to less than 30% of resting levels during intense exercise. As a fall in the level of PCr appears to adversely affect muscle contraction, and therefore power output in a subsequent bout, maximising the rate of PCr resynthesis during a brief recovery period will be of benefit to an athlete involved in activities which demand intermittent exercise. Although this resynthesis process simply involves the rephosphorylation of creatine by aerobically produced ATP (with the release of protons), it has both a fast and slow component, each proceeding at a rate that is controlled by different components of the creatine kinase equilibrium. The initial fast phase appears to proceed at a rate independent of muscle pH. Instead, its rate appears to be controlled by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) levels; either directly through its free cytosolic concentration, or indirectly, through its effect on the free energy of ATP hydrolysis. Once this fast phase of recovery is complete, there is a secondary slower phase that appears almost certainly rate-dependent on the return of the muscle cell to homeostatic intracellular pH. Given the importance of oxidative phosphorylation in this resynthesis process, those individuals with an elevated aerobic power should be able to resynthesise PCr at a more rapid rate than their sedentary counterparts. However, results from studies that have used phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P-NMR) spectroscopy, have been somewhat inconsistent with respect to the relationship between aerobic power and PCr recovery following intense exercise. Because of the methodological constraints that appear to have limited a number of these studies, further research in this area is warranted. PMID:12238940

  16. Factors affecting survivability of local Rohilkhand goats under organized farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Upadhyay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the pattern of mortality as affected by age, season and various diseases in local goats of Rohilkhand region maintained at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly. Materials and Methods: Post-mortem records of 12 years (2000-01 to 2011-12 were used, and total 243 mortality data were collected and analyzed. The causes of mortality were classified into seven major classes viz. digestive disorders, respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disorders, musculoskeletal disorder, parasitic disorders, mixed disorders (combination of digestive, respiratory, parasitic, and cardiovascular disorders and miscellaneous disorders (cold, hypoglycemia, emaciation, endometritis, traumatic injury, etc.. Results: The average mortality was 10.93%. The overall mortality was more during rainy season followed by winter and summer season. The mortality in 4-6 months of age was high (2.52% followed by 0-1 month (2.34% and 2-3 months (1.35%. The average mortality among adult age groups (>12 months was 3.42%. The mortality showed declining trend with the advancement of age up to 3 months and then again increased in 4-6 months age group. The digestive diseases (3.51% followed by respiratory diseases (1.89% and parasitic diseases (1.48% contributed major share to the total mortality occurred and the remaining disorders were of lesser significance in causing death in goats. There is significant (p<0.01; ?2=55.62 association between year with season and age with the season (p<0.05, ?2=16.083 found in the present study. Conclusion: This study confirms that overall mortality rate averaged 10.93% (ranged between 1.10% and 25.56% over 12 years under semi-intensive farm condition. It was generally higher in rainy season. The mortality remains higher in kids particularly under 1 month of age. The digestive diseases contributed major share to overall mortality.

  17. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Leandro M; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M; Soares, Cláudio R F S; de Lima, José M; Olivares, Fabio L; Moreira, Fatima M S

    2015-06-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization. PMID:26273251

  18. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro M., Marra; Silvia M. de, Oliveira-Longatti; Cláudio R.F.S., Soares; José M. de, Lima; Fabio L., Olivares; Fatima M.S., Moreira.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization o [...] f calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization.

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING GERMINATION AND PREGERMINATIVE TREATMENTS OF Lupinus montanus SEEDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeanette, Acosta-Percástegui; Dante Arturo, Rodríguez-Trejo.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a germinação da semente de Lupinus montanus, tomando em conta os seguintes fatores: regime de temperaturas dia/noite, luz e tratamento pré-germinativo. Para a germinação, resultou significativa a interação entre os fatores temperatura, luz e tratamento pré-germinativo. Os maiores valores [...] de germinação se acharam no regime de temperatura 20/15ºC, com escarificação química (ácido sulfúrico) durante 15 minutos, tanto com luz (100% de germinação) como sem luz (98% de germinação). A interação entre temperatura e luz também foi significativa. Neste último caso, a maior germinação se alcançou no regime de temperatura 20/15ºC, tanto com luz como sem luz (72,5% e 73,8%, respectivamente). A maiores temperaturas sem luz, a germinação foi maior (41,2% a 25/20ºC, e 33,4% a 30/25ºC), que com luz (17,4% a 25/20ºC e 12,8% a 30/25ºC); o qual indica que os microsítios com sombra podem beneficiar a germinação da semente da espécie a temperaturas altas. Abstract in spanish Se estudió la germinación de la semilla de Lupinus montanus, tomando en cuenta los siguientes factores: régimen de temperaturas día/noche, luz y tratamiento pregerminativo. Para la germinación, resultó significativa la interacción entre los factores temperatura, luz y tratamiento pregerminativo. Los [...] mayores valores de germinación se hallaron en el régimen de temperatura 20/15ºC, con escarificación química (ácido sulfúrico) durante 15 minutos, tanto con luz (100% de germinación) como sin luz (98% de germinación). La interacción entre temperatura y luz también fue significativa. En este último caso, la mayor germinación se alcanzó en el régimen de temperatura 20/15ºC, tanto con luz como sin luz (72,5 y 73,8%, respectivamente). A mayores temperaturas sin luz, la germinación fue mayor (41,2% a 25/20ºC, y 33,4% a 30/25ºC), que con luz (17,4% a 25/20ºC y 12,8% a 30/25ºC); lo cual indica que los micrositios con sombra pudieran beneficiar la germinación de la semilla de la especie a temperaturas altas. Abstract in english The germinative characteristics of Lupinus montanus seeds were studied, taking into account the following factors: day/night temperature regime, light, and pregerminative treatment. The interaction between temperature, light and pregerminative treatment was significant for germination. The best germ [...] inations were found in the 20/15ºC temperature regime, with chemical scarification (sulfuric acid) during 15min, both under light (100% germination) and in darkness (98%). The interaction between temperature and light was also significant, with the best germination results in the 20/15ºC temperature regime, both with and without light (72.5 and 73.8%, respectively). At higher temperatures, the germination in absence of light was greater (41.2 and 33.4% at 25/20ºC and 30/25ºC, respectively) than under light (17.4 and 12.8% at 25/20ºC and 30/25ºC, respectively). This indicates that shady microsites can benefit germination of the species at higher temperatures.

  20. Importance Degree Evaluation of the Affecting Factors on Exhibition Security Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of exhibition security accidents is the result of the mutual coupling factors of "man-machine-environment-management". This study is going to elaborate 11 influencing factors of exhibition security accidents from four aspects, i.e., man, mechanical equipment, environment and management. With the help of grey relational analysis, this study evaluates the importance degree of the affecting factors in exhibitions. The result shows that affecting factors of facilities and equipments failure is of the greatest importance degree and site maintenance personnel, site design, building material quality are the secondary important factors; another important factors are safety management body, social environment, activity organization management, safety management system, natural environment and event participant behavior which are considered as the third important ones. Evaluation of the importance degree of affecting factors on exhibition security incidents will provide a theoretical basis for exhibition security control.

  1. Factors affecting the retention and fit of gold castings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, V A; Miller, A W; Miller, B H; Swepston, J H

    1987-04-01

    A study was designed to simulate clinical conditions. Several factors were evaluated for effect on retention and fit (margin adaptation) of gold castings. Twenty-six castings (13 pairs) were made by different investigators using a standard preparation but with varying fabrication techniques. One of each pair of castings was made on a spaced die and one on an unspaced die. A significant difference in the postcementation retention was observed in the varying techniques of each investigator. Retentive values varied from 29 to 129 lbs. Complete seating of the castings during cementation was improved by the use of die spacer. Castings made on the spaced dies had more retention than corresponding unspaced castings. Die spacing has positive benefit when properly used. Moderate roughness of axial surfaces improves retention when zinc phosphate cement is used. Physical properties of restorative materials are important, but the individual technique and care of each investigator has a major effect on the ultimate fit and retention of the cast restoration. PMID:3553565

  2. Chronic irradiation as an ecological factor affecting genetic population structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic structure of two Centaurea scabiosa L. populations was studied by frequency distribution of leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) locus genotypes. The experimental population has been growing under conditions of chronic irradiation, with the dose per generation amounting to 1.2 to 25.5 Gy. In it, mutational variants are observed with a frequency of 5.4.10(-3)-4.5.10(-2) per generation (as compared to control population frequency at 5.4.10(-4)). Indexes for heterozygosity, mean number of genotypes, and effective number of alleles were higher in the experimental population. Segregation analysis revealed no differences in viability in the control population, and all genotypic combinations were found to be nearly neutral. In the experimental population, however, significant differences in relative viability of the genotypes were disclosed. The relative viability of heterozygotes for mutant allele C' was nearly maximum, while heterozygotes for other mutant alleles showed minimum viability. We reach the conclusion that the differences in genetic structure of the populations under investigation can be explained by the chronic irradiation factor that brought out differences in adaptability of both normal and mutant genotypes. The suggestion is that intra-locus interactions of the C' allele with normal alleles determine plant resistance to a wide range of unfavorable environmental conditions

  3. Factors affecting decomposition rates of chironomid (Diptera pupal exuviae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi G. Kavanaugh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Collections of floating chironomid pupal exuviae are used to monitor water quality and assess ecological conditions. Factors controlling exuviae sinking rates are not well known, although they should have an effect on conclusions that can be drawn from collections. The current study was conducted to determine the rate of sinking under controlled laboratory conditions using water from three streams with different nutrient levels. Sinking rates ranged from less than a day to seven days, depending on microbial activity, nutrient concentrations, temperature and turbulence. Results also varied by genus, with pupal exuviae of Chironomus riparius, Diamesa nivoriunda, Orthocladius (Euorthocladius thienemanni and Eukiefferiella sp. used in experiments. Four species of bacteria and eight genera of fungi colonized and metabolized exuviae, with bacteria dominant early and fungi dominant later in the decomposition process. Decomposition was faster in lightly chitinized abdominal conjunctive areas, which resulted in exuviae breaking apart and sinking. Examination of untreated, dewaxed and dewaxed-deproteinized exuviae indicated that untreated exuviae sank faster. Waxes appeared important for colonization and initial microbial metabolization was delayed when waxes were removed. Results confirm the importance of biological degradation of exuviae in determining floatation times. We predict that streams and other waterbodies with high dissolved nutrients will result in rapidly sinking exuviae, while exuviae in low nutrient waterbodies will float longer.Article submitted 1. October 2014, accepted 18. November 2014, published 22. December 2014.

  4. Environmental factors affecting starch encapsulated herbicide rates of release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch-encapsulation (SE) is an experimental control release technology designed to extend the period of time over which a herbicide is released into the soil environment. The objectives of controlled release are to improve efficacy and reduce negative environmental impacts. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to evaluate how environmental factors influence the release rate of SE-atrazine and SE-alachlor. Decreasing water availability, significantly reduced swelling and subsequent rates-of-release for both herbicides. As starch granules imbibe water they swell, allowing the herbicide to diffuse more readily out of the granule. Decreasing temperature also resulted in decreased rates of herbicide release. Soil microbial activity increased rates-of-release for both herbicides, likely the result of enzymatic breakdown of the starch matrix. The enhanced release of alachlor relative to atrazine under varied environmental conditions was attributed to alachlor's greater solubility in water. Although the SE-formulations are experimental, modification of herbicide behavior was observed that could reduce negative environmental impacts. 20 refs, 9 figs

  5. Factors affecting the regulation of pacing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauger AR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexis R Mauger Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Kent, Chatham, UK Abstract: During prolonged dynamic and rhythmic exercise, muscular pain and discomfort arises as a result of an increased concentration of deleterious metabolites. Sensed by peripheral nociceptors and transmitted via afferent feedback to the brain, this provides important information regarding the physiological state of the muscle. These sensations ultimately contribute to what is termed "exercise-induced pain". Despite being well recognized by athletes and coaches, and suggested to be integral to exercise performance, this construct has largely escaped attention in experimental work. This perspective article highlights the current understanding of pacing in endurance performance, and the causes of exercise-induced pain. A new perspective is described, which proposes how exercise-induced pain may be a contributing factor in helping individuals to regulate their work rate during exercise and thus provides an important construct in pacing. Keywords: pain, exercise-induced pain, discomfort, exercise performance, self-paced

  6. Factors Affecting the Intensity of Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    This paper updates the influence of environmental and source factors of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are likely to influence the solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The intensity variation due to CME interaction reported that is confirmed by expanding the investigation to all the large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The large SEP events are separated into two groups, one associated with CMEs running into other CMEs, and the other with CMEs running into the ambient solar wind. SEP events with CME interaction generally have a higher intensity. New possibilities such as the influence of coronal holes on the SEP intensity are also discussed. For example, the presence of a large coronal hole between a well-connected eruption and the solar disk center may render the shock poorly connected because of the interaction between the CME and the coronal hole. This point is illustrated using the 2004 December 3 SEP event delayed by about 12 hours from the onset of the associated CME. There is no other event at the Sun that can be associated with the SEP onset. This event is consistent with the possibility that the coronal hole interaction influences the connectivity of the CMEs that produce SEPs, and hence the intensity of the SEP event.

  7. Trends Analyses for Several Factors Affected by Tropical Cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. T. Islam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents an analytical investigation for the trends of several factors such as number of death of peoples, damages of wealth, flood surge heights, wind speed and radius of the severe storm due to tropical cyclones in Bangladesh. Approach: The study is performed by conducting the field visits to cyclone site, collected data and information on damages and deaths of peoples during field visits, necessary data related to tropical cyclones obtained from available publications and news-study. The data since the period of the independence of Bangladesh (nearly 40 years are analyzed. Results: The analyses showed that the 17 major cyclones have been occurred since 1970. Among these 17 major cyclones, the 5 cyclones were tragically severe that killed over 400 thousand peoples. It is observed that the coast of the Bay of Bengal is particularly vulnerable to tropical cyclones. It is revealed that Bangladesh is more vulnerable to devastating cyclones in the recent years because the frequency of the severe cyclones has increased remarkably. Conclusion/Recommendation: The return period of the major cyclones was decreased drastically in recent years and the country, especially, the Bengal Bay is predominantly helpless during the cyclone seasons.

  8. Factors affecting medication adherence in Lebanese patients with chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajje, Amal; Awada, Sanaa; Rachidi, Samar; Zein, Salam; Bawab, Wafa; El-Hajj, Zeinab; Zeid, Mayssam Bou; Yassine, Mohammad; Salameh, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-adherence to prescribed medications represents an obstacle toward achieving treatment goals. This problem is more pronounced in patients with chronic illness. Objective: To identify the extent of adherence in Lebanese outpatients with chronic diseases, and to suggest possible predictors of non-adherence in this population. The secondary objective was to assess if medication adherence affects patients’ quality of life. Methods: A questionnaire was administered face-to-face to a sample of Lebanese adults visiting the external clinics at two Tertiary Care Hospitals in Beirut. The level of adherence was assessed using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale which was first validated. The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients was measured using the EQ-5D. Linear regression and logistic regression analyses examined possible predictors of adherence. Results: Out of the 148 patients included in this study, 42.6% were classified as adherent. In the univariate analyses, statistically significant predictors of high adherence included good physician-patient relationship (p=0.029) and counseling (p=0.037), a high level of HRQoL (pdepression (p=0.002), little drug knowledge (p<0.001), and postponing physician appointments (p<0.001). The multivariate analyses revealed similar results. In the linear regression, the most powerful predictor of non-adherence was the disbelief that the drug is ameliorating the disease (beta=0.279), however, in logistic regression, patient who were willing to skip or double doses in case of amelioration/deterioration were found to be 7.35 times more likely to be non-adherent than those who were not (aOR=0.136, 95% CI: 0.037-0.503). Conclusion: The findings of this study reassure the view that patients should be regarded as active decision makers. Patient education should be regarded as a cornerstone for treatment success. Additional studies as well are needed to test the practicability and effectiveness of interventions suggested to enhance adherence.

  9. A spectroscopic study of factors affecting charge transfer at organo-metallic interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, C E

    2001-01-01

    polydiacetylene and omega-tricosenoic acid LB films. The resulting analyses have allowed comparison of charge trapping within the different bulk films and also at the film to substrate interface. In addition to DBARS, Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopies have been used to investigate the factors affecting the carboxylic acid group at the head of the LB molecule and the role this plays in charge transport across the organo-metallic boundary. The properties of organic films produced by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique have become more widely known in the last few decades, as the variety of organic molecules suitable for this method of production has increased. One class of LB molecule receiving particular attention has been that of conjugated polymers. These organic materials exhibit an anisotropic semi-conductor like behavior along the polymer chain, making them suitable candidate materials for use in molecular electronic devices. However,...

  10. A review of the factors affecting the costs of bovine mastitis : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Petrovski

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent production diseases affecting the dairy cattle industry worldwide. Its occurrence is associated with direct and indirect losses and expenditures. When estimating the cost of mastitis to the dairy industry the cost of the control programmes must be added. The direct losses of mastitis are the only costs obvious to the farmer. The difference between the costs of mastitis on one side and the benefits of mastitis control on the other side will give us a picture of the economic efficacy of the mastitis control programme. Continuing education of the farmer is needed for better mastitis control programmes. This article is an attempt to review briefly all relevant factors included in the economics of bovine mastitis and to illustrate the authors' view of some of the costs.

  11. Factors affecting ferulic acid release from Brewer's spent grain by Fusarium oxysporum enzymatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiros, Charilaos; Moukouli, Maria; Topakas, Evangelos; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2009-12-01

    In this study, the factors affecting ferulic acid (FA) release from Brewer's spent grain (BSG), by the crude enzyme extract of Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. In order to evaluate the importance of the multienzyme preparation on FA release, the synergistic action of feruloyl esterase (FAE, FoFaeC-12213) and xylanase (Trichoderma longibrachiatum M3) monoenzymes was studied. More than double amount of FA release (1 mg g(-1) dry BSG) was observed during hydrolytic reactions by the crude enzyme extract compared to hydrolysis by the monoenzymes (0.37 mg g(-1) dry BSG). The protease content of the crude extract and the inhibitory effect of FA as an end-product were also evaluated concerning their effect on FA release. The protease treatment prior to hydrolysis by monoenzymes enhanced FA release about 100%, while, for the first time in literature, FA in solution found to have a significant inhibitory effect on FAE activity and on total FA release. PMID:19592240

  12. Factors Affecting Purchase Intention of Organic Food in Malaysia’s Kedah State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rizaimy Shaharudin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the discoveries on the factors affecting purchase intention of organic food in Malaysia. Nowadays, in today’s modern world a new consumer lifestyle has emerged especially in the attitude of consuming organic food. This phenomenon has occurred because people are beginning to be aware of the importance of consuming healthy food in their daily lives. A natural, clean and good healthy food is important as there are a lot of ordinary foods that are mostly prepared with the use of unsafe additives, preservatives, flavor and coloring. The research aims to identify factors such as health consciousness, perceived value, food safety concern and religious factors and its impact towards the customer purchase intention. The findings of the study indicated that out of four factors, only perceived value and health consciousness influenced the customer purchase intention. However, food safety concern and religious factors were found to have less impact on customer purchase intention. People perceived that organic food has more nutritional value because the breeding and growth of organic food such as chicken is being done naturally without involving the use of any hormones and chemical. Furthermore, health consciousness factors are now becoming the national issues to combat the increasing obesities that are known to bring of diabetes and hypertension among people. Through the national and NGO’s campaigns, people start to be aware of their responsibility to ensure good health and protect themselves from those diseases by taking healthy food and appropriate diet in their daily lives. The result has shown some differences with the previous literature where all factors (health consciousness, perceived value, food safety concern and religious were found to have significant impact towards the customers’ satisfaction. Future research should focus on a similar study of factors affecting customer purchase intention towards organic food products with the extended scope to all states in Malaysia. Additional variables such as freshness, presentation, taste and innovativeness of organic food products can be further examined to increase the accuracies and effectiveness of the study findings. Key words: Organic Food; Health Consciousness; Perceived Value; Food Safety; ReligiousRésumé: Cette étude porte sur les découvertes sur les facteurs affectant l'intention d'achat d'aliments biologiques en Malaisie. Aujourd'hui, dans le monde moderne, un nouveau mode de vie des consommateurs a émergé en particulier dans l'attitude de consommation d'aliments biologiques. Ce phénomène se produit parce que les gens commencent à être conscients de l'importance de consommer des aliments sains dans leur vie quotidienne. Par rapport à une alimentation saine, les aliments ordinaires sont le plus souvent préparés avec des additifs dangereux, des conservateurs, des arômes et des colorants. La recherche vise à identifier les facteurs, tels que la conscience de la santé, la valeur perçue, la préoccupation de sécurité alimentaire et les facteurs religieux et leur impact sur l'intention d'achat des consommateurs. Les résultats de l'étude ont indiqué que parmi ces quatre facteurs, seulement la valeur perçue et la conscience de la santé ont influencé l'intention d'achat des consommateurs. Toutefois, la préoccupation de sécurité alimentaire et les facteurs religieux ont été trouvés d'avoir moins d'impact sur l'intention d'achat des consommateurs. Les gens se sont rendus compte que les aliments biologiques ont plus de valeur nutritionnelle, parce que la reproduction et la croissance des produits biologiques tel que le poulet se font naturellement sans impliquer l'utilisation de hormones et de produits chimiques. En outre, les facteurs de conscience de la santé sont en train de devenir un sujet national de lutter contre l'augmentation de l'obésité qui peut produire le diabète et l'hypertension chez les gens. Grâce aux campagnes nationales et aux celles des ONG, les gens commencent à être conscients d

  13. Breastfeeding Self-efficacy of Mothers and the Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinar Nursan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: el objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la autoeficacia de las madres en cuanto a la lactancia durante el período de 0-3 meses y los factores que la afectan. Materiales y métodos: el estudio se realizó entre enero y abril de 2011. El universo del estu - dio estuvo compuesto por todas las madres que vivían en el centro de la provincia de Sakarya y tenían niños lactantes de 0-3 meses. La muestra utilizada en el estudio estuvo conformada por 152 madres que aceptaron participar. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas cara a cara con las madres, utilizando el "Formulario de Información Personal" desarrollado por los investigadores y el "Formulario de Escala de Autoeficacia en Lactancia – versión abreviada/ BSES-SF" desarrollado por Dennis. La validez y confiabilidad de la escala usada en Turquía fueron medidas por Tokat et al. (2010. Los datos fueron evaluados a través del programa SPSS, utilizando los porcentajes, los promedios, la prueba t, el chi-cuadrado y ANOVA. Resultados: el puntaje total promedio de la "BSES-SF tomada" se determinó como 58,61 ± 8,93, min. = 16, máx. = 70. No se hallaron diferencias significativas entre el puntaje de la escala y la edad materna (F = 0,437, p = 0,781, la educación materna (F = 0,625, p = 0,645, la situación económica (F = 0,253, p = 0,777 y el tipo de parto (t = 0,922, p = 0,358. Los puntajes promedio fueron mayores para las madres que indicaron haber recibido capacitación para la lactancia materna en comparación con otras que indicaron no haber recibido dicha formación, y la diferencia entre el puntaje de la escala fue estadísticamente significativa (X2 = 50,848, p = 0,010. Conclusiones: los requisitos para el desarrollo de un nivel adecuado de lactancia materna entre las madres fueron identificados. Las enfermeras pueden dar el apoyo necesario a las madres con bajo nivel de lactancia mediante la evaluación y la identificación de los requisitos con la ayuda de esta escala.

  14. Factors affecting home delivery in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, A; Manandhar, D S; Shrestha, P; Ellis, M; Malla, K; Costello, A M

    1998-06-01

    This nested case-control study compares the characteristics of mothers having home or institutional deliveries in Kathmandu, Nepal, and explores the reasons given by mothers for a home delivery. The delivery patterns of mothers were identified in a cross-sectional survey of two communities: an urban area of central Kathmandu (Kalimati) and a peri-urban area (Kirtipur and Panga) five kilometres from the city centre. 357 pregnant women were identified from a survey of 6130 households: 183 from 3663 households in Kirtipur and Panga, 174 from 2467 households in Kalimati. Methods involved a structured baseline household questionnaire and detailed follow-up of identified pregnant women with structured and semi-structured interviews in hospital and the community. The main outcome measures were social and economic household details of pregnant women; pregnancy and obstetric details; place of delivery; delivery attendant; and reasons given for home delivery. The delivery place of 334/357 (94%) of the pregnant women identified at the survey was determined. 272 (81%) had an institutional delivery and 62 (19%) delivered at home. In univariate analysis comparing home and institutional deliverers, maternal education, parity, and poverty indicators (income, size of house, ownership of house) were associated with place of delivery. After multivariate analysis, low maternal educational level (no education, OR 5.04 [95% CI 1.61-15.8], class 1-10, OR 3.36 [1.04-10.8] compared to those with higher education) and multiparity (OR 3.1 [1.63-5.74] compared to primiparity) were significant risk factors for a home delivery. Of home deliverers, only 24% used a traditional birth attendant, and over half were unplanned due to precipitate labour or lack of transport. We conclude that poor education and multiparity rather than poverty per se increase the risk of a home delivery in Kathmandu. Training TBAs in this setting would probably not be cost-effective. Community-based midwife-run delivery units could reduce the incidence of unplanned home deliveries. PMID:10180403

  15. Case Factors Affecting Hearing Aid Recommendations by Hearing Care Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gioia, Carmine; Ben-Akiva, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Professional recommendations to patients concerning hearing instrument (HI) technology levels are not currently evidence-based. Pre-fitting parameters have not been proven to be the primary indicators for optimal patient outcome with different HI technology levels. This results in subjective decision-making as regards the technology level recommendation made by professionals. Purpose: The objective of this study is to gain insight into the decision-making criteria utilized by professionals when recommending HI technology levels to hearing-impaired patients. Research design: A set of patient variables (and their respective levels) was identified by professionals as determinant for their recommendation of HIs. An experimental design was developed and 21 representative patient cases were generated. The design was based on a contrastive vignette technique according to which different types of vignettes (patient cases) were randomly presented to respondents in an online survey. Based on these patientcases, professionals were asked in the survey to make a treatment recommendation. Study sample: The online survey was sent to approximately 3,500 professionals from the US, Germany, France, and Italy. The professionals were randomly selected from the databases of Oticon sales companies. The manufacturer sponsoring the survey remained anonymous and was only revealed after completing the survey, if requested by the respondent. The response rate was 20.5%. Data collection and analysis: Data comprised of respondent descriptions and patient case recommendations that were collected from the online survey. A binary logit modeling approach was used to identify the variables that discriminate between the respondents' recommendations of HI technology levels. RESULTS: The results show that HI technology levels are recommended by professionals based on their perception of the patient's activity level in life, the level of HI usage for experienced users, their age, and their speech discrimination score. Surprisingly, the patient's lifestyle as perceived by the hearing care professional, followed by speech discrimination, were the strongest factors in explaining treatment recommendation. An active patient with poor speech discrimination had a 17% chance of being recommended the highest technology level HI. For a very active patient with good speech discrimination, the probability increases to 68%. Conclusions: The discrepancies in HI technology level recommendations are not justified by academic research or evidence of optimal patient outcome with a different HI technology level. The paradigm of lifestyle as the significant variable identified in this study is apparently deeply anchored in the mindset of the professional despite the lack of supporting evidence. These results call for a shift in the professional's technology level recommendation practice, from nonevidence-based to a proven practice that can maximize patient outcome.

  16. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic analysis. In both cases, the profitable price point is decreased, making more markets open to profitable entry. Overall, the economic attractiveness of a nuclear power construction project is not only a function of its own costs, but a function of the market into which it is deployed. Many of the market characteristics are out of the control of the potential nuclear power plant operators. The decision-making process for the power industry in general is complicated by the short-term market volatility in both the wholesale electricity market and the commodity (natural gas) market. Decisions based on market conditions today may be rendered null and void in six months. With a multiple-year lead time, nuclear power plants are acutely vulnerable to market corrections.

  17. A cross-sectional study of factors affecting seasonality in bipolar disorder

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P K, Mittal; S, Mehta; R K, Solanki; M K, Swami; P S, Meena.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Researchers have evinced interest in the effect of seasonal variations on mood and behavioural patterns in affective disorders. OBJECTIVE: To study seasonality in bipolar disorder (BD) patients and also the factors affecting this seasonality. METHOD: Forty-nine patients with BD in euthym [...] ic phase were recruited and analysed using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire and Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. RESULTS: Most of the patients were morning types but chronotype had no influence on seasonality. Age of patient and number of episodes were the most important factors affecting seasonality in BD. CONCLUSION: Seasonality and its influencing factors must be considered while managing bipolar disorder.

  18. Individual Factors Affecting Farmers’ Motivation to Participate in Date Growers’ Organizations in Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Alimirzaei

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Khuzestan Province has a great share in Iran’s date production in which many rural households are directly dependent to dates production. However, small holding system has led to a lot of challenges faced by small scale farmers whereas much potential of date production and marketing lost every year. Despite of strong felt need to social capital development and government’s recent activities in order to help farmers to organize themselves, there is not so much interest in this connection generally. So, the purpose of this study was to provide a framework for understanding the individual factors affecting farmers’ motivation to participate in date growers’ organizations. The population of the research consisted of 584 members of five present date growers’ organizations. By the use of Cochran Formula, 120 farmers were randomly selected as research sample. Data were gathered trough a researcher-made questionnaire and analyzed by the use of SPSS software. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that three independent variables namely "degree of formal education", "attendance in extension-education courses" and "years of date growing", predicted 62% of variation of farmers’ total motivation to participate in date growers’ organizations.

  19. Personal Factors that Affect the Satisfaction of Female Patients Undergoing Esthetic Suture after Typical Thyroidectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hyo Young Kim; Jung Won Kim; Jin Hyung Park; Jung Hun Kim; Yea Sik Han

    2013-01-01

    Background In esthetic surgery, understanding the factors that influence patient satisfaction is important for successful practice. We hypothesize that the factors that influence patient satisfaction include not only aesthetic and functional outcomes, but also personal factors such as the level of familiarity with factors affecting wound healing and expectations regarding aesthetic outcome.Methods One hundred patients who underwent esthetic closure after thyroidectomy were included in this st...

  20. Personal Factors that Affect the Satisfaction of Female Patients Undergoing Esthetic Suture after Typical Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Young Kim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In esthetic surgery, understanding the factors that influence patient satisfaction is important for successful practice. We hypothesize that the factors that influence patient satisfaction include not only aesthetic and functional outcomes, but also personal factors such as the level of familiarity with factors affecting wound healing and expectations regarding aesthetic outcome.Methods One hundred patients who underwent esthetic closure after thyroidectomy were included in this study. In order to evaluate the individual characteristics of the patients, a preoperative survey was administered to the patients. We estimated the patient satisfaction six months postoperatively and assessed the aesthetic and functional outcomes using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale.Results According to the results of correlation analysis, level of familiarity with wound healing factors had a positive correlation with satisfaction. High expectations, pain, itching, and high observer scale score had negative correlations with satisfaction. The factors that were correlated with satisfaction were included in the multiple regression analysis. Level of familiarity with wound healing factors was found to have a positive relationship with satisfaction, while itching and observer scale were found to have a negative relationship with satisfaction. After excluding 10 patients who had hypertrophic scars, only level of familiarity with wound healing factors and expectations affected satisfaction. Conclusions The level of familiarity with factors affecting wound healing and expectations were found to independently affect satisfaction. Improving patients’ level of familiarity with wound healing factors and reducing their expectations by providing suitable preoperative education has the potential to improve patient satisfaction.

  1. FACTORS THAT AFFECT PREGNANCY RATES IN EMBRYO TRANSFER PROGRAMS / FACTORES QUE AFECTAN LA TASA DE PREÑEZ EN PROGRAMAS DE TRANSFERENCIA DE EMBRIONES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L. A, Oyuela; C, Jiménez.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde mediados de los años setenta, la tecnología de transferencia de embriones (TE) se usó comercialmente para multiplicar rápidamente animales de genética valiosa. Posteriormente, con la congelación de embriones, se crea la posibilidad de movilizar animales entre países con barreras sanitarias. En [...] la última década, con el uso comercial de embriones producidos in vitro (PIV) se dinamizó la producción de los mismos; en la práctica, son múltiples los factores que pueden influir en los resultados de los programas de TE, estos tienen orígenes muy diversos: factores del embrión (estado de desarrollo, calidad, componente genético, etc.), factores de la receptora (condición corporal, cuerpo lúteo) y factores externos (época del año, factores de manejo de los animales). Este documento abordará los temas asociados a los factores que podrían afectar las tasas de preñez en programas de TE. Abstract in english Since mid 70´s, the Embryo Transfer (ET) technology was commercially used to quickly reproduce animals of valuable genetics; with the development of embryo freezing, the possibility of mobilizing animals between countries with sanitary barriers became a reality. In the last decade with the commercia [...] l use of in vitro produced embryos (IVPE) the production increased, there are multiple factors that can influence in the results of the ET programs, these factors has very diverse origins: embryo (stage of development, quality, genetic component etc), recipient factors (body score, corpus luteum) external factors (season, animal management). This document will approach the topics associated with the factors that could affect pregnancy rates in ET programs of IVPE.

  2. Determining Factors that Affect Satisfaction of Students in Undergraduate Tourism Education

    OpenAIRE

    Atay, Lütfi; Yildirim, Hac? Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Students’ satisfaction with their department is of importance in their attitudes towards school. When it is considered that the students, who receive tourism education at universities, are also consumers of the education service provided at the departments, it is necessary to determine the factors that affect student satisfaction. The aim of this study is to determine the factors that affect the satisfaction of the students, who receive undergraduate tourism education, with the tourism underg...

  3. Factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon, with emphasis on human impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Aarestrup, Kim; Heggberget, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    We review factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon. With populations declining across the entire distribution range, it is important that spawners survive in the last phase of the spawning migration. Knowledge on the factors affecting migration is essential for the protection of populations, and to increase the success of reintroduction programmes. A number of studies have documented that the upstream migration may be delayed for many weeks at man-made obstacles s...

  4. Identifying the Principal Factors Affecting the Selection of Higher Education Economical Studies in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Odysseas Moschidis; Vassilis Kostoglou; Jason Papathanasiou

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the factors affecting the selections of university departments for undergraduate studies made by high school graduates in Greece; crucial decisions affecting both the vocational career of the individuals as well as the labor market at national level. It is therefore important for the economic development of a country to understand how people come early to decisions that have a significant effect in their career. The factors under consideration have been identifi...

  5. Factors affecting adherence to a quality improvement checklist on an inpatient hepatology service

    OpenAIRE

    Tapper, Elliot B.; Lai, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing emphasis on measuring quality indicators such as adherence to practice guidelines, we sought to determine the factors and address the barriers affecting guideline adherence on an academic inpatient hepatology service. We performed a single-center, prospective observational study. Physicians were given a handheld checklist to complete daily. We first measured the adherence rate and studied factors affecting adherence by performing surveys. We then modified the program to a...

  6. Factors affecting service delivery within community pharmacy in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Thornley, Tracey

    2006-01-01

    Aims of study The overall aim of this study was to investigate factors affecting service delivery within a national pharmacy chain, from the perspective of pharmacists and consumers, using asthma services as an example. Data were collected to explore the current environment and opportunities available to pharmacy, the factors affecting service delivery, and to identify recommendations for future service models. The impact of the design and route of service implementation were studied th...

  7. A STUDY OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE GIRL CHILDREN, AND THEIR TEACHING-LEARNING CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    NEHABEN DAHYABHAI THAKKAR

    2012-01-01

    Children are future leaders of tomorrow and mothers are guardians of the future, and the first aim of every family and society should be to raise healthy and productive individuals who are physically, psychologically, socially, and mentally well developed. These can be achieved through the education of the girl-child who is the mother of tomorrow. Objectives: 1. To study the factors affecting the educational development and teachinglearning conditions of the girl children. Sample: For the stu...

  8. Sequencing and transcriptional analysis of the streptococcus thermophilus histamine biosynthesis gene cluster: Factors that affect differential hdca expression

    OpenAIRE

    Calles-Enríquez, Marina; Hjort Eriksen, Benjamin; Skov Andersen, Pia; Rattray, F.; Johansen, Annette H.; Fernández García, María; Ladero Losada, Víctor Manuel; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Histamine, a toxic compound that is formed by the decarboxylation of histidine through the action of microbial decarboxylases, can accumulate in fermented food products. From a total of 69 Streptococcus thermophilus strains screened, two strains, CHCC1524 and CHCC6483, showed the capacity to produce histamine. The hdc clusters of S. thermophilus CHCC1524 and CHCC6483 were sequenced, and the factors that affect histamine biosynthesis and histidine-decarboxylating gene (hdcA) expression were st...

  9. Studies and Research on Friction, Friction Factor and Affecting Factors : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil J. Kulkarni *; Ajaygiri K. Goswami

    2014-01-01

    The friction and friction factors are very significant factors in flow through pipes, channels, heat exchangers . From the pumping cost point of view, minimum friction is desirable as it will decrease the energy loss. In the rotating components like axle-shaft arrangements, the friction and slip are important factors. In case of heat exchanger, the friction factor is important as the heat transfer depends on it. The research was also reported on effect of submerged vegetation ...

  10. The multiple factors affecting the association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; McFadden, J P

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis are both common skin diseases having an immune pathogenesis. There has been considerable interest about their inter-relationships with regard to altered susceptibility. Recent investigations have shed new light on this important question, and in this article, we explore whether there is evidence that atopic dermatitis affects the risk of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. The use of topical products to treat xerotic and inflamed skin in atopic dermatitis often results in a higher prevalence of sensitization to, for example, fragrances and other ingredients in emollients. Moreover, the prevalence of metal allergy seems to be increased, probably due to compromised chelation of the metals in the stratum corneum of patients with atopic dermatitis. However, conversely, the T-helper cell 2 bias that characterizes immune responses in atopic dermatitis appears to lower the risk of contact sensitization compared to healthy controls. Based on these observations, we conclude that multiple factors affect the association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization, and that these need to be appreciated in the clinical management of atopic dermatitis patients.

  11. Exploring health professionals' perspectives on factors affecting Iranian hospital efficiency and suggestions for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Hossein Haji Ali; Moss, John R; Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal

    2011-01-01

    While numerous studies have been undertaken in many developed countries and in a few developing countries, there has so far been no systematic attempt to identify factors affecting efficiency in the Iranian hospitals. This study was designed to elicit the perspectives of a group of health professionals and managers so as to analyse factors affecting the efficiency of hospitals owned by the Iranian Social Security Organization (SSO), which is the second largest institutional source of hospital care in that country. This study also aimed to identify actions that would improve efficiency. Using purposive sampling (to identify key informants), interviews with seventeen health professionals and hospital managers involved in the SSO health system were conducted. The respondents identified a number of organizational factors affecting efficiency, particularly the hospital budgeting and payment system used to fund physicians, and the lack of the managerial skills needed to manage complex facilities such as hospitals. The interviewees stressed the necessity for reforms of the regulatory framework to improve efficiency. A few participants recommended the concept of a funder-provider split. The results of this exploratory study have provided meaningful insight into Iranian health professionals views of factors affecting efficiency, and of possible remedial actions. It is expected that the findings will provide guidance for health policy makers and hospital managers in the Iranian SSO to analyse factors affecting efficiency and to identify remedial actions to improve efficiency. Hospitals in other developing countries may be affected by similar factors. PMID:20603856

  12. Innovation Barriers and Enablers that Affect Productivity in Uganda Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe, , and

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has of recent been blamed for lack of innovation. Lack of innovation in the industry is believed to be responsible for the decreasing or stagnant levels of productivity in comparison with other industries. This paper reviews the major barriers and enablers to innovation in general. Propositions were made about the factors that affect innovation in the construction industry which were then formulated into a questionnaire. A survey was made on building contractors in Uganda, a developing country, targeting those with financial strength, large in size, and with high capacity to carry out big projects. The identified factors were then ranked and correlated. The level of training in science, engineering and technical education, and the level of research and development at the industry level are looked at as the greatest innovation enablers in building that will drive forward labour productivity. The size of the domestic market and the level of security are the worst innovation barriers that lead to low productivity in the building industry in Uganda. Contractors, policy makers and the government should address the identified factors in order to improve productivity.

  13. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

  14. A spectroscopic study of factors affecting charge transfer at organo-metallic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of organic films produced by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique have become more widely known in the last few decades, as the variety of organic molecules suitable for this method of production has increased. One class of LB molecule receiving particular attention has been that of conjugated polymers. These organic materials exhibit an anisotropic semi-conductor like behavior along the polymer chain, making them suitable candidate materials for use in molecular electronic devices. However, the exact nature of multiple charge transport mechanisms is still an area worthy of investigation. Through the development in this work of a dosimetric device, suitable for the study of a number of different radiation types, several difficulties associated with the charge extraction from organic materials, by means of metallic electrodes, were clearly illustrated. Some of these problems were likely to have been caused by charge trapping within the film itself. However, it is the trapping at the boundary between the LB film and metallic electrode, where there is a mismatch in electronic energy levels, which has been the main investigation of this work. To that end a number of different spectroscopic investigations were undertaken in order to pinpoint various factors affecting the efficiency in the transport of charge across the interface region. Extensive low energy Positron Doppler Broadened Annihilation Spectroscopy (DBARS) measurements were made on 12-8 polydiacetylene and ?-tricosenoic acid LB films. The resulting analyses have allowed comparison of charge trapping within the different bulk films and also at the film to substrate interface. In addition to DBARS, Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopies have been used to investigate the factors affecting the carboxylic acid group at the head of the LB molecule and the role this plays in charge transport across the organo-metallic boundary. (author)

  15. Control and manipulation of factors affecting small ruminant reproductive performance in tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tropical areas, reproductive efficiency in small ruminants is affected by various factors, including season, rainfall, male effect, nutritional state or corporal condition (CC) and physiological factors such as post-partum interval, milk production, lactational stages and suckling. Animals with good CC show early puberty, shorter anoestrous periods and better response to male effect and synchronized treatment than animals with low CC; reproductive efficiency is increased by 33% in sheep with CC over 2 (on a scale of 0 to 5) and lambing is 20% lower in the dry than in the rainy season. These data suggest that seasonal sexual inhibition is not too deep in a tropical environment. The response to male effect is good in the different seasons but in animals with low CC this effect is not enough to compensate for the negative influence of undernutrition. Hormonal treatments are effective if animals have adequate CC but the cost is too high. In animals with low CC these treatments must be combined with nutritional flushing. Male introduction at the beginning or 48 h before the end of treatment improves efficiency. Oestrus-ovulation dissociation is observed in tropical sheep after hormonal synchronization and male introduction (9.3%); this is higher in animals with low CC (11.9 vs. 6.8%). Embryo mortality in synchronized goats was affected by nutritional state, being twice as frequent in goats with low CC (26.3 vs. 11.5%). In tropical conditions, appropriate use of male effect and CC can improve reproductive performance by strategic programming of breeding and parturition during the season with better conditions and pasture availability. (author). 35 refs, 8 tabs

  16. The Importance of Affective Factors in Self-Access Language Learning courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Valdivia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this short summary, we investigate the importance of learners’ emotional involvement in self-directed learning. We begin by briefly examining the literature related to affective factors in self-access language learning. We then describe two examples of institutions with self-access centres that place particular importance on affective factors in courses of self-directed study. The first example is in a university in Japan, where affective strategies are introduced through self-directed learning modules. The second example is in a university in Mexico, where educators are investigating how feelings about self-access language learning can change over time.

  17. Physicochemical factors affecting the spatial variance of monomethylmercury in artificial reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seam; Kim, Chan-Kook; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Younghee; Choi, Kyunghee; Han, Seunghee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify how hydrologic factors (e.g., rainfall, maximum depth, reservoir and catchment area, and water residence time) and water chemistry factors (e.g., conductivity, pH, suspended particulate matter, chlorophyll-a, dissolved organic carbon, and sulfate) interact to affect the spatial variance in monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentration in nine artificial reservoirs. We hypothesized that the MMHg concentration of reservoir water would be higher in eutrophic than in oligotrophic reservoirs because increased dissolved organic matter and sulfate in eutrophic reservoirs can promote in situ production of MMHg. Multiple tools, including Pearson correlation, a self-organizing map, and principal component analysis, were applied in the statistical modeling of Hg species. The results showed that rainfall amount and hydraulic residence time best explained the variance of dissolved Hg and dissolved MMHg in reservoir water. High precipitation events and residence time may mobilize Hg and MMHg in the catchment and reservoir sediment, respectively. On the contrary, algal biomass was a key predictor of the variance of the percentage fraction of unfiltered MMHg over unfiltered Hg (%MMHg). The creation of suboxic conditions and the supply of sulfate subsequent to the algal decomposition seemed to support enhanced %MMHg in the bloom reservoirs. Thus, the nutrient supply should be carefully managed to limit increases in the %MMHg/Hg of temperate reservoirs. PMID:26552526

  18. Investigating Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship in Agricultural Corporations of Shirvan and Chardavol Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatoon Vakili

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study is investigation of factors affecting development of entrepreneurship in agricultural corporations in Shirvan and Chardavol towns. In order to gain this goal, descriptive correlative research method was used. Statistics population consisted of all members of boards and CEOs of agricultural corporations (350 = N. Using Cochran's formula, 167 members were determined as samples. The sample was randomly determined. The research instrument was a questionnaire which its validity was confirmed by group of experts. To determine its reliability Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used (=0.872. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. In this study, entrepreneurship was measured by four factors of renewal, pioneer in change, risk taking and competitiveness. Results showed that mean score of total entrepreneurship in sample was 2.585 and most people (% 62.8 were placed in weak and too weak levels. Also, based on the results of one sample T-test, mean value of entrepreneurship in corporations was 2.585. This means that amount of entrepreneurship development in corporations is less than average level. Also by using multi-variable regression it was found that independent variables of education, stocks, entrepreneurship experience, income, and work experience have a positive impact on the dependent variable of entrepreneurship in agricultural production corporations.

  19. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is a radioactive waste vitrification facility composed of three main elements: the Salt Processing Cell, the Chemical Processing Cell, and Glass Melter Cell. Sodium tetraphenylborate will be used to precipitate cesium-137 from the tank farm salt waste. Bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors in conjunction with non-radioactive, simulated waste, have been utilized to study the processing of this material for future plant-scale radioactive operation. The hydrolysis is carried out with formic acid and copper(II) as catalyst to yield primarily benzene and boric acid. Kinetic data have suggested changes in operating parameters to improve the quality of the final products. This paper reports on several factors identified which affect the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid (PBA), the final phenyl-containing compound reacted to achieved complete hydrolysis of tetraphenylborate. These factors include the ratio of copper(II) to formic acid; the presence of nitrite ion, diphenylmercury, and complexing anions; as well as the nature of the purge gas used

  20. Factors Affecting Learners' Attention to Teacher Talk in Nine ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiqing

    2015-01-01

    With classroom observation and stimulated recall interviews as research instruments, the present study investigated some of the factors that affected learners' attention to teacher talk in nine English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms. The results revealed five such factors, namely, learners' self evaluation of their language knowledge, the…

  1. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning, Satisfaction, and Quality in the Online MBA: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastianelli, Rose; Swift, Caroline; Tamimi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how six factors related to content and interaction affect students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, and quality in online master of business administration (MBA) courses. They developed three scale items to measure each factor. Using survey data from MBA students at a private university, the authors estimated structural…

  2. An Exploratory Study of Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Sorting Techniques (Shell, Heap and Treap)

    CERN Document Server

    Folorunso, Olusegun; Salako, Oluwatimilehin

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of sorting techniques has a significant impact on the overall efficiency of a program. The efficiency of Shell, Heap and Treap sorting techniques in terms of both running time and memory usage was studied, experiments conducted and results subjected to factor analysis by SPSS. The study revealed the main factor affecting these sorting techniques was time taken to sort.

  3. Factors Affecting the Full Use of Library and Information Management Systems by Library Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skretas, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a general list of factors that affects and determines the full use of library information management systems (LIMS) by library staff. Design/methodology/approach: The factors, which were identified mainly during participation in the implementation of automation projects in Greece, are listed and briefly analysed in categories…

  4. Factors affecting the clearance and biodistribution of colloidal formulations for sentinel lymphnode detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: The overall objective of the study of which this forms a part is to explore the influence of changes in individual characteristics of radiocolloids on biodistribution and clearance. This specific study sets out to examine the role of particle size. Introduction: Identification of sentinel lymph nodes associated with lymphatic drainage from tumour sites is now established as a valuable tool in the management of some cancers. Design of radiopharmaceuticals for this application has not yet been optimised, since most are based on currently available products not originally intended for this purpose. Factors affecting the clearance and biodistribution of radiocolloids are generally identified as particle size, charge, particle number and surface properties. Few investigations have set out to identify the effect of varying single factors, with comparisons often being inappropriately made between totally different formulations. Preparation of materials differing only in particle size requires either the manufacture, from the same starting materials, of products having different particle size ranges, or else the fractionation of a polydisperse product into discreet size ranges. The latter approach was adopted. Methods: Two nanocolloidal human albumin (nhsa) colloids and a sulphur colloid (sc) were used. Colloids were fractionated using membrane filtration on polycarbonate filters. Characterisation was by gel chromatography and laser-light scattering. Biodistribution studies were performed after labelling with Tc-99m in a rabbit model, by monitoring clearance of a subcutaneous injection from a site just below the sternum. Results: nhsa(1) was found to be monodisperse, containing particles of 20-30 nm. Fractionation was not practicable. nhsa(2) was larger with most of the particles being between 30 and 50 nm. Again fractionation was not possible. Sulphur colloid showed radioactivity associated with two major fractions comprising particles >400 nm in diameter, and <100 nm in diameter (mostly of 75 nm). To date, rabbit studies have been performed on the two nhsa products. No significant differences in clearance rates have been demonstrated. Conclusions: Gel filtration can be used to identify the polydisperse nature of radiocolloids. Membrane filtration is a practical method of producing discreet particle populations of chemically similar products. The sensitivity of the rabbit model to changes in particle size alone is as yet uncertain. There remains an important need for further understanding of these materials in order to standardise clinical procedures

  5. Factors Affecting Tourist Satisfaction: An Empirical Study in the Northern Part of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suanmali Suthathip

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, the ASEAN Economics Community (AEC will be fully implemented, and, to pave the way for Thailand to be the tourism hub of Southeast Asia, it is important to study factors affecting tourist satisfaction. The emphasis of this study is on a northern province in Thailand, Chiang Mai, where there are many natural and cultural attractions. The significant factors are identified using statistical techniques. The data is obtained from a satisfaction survey as it was developed and distributed randomly to foreign tourists who visit Chiang Mai. The quantitative data is then analyzed using factor analysis and multiple regression analysis to identify significant factors. The result indicates that the most significant factor affecting the overall satisfaction is the cost of staying, and other significant factors are hospitality, attractions and accessibility, and infrastructure. In addition, policy recommendations are presented in the paper.

  6. Factors Affecting in vitro Culture of Goat Embryos with Special Reference to ICSI-derived Oocytes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant developments have been achieved in assisted reproductive technology during the last two decades to boost livestock production. In vitro production of embryos is currently the central focus of these modern ARTs in livestock industry including goat industry. For any successful IVP program, in vitro culture (IVC of fertilized oocytes or embryos is very critical stage. An optimum environment in IVC medium which mimics the uterine environment is necessary for the proper growth and development of intreacyto plasmic spream injechlan on ICSI-derived goat embryos in vitro. The success of IVC depends on the various factors such as osmolarity and ionic composition, temperature, pH and CO2, oxygen, carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids and fatty acids, proteins, growth factors and cytokines, etc. Any deviation from the appropriate environment could lead to embryonic arrest at any stage of development. This review describes the factors affecting growth and development of ICSI-derived goat embryos in IVC medium.

  7. Factors affecting long-term integrity of transmission pipelines; Facteurs affectant l'integrite a long terme des gazoducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, N.; Masuda, T.; Oguchi, N. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    For upgrading long-term integrity of transmission pipelines, two types of delayed fracture in regions of mechanical damage in pipelines were investigated. Experimental and numerical studies clarified factors affecting the fatigue behavior of line pipes containing an idealized flaw under fluctuating internal pressure. To investigate fatigue cracking at mechanical damage in pipelines, degradation of fracture toughness and fatigue properties due to plastic pre-strain was also evaluated. A fracture mechanics-based study revealed conditions necessarily for initiation of hydrogen stress cracking (HSC) at a surface defect in line pipes under cathodic protection. (authors)

  8. Factors That Affect Tax Compliance among Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in North Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ojochogwu Winnie Atawodi; Stephen Aanu Ojeka

    2012-01-01

    Tax is an important stream of revenue for government’s development projects. However, tax compliance amongSMEs is poor. Therefore, this study was conducted using SMEs in Zaria, North-Central Nigeria to evaluate andrank the factors that encourage non-compliance with tax obligation by SMEs. It was found that high tax rates andcomplex filing procedures are the most crucial factors causing non-compliance of SMEs. Other factors likemultiple taxation and lack of proper enlightenment affect tax comp...

  9. A proposed instrument to measure organisational-based factors affecting corporate entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Oosthuizen, J.H.; Van der Merwe, Stephanus Petrus

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an instrument to measure the organisational-based factors affecting corporate entrepreneurship. Structured questionnaires were administered to managers and 561 fully completed questionnaires were gathered at 20 large organisations. Construct validity of the measuring instrument was assessed by means of a principal component exploratory factor analysis and by calculating Cronbach alpha coefficients. In this study six factors describing the theoretica...

  10. Identifying the Factors that Affect the Financial Sustainability in Balochistan Province of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    This study defines the factors affecting the financial sustainability in province of Balochistan. This research also describes that the financial sustainability in Balochistan is influenced by multiple diverse macro and micro level factors those create barriers and obstacles for development of province. These factors include political instability, poor infrastructure, poor quality of education, poor governance practices, law & order situation and corruption. This research was conducted to fin...

  11. Factors affecting the decision making of out-sourcing in textile in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms. Amber

    2010-01-01

    This research provided the study of importance of factors affecting the decision making of out-sourcing & supplier performance in Textiles domain. The textile market of USA is the scope of this research. The basis of this study allowed comprehending the importance / weight of factors of out-sourcing (including Delivery, Flexibility, Cost, Quality & Reliability) varied according to the buyers needs. Buyer’s needs some factors were high weight / importance for one buyer and at the same time the...

  12. Risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Kerman, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri-Najand, Ladan; Rezaii, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Milk is often described as a complete food because it contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, and minerals. This study was performed to investigate risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. According to the following conducted experiments, the milk was divided into two standard and non-standard groups. Then, effect of risk factors on making the samples non-standard was studied. Risk factors such as type of milk delivery unit, distance of cattle farm from p...

  13. Factors Affecting the Provision of Quality Service in Real Estate Agency in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Funmilayo Moyinola Araloyin; OJO Olatoye

    2011-01-01

    Real estate firms attempting to increase and retain their customers need to know the factors contributing to customers’ satisfaction and retention. This study investigate into real estate agency market with the purposes of identifying factors that affect quality in service provision and possible factors contributing to customers’ satisfaction and retention in real estate agency. This study uses survey questionnaires to obtain information from real estate consumers. This sample siz...

  14. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  15. An Analysis of Factors Affecting on Online Shopping Behavior of Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hossein Moshrefjavadi; Hossein Rezaie Dolatabadi; Mojtaba Nourbakhsh; Amir Poursaeedi; Ahmadreza Asadollahi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze factors affecting on online shopping behavior of consumers that might be one of the most important issues of e-commerce and marketing field. However, there is very limited knowledge about online consumer behavior because it is a complicated socio-technical phenomenon and involves too many factors. One of the objectives of this study is covering the shortcomings of previous studies that didn't examine main factors that influence on online shopping behavi...

  16. Factors affecting intake by grazing ruminants and related quantification methods: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Stilmant D.; Decruyenaere V.; Buldgen A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss the factors affecting intake of grazing ruminants and its main quantification methods. Level of intake depends on many factors linked, for instance to the gut capacity, to the animal’s requirements covering, or to the forage quality. The post-ingestive feedback of the intake, the morphological characteristics of grazed plants and the environment such as climate, characteristics of feed resources, are also factors of interest to explain some intake variatio...

  17. Factores que Afectan la Producción y Composición de la Leche de Cabra: Revisión Bibliográfica Factors that Affect Yield and Composition of Goat Milk: A Bibliographic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salvador

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre los diversos factores que afectan la producción y composición de la leche de cabra, estructurándose el trabajo en factores intrínsecos o propios del animal y factores extrínsecos. Los factores intrínsecos se clasificaron en genéticos, tomando en consideración la diferencia en producción y composición de la leche entre grupos o razas y los diferentes polimorfismos que afectan las fracciones proteicas de la leche; y factores no genéticos tales como edad o número de partos, estado de la lactancia, tipo de parto, duración del periodo seco previo, talla corporal, y características reproductivas como el ciclo estral y la preñez. Entre los factores extrínsecos se encuentran el efecto de la época y año de parto, las prácticas de ordeño tomando en consideración el ordeño mecánico, la duración del intervalo entre ordeños, duración del ordeño, frecuencia de ordeño y ordeño a fondo; el efecto del ejercicio, los cambios en la composición por efecto del procesamiento de la leche para la conservación o producción de queso, el efecto de la salud de la ubre y por último, el efecto de la nutrición y la alimentación. Se constató la necesidad de investigar más estos factores a nivel tropical, utilizando grupos genéticos mestizos que conforman la mayoría de los rebaños en estas zonasA review of the literature on several factors that affect the production and composition of goat milk was done. The search was based on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The intrinsic factors involved were classified as: genetic, taking into consideration the difference in milk production and composition among breeds and groups as well as the different polymorphisms that affect milk’s protein fractions; and non-genetic factors such as: age, number of parturitions, lactation stage, type of kidding, duration of previous dry period, body size and reproductive status, such as estrous cycle and pregnancy. The extrinsic factors examined were: effect and year of parturition, milking practices, with special emphasis on mechanical milking, milking duration, milking frequency, interval between milking duration, thorough milking; effect of exercise, changes in milk composition due to its processing for the conservation or production of cheese, effect of udder health and, finally, effect of nutrition and feeding. The results of the review show the need for further research of the above mentioned factors in tropical conditions using genetic crossbred groups which comprise most of the herd of these regions

  18. Factores que Afectan la Producción y Composición de la Leche de Cabra: Revisión Bibliográfica / Factors that Affect Yield and Composition of Goat Milk: A Bibliographic Review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro, Salvador; Gonzalo, Martínez.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre los diversos factores que afectan la producción y composición de la leche de cabra, estructurándose el trabajo en factores intrínsecos o propios del animal y factores extrínsecos. Los factores intrínsecos se clasificaron en genéticos, tomando en considerac [...] ión la diferencia en producción y composición de la leche entre grupos o razas y los diferentes polimorfismos que afectan las fracciones proteicas de la leche; y factores no genéticos tales como edad o número de partos, estado de la lactancia, tipo de parto, duración del periodo seco previo, talla corporal, y características reproductivas como el ciclo estral y la preñez. Entre los factores extrínsecos se encuentran el efecto de la época y año de parto, las prácticas de ordeño tomando en consideración el ordeño mecánico, la duración del intervalo entre ordeños, duración del ordeño, frecuencia de ordeño y ordeño a fondo; el efecto del ejercicio, los cambios en la composición por efecto del procesamiento de la leche para la conservación o producción de queso, el efecto de la salud de la ubre y por último, el efecto de la nutrición y la alimentación. Se constató la necesidad de investigar más estos factores a nivel tropical, utilizando grupos genéticos mestizos que conforman la mayoría de los rebaños en estas zonas Abstract in english A review of the literature on several factors that affect the production and composition of goat milk was done. The search was based on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The intrinsic factors involved were classified as: genetic, taking into consideration the difference in milk production and co [...] mposition among breeds and groups as well as the different polymorphisms that affect milk’s protein fractions; and non-genetic factors such as: age, number of parturitions, lactation stage, type of kidding, duration of previous dry period, body size and reproductive status, such as estrous cycle and pregnancy. The extrinsic factors examined were: effect and year of parturition, milking practices, with special emphasis on mechanical milking, milking duration, milking frequency, interval between milking duration, thorough milking; effect of exercise, changes in milk composition due to its processing for the conservation or production of cheese, effect of udder health and, finally, effect of nutrition and feeding. The results of the review show the need for further research of the above mentioned factors in tropical conditions using genetic crossbred groups which comprise most of the herd of these regions

  19. Anticoagulant factor V: factors affecting the integration of novel scientific discoveries into the broader framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBonte, Michelle L

    2014-09-01

    Since its initial discovery in the 1940s, factor V has long been viewed as an important procoagulant protein in the coagulation cascade. However, in the later part of the 20th century, two different scientists proposed novel anticoagulant roles for factor V. Philip Majerus proposed the first anticoagulant function for factor V in 1983, yet ultimately it was not widely accepted by the broader scientific community. In contrast, Björn Dahlbäck proposed a different anticoagulant role for factor V in 1994. While this role was initially contested, it was ultimately accepted and integrated into the scientific framework. In this paper, I present a detailed historical account of these two anticoagulant discoveries and propose three key reasons why Dahlbäck's anticoagulant role for factor V was accepted whereas Majerus' proposed role was largely overlooked. Perhaps most importantly, Dahlbäck's proposed anticoagulant role was of great clinical interest because the discovery involved the study of an important subset of patients with thrombophilia. Soon after Dahlbäck's 1994 work, this patient population was shown to possess the factor V Leiden mutation. Also key in the ultimate acceptance of the second proposed anticoagulant role was the persistence of the scientist who made the discovery and the interest in and ability of others to replicate and reinforce this work. This analysis of two different yet similar discoveries sheds light on factors that play an important role in how new discoveries are incorporated into the existing scientific framework. PMID:24853975

  20. The endocrine interface of environmental and egg factors affecting chick quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V

    2007-05-01

    Day-old chicks are the endproduct of the hatchery industry and form important starting material for the broiler farms. The major objective is to obtain a high hatchability of marketable chicks and a low spread of hatch. For the farmers, these chicks have to perform well, which is translated in high viability, high growth rate, high breast meat yield, and low feed conversion. A good-quality 1-d-old chick is hence a crucial hinge between the hatchery and the broiler farm. Moreover, maximal hatchability is not always synonymous with maximal posthatch viability and growth potential of the chick. Quantitative and qualitative scoring of chick quality is assessed. We will briefly discuss some recently developed scoring systems, which will convert differences in qualitative parameters into a quantitative score. Preincubation factors such as egg storage duration and age of broiler breeders, as well as incubation conditions, affect day-old chick quality and subsequent broiler performance. Heat production and metabolism, hormonal balances of thyroid hormones and corticosterone, and gas exchange (O(2), CO(2)) are of fundamental importance for embryonic development and survival during incubation. Results from our studies indicated that embryos with higher pCO(2) levels in the air cell and higher triiodothyronine-thyroxine ratios at internal pipping or in the newly hatched chicks had higher hatchability, chick quality, and posthatch chick growth until 7 d of age. Incubation factors such as temperature, turning conditions, or gaseous environment also affect development, change concentrations of hormones related to metabolism and growth of the embryo, and in this way affect 1-d-old chick quality. Moreover, the spread of the hatch process is affected by incubation conditions as well as by the aforementioned preincubation factors. Depending on the spread of the hatching curve together with the place in the sequence of hatching (early or late) and in interaction with quality of the eggs set for incubation, storage duration, and age of breeders, there will be a period between hatch and first feeding of variable length. This may have repercussions on overall growth and many related physiological processes such as yolk uptake, metabolic level, and gastrointestinal development. In its turn, time of first feeding is related to some crucial hormone levels and enzyme activities for growth that are strongly influenced by posthatch food intake such as insulin and p70S6 kinase activity, a key enzyme in the control of protein synthesis. The magnitude of the effect of delayed feeding is dependent on the spread of hatching as well as on the hatching period within the hatching window. This may be related to the different intrinsic quality or characteristics of chicks, e.g., early vs. late hatchers, as is shown by their respective hormonal levels. The latter may be a causal factor for the actual hatching time within the hatching window as well as for the later intrinsic quality of the hatched chick, which is not reflected in any of the actual scoring systems for chick quality. This is largely ignored in previous studies and in hatchery practice so far. PMID:17435044