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1

Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

Adnan Nazir

2013-05-01

2

Factors affecting productive efficiency in primary care clinics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines factors affecting the productive efficiency of primary care clinics. The empirical analysis uses a single-stage stochastic frontier regression model, in which factors affecting productive efficiency are specified as part of the inefficiency error component and estimated simultaneously with the production function. The study population includes primary care clinics in the US Military Health System from 1999 through 2003; the analytical data set is an unbalanced panel of 442 observations. The study's main results were that primary care clinics not associated with medical centres had significantly higher levels of productive efficiency than those associated with medical centres and that having proportionately more civilian staff (and thus less turnover) had a positive impact on productive efficiency. Due to their nature, these findings would be expected to also be applicable to the production of primary care in other settings. A key implication of the results is that improvements in productive efficiency should be a top priority, given the possibility for providing more primary care visits without increases in cost. PMID:18275665

Schmacker, Eric R; McKay, Niccie L

2008-02-01

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Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

Sohail, Muhammad

2009-01-01

4

A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of management in the related periods. The results indicated that organizational factors have always been important for new product development process, which is in line with the nature of the innovation process. But the emphasis on internal factors has increased in the 21st century which is congruent with the change in management perspective foregrounding resource based view. The study differs from the similar literature review studies on the point that it deals with the topic from international marketing perspective. Therefore, R&D and other marketing studies are not included in the review and the study proposes the important factors from international firms’ point of view.

Eda Atilgan-Inan

2010-07-01

5

Factores grupales que inciden en la productividad / Group factors affecting productivity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las organizaciones en la actualidad están sometidas permanentemente a cambios acelerados, obligándolas a incrementar su flexibilidad y adaptabilidad para mantener su posición competitiva, sobrevivir a estas presiones lograr sus objetivos y ser más productivas. Por estas razones, la productividad del [...] factor humano es fundamental, ya que son las personas las que realizan los procesos creativos que generan resultados en las organizaciones. Cuando las personas interactúan en la organización se generan unos procesos de carácter psicosocial que incide en el desempeño de individuos, grupos y organización y se denominan Factores grupales, porque son producto de la actuación de las personas en grupos de trabajo. Dichos factores tienen impacto en la productividad, por lo que resulta de interés el estudio de estas relaciones. Con el fin de analizar este impacto, se presenta relaciones Factores Grupales-Productividad, mediante un Modelo de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM), donde los Factores Grupales y la Productividad son constructos o variables latentes explicadas por variables observables o indicadores. El modelo planteado, es aceptado de acuerdo con los índices globales de ajuste y a las cargas factoriales de las variables del modelo resultante. Se corroboró que los factores grupales, tales como Cohesión, Conflicto, Consenso y Moral, inciden en la productividad. Abstract in english Organizations today are undergoing rapid change permanently, forcing them to increase their flexibility and adaptability to stay competitive, to survive these pressures, achieve their goals and be more productive. For these reasons, the productivity of the human factor is critical because it is the [...] people doing the creative processes those results in organizations. When people interact in the organization are a generated psychosocial process that affects the performance of individuals, groups and organization and are called group factors, because they are the product of individual behavior in work groups. These factors have an impact on productivity, so it is interesting to study these relationships. To analyze this impact is presented group factors-productivity relationships through a Structural Equation Model (SEM), where the group factors and productivity are constructs or latent variables explained by observable variables or indicators. The proposed model is accepted in accordance with the global fit indices and factor loadings of the variables of the resulting model. It was confirmed that the group factors, such as Cohesion, Conflict, Consensus and Moral affect productivity.

Cequea, Mirza Marvel; Miguel, Núñez Bottini; Carlos, Rodríguez-Monroy.

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An important affecting factor in biodiesel production : intensity of mixing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2003, the Worldwide Fuel Charter recommended a blend of 5 per cent biodiesel in petroleum diesel fuel in recognition of biodiesel's significantly lower exhaust emissions. This paper examines physical factors in the mixing of neat canola oil for biodiesel production, concluding that an increased knowledge of the mixing can influence the transesterification process. Mixing is an important element in optimising reaction conditions, process design and kinetics. The effects of stirring speeds in the initial and latter stages of reaction are documented, with results suggesting that the enhancement of mixing intensity in initial stages dramatically accelerate transesterification reaction. Mixing intensity in the latter stages had no effects, indicating that high mixing intensity in initial stages and low mixing in subsequent stages accelerate alkali-catalyzed transesterification lipids. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

Yan, G.; Leung, D.Y.C. [Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2004-08-01

7

Factors Affecting the Production of Vietnamese Tones: A Study of American Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates factors that affect the accuracy of tone production by American students of Vietnamese as a second language (L2). Nine hypotheses are examined, each of which isolates a factor expected to affect production accuracy: (a) task type, (b) the position of a tone in a clause, (c) discourse distance between a model provided by a…

Nguyen, Hanh thi; Macken, Marlys A.

2008-01-01

8

Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study  

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Full Text Available This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as an elite set. The results show that three factors increase both the research productivity and the quality of the articles published by professors of a POM group. These factors are (a the presence of a POM research center, (b funding received from external sources for research purposes, and (c better library facilities. Doctoral students do assist in improving research quality and productivity, but they are not the driving force. These results have important implications for establishing policy guidelines for business schools. For example, real-world problems are funded by external sources and have a higher probability of publication. Furthermore, schools could place more emphasis on external funding, as most engineering schools do, since groups receiving external funding are more productive in terms of research.

Andreas C. Soteriou

2006-05-01

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Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as an elite set. The results show that three factors increase both the research productivity and the quality of the articles published by professors of a POM group. These factors are (a the presence of a POM research center, (b funding received from external sources for research purposes, and (c better library facilities. Doctoral students do assist in improving research quality and productivity, but they are not the driving force. These results have important implications for establishing policy guidelines for business schools. For example, real-world problems are funded by external sources and have a higher probability of publication. Furthermore, schools could place more emphasis on external funding, as most engineering schools do, since groups receiving external funding are more productive in terms of research.

2006-01-01

10

Factors Affecting the Specific Productivity of Pichia pastoris  

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Pichia pastoris has become one of the most popular recombinant protein expression platforms, despite the lack of understanding into the fundamentals of protein expression. Whilst P. pastoris exhibits high volumetric productivity, it has a low specific productivity, which can be further reduced by protein-specific problems. This thesis employs several strategies commonly used to increase specific productivity, and assesses their impact on the productivity and cell biology of P. pastoris.

2013-01-01

11

Identifying key factors affecting success in international food product markets  

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This study explores globalisation of food and drink product markets at the end of the millennium. It is divided into two main parts: the first analyses international food product markets at the aggregate level, and the other deals with the management of international food product trade at the company level. International trade in consumer-oriented food and drink items is today the main driver of worldwide agricultural trade, however no complete theoretical framework exists to explain this kin...

Fischer, Christian

2002-01-01

12

Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly

1984-01-01

13

Some factors affecting tannase production by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english One variable at a time procedure was used to evaluate the effect of qualitative variables on the production of tannase from Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem. These variables including: fermentation technique, agitation condition, tannins source, adding carbohydrates incorporation with tannic acid, nitr [...] ogen source type and divalent cations. Submerged fermentation under intermittent shaking gave the highest total tannase activity. Maximum extracellular tannase activity (305 units/ 50 mL) was attained in medium containing tannic acid as tannins source and sodium nitrate as nitrogen source at 30 ºC for 96 h. All added carbohydrates showed significant adverse effects on the production of tannase. All tested divalent cations significantly decreased tannase production. Moreover, split plot design was carried out to study the effect of fermentation temperature and fermentation time on tannase production. The results indicated maximum tannase production (312.7 units/50 mL) at 35 ºC for 96 h. In other words, increasing fermentation temperature from 30 ºC to 35 ºC resulted in increasing tannase production.

Hamada A., Aboubakr; Malak A., El-Sahn; Amr A., El-Banna.

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Affecting the Choice Factors of Fishery Products Consumption in Turkey  

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This study examines fish consumption behavior patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of choosing factors in determining food pattern of Turkish people. A total of 666 surveys in all around Turkey responded to a self-administered questionnaire about seafood consumption habits, past frequency of seafood consumption, attitude towards and intention to eat seafood. In this research some prompts were used such as health, taste, availability, versatility, the components of a ...

Saygi Hulya; Hekimoglu Muge Aliye

2011-01-01

15

Affecting the Choice Factors of Fishery Products Consumption in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines fish consumption behavior patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of choosing factors in determining food pattern of Turkish people. A total of 666 surveys in all around Turkey responded to a self-administered questionnaire about seafood consumption habits, past frequency of seafood consumption, attitude towards and intention to eat seafood. In this research some prompts were used such as health, taste, availability, versatility, the components of a good family meal, value for money and alternatives to red meat.

Hekimoglu Muge Aliye

2011-01-01

16

Study of some factors affecting potato microtuber production in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of variety, growth regulators, sucrose, and low doses of gamma irradiation on the production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) microtubers in vitro were investigated. Nodal segments from virus free explants of 3 potato varieties were placed on six different media and irradiated with 4 doses of gamma radiation (2.5, 5, 10, 15 Gy).Potato varieties used in the study differed in their ability to produce microtubers. Variety Diamant was the best in microtuber production followed by Draga and Spunta. Kinetin played a significant role in inducing tuberization in vitro especially at a concentration of 4 mg-1. Tuberization was also enhanced by sucrose especially when its level was increased from 3% to 6%. Irradiating the explants with 2.5 Gy of gamma radiation leads to a significant increase in number of microtubers (34% increase over the control). Weight of microtubers was not significantly influenced by low doses of gamma irradiation or media components. Draga microtubers were the largest followed by Diamant and Spunta. Microtubers resembled mature tubers in shape (Spunta was elongated and Draga and Diamant were round). Size of microtubers was crucial for sprouting in vivo. It is suggested that only microtubers larger than 250 mg (5 mm in diameter) can be used to produce minitubers in vivo. Since 2.5 Gy is a low dose, it can be used to enhance tuberization in vitro without fear of genetic changes in the used varieties. (author)

2000-01-01

17

Factors affecting future crude oil production in South East Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the face of booming regional demand, crude oil production in the South East Asian region will decline from a 1996 peak of 5.7 million barrels a day to 3.5 million barrels a day in 2005 unless major new exploration investments are undertaken. The current fiscal terms for such investment will not attract continued significant funds to the region given the low crude price outlook, tough competitive global environment for the upstream industry, and the emergence of more attractive fiscal terms in politically and commercially stable countries with proven prospectivity. There is evidence from the emerging trend toward fiscal terms softening and differentiation around risk in some countries, that the commercial reality is becoming accepted. It remains to be seen if the various national political, bureaucratic and industry constituencies guiding these decisions within the region can respond decisively to mitigate the growing crude import dependency. (author). 2 tabs

1996-02-06

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Ranking factors affecting the productivity of human resources using MADM techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For improving and efficient uses of various resources such as labor, capital, materials, energy and information, productivity is the purpose of all economic and industrial organizations and service enterprises. The human factor is the main strategic resource and the realization axis of productivity for each type of organization. Therefore the factors affecting the productivity, depends on suitable conditions for labor. This study is performed to identification and prioritization the factors a...

2012-01-01

19

Applying total interpretive structural modeling to study factors affecting construction labour productivity  

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Full Text Available Construction sector has always been dependent on manpower. Most of the activities carried out on any construction site are labour intensive. Since productivity of any project depends directly on productivity of labour, it is a prime responsibility of the employer to enhance labour productivity. Measures to improve the same depend on analysis of positive and negative factors affecting productivity. Major attention should be given to factors that decrease the productivity of labour. Factor analysis thus is an integral part of any study aiming to improve productivity.  Interpretive structural modeling is a methodology for identifying and summarizing relationships among factors which define an issue or problem. It provides a means to arrange the factors in an order as per their complexity. This study attempts to use the latest version of interpretive structural modeling i.e. total interpretive structural modeling to analyze factors negatively affecting construction labour productivity. It establishes interpretive relationship among these factors facilitating improvement in the overall productivity of construction site.

Sayali Shrikrishna Sandbhor

2014-03-01

20

Analysis of Key Factors Affecting Ethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFST-072011  

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Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is affected not only by fermentation conditions (temperature, pH and sugar concentration) but also by the intrinsic factors e.g., culture medium, dissolved O2, immobilization and other micronutrients. In order to investigate the influence of key factors on ethanol production by S. cerevisiae, a laboratory strain S. cerevisiae IFST-072011 was used in this study. Several fermentation runs were carried out varyi...

Md. Fakruddin; Md. Abdul Quayum; Monzur Morshed Ahmed; Naiyyum Choudhury

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Factors affecting phaeomelanin production by a melanin-producing (mel) mutant of Vibrio cholerae.  

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In a previous study we isolated melanin-producing (mel) mutants of Vibrio cholerae and demonstrated that production of melanin during growth on solid media was stimulated by L-tyrosine and L-cysteine. In the studies reported here we analyzed factors that affected melanin production in liquid media and determined the abilities of radioactively labeled amino acids to serve as precursors for the formation of melanin by V. cholerae. Radioactivity from L-cysteine and from L-tyrosine was preferenti...

Ivins, B. E.; Holmes, R. K.

1981-01-01

22

Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text books and factory publications. The target population was over 700,000 small-scale coffee producers in Kenya out of which the accessible population of 10,000 producers drawn from Githunguri District in Kiambu County was selected which a sample size of 120 respondents was sampled. Stratified sampling technique was employed to compare views among coffee producers from the various coffee societies in the area. Data analysis was both qualitative and quantitative using descriptive statistics. Data presentation was in form of tables to help interpret findings and generate conclusions that aided solutions to identified problems. The research established that marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources greatly affected coffee production. The study recommended that the government should encourage coffee production by formulating favorable marketing factors and other policies and provide finances to small scale coffee producers. Producers on the other hand should strive to provide conducive working environment to their workers so as to sustain them in their farms. This will help to improve coffee yields and quality.

Margaret Njeri Gathura

2013-09-01

23

Factors affecting remote handling productivity during installation of the ITER-like wall at JET  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? The paper describes the challenges to achieve the installation of the ILW beryllium sliced wall. ? Examines the factual difference between estimated remote handling in-vessel durations and those achieved, with a view to quantifying the typical disparity between the two. ? The paper will elaborate and highlight the contributing factors. This offers an opportunity to provide provenance for availability estimates of devices such as ITER and DEMO. ? The paper will identify and describe the factors influencing the ratio between estimated versus the actual durations for remote handling operations. -- Abstract: Remote handling operations at JET have encountered many challenges to achieve the installation of the ILW beryllium sliced wall during the Enhanced Performance stage 2 (EP2) shutdown of JET. This was a demanding and challenging activity which was based on the experience gained from a period of over 15 years (20,000 h operations) of JET In-Vessel remote handling operations. This paper describes the difference between estimated remote handling in-vessel durations and those actually achieved with a view to quantifying the typical disparity between them. There are many factors that affect productivity of the remote handling operations and it is important to accommodate these either in the design of the component or within the production of the operational procedures with a view to minimise all impact on the final task duration. Some factors that affect the efficiency are outside the control of the design and operational procedures. These are unforeseen anomalies that were encountered during the removal, naked wall survey and installation of the components. Recoveries from these anomalies are extremely challenging and need to be addressed efficiently in order to minimise the impact on the shutdown duration and prevent optimised panned activities from becoming inefficient by fragmentation.

Collins, S., E-mail: steve.collins@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Matthews, G.; Thomas, J.; Hermon, G. [CCFE EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

2013-10-15

24

Cassava sector development in Cameroon: Production and marketing factors affecting price  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Regular and available supply is the prerequisite of an effective and efficient commercialization process. Using multivariate regression analysis on field data, this research appraises the production and marketing factors that influence cassava market price. The production factors include cultivated area, planting material, yield, and farmers’ field schools; while farmers access to a paved road, having a telephone, the transportation costs of fresh roots, the level of root perishability, and the prices of rice and maize stand as marketing factors. The results show that farmers who attended farmers’ field school adopted improved planting materials, propagated them in their localities and the yields in these communities increased significantly. The farm size also has a significant influence on the availability of fresh roots. On the marketing side, transportation costs, access to a paved road, the prices of rice and maize significantly affect cassava’s market price and tighten the relationship between producers and marketers. We conclude that to increase fresh roots supply, roads leading to cultivating areas should be paved, better transportation provided, communication costs reduced, even distribution of planting materials and appropriate warehouses.

Elise Stephanie Meyo Mvodo

2012-09-01

25

Factors Affecting Egg Production in Broiler Breeders from Start to Peak of Production  

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A study was conducted to determine the effect of environment, nutrition and management on egg production of broiler breeders from start to peak of production. Rearing and production records of 11 Arian broiler breeder flocks, in 3 farms between 1993 and 2000, including age of broiler breeder, age of maturity, flock number, farm number, density, feeder space/hen, body weight at 20, 22 and 24 weeks, protein and energy intake/day and week, cumulative feed intake in each age, weekly body weight, ...

Elahi Torshizi, M.; Eftekhari Shahroudi, F.; Kermanshahi, H.

2008-01-01

26

Factors Affecting Knowledge Production in Open and Distance Learning in Zimbabwe. Case of Zimbabwe Open University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zimbabwe Open University has been in existence for over a decade and is the only institution offering open and distance learning in Zimbabwe. The institution when it started had the highest enrolment which was higher than four conventional state universities combined. Currently the university is on the enrolment decline. This is contrary to the fact that distance education is spreading to almost all areas of education and training worldwide. It is also against the background that the Government is channeling many resources towards the establishment of a fully integrated distance learning system which involves the development of course materials and providing student support and instruction. This exhibits negative forces acting against knowledge production as less and fewer graduates are produced. Therefore the purpose of this paper was be to examine the key factors affecting open and distance learning in Zimbabwe. A descriptive survey design was adopted in form of a structured questionnaire which was used to collect data from 70 undergraduates, and 20 students post graduates. Also an interview guide was developed to carry out interviews to 10 staff members consisting of 2 Regional Directors, 2 Regional administrators, and 6 lecturers. Descriptive statistical analysis was a basic one which involves finding frequency of factors and converts them to percentages. This method was able to reduce lots of data into simpler summaries to present easily.

Tawanda Dzama

2012-11-01

27

Factors Affecting Alternate Rice-Fish Production of Mymensingh District in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cobb-Douglas production function has been used to measure the effect of various factors on alternate rice-fish production. The chosen factors were of fingerlings cost, cost of cow dung, cost of rice bran, cost of oil cake, cost of lime, cost of urea cost of human labour and cost of netting for fish production and for rice production the factors were human labour, animal labour. Cow dung, urea, TSP, MP, seed and irrigation cost. It was found that except cost of rice bran and lime for fish prod...

Rabbani M.G.; Hossain, M. I.; Islam, M. S.; Hossain, T. M. B.; Mannan, M. A.

2004-01-01

28

Optimization of factors affecting the production of biodiesel from crude palm kernel oil and ethanol  

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Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, studies on the sources of biodiesel and their properties as a substitute for fossil diesel have tended to be limited to Jatropha oil. This paper, however, reports the parameters that influences the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil, one of the vegetable oils obtained from oil palm which is the highest vegetable oil source in Ghana. The parameters studied are; mass ratio of ethanol to oil, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and reaction time using completely randomized 24 factorial design. Results indicated that ethanol to oil mass ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time were the most important factors affecting the ethyl ester yield. There was also an interaction effect between catalyst and time and ethanol- oil ratio and time on the yield. Accordingly, the optimal conditions for the production of ethyl esters from crude palm kernel oil were determined as; 1:5 mass ratio of ethanol to oil, 1% catalyst concentration by weight of oil, 90 minutes reaction time at a temperature of 30 oC.

David K. Kuwornoo, Julius C. Ahiekpor

2010-07-01

29

THE TAGUCHI APPROACH IN OPTIMIZING ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTIVITY IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the dominance effects of environmental factors such as illuminance, humidity and WBGT on operators’ productivity in the Malaysian automotive industry. A case study was carried out at an automotive components assembly factory. The environmental factors examined were the illuminance (lux, humidity and WBGT of the surrounding workstation area. Two sets of representative data including the illuminance, humidity and WBGT level and production rate were collected during the study. The production rate data were collected through observations and survey questionnaires while the illuminance level was measured using photometer model RS 180-7133, and the humidity and WBGT level were measured by using Quest Temp apparatus and humidity. The Taguchi method was utilized to find the sequence of dominant factors that contributed to the productivity of the operator at that specified production workstation. The study reveals that the dominant factor that contributed to the productivity was humidity, followed by illuminance and WBGT.

M.N.A. Rahman

2011-06-01

30

Advanced Glycation End-Products affect transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) are generated by the covalent interaction of reducing sugars with proteins, lipids or nucleic acids. AGEs are implicated in diabetic complications and pancreatic {beta}-cell dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that exposure of the pancreatic islet cell line HIT-T15 to high concentrations of AGEs leads to a significant decrease of insulin secretion and content. Insulin gene transcription is positively regulated by the beta cell specific transcription factor PDX-1 (Pancreatic and Duodenal Homeobox-1). On the contrary, the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 inhibits PDX-1 gene transcription. Activity of FoxO1 is regulated by post-translational modifications: phosphorylation deactivates FoxO1, and acetylation prevents FoxO1 ubiquitination. In this work we investigated whether AGEs affect expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1 and FoxO1. HIT-T15 cells were cultured for 5 days in presence of AGEs. Cells were then lysed and processed for subcellular fractionation. We determined intracellular insulin content, then we assessed the expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1, FoxO1, phosphoFoxO1 and acetylFoxO1. As expected intracellular insulin content was lower in HIT-T15 cells cultured with AGEs. The results showed that AGEs decreased expression and nuclear localization of PDX-1, reduced phosphorylation of FoxO1, and increased expression and acetylation of FoxO1. These results suggest that AGEs decrease insulin content unbalancing transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression.

Puddu, A., E-mail: alep100@hotmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Viale Benedetto XV 6, 16132 Genova (Italy); Storace, D.; Odetti, P.; Viviani, G.L. [Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Viale Benedetto XV 6, 16132 Genova (Italy)

2010-04-23

31

Statistical analysis of factors affecting crop production in Navrongo, Tono irrigation dam a case study  

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This study identified the essential factors of production in the Tono irrigation dam of the Upper East Region. The accessibility and patronage of these factors by farmers in this area was studied and how they influence crop production in the Region. A total of two hundred questionnaires designed by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture for farmers in Navrongo were administered. A snowball sampling design was employed to identify farmers on these facilities in the study area. Pearson correlatio...

Jakperik, D.; Oduro, S.

2013-01-01

32

Cassava sector development in Cameroon: Production and marketing factors affecting price  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Regular and available supply is the prerequisite of an effective and efficient commercialization process. Using multivariate regression analysis on field data, this research appraises the production and marketing factors that influence cassava market price. The production factors include cultivated area, planting material, yield, and farmers’ field schools; while farmers access to a paved road, having a telephone, the transportation costs of fresh roots, the level of root perishability, and...

Elise Stephanie Meyo Mvodo; Dapeng Liang

2012-01-01

33

Analyzing factors Affecting Consumers’ Attitude & Intention to Purchase Counterfeit products of luxury Brands In clothing Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit products & then the impact of attitude toward counterfeit products on intention to buy such products have been measured. The study method is a Survey type & in order to collect study data, a questionnaire designed with a combination of different available resources in literature has been used. To achieve the study goals, 384 individuals who purchased counterfeit products intentionally were chosen from Sari. To analyze data & test hypotheses, Study model & questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient tests, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM, Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA & one-way Variance analysis (ANONA have been applied & two Software Packages SPSS & LISREL were used. Through reviewing the literature available & analyzing experts’ views, generally, 11 variables have been identified: Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Ethical Issues, Risk averseness, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, as the influencing factors on attitude toward counterfeit products. Study Findings have indicated that the factors as Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Ethical Issues, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, have meaningful effect on attitude to counterfeit products & the impact of Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Risk averseness, was not meaningfull on view about counterfeit products. Besides, the findings have shown that attitude toward counterfeit products has a meaningful effect on intention to purchase such products.

Abdolhamid Ebrahimi

2012-01-01

34

Factors Affecting Wound Healing  

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Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

Guo, S.; Dipietro, L. A.

2010-01-01

35

Analysis of the Factors Affecting Consumer’s Some Traditional Food Products Preferences by Multidimensional Scaling Method  

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The aim of this study is to evaluate consumer behaviour towards factors affecting purchase decision of some traditional food products and grouping those consumer attitudes. The original data was obtained from results of a survey conducted in 14 different districts in Tekirdag. The survey consisted of face-to-face interviews conducted within a total sample of 166 households randomly. In the study, multidimensional scaling analysis is used for evaluating the effective factors of consumer prefer...

2011-01-01

36

Factors affecting productivity and the role of customer relationship management: A case study of home appliance manufacturing  

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Full Text Available In today's competitive world, productivity- as a core source of production - is the most important target of the organization. Experimental studies in developed industrial countries prove that productivity improvements resulted from development of management systems play a more important role in production than physical increases in labor and capital factors. This paper, while focusing on productivity from a CRM perspective, employs a European Organizational Excellence Model framework to identify factors affecting productivity and the role of CRM systems. We perform an empirical study for a case study of home appliance manufacturing and using a questionnaire computed present status and compared with desired status of CRM components such as customer leadership, strategy, skill and motivation of labor work, effective use of information technology and process management.

Saeed Mirzamohammadi

2012-01-01

37

Environmental Factors Affecting Milk Production in the Holstein-Friesian Population of Zimbabwe  

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The milk production of a cow is a result of the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors. Lactation records for calvings from 1979 to 1998, from Zimbabwe Dairy services Association were used to estimate the effects of the non-genetic effects on milk production. The model fitted had the fixed effects of herd, season of calving, parity and days in milk. Herd effects were significant (< 0.001). The effect of herd was found to be ranging from 14 to 47% of the total variation in th...

Kunaka, K.; Makuza, S. M.

2005-01-01

38

Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism in order to (1 determine its maximum theoretical plasmid-producing capacity, and to (2 identify factors that significantly impact plasmid production. Results Such a model was developed for the production of a high copy plasmid under conditions of batch aerobic growth on glucose minimal medium. The objective of the model was to maximize plasmid production. By employing certain constraints and examining the resulting flux distributions, several factors were determined that significantly impact plasmid yield. Acetate production and constitutive expression of the plasmid's antibiotic resistance marker exert negative effects, while low pyruvate kinase (Pyk flux and the generation of NADPH by transhydrogenase activity offer positive effects. The highest theoretical yield (592 mg/g resulted under conditions of no marker or acetate production, nil Pyk flux, and the maximum allowable transhydrogenase activity. For comparison, when these four fluxes were constrained to wild-type values, yields on the order of tens of mg/g resulted, which are on par with the best experimental yields reported to date. Conclusion These results suggest that specific plasmid yields can theoretically reach 12 times their current experimental maximum (51 mg/g. Moreover, they imply that abolishing Pyk activity and/or transhydrogenase up-regulation would be useful strategies to implement when designing host strains for plasmid production; mutations that reduce acetate production would also be advantageous. The results further suggest that using some other means for plasmid selection than antibiotic resistance, or at least weakening the marker's expression, would be beneficial because it would allow more precursor metabolites, energy, and reducing power to be put toward plasmid production. Thus far, the impact of eliminating Pyk activity has been explored experimentally, with significantly higher plasmid yields resulting.

Cunningham Drew S

2009-05-01

39

PREDICTING OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR THE CHOICE OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS BY LOGIT REGRESSION ANALYSIS  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine consumer behavior towards organic products in Samsun city center and to determine the factors affacting their preferences of organic products. The study was interviewed with 478 consumers living the city center of Samsun. Ad?yaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, Y?l: 5, Say?: 10, Aral?k 2012130According of the findings, ease of accesibility of organic products, spouse’s educational level, paying extra for the organic produce, aware of food health benefits, considering the harmful effects of conventional produce, having complete knowledge of organic farming and one unit increase household number income to result increase consumption of organic produce. Consumers were not aware of the certification and control process. As a result, easy of accesibility of organic produces in the supermarkets need to be improved.

Selma KARABA?

2012-01-01

40

Preparing for rectal microbicides: sociocultural factors affecting product uptake among potential South american users.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives. We examined views on rectal microbicides (RMs), a potential HIV prevention option, among men who have sex with men and transgender women in 3 South American cities. Methods. During September 2009 to September 2010, we conducted 10 focus groups and 36 in-depth interviews (n?=?140) in Lima and Iquitos, Peru, and Guayaquil, Ecuador, to examine 5 RM domains: knowledge, thoughts and opinions about RM as an HIV prevention tool, use, condoms, and social concerns. We coded emergent themes in recorded and transcribed data sets and extracted representative quotes. We collected sociodemographic information with a self-administered questionnaire. Results. RM issues identified included limited knowledge; concerns regarding plausibility, side effects, and efficacy; impact on condom use; target users (insertive vs receptive partners); and access concerns. Conclusions. Understanding the sociocultural issues affecting RMs is critical to their uptake and should be addressed prior to product launch. PMID:24825222

Galea, Jerome T; Kinsler, Janni J; Imrie, John; Nureña, César R; Ruiz, Lucía; Galarza, Luis Fernando; Sánchez, Jorge; Cunningham, William E

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Factors Affecting Pasture and Meat Production Imbalance in Fars Province: A Case Study of Koohnamak Pastures in Darab  

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Full Text Available In the process of agricultural development, sustainability of pasture utilization to ensure sustained production of meat and dairy products has become increasingly important. This article aims to study factors affecting pasture and meat production imbalances in Fars province. For this purpose, the transcendental production function was used. Data was collected by using two stage cluster random sampling from 71 producers. The results revealed that present method of pasture utilization is not compatible with increasing live animal meat production objective. To optimize pasture utilization, the pasture users should be advised to stop overgrazing. In addition, the results indicated that increasing livestock and pasture mismanagement causes damage to pastures and consequently would decrease meat production in the long-run.

A. Shirvanian

2008-10-01

42

Environmental Factors Affecting Milk Production in the Holstein-Friesian Population of Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available The milk production of a cow is a result of the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors. Lactation records for calvings from 1979 to 1998, from Zimbabwe Dairy services Association were used to estimate the effects of the non-genetic effects on milk production. The model fitted had the fixed effects of herd, season of calving, parity and days in milk. Herd effects were significant (< 0.001. The effect of herd was found to be ranging from 14 to 47% of the total variation in the records. The contribution of the herd on fat and protein percent was lower compared to the contribution to yield traits. Month of calving had a significant effect on milk, fat and protein yield (<0.0001, but had no effect on fat percent and protein percent. The highest yields were in the months of May to August. The Temperature Humidity Index (THI ranged from 55.95 to 67.78, which is within the range for breed in under study. It had no effect on protein percent. Milk production increased up to parity 5. Protein percent increased from parity one to parity two and then remained almost constant. Fat percent declined from parity one. Milk production and component production increased with increasing days in milk. However, days in milk had no significant effect on fat percent and protein percent. The effect of days dry, days open and calving interval were not studied as they were serious confounding effects which made it impossible to estimate the effects of each one of them. The results indicate that outside economic constraints Zimbabwe can produce milk without the need for strong environmental modifications.

K. Kunaka

2005-01-01

43

Factors affecting Anastrepha fraterculus female receptivity modulation by accessory gland products.  

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In the context of the sterile insect technique (SIT), mass-rearing and male irradiation are imperative. Post-teneral treatments such as the addition of protein in adult's male diet and male hormonal treatment are used to improve sexual performance and to accelerate sexual maturation. In this work we investigated the effect of male accessory glands products (AGPs) on female receptivity of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), and the effect of strain rearing history, male irradiation, male diet and hormonal treatment on AGPs. Injections of aqueous extracts of male accessory glands into the abdomen of females reduced their receptivity. The AGPs from laboratory males were more effective in inhibiting female receptivity, compared to AGPs from wild males, irrespective of females' origin. The AGPs from fertile males were more effective than AGPs from sterile males. The AGPs from protein-fed males were more effective than AGPs from sugar-fed males. Finally, the AGPs of males treated with juvenile hormone were less effective in inhibiting female receptivity than AGPs of untreated males. We conclude that inhibition of sexual receptivity of A. fraterculus mated females is mediated by products in male accessory gland's and the way that these products act vary widely according to the effect of extrinsic factors. We discuss the results in the perspective of the SIT application for A. fraterculus. PMID:21907717

Abraham, Solana; Cladera, Jorge; Goane, Lucía; Teresa Vera, M

2012-01-01

44

Optimization of Key Factors Affecting Methane Production from Acidic Effluent Coming from the Sugarcane Juice Hydrogen Fermentation Process  

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Response surface methodology with a central composite design was applied to optimize the key factors affecting methane production from the acidic effluent coming from the sugarcane juice hydrogen fermentation process. The parameters studied were substrate concentration, ratio of NaHCO3 to substrate concentration and initial pH. The experimental results showed that substrate concentration and initial pH had significant individual (p < 0.05) effect on methane yield (MY). However, there was n...

Alissara Reungsang; Sakchai Pattra; Sureewan Sittijunda

2012-01-01

45

Evaluation of Factors Affecting Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production by Comamonas sp. EB172 Using Central Composite Design  

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Full Text Available Aims: Statistical approach, central composite design (CCD was used to investigate the complex interaction among temperature (25-37 °C, initial medium pH (5-9, inoculum size (4-10 % (v/v, concentration of (NH42SO4 (0-1 g/L and concentration of mixed organic acids (5-10 g/L in the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Comamonas sp. EB172.Methodology and Results: Mixed organic acids derived from anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME containing acetic:propionic:butyric (ratio of 3:1:1 were used as carbon source in the batch culture of Comamonas sp. EB172 to produce polyhydoxyalkanoates (PHAs. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that all five factors were significantly important in the batch fermentation by shake flask with a P value of less than 0.001. The optimal temperature, initial medium pH, inoculum size, concentration of (NH42SO4 and concentration of mixed organic acids were 30 °C, 7.04, 4.0 % (v/v, 0.01 g/L and 5.05 g/L respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Optimization of the production medium containing mixed organic acids has improved the PHA production for more than 2 folds. Under optimal condition in the shake flask fermentation, the predicted growth is 2.98 g/L of dry cell weight (DCW with 47.07 wt % of PHA content. The highest yield of PHA was 0.28 g of PHA per g mixed organic acids.

Noor Azman Mohd Johar

2012-09-01

46

Analysis of the Factors Affecting Consumer’s Some Traditional Food Products Preferences by Multidimensional Scaling Method  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate consumer behaviour towards factors affecting purchase decision of some traditional food products and grouping those consumer attitudes. The original data was obtained from results of a survey conducted in 14 different districts in Tekirdag. The survey consisted of face-to-face interviews conducted within a total sample of 166 households randomly. In the study, multidimensional scaling analysis is used for evaluating the effective factors of consumer preferences for traditional products and grouping their preferences. It is found that taste, food safety and freshness have similar effects on consumer preferences for yogurt, molasses and noodles. Price has an important and positive loaded effect on other variables for the three products.

Y. Oraman G. Unak?tan E. Y?lmaz B. Ba?aran

2011-01-01

47

Factors Affecting the Biomass and Lipid Production from Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 under Mixotrophic Culture  

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Full Text Available Effects of media compositions on biomass and lipid accumulation of the isolate Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 were investigated under a Plackett-Burman experimental design with mixotrophic cultivation conditions. Under this experimental design there were 15 different runs with ten factors-yeast extract, KH2PO4, MgSO4, FeSO4, MnCl2, CuSO4, Na2MoO4, H3BO3, ZnSO4 and pH. Cultures were grown mixotrophically under 16 h light and 8 h dark regime at 30 ºC for a period of 7 days. During the light regime, the light intensity at the surface of the vessels and agitation speed were set to 67.5 µmol photons m-2s-1 and 150 rpm, respectively. Initial cell concentration was set to an absorbance (A540 of 0.5. For high biomass production (2.2 g/L, run no. 6, the most effective and significant factors were yeast extract, KH2PO4, FeSO4 and ZnSO4 at concentrations 0.3 g/L, 0.3 g/L, 3 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. Whereas for high lipid accumulation (19.59 %DCW, run no. 2, these were KH2PO4, pH and yeast extract, at a level of 1.7 g/L, 6.0 and 0.1 g/L, respectively. No significant factors were obtained for higher lipid content. The best treatment for biomass and lipid content was run no. 6, whose medium formula consisted of 0.3 g/L yeast extract, 1.7 g/L KH2PO4, 1.7 g/L MgSO4, 1 mg/L FeSO4, 0.9 mg/L MnCl2, and pH 7.0, together with fixed concentrations of glucose, NaHCO3 and KNO3 at 5 g/L, 0.05 g/L and 0.5 g/L, respectively.

Sarote SIRISANSANEEYAKUL

2012-12-01

48

Population dynamics of dechlorinators and factors affecting the level and products of PCB dechlorination in sediments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) often stops although a significant number of removable chlorines remain. To determine the reason for the cessation, we investigated the limitation of organic carbon, PCB bioavailability, and inhibition by metabolic products. Enrichment with carbon sources did not induce additional chlorination, indicating the plateau was not due to depletion of organic carbon. The bioavailability was not limiting, since a subcritical micelle concentration of the surfactant, which enhanced desorption without inhibiting dechlorinating microorganisms, failed to lower the plateau. Neither was it due to accumulation of metabolites, since no additional dechlorination was detected when plateau sediments were incubated with fresh medium. Similarly, dechlorination was not inhibited in freshly spiked sediment slurries. Dechlorination ended up at the same level with nearly identical congener profiles, regardless of treatment. These results indicate that cessation of dechlorination was due to the accumulation of daughter congeners, which cannot be used as electron acceptors by microbes. To determine whether the decreasing availability affected the microorganisms, we determined the population dynamics of dechlorinators using the most probable number technique. The growth dynamics of the dechlorinators mirrored the time course of dechlorination. It started when the population increased by two orders of magnitude. Once dechlorination stopped the dechlorinating population also began to decrease. When dechlorinators were inoculated into PCB-free sediments, the population decreased over time. The decrease of the population as dechlorination ceased confirms that the diminishing availability of congeners was the reason for the incomplete dechlorination. Recent findings have shown that a second phase of dechlorination of certain congeners can occur after a long lag. 45 refs., 8 figs.

Kim, J.S.; Sokol, R.C.; Liu, X.; Bethoney, C.M.; Rhee, G.Y. [State Univ. of New York and New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

49

Consumers' willingness to pay for organic food: Factors that affect it and variation per organic product type  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose - Seeks to provide answers to two questions: is willingness to pay (WTP) for organic products influenced by the same set of factors that affect purchasing of conventional foods? Does WTP for organic products vary according to different food categories? Design/methodology/approach - Purchasers were approached during their food shopping in retail chains in Athens in July 2003. Sample inclusion is based on real awareness of the term "organic". The questionnaire included in its first part a number of criteria that influence consumers when buying food. In the second part respondents were asked to indicate if any food products they buy were organic and to state how much more they were willing to pay. Information from the first part was analysed with factor analysis. With the help of t-value analysis, it was examined whether there is a statistically significant difference per product category between consumers who are willing to pay and consumers who are unwilling to pay in terms of the factors identified. Findings - Consumers' stated WTP and the type and magnitude of factors that affect it differ according to the organic food category. These factors include food quality and security, trust in the certification, and, for some products, brand name. Organoleptic characteristics, prices and consumers' socio-demographic profiles do not constitute determinants of organic WTP. Research limitations/implications - Organic types of some fresh as well as processed food products do not exist in the Greek market. Moreover, the large number of t-tests conducted might result in Type I error. Originality/value - Purchasing of organic food follows "basic-highest frequency", "basic-average frequency", and "non-basic" discrimination. The most frequently consumed organic products are some basic components of the Greek diet. Only the factors "quality and security" and "trust" play an important role in defining WTP for most organic food categories. Consumers' attitudes towards both organic and PDO/PGI certifications converge towards a perception of high quality food. Approximately 26 percent of the sample exhibited a U-shaped WTP trend for 14 out of 16 organic food categories in increments from 45 to 120 percent. All the above elements of originality are particularly valuable for organic food firms and policy/decision makers.

Krystallis, Athanasios; Chryssohoidis, George

2005-01-01

50

Physicochemical factors differentially affect the biomass and bacteriocin production by bovine Enterococcus mundtii CRL1656.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine Enterococcus mundtii CRL1656 (Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos Culture Collection) produces an anti-Listeria and anti-Streptococcus dysgalactiae bacteriocin identified as mundticin CRL1656. The strain and its bacteriocin are candidates to be included in a beneficial product to prevent bovine mastitis as an alternative to antimicrobial agents. To optimize the production of biomass and mundticin CRL1656 by E. mundtii CRL1656, a complete 3×2(4) factorial design was applied. The effect of culture medium, initial pH, inoculum size, incubation temperature, and agitation conditions on biomass and bacteriocin production was evaluated simultaneously. Growth parameters were determined using the modified Gompertz model. A nonlinear model was used to estimate the effects of the variables on growth parameters. Bacteriocin production was analyzed using a linear mixed model. Optimal biomass and mundticin CRL1656 production by E. mundtii CRL1656 were obtained in different conditions. Maximal growth was recorded in autolyzed yeast, peptone, tryptone, Tween 80, and glucose or M17 broths, pH 6.5, 5.0% inoculum, 30°C, with agitation. However, bacteriocin titers were higher in autolyzed yeast, peptone, tryptone, Tween 80, and glucose or de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) broths, pH 6.5, 30°C, both with or without agitation. Knowledge of the optimum conditions for growth and bacteriocin production of E. mundtii CRL1656 will allow the obtainment of high levels of biomass and mundticin CRL1656 as bioingredients of potential products to prevent bovine mastitis. PMID:24359825

Espeche, M Carolina; Tomás, M Silvina Juárez; Wiese, Birgitt; Bru, Elena; Nader-Macías, M E Fátima

2014-02-01

51

Key factors affecting microbial anode potential in a microbial electrolysis cell for H{sub 2} production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to optimize operations of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) for hydrogen production, microbial anode potential (MAP) was analyzed as a function of factors in biofilm anode system, including pH, substrate and applied voltage. The results in ''H'' shape reactor showed that MAP reflected the information when any factor became limiting for hydrogen production. Commonly, hydrogen generation started around anode potential of -250 mV to -300 mV. While, higher current density and higher hydrogen rate were obtained when MAP went down to -400 mV or even lower in this study. Biofilm anode could work normally between pH 6.5 and 7.0, while the lowest anode potential appeared around 6.8-7.0. However, when pH was lower 6.0 or substrate concentration was less than 50 mg L{sup -1} in anode chamber, MAP went up to -300 mV or above, leading to hydrogen reduction. Applied voltage did not affect MAP much during the process of hydrogen production. Anode potential analysis also showed that planktonic bacteria in suspended solution presented positive effects on biofilm anode system and they contributed to enhance electron transfer by reducing internal resistance and lowering minimum voltage needed for hydrogen production to some extent. (author)

Wang, Aijie; Ren, Nanqi [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin 150090 (China); School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Liu, Wenzong [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Zhou, Jizhong [Institute for Environmental Genomics, and Department of Botany and Microbiology, Stephenson Research and Technology Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Cheng, Shaoan [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2010-12-15

52

Exopolysaccharides Production by Pleurotus pulmonarius: Factors Affecting Formation and Their Structures  

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Full Text Available The optimization of exopolysaccharides (EPS produced by Pleurotus pulmonarius was carried out. Malt extract at 1.5 % (w/v showed the highest EPS production after 10 days of submerged incubation and initial pH 5.5. 5.5% (w/v glucose and 0.4% (w/v potassium nitrate as sole carbon and nitrogen sources were the best stimulators for EPS production respectively. Suitable incubation temperature was found to be 30°C. At the end of these series of experiments we have obtained (280 mg/100 ml of EPS. The physicochemical characterization of EPS was studied and the structure was confirmed by the infrared spectroscopic analysis (IR.

Mahmoud M. Nour El-Dein

2004-01-01

53

Factors Related to Local Supply Base Development Affecting Production Localisation in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent years, foreign manufacturers have extended their manufacturing footprint to include China. According to the World Bank China has overtaken Japan as the world’s second-largest economy since 2010. China’s growth is largely funded by a continuous manufacturing boom where both domestic industries and infrastructure have developed extensively, facilitating foreign-owned manufacturing companies to locate production in China. An important issue of common interest to all manufacturing comp...

Xie, Jianyuan

2012-01-01

54

Microorganisms and dietary factors affecting biohydrogenation and conjugated linoleic acid production in the rumen ecosystem  

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Consumption of animal fat has been associated with an increased incidence of chronic diseases, as cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. Ruminant products, milk and meat, have high saturated fatty acids (FA) content as a result of biohydrogenation by microbial metabolic activity in the rumen. Biohydrogenation also originates FA with health promoting or disease preventing properties, including conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and vaccenic acid (18:1 trans-11). Improvement ...

Maia, Margarida Rosa Garcez

2010-01-01

55

Lipid quality and oxidative stability in food products from animal origin, as affected by breeding factor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays it is requested more investigations on alternative rearing systems that are able to improve poultry welfare and to warrant high-quality and safe meat products. This thesis work was focused on the evaluation of the oxidative stability of poultry meats, obtained with different rearing systems, diets (supplemented with bioactive compounds), and packaging conditions. The thesis work was divided into the following parts: - Evaluation of the effects of different rearing systems on ...

Funaro, Antonietta

2013-01-01

56

Factors Affecting the Biomass and Lipid Production from Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 under Mixotrophic Culture  

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Effects of media compositions on biomass and lipid accumulation of the isolate Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 were investigated under a Plackett-Burman experimental design with mixotrophic cultivation conditions. Under this experimental design there were 15 different runs with ten factors-yeast extract, KH2PO4, MgSO4, FeSO4, MnCl2, CuSO4

Haque, Mohammad Ariful; Bangrak, Phuwadol; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote; Choorit, Wanna

2012-01-01

57

Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting production potential of Butana dairy cows at Atbara Research Station, Sudan  

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Full Text Available Effects of year and season of calving and cows' parity order on milk yield, lactation period, persistency and longevity were studied using 1338 records of 222 Butana dairy cows. Estimates of heritability and repeatability of these traits were also studied. Data were classified according to years of calving into 1949 –1959, 1960-1969, 1970-1979, 1980-1989 and 1990–1999 groups. Further data classification was done according to season of calving into dry summer (March–June, wet summer (July-October and winter (November-February groups. Data were also classified according to cow's parity order into ten parity groups. General linear model was conducted to examine the significance of the tested effects. Overall means of total milk yield, lactation period, persistency and longevity were 1709.50 ± 892.10 kg, 248.40 ± 91.30 days, 75.16 ± 48.58% and 6.56 ± 3.18 years, respectively. Milk yield was significantly affected by year of calving and parity order, persistency was not affected by any of the studied factors, while longevity was affected by year and season of calving. Heritability of these traits was low (ranged between 0.01 and 0.14 while repeatability ranged between 0.17 and 0.23. The study concluded that Butana breed are promising dairy cows and their production potential traits were mainly affected by the non genetic environmental factors such as managerial changes during years, seasonal variations and age of cows. However, the traits values were repeatable during the animal’s life.

T. M. Badri,

2011-07-01

58

A geostatistical synthesis study of factors affecting gross primary productivity in various ecosystems of North America  

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Full Text Available A coupled Bayesian model selection and geostatistical regression modeling approach is adopted for empirical analysis of gross primary productivity (GPP at six AmeriFlux sites, including the Kennedy Space Center Scrub Oak, Vaira Ranch, Tonzi Ranch, Blodgett Forest, Morgan Monroe State Forest, and Harvard Forest sites. The analysis is performed at a continuum of temporal scales ranging from daily to monthly, for a period of seven years. A total of 10 covariates representing environmental stimuli and indices of plant physiology are considered in explaining variations in GPP. Similar to other statistical methods, the proposed approach estimates regression coefficients and uncertainties associated with the covariates in a selected regression model. However, unlike traditional regression methods, the presented approach also estimates the uncertainty associated with the selection of a single "best" model of GPP. In addition, the approach provides an enhanced understanding of how the importance of specific covariates changes with temporal resolutions. An examination of trends in the importance of specific covariates reveals scaling thresholds above or below which covariates become significant in explaining GPP. Results indicate that most sites (especially those with a stronger seasonal cycle exhibit at least one prominent scaling threshold between daily to 20-day temporal scale. This demonstrates that environmental variables that explain GPP at synoptic scales are different from those that capture its seasonality. At shorter time scales, radiation, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit exert most significant influence on GPP at most examined sites. However, at coarser time scales, the importance of these covariates in explaining GPP declines. Overall, unique best models are identified at most sites at the daily scale, whereas multiple competing models are identified at larger time scales. In addition, the selected models are able to explain a larger fraction of the observed variability for sites exhibiting strong seasonality.

V. Yadav

2010-02-01

59

A geostatistical synthesis study of factors affecting gross primary productivity in various ecosystems of North America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A coupled Bayesian model selection and geostatistical regression modeling approach is adopted for empirical analysis of gross primary productivity (GPP at six AmeriFlux sites, including the Kennedy Space Center Scrub Oak, Vaira Ranch, Tonzi Ranch, Blodgett Forest, Morgan Monroe State Forest, and Harvard Forest sites. The analysis is performed at a continuum of temporal scales ranging from daily to monthly, for a period of seven years. A total of 10 covariates representing environmental stimuli and indices of plant physiology are considered in explaining variations in GPP. Similarly to other statistical methods, the presented approach estimates regression coefficients and uncertainties associated with the covariates in a selected regression model. Unlike traditional regression methods, however, the approach also estimates the uncertainty associated with the selection of a single "best" model of GPP. In addition, the approach provides an enhanced understanding of how the importance of specific covariates changes with the examined timescale (i.e. temporal resolution. An examination of changes in the importance of specific covariates across timescales reveals thresholds above or below which covariates become important in explaining GPP. Results indicate that most sites (especially those with a stronger seasonal cycle exhibit at least one prominent scaling threshold between the daily and 20-day temporal scales. This demonstrates that environmental variables that explain GPP at synoptic scales are different from those that capture its seasonality. At shorter time scales, radiation, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit exert the most significant influence on GPP at most examined sites. At coarser time scales, however, the importance of these covariates in explaining GPP declines. Overall, unique best models are identified at most sites at the daily scale, whereas multiple competing models are identified at longer time scales.

V. Yadav

2010-09-01

60

Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Adoption of Soya Bean Production Technologies in Takum Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examined socio-economic factors affecting the adoption of soya bean production technologies in Takum Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria. Interview schedules were administered to 180 respondents which were analyzed by the use of descriptive (frequencies and percentages and inferential (multiple regression analysis statistics. The study revealed that majority of the respondents adopted the recommended technologies with respect to improved seeds, planting time and harvesting time representing 52.20%, 50.70% and 68.90% respectively. While on the other hand, majority of the respondents did not adopt the recommended technologies with regards to fertilizer application, spacing, weeding frequency and the use of chemicals with 52.20%, 53.30%, 61.10% and 67.80% respectively. The regression analysis revealed that educational level, farming experience and sources of information had significantly and positively influenced the adoption of improved soya bean production technologies by respondents. The major constraints to adoption of soya bean production technologies by respondents were poor extension services (75.60% and lack of credit facilities (72.20%. The study recommends that agricultural extension services should adequately be provided with input support services in the form of credit facilities among others.

Mustapha, S. B.

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

Factors affecting injectivity decline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reservoir pressure support for a large portion of a giant field is maintained by peripheral seawater injection. The temperature of the injected seawater is significantly lower than the reservoir temperature and also lower than the previously injected water obtained from aquifers. Therefore, a decline in injectivity is expected as a result of higher water viscosity due to lower injection water temperature. This paper presents actual data collected form power water injection wells in two areas of the field, both before and after the start of seawater injection. This data has shown a significant decline in injectivity after conversion to seawater in only one area. The quality of the injected water and other related factors will be reviewed to determine the reasons for this behavior that apparently contradicts what wa expected. The paper also discusses the actual effects that cold seawater injection has on pressure falloff behavior.

Al-Hamadah, A.M.

1995-10-01

62

Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants. IV-Factors affecting the characteristics of simulating polymer waste products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this study, which is part of a coordinated research program that was arranged by the International Atomic Energy Agency, was aimed at evaluating final waste forms and packages. Four different types of polymer matrices were used to incorporate simulating borate waste originating from a primary cooling circuit in a pressurized water reactor. The factors affecting the properties of simulated polymer waste products that were studied included polymer waste ratios, the effect of accumulated radiation dose, water content added to loaded dry simulating borate waste, and the effect of given chemical components of polymer matrix. The results obtained show that, where leaching criteria of the final waste form was concerned, 50% of the immobilized dry simulating waste powder was a reasonable loading for all polymers under investigation. The data obtained also indicated decreases in the compressive strength values of the solidified forms with an increase in the water content of the immobilized simulating borate waste powder. (author) 6 figs., 10 tabs., 35 refs

1995-01-01

63

Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants. IV-Factors affecting the characteristics of simulating polymer waste products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this study, which is part of a coordinated research program that was arranged by the International Atomic Energy Agency, was aimed at evaluating final waste forms and packages. Four different types of polymer matrices were used to incorporate simulating borate waste originating from a primary cooling circuit in a pressurized water reactor. The factors affecting the properties of simulated polymer waste products that were studied included polymer waste ratios, the effect of accumulated radiation dose, water content added to loaded dry simulating borate waste, and the effect of given chemical components of polymer matrix. The results obtained show that, where leaching criteria of the final waste form was concerned, 50% of the immobilized dry simulating waste powder was a reasonable loading for all polymers under investigation. The data obtained also indicated decreases in the compressive strength values of the solidified forms with an increase in the water content of the immobilized simulating borate waste powder. (author) 6 figs., 10 tabs., 35 refs.

Ghattas, N.K.; Ikladious, N.E.; Eskander, S.B.; Shatta, H.A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Radioisotope Dep., Cairo (Egypt)

1995-12-31

64

Factors affecting the formation of disinfection by-products during chlorination and chloramination of secondary effluent for the production of high quality recycled water.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the production of high quality recycled water by reverse osmosis membrane filtration secondary effluent must be disinfected to limit biofouling on the membrane surface. Advanced Water Treatment Plants in South East Queensland, Australia use disinfectant contact times ranging from 30 min up to 24 h. Disinfectants such as chlorine and chloramines react with effluent organic matter to generate disinfection by-products (DBPs) which could be potentially hazardous to human health if the water is destined for supplementing public water supplies. In this context, secondary effluents are of concern because of their high total organic carbon content which can act as DBP precursors. Also, effluent organic matter may form different DBPs to those formed from natural organic matter during conventional drinking water treatment, either in quantity, identity or simply in the abundance of different DBPs relative to each other. It cannot be assumed per se with certainty that DBP formation will be affected in the same way by operational changes as in drinking water production. Response surface modelling has been employed in this study at the bench scale to investigate the effect of reaction time (0-24 h), pH (5.5-8.5), temperature (23-35 °C), disinfection strategy (chlorine vs chloramines used prior to membrane treatment) and the interaction between these different parameters on DBP formation during disinfection of secondary effluent. The concentration of halogenated DBPs formed during the first 24 h of reaction with the different disinfectants followed the order chlorination > in line-formed monochloramine > pre-formed monochloramine. Contact time with chlorine was the major influencing factor on DBP formation during chlorination, except for the bromine-containing trihalomethanes and dibromoacetonitrile for which pH was more significant. Chlorination at high pH led to an increased formation of chloral hydrate, trichloronitromethane, dibromoacetonitrile and the four trihalomethanes while the opposite effect was observed for the other targeted DBPs. Temperature was identified as the least influencing parameter compared to pH and reaction time for all DBPs in all the disinfection strategies, except for the formation of chloral hydrate where pH and temperature had a similar significance and bromoform that was similarly affected by temperature and reaction time. Chloramines employed at pH 8.5 reduced the concentration of all studied DBPs compared to pH 5.5. Furthermore, reaction time was the most significant factor for trichloronitromethane, chloroform, trichloroacetonitrile, dichloroacetonitrile and bromochloroacetonitrile formation while pH was the most influencing factor affecting the formation of the remaining DBPs. PMID:24095593

Doederer, Katrin; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Weinberg, Howard S; Farré, Maria José

2014-01-01

65

Analysis of Factors Affecting on Risk Management of Wheat Production Among Wheat Farmers (Razavieh Region, Khorasan-E-Razavi Province, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to analyze the Factors Affecting on risk management in wheat production among farmers of Razavieh region (Khorasan-E-Razavi province, Iran. Statistical population of the study was 1520 farmers that they had water cultivation. By using of stratified proportional random sampling 156 respondents were selected from 8 villages. For the calculation of the risk-aversion coefficient degree among farmers, the Safety First Rule model was used. The findings revealed that the dominant respondents (65% were risk-averse. The results of exploratory factorial analysis showed that five factors determined about 74.267 % from total variance for wheat farmers' risk management that consist of: economy & marketing management factor, planting management factor, harvest management factor, infrastructure management of farming and risk-sharing management factor. From among of the above mentioned factors, the most important factor of risk management in study region was factor of economy & marketing management

V. Sarani

2011-12-01

66

Factors Affecting Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Production from Oil Palm Frond Juice by Cupriavidus necator (CCUG52238T)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Factors influencing poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) P(3HB) production by??Cupriavidus necator??CCUG52238T utilizing oil palm frond (OPF) juice were clarified in this study. Effects of initial medium pH, agitation speed, and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 concentration on the production of P(3HB) were investigated in shake flasks experiments using OPF juice as the sole carbon source. The highest P(3HB) content was recorded at pH?7.0, agitation speed of 220?rpm, and (NH4)2SO4 concentration at 0...

Mohd Zahari, Mior Ahmad Khushairi; Ariffin, Hidayah; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Salihon, Jailani; Shirai, Yoshihito; Hassan, Mohd Ali

2012-01-01

67

A Study of Factors Affecting on Men’s Skin Care ProductsPurchasing, Particularly in Karlstad, Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines in some depth the influences of marketing mix, social factors, emergence of the metrosexual, evolution of femininity and masculinity, self-esteem and customer decision making on the male consumer behavior in purchasing skin care products in Sweden, particular in Karlstad. In do so, the theories of masculinity and femininity, customer behavior theory, customer decision making’s theory, theory of metrosexual and theory of the four Ps in marketing mix strategy are employed ...

Surakiatpinyo, Jiraporn; Moungkhem, Chanintorn

2010-01-01

68

Psychological Factors Affecting Infertile Women  

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AIM: This study was performed to determine the psychological factors affecting infertile women presenting at the infertility outpatients department. METHOD: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women who presented at the IVF center of a special branch hospital or a university hospital, March 2008 through September 2008, as determined by the non-random sampling method. All participating women gave their informed consent. The data were collected using the Data Form that con...

2010-01-01

69

Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the ...

McBride Sebastian D; Mills Daniel S

2012-01-01

70

Factors affecting technical efficiency of individual farms specialising in livestock production (for FADN farms of the gosty?ski district  

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Full Text Available The article is an attempt to determine the factors that determine technical efficiency of individual farms FADN of gostynski district, specializing in cattle, breeding pigs and multidirectional production. Indicators of technical efficiency of farms was determined using method Data Envelopment Analysis. Linear regression method was used to determine the factors that determine technical efficiency of individual farms. It was shown, that for farms specialized in cattle, the determinants of technical efficiency are: total revenues from sales to total costs and total revenues from sales in PLN for working hour, and for those specialized in breeding pigs: total revenues from sales to total costs, total revenues from sales in PLN for working hour, livestock density in units of large (SD and revenues per ha of arable land.

Katarzyna Sm?dzik

2012-09-01

71

Major Factors Affecting on the Productivity of Faculty Members and their Ranking using Multiple Criteria Decision Method. Case Study: Universities and Higher Education Centers of the Ardabil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research has examined differences between factors affecting productivity of faculty of universities and higher education centers of the Ardabil based on three groups involved means faculty, staff of educational and research units and students, and are considered as basis of rankings. Based on components of NASIRI POUR model (2011 and using ANOVA test unanimity of different aspects affecting efficiency in terms of the three groups studied. Due to significant differences in means, LSD post hoc test was used and it was determined that in organizational culture, the mean of student than the other two groups, in empowering, the mean of employees than other groups, in the motivational factors, the mean of student than another groups and in the way of managing, the mean of employees than other two groups are different. Finally, using the technique of TOPSIS, factors affecting productivity of faculty were ranked. The results showed that the components of empowerment, environmental conditions, organizational culture, leadership method (management and motivational factors are most important in enhancing the productivity of faculty members of Ardebil universities, respectively.

Delshad Namin Shirin

2013-12-01

72

The level of fertilizer use in sunflower production and the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the factors affecting the amount of fertilizer used in sunflower production have been investigated. Average sunflower production area was determined as 21.91 da and sunflower was grown in irrigated conditions. Average plant nutrients was 20.92 kg N/da, 14.33 kg P_2O_5/da, and 2.22 kg K_2O/da. As a result of the study, it has been determined that farmers used excess fertilizer in sunflower production. In addition, in the use of plant nutrients, the factors such as farm size, sources of fertilizer, irrigation possibilities, credit use situation, and the quality of land were statistically significant contrary to the factors such as land usage situation, educational level of farmers and deciding on fertilization. Refs. 6 (author)

1999-10-01

73

Factors affecting product yields and oil quality during retorting of Stuart oil shale with recycled shale: a screening study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seven process variables - retort temperature, solids recycle ratio, char content of recycle solids, recycle solids temperature, pretreatment of recycle solids with ammonia, solids residence time and steam concentration - were studied. The Plackett-Burman statistical experimental design, highly effective for detecting main effects of large number of variables with a minimum number of experiments, was used to screen these variables. Each variable was tested at low and high levels. The bench-scale integrated retorting-combustion oil shale (BIRCOS) facility at Lucas Heights was used to obtain product yields and compositions under realistic recycle shale conditions. The significance of the main effects of the variables on product yields and carbon conversions decreased in the order: retort temperature, solids residence time, steam concentration, char content, solids recycle ratio, recycle solids temperature, and ammonia treatment. Retort temperature was the only variable to affect the H/C atomic and nitrogen content of the oil. The sulfur content of the oil was independent of all variables. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Dung, N.V. [CSIRO, Menai, NSW (Australia). Division of Coal and Energy Technology

1995-04-01

74

Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants IV-factors affecting the characteristics of simulating waste/polymer products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immobilization processes involve conversion of wastes into homogeneous solid forms to reduce the potential dispersion and migration of their radionuclides from the waste materials to the surrounding during transport and disposal (1,2). To overcome the disadvantages of cementation and bituminization techniques (3), different types of polymer matrices (4-10) have been suggested to immobilize intermediate-and low - level radioactive wastes and to achieve a clear improvement in both immobilization process and final waste-form properties. The present study aims at optimizing the process of immobilization of simulating borate waste in different types of polymer by studying the different factors expected to play a role in the characterization of the final waste/polymer products. 6 FIG., 10 TAB

1992-01-01

75

Genetic Factors in Rhizobium Affecting the Symbiotic Carbon Costs of N2 Fixation and Host Plant Biomass Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of genetic factors in Rhizobium on host plant biomass production and on the carbon costs of N2 fixation in pea root nodules was studied. Nine strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum were constructed, each containing one of three symbiotic plasmids in combination with one of three different genomic backgrounds. The resulting strains were tested in symbiosis with plants of Pisum sativum using a flow-through apparatus in which nodule nitrogenase activity and respiration were measured simultaneously under steady state conditions. Nodules formed by strains containing the background of JI6015 had the lowest carbon costs of N2 fixation (7.10â??8.10 μmol C/μmol N2), but shoot dry weight of those plants was also smaller than that of plants nodulated by strains with the background of B151 or JI8400. Nodules formed by these two strain types had carbon costs of N2 fixation varying between 11.26 and 13.95 μmol C/μmol N2. The effect of symbiotic plasmids on the carbon costs was relatively small. A time-course experiment demonstrated that nodules formed by a strain derived from JI6015 were delayed in the onset of nitrogenase activity and had a lower rate of activity compared to nodules induced by a strain with the background of B151. The relationship between nitrogenase activity, carbon costs of N2 fixation and host plant biomass production is discussed.

Skøt, L.

1986-01-01

76

Environmental Factors Affecting Production, Release, and Field Populations of Conidia of Alternaria alternata, the Cause of Brown Spot of Citrus.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Alternaria brown spot, caused by Alternaria alternata pv. citri, affects many tangerines and their hybrids, causing loss of immature leaves and fruit and reducing the marketability of the remaining fruit. Conidial production of A. alternata was greatest on mature leaves moistened and maintained at near 100% relative humidity (RH) for 24 h, whereas leaves that had been soaked or maintained at moderate RH produced few conidia. Conidial release from filter paper cultures and infected leaves was studied in a computer-controlled environmental chamber. Release of large numbers of conidia was triggered from both substrates by sudden drops in RH or by simulated rainfall events. Vibration induced release of low numbers of conidia, but red/infrared irradiation had no effect. In field studies from 1994 to 1996, air sampling with a 7-day recording volumetric spore trap indicated that conidia were present throughout the year with periodic large peaks. The number of conidia captured was not closely related to rainfall amounts or average wind speed, but was weakly related to the duration of leaf wetness. Likewise, disease severity on trap plants placed in the field weekly during 1995 to 1996 was not closely related to conidial numbers or rainfall amounts, but was weakly related to leaf wetness duration. Sufficient inoculum appears to be available to allow infection to occur throughout the year whenever susceptible host tissue and moisture are available. PMID:18944857

Timmer, L W; Solel, Z; Gottwald, T R; Ibañez, A M; Zitko, S E

1998-11-01

77

Factors affecting rotator cuff healing.  

Science.gov (United States)

? Several studies have noted that increasing age is a significant factor for diminished rotator cuff healing, while biomechanical studies have suggested the reason for this may be an inferior healing environment in older patients.? Larger tears and fatty infiltration or atrophy negatively affect rotator cuff healing.? Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, double-row repairs, performing a concomitant acromioplasty, and the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) do not demonstrate an improvement in structural healing over mini-open rotator cuff repairs, single-row repairs, not performing an acromioplasty, or not using PRP.? There is conflicting evidence to support postoperative rehabilitation protocols using early motion over immobilization following rotator cuff repair. PMID:24806015

Mall, Nathan A; Tanaka, Miho J; Choi, Luke S; Paletta, George A

2014-05-01

78

Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It h...

Sertac Gonenc; Harun Tanrivermis

2007-01-01

79

Factors affecting tactile spatial acuity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tactile spatial acuity on the fingerpad was measured using a grating orientation task. In this task, subjects are required to identify the orientation of square-wave gratings placed on the skin. Previous studies have shown that performance varies as a function of the width of the grooves in the gratings. In the present study, both groove width and the overall size and configuration of the contactors were varied. Sensitivity improved with wider grooves and with larger contactors. Additional measurements showed that the improved sensitivity is not the result of the increase in total area contacted, but rather is due to two other factors associated with larger contactors. One is the greater linear extent of the larger contactors. The other appears to be due to the reduction in the interference produced by the outer edge of the contactor. Specifically, as the contactor increases in size, the distance between the outer edge and the center portion of the grooves also increases. It was also shown that subjects are more sensitive to a single, continuous groove as compared with two grooves of the same total length but spatially discontinuous. Similarly, subjects are more sensitive to a contactor with a continuous groove than to a contactor in which just the end points of the groove are presented. The results are generally consistent with the results of peripheral, neurophysiological recordings. The results are discussed in terms of the way in which both spatial and intensive factors may affect sensitivity to grating orientation. PMID:9583575

Craig, J C; Kisner, J M

1998-01-01

80

Factors affecting forage stand establishment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

Sulc R.M.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Factors affecting production of an antilisterial bacteriocin by Carnobacterium piscicola strain A9b in laboratory media and model fish systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims: To investigate factors influencing bacteriocin production and bacteriocin stability of the bioprotective culture Carnobacterium piscicola strain A9b. Methods and Results: Maximum activity was obtained in MRS7 broth (MRS adjusted to pH 7.2), with or without glucose. No bacteriocin was produced in APT broth when a low inoculum level (0.001%) was used. In contrast, inoculum level did not influence bacteriocin production in BHI and MRS7 without glucose. Bacteriocin production in APT was induced by the presence of an extracellular compound present in the sterile, filtered, cell- free supernatant fluid of a stationary-phase culture. Increasing concentrations of NaCl (2-7%) reduced bacteriocin production and maximum cell density of C. piscicola A9b when grown in cooked fish juice at VC. Conclusions: Media composition, inoculum level and sodium chloride concentration affected production. Significance and Impact of the Study: The influence of NaCl on bacteriocin production may negate the inhibitory effect of C. piscicola A9b against Listeria monocytogenes in salty foods.

Nilsson, Lilian; Gram, Lone

2001-01-01

82

A review of factors affecting productivity of bald eagles in the Great Lakes region: implications for recovery.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population in North America declined greatly after World War II due primarily to the eggshell thinning effects of p,p'-DDE, a biodegradation product of DDT. After the banning of DDT in the United States and Canada during the early 1970s, the bald eagle population started to increase. However, this population recovery has not been uniform. Eagles nesting along the shorelines of the North American Great Lakes and rivers open to spawning runs of anadromo...

Bowerman, W. W.; Giesy, J. P.; Best, D. A.; Kramer, V. J.

1995-01-01

83

Some Factors Affecting the Production of Carotenoids by Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis  

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A new yeast strain isolated from pin cushion flower (Scabiosa atropurpura) in our laboratory was selected from 200 yeast isolates as carotenoids producer and identified as Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis. The selected isolate was grown in synthetic medium to study the effect of carbon to nitrogen ratio, sources of nitrogen and carbon, mineral salts and incubation temperature on carotenoids production. The results indicated the following optimal conditions: carbon to nitrogen ratio of 5, am...

El-banna, Amr A.; Abd El-razek, Amal M.; El-mahdy, Ahmed R.

2012-01-01

84

Factors Affecting Outflow Facility Calculations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Outflow facility (C), a ratio of outflow rate (F) to relevant pressure, is an important indication of outflow resistance in the ocular drainage pathway. The higher the C, the lower the outflow resistance. According to the classic Goldmann equation, C=F/(IOP-Pe)(IOP, intraocular pressure; Pe, episcleral venous pressure). Since anterior chamber (AC) perfusions directly measure outflow and are less affected by scleral creep and rigidity or changes in uveal blood content than repeated tonography ...

Tian, Baohe; Hu, Yujie; Gabelt, B’ann T.; Kaufman, Paul L.

2006-01-01

85

FACTORS AFFECTING THE POST LARVAL PRODUCTION OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII (DE MAN BY USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF FEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study was conducted to know the importance of for the effects of different types of feed on larval survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  In this experiment total nine tanks are selected and were divided, placed under three experiments (Viz. E1, E2, and E3 each having three replicates. The feshly hatched out larvae (Zoea were collected and stocked in three different treatment tanks. The larvae were stoked in E1 (Artemia nauplii and egg custard, E2 (Artemia nauplii only and E3 (Freeze dried (Cyclop-eeze only.  The survival rate of postlarvae found to vary from 5 to 40%. Highest rate of survival was recorded for the treatment of E1 (31.5- 40.2 % and the lowest survival was recorded in E3 (3.0- 5.2 %. Such variations was occurred due to higher nutritive and growth promoting value of egg custard. The result obtained from the present study indicated that rearing of freshwater prawn larvae by improved management techniques can be considered economically viable and acceptable. So the production of post larvae of prawn was increased significantly by using Artemia nauplii and egg custard as larval diet.

Shailender M*, Krishna PV, Suresh Babu CH

2013-01-01

86

Factors Affecting Nontraditional Vocational Enrollments.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study identifies the internal and external factors which differentiate women who enter male-traditional vocational training programs from those who enter female-traditional programs. Data were collected from 470 women enrolled in California vocational training programs. The sample was stratified on both social class and type of vocational…

Houser, Betsy Bosak; Garvey, Chris

87

Factors Affecting Performance of AODV  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) it is hard for a route to sustain for a longer period of time due to the mobility of nodes. High mobility of nodes results in active route failure and re-route discoveries. Such frequent route discoveries result in decreased network performance. In this study we have analyzed in detail the affect of different node mobility parameters on the performance of AODV (Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector) Routing Protocol. Simulation results are provided at the end.

Hussain, S. A.; Mahmood, K.; Garcia, E.

2007-01-01

88

Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

Sertac Gonenc

2007-01-01

89

Affecting factors in language learning  

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In my thesis I intend to deal with personality and individual differences, language aptitude, family background, self-motivation and motivation, anxiety and creativity, and the difference between learning our mother language and the second language. An analysis will be taken through a questionnaire answered by language learners in my writing. These factors I think can lead us to the better understanding of language learning and that way help to become more successful in language t...

Orsza?gh, Vikto?ria

2009-01-01

90

Factors Affecting Profitability of Layer Hens Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Layer hen enterprises suffer from low profitability or losses in many of developing countries all over the world. Jordan is not an acceptance. Approach: This study aimed at investigating the influence of ten main factors affecting the profitability of layer hen producers. The investigated factors include price of purchased pullet, feed price, cost of labor, cost of veterinary service and medicine, building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, length of production cycle, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate, egg sale price and laying percentage. Results: The study used a multiple regression profit model to estimate the effect of the above mentioned factors on profit per kg egg produced. The direction and quantity of relationship between profit per kg egg and variables affecting profit were investigated. Data from 40 operating and randomly selected egg production enterprises in the country was collected. Data was obtained directly from the producers during April to mid August 2010. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a pre-tested questionnaire. The data obtained via interview surveys were processed to calculate profit per kg egg and other relevant information for inclusion in a profit function model. Fifteen eggs are registered to be 1 kg in the study. Cost and income items used to calculate profit in the study. The results of the study revealed that the feed price was found to be the factor which has the highest negative impact on the profitability showing the coefficient-3.01. The egg sale price was with high positive impact on profitability showing the coefficient 2.633. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results of the study it could be concluded that higher prices of purchased or breeding pullet, higher feed price, higher cost of labor, higher cost of veterinary service and medicine, higher other costs including building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, higher feed quantity to be converted to eggs and higher mortality rate are associated with lower profitability of laying hen enterprises, while higher length of production cycle, higher egg sale price and higher laying percentage are associated with higher profitability. Critical limits indicated for various cost components should be used as a guideline to adjust budget in commercial egg operation thereby, ensuring higher net profit per bird.

Ebraheem Altahat

2012-01-01

91

USAF Civil Engineering Work Force Productivity: An Analysis of Non-Behavioral Factors Affecting Planning Technician Labor Manhour Estimates for In-House Work Requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors investigated how work requirement manhour estimates affect Air Force Civil Engineering productivity ratios by gathering standard and adusted estimates for five hypothetical work requirements and selected planner and work center data from a sam...

W. F. Hanley F. C. Smith

1976-01-01

92

Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

Fethi Ahmet INAN

2006-07-01

93

A Survey on Factors Affecting on Consumer’s Potential Willingness to Pay for Organic Products in Iran (A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study determined factors influencing on consumer’s potential willingness to pay for organic products in Iran. Data collected with filling 240 questionnaires in 2006 from Mashhad’s households and analyzed using Tobit model. Results showed that product appearance and measure of consumers’ information is effective on willingness to pay for organic products. In addition, consumers’ anxieties from chemical residue in nutrition have positive effect on willingness to pay for these products. Also, results showed that household’s education level has negative effect on willingness to pay for organic products. encourage of consumers to organic products consumption, encourage farmers to produce organic products and without any chemical material and make sustainable marketing for organic products, increasing the households awareness about organic products, expansion of organic product cultivation, government payment for supporting of producers suggested.

M. Ghorbani

2009-01-01

94

A Survey on Factors Affecting on Consumer’s Potential Willingness to Pay for Organic Products in Iran (A Case Study)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study determined factors influencing on consumer’s potential willingness to pay for organic products in Iran. Data collected with filling 240 questionnaires in 2006 from Mashhad’s households and analyzed using Tobit model. Results showed that product appearance and measure of consumers’ information is effective on willingness to pay for organic products. In addition, consumers’ anxieties from chemical residue in nutrition have positive effect on willingn...

Ghorbani, M.; Hamraz, S.

2009-01-01

95

Fluorescein. Physiochemical factors affecting its fluorescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescein's property of fluorescence is reviewed. Of the many factors which affect its fluorescence, concentration is probably the most important and it best explains why leaking aqueous turns fluorescein bright green during Seidel's test. The intensity and pattern of fluorescein staining of corneal lesions is probably due to the concentration and distribution of fluorescein in the cornea. The concentration of fluorescein achieved in the retinal blood vessels during fluorescein angiography affects its fluorescence. PMID:7046118

Romanchuk, K G

1982-01-01

96

Factors affecting protoplast formation by Rhizoctonia solani.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novozym 234 was the most frequently used enzyme for production of Rhizoctonia solani protoplasts. Since manufacture of this enzyme was discontinued in the late 1990s, a new procedure was developed by testing lytic enzymes from Sigma and by examining factors affecting protoplast formation. The combination of 20 mg/mL Driselase and 10mg/mL lysing enzyme was effective in releasing protoplasts from R. solani. The optimal condition for enzyme treatment of mycelium was incubation at 37 degrees C for 15 min followed by 34 degrees C for 105 min. The amount of protoplasts produced was positively correlated with growth rate and negatively correlated with mycelial density. Under favorable conditions, R. solani mycelia released 1.68 x 10(6) protoplasts/mL that is comparable with that produced with Novozym 234. Among various media tested, the best solid medium for protoplast regeneration was 1% V-8 juice agar, while the best liquid medium was 10% potato dextrose broth. PMID:19715779

Liu, Tung-Hsen; Lin, Mei-Ju; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

2010-02-28

97

SCREENING OF SELECTED OLEAGINOUS YEASTS FOR LIPID PRODUCTION FROM GLYCEROL AND SOME FACTORS WHICH AFFECT LIPID PRODUCTION BY YARROWIA LIPOLYTICA STRAINS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability of eight yeast strains to utilize glycerol as a sole carbon source and accumulate lipids in a chemically defined medium was screened. Among the yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 grew to high cell densities on glycerol. These strains were further tested for lipid accumulation under varying nutritional conditions in Erlenmeyer flasks. The results showed that strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 accumulated lipids up to 37.1 % and 54.4 % of total cell dry weight, respectively, when the defined medium was supplemented with 1 g/L urea and 2 g/L yeast extract. The lipids accumulated by the two yeasts contained a high proportion of C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:0 fatty acids. The results suggest that Y. lipolytica strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 have the potential for converting crude glycerol into fatty acids which can in turn be utilized as substrate for biodiesel production.

Salinee Sriwongchai

2013-04-01

98

Factors Affecting Profitability of Layer Hens Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Layer hen enterprises suffer from low profitability or losses in many of developing countries all over the world. Jordan is not an acceptance. Approach: This study aimed at investigating the influence of ten main factors affecting the profitability of layer hen producers. The investigated factors include price of purchased pullet, feed price, cost of labor, cost of veterinary service and medicine, building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance an...

Ebraheem Altahat; Ali AL-Sharafat; Mohammad Altarawneh

2012-01-01

99

Primary Factors Affecting Safety of Control System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to point out some of the factors that affect safety of control system. Already in initial stages of the control system life-cycle it is necessary to analyze the effect of each of these factors on safety of a designed control system. Following this analysis, it is possible to propose appropriate measures for achieving specified safety goals.

Michal Foltan

2006-01-01

100

Affecting Factors in Second Language Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second language (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affecting factors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were…

Andreou, G.; Vlachos, F.; Andreou, E.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability  

Science.gov (United States)

The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

2011-01-01

102

Factors Affecting Thickening in Liquid Solids Separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The general objective of the research program was to investigate the factors affecting the thickening of various types of liquid-solids suspensions by gravity sedimentation of interest in sewage treatment. The more specific aims of the program were as fol...

G. J. Schroepfer N. R. Ziemke

1964-01-01

103

EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having th...

Yu-Jia Hu

2012-01-01

104

Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG) in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP). METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age ...

Pinar Sarkut; Sadik Kilicturgay; Ali Ozer; Ersin Ozturk; Tuncay Yilmazlar

2013-01-01

105

From Perceptions to Practice: Factors Affecting Recast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review study was motivated by a debate about the role of recast in L2 learning. Recast is the most frequent type of feedback but probably the least effective one. While some researchers have criticized it as inefficient, others have supported it as an unobtrusive type of feedback especially useful during interactive activities. This review of studies on recast helps pinpoint the factors contributing to the effectiveness of recast. In this regard, two factors were found to have a determining role; saliency and learners’ proficiency level. Saliency concerns the noticeability of recast by learners. Different factors affect saliency including shortness of recast, added-stress on the erroneous part, number of corrections, and the focus of recast. On the other hand, the results of studies confirm the role of proficiency. In other words, proficient learners are more likely to notice their errors using recast even when it is insalient.

Sajjad Sepehrinia

2011-08-01

106

Factors Affecting Hydrogen Production from Cassava Wastewater by a Co-Culture of Anaerobic Sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Series of batch experiments were used to investigate the effects of environmental factors i.e., total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations, initial pH, illumination pattern and stirring conditions on hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by a co-culture of anaerobic sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum. The maximum of the hydrogen yield of 150.46 and 340.19 mL g-COD-1 was obtained at the total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations of 0.2 and 0.04 M, respecti...

Alissara Reungsang; Suksaman Sangyoka; Pawinee Chaiprasert; Tsuyoshi Imai

2007-01-01

107

Factors affecting microencapsulation of drugs in liposomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Liposomes have been used as carriers for drugs, toxins, enzymes, proteins/peptides and other bioactive materials there are several liposomal formulations that are being investigated in preclinical and clinical trials. Achieving high encapsulation as well as retention of the encapsulated drug is very important in developing liposomes as drug carriers. A high drug-to-lipid ratio is likely to reduce the cost of formulations and also the risk of lipid-induced toxicity following their injection. Comparison of the encapsulation efficiency of the drug in liposomes with the therapeutic dose indicates whether, in principle, liposomes can be used as a delivery system for that drug. The optimization of the liposomal encapsulation of a drug is usually based on trial and error, rather than on a thorough investigation of the factors affecting it. To obtain optimum encapsulation of a drug into a liposomal preparation, parameters influencing both the liposome and the drug need to be carefully considered during the early stages of development. In this review, factors that affect encapsulation of drugs in liposomes such as liposome size and type, charge on the liposome surface, bilayer rigidity, method of preparation, remote loading, addition of ion pairing, and complexing agents and characteristics of the drug to be encapsulated are discussed. PMID:7650588

Kulkarni, S B; Betageri, G V; Singh, M

1995-01-01

108

The marketing implications of affective product design.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emotions are compelling human experiences and product designers can take advantage of this by conceptualizing emotion-engendering products that sell well in the market. This study hypothesized that product attributes influence users' emotions and that the relationship is moderated by the adherence of these product attributes to purchase criteria. It was further hypothesized that the emotional experience of the user influences purchase intention. A laboratory study was conducted to validate the hypotheses using mobile phones as test products. Sixty-two participants were asked to assess eight phones from a display of 10 phones and indicate their emotional experiences after assessment. Results suggest that some product attributes can cause intense emotional experience. The attributes relate to the phone's dimensions and the relationship between these dimensions. The study validated the notion of integrating affect in designing products that convey users' personalities. PMID:17303064

Seva, Rosemary R; Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Helander, Martin G

2007-11-01

109

A Response Surface Methodology study on the role of factors affecting growth and volatile phenol production by Brettanomyces bruxellensis ISA 2211 in wine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was aimed at determining the effect of glucose, ethanol and sulphur dioxide on the growth and volatile phenol production by Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red wines using a response surface methodology approach. Sulphur dioxide proved to have a significant (p < 0.05) negative linear and quadratic effect on growth and 4-ethylphenol production. Concentrations of sulphur dioxide higher than 20 mg L(-1), at pH 3.50, induced immediate loss of cell culturability under growth permissive levels of ethanol. Under high ethanol concentrations (14% v/v), the lag phase increased from 3 to 10 days, growth being fully arrested at 15% (v/v). Glucose up to 10 g L(-1) was found to be a significant factor (quadratic level) in biomass increase under low ethanol (<12.5% v/v) and low sulphite concentrations. However, when cells were inactivated by sulphur dioxide and ethanol, glucose (up to 10 g L(-1)) did not prevent cell death. Production of more than 50 ?g L(-1) day(-1) of 4-ethylphenol was only observed in the presence of high numbers (10(6) CFU mL(-1)) of culturable cells, being stimulated by increasing glucose concentrations. PMID:24929715

Chandra, M; Barata, A; Ferreira-Dias, S; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

2014-09-01

110

Factors Affecting Electricity Demand in Jordan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 1 The paper examines the relationship between electricity demand and climate/non-climate related factors using statistical regression analysis. 2 It focuses on the environmental, demographic, policy (energy pricing and technological factors as the main factors affecting the consumption pattern in Jordan. 3 The paper also presents the variations occurred in the electricity demand over the period 1994-2008. The variations that are observed during the period of study are: Shifting of the peak load occurrence from evening to morning period, Modification in the annual daily load curve especially in winter season, Variation in relationship between space temperature and demand especially in winter, and dramatic increase in electric generation after year 2003. The shift in peak load from evening to morning period is mainly due to technological factor as a result of wide use of the air conditions in houses, services and government offices for cooling in summer instead of ordinary air fans. The variations in consumption pattern between 2000 and 2007 are mainly associated with economic, social and demographic factors. The high demand at lower space temperature is governed by introducing new appliances for heating in winter as a result of low electricity pricing comparing with gasoline price. The dramatic increase in electric generation after 2003 is probably due to demographic factors as a result of high growth of population after the Gulf war II. 4 The correlation between the daily maximum loads in morning and evening periods with the differential temperature (?T above 20?C threshold in summer and below 15?C threshold in winter, shows pronounced changes in 2007 compared with year 2000. The regression tests show that a decrease of 1?C below 15?C threshold in winter 1 increases the morning demand by only 2 MW/?C in 2000 and 16.7 MW/?C in 2007, 2 decreases the evening peak by ?2.6 MW/1?C in 2000 and increases the evening peak by 22.9 MW/1?C in 2007. Results show that the demographic, technological, environmental and national energy pricing factors play a vital rule in consumption pattern in Jordan. Moreover, the paper reveals that planners and decision makers should be careful when applying new tariff in the developing countries such as Jordan.

Mohammad Awad Momani

2013-01-01

111

EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

Yu-Jia Hu

2012-01-01

112

Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

1989-01-01

113

Does Labour Diversity affect Firm Productivity?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a matched employer-employee dataset, we analyze how workforce diversity in cultural background, education and demographic characteristics affects productivity of firms in Denmark. Implementing a structural estimation of the firms' production function (Ackerberg et al., 2006) we find that labor diversity in education significantly enhances a firm's value added. Conversely, diversity in ethnicity and demographics induces negative effects on firm productivity. Hence, the negative effects, coming from communication and integration costs connected to a more culturally and demographically diverse workforce, seem to outweigh the positive effects coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers.

Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

2011-01-01

114

Factors affecting the microstructure of porous ceramics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, porous ceramics were produced by using two methods: the polymeric sponge and foam method. Astudy of the effect of viscosity on the characteristics of the final product produced using the polymeric sponge method revealed that the microstructure of porous ceramics is highly affected by the viscosity of the slurry. The optimal ratio between porosity and the strength of the porous material was achieved by subsequently repeating the immersing and drying processes. Astudy of the porous material obtained using the foam method revealed that the pore size and foam volume can be controlled by varying the amounts of anhydride and thermal blowing agent. The problem related to foam collapsing was solved by using a thermal blowing agent. The microstructure of the samples was characterized by SEM.

DUSAN TRIPKOVIC

2006-03-01

115

Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

Virgilijus Sakalauskas

2011-12-01

116

An experiment on the factors affecting simple reaction time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reaction time is considered as an important measure that affects performance of an individual both in business and private life. Especially, reaction time, which can be defined as a period of time being required for giving appropriate responses to the perceived stimuli, is an important factor in terms of efficiency of organization and also health and safety at work. Moreover, reaction time is regarded as an important factor in product design. In this study, an experiment is designed to reveal the factors that affect simple reaction time and the effects of (discrete / continuous variables such as age, height, weight, gender, sight defects, smoking and alcohol use, regular habits of sports and academic achievement on reaction time of individuals are investigated, and the findings are interpreted.

Hale Akkocao?lu

2013-10-01

117

Factors Affecting Hoteliers’ Decision to Advertise in Travel Magazine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advertising is a paid, mass-mediated attempt to persuade. That mean Advertising is paid communication by a company or organization that wants its information disseminated through a communication medium designed to reach more than one person, typically a large number or mass of people and advertising includes an attempt to persuade consumer to like the brand and because of that liking to eventually buy the brand. Advertising in travel magazine is one of the promotional methods to promote hoteliers products or services to the market place. By advertising in travel magazine, it can reach the target audience, educate them about the products or services, and move them closer to make a purchase. The purpose of the research is to recognize and rank the factors affecting hotelier’s decision to advertise in travel magazine. The respondents for the research are those hoteliers operating in Malaysia. The factors for this research are reached target readers, cost of advertising, contents of the magazine, frequency of advertising and media of advertising. The result of the research shows two of the factors significantly affecting hoteliers advertising decision. Furthermore, cost of advertising ranks the first follow by reach target readers, contents of magazine, media of advertising and frequency of advertising ranks the last. This research will help the publisher of travel magazine to understand and recognize the ranking of factors affecting hoteliers’ decision to advertise in travel magazine.

Mohd Faiz Hilmi

2011-09-01

118

Factors affecting the biotransformation of TNT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were performed investigating several of the factors the effect the biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in soils and groundwater. Three different electron acceptor conditions (nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and fermentative) were tested, as were several other variables in the reactor medium. All three anaerobic conditions were found favorable for TNT transformation, though nitrate-reducing conditions appeared to be fastest. Under nitrate-reducing conditions, TNT transformation rates were directly proportionally to primary substrate (acetate) concentrations. In the presence of bisulfide, TNT reacted rapidly in an abiotic reaction. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in the fermentative reactors were inhibited by TNT concentrations above 100 mg/L. The pattern on nitro-group reduction was reasonably predictable, with the more reduced products degrading fastest under nitrate-reducing conditions.

Wilber, G.G.; Li, J.; Clarkson, W.W.

1999-07-01

119

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors inf [...] luencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. METHOD: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. RESULTS: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

Magdalene H., Awases; Marthie C., Bezuidenhout; Janetta H., Roos.

120

Some Environmental Factors Affecting on Growth Characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Live weights, weight gains and some body measurements at different ages of Eastern Anatolian Red Cattle (EAR were determined and some environmental factors affecting on these traits were investigated. The effect of dam’s age on the birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01. Although the lowest birth weight was obtained from calves of dams at the 3 years of age, the highest birth weight was obtained from calves given birth by cows at the 5 years of age. The males had heavier live weights and weight gains at different ages than the females. The effect of the sex on the live weights except for 9 and 12 months weights was found as highly significant (P<0.01. Feeding of the calves with different amount of milk had significant (P<0.01 influence on the 3, 6 and 9 months weights as well as weight gains. The effect of the years on the daily weight gains in EAR was also highly significant (P<0.01. The results shows the importance of the environmental effects on the traits studied and revealed that there is need for them to be corrected prior to the improvement studies.

N. Tuzemen

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044. The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

Rubporn Kittivachra

2007-07-01

122

Factors affecting the wear of sonic files.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate factors affecting the wear and cutting ability of sonic files. A model system was used and the following variables evaluated, file type; Heliosonic, Rispisonic or Shaper, load; 25, 50 or 100 grams and length of time in use; new, 30 or 60 seconds. A 3(3) full factorial analysis with two replications into the effect of the above variables on the cutting ability of the Heliosonic, Rispisonic and Shaper files powered by the MM1500 sonic instrument was performed. A new file size 25 (Heliosonic and Shaper) or No 3 (Rispisonic) was used for each cut together with water irrigation and the substrate used was 1 mm thick sections of bovine bone. All variables had a significant effect on cutting (ANOVA. p 0.05). The Rispisonic file was most susceptible to wear during use especially at higher loads and the Heliosonic file cut least. It is suggested that the Shaper file is the better design of the three with respect to cutting ability and wear with use. PMID:9028184

Lumley, P J

1996-08-01

123

Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality of position does not augur well for women. This result implies that despite the fact that the women in the sample were intelligent (that is, they passed the stringent MBA screening, motivated and obviously were able to manage their time well-being able to balance work, school and in some cases, family responsibilities-they were still far removed from the top. These women still faced some hostile environment that prevented them from fully contributing to making decisions that matter.

Vivien T. Supangco

2001-06-01

124

Fatores genéticos e de meio na produção de leite de caprinos leiteiros Genetic and environmental factors affecting milk production from dairy goats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente estudo, avaliar a produção de leite de caprinos leiteiros da região sudeste do Brasil, com intuito de verificar os fatores de meio e estimar os parâmetros genéticos pelo método dos mínimos quadrados (MMQ. Os controles de 1336 lactações foram inicialmente ajustados pela função multifásica (difásica e calculou-se a produção de leite total (PLT. Os dados foram provenientes de sete propriedades e três raças (Parda Alpina, Saanen e Toggenburg. A média e o erro-padrão da PLT estimados pelo MMQ foram de 635,31 ±39,75 kg. A interação ano x estação do parto influenciou a PLT. Em um dos anos estudados, a PLT foi menor para as cabras paridas no final da estação. Nas três estações de parto, observou-se comportamento quadrático da PLT, em função dos anos de parto. Para as três estações, a PLT aumentou de 1986 até meados de 1990, decrescendo em seguida. A idade de máxima PLT foi observada aos 46,65 meses. Das três raças estudadas, observou-se que as raças Parda Alpina e Saanen apresentaram alternância de superioridade na PLT em algumas fazendas, porém maiores que a Toggenburg. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade e repetibilidade da PLT estimados pelo MMQ foram de 0,296 ± 0,079 e 0,277 ± 0,033, respectivamente. Estes resultados revelam baixa confiabilidade em poucas observações dessas características ou na inconsistência das estimativas da função multifásica. Como a PLT é uma característica limitada ao sexo, sugere-se o teste de progênie como método de seleção mais eficiente para os reprodutores e uso de inseminação artificial como processo de disseminação do material genético selecionado.The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on milk production from dairy goats raised in the Brazilian Southeast and to estimate genetic parameters for this trait through least squares. The data originated from seven farms and three breeds (Alpine Brown, Saanen and Toggenburg. Milk yields obtained from 1,336 lactations were initially fitted to a diphasic function, whereby total milk production (TMP was estimated. The overall mean and standard error for TMP were 635.31±39.75 kg. A significant year x kidding season interaction was observed. In all three kidding seasons a quadratic yearly trend of PLT was observed: it increased from 1986 until mid-1990, decreasing thereafter. Age of maximum PLT was estimated as 46.65 months. Alpine Brown was superior to Saanen in some farms, the opposite occurring in others, but both showed higher PLT values than Toggenburg. Estimated heritability and repeatability coefficients were 0.296±0.079 and 0.227±0.033, respectively. These results show low reliability due to the small number of observations or to inconsistent PLT estimates obtained through the biphasic function. Since PLT is a sex-limited trait, it is suggested the use of progeny tests as the most efficient selection method for bucks and artificial insemination for spreading the selected genetic material.

Heraldo Cesar Gonçalves

2001-06-01

125

External factors affecting investment decisions of companies  

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In this paper we attempt to investigate the importance of certain external factors on the investment decision among Polish companies. With the use of data from the tailored made Survey on Receivables we examine factors influencing investment decisions of companies in Poland, assess the relation between the branch and company size and importance of the factors and finally we determine the relative influence of these factors on the actual investment reductions. The results showed that first, al...

Bialowolski, Piotr; Weziak-bialowolska, Dorota

2013-01-01

126

Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

To begin the validation process for the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Thailand, research replicating Holton, Bates, and Ruona's study (2000) was conducted in Thailand. The LTSI was administered to 1,029 employees. Exploratory factor analysis and MANOVA were used to identify factors. A factor structure almost identical to that of…

Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

2005-01-01

127

Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by Rhizobium  

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Full Text Available Recent reports pointed to a decline in agricultural dependence on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and in the use of rhizobial inoculants. The aim of the present review was to study the environmental factors that affect the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium in soil. These factors included pH, salinity, moisture, temperature, microorganisms, organic matter and soil texture. The overall conclusion is that symbiotic nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium is a critical biological process. Environmental stresses are generally the limiting factors of the symbiotic nitrogen fixation. With the selection of the appropriate legume and rhizobial inoculant, nitrogen fixation can be increased and concomitantly food production can be improved even under environmentally stressed conditions.

Abdullah M. K. Al-Falih

2002-01-01

128

On the factors affecting product distribution in laccase-catalyzed oxidation of a lignin model compound vanillyl alcohol: experimental and computational evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are multicopper oxidases, which can oxidize phenolic substrates by the concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The phenolic substructures of lignin are also oxidized by laccases, resulting mainly in various polymerized products. Several model compound studies indicate that variations in the reaction media, such as the pH and the enzyme dosage used, have an impact on the observed product distribution of laccase promoted oxidation, but no detailed study has been reported to explain these results. In the present study, a monomeric lignin model compound, vanillyl alcohol, was oxidized in laccase-catalyzed reactions by varying the pH, enzyme dosage and temperature. The energies of all the observed products and potential intermediates were calculated by applying density functional theory (DFT) and the polarizable continuum solvation model (PCM). The observed predominant product at pH 4.5 to 7.5 was clearly the 5-5' dimer, although the thermodynamic product according to the calculated free energies was vanillin, the difference being 5.6 kcal mol(-1). The hydrogen bonding is shown to give an additional stabilizing effect on the transition state leading to the 5-5' dimer, but also a kinetic barrier reduces the formation of vanillin. Based on the calculated pKa-values of the proposed intermediates we suggest that the rearomatization reactions of the quinones formed in the radical reactions under mildly acidic and neutral conditions would preferentially occur through deprotonation rather than through protonation. PMID:23851662

Lahtinen, Maarit; Heinonen, Petri; Oivanen, Mikko; Karhunen, Pirkko; Kruus, Kristiina; Sipilä, Jussi

2013-09-01

129

Factors Affecting Degradation of Aldicarb and Ethoprop  

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Chemical and microbial degradation of the nematicides-insecticides aldicarb and ethoprop has been studied extensively in both laboratory and field studies. These studies show that temperature is the most important variable affecting the degradation rate of aldicarb and its carbamate metabolites in surface soils. Temperature and organic matter appear to be the most important variables affecting degradation rates of ethoprop in soils under normal agricultural conditions, with organic matter bei...

Jones, Russell L.; Norris, Frank A.

1998-01-01

130

How Student Satisfaction Factors Affect Perceived Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from students in two sections of a general education course offered at a research university in spring 2009 were used to explore whether student satisfaction factors are associated with perceived learning as rated by students. A list of 22 elements in the learning environment was explored. The 22 were used in creating 3 satisfaction factors

Lo, Celia C.

2010-01-01

131

Optimization of physical factors affecting the production of thermo-stable organic solvent-tolerant protease from a newly isolated halo tolerant Bacillus subtilis strain Rand  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many researchers have reported on the optimization of protease production; nevertheless, only a few have reported on the optimization of the production of organic solvent-tolerant proteases. Ironically, none has reported on thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease to date. The aim of this study was to isolate the thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease and identify the culture conditions which support its production. The bacteria of genus Bacillus are active producers of extra-cellular proteases, and the thermostability of enzyme production by Bacillus species has been well-studied by a number of researchers. In the present study, the Bacillus subtilis strain Rand was isolated from the contaminated soil found in Port Dickson, Malaysia. Results A thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease producer had been identified as Bacillus subtilis strain Rand, based on the 16S rRNA analysis conducted, as well as the morphological characteristics and biochemical properties. The production of the thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease was optimized by varying various physical culture conditions. Inoculation with 5.0% (v/v of (AB600 = 0.5 inoculum size, in a culture medium (pH 7.0 and incubated for 24 h at 37°C with 200 rpm shaking, was the best culture condition which resulted in the maximum growth and production of protease (444.7 U/ml; 4042.4 U/mg. The Rand protease was not only stable in the presence of organic solvents, but it also exhibited a higher activity than in the absence of organic solvent, except for pyridine which inhibited the protease activity. The enzyme retained 100, 99 and 80% of its initial activity, after the heat treatment for 30 min at 50, 55, and 60°C, respectively. Conclusion Strain Rand has been found to be able to secrete extra-cellular thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease into the culture medium. The protease exhibited a remarkable stability towards temperature and organic solvent. This unique property makes it attractive and useful to be used in industrial applications.

Salleh Abu

2009-04-01

132

Does Labor Diversity Affect Firm Productivity?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using an employer-employee dataset, we analyze how diversity in cultural background, skills and demographic characteristics a?ects total factor productivity (TFP) of ?rms in Denmark. Implementing structural estimation of ?rms' production function, we ?nd evidence that labor diversity in skills/education signi?cantly enhances ?rm performance as measured by ?rm TFP. Conversely, diversity in demographics and ethnicity brings mixed results - both dimensions of workforce diversity have either no or negative e?ects on ?rm TFP. Hence, it seems as if the negative e?ects, coming from communication and integration costs connected to a more demographically and culturally diverse workforce, counteract the positive e?ects of diversity on ?rm TFP, coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers. However, we ?nd that ethnic diversity is valuable for ?rms operating in industries characterized by above-average trade openness, giving support to the hypothesis that an ethnically diverse workforce provides information and accessto global markets.

Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

2010-01-01

133

Factsheet 2: Factors affecting waste generation  

Oct 1, 2008 ... Factors which influence Household Waste Generation. Dr. Alan ... Most other \\categories of waste were generated by a far smaller number of households. In .... \\degree of random variability in the amounts of miscellaneous ...

134

ANALYSIS OF FACTORS THAT AFFECTED WAR PHOTOGRAPHY  

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War photography is a field which experienced changes that were influenced by many factors. Some of the most important factors were course of development of photographic equipment, course of development of printing press, possibility of reproducing photographs in print media and consequently possibility of mediating war photographs to public, social and cultural background and level of censorship and control over publishing war photographs and their content at the time when certain war photogr...

2011-01-01

135

From Perceptions to Practice: Factors Affecting Recast  

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This review study was motivated by a debate about the role of recast in L2 learning. Recast is the most frequent type of feedback but probably the least effective one. While some researchers have criticized it as inefficient, others have supported it as an unobtrusive type of feedback especially useful during interactive activities. This review of studies on recast helps pinpoint the factors contributing to the effectiveness of recast. In this regard, two factors were found to have a...

Sajjad Sepehrinia; Alireza Zarea; Majid Soltani Moghaddam; Morteza Nasiri

2011-01-01

136

Factors affecting androgenesis in Indica rice  

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For its effective utilization in breeding programmes, the haploid production technique should allow genotype-independent production of large numbers of haploids. Although anther culture has been successfully used to hasten the breeding programmes in several crop species, including rice, there still remain problems to realize its full potential. Unlike the highly responsive model systems, most of the indica cultivars respond rather poorly in anther cultures. There is also concern regarding the...

Bhojwani, Sant S.; Pande, Himani; Raina, Anupam

2001-01-01

137

Factors Affecting Forest Area Changes in Cambodia: An Econometric Approach  

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Full Text Available Clarifying factors affecting forest area changes is critical to implementing REDD+ scheme properly. We analyzed some socio-economic factors and clarified their relationships with deforestation in Cambodia for the period of 2002 to 2010. A panel data analysis was conducted for 18 provinces, while six other provinces were deleted from the list because only a small amount of their land was forested. Time effects, cross-sectional dependence, serial correlation in idiosyncratic errors, and heteroskedasticity were tested, and robust variance matrix estimations were obtained to solve the problems of heteroskedasticity and serial correlation. The model estimation results showed that population, gross agricultural production and large-scale plantation development have negative impacts on forest area changes. On the other hand, the impacts of rice cultivation, gross industrial production, household income and house floor area by household were found not to be significant. Overall, however, the results indicated that forests in Cambodia still face pressure from the increases in population, agriculture production, and the enlargement of land development. As the increase in productivity of agriculture gives a better use of current agricultural land and lessens the pressure on forest, intensifying agriculture is important. It is also important to develop industry and other economic ventures to grow national economy while not imposing pressure on forest. This research reminds decision makers to use discretion when developing large-scale plantations.

Tetsuya Michinaka

2013-04-01

138

Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes  

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Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating positio...

2012-01-01

139

Factorization and Quarkonium Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is possible to extend the formalism for high-pT heavy quarkonium factorization beyond leading power. This extension may be helpful in interpreting the relative roles of octet and singlet channels in the formalism of nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD). It may enable us to understand the origin of the surprisingly large results for cross sections calculated in the color singlet sector of NRQCD.

Kang, Z.B.; Qiu, J.W.; Sterman, G.

2011-05-01

140

Factors affecting levodopa effects in Parkinson's disease.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Levodopa is the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD because of its outstanding clinical efficacy. However, the majority of patients experience various adverse reactions, including the wearing-off phenomenon, the on-off phenomenon, dyskinesia and psychiatric symptoms. The response to levodopa depends not only on the intrinsic responsiveness of the patients, but also on various other important factors including the type of levodopa preparation, its absorption/metabolism, the blood-brain barrier, age at onset of disease and concomitant use of anti-parkinsonian drugs. This review summarizes factors which influence the effects of levodopa in PD. To minimize levodopa-induced adverse reactions and to relieve long-term parkinsonian symptoms, levodopa therapy should be conducted by taking these factors into consideration.

Ogawa N

2000-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Factors affecting alum-protein interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alum (or aluminum-containing) adjuvants are key components of many vaccines currently on the market. The immuno-potentiation effect of alum adjuvants is presumably due to their interaction with antigens, leading to adsorption on the alum particle surface. Understanding the mechanism of antigen adsorption/desorption and its influencing factors could provide guidance on formulation design and ensure proper in-vivo immuno-potentiation effect. In this paper, surface adsorption of several model proteins on two types of aluminum adjuvants (Alhydrogel(®) and Adjuphos(®)) are investigated to understand the underlying adsorption mechanisms, capacities, and potential influencing factors. It was found that electrostatic interactions are the major driving force for surface adsorption of all the model proteins except ovalbumin. Alhydrogel has a significantly higher adsorption capacity than Adjuphos. Several factors significantly change the adsorption capacity of both Alhydrogel and Adjuphos, including molecular weight of protein antigens, sodium chloride, phosphate buffer, denaturing agents, and size of aluminum particles. These important factors need to be carefully considered in the design of an effective protein antigen-based vaccine. PMID:24607202

Huang, Min; Wang, Wei

2014-05-15

142

Environmental factors affecting rates of nitrogen cycling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nitrogen cycle in the eutrophic Delaware river was studied in late summer, 1983 using 15N tracer additions of NHG4+, NO2-, and NO3-. Rates for nine different transformations were calculated simultaneously with a least-squares minimization analysis. Light was found to stimulate ammonium uptake and to inhibit ammonium oxidation. Rates for nitrification, ammonium uptake by phytoplankton, and photosynthesis were integrated over 24 hours and river depth. High turbidity lifted the effect of light inhibition on nitrification and restricted phytoplankton uptake. Uptake of ammonium contributed over 95% of the inorganic nitrogen ration for phytoplankton, with dark uptake accounting for more than 50%. A mass-conservation, box model of river was used to calculate rate constants required to reproduce observed nutrient concentration changes. The calculated constants correlated well with the measured 15N and oxygen integrated rates. Water-column nitrification was the major loss term for NH4+, while water column regeneration was the primary source. Loss of oxidized nitrogen was insignificant. Oxygen consumption and air-water exchange far exceeded net photosynthetic oxygen production. Nitrification contributed less than 1% to the oxygen demand near Philadelphia but up to 25% further downstream. Production of NO and N2O was measured under varying oxygen concentrations in batch cultures of the nitrifying bacteria Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosococcus oceanus. Production of both gases increased relative to nitrite production as oxygen levels decreased

1984-01-01

143

Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

Ivan FERENCZ

2008-01-01

144

Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

2008-01-01

145

Internal factors affecting the jury members verdict  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence, the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.

Kalashnikova A.S.

2013-09-01

146

Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors  

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Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf) follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted til...

Yurdun Kuyucu; Ozgul Tap

2009-01-01

147

Risk factors that affect recurrence in strokes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Recurrent stroke is defined as a new cerebrovascular event which occurs after the stabilization of the previous stroke. Recurrence of stroke increases likelihood of disability-mortality associated with stroke. Systematic evaluation of stroke cases can help to reduce the risk of recurrence. Objective: In order to predict strokes which carry the risk of recurrence, we aimed to compare data related to risk factors, stroke type, etiology and disability-mortality rates associated wit...

Sema Demirci; Yalc??ner, Betu?l Z.; Göksel Bakaç; Cengiz Dayan; Fikret Aysal; Sevim Bayba?

2010-01-01

148

Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do n...

2004-01-01

149

Factors affecting peri-implant tissue reactions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Screw- shaped titanium implants are today routinely used m the substitution of lost teeth. In this thesis some of the biological factors related to the long-term survival and maintenance of dental implants were studied. The first arm of these studies was to evaluate the neutrophil activation around teeth and dental implants (Papers I & II). Secondly we wanted to evaluate the clinical radiographic and microbiological status of implants after long-term. function m partly e...

Hultin, Margareta

2001-01-01

150

Factors affecting levodopa effects in Parkinson's disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Levodopa is the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) because of its outstanding clinical efficacy. However, the majority of patients experience various adverse reactions, including the wearing-off phenomenon, the on-off phenomenon, dyskinesia and psychiatric symptoms. The response to levodopa depends not only on the intrinsic responsiveness of the patients, but also on various other important factors including the type of levodopa preparation, its absorption/metabolism,...

2000-01-01

151

Factors affecting boiler efficiency: a literature study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Literature on the subject of coal-fired boilers was studied with the objective of establishing criteria whereby the efficiency could be improved. Methods of determining boiler efficiency are also given. Improving the standards of boiler control, i.e. by ensuring optimum combustion and following a regular and thorough maintenance program, are the most important single factors by which the efficiency of a boiler can be improved.

Venter, J.S.M.

1980-11-01

152

Risk factors affecting pancreatic fistulas after pancreaticoduodenectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the risk factors of pancreatic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 172 consecutive patients who had undergone pancreatico-duodenectomy at Inha University Hospital between April 1996 and March 2006. We analyzed the pancreatic fistula rate according to the clinical characteristics, the pathologic and laboratory findings, and the anastomotic methods.RESULTS: The incidence of developing pancreatic fistulas in patients older than 60 years of age was 21.7% (25/115, while the incidence was 8.8% (5/57 for younger patients; the difference was significant (P = 0.03. Patients with a dilated pancreatic duct had a lower rate of post-operative pancreatic fistulas than patients with a non-dilated duct (P = 0.001. Other factors, including clinical features, anastomotic methods, and pathologic diagnosis, did not show any statistical difference.CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that pancreatic fistulas are related to age and a dilated pancreatic duct. The surgeon must take these risk factors into consideration when performing a pancre-aticoduodenectomy.

Yun-Mee Choe, Keon-Young Lee, Cheong-Ah Oh, Joung-Bum Lee, Sun Keun Choi, Yoon-Seok Hur, Sei-Joong Kim, Young Up Cho, Seung-Ik Ahn, Kee-Chun Hong, Seok-Hwan Shin, Kyung-Rae Kim

2008-12-01

153

Risk factors that affect recurrence in strokes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent stroke is defined as a new cerebrovascular event which occurs after the stabilization of the previous stroke. Recurrence of stroke increases likelihood of disability-mortality associated with stroke. Systematic evaluation of stroke cases can help to reduce the risk of recurrence. Objective: In order to predict strokes which carry the risk of recurrence, we aimed to compare data related to risk factors, stroke type, etiology and disability-mortality rates associated with stroke. Material And Method: Patients with stroke who referred to Bak?rkoy Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases Training and Research State Hospital between June 1, 2002 and February 28, 2003 were recorded into the stroke database in a consecutive and prospective manner. Strokes were classified as ischemic/hemorrhagic and first/recurrent. For recurrent strokes, information about previous strokes was also recorded. Risk factors were classified as hypertension (HT, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation (AF, coronary artery disease (CAD, migraine, transient ischemic accident (TIA, family history of cerebrovascular accident (CVA, oral contraceptive use, PAD, congestive heart failure (CHF, other heart diseases, smoking cigarette and alcohol consumption. Disability-mortality rates associated with stroke were evaluated. All data were compared for first and recurrent strokes. Results: In our study, 631 patients were evaluated, 52.3% of whom were female and 47.7% male. Frequency of stroke was statistically high (p<0.001 in females over 70 years old. Recurrent strokes were of the same type. For the first and recurrent strokes, HT was the highest risk factor. AF frequency increased with age (p<0.001. The rate of disability-mortality was found high in strokes of undetermined and cardioembolic origin. Conclusion: Knowledge of etiologic group can help to predict recurrence of stroke and prevent death. We think that effective treatment of modifiable risk factors identified in stroke groups where recurrence is the highest, and prioritising the investigation of cardioembolic risk factors in elderly women are significant in terms of primary and secondary stroke prevention.

Sevim Bayba?

2010-01-01

154

Study of Factors Affecting Mental Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to investigate the simple and multiple relationships between role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload and mental health considering the moderating role of type A personality and sense of coherence. To this end correlation and regression analysis is utilized. Research sample includes 196 personnel working in Ahvaz Pipe-production factory during year 2007. Research results revealed that there is a significant relation between role ambiguity and mental health deficie...

Abdul-Kazem Naisi; Ali Moazami-Goodarzi; Maryam Zarra-Nezhad

2009-01-01

155

Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, mar...

Bowman, Maria S.; David Zilberman

2013-01-01

156

Factors affecting goat milk yield and composition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper was to study the effects of breed, stage of lactation, season of kidding and parity on goat milk yield and composition. A total of 25255 records of daily milk production and 25065 records of fat percentage, 25382 records of protein percentage and 24810 records of lactose percentage were obtained, at approximately monthly intervals, from 3702 Alpine and 411 Saanen goats in Croatia. The analysed data were recorded during 2006. Saanen breed had significantly (P<0.01) higher...

2008-01-01

157

Factors Affecting Quality of Life Following Stroke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stroke is a chronic and important health problem affecting all aspects of an individual’s life. Neurological impairment resulting from stroke leads to functional disability in patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of age, gender, duration of stroke and side of hemiplegia on the quality of life and the correlation between disability indices and the quality of life. Sixty-eight patients followed by the Stroke Policlinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department were included in the study. Functional status was evaluated with Brunnstrom Assessment, Functional Independence Measurement (FIMand Rivermaed Mobility Index (RMI. Nothingham Health Profile (NHP was used for the evaluation of quality of life. We did not determine any statistically significant difference in the subdivisions of quality of life between male and female patients and right or left hemiplegia patients. We also found that there was no correlation between the duration of stroke and subdivisions of quality of life whereas there was a positive correlation between age and only sleep subdivision of quality of life. A significant negative correlation was observed between Functional Independence Measurement and following subdivisions of Nothingham Health Profile: physical mobility (r= -0.609, p=0.000, social isolation (r= -0.403, p=0.009 and emotional reaction (r= -0.330, p=0.035. There was also a significant negative correlation between Rivermaed Mobility Index and such subdivisions of Nothingham Health Profile as physical mobility (r= -0.509, p=0.001, energy(r=-0.365, p=0.019, and social isolation (r=-0.319, p=0.042 As a result, disability ruins the quality of life in stroke patients. Improving the functional independence of these patients will affect their quality of life positively.

Ozlen PEKER

2008-09-01

158

Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

2006-05-01

159

Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex  

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Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidiscipl...

2007-01-01

160

Factors affecting U-bend cracking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 in pure water is assumed to be the damaging process of a large number of small radius U-bends of PWR steam generators. The possible influencing parameters are reviewed. The determining factor is a too high level of stress arising from two main origins: residual stresses; and overstresses induced by the inner pressure in deformed cross sections. The latter have been assessed by two dimensional finite elements computation and by strain gages measurements. Stress corrosion tests in boiling MgCl_2 sustain the previous results for outer surface overstresses. Geometrical characterizations were performed on: in service SG tubes by internal spherical gages; and laboratory samples by internal spherical gages, LVDT and ultrasonic measurements, cross sectioning

1981-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

Yurdun Kuyucu

2009-08-01

162

Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. Opsomming
Een van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

Wilhelm Jordaan

2004-11-01

163

Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period (2005--2009) for a network of permanent sample plots in Pinus radiata plantations in Chile. In 2009, we calculated LAI from ground measurements using LI-COR LAI-2000 and TRAC instruments on each one hectare plot. These values of LAI were regressed against Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), derived from the TM 2009 data. Linear relationships were strong with R2 values of 0.65 for SR, 0.61 for NDVI and 0.67 for RSR. Using the RSR relationship, LAI values were estimated for the network of permanent sample plots of Pinus radiata plantations over the whole period. For project 3, we examined environmental factors affecting growth rates of Pinus radiata in Chile. Water availability (as affected by precipitation, soil water holding capacity, and potential evapotranspiration) appeared to be the factor most limiting to leaf area and growth. Maximum growing season temperature also negatively affected growth. Sites with highest productivities had the lowest annual water deficits and the most productive sites used water and light more efficiently. Good sites produced 1.6 as compared to 0.49 kg of wood per m3 of evapotranspired water for less productive sites. In addition, productive stands produced 0.5 as compared to 0.31 g of wood per MJ for less productive sites.

Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

164

Factores no Genéticos y de Grupo Racial que Afectan el Peso al Nacer en un Sistema de Producción con Vacunos de Carne / Non Genetic and Breed Group Factors Affecting Birth Weight in a Beef Cattle System Production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para evaluar el efecto de factores no genéticos y de grupo racial sobre el peso al nacer (PN), se analizaron 5136 datos de becerros nacidos en una zona de bosque seco tropical. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando un modelo lineal aditivo por el método de máxima verosimilitud restringida que inclu [...] yó los efectos fijos: año de nacimiento (AN; 2001,..,2007); mes de nacimiento (MN; enero, febrero, octubre, noviembre y diciembre); edad de la madre al parto (EM; 3,..,11 años ó más), sexo (S; hembra-macho); grupo racial del becerro (GR1: mestizos Bos taurus de las razas Angus, Braunvieh, Carora, Holstein, Simmental, Romosinuano y Senepol; GR2: predominantemente Bos indicus de las razas Brahman, Nelore, Guzerat y Gyr). El AN, MN, EM y S afectaron (P Abstract in english To evaluate the effect of non-genetic factors and of breed group on birth weight (BW), 5136 records of calves born in a dry tropical forest were analyzed. The data was analyzed using an additive linear model by the restricted maximum verisimilitude method, that included the fixed effects of: year of [...] birth (YB; 2001,..., 2007); month of birth (MB; January, February, October, November, December); age of the mother at calving (AM; 3.., 11 years or more); sex (S; female - male); breed group of the calf (BG1: Crossbred Bos taurus of the breeds Angus, Braunvieh, Carora, Holstein, Simmental, Romosinuano, Senepol; BG2: mainly Bos indicus of the breeds Brahman, Nelore, Guzerat and Gyr). The YB, MB, AM and S affected (P

Francisco, Pacheco; Luis, Depablos; Gonzalo, Martínez; Daniel, Vargas.

165

Evaluation of factors affecting heat flux sensors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A program to evaluate heat-flux sensors employed in thermal measurements of passive solar structures has been performed. A guarded hot box was designed and built in accordance with ASTM Standard C236-80 to generate known heat fluxes through a variety of structural materials. These fluxes were compared with those measured by a heat flux transducer calibrated by both by the manufacturer and an independent laboratory. The guarded hot plate method, ASTM C117-76, was used in the latter case. The three sets of values were often in substantial disagreement, the extent of which varied with the substrate to which the transducer was attached. An analysis of the data indicates that the cause of disagreement lies in a local distortion of the heat flux through the substrate caused by the presence of the transducer. Disturbance of the air flow over the transducer and mismatch of surface thermal emissivities of the transducer and substrate are contributing factors. This work has demonstrated a need for a standardized procedure for heat flux sensor calibration, and the ASTM guarded hot plate method is recommended for this purpose. An approximate method for correcting the heat flux indicated by a transducer calibrated in this manner to bring it in agreement with the measured by the guarded hot box is presented.

Darnell, A.J.; McCoy, L.R.; Ingle, W.B.

1983-01-01

166

Factors affecting the performance of ultrasonic flowmeters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A programme of work is currently underway at NEL to investigate and characterise the performance of liquid ultrasonic meters over a wide range of conditions. This paper presents the results of laboratory evaluations in addition to the initial results of combined flow and flowmeter modelling. Two-phase, oil/gas performance tests were conducted on commercially available meters of 4-inch nominal bore. Specific results have been selected to illustrate performance variations related to factors in meter design and operation. Two-phase, oil/water performance tests with water-cuts of up to 15 % were also conducted on the above meters. These results are presented in their entirety. The results show deviations from single-phase performance which vary for each meter design. Baseline calibration results for four commercially available clamp-on meters are presented. The results were obtained in good installation conditions on stainless steel pipes of 4-inch and 8-inch nominal bore. The results show different levels of accuracy associated with each meter and a general conformation with predicted behaviour. The final section of the paper presents results obtained by a systematic numerical method of determining the flow profile sensitivity of various meter configurations. The results provide quantitative confirmation of the reduced sensitivity of multipath designs to variations in the velocity profile. (author)

Brown, G.J.

1997-07-01

167

FACTORS AFFECTING VASECTOMY ACCEPTABILITY IN ETHIOPIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is one of the most effective but less utilized types of contraception method which could addresses the involvement of males to the family planning. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the awareness about and practice of men towards vasectomy among workers in Dashen brewery, Ethiopia. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using pre tested self-administered questioner to assess the Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with low utilization of vasectomy. A total of 187 study participants were included to this study using single population proportion formula and random sampling technique. Majority of the participants 155 (82.9% never heard about vasectomy as a contraception method. Their knowledge about vasectomy is generally very poor as large proportion of respondents didn’t know how it works, its effectiveness and its effect on their sexual performance. None of the respondents have ever used vasectomy as a modern male contraception method. Misleading information towards its impact on sexual performance/desire was reported as a main reason not to use this method. Among others need of more children, unavailability of services, lack of information, spouse refusal and religious concerns were mentioned as a potential reasons for their negative perception towards vasectomy. Lack of awareness, myths and rumors, limited access to services, and indifference and bias on the part of providers about vasectomy limit its popularity in Ethiopia. Therefore, it is vital to introduce appropriate educational plan to increase awareness and usage of vasectomy in Ethiopia.

E. Admasu , Negalign chekol , Temesegen Chekol , Z. Shewamene*, Zelalem Eteffa

2013-04-01

168

Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction During Endoscopic Procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the quality and patient satisfaction in Endoscopy Unit of Shifa International Hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Division of Gastroenterology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Quality and patient satisfaction after the endoscopic procedure was assessed using a modified GHAA-9 questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included with a mean age of 45 A+- 14.21 years. Out of all the procedures, 670 (65.17%) were gastroscopies, 181 (17.60%) were flexible sigmoidoscopies and 177 (17.21%) were colonoscopies. The maximum unsatisfactory responses were on the waiting time before the procedure (13.13 %), followed by unsatisfactory explanation of the procedure and answers to questions (7.58%). Overall, unsatisfied impression was 4.86%. The problem rate was 6.22%. Conclusion: The quality of procedures and level of satisfaction of patients undergoing a gastroscopy or colonoscopy was generally good. The factors that influence the satisfaction of these patients are related to communication between doctor and patient, doctor's manner and waiting time for the procedure. Feedback information in an endoscopy unit may be useful in improving standards, including the performance of endoscopists. (author)

2013-11-01

169

[The psychological factors affecting athletic performance].  

Science.gov (United States)

The physical and mental health complex is claimed as achievement of the XXI. century, whereby also among the sportsmen and sportswomen, beside the somatic medicine, growing attention is devoted to the psyche as well. The sports psychiatry was dragged in and put into service to enhance performance after all biological weapons run out of ammunition, and the long-awaited results still failed to come about. Moreover, despite the energy increasingly invested it was going from bad to worse. Among athletes many psychiatric disorders call attention, either by the high prevalence or by the development of a specific syndrome. Symptoms of depression (depression after the competition, depression following the failure at the competition), chronic stress, anxiety, fatigue syndrome of overtraining, enervation, sleep disturbances, eating problems, burnout, eating disorders (anorexia athletics, athlete triad), personality factors and the chemical addiction are all extremely important. The present study is the first to summarize the most crucial psychiatric disorders that may have great significance in the athlete population, in varying degrees according to the individual sports. PMID:20442052

Resch, Mária

2010-05-16

170

Factors affecting proximal tubular reabsorption during development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies performed in several animal species have demonstrated that glomerulotubular balance is maintained throughout development despite the many changes that occur in the factors known to control it. In an attempt to understand the nature of this phenomenon the authors quantified the magnitude and described the profile of these changes in guinea pigs. The changes in physical forces were assessed from measurements of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, whereas those in the permeability characteristics of the proximal tubule epithelium were estimated from permanence to radioactivity-labelled macromolecules of graded radii, histologic measurements of the intercellular channels, and measurements of end-proximal ratio of tubular fluid-to-plasma osmolality (TF/P/sub osm/). Between 1 and 50 days of age the net pressure for reabsorption increased from 15.0 to 30.9 mmHg with the major change occurring during the first 2-3 wk of postnatal life. The urinary recovery of [3H]inulin, [14C]sucrose, and [14C]creatinine, injected in the early segment of proximal tubules did not vary with age. The urinary recovery of [14C]mannitol increased from 92% at birth to 100% at 49 days of age. The length of the zonulae occludens and the width of the intercellular channels did not change during this period. The findings support the hypothesis that during early postnatal life glomerulotubular balance is made possible by a high permeability of the proximal tubule, which compensates for the low net reabsorptive pressure. As the animal matures and the proximal tubule epithelium becomes tighter, for glomerulotubular balance to be maintained, an increase in the number of intercellular channels and in the active transport of sodium need to be postulated

1987-01-01

171

Factors affecting goat milk yield and composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the effects of breed, stage of lactation, season of kidding and parity on goat milk yield and composition. A total of 25255 records of daily milk production and 25065 records of fat percentage, 25382 records of protein percentage and 24810 records of lactose percentage were obtained, at approximately monthly intervals, from 3702 Alpine and 411 Saanen goats in Croatia. The analysed data were recorded during 2006. Saanen breed had significantly (P<0.01 higher lactation and daily milk yield than Alpine breed (720 kg and 2.63 kg/day versus 577 kg and 2.08 kg/day, respectively. The contents of protein and lactose were similar between investigated breeds, while Alpine goats had significantly higher (P<0.05 milk fat content than Saanen goats (3.47 % versus 3.25 %, respectively. Least square analyses showed significant effects of stage of lactation, season of kidding and parity on almost all variables. Milk lactose content tended to decline as the lactation period progressed and milk yield decreased. Milk protein content tended to increase with the lactation period. The lowest content of milk fat was established in the mid stage of lactation, whereas the highest fat content was recorded at the end of lactation. The effect of parity on total lactation and daily milk yield shows an almost steady growing trend from first to fourth lactation. Goats kidding early in the year had better milking performances (longer lactation period, higher milk yield, higher content of milk fat than goats kidding in the spring. In order to improve lactation performances of their animals, the goat farmers should apply earlier mating season and use the appropriate breeding programmes.

Boro Mio?

2008-12-01

172

Electronic invoicing in SMEs: Assessing the factors affecting the adoption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to find out what factors affect the adoption of electronic invoicing. In addition, the opportunities and drawbacks of adopting e-invoicing are examined. The framework for the study is based on earlier research and literature covering the topic of electronic invoicing and different factors affecting the decision to adopt. The factors presented in the framework are perceived benefits, organizational readiness, and external pressure. Especially external pressure will be under car...

2011-01-01

173

Factors that affect the in vitro production of bovine embryos: A review Factores que afectan la producción in vitro de embriones bovinos: una revisión Fatores que afetam a produção in vitro de embriões bovinos: A revisão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro embryo production (IVP represents a way to increase gamete use from animals with high zootechnical value. In spite of the advances obtained in IVP over the last few years, production of transferable embryos is still low. The aim of this review is to discuss ways to produce in vitro embryos, as well as oocytes formation and maturation processes that can be related to the effectiveness of obtained results. Some studies show the influence of follicular growth factors, gonadotropins, steroids and other hormones on the follicular development and the quality of the cumulus oocyte complex (COC. The follicular phase of slow growth is critical for the development of the oocyte capacity to reach the final competence and diameter. Information about endocrine influences, or likewise, the dependence of growth of small antral follicles when a loss in the oocyte or follicle functionality occurs is scarce in the literature. A variable number of different techniques and protocols for treatment of oocytes donors are described with the aim of improve the results, the COCs recovering rate and the developmental competence in vitro of collected oocytes. From the considerations presented in this review, it is possible to verify the importance of better understanding the factors involved in the IVP process, with the aim of allow new alternatives to increase the results obtained in programs of animal assisted reproduction.La producción in vitro de embriones (PIV representa una manera de aumentar el uso de gametos de animales con alto valor zootécnico. A pesar de los avances obtenidos en PIV en los últimos años, la producción de embriones tranferibles sigue siendo baja. El objetivo de esta revisión es discutir maneras de producir embriones in vitro, así como los procesos de formación y de maduración de los oocitos que se pueden relacionar con la eficacia de los resultados obtenidos. Algunos estudios demuestran la influencia de los factores foliculares del crecimiento, gonadotrofinas, esteroides y otras hormonas en el desarrollo folicular y la calidad del complejo del cumulus oocito (CCO. La fase folicular del crecimiento lento es crítica para el desarrollo de la capacidad del oocito de alcanzar la capacidad y el diámetro final. Información sobre influencias endocrinas, o además, la dependencia del crecimiento de pequeños folículos antrales cuando ocurre una pérdida en la funcionalidad del oocito o del folículo, es escasa en la literatura. Un número variable de diversas técnicas y los protocolos para el tratamiento de oocitos de las donantes son descritos en esta revisión, con lo objetivo de mejorar los resultados, el índice de la recuperacion de CCOs y la capacidad de desarrollo in vitro de oocitos recogidos. De las consideraciones presentadas en esta revisión, es posible verificar la importancia de entender los factores implicados en el proceso de PIV, para permitir el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas que mejoren los resultados obtenidos en programas de la reproducción animal asistida.A produção in vitro (PIV de embriões representa uma maneira de incrementar o uso de gametas de animais de alto valor zootécnico. Apesar dos avanços obtidos na PIV nos últimos anos, a produção de embriões transferíveis ainda é baixa. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir maneiras de produzir embriões in vitro, assim como o processo de formação e maturação de oócitos, que pode estar relacionado a eficácia dos resultados obtidos. Aguns estudos demonstram a influência de fatores de crescimento, gonadotrofinas, esteróides e outros hormônios no desenvolvimento folicular e na qualidade do complexo cumulus oócito (CCO. A fase folicular de crescimento lento é critica para o desenvolvimento da capacidade do oócito de atingir a competência e o diâmetro finais. Informação sobre as influências endócrinas, ou seja, da dependência do crescimento de pequenos folículos antrais quando ocorre perda da funcionalidade do oócito ou folículo são escassas na literatura. Um número variável de diferent

Luiz F M Pfeifer

2008-03-01

174

Factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the major factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine (SMT), a typical pharmaceutically active compound, in water were evaluated. The factors tested included two operational parameters (i.e. initial SMT concentration and ultrasonic power), three dissolved gases (i.e. Ar, O2 and N2), five most frequently found anions in water (NO3(-),Cl(-),SO4(2-),HCO3(-)andBr(-)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and four alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol). Typically, the degradation rate was increased with the increasing initial SMT concentration and power. The degradation rate was accelerated in the presence of argon or oxygen, but inhibited by nitrogen. Effects of anions on the ultrasonic treatment were species-dependent. The SMT degradation rate was slightly inhibited by NO3(-),Cl(-),and,SO4(2-) but significantly improved by HCO3(-)andBr(-). The negative effects of alcohols acted as hydroxyl radicals scavengers with the following order: tert-butyl alcohol>isopropyl alcohol>ethanol>methanol. The synergetic effect of ferrous ion was mainly due to production of additional hydroxyl radicals (·OH) through Fenton chemistry. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that the degradation of SMT by ultrasonic irradiation is mainly ascribed to ·OH oxidation. Of interest, although the SMT could be rapidly degraded by ultrasonic irradiation, the degradation products were rarely mineralized. For example, ~100% of 180 ?M SMT was decomposed, but only 8.31% TOC was reduced, within 2h at an irradiation frequency of 800 kHz and a power of 100 W. However, the products became much biodegradable (BOD5/COD was increased from 0.04 to 0.45). Therefore, an aerobic biological treatment may be an appropriate post-treatment to further decompose the SMT degradation products. PMID:23711347

Gao, Yu-qiong; Gao, Nai-yun; Deng, Yang; Gu, Jin-shan; Gu, Yu-liang; Zhang, Dong

2013-11-01

175

The Direct and Indirect Factors on Affecting Organizational Sustainability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Successful firms pursue organizational sustainability. The aim of this study is to explore the direct and indirect factors affecting on organizational sustainability. Indirect factors being those that first influence competitive advantage, and then affecting organizational sustainability. This study analyzes 145 articles retrieved from the SDOL (Science Driect Online database that were published between 2009 and January 2013. Papers were retrieved using ‘organizational sustainability’ and ‘competitive advantage’ as keywords, searching on ‘Abstract, Title, Keywords’, and subject headings of ‘Business, Management and Accounting’. The results identify that 13 indirect factors and 3 direct factors can have an impact on organizational sustainability.

Meng-Shan Tsai

2013-11-01

176

Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

1984-05-01

177

Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

1984-05-01

178

What makes listening difficult. Factors affecting second language listening comprehension.  

Science.gov (United States)

To establish what is currently known about factors that affect foreign language listening comprehension, with a focus on characteristics of the listener, passage, and testing conditions. Research on second language (L2) listening comprehension strongly su...

A. Blodgett A. Bloomfield E. Rhoades J. Linck S. C. Wayland

2010-01-01

179

Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P < 0.01; 73% versus 91%). Pregnancy retention was associated positively with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol during week 5 (P < 0.05). Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P < 0.05). Days postpartum, milk production, parity, service number, inseminator, synchronization of estrus, diameter of follicles and size of CL did not affect pregnancy retention. In conclusion, retention of pregnancy during placentation varied with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, age of cow, body condition and service sire. PMID:15302385

Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith

2004-08-01

180

Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs). A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers) and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action) that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One...

Cusimano, Michael D.; Ahmed Faress; Luong, Wilson P.; Khizer Amin; Joanne Eid; Tamer Abdelshaheed; Kelly Russell

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

2013-01-01

182

Factors affecting labelling yield of 111 In-DTPA-BSA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiolabelling of antibodies depends on a number of factors including the chemical characteristics of the nuclide and the techniques employed for its incorporation into protein. For preliminary research we used model system and investigate the influence of different factors affecting labelling. Obtained results were successfully used for further radiolabelling of antibodies with different trivalent metals. (author)

2006-09-01

183

What is Impulse Buying? An analytical network processing framework for prioritizing factors affecting impulse buying  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the most important issues affecting profitability is to determine the impact of different factors influencing purchasing activities. In this paper, we perform an extensive literature survey to detect different purchasing factors influencing customers' behavior. The factors are categorized in three different groups and they are ranked using analytical network process. The results of our survey indicate that three factors of personal, product and situational play important roles in purch...

2012-01-01

184

Factors affecting receipt of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Libby Morimoto1, Jenna Coalson1, Fionna Mowat1, Cynthia O’Malley21Exponent Health Sciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA; 2Amgen Global Epidemiology, Thousand Oaks, CA, USAAims: To review literature describing factors associated with receipt of chemotherapy for breast cancer, to better understand what factors are most relevant to women’s health and whether health disparities are apparent, and to assess how these factors might affect observational studies and outcomes research. Patterns of ...

Libby Morimoto; Jenna Coalson; Fionna Mowat; et al

2010-01-01

185

Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

2013-06-06

186

Factors Affecting Forest Area Changes in Cambodia: An Econometric Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clarifying factors affecting forest area changes is critical to implementing REDD+ scheme properly. We analyzed some socio-economic factors and clarified their relationships with deforestation in Cambodia for the period of 2002 to 2010. A panel data analysis was conducted for 18 provinces, while six other provinces were deleted from the list because only a small amount of their land was forested. Time effects, cross-sectional dependence, serial correlation in idiosyncratic errors, and heteros...

Tetsuya Michinaka; Motoe Miyamoto; Yasuhiro Yokota; Heng Sokh; Sethaphal Lao; Vuthy Ma

2013-01-01

187

Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. METHODS: A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at th...

Ash, J. S.

1999-01-01

188

Factors affecting partitioning of private forest holdings in Finland.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Questions of the small size of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) holdings in Finland are considered and factors affecting their partitioning are analyzed. This work arises out of Finnish forest policy statements in which the small average size of holdings has been seen to have a negative influence on the economics of forestry. A survey of the literature indicates that the size of holdings is an important factor determining the costs of logging and silvicultural operations, while its influe...

Ripatti, Pekka

1996-01-01

189

Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

Kwenda, Maxwell

2011-01-01

190

Factors affecting the internal brain drain of Saudi healthcare professionals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To investigate factors affecting the internal brain drain of healthcare professionals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an anonymous self-administered online questionnaire sent to all Saudi students enrolled in healthcare profession programs in North America. The data was collected between January and March 2008 at the University of Illinois at Chica...

2012-01-01

191

Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

2010-01-01

192

Factors affecting Iran`s future. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the factors affecting Iran`s future by focusing on the demographic, economic, and military trends in Iran and their impact on the country`s national security objectives in the next decade. The paper also assesses the implications of an economic embargo on Iran and potential Iranian threats to regional and United States national interests.

Sinai, J.

1993-05-28

193

Factors Affecting the Technology Readiness of Health Professionals  

Science.gov (United States)

Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…

Myers, Stephanie E.

2010-01-01

194

Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

Nergis, Aysegul

2013-01-01

195

Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

2011-01-01

196

Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

2009-01-01

197

Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

2008-01-01

198

Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health.

Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

199

Environmental factors affecting mechanical properties of facial prosthetic elastomers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the degradation of elastomers for facial prostheses exposed to environmental factors normally present in a service environment. Two silicone elastomers and a polyurethane were evaluated. Samples were exposed to ultraviolet radiation, simulated sebum, ozone, chlorine, and nitrogen dioxide, and tested for tear propagation and resistance. Test results revealed significant differences in the tear characteristics between silicones and polyurethane. Differences in tear patterns were observed between the control and the specimens exposed to environmental factors. The environmental factors affected the polyurethane Epithane-3 the most and silicone MDX 4-4210 the least. When exposed to chlorine and nitrogen dioxide, Cosmesil and Epithane-3 were degraded to a point where sample testing was not possible. When exposed to ultraviolet radiation, Epithane-3 was degraded and could not be tested. Simulated sebum and ozone affected Cosmesil and Epithane-3, but no clear trends were observed. PMID:7802918

Mohite, U H; Sandrik, J L; Land, M F; Byrne, G

1994-01-01

200

A study of factors affecting indoor radon properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The factors affecting indoor radon properties in Hong Kong have been studied, including the radon concentration, the total potential alpha energy concentration of radon progeny, the equilibrium factor, and the fraction of unattached radon progeny. These factors fall into three categories, namely, (1) the building characteristics, including cooling method, age of the buildings, wall coverings and floor coverings; (2) the location of sites, including nearby environments, geological materials of the area, and the elevation of the sites; and (3) the meteorological parameters, including rainfall, relative humidity, pressure, temperature, and wind speeds. For category (1), only the ventilation is found to affect the indoor radon properties. For category (2), only the nearby environments have effects. For category (3), the rainfall and temperature are found to have significant effects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

1996-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

FACTORS AFFECTING INTENT TO PURCHASE VIRTUAL GOODS IN ONLINE GAMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Online games increasingly sell virtual goods to generate real income. As a result, it isincreasingly important to identify factors and theory of consumption values that affect intent topurchase virtual goods in online games. However, very little research has been devoted to thetopic. This study is an empirical investigation of the factors and theory of consumption valuesthat affect intent to purchase virtual goods in online games. The study determines the effects ofgame type, satisfaction with the game, identification with the character, and theory ofconsumption values on intent to purchase virtual goods. The study used a survey to collectinformation from 523 virtual game users. Study results showed that game type is a moderatingvariable that affects intent to purchase virtual goods. And it demonstrated that role-playing gameusers are affected by theory of consumption values: functional quality, playfulness, and socialrelationship support. Moreover, war-strategy game users are affected by satisfaction with thegame, identification with the character, and theory of consumption values: price, utility, andplayfulness. The study also presents conclusions, proposes applications, and describesopportunities for further research.

Cheng-Hsun Ho

2012-10-01

202

Factors affecting receipt of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Libby Morimoto1, Jenna Coalson1, Fionna Mowat1, Cynthia O’Malley21Exponent Health Sciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA; 2Amgen Global Epidemiology, Thousand Oaks, CA, USAAims: To review literature describing factors associated with receipt of chemotherapy for breast cancer, to better understand what factors are most relevant to women’s health and whether health disparities are apparent, and to assess how these factors might affect observational studies and outcomes research. Patterns of care for metastatic breast cancer, for which no standard-of-care exists, were of particular interest.Methods: Relevant studies written in English, Italian, French, or Spanish, published in 2000 or later, were identified through MEDLINE and reviewed. Review articles and clinical trials were excluded; all observational studies and surveys were considered. Articles were reviewed for any discussion of patient characteristics, hospital/physician/insurance characteristics, psychosocial characteristics, and clinical characteristics affecting receipt of chemotherapy by breast cancer patients.Results: In general, factors associated with increased likelihood of receiving chemotherapy included younger age, being Caucasian, having good general health and few co-morbidities, having more severe clinical disease, having responded well to previous treatment, and having breast cancer that is estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-negative. Many of the clinical factors found to increase the likelihood of receiving chemotherapy were consistent with current oncology guidelines. Of the relevant 19 studies identified, only six (32% reported data specific to metastatic cancer; most studies aggregated women with stage I–IV for purposes of analysis.Conclusion: Studies of patterns of care in breast cancer treatment can help identify challenges in health care provided to particular subgroups of women and can aid researchers in designing studies that account for such factors in clinical and outcomes research. Although scarce, studies evaluating only women with metastatic breast cancer indicate that factors affecting decisions related to receipt of chemotherapy are similar across stage for this disease.Keywords: breast cancer, chemotherapy, metastatic, treatment decisions, health disparities

Libby Morimoto

2010-05-01

203

Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

Bahieh Moradi

2011-12-01

204

Affective Factors Associated with Computational Estimation of Seventh Graders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined affective factors associated with the seventh grade students’ computational estimation ability. Data was collected from five high achievers via two interview sessions. During the interviews, students were required to solve numerical computational estimation questions and share their perspectives about computational estimation. Additionally, teacher interviews and observations were conducted for triangulation purposes about students’ performance in mathematics and attitude toward mathematics. A theme oriented matrix was used to analyze the data. The results of the study found that students’ confidence in ability to do mathematics, perceptions of mathematics, confidence in ability to do estimation, perceptions of estimation and tolerance for error were identified as affective factors related with students’ computational estimation ability.

Burçak BOZ,

2012-12-01

205

Factors affecting the accuracy of the integrated particle sizing system  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to investigate factors affecting instrument accuracy of a nonintrusive optical system known as the Integrated Particle Sizing System (IPSS). Studies of soot formation and growth in laboratory combustors were conducted at the Air Force Engineering and Services Center, Environics Division, using the IPSS. However, the behavior of this instrument and the factors affecting its accuracy were not completely understood, causing the proper operation of the instrument and the interpretation of results to be questioned. This report focused on the theory governing the instrument's design. A list of limitations imposed by theory was derived and measurements were made to verify the relationship between incoming signal, theory, and actual particle size.

Proctor, Charles L.; Isager, Barbara D.; Touati, Abderrahama

1988-08-01

206

Factors affecting the dermal bioavailability of hydrocarbons in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science of risk assessment has advanced significantly in recent years, in a continuing effort to more accurately represent potential human health effects from exposure to chemicals in the environment. This paper describes some environmental factors that affect the behavior of chemicals in soil and the relationship of this chemical behavior to the prediction of dermal exposures relating to soil contamination. The information presented in this paper suggests that the mass transfer of chemicals from the soil to the skin is as much an issue in dermal exposures to soil-sorbed chemicals as the actual absorption of the chemical through the skin. Relevant factor affecting the sorption, desorption, and mass transfer of hydrocarbon chemicals in soil are discussed. A summary of the scientific literature related to research on chemicals sorbed to soil is also presented

1990-09-24

207

Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

2011-09-01

208

Operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses,which comprised rotor speed (RS, louver inclination (LI, grain moisture content (MC, feed rate (FR, and grain to materialother than grain ratio (GM. Seventeen Thai corn-shelling threshers were random-sampled during the late rainy season cropof 2008 and ten threshers were sampled in the early rainy season crop of 2009 in Loei province, Northeast of Thailand.The results of this study indicated that LI and MC affected shelling losses whereas RS, FR and GM did not affect losses.Increased LI or decreased MC tended to reduce shelling losses. In operating the Thai threshers for corn shelling, if shellinglosses have to be kept lower that 0.5%, the moisture content should not exceed 20%wb and the louver inclination should notbe less than 85 degrees.

Somchai Chuan-udom

2013-02-01

209

Factors Affecting Credibility of e-Shops in Poland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents main problems concerning e-commerce development in Poland and in other countries of Eastern Europe, in particular, links between a consumer’s trust and the cultural background in the region. The first results of a pilot study being a part of the author’s research project are presented in the paper. As they show, factors affecting credibility of e-shops are strictly related to usability, reliability, functionality and efficiency of the websites – the crucial issues of...

Garnik, Igor

2006-01-01

210

Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

1990-01-01

211

Factors Affecting Rates of Change in Soil Bacterial Communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The soil bacterial community is under the constant influence of its environment. Changing any of the factors affecting the bacterial community will induce a selection pressure which, with time, will change the community. In this work the effect of changing the temperature or pH on the soil bacterial community was studied. Measurements using the 3H-thymidine incorporation technique showed that the soil bacterial community had an optimum temperature for growth and activity between 25 and 30°C....

Pettersson, Marie

2004-01-01

212

Statistical Analysis of the Different Factors Affecting the Diarrhea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diarrhea is a worldwide problem facing both developing countries and developed countries, especially in pediatric population. Because of shortage of health facilities and lack of good food in developing countries, it is known fact that developing countries are facing this death taking problem more. The main purpose of this study was to examine the various factors which affect the recovery time of diarrhea. A multiple linear regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a model. The...

Zaman, Qamruz; Khan, Imtiaz

2011-01-01

213

Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression wer...

Rawan Al-Fouzan; Sarah Al-Ajlan; Yousef Marwan; Mervat Al-Saleh

2012-01-01

214

Contributing factors affecting the prognosis surgical outcome for thoracic OLF  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF) is a disease that produces spastic paraparesis, and there are various factors that may affect the surgical outcome of thoracic OLF patients. The authors of this study treated 19 of these thoracic OLF patients from 1998 to 2002, and retrospectively reviewed the patients? age, sex, symptom duration, involved disease level, preoperative clinical features, neurological findings, radiological findings, the other combined spinal diseases and ...

Kuh, Sung Uk; Kim, Young Soo; Cho, Yong Eun; Jin, Byung Ho; Kim, Keun Su; Yoon, Young Sul; Chin, Dong Kyu

2006-01-01

215

Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab Nati...

2013-01-01

216

Heidelberg retinal flowmetry: factors affecting blood flow measurement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIMS—To evaluate factors affecting Heidelberg retinal flowmeter (HRF) measurements of retinal and optic nerve head blood flow in human subjects.?METHODS—The angle of incidence between laser beam and fundus, and camera distance from the eye, were evaluated for their effect upon measures of blood volume, velocity, and flow in a single 100 × 100 × 400 µm volume of temporal peripapillary retinal tissue in normal volunteers. Both intra and intersession reproducibility of these me...

1998-01-01

217

Factors affecting hospital mortality in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This retrospective analysis studied the records of 564 consecutive patients admitted to Gastrointestinal Bleeding Unit of Riyadh Medical Complex with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a 2-year period (May 1996-April 1998). The purpose of the study was to analyze the mortality with an aim to identify the risk factors affecting mortality in these patients. Majority of patients were men (82%) and Saudis (54%). Their mean age was 52.46 + 17.8 years. Esophage...

Alam Mohammed

2000-01-01

218

Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol) contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ...

Abu-alruz, K.; Afaneh, I. A.; Quasem, J. M.; Hmidat, M. A.; Abbady, J.; Mazahreh, A. S.

2011-01-01

219

Factors affecting Maillard induced gelation of protein-sugar systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gelation due to the Maillard reaction took place when solutions containing a low level of bovine serum albumin were heated in the presence of carbonyl compounds. The Maillard reaction caused a change in colour, a decrease in the pH and induced gelation. These changes were dependent on the type and concentration of sugars or protein and on the heating conditions used. Reducing sugar and Maillard reaction products (e.g. glyoxal) affected these changes, yet their order of reactivity for browning...

Azhar, Mat Easa

1996-01-01

220

Predictive factors affecting cecal intubation failure in colonoscopy trainees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful cecal intubation (SCI is not only a quality indicator but also an important marker in a colonoscopy trainee’s progress. We conducted this study to determine factors predicting SCI in colonoscopy trainees, and to compare these factors before and after trainees achieve technical competence. Methods Design of this study was a cross-sectional studies of two time series design for one year at a single center. From March 2011 to February 2012, a total 2,050 subjects who underwent colonoscopy by four first-year gastrointestinal fellows were enrolled at Christian hospital, Wonju, Republic of Korea. Four gastrointestinal fellows have filled out the colonoscopic documentation. Main outcome measurement was predictive factors affecting cecal intubation failure and learning curves. Results Colonoscopy was successfully completed to the cecum in 1,720 patients (83.9%. Success rates gradually increased as trainees performed more colonoscopies: the rate of SCI was 62% in the first 50 cases, and grew to 93% by the 250th case. Logistic regression analysis of factors affecting cecal intubation failure showed that female gender, low BMI (BMI Conclusion Several patient characteristics were identified that may predict difficulty of cecal intubation in colonoscopy trainees. Particularly, low BMI, inadequate bowel cleansing, and previous stomach operation were predictors of cecal intubation failure before the trainees have reached technical competency. The results could be informative so that trainees enhance the success rate regarding better colonoscopy training programs.

Park Hong-Jun

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES’ ADOPTION AND USE OF INNOVATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores the factors affecting innovation adoption by individual employees within an organization in Australia. Following a qualitative research approach, this paper uses a series of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions involving academic and administrative employees at a tertiary educational institution in Australia. The qualitative approach is adopted to have a deeper insight into the complexities and dynamism associated with the factors influencing innovation adoption process in organizational settings. The findings of this research highlight the need for broadening an understanding of the key factors affecting employee’s decisions to uptake the adoption of innovation. The results provide important clues for comprehending the factors influencing and determining the employee’s adoption and continued use of innovation in the work environment. In the face of the current trend towards end-user applications of technological innovation, the results suggest some guidelines for management toward effective and efficient adoption and use of innovation in organizational settings. This paper has highlighted the above findings and their implications for management practices related to innovation management in an Australian organizational setting. This paper also identifies possible limitations and future research potential in the relevant field.

Majharul Talukder

2010-01-01

222

Factors affecting dry matter intake and its prediction for Holstein cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many factors affects dry matter intake (DMI). Individual theories based on physical fill of the reticulorumen, metabolic-feedback factors, or oxygen consumption have been proposed to determine and predict DMI (NRC, 2001). Prediction of DMI is fundamentally important in nutrition because it establishes the amount of nutrients available to an animal for health and production. Actual or accurately estimated DMI is important for the formulation of diets to prevent underfeeding or overfeeding of n...

Glamo?i? Dragan M.; Grubi? Goran; ?or?evi? Nenad

2003-01-01

223

Crop production in salt affected soils: A biological approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant are susceptible to deleterious effects of various abiotic and biotic stresses, thus grossly affecting the growth and productivity. Amongst the abiotic stresses, soil salinity is most significant and prevalent in both developed and developing countries. As a consequences, good productive lands are being desertified at a very high pace. To combat this problem various approaches involving soil management and drainage are underway but with little success. It seems that a durable solution of the salinity and water-logging problems may take a long time and we may have to learn to live with salinity and to find other ways to utilize the affected lands fruitfully. A possible approach could be to tailor plants to suit the deleterious environment. The saline-sodic soils have excess of sodium, are impermeable, have little or no organic matter and are biologically almost dead. Introduction of a salt tolerant crop will provide a green cover and will improve the environment for biological activity, increase organic matter and will improve the soil fertility. The plant growth will result in higher carbon dioxide levels, and would thus create acidic conditions in the soil which would dissolve the insoluble calcium carbonate and will help exchange sodium with calcium ions on the soil complex. The biomass produced could be used directly as fodder or by the use of biotechnological and other procedures it could be converted into other value added products. However, in order to tailor plants to suit these deleterious environments, acquisition of better understanding of the biochemical and genetic aspects of salt tolerance at the cellular/molecular level is essential. For this purpose model systems have been carefully selected to carry out fundamental basic research that elucidates and identifies the major factors that confer salt tolerance in a living system. With the development of modern biotechnological methods it is now possible to introduce any foreign genetic material known to confer salt tolerance into crop plants. Some of the approaches and results obtained are being discussed. (author). 43 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

1995-01-01

224

An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

Takashi Kuremoto

2013-07-01

225

Biologics formulation factors affecting metal leachables from stainless steel.  

Science.gov (United States)

An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect of the various factors, buffer species, solution fill volume per unit contact surface area, metal chelators, and pH, on metal leachables from contact with ss over time were investigated individually. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel, were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry because they are the major components of 316L ss. Iron was primarily used to evaluate the effect of each factor since it is the most abundant. It was observed that each studied factor exhibited its own effect on metal leachables from contact with ss. The effect of buffer species and pH exhibited temperature dependence over the studied temperature range. The metal leachables decreased with the increased fill volume (mL) per unit contact ss surface area (cm(2)) but a plateau was achieved at approximately 3 mL/cm(2). Metal chelators produced the strongest effect in facilitating metal leaching. In order to minimize the metal leachables and optimize biological product stability, each formulation factor must be evaluated for its impact, to balance its risk and benefit in achieving the target drug product shelf life. PMID:21360314

Zhou, Shuxia; Schöneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K

2011-03-01

226

Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ended in July 2008. The following 11 factors were taken into consideration during sample collection: olive fly infection, topography, olive storage before pressing, geographical area, effect of olive seeds during oil extraction, effect of pressing temperature, presence of olive leaves during oil extraction, soil type, maturity index of the olive fruit, olive variety and oil preservation and storage in terms of storage container types. The results show that soil type, region, maturity index and olive fly infection are the main factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol. Pressing temperature, olive storage before pressing, olive variety and oil storage showed a moderate effect. Olive seeds, topography and presence of olive leaves had a negligible effect on D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil.

K. Abu-Alruz

2011-01-01

227

Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

Williamson Avis J

2007-11-01

228

LED light sources: a survey of quality-affecting factors and methods for their assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nowadays, after nearly half a century of rapid and sustained development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), conventional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps are beginning to be replaced by LEDs. Therefore, understanding and assessing all the relevant factors that affect the quality of LEDs is becoming increasingly important for design, production and maintenance of various LED products. The most adverse quality-affecting factors are the initial variability of the optical and electrical properties in a batch of LEDs, temperature and electrical dependence and temporal degradation with corresponding variability. In this paper, we survey the most important quality-affecting factors and corresponding methods for their assessment. First, initial variability of the optical and electrical properties in a new batch of LEDs and the corresponding assessment methods are outlined. Next, the temperature stability of optical and electrical properties of LEDs is discussed. Moreover, the most frequently studied methods for spectral degradation and corresponding degradation variability prediction are reviewed according to the accuracy, applicability and specificity. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the established models of part stress analysis are pointed out. In this way, all the major factors affecting the quality of LED products are summarized and the corresponding methods for their assessment are outlined. (topical review)

2008-12-01

229

Recruitment and retention: factors that affect pericyte migration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pericytes are critical for vascular morphogenesis and contribute to several pathologies, including cancer development and progression. The mechanisms governing pericyte migration and differentiation are complex and have not been fully established. Current literature suggests that platelet-derived growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-?, sphingosine 1-phosphate/endothelial differentiation gene-1, angiopoietin-1/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, angiopoietin-2/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 1, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 5, Semaphorin-3A/Neuropilin, and matrix metalloproteinase activity regulate the recruitment of pericytes to nascent vessels. Interestingly, many of these pathways are directly affected by secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). Here, we summarize the function of these factors in pericyte migration and discuss if and how SPARC might influence these activities and thus provide an additional layer of control for the recruitment of vascular support cells. Additionally, the consequences of targeted inhibition of pericytes in tumors and the current understanding of pericyte recruitment in pathological environments are discussed. PMID:23912898

Aguilera, Kristina Y; Brekken, Rolf A

2014-01-01

230

Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are commonly used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP). DEAP films are used in making actuators, generators and sensors. In the large scale manufacture of DEAP films, release of films from the substrate (carrier web) induces some defects and pre-strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities of perfluoroether allylamide (PFE) lowered the surface energy which could ease the release. This is further investigated together with an evaluation of the resulting change in actuator performance. The relationship between the adhesive energy, surface energy, Youngâ??s modulus and peel force of the films is analyzed.

Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

2013-01-01

231

Factors Affecting Business Success of Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study attempted to identify factors that are affecting business success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in Thailand. The intention of this study is to provide the understanding on how people should start their business by looking at all the factors affecting business success hence help to reduce the risk of failure and increase chances of success. The study examined eight factors that influence the SMEs business success. These factors are: SMEs characteristic, management and know-how, products and services, Customer and Market, the way of doing business and cooperation, resources and finance, Strategy, and external environment. The theoretical framework has been drawn out and questionnaire was designed based on the factors chosen. Eight hypotheses were developed to find out factors that are affecting Business Success of SMEs in Thailand. The entire hypotheses were successfully tested with SPSS and five hypotheses were accepted. The regression analysis result shown that the most significant factors affecting business success of SMEs in Thailand were SMEs characteristics, customer and market, the way of doing business, resources and finance, and external environment.

Chuthamas Chittithaworn

2011-04-01

232

A conceptual model for factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance  

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Full Text Available Supply chain is a widely used concept around the world. Nowadays, companies need to integrate their production processes, from the raw materials to the end-user. Supply chain management is a phenomenon that achieves this in a way that ensures customers get reliable and fast service and high quality products at the lowest possible cost. There is very limited and sporadic research on supply chain integration and how it affects supply chain performance. Therefore there is no real understanding of the concept of supply chain integration and how it affects supply chain performance nor is there a holistic model. This paper thus aims to present a model that identifies factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. After analyzing the collected data on supply chain integration and customer delivery performance, the preliminary model was proposed and completed, and using expert opinion in the Imam Khomeini Oil Refinery the final model and for factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance were presented. To determine how these factors interrelate with each other, the DEMATEL method was then used. The statistical population included the staff at Imam Khomeini Oil Refinery in Shazand. The data, collected through the standard DEMATEL questionnaire, were analyzed using the DEMATEL method and a MATLAB program. The DEMATEL results indicate that intra-organizational factors, institutional norms, technological certainties are causal factors which influence other factors that affect the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. Intra-organizational factor have a greater influence also among effect factors, substructures have the greatest influence.

Peyman Ghafari Ashtiani

2013-09-01

233

Factors Affecting Palm Oil Price Based on Extremes Value Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the dependence structure of extreme realization of growth rate between palm oil prices and factors affecting, which are soybean oil and crude oil prices. We employ the Bivariate Extreme Value methods for daily palm oil, soybean oil and crude oil prices ranging from July 1988 to January 2012. The results provide that the growth rate of palm oil and soybean oil prices has some dependence in extremes, but the growth rate of palm oil and crude oil prices has fairly we...

Kantaporn Chuangchid; Aree Wiboonpongse; Songsak Sriboonchitta; Chukiat Chaiboonsri

2012-01-01

234

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

Lemontt, J F

1979-01-01

235

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

Lemontt, J F

1979-01-01

236

Chinese multinationals: how do institutional factors affect their location patterns?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of various host country institutional factors on the location patterns of 29 large Chinese multinationals. From a sample of 127 outward foreign direct investment (FDI decisions made in 52 countries, our findings suggest that a greater difficulty in doing business and a high political risk in the host country do not discourage Chinese multinationals. However, the presence of overseas Chinese in the host country, a larger absolute host market size and a higher volume of Chinese exports to that country affect positively.

Diego Quer Ramón

2011-11-01

237

Human Factors Affecting the Patient's Acceptance of Wireless Biomedical Sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

In monitoring arrhythmia, the quality of medical data from the ECG sensors may be enhanced by being based on everyday life situations. Hence, the development of wireless biomedical sensors is of growing interest, both to diagnose the heart patient, as well as to adjust the regimen. However, human factors such as emotional barriers and stigmatization, may affect the patient's behavior while wearing the equipment, which in turn may influence quality of data. The study of human factors and patient acceptance is important both in relation to the development of such equipment, as well as in evaluating the quality of data gathered from the individual patient. In this paper, we highlight some important aspects in patient acceptance by comparing results from a preliminary clinical trial with patients using a wireless ECG sensor for three days out-of-hospital service, to available published results from telehomecare projects, and discuss important aspects to be taken into account in future investigations.

Fensli, Rune; Boisen, Egil

238

Factors affecting the level of success of community information systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The factors that influence the ultimate level of success or failure of systems development projects have received considerable attention in the academic literature. However, previous research has rarely targeted different instances of a common type of system within a homogeneous organisational sector. This paper presents the results of a survey of IM&T managers within Community Trusts to gain insights into the factors affecting the success of Community Information Systems. The results demonstrate that the most successful operational systems were thoroughly tested prior to implementation and enjoyed high levels of user and senior management commitment. Furthermore, it has been shown that there is a relationship between the level of organisational impact and systems success, with the most successful systems engendering changes to the host organisation's culture, level of empowerment and clinical working practices. In addition to being of academic interest, this research provides many important insights for practising IM&T managers. PMID:10747445

Coombs, C R; Doherty, N F; Loan-Clarke, J

1999-01-01

239

Factors Affecting Holstein Cattle Fertility Traits in the Slovak Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigated the influence of the factors herd-year, breed-type, sire, and milk production and lactation length on the fertility traits of Holstein cattle (age at first calving, calving interval, days open, non return rate at 56, 72, and 90 day. The data were received from 87 230 Holstein cows first time calved in period 2000 and 2008 with three fullterm lactations. Average age at first calving was 875 days and average milk production on first, second and third lactation was 6816 kg, 7524 kg and 6536 kg, respectively. Coefficient of determination estimated by linear model with factors as join herd-year effect and sire was 0.1164 (P<0,001 and 0.1145 (P<0,001 for variation of calving interval after 1st lactation and 2nd lactation, respectively. When the quadratic effect of milk production and lactation length was included to the linear model, coefficient of determination for calving interval variation increased significantly to 0.7049 (P<0,001 after 1st lactation and to 0.6297 (P<0,001 after 2nd lactation. Basically on these results including milk production and lactation length to the fertility genetic evaluation is needed.

Zuzana Riecka

2010-10-01

240

Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis. Key factors affecting efficiency of the process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemical processes of biodiesel production are energy-consuming and generate undesirable by-products such as soaps and polymeric pigments that retard separation of pure methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids from glycerol and di- and monoacylglycerols. Enzymatic, lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis has no such drawbacks. Comprehension of the latter process and an appreciable progress in production of robust preparations of lipases may soon result in the replacement of chemical catalysts with enzymes in biodiesel synthesis. Engineering of enzymatic biodiesel synthesis processes requires optimization of such factors as: molar ratio of substrates (triacylglycerols: alcohol), temperature, type of organic solvent (if any) and water activity. All of them are correlated with properties of lipase preparation. This paper reports on the interplay between the crucial parameters of the lipase-catalyzed reactions carried out in non-aqueous systems and the yield of biodiesel synthesis. (author)

Szczesna Antczak, Miroslawa; Kubiak, Aneta; Antczak, Tadeusz; Bielecki, Stanislaw [Institute of Technical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

2009-05-15

 
 
 
 
241

Factors Affecting Success and Complication of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy  

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Full Text Available Aim: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL is the first choice renal stones especially larger than 2 cm, and high success rates can be achieved after PNL. But several severe complications may be occurred. In this study, factors which affect the success rate and complications were investigated. Material and Method: Between July 2004 and August 2007, 176 patients (102 men/74 women underwent PNL operation. Because of the bilateral renal stones PNL was performed in two separate sessions of 9 patients. Percutaneous access was doing in prone position. Factors affecting the success and complication data were collected. Results: Mean age was 47.610,7 (17%uFFFD76 year, median=47. Complete success rate was detected 77.8% with the direct X-rays taken in the first postoperative day. The success rate was up to 87% after the additional post-treatment therapy. Success rates were 83.1% for complex stones and 89.4% for simple stones (p

Soner Yalç?nkaya

2012-04-01

242

Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

Naile Bilgili

2009-12-01

243

Factors affecting final facial nerve outcome following vestibular schwannoma surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To determine factors affecting facial nerve outcome of vestibular schwannoma surgery. Methods: This retrospective cohort study comprised 652 patients. The outcome measure was House-Brackmann classification at two years post-operatively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to determine the factors affecting facial nerve outcome. The incidence rates of hemifacial spasm, metallic taste and crocodile tear syndrome were recorded. Results: For tumours less than 1.5 cm, 95 per cent of outcomes were normal, 100 per cent were satisfactory (House-Brackmann grades I-III) and 0 per cent were unsatisfactory (grades IV-VI). For tumours 1.5-2.4 cm, 83 per cent of outcomes were normal, 99 per cent were satisfactory and 1 per cent were unsatisfactory. For tumours 2.5-3.4 cm, 68 per cent of outcomes were normal, 96 per cent were satisfactory and 4 per cent were unsatisfactory. For tumours 3.5-4.4 cm, 52 per cent of outcomes were normal, 80 per cent were satisfactory and 20 per cent were unsatisfactory. For tumours larger than 4.4 cm, 50 per cent of outcomes were normal, 72 per cent were satisfactory and 28 per cent were unsatisfactory. Conclusion: Tumour size and operation year were significant predictors of facial nerve outcome. The surgical learning curve was steepest for the first 50 patients. PMID:24685071

Moffat, D A; Parker, R A; Hardy, D G; Macfarlane, R

2014-05-01

244

Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs. A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM. The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36, as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37. Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.

Michael D. Cusimano

2013-05-01

245

Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P4) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (?2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (?4.1 ng/mL) P4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

1990-08-01

246

Study of factors affecting the appearance of colors under microscopes  

Science.gov (United States)

The variation of colors in microscopy systems can be quite critical for some users. To address this problem, a study is conducted to analyze how different factors such as size of the sample, intensity of the microscope's light source and the characteristics of the material like chroma and saturation can affect the color appearance through the eyepiece of the microscope. To study the changes in colors considering these factors, the spectral reflectance of 24 colors of GretagMacbeth Classic ColorChecker® and Mini ColorChecker® which are placed under a Nikon ECLIPSE MA200 microscope®2 using dark filed and bright field illuminations which result in different intensity levels, is measured using a spectroradiometer®3 which was placed in front of the eyepiece of the microscope. The results are compared with the original data from N. Ohta1. The evaluation is done by observing the shift in colors in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram and the CIELAB space, also by applying a wide set of color-difference formulas, namely: CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, DIN99d and DIN99b. Furthermore, to emphasize on the color regions in which the highest difference is observed, the authors have obtained the results from another microscope; Olympus SZX10®4, which in this case the measurement is done by mounting the spectroradiometer to the camera port of the microscope. The experiment leads to some interesting results, among which is the consistency in the highest difference observed considering different factors or how the change in saturation of the samples of the same hue can affect the results.

Zakizadeh, Roshanak; Martinez-Garcia, Juan; Raja, Kiran B.; Siakidis, Christos

2013-11-01

247

Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods. Respondents were undergraduate students of university with different demographics. Results has presented graphically, descriptively and inferentially using SPSS and Excel. Pearson’s chi-square and correlation has applied to verify the relationship between stress factors and demographics. Results show that living persuasively under strict rules and regulations can be a family stressor. Unavailability of best choices and paramount match to live with as a partner can be an emotional stress. Less income students find difficulty to spend money on buying and enjoying which is a predictor of financial stress. Pressurized life and squat admiration from people has lied under Social stress. Other verdicts are also deemed according to Pakistani cultural context.

Kashif Ud Din Khan

2013-02-01

248

Factors Affecting Bank Switching Intentions in E-Banking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify and examine the factors that contribute to bank switching intentions of e-banking customers and whether these intentions differ according to demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, marital status and income levels of customers. Regression results suggested that customer dissatisfaction, low service quality, high price, unfavorable bank reputation, limited product variety and involuntary switching factors were positively related to customers’ bank switching intentions in e-banking. On the other hand, promotion efforts were negatively related to customers’ switching intentions. In addition to this, bank switching intentions were revealed to be differing according to education levels. Bank switching intentions of well-educated customers were tend to be higher, while age, gender, marital status and income level didn’t make a difference on intentions. Based on the empirical results of current study, we will provide several theoretical and managerial implications in the area of service industry.

Leyla ÖZER

2012-12-01

249

Factors Affecting Location Decisions of Food Processing Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to examine the determinants of location choices for food processing plants using the results of 59 personal surveys. The 61.3% of the food processing plants that were interviewed are small scale plants, 9.1% are large scale plants and 29.6% are medium scale plants. Sixteen of the firms process vegetables, 12 process poultry, 12 process dairy and 9 process seafood products. Business climate factors are divided into six categories (market, infrastructure, raw material, labor, personal and environmental and 17 specific location factors are considered. The survey responses are analyzed by types of raw materials processed and by plant size. 43.7, 55.3 and 42.2% of the respondents cited categories of Market, Raw Material and Infrastructure respectively as important, while 44.3, 50.7 and 74.4% of the respondents cited, labor, personal and environmental regulation categories of as not important. Thus survey findings indicate that plant location choices are mainly driven by market, raw material and infra structural factors. Environmental factors such as environmental regulations and permissions are relatively insignificant.

Sule Turhan

2007-01-01

250

Factors affecting population variation in eastern Adriatic isolates (Croatia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Inhabitants of the Croatian islands of Brac, Hvar, Korcula, and the Peljesac Peninsula have been the subject of extensive previous studies of local population differentiation. Most of these studies used biological and ecological variables, but some also considered historical and sociological factors. In this study we use genetic, morphological, kinship, and language distance data, collected for individuals from 26 rural communities on the islands of Brac, Hvar, Korcula, and the Peljesac Peninsula in the Adriatic, to further explore the interaction of historical, sociological, and biological factors in small populations and to test the significance of some of these proposed causes. First, we use matrix correlation methods to evaluate the relationships among different types of distance measures. The specific measures of genetic distance used here do not correlate well with other measures of population distance, and it appears that for the studied genetic systems the populations are not strongly differentiated. As expected, kinship and language distances have a high degree of association. Morphological differences among populations seem to be more closely tied to kinship distances than to genetic distances. This may result from modification of some morphological features by environmental rather than genetic factors, or it may be attributed to extensive, selective, nonrandom emigration of the population during the first decade of the twentieth century. In the second part of our analysis we use matrix correlation methods to evaluate and possibly identify the external factors that have contributed to the population differences. Specifically, we use design matrices to test hypotheses that population differences can be explained by one of the following factors: geographic isolation on the islands and peninsula, distance from the mainland, geographic barriers within the islands and peninsula, and the historical factors that differentially affected the three islands and the peninsula. Most of these design matrices reflect geographic distances; although correlations between morphological variables and simple geographic distance between localities were not significant, correlations between these localities and a design matrix incorporating geographic distance along with geographic barriers, such as bodies of water and mountain ranges, are particularly important for explaining distances among kin. Design matrices provide an important tool for quantifying the relationship between historical and geographic factors, and measures of population distance. PMID:9780515

Waddle, D M; Sokal, R R; Rudan, P

1998-10-01

251

Studying on the Factors Affecting the Benefit of Agricultural Research Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural research and extension programs have been built in most of the world’s economies because agricultural science and technology innovation is the source to push agricultural development. Since 2004 China has increased gradually agricultural research investment, which promoted agriculture to develop rapidly. However, China’s agricultural research investment has been lagging behind that of developed countries in proportion of investment or benefit of agricultural programs. In this paper, the factors affecting the Benefit of Agricultural research programs are been studied by Principal component analysis. It showed that research management and production factors are majors factors that impacting benefit of agricultural programs. So, the government should build scientific management system of agricultural programs and improve subsidiarity production factors to ensure the benefits of agricultural research projects could be effectively.

Chunmei Wang

2014-02-01

252

FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction & suggestions to improve them.

Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin

2011-10-01

253

Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7% decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2% students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%, 17 (11.8%, and 16 (11.1% students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4% of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8% and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3% were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065 more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002. Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

Rawan Al-Fouzan

2012-12-01

254

Factors and mechanisms affecting corrosion of steel in concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic power plants possess reinforced concrete structures which are exposed to sea water or sea atmosphere. Sea water or its surrounding environment contain very corrosive species which cause corrosion of metal in concrete. It should be mentioned that corrosion of steel in concrete is a complex problem that is not completely understood. Some of the factors which influence the corrosion mechanism and can be related to the pore solution composition is discussed. Chloride ion caused problems are the main source of the corrosion damage seen on the reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion rate in concrete varies and depends on the way chloride ion diffuses into concrete. In addition, the associated cations can influence diffusion of chloride into concrete. The type of portland cement and also the concrete mix design all affect the corrosion behaviour of steel in concrete

1986-01-01

255

FACTORS AFFECTING ATM USAGE IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for ATM services, by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The results indicate that graduated and employed male customers who belong from higher income groups and having a bank account preferably in public sector bank are greatly emphasized to use of the banking services. Significant positive influence of the characterized socio-economic attributes on the use of ATM service was found. The service occupied customers significantly more emphasized to the use of ATM services. Noticeable, the banking attributes such as account type, convenience, number of services offered, and cost of banking services don’t have very attentive influence on the use of advanced IT based banking services.

Shariq Mohammed

2012-06-01

256

studies on some factors affecting oxidative low density lipoprotein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of occupational radiation exposure on some oxidant antioxidant parameters in addition to other factors affecting oxidative stress such as age, smoking, hypertension, high sedimentation rate for this purpose. a total of 131 individuals were included in this study 81 of them working in the radiation field the age was from 27 to 63 years. the occupational time from five to more than 25 where the control groups was composed of 50 healthy volunteers who had never worked in radiology related job otherwise with the same characteristics . the parameters tested are LDL, HDL, triglycerides, cholesterol, vitamin E, SOD, MDA, hemoglobin, fasting blood sugar, urea, creatinine, and liver enzymes GOT, GPT.our results show that time of exposure to radiation shows remarkable effect beginning with decrease of vitamin E after five years exposure,extending to MDA, triglycerides and LDL which increased while SOD decreased

2004-01-01

257

Investigation of the Factors Affecting Real Exchange Rate in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available his paper intends to investigate the factors affecting the real exchange rate in Iran in the period of 1978-2008. In this part, the econometric methodology and vector autoregressive model that is known as VAR is used to investigate the effect of proper variables on the real exchange rate. The results of Johansson-Jousilious test confirmed co-integration between variables, and thus long-run equilibrium relationship was confirmed among proper variables. Overall, the impulse and response functions showed that the shocking of variables, oil price and volume of money flows, has a positive impact on the real exchange rate and put it above its permanent level in the whole period of study. The results of variance decomposition showed that the most effects belonged to oil price and then volume of money flow that in fact represents greater relative importance of these variables in comparison with other variables among all model variables.

Komeil Khanarinejad

2012-08-01

258

Factors affecting cellulose hydrolysis based on inactivation of adsorbed enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose reaction is known to decrease significantly as the reaction proceeds. Factors such as reaction temperature, time, and surface area of substrate that affect cellulose conversion were analyzed relative to their role in a mechanistic model based on first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulases. The activation energies for the hydrolytic step and inactivation step were very close in magnitude: 16.3kcalmol(-1) for hydrolysis and 18.0kcalmol(-1) for inactivation, respectively. Therefore, increasing reaction temperature would cause a significant increase in the inactivation rate in addition to the catalytic reaction rate. Vmax,app was only 20% or less of the value at 72h compared to at 2h as a result of inactivation of adsorbed cellulases, suggesting prolonged hydrolysis is not an efficient way to improve cellulose hydrolysis. Hydrolysis rate increased with corresponding increases in available substrate surface binding area. PMID:25027809

Ye, Zhuoliang; Berson, R Eric

2014-09-01

259

Potential factors affecting accumulation of unsupported 210Pb in soil  

Science.gov (United States)

Airborne 210Pb, daughter of 222Rn, is frequently used as a tracer in different studies concerning atmospheric transport, sedimentation, soil erosion, dating, etc. Concentration of 210Pb was measured in 40 soil samples collected in urban and industrial areas in order to get evidence of possible influence of some factors on accumulation of airborne 210Pb in soil. Different soil properties such as the content of organic matter, free CaCO3, and available phosphorus (P2O5) were measured to explore their possible correlation with the amount of 210Pb. Special attention was given to the correlation between 210Pb and stable lead accumulated in the soil. Several samples were taken near a battery manufacturer to check if extremely high concentrations of lead can affect the uptake of the airborne 210Pb in soil. Soil samples were also taken at different depths to investigate the penetration of lead through the soil.

Mihailovi?, Aleksandra; Vu?ini? Vasi?, Milica; Todorovi?, Nataša; Hansman, Jan; Vasin, Jovica; Krmar, Miodrag

2014-06-01

260

Factors affecting adoption in China, 1950-87.  

Science.gov (United States)

Though adoption in China is known to have increased as more girls were abandoned and became available for adoption following the introduction of the country's one-child policy in the 1980s, little is known about Chinese adoption practices. This paper investigates the factors affecting adoption in China in the period 1950-87 using data from the National Two-Per-Thousand Sample Survey on Fertility and Contraception of 1988. The results show that the national adoption rate was 2.3 per cent. Childless women were more likely than women with children to adopt and did not show a sex preference. Women with children by birth used adoption to secure a child of the 'missing' sex. Women who had experienced the death of a child were more likely to adopt than those who had not. Women with children may have used adoption as a strategy to circumvent the strict family planning policies. PMID:15204260

Liu, Jihong; Larsen, Ulla; Wyshak, Grace

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Developing worksheet based on science process skills: Factors affecting solubility  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS. The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at Giresun University, Turkey. Action research methodology was used in this study. Thoughts from experts were received during the development of the worksheet. The study had some limitations in providing concrete evidence as to how the WS based on SPS effects the PST SPS, since the paper is a suggestion. For this reason, to investigate its effectiveness in a comparative manner, further research should be undertaken.

Fethiye KARSLI

2009-06-01

262

Factors Affecting Palm Oil Price Based on Extremes Value Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the dependence structure of extreme realization of growth rate between palm oil prices and factors affecting, which are soybean oil and crude oil prices. We employ the Bivariate Extreme Value methods for daily palm oil, soybean oil and crude oil prices ranging from July 1988 to January 2012. The results provide that the growth rate of palm oil and soybean oil prices has some dependence in extremes, but the growth rate of palm oil and crude oil prices has fairly weak dependence or even independence in extremes. Therefore, the authors of this study hoped that these findings not only have made a contribution to our understanding of what drives palm oil price movement of soybean oil and change in crude oil prices, but also for the practitioner who want to devise an updated model to enhance a further comprehension of the prices that drive these article of trade.

Kantaporn Chuangchid

2012-11-01

263

Factors Affecting Linear Type Traits of Valdostana Cattle  

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Full Text Available Four composite and 22 individual linear type traits, measured between 1997 and 2012 on 33,206 Aosta Red Pied (ARP and 19,551 Aosta Black Pied and Aosta Chestnut (ABP-CN strains of Valdostana cattle, were used to investigate the non-genetic factors affecting morphological evaluation. Average values for type traits ranged from 2.81 (teat placement rear view and foot angle to 3.34 (thinness for ARP, and from 2.48 (teat placement side view to 3.67 (udder depth for ABP-CN. Results from the ANOVA showed significant effect of herd-year-classifier on type traits of both ARPand ABP-CN, and of days in milk and age at calving for almost all traits, with few exceptions. The model used in this study is a useful starting point to calculate genetic parameters for Valdostana cattle.

Serena Mazza

2013-09-01

264

SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively

Tarek FOUDA

2013-01-01

265

Factors affecting sorption of radiocobalt by river sediments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the principal factors affecting the interaction of radio cobalt with fresh water sediments and their importance for migration of radio cobalt in surface water streams. The uptake percent (U%) of radio cobalt by Ismailia Cannal bottom sediments (ICUBS) have been studied as a function of contact time, ph, competing ion, carrier concentration and natural ligands such as humic acid using batch technique. Mineralogical analyses of the sediment samples were carried out. The amount sorbed per gram sediment, (X/m), increased as the carrier concentration increased from 10-8 mol. Following a Freundlich type isotherm. The uptake of radio cobalt was found to be affected by changing in the ph of the aqueous phase. Presence of Mg24 ions as competing cation decreases the sorption of 60Co. Presence of humic acid shows a slight effect on the sorption of 60Co. Desorption of the investigated metal ion from the loaded sediment samples was also studied. A mathematical model for the migration of the investigated radioisotope in Ismailia canal water stream was developed to predict the concentrations of cobalt ion at different distances in X-direction

2001-07-01

266

Environmental factors affecting Galaxy Morphology - a study using COSMOS  

Science.gov (United States)

According to our current understanding, galaxy shapes and morphologies should depend on various factors such as the local environment. Realistic image simulations for calibration of weak lensing analysis methods that use training samples from the Hubble Space Telescope can therefore be affected by these trends, due to the limited volume of the universe that has been surveyed by Hubble. I will show how redshift slices in a volume-limited subsample of COSMOS can be classified as overdense or underdense (or neither), and how the statistical properties of various morphological parameters such as ellipticity, Sersic n, bulge-to-total ratio and color differ in these bins. This study requires a careful distinction between environment effects from large-scale structure, which we do not wish to include in simulations, and general trends in the galaxy population with redshift. We conclude with some guidance for how upcoming surveys can use COSMOS data as the basis for weak lensing simulations without having their conclusions overly affected by cosmic variance.

Jayaraman, Arun; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Lackner, Claire

2014-06-01

267

Factors affecting the sintered density of plutonium oxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sintering studies were carried out on PuO2 powders. The major factors affecting their sintered densities were identified. PuO2 prepared from plutonium oxalate was used in this work. Experiments with powders obtained by calcining at temperatures from 350deg C to 800deg C indicated that calcination at 600deg C was best suited for compaction and sintering and densities of 90% TD could be obtained by sintering at 1450deg C in A + 6% H2 atmosphere. Increase in compaction pressures improved the sintered densities of compacts from powders of lower temperature of calcination. There was a decrease in density when the sintering temperature was increased from 1550deg C to 1650deg C and 30 to 40% of cubic PuOsub(1.52) was present in the sintered pellets. Oxidising atmosphere was found to be beneficial in general for getting higher densities. Excess moisture in sintering atmosphere and powder storage for long periods adversely affected sinterability. (auth.)

1979-10-31

268

Factors affecting heat affected zone root strains in pipeline girth welds and repairs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A recent study on hydrogen cracking in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of pipeline girth welds and repairs found that large strains in the HAZ transverse to the weld played a major role in causing cracking. The study quantified the effects of base metal composition and strength on the sensitivity to cracking, but the program did not address the factors that influence the degree of strain applied to the weld. It was the objective of the present project to study several of the possible factors that could influence root strains in girth welds including the effects of weld metal strength, pipe thickness and diameter, heat input, and weld length (repair length). The study was of a generic nature aimed at identifying areas of high risk of cracking. The approach included a literature review and simple analysis methods but no experimental work was undertaken. From the results it was concluded that high tensile stresses in the axial direction on the inside surface of the pipe result from the radial contraction of the weld and the consequent bending of the pipe. The largest effect on these stresses is from the welding procedure with the highest tensile stresses occurring with high heat input welds with few weld passes. Multipass welds result in a decrease of the tensile stress which becomes compressive above a certain thickness. The maximum net axial surface stress is independent of the length of the weld around the circumference. Base metal and weld metal strength have a significant effect on strain in the heat affected zone and some recommendations for bend testing are given. 33 refs.

Graville, B.A. [Graville Associates Inc., Georgetown, Ontario (Canada)

1993-11-01

269

Factors affecting dry matter intake and its prediction for Holstein cows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many factors affects dry matter intake (DMI. Individual theories based on physical fill of the reticulorumen, metabolic-feedback factors, or oxygen consumption have been proposed to determine and predict DMI (NRC, 2001. Prediction of DMI is fundamentally important in nutrition because it establishes the amount of nutrients available to an animal for health and production. Actual or accurately estimated DMI is important for the formulation of diets to prevent underfeeding or overfeeding of nutrients and to promote efficient nutrient use. Underfeeding of nutrients restricts production and can affect the health of an animal. Overfeeding of nutrients increases feed costs, can results in excessive excretion of nutrients into the environment, and at excessively high amounts may be toxic or cause adverse health effects. Several DMI prediction equations have been developed for use in the field, but only a few have been given in this paper.

Glamo?i? Dragan M.

2003-01-01

270

Factors affecting the measurement of fatigue crack stress intensity factors using photoelastic coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photoelastic procedures to determine the stress intensity factors at the tip of a fatigue crack during dynamic and cyclic loading are described. To illustrate the techniques, tests were performed on a centered-cracked tensile panel under cyclic load. The measured SIFs were found to agree to within about 5% of an elastic solution. Finally, factors affecting the application of the procedures to more complex structures are considered.

Nurse, A.D. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Patterson, E.A. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Process Engineering

1995-12-31

271

Factors Affecting Chinese Farmers' Decisions to Adopt a Water-Saving Technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chinese farm households (N = 240) were interviewed to understand some of the factors affecting their adoption of a water-saving technology called the Ground Cover Rice Production System (GCRPS). A logit model was established on the basis of a survey to estimate the determinants of adoption and to simulate impacts of changes in these determinants on adoption potential. There are no significant influences of age and number of laborers on the probability of GCRPS adoption. Male farm managers had...

Herzfeld, T.; Glauben, T.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, B.

2008-01-01

272

Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future.

Kim, Chang Ho; Jeong, Won Mee [Inha Hospital, Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seung Hum; Lee Sun Hee [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Tae Yong [Yuhan College, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-02-01

273

Factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF. These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in a phosphate buffer. These factors include particle size and chemical composition, field strength, cold-wall temperature of the channel and the nature of the suspension medium. These results show that ThFFF can be used to fractionate colloidal particles according to size and that for an unknown colloidal sample material, a calibration curve must be obtained using particles of similar composition. This is necessary because the degree of retention of the colloidal material is dependent on chemical composition of sample material as evidenced by the chemical composition study. The potential of using ThFFF for physico-chemical characterization of colloidal material is illustrated through the evaluation of thermal diffusion coefficient of PS particles as a function of size, cold-wall temperature, and carrier solution composition. The tunabiliy of the extent of retention of the colloidal particles in a ThFFF channel is illustrated by results of the influence of field strength on retention.

Paul M. Shiundu

2002-06-01

274

Causative factors affecting peripheral neuropathy in burn patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral neuropathy in burn patients may be frequently missed in clinical settings. Although its incidence has been reported, little is known regarding the factors that cause burn-related peripheral neuropathy. A retrospective chart review of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients admitted to a university hospital based burn center was conducted to explore the characteristics of burn-related neuropathy and factors affecting its types or extent. The variables collected were gender, age, length of hospital stay, site and surface area of burn, type of burn, and electrodiagnostic findings. We found that flame injuries, and third degree injuries were the most common in patients with peripheral neuropathy. Axonotmesis was more common than demyelinating injury and polyneuropathy was more common than mononeuropathy. Higher degree and larger area burns were more frequently associated with axonotmesis than with demyelination. Length of hospital stay was significantly longer in patients with axonotmesis. Overall, more severe burns showed a significant association with axonotmesis and a tendency to be related to polyneuropathy. PMID:18951702

Lee, Michael Y; Liu, Gloria; Kowlowitz, Vicki; Hwang, Jeong Hye; Lee, Jung Hwan; Choi, Kyoung Hyo; Lee, Eun Shin

2009-05-01

275

Environmental factors affecting radon exhalation from a sandy soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The "2"2"2Rn transport from soil into atmosphere was analyzed to elucidate the behavior of radioactive gas including H-3 and C-14 in surface environment. To investigate the effect of various environmental factors on "2"2"2Rn exhalation from a sandy soil, measurements of "2"2"2Rn exhalation rate were continuously carried out with a closed chamber method in Tokai site, JAERI. From the correlation analysis between the "2"2"2Rn exhalation rate and environmental factors, it was indicated that volumetric water content from soil surface to about 20 cm depth affects dominantly the "2"2"2Rn exhalation. The negative correlation relationship between the rate and atmospheric pressure change was also recognized only under drying conditions. The rate increased with increase of temperature difference between atmosphere and soil. Further consideration on transport mechanisms by temperature gradient may be necessary to discuss gas transport at soil-atmosphere interface. The basic information on gas transport in soil and on gas exhalation and deposition behavior at soil-atmosphere interface was provided by this research dealing with radioactive noble gas "2"2"2Rn. (author)

2000-01-01

276

Environmental factors affecting methyl mercury accumulation in zooplankton  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship between environmental factors and methyl mercury accumulation in filter-feeding macrozooplankton was investigated in an effort to obtain an integrated measure of the bioavailability of methyl mercury in the water column. Since macrozooplankton are an important food source for fish, the factors that affect their bioaccumulation of mercury are directly relevant to the contamination of fish. Methyl mercury accumulation in zooplankton collected from 24 lakes in south-central Ontario ranged from 19 to 448 ng.g dry mass{sup -}1{sup ,} and was highest in acidic brown-water lakes. Water color and pH were found to be the best predictors of methyl mercury levels, being positively correlated with water color and inversely correlated with pH. There was a positive correlation with drainage ratio and per cent wetland in the catchment. Zooplankton methyl mercury levels were also well correlated with mercury concentrations in smallmouth bass and largemouth bass, confirming that zooplankton is a good indicator of mercury bioavailability at the base of the food chain. 67 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

Westcott, K.; Kaiff, J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1996-10-01

277

The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship. (author)

Chang, Dong-Shang; Chen, Yi-Tui [National Central University, Department of Business Administration 300, Jhongda Road, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Den [Professor of Tunghai University, Department of Economics, No. 181, Section 3, Taichung Harbor Road, Taichung 40704, Taiwan (China)

2009-12-15

278

Geographical factors affecting variability of precipitation regime in Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares the precipitation regimes by using harmonic analysis during the last four decades (1965-2004). We used the measured precipitation data from 428 rain-gauge sites and weather stations distributed across Iran by applying 15 × 15 km spatial grids to generate the interpolated data. Data validations were carried out by statistical tests. In this study, first three harmonics of precipitation variances were evaluated. Variability of precipitation regime was explored by using three harmonic analysis methods. In addition, the effect of geographical factors (GF) (site elevation, latitude, and longitude) affecting the precipitation regime (P) was verified by multivariate regression method. The resulted regression equation between P and GF for spring showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.79). For other seasons, r was lower than for spring and varied between 0.26 (summer) to 0.58 (autumn). Analysis of the first harmonic proved that the main precipitation regime in Iran tends to concentrate in one specific season (winter) as a result of large-scale Mediterranean systems passing over the country. In other words, the first harmonic is able to explain most of the precipitation variations which are caused by large-scale atmospheric circulation. For all the three harmonics, variances of precipitation were mainly a function of the geographical factors. This effect was more evident in the third harmonic; in such a way that increasing the latitudes caused higher precipitation variance. This means that the precipitation regime in northern sites is more sensitive to the local factors than those of southern sites. The results of this research can be used for reliable estimation of precipitation in ungauged sites.

Sabziparvar, A. A.; Movahedi, S.; Asakereh, H.; Maryanaji, Z.; Masoodian, S. A.

2014-05-01

279

Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

2014-06-01

280

Factors Affecting the Adoption of Genetically Modified Animals in the Food and Pharmaceutical Chains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production of genetically modified (GM animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scoping study was conducted to assess research relevant to understanding the main drivers influencing the adoption of GM applications and their potential risks and benefits. Public and producers’ acceptance, public policies, human health, animal welfare, environmental impact and sustainability are considered as the main factors affecting the application of GM animal techniques in livestock and pharmaceutical chains.

Natasha I. Valeeva

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

Mohammad Reza Iravani

2012-01-01

282

Capital misallocation and aggregate factor productivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a sectoral-shift theory of aggregate factor productivity for a class of economies with AK technologies, limited loan enforcement, a constant production possibilities frontier, and finitely many sectors producing the same good. Both the growth rate and total factor productivity in these economies respond to random and persistent endogenous fluctuations in the sectoral distribution of physical capital which, in turn, responds to persistent and reversible exogenous shifts in relativ...

2009-01-01

283

What is Impulse Buying? An analytical network processing framework for prioritizing factors affecting impulse buying  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most important issues affecting profitability is to determine the impact of different factors influencing purchasing activities. In this paper, we perform an extensive literature survey to detect different purchasing factors influencing customers' behavior. The factors are categorized in three different groups and they are ranked using analytical network process. The results of our survey indicate that three factors of personal, product and situational play important roles in purchasing impulse. The personal item includes different factors where demographic characteristic factors receive the highest ranking (35% followed by other factors are feelings, excitement and fun, self identify, education and novelty. There are also three sub-factors associated with demographic characteristics including gender, age and race and the weights are 0.46748, 0.42668 and 0.10584, respectively, which means gender is the most important factor followed by age and race. Finally, the other factor is associated with situational factors' group, which includes presence of others, culture, design of store, time available, local market condition, sales staff and self service with the relative importance of 0.04296, 0.08733, 0.12130, 0.22217, 0.05643, 0.15346 and 0.31635, respectively.

Javad Siahkali Moradi

2012-08-01

284

Main error factors, affecting inversion of EM data  

Science.gov (United States)

Inversions of EM data are complicated by a number of factors that need to be taken into account. These factors might contribute by tens of percents in data values, concealing responses from target objects, which usually contribute at the level of few percents only. We developed the exact analytical solutions of the EM wave equations that properly incorporate the contributions of the following effects: 1) A finite source size effect, where conventional dipole (zero-size) approximation brings 10-40% error compare to a real size source, needed to provide adequate signal-to-noise ratio. 2) Complex topography. A three-parametrical approach allows to keep the data misfits in 0.5% corridor while topography effect might be up to 40%. 3) Grounding shadow effect, caused by return ground currents, when Tx-line vicinity is horizontally non-uniform. By keeping survey setup within some reasonable geometrical ratios, the shadow effect comes to just one frequency-independent coefficient, which can be excluded from processing by using logarithmical derivatives. 4) Layer's wide spectral range effect. This brings to multi-layer spectral overlapping, so each frequency is affected by many layers; that requires wide spectral range processing, making the typical 'few-frequency data acquisition' non-reliable. 5) Horizontal sensitivity effect. The typical view at the target signal, reflected from a Tx-Rx mid-point is valid only for a ray approximation, reliable in a far-field zone. Unlike this, the real EM surveys usually work in near-field zone. Thus Tx-Rx mid-point does not represent the layer, so a sensitivity distribution function must be computed for each layer for the following 3D-unification process. 6) Wide range Rx-directions from mid-line Tx. Survey terrain often prevents placing Rx perpendicular to Tx-line, and even small deviations without proper corrections cause a significant inaccuracy. A radical simplification of the effect's description becomes possible after applying a special Angular Theorem. 7) Apparent conductivity spectral splitting factor. For some of the inversion approaches an averaged Earth's conductivity ?A(?) is the first step for the inversion to stratified Earth. The related spectral response from the loop-source splits such ?A onto two branches: ?A(?High) and ?A(?Low), similar to early and late resistivities in time domain processing. 8) Calibration factor. A manufacturer-based internal calibration often leads to many percents of non-controllable systematic error at low and high frequency ends, as well as temperature changes. A special approach allows an external pre-survey calibration to achieve the required accuracy.

Zuev, M. A.; Magomedov, M.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

2013-12-01

285

Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within ± 3 cm3, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p < 0.0001), and this was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. These results will help to identify factors that affect prostate volume calculation and to contribute to the improved estimation of the prostate volume based on CT images.

2011-01-01

286

Factors affecting bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD). Methods 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years) participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patient's quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29). Results Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs) pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001), but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL), disease duration and BMD of both site. Conclusion As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.

Ayatollahi, Azin; Mohajeri-Tehrani, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

287

Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.

Azin Ayatollahi

2013-01-01

288

Factors affecting the morphology of benzoyl peroxide microsponges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is primarily used in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. However, its application is associated with skin irritation. It has been shown that encapsulation and controlled release of BPO could reduce the side effect while also reducing percutaneous absorption when administered to the skin. The aim of the present investigation was to design and formulate an appropriate encapsulated form of BPO, using microsponge technology, and explore the parameters affecting the morphology and other characteristics of the resultant products employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Benzoyl peroxide particles were prepared using an emulsion solvent diffusion method by adding an organic internal phase containing benzoyl peroxide, ethyl cellulose and dichloromethane into a stirred aqueous phase containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Different concentrations of BPO microsponges were incorporated in lotion formulations and the drug release from these formulations were studied. The SEM micrographs of the BPO microsponges enabled measurement of their size and showed that they were spherical and porous. Results showed that the morphology and particle size of microsponges were affected by drug:polymer ratio, stirring rate and the amount of emulsifier used. The results obtained also showed that an increase in the ratio of drug:polymer resulted in a reduction in the release rate of BPO from the microsponges. The release data showed that the highest and the lowest release rates were obtained from lotions containing plain BPO particles and BPO microsponges with the drug:polymer ratio of 13:1, respectively. The kinetics of release study showed that the release data followed Peppas model and the main mechanism of drug release from BPO microsponges was diffusion. PMID:17692528

Nokhodchi, Ali; Jelvehgari, Mitra; Siahi, M Reza; Mozafari, M Reza

2007-01-01

289

Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojection are investigated: (1) image uniformity (flood) corrections, (2) image sampling (pixel size) and (3) count allocation methods. An analytic expression for uniformity correction is developed that incorporates factors for spatial-dependent detector sensitivity and geometric effects from acceptance angle limits on coincidence events. There is good agreement between experimental floods from a PEM system with a pixellated detector and numerical simulations. The analytic uniformity corrections are successfully applied to image reconstruction of compressed breast phantoms and reduce the necessity for flood scans at different image planes. Experimental and simulated compressed breast phantom studies show that lesion contrast is improved when the image pixel size is half of, rather than equal to, the detector pixel size, though this occurs at the expense of some additional image noise. In PEM reconstruction counts usually are allocated to the pixel in the image plane intersected by the line of response (LOR) between the centers of the detection pixels. An alternate count allocation method is investigated that distributes counts to image pixels in proportion to the area of the tube of response (TOR) connecting the detection pixels that they overlay in the image plane. This TOR method eliminates some image artifacts that occur with the LOR method and increases tumor signal-to-noise ratios at the expense of a slight decrease in tumor contrast. Analysis of image uniformity, image sampling and count allocation methods in PEM image reconstruction points to ways of improving image formation. Further work is required to optimize image reconstruction parameters for particular detection or quantitation tasks

2001-11-05

290

Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions  

Science.gov (United States)

EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct identification from the surface measurements.

Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

2013-12-01

291

Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

1991-03-01

292

Factors affecting the cost and competitiveness of nuclear electricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general context in which are carried out the investment choices of the electric sector has evolved in a significant way during these last years and the changes are to a certain extent irreversible. Economic globalization, deregulation of the electricity market, privatisation of electricity producers, and increasing awareness of environmental issues are modifying the policy-making landscape and the criteria and priorities of decision-makers in the power sector. Competitiveness remains a cornerstone for evaluating and choosing alternative technologies in the process of planning and decision-making for electricity system expansion or power plant replacement. Nevertheless, the production costs analysis inserts factors which were not taking before into account as for instance social impacts, health and environmental effects. These new approaches better reveal the total costs of the different production means. They will certainly lead to different choices than those based on the whole comparison of direct costs supported by producers. The economic studies carried out by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (NEA) cover all the preceding aspects and give objective information on the competitiveness of nuclear electricity. The nuclear industry has today the necessary means to take up the challenges of the electricity new markets. (O.M.)

1996-10-02

293

Somatic cell counts: associated factors and relationship to production.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Factors affecting somatic cell counts and the association between somatic cell counts and milk production were evaluated. Data were collected from 748 Ontario Dairy Herd Improvement Corporation supervised herds that were on production and somatic cell count programs between April 1981 and March 1983. Two data files were created; one, the lactation summary file, contained one record per cow on each of 9406 Holsteins and the other, the test day file, included results of all tests during the com...

Salsberg, E.; Meek, A. H.; Martin, S. W.

1984-01-01

294

THEORIES AND FACTORS AFFECTING MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioadhesion is an interfacial phenomenon in which two materials, at least one of which is biological, are held together by means of interfacial forces. When the associated biological system is mucous, it is called mucoadhesion. This property of certain polymeric systems have got place in the drug delivery research in order to prolong contact time in the various mucosal route of drug administration, as the ability to maintain a delivery system at a particular location for an extended period of time has a great appeal for both local action as well as systemic drug bioavailability. A complete and comprehensive theory that can predict adhesion based on the chemical and/or physical nature of a polymer is not yet available. Several theories have been proposed to explain the fundamental mechanisms of adhesion such as glues, adhesives, and paints, have been adopted to study the mucoadhesion. Mucoadhesion is a complex process and numerous theories have been presented to explain the mechanisms involved. These theories include mechanical-interlocking, electrostatic, diffusion–interpenetration, adsorption and fracture processes. They are Electronic theory, Adsorption theory, Wetting theory, Diffusion theory, Fracture theory. The objective of the study is to explain the different mechanisms involved in mucoadhesion and various factors affecting mucoadhesion.

Alexander Amit

2011-04-01

295

Factors affecting the internal brain drain of Saudi healthcare professionals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate factors affecting the internal brain drain of healthcare professionals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an anonymous self-administered online questionnaire sent to all Saudi students enrolled in healthcare profession programs in North America. The data was collected between January and March 2008 at the University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America. Results were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. Results: A total of 377 completed questionnaires were returned. Results revealed that 71% of respondents intended to return to work within the 2 major urban cities (Riyadh and Jeddah. Respondents who completed their undergraduate studies in a large city were more likely to work in the same city (odds ratio [OR]=3.2; p=0.000; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-5.2. Furthermore, 51% of the students were willing to work in a rural area for a 50% or more increase in their salary. Finally, men were more willing to work in a rural area for a financial incentive (OR=2.3; p=0.006, 95% CI = 1.3-4.3. Conclusion: This study suggests that realistic financial incentives would probably not suffice to attract Saudi healthcare providers to rural areas. The provision of medical schools in smaller cities and rural areas is predicted to be a more effective method for improving the current maldistribution of healthcare providers. 

Kevin G. Croke

2012-11-01

296

Factors affecting the erosion resistance of weld overlays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research was conducted to study factors affecting the solid particle erosion resistance of weld overlay coatings. Eleven weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process and erosion tested at 400 C. Erosion resistance was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. Ultimet, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings showed the best erosion resistance at 30 and 90{degree} impact angles. Microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples below the erosion surface to determine the size of the plastically deformed zone and it was found that one group of coatings deformed plastically as a result of the particle impact while the others did not. No correlations were found between average microhardness at 400 C and volumetric erosion rates for plastically deformed weld overlays. For this group of overlays erosion resistance was correlated to the area under the curve of microhardness versus distance from the eroded surface. The physical significance of this parameter is discussed. For coatings that did not deform plastically, an increase in average microhardness at 400 C led to an increase in their volumetric erosion rates. The possible erosion mechanisms for these coating groups are discussed.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

297

Factors that differentially affect daytime and nighttime sleep in Drosophila  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rest in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has key characteristics of mammalian sleep and is thus considered as a fly version of sleep. Drosophila sleep has been studied extensively, with the aim of gaining fundamental insights into the evolutionarily conserved functions of sleep as well as the mechanisms that regulate it. An interesting question that has not yet been addressed is whether fly sleep can be classified into distinct sleep types, each having particular biological roles—like REM and non-REM sleep in birds and mammals. Typically, Drosophila sleep displays a bimodal pattern, consisting of distinct daytime and nighttime components. Notably, daytime and nighttime sleep differ with respect to a number of qualities, such as sleep bout lengths and arousal thresholds. In this short review, we describe several genetic and environmental factors that differentially affect daytime and nighttime sleep, highlighting the observations suggesting the notion that these temporally distinct components of Drosophila sleep may have unique biological functions and be regulated by different homeostatic regulatory mechanisms.

ToshihiroKitamoto

2012-02-01

298

Factors Affecting the Radii of Close-in Transiting Exoplanets  

CERN Document Server

The radius of an exoplanet may be affected by various factors, including irradiation, planet mass and heavy element content. A significant number of transiting exoplanets have now been discovered for which the mass, radius, semi-major axis, host star metallicity and stellar effective temperature are known. We use multivariate regression models to determine the dependence of planetary radius on planetary equilibrium temperature T_eq, planetary mass M_p, stellar metallicity [Fe/H], orbital semi-major axis a, and tidal heating rate H_tidal, for 119 transiting planets in three distinct mass regimes. We determine that heating leads to larger planet radii, as expected, increasing mass leads to increased or decreased radii of low-mass (2.0R_J) planets, respectively (with no mass effect on Jupiter-mass planets), and increased host-star metallicity leads to smaller planetary radii, indicating a relationship between host-star metallicity and planet heavy element content. For Saturn-mass planets, a good fit to the radii...

Enoch, B; Horne, K

2012-01-01

299

Some factors affecting the in vitro culture of banana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Factors affecting in vitro regeneration of shoots in shoot tip explant cultures of banana cultivar 'Basrai', such as solid and liquid media, growth regulators, vitamins, and antioxidants were studied. Three-quarters strength of MS liquid medium supplemented with 17.75 micro m 6-benzyladenine (BA), 11.42 micro M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 205 micro M adenine sulphate induced the formation of mean number of 12.3 shoots, with the mean length of 3.0 cm, after three weeks of culture. Maximum shoot multiplication (14.33) occurred in liquid medium containing 22.19 micro M BA. Addition of 2.0% activated charcoal (AC) to the liquid medium improved quality of the regenerated plants with expanded and glossy leaves, though the number of shoots was reduced (13.66). Profuse formation of roots was characteristically induced by AC. Addition of citric acid (CA) to the medium caused decline in morphogenetic expression of the cultures. (author)

2006-01-01

300

Hemoglobin E-beta thalassemia: factors affecting phenotype.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenotype of E-beta-thalassemia is affected by several genetic factors. The aim of this study was to analyze severity of E-beta-thalassemia and correlate with HbE, HbF, E/F ratios, beta-mutation and Xmn I polymorphism. Thirty cases of E-beta-thalassemia (23 with childhood onset) were studied. HbE levels were quantitated by HPLC. Xmn1 polymorphism and beta-mutations were studied by PCR-RFLP and ARMS respectively. Commonest features were pallor (100%), splenomegaly (74%), and hepatomegaly (65%), 43% (10/23) were on regular transfusions at diagnosis. One case presented with paraplegia. Patients heterozygous for Xmn I polymorphism (+/-) had later onset (>3 yrs) compared to homozygous (-/-) absence (0.5-2.8 yrs). Most (69.6%) showed beta-mutation IVS 1-5 (G-->C). Negative correlation was found between age of onset and HbE. Thus, presentation is similar to previously reported Thai cases. Heterozygosity of Xmn I polymorphism also delays disease onset. Early diagnosis facilitates appropriate management and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:15876597

Panigrahi, I; Agarwal, S; Gupta, T; Singhal, P; Pradhan, M

2005-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

Factors affecting the motivation of smokers to quit smoking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available smoking. Success of smoking cessation depends mainly on the balance between motivation and the degree of nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the motivation of smokers to stop smoking. Method: Data were collected from 139 smokers, aged 18-69 divided in two groups. Questionnaires were completed about the demographic data, smoking history, anthropometric characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, motivation degree and alcohol consumption. Results: Body Mass Index was positively correlated with the dependence degree and heavy smoking, while those who were overweight in adolescence showed a lower degree of motivation for smoking cessation. Individuals with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption, those who smoked in their working environment and were heavier smokers needed greater motivation. The low degree of dependence was associated with a lower degree of motivation, while those who showed medium dependence were moderately motivated. Conclusions: Health care professionals should take into account all the above components with the aim of motivating smokers to stop smoking.

Gourgoulianis K.

2011-07-01

302

Factors affecting hospital mortality in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This retrospective analysis studied the records of 564 consecutive patients admitted to Gastrointestinal Bleeding Unit of Riyadh Medical Complex with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a 2-year period (May 1996-April 1998. The purpose of the study was to analyze the mortality with an aim to identify the risk factors affecting mortality in these patients. Majority of patients were men (82% and Saudis (54%. Their mean age was 52.46 + 17.8 years. Esophageal varices (45% were the main causes of bleeding followed by duodenal ulcers (24%. Overall mortality in this series was 15.8% (89 patients. Comorbid diseases were responsible for death in 68 (76% patients, whereas, bleeding was considered to be directly responsible for death in 21 (24% patients. On analysis of data from this study, old age (>60 years, systolic pressure < 90 mm Hg on admission, comorbid disease, variceal bleeding and Child?s grade C in patients with chronic liver disease were associated with adverse outcome.

Alam Mohammed

2000-01-01

303

Factors affecting the biodegradation of PCP by Pseudomonas mendocina NSYSU.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading bacterium was isolated from PCP-contaminated soils and identified as Pseudomonas mendocina NSYSU (P. mendocina NSYSU). The main objectives of this study were to (1) clarify the factors affecting the ability and efficiency of PCP biodegradation by P. mendocina NSYSU, and (2) optimize the use of this bacterium in bioremediation of PCP. Microcosm experiments were conducted to fulfill the objectives. In batch cultures, P. mendocina NSYSU used PCP as its sole source of carbon and energy and was capable of completely degrading this compound. This was confirmed by the stoichiometric release of chloride ion. Moreover, P. mendocina NSYSU was able to mineralize a high concentration of PCP (150 mg/L). Results from the oxygen concentration experiment reveal that the growth of P. mendocina NSYSU was inhibited under low oxygen and anaerobic conditions. Results indicate that the optimal growth conditions for P. mendocina NSYSU include the following: slightly acidic (6

Kao, C M; Liu, J K; Chen, Y L; Chai, C T; Chen, S C

2005-09-30

304

Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

Tan, K M

2012-02-01

305

Chordoma: review of clinico radiological features and factors affecting survival  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study reviews the clinico radiological features of cranial and sacrospinal chordomas and identifies factors affecting survival. Nineteen patients seen between January 1980 and December 2000 with histopathological diagnosis of chordomas were retrospectively reviewed with reference to clinical presentation, imaging features, treatment modalities and post-therapy status. Eight had tumours in the skull base while 11 patients had spinal and sacro-coccygeal lesions. Surgical resection was performed in 16 patients whose subsequent natural history was used to identify clinical indicators that may influence survival. Completeness of resection, age, gender and postoperative irradiation were subjected to analysis using the Cox proportional hazard models. Kaplan-Meir survival curves illustrate the survival distributions. Diplopia and facial pain are prime clinical presentations in cranial lesions, while extremity weakness and a sacrogluteal mass are common complaints in the sacrospinal group. Lesional calcifications are present in 40% while an osteolytic soft tissue mass is detectable by CT in all cases. Heterogeneous signals and internal septations on T2-weighted MRI are predominant features. In sacrospinal tumours, complete excision with adjuvant radiotherapy achieves the best results with a disease-free survival of more than 5 years. The clinical and imaging findings in this study are in accordance with those of other series. Except for complete surgical excision followed by radiotherapy in the subset of patients with sacrospinal tumours, none of the other clinical indicators show a statistical significant influence on survival. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

2001-11-01

306

Factors affecting graded and ungraded memory loss following hippocampal lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review evaluates three current theories--Standard Consolidation (Squire & Wixted, 2011), Overshadowing (Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann, 2010), and Multiple Trace-Transformation (Winocur, Moscovitch, & Bontempi, 2010)--in terms of their ability to account for the role of the hippocampus in recent and remote memory in animals. Evidence, based on consistent findings from tests of spatial memory and memory for acquired food preferences, favours the transformation account, but this conclusion is undermined by inconsistent results from studies that measured contextual fear memory, probably the most commonly used test of hippocampal involvement in anterograde and retrograde memory. Resolution of this issue may depend on exercising greater control over critical factors (e.g., contextual environment, amount of pre-exposure to the conditioning chamber, the number and distribution of foot-shocks) that can affect the representation of the memory shortly after learning and over the long-term. Research strategies aimed at characterizing the neural basis of long-term consolidation/transformation, as well as other outstanding issues are discussed. PMID:24120426

Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris; Sekeres, Melanie J

2013-11-01

307

Factors Affecting the Disposition Effect in Tehran Stock Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Given the significance and perceived inevitability of disposition effect and its impact on investment decisions, we investigate factors affecting the disposition effect in the Tehran Stock Exchange. Four hypotheses were developed and the data used in the study were collected through availability sampling. One-sample t-test, two-sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were run to analyze the data while Pearson correlation test and multiple regressions were used to assess relationships among variables in question. The results of the analyses indicate that overconfidence and mental accounting were not significantly correlated with disposition effect. Regret aversion had a positive relationship with disposition effect while self control was negatively associated. It was also observed that there was a negative relationship between participants’ level of education and their disposition effect indicating that the higher the level of education, the less the rate of disposition effect. Furthermore, the results of the study show that males enjoy a higher level of overconfidence than females, and 20 to 30 year-old age groups displayed much overconfidence than other age groups.

Reza Tehrani

2012-02-01

308

Factors Affecting Fiber Design and Selection for Advanced Ceramic Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) have the potential for application in the hot sections of a variety of advanced propulsion and power systems. It is therefore necessary to have a general understanding of the key properties of CMC and Reinforcing Fibers. This need is complicated by the wide variety of application conditions and structural requirements for which CMC's will be used, and the proprietary concerns of the design engineers. CMC's, to be successful, must display properties which are competitive with the currently used high temperature structural materials: (i.e., Iron and Nickel based superalloys, tough monolithic ceramics, and carbon/carbon composites.) Structural CMC offers several areas of competition: (1) performance, (i.e., strength and strength retention, creep resistance, and thermal conductivity), (2) reliability (i.e., environmental durability, and damage tolerance) and (3) processing (i.e., capability for varying sizes and shapes, and cost effective fabrication). The presentation further discusses, and illustrates with fiber and CMC data the key fiber properties and processes which strongly affect each CMC area of competition. The presentation further discusses the current knowledge of the important factors which control the key fiber properties. A design guidelines for the optimum fiber characteristics is developed, and the currently available fibers are compared against those guidelines.

DiCarlo, James A.

1998-01-01

309

Chronotype and personality factors of predisposition to seasonal affective disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study aimed to recognize the personality factors of a predisposition to seasonal mood fluctuations in a non-clinical sample. A group of 101 subjects (57 women, 44 men; mean age 26.4?±?6.5 years) completed a battery of tests comprising a Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), Chronotype Questionnaire (ChQ), a NEO-Five Factor Inventory and a Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). A smaller sample (n?=?44) completed a Winter Blues Scale (WBS). Women scored significantly higher than men in seasonality (p?=?0.014), neuroticism (p?=?0.049), agreeableness (p?=?0.010), and avoidance-oriented coping style (p?=?0.041). Subjects with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (n?=?41) or sub-SAD (n?=?33), as diagnosed with SPAQ, exhibited higher levels of neuroticism (p?=?0.017) and openness (p?=?0.016) in comparison to non-SAD individuals. The latter declared a less frequent avoidance coping style. Both measures of seasonality, i.e. the SPAQ Global Seasonality Score and WBS, correlated significantly (r?=?0.28 and 0.44, respectively) with the subjective amplitude of the circadian rhythm, as described with the "distinctness" scale of ChQ. Female gender, neuroticism and openness were confirmed as factors linked to seasonal mood variability. Additionally, the study revealed an association between susceptibility to mild winter depression and an avoidance-oriented coping style. The avoidance coping style was correlated positively with all the aspects of seasonality described by SPAQ (correlation coefficients from 0.21 to 0.34). Both sub-types of avoidance-oriented style, i.e. distraction and social diversion, were associated with marked subjective seasonal changes in sleep length, mood and the energy level. While the subjective amplitude of circadian rhythm proved to be connected with seasonality, the subjective acrophase of the rhythm (morningness-eveningness preference) did not. It may be hypothesized that sensitivity to natural environmental conditions/synchronizers is a separate individual trait shaping the subject's proneness to energy and mood changes both in diurnal and year scale, i.e. circadian and seasonal mood variations. PMID:24397301

Oginska, Halszka; Oginska-Bruchal, Katarzyna

2014-05-01

310

Assessment of factors affecting industrial electricity demand. Final report (revision version)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Chapter 2, we identify those factors affecting the industrial product mix - taste, relative output prices, and relative input prices - and isolate several determinants which have not been adequately accounted for to date in industrial electricity demand forecasts. We discuss how the lower energy prices of foreign producers affect domestic producers and how the growth in the number of substitutes for intermediate products such as steel and aluminum with plastics and composites affects the composition of production and, hence, the demand for electricity. We also investigate how the changing age structure of the population brought on by the baby boom could change the mix of outputs produced by the industrial sector. In Chapter 3, we review the history of the 1970s with regard to changes in output mix and the manufacturing demand for electricity, and with regard to changes in the use of electricity vis-a-vis the other inputs in the production process. In Chapter 4, we generate forecasts using two models which control for efficiency changes, but in different ways. In this chapter we present the sensitivity of these projections using three sets of assumptions about product mix. The last chapter summarizes our results and draw from those results implications regarding public policy and industrial electricity demand. Two appendices present ISTUM2 results from selected electricity intensive industries, describes the ISTUM and ORIM models.

None

1983-07-01

311

Factors Affecting Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA Content in Milk, Meat, and Egg: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An increasing interest in enhancing the conjugated linoleic acids (CLA content in food products is attributed to its potential anti-carcinogenic, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-atherogenic, and immunomodulatory functions in experimental animal models. It is synthesized in the rumen from linoleic acid or from the endogenous conversion of t-11 C18:1 in the mammary gland by delta-9 desaturase. More than a dozen isomers of CLA have been detected in foods of ruminant origin, of which c-9, t-11 comprising 80 to 90%, and t-10, c-12 comprising 3-5% of total CLA are the isomers with known physiological importance. Although food products from ruminants are the richest source of CLA for humans, it is possible to enhance the CLA content of foods from non-ruminants by supplementing CLA in the diet. The CLA content in milk, meat, or egg varies greatly from a low 0.1% or less to a high 2% or more of the milk, tissue, or egg yolk lipids, with milk lipids from ruminants having the highest concentrations. A host of factors appear to affect the CLA content in milk, meat, and other food products from various species of animals, which could be broadly classified into diet, animal, and post-harvest related factors. Of all these factors, animal diet is the primary one and could be manipulated to a great extent for enhancing the concentration of CLA in food products, both from ruminants and non-ruminants. While animal-to-animal variation is also of great significance, post-harvest related factors appear to be of minor importance. In this context, the CLA content of milk, meat, and egg, and the factors affecting its concentration have been reviewed. Understanding the various factors affecting the CLA content in food products will have practical implications to the dairy, meat, or egg producers for its enrichment in food products so we can derive the potential health benefits associated with CLA.

R.C. Khanal

2004-01-01

312

Analysis of Factors Affecting Use of Bumble Bees for the Pollination in Glasshouse Tomatoes Growing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the study, a binary logit model was employed to determine factors affecting the use of bumble bees for the pollination in glasshouse tomatoes production in Antalya province of Turkey. Tomatoes yield, education level of farmer, experience in greenhouse vegetable production, knowledge level of farmers about bumble bee using, adoption level of new other production technologies, specialization and level of hired labor cost were fitted in the model as explanatory variables. The results indicated that yield, knowledge level of farmers about bumble bee using, adoption level of new production technologies are statistically significant, while other variables are not. In the model, only level of hired labor cost variable is negatively and other variables are positively associated with the probability of bumble bee adoption.

I. Yilmaz

2007-01-01

313

[Phosphorus availability in cropland soils of China and related affecting factors].  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil phosphorus (P) availability directly determines cropland productivity. Based on the long-term fertilization experiments in different climatic zones of China, this paper summarized the P content, its availability, and the factors affecting the P transformation in China cropland soils. The total and available P contents in different types of China cropland soils were 0.31-1.72 g x kg(-1) and 0.1-228.8 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Soil parent material, soil physical and chemical prosperities, and fertilization practices were the main factors affecting the soil P availability. It was suggested that more attentions should be paid on the mixed application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers to improve the P availability of cropland soils and on the potential environmental impacts of this fertilization. PMID:23718018

Wang, Yong-Zhuang; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

2013-01-01

314

Analysis of factors affecting the development of food crop varieties bred by mutation method in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research developed a production function on crop varieties developed by mutation method in order to explore factors affecting the development of new varieties. It is found that the research investment, human capital and radiation facilities were the most important factors that affected the development and cultivation area of new varieties through the mutation method. It is concluded that not all institutions involved in the breeding activities using mutation method must have radiation facilities and the national government only needed to invest in those key research institutes, which had strong research capacities. The saved research budgets can be used in the entrusting the institutes that have stronger research capacities with irradiating more breeding materials developed by the institutes that have weak research capacities, by which more opportunities to breed better varieties can be created

2002-12-01

315

Principal Factors Affecting China Zero Environmental Risk: Behavior and Area Angle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find principal factors affecting CZER (China Zero Environmental Risk from behavior and area angle and the related advice can help people to solve environmental problems. So, in this study the factors’ selection, contribution and sequence by correlation, regression and principal component analysis, etc. were studied from behavior and area angle, which is different from the present work only studying individual behavior or individual area. To make sure this study applicable, data were collected by case study and such norms as KMO (KMO refers to Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy, etc., were abided by. By this study, principal factors from behavior angle can be ordered by contribution as follows: Production action, market management, living waste disposal, public management, living action and production waste disposal. Principal factors from area angle can be ordered by contribution as follows: Neimenggu, Jiangxi, Shanghai, Qinghai, Zhejiang and Shaanxi. And the related advice is as follows: First, strict surveillance on production of waste from such behaviors as enterprise production and human living action by market management and public management, etc. Secondly, great encouragement to technological innovations friendly with the environment in waste disposal. And thirdly different emphasis of management in different areas, such as natural resources deterioration in Neimenggu and Qinghai, food quality and farming pollution in Jiangxi, industry pollution and water pollution in Shanghai and Zhejiang and pollution of resources excavation and refinement in Shaanxi, etc.

Changqing Liu

2013-01-01

316

Factors affecting visibility of a target tissue in histologic sections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of histologic techniques is to stain the subject with high specificity and high visibility. Visibility depends on the microscope's resolution and contrast and on the microscopist's skill at optimizing the microscope's image. It also depends on histotechnological factors, which include specificity and differentiation of the stain, density of background staining (particularly in silver stains), innate color, and grayscale contrasts of the dyes in the stains and color and density of the counterstain. If contrast is not optimal, the image should be evaluated on the basis of 2 types of contrast-color and grayscale. Complementary colors have maximum color contrast, and the color triangle is useful in the selection of a suitable counterstain. Grayscale contrast is a function of the density of a stain. If dyes capable of staining the target and backgrounds tissue do not have optimal color contrast, the only method of increasing contrast is to change the grayscale value of one of the stains, usually the counterstain. Colors can have a subconscious effect on a viewer. Depending on whether they are aesthetically pleasing, they may influence the rigor of and time spent on the histopathologic examination. Maximizing the specificity of stains such as hematoxylin, eosin, trichrome, and Luxol fast blue (LFB) depends on optimal differentiation. In differentiation of counterstains such as methylene blue in the Ziehl-Neelsen stain, its recommended density is conveniently expressed as a grayscale value. Independent evaluation of color and grayscale contrasts is very helpful in determining the cause of low contrast in an image. This review discusses aspects of the histotechnique affecting the visibility of tissue components. PMID:24395975

McGavin, M D

2014-01-01

317

Family planning attitudes of women and affecting factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This descriptive research was conducted to determine the attitudes of women towards family planning and the factors affecting these attitudes. Material and Methods: Universe of the study has been composed of women who are married and older than 15 years and living in Ankara Kale district. 300 women were included. Kale district is a low socioeconomical slum area of the capital city of Turkey. Questionnaire and Family Planning Attitude Scale were used to collect data. Results: 38% of the women were in the 30-39 years age group and 66.7% of them were graduates of primary school. 73.3% of the women had information about some contraceptive method and 53% of them had used an effective method. Mean score taken from the Family Planning Attitude Scale was 120.11±13.8. The scores obtained from the scale were significantly higher in the women who were graduates of elementary school, whose husbands were graduates from high school and higher, who had heard about any contraceptive method and had been using some method and who had had 1-3 pregnancies (p0.05. Conclusion: It was found that the attitudes of the women towards family planning were at a good level, nearly half of the women were using an effective method, and the level of education, number of pregnancies, unwillingness to have another child in the future, having information about contraceptive methods and using some contraceptive method had influenced family planning attitudes. In order to turn this attitude into practice with high rate, family planning education programs and consultancy services must be planned and implemented.

Sultan Ayaz

2009-09-01

318

Methyl salicylate production in tomato affects biotic interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of methyl salicylate (MeSA) production was studied in indirect and direct defence responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to the spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the root-invading fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, respectively. To this end, we silenced the tomato gene encoding salicylic acid methyl transferase (SAMT). Silencing of SAMT led to a major reduction in SAMT expression and MeSA emission upon herbivory by spider mites, without affecting the induced emission of other volatiles (terpenoids). The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, which preys on T. urticae, could not discriminate between infested and non-infested SAMT-silenced lines, as it could for wild-type tomato plants. Moreover, when given the choice between infested SAMT-silenced and infested wild-type plants, they preferred the latter. These findings are supportive of a major role for MeSA in this indirect defence response of tomato. SAMT-silenced tomato plants were less susceptible to a virulent strain of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, indicating that the direct defense responses in the roots are also affected in these plants. Our studies show that the conversion of SA to MeSA can affect both direct and indirect plant defence responses. PMID:20059742

Ament, Kai; Krasikov, Vladimir; Allmann, Silke; Rep, Martijn; Takken, Frank L W; Schuurink, Robert C

2010-04-01

319

Factors affecting the absorption of hydrogen by zircaloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A proton model has been employed to calculate how the elements Sn, Fe, Cr and Ni in Zircaloy affect the absorption of hydrogen compared with in zirconium. It is found that Fe, Cr and Ni reduce the absorption of hydrogen by almost equal amounts per atom added, whereas Sn has little or no affect on the absorption. (orig.)

1979-03-09

320

Alpha radiolysis and other factors affecting hydrolysis of tributyl phosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary purpose of this study was to identify the principal degradation products produced by Pu(IV) loading in 30% tributyl phosphate/dodecane (TBP-DD) solutions and to determine the formation rates of these species as a function of temperature. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate HNO3 hydrolysis of TBP as a function of temperature and to compare the effects resulting from plutonium solvent loading with effects due to loading with uranium and zirconium. The results indicate that four factors are of particular significance: (1) dibutyl phosphate (DBP) is the principal plutonium-complexing species formed at temperatures of 500C or lower, while significant concentrations of monobutyl phosphate (MBP) are also formed at higher temperatures; (2) the TBP degradation rate due to alpha radiolysis or chemical hydrolysis is strongly dependent on temperature; (3) plutonium promotes TBP hydrolysis by two mechanisms, alpha radiolysis and metal-ion-induced hydrolysis, and, of these, metal-ion-induced hydrolysis can be the major effect; and (4) small amounts of an unidentified plutonium-complexing species are formed in experiments using plutonium of high specific activity [about 4 x 108 counts per minute per milligram (c/min dot mg)]. This species cannot be removed from 30% TBP-DD by Na2CO3 washing or other solvent cleanup procedures. The TBP degradation rates (determined as grams of plutonium complexed by degradation products) increased from 0.125 mg Pu/L dot h at 250C to 47.9 mg Pu/L dot h at 800C in 30% TBP-DD solutions that contained only 0.68 M HNO3. In solutions that additionally contained approx.20 g/L of plutonium (specific activity = 9 x 107 c/min dot mg) TBP degradation rates increased from 2.46 mg Pu/L dot h at 250C to 127.1 mg Pu/L dot h at 800C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Factors affecting transport of bacterial cells in porous media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study focused on identification of factors associated with the biology, chemistry, and hydrology of the subsurface environment that control bacterial transport through that habitat. We determined that control is a complex interaction of biological factors such as cell size and hydrophobicity, geochemical factors such as ionic strength of the ground water, and hydrological factors including the presence of preferred flow paths in the porous medium.

Mills, A.L.; Herman, J.S.; Hornberger, G.M.

1992-07-01

322

To Invest Or Not Invest? : Factors affecting IT investment decisions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

  Introduction Many studies indicate that there are numerous factors that promote or hamper the adoption of IT applications and are a prime concern for many researchers and practitioners (Abrahamson, 1991). Two main factors which need to be examined closely when making decisions about IT investments are the internal and external factors. Since these factors play a great role in decision making of IT investments, it is imperative to study their impact on the strategic planning because this fo...

Tarabay, Raymond; Eigbire, Raphael

2009-01-01

323

Factors affecting guanine nucleotide binding to rat AMPA receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutamate receptors are competitively inhibited by guanine nucleotides. Insight into the physiological function of this inhibition would be greatly advanced if nucleotide binding could be eliminated through mutations without altering other aspects of receptor function, or if compounds were discovered that selectively prevent nucleotide binding. It was previously reported that a lysine in the chick kainate binding protein (cKBP) is specifically involved in guanine nucleotide binding. In the present study we mutated the equivalent lysine in the rat AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 flip to alanine (K445A) and assessed changes in nucleotide affinity from the displacement of [(3)H]fluorowillardiine. As in the cKBP, the affinity for nucleotides was greatly reduced while the binding affinity for agonists remained unchanged. The reduction in affinity was largest for GTP (factor of 5.8) and GDP (4.4) and minor for GMP and guanosine. This suggests that K445 is involved in stabilizing the second phosphate of the nucleotide. Given that bulkier analogs like GDP-fucose are also accommodated at this site, it seems likely that nucleotides bind in such a way that their phosphates project out of the cleft. In excised-patch recordings using short pulses of glutamate, the K445A mutation increased the EC(50) for the peak response 1.8-fold and accelerated desensitization and deactivation. This indicates that the effects of this mutation are not as specific as previously suggested. Efforts to selectively eliminate inhibition by nucleotides may therefore depend on mapping out further the docking site. In a first attempt using point mutations we ruled out several amino acids around the cleft as being involved in nucleotide binding. Also, the AMPA receptor modulator PPNDS which competitively inhibits nucleotide binding to purinergic receptors did not affect nucleotide inhibition, suggesting that there are major differences in the topography between purinergic and glutamate receptors. Thus new approaches, including crystallography, may be called for to identify residues uniquely involved in nucleotide binding. PMID:17884024

Montgomery, Kyle; Suzuki, Erika; Kessler, Markus; Arai, Amy C

2007-10-26

324

Grape products and cardiovascular disease risk factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many in vivo trials have evaluated the effects of grape products on different CVD risk factors. Most published studies have dealt with some specific aspects of mechanisms of grape flavonoid action or have focused only on one product, such as wine. The aim of the present paper is to review trials dealing with grape products and CVD published during the last 13 years (seventy-five trials). Polyphenols, alcohol and dietary fibre are the main constituents of the tested products. In animal and hum...

Pe?rez Jime?nez, Jara; Saura Calixto, Fulgencio D.

2008-01-01

325

Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By comparing five ecosystem types in the Czech Republic over several years, we recorded the highest carbon sequestration potential in an evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). Because of a massive ecosystem respiration, the final carbon gain of the grassland was negative. Climate was shown to be an important factor of carbon uptake by ecosystems: by varying the growing season length (a 22-d longer season in 2005 than in 2007 increased carbon sink by 13%) or by the effect of short- term synoptic situations (e.g. summer hot and dry days reduced net carbon storage by 58% relative to hot and wet days). Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy which is demonstrated by the comparison of seasonal course of carbon uptake between coniferous (Norway spruce) and deciduous (European beech) stands. - Highlights: ? Highest carbon sequestration potential in evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). ? The final carbon gain of the grassland was negative (massive ecosystem respiration). ? Climate is important factor of net primary productivity. ? Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy of ecosystem. - Identification of the apparent differences in the carbon storage by different ecosystem types.

2011-05-01

326

Biologics Formulation Factors Affecting Metal Leachables from Stainless Steel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect...

Zhou, Shuxia; Scho?neich, Christian; Singh, Satish K.

2011-01-01

327

Production of Tuber-Inducing Factor  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for making a substance that regulates the growth of potatoes and some other economically important plants has been developed. The process also yields an economically important by-product: potatoes. The particular growth-regulating substance, denoted tuber-inducing factor (TIF), is made naturally by, and acts naturally on, potato plants. The primary effects of TIF on potato plants are reducing the lengths of the main shoots, reducing the numbers of nodes on the main stems, reducing the total biomass, accelerating the initiation of potatoes, and increasing the edible fraction (potatoes) of the overall biomass. To some extent, these effects of TIF can override environmental effects that typically inhibit the formation of tubers. TIF can be used in the potato industry to reduce growth time and increase harvest efficiency. Other plants that have been observed to be affected by TIF include tomatoes, peppers, radishes, eggplants, marigolds, and morning glories. In the present process, potatoes are grown with their roots and stolons immersed in a nutrient solution in a recirculating hydroponic system. From time to time, a nutrient replenishment solution is added to the recirculating nutrient solution to maintain the required nutrient concentration, water is added to replace water lost from the recirculating solution through transpiration, and an acid or base is added, as needed, to maintain the recirculating solution at a desired pH level. The growing potato plants secrete TIF into the recirculating solution. The concentration of TIF in the solution gradually increases to a range in which the TIF regulates the growth of the plants.

Stutte, Gary W.; Yorio, Neil C.

2006-01-01

328

Factors affecting the flowability of fertilizers through orifices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of some significant factors on the flow of fertilizers through orifices, such as orifice diameter, orifice shape, particle diameter, fertilizer type, air temperature, and air relative humidity were investigated. The effect of air temperature on the flow rate was small as the effects of the other factors were significant.

Kara M.; Hofstee J.W.

2000-01-01

329

Factors affecting the flowability of fertilizers through orifices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of some significant factors on the flow of fertilizers through orifices, such as orifice diameter, orifice shape, particle diameter, fertilizer type, air temperature, and air relative humidity were investigated. The effect of air temperature on the flow rate was small as the effects of the other factors were significant.

Hofstee J.W.

2000-03-01

330

Factors Affecting College Students' Achievement in Science. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated were factors influencing science achievement at the college level of 1,191 students who graduated from 12 midwestern high schools in 1963. Factors investigated included interest, intelligence, high school achievement, and family background. Data sources included secondary school standardized tests, college transcripts, Kuder…

Mallinson, George G.

331

A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If the grid is employed in radiography, the exposure and the patient dose naturally increase. The rate of increase of the exposure resulting from the use of the grid is usually expressed by the Bucky factor. The Bucky factor is commonly known to change depending on the grid ratio and the tube voltage, but its change due to other factor has been hardly reported. Therefore, authors have measured changes in the Bucky factor due to the thickness of a patient and the irradiation field size, and added a few comments on the patient dose. (Conclusion) (1) The Bucky factor is not constant because it is greatly influenced by the tube voltage, grid ratio, thickness of the patient and the field size. (2) The Bucky factor increases if the tube voltage is low and the grid ratio is high, and also if the patient thickness is great and the field size is large. (3) If the field size is enlarged, the Bucky factor increases, but the surface dose usually decreases, resulting in a conflicting phenomenon. This fact must be born in mind in using the Bucky factor as an indicator of the exposure or the patient dose. (author)

1979-01-01

332

Rice Farms Efficiency and Factors Affecting the Efficiency in MADA Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaysian rice farming is still constrained by the low productivity despite many supports and subsidies that have been enacted to this sector. The difficulties in improving the yield is potentially caused by the unintensive use of inputs due to the inefficient management on the rice farm. Thus this study aims to measure the rice farm efficiency and factors affecting that efficiency. Two stage analysis was adopted whereas in the first stage data envelopment analysis was used and corrected by the bootstrap method. Then in the second stage a Tobit model was employed to estimate factors affecting the efficiency. On average, the technical efficiency score estimated by DEA was about 0.6375 and implied with a given amount of inputs, the rice farms could increase its output by 57.31%. However, after correcting for the bias, the technical efficiency score was about 0.5366 and indicated that rice farms in MADA could increase its output at 86.35%. Further, by considering the lower and the higher bounds of efficiency scores, on the average, the rice farms could increase its output in the range from 20.13-99.12 with 95% confidence interval. Three factors that significantly affect the rice farm efficiency were the household size, land ownership and secondary level of education of sampled farmers. The positive significant effect of household size implied that farms with more household member was appeared to be more efficiently manage their production. Then, the negative effect of land ownership to the efficiency implied farmers who had the own land were tend to be more inefficient than those who rent the land. It was related to their motivation on the production whereas tenant farmers were more motivated to improve their production and get higher income so that they strived to manage the production in a professional manner and receptive to new technology as well. Further, farmers with secondary education level more efficiently managed the rice farm than others because of their passion for managing their production.

Lira Mailena

2014-01-01

333

Factors and pharmaceuticals that affect the radiopharmaceuticals bio distributions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pattern of biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals may be affected by various agents and therapeutical procedures, chemotherapy agents, thyroid hormones, metals, radiotherapy, surgery, anesthetic agents, dialysis other radiopharmaceutical interactions. Recommendations for the detection of altered biodistribution in patients by causes not directly related with the pathology itself was given. pathology itself was given

1994-07-01

334

Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

2009-01-01

335

[the factors which affect the neurological condition in subarachnoid hemorrhage].  

Science.gov (United States)

The factors which were related to the neurological condition were analyzed in 233 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Bivariate analysis and multiple(binomial)logistic regression analysis were performed as for Hunt & Kosnik grade, modified Rankin Scale at discharge and modified Rankin Scale in the out-patient department to detect the factors which were related to the neurological condition. Hematoma-filled intraventricular hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage with midline shift, acute subdural hematoma and aneurysm of the vertebrobasilar system were the representative factors which caused poor neurological condition. Hunt & Kosnik grade was poor when rebleeding occurred or hematoma was formed in the sylvian fissure. Hunt & Kosnik grade and modified Rankin Scale at discharge tended to be poor in the cases with acute hydrocephalus. The elevation of intracranial pressure was the major factor in neurological deterioration. PMID:24091459

Oyama, Hirofumi; Wada, Kentaro; Kito, Akira; Maki, Hideki; Noda, Tomoyuki

2013-10-01

336

Case Study of Factors Affecting Chinese Students’ English Communication Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For ESL teaching in China’s universities, not enough emphasis is put on verbal communication as a yardstick of language mastery and methodological success. Developing student’s communication competence is not only concerned with the nature of language learning from linguistic perspectives, but also could be influenced by such exogenous factors as learning environment, learning psychology, and learning strategies. It is necessary to investigate whether these factors have an impact ...

Liu, Ping

2009-01-01

337

Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention among UniSZA Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Graduates contributions to entrepreneurship would stimulate the country’s economic growth. The aim of this study is to determine and investigate factors influence on students’ perception of the entrepreneurial intention, in order to present the most contemporary future generation of entrepreneurs that can shape the future of the economy and the country. The area of this study covers demographic profiles, attitudinal and behavioral factors, and how these influence the intentions of student...

2012-01-01

338

Factors Affecting the Adoption of Formal Accounting Systems by SMEs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small to medium-sized enterprises’ (SMEs) poor performance is often ascribed to external factors such as burdensome character of the legal framework, limited scope to penetrate the export market and access to finance. However, internal factors such as marketing, operation and in particular accounting services may be equally responsible to such state of affairs. This study therefore attempts to analyse the importance attached to formal accounting systems among the small to medium-sized Mauri...

2012-01-01

339

ACCURACY OF PESTICIDE REFERENCE STANDARD SOLUTIONS. PART I. FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIC SOLVENT EVAPORATION  

Science.gov (United States)

A gravimetric experiment was undertaken to identify the factors affecting solvent evaporation from analytical reference standard solutions and to establish the magnitude of the resultant solvent evaporation. The evaporation of organic solvent from standard solutions is affected b...

340

Factors affecting the hot-dip zinc coatings structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coating solidification during hot-dip galvanizing is a very complex process due to Al-Fe, Al-Fe-Zn and Fe-Zn intermetallic compounds development . Fe-Zn intermetallics are brittle and detrimental for the coating ductility, while the diffusion towards the surface of a segregated insoluble alloying such as antimonium causes the sheet darkness. Steel of different roughness were hot-dip galvanized under different operation conditions using a laboratory scale simulator. The effect of steel roughness and process parameters upon coating characteristics were analysed. Experimental results showed that the steel roughness affects the coating thickness, zinc grain size and texture as well as the out-bursts development, while the process parameters affects the Fe2Al5 morphology and antimonium segregation. (Author) 11 refs

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Factors affecting mortality of shearwaters stranded by light pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Every year and across the world, thousands of fledglings of different petrel species crash into human structures because they are disorientated by artificial lights during their first flights. As this phenomenon is rather predictable, rescue cam- paigns are organized to help birds to reach the ocean, but unfortunately, a low proportion gets hurt or dies. Despite the huge number of affected individuals, and the fact that the problem was detected a long time ago, little is known ...

Rodri?guez, Airam; Rodri?guez, Beneharo; Curbelo, A. J.; Pe?rez, A.; Marrero, S.; Negro, Juan J.

2012-01-01

342

Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, d...

2008-01-01

343

Discriminant Analysis of Factors Affecting Telecoms Customer Churn  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A major challenge facing telecoms business providers in Nigeria today is the continuous growing competition and customers’ expectation of service quality and as such customers are able to choose among multiple service providers based on the level of satisfaction, affordability, and service quality of service providers. Customer demand and competition are forcing firms to cut loose from the traditional customer satisfaction paradigm, to adopt proactive strategies which will assist them to take the lead in the market-place. This study aims at identifying factors that discriminate among subscribers exhibiting willingness to drop their current service provider and those willing to stay. The study also examines the effect of socio-economic and demographic factors associated with the identified discriminants. The major factors identified are high call rate, poor service facilities, off-beam advertisement medium, availability of superior service provider and unattractive service plan.

Benjamin Oghojafor

2012-03-01

344

Factors affecting the energy consumption of two refrigerator-freezers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two refrigerator-freezers, one with a top-mounted freezer and one with side-by-side doors, were tested in the laboratory to determine the sensitivity of their energy consumption to various operational factors. Room temperature, room humidity, door openings, and the setting of the anti-sweat heater switch were the factors examined. The results indicated that the room temperature and door openings had a significantly greater effect on energy consumption than the other two factors. More detailed tests were then performed under different room temperature and door-opening combinations. The relationship of door openings and the equivalent test room temperature was established. Finally, the effect on energy of different temperature settings was studied. Test results are presented and discussed.

Kao, J.Y.; Kelley, G.E. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Lab.

1996-12-31

345

???????, ??? ????????? ?? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??????? Factors affecting the spontaneous mutational spectra in somatic mammalian cells ???????, ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????, ????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????, ????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????. ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ????, ?? ? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ?? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????. In our survey of references we are discussed the influence of factors biological origin on the spontaneous mutation specters in mammalian. Seasonal and age components influence on the frequence of cytogenetic anomalies. The immune and endocrinous systems are take part in control of the alteration of the spontaneous mutation specters. Genetical difference of sensibility in animal and human at the alteration of factors enviroment as and  genetical differences of repair systems activity are may influence on individual variation of spontaneous destabilization characters of chromosomal apparatus. ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????????, ??????? ???????-??? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????-??????? ??????????? ????????. ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??? ??, ??? ? ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ??????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????.

?.?. ?????????

2006-04-01

346

Non-nutritional factors affecting lactation persistency in dairy ewes: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk production is largely related to the shape of the lactation curve. Key elements of the lactation pattern are peak yield, which is the maximum daily yield reached during lactation, and lactation persistency, which is the medium rate of milk yield decrease after the lactation peak. The ideal lactation curve should have a reasonably high peak and a flat trend afterwards. A more persistent lactation is desirable because it is related to better animal health and reduction of feeding costs. Effective strategies to improve lactation persistency require a deep understanding of the main factors that affect this trait, including genetics, hormonal status and administration, udder morphology, seasonal changes, management, animal health (e.g. mastitis, stress and nutrition. This review covers the effects of non-nutritional factors on lactation persistency in dairy sheep.

Antonello Cannas

2010-01-01

347

[Factors that affect the mortality in patients receiving emergency surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms].  

Science.gov (United States)

This retrospective study was performed to identify the perioperative factors affecting the mortality rate in 28 patients, who had received emergency surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms from January, 2005 to June, 2008. Five (17.9%) of these 28 patients died of massive bleeding, sepsis, or multiple organ failure during or within 11 days after surgery. Various factors which might influence the outcomes were compared between the survivors and non-survivors. Preoperative hypotension defined as a systolic blood pressure time from the admittance to the hospital to aortic cross clamping, duration of surgery, and the amount of blood products transfused and intraoperative blood loss, between the two groups. Of great importance is that preoperative hypotension should be corrected before the onset of hemodynamic deterioration. PMID:21384655

Koga, Yukari; Hara, Masato; Mori, Sawako; Miyawaki, Nao; Mishima, Yasunori; Kano, Tatsuhiko; Ushijima, Kazuo

2011-02-01

348

Factors Affecting the Yield of Sunflower in the Province of Punjab (Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pakistan spends major chunk of its foreign exchange reserves on the import of edible oil due to poor domestic base of oilseed production. Considering bleak economic condition of Pakistan, it is very essential to save forex reserves by enhancing domestic oilseed production. Among various types of oilseeds grown in the country, the sunflower, a non-traditional oilseeds has the potential to bridge the gap that exists between the domestic demand and supply due to its high oil contents and agronomic suitability to the climatic conditions of Pakistan. This research article attempts to investigate the factor affecting the yield performance of sunflower in the province of Punjab (Pakistan. A Cobb-Douglas type of function has been employed for estimation purpose.

Muhammad Siddique Javed

2001-01-01

349

Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.

Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine

2006-01-01

350

Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

2009-01-01

351

Factors Affecting Teachers' Use of Information and Communication Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers' decisions to use ICT in the…

Afshari, Mojgan; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Luan, Wong Su; Samah, Bahaman Abu; Fooi, Foo Say

2009-01-01

352

Factors that Affect Nontraditional Vocational Enrollment among Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vocational training program females (N=470) completed a questionnaire assessing the role of personality and social support factors in nontraditional training enrollment. Results revealed differences in the amount of support and encouragement received from others, with nontraditional students receiving more support from female friends, family…

Houser, Betsy Bosak; Garvey, Chris

1985-01-01

353

Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

2014-01-01

354

Factors affecting the implementation of green specifications in construction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green specifications constitute one of the important elements in green construction. New sustainability requirements and changing priorities in construction management have spurred the emerging green specifications to a faster pace of development. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted in Hong Kong in 2007 to identify principal factors leading to the success of preparing green specifications. Based on extensive construction management literature, 20 variables concerning sustainable construction were summarized. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, the subtle differences between stakeholders in specifying construction work have been detected even with the high consistency of the responses among the groups. Moreover, five independent factors for successful specification of green construction have been categorized by factor analysis. They are related to (1) green technology and techniques, (2) reliability and quality of specification, (3) leadership and responsibility, (4) stakeholder involvement, and (5) guide and benchmarking systems. Whilst the first and fourth factors are generally more important, different stakeholder groups have different emphases. The results of the survey have been validated against established principles. PMID:19853367

Lam, Patrick T I; Chan, Edwin H W; Poon, C S; Chau, C K; Chun, K P

2010-01-01

355

Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

2008-01-01

356

FACTORS AFFECTING THE VEGETABLE FARMING EFFICIENCY IN BULGARIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The efficiency is the major economic category, which measures the final result and the expenses related to the production and provides value expression. The article aims to analyze the prospects and conditions for the development of field vegetable production in Bulgaria. Field vegetable farming is a traditional and fast developing sector of the Bulgarian agriculture. Its condition and development is determined by the various natural and geographic conditions in the country and the experience in cultivating and farming vegetable crops, which are traditional for the Bulgarian population. The vegetable farming is organized in individual private agricultural farms and agricultural farming cooperatives and is performed in small areas. The crisis in the vegetable farming raised a lot of questions that need to be answered. It is necessary to overcome the decrease in vegetable production. This can happen by establishing efficiently operating organizational companies. The most important reasons for the reported decrease are the result of the improperly conducted reforms in the agriculture industry as a result of which the economic condition of the sector is declining. A serious flaw is that the farmers are selecting certain crop production without conducting any preliminary marketing and without any signed contracts for produce realization.

Teodora STOEVA

2012-01-01

357

Analysis on the Main Factors Affecting the Reliability of Test Papers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reliability is an important factor to evaluate test papers. This paper analyzes the factors which affect the reliability of test papers and discusses the methods to increase the reliability of test papers.

Jiang Zhu

2011-01-01

358

Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could be reduced approximately 200-fold at pH 6 as compared to pH 10, leaving only 0.1 mg/mL in solution. Solubility could also be dramatically manipulated using salts. The choice of anions was found to be more important than of the cations, and the lowest solubility was found using sodium sulphate. For the anions, solubility followed the order expected from the Hofmeister series, however, a more complex behaviour was seen for the cations. With the exception of lithium, their efficiency to influence the solubility was reversed to what was expected. The polydispersity of the solution was reduced by salt addition and zeta potential measurements indicated a shift in pI caused by lithium. Possible explanations for the observations are discussed, extending our present understanding of how salts affect the solubility of proteins, one that to date is primarily based on experiments with lysozyme. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John

2008-01-01

359

Factors affecting influenza vaccination among attendees at a senior center.  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. We questioned attendees at a Baltimore County senior center that offered influenza vaccination about the factors that influenced their decision to receive vaccination. Of the 43 responders, 37 (86%) stated they already had received vaccination in 1994 or were planning to be vaccinated. Vaccinated seniors were more likely than nonvaccinated seniors to believe that they were susceptible to influenza and they were more likely to have had influenza vaccination recommended to them by their physician. Vaccinated seniors also were more knowledgeable about the influenza vaccine. Physician recommendation appears to be an important factor in the decision by seniors to receive influenza vaccination. PMID:8569457

Gianino, C A; Corazzini, K; Tseng, W T; Richardson, J P

1996-01-01

360

Pareto analysis of critical factors affecting technical institution evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the change of education policy in 1991, more and more technical institutions are being set up in India. Some of these institutions provide quality education, but others are merely concentrating on quantity. These stakeholders are in a state of confusion about decision to select the best institute for their higher educational studies. Although various agencies including print media provide ranking of these institutions every year, but their results are controversial and biased. In this paper, the authors have made an endeavor to find the critical factors for technical institution evaluation from literature survey. A Pareto analysis has also been performed to find the intensity of these critical factors in evaluation. This will not only help the stake holders in taking right decisions but will also help the management of institutions in benchmarking for identifying the most important critical areas to improve the existing system. This will in turn help Indian economy.

Victor Gambhir

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

Factors Affecting Survival in Kidney Recipients at Kermanshah  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: To evaluate patient and graft survivals in kidney recipients and factors impacting on survival rates at Kermanshah.

Rezaei, M.; Kazemnejad, A.; Bardideh, A. R.; Mahmoudi, M.

2004-01-01

362

Factors affecting urinary calculi treatment by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is still the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteric stones; however the outcome depends on multiple factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stone density, as measured by Hounsfield Units (H.U) by non-contrast Computerized Tomography (CT), stone size and stone location on ESWL treatment outcome of urinary calculi in Jordanian patients. 65 patients underwent clinical, biochemical and radiological assessme...

Tarawneh Emad; Awad Zeyad; Hani Audy; Haroun Azmi; Hadidy Azmi; Mahafza Waleed; Samarah Osama

2010-01-01

363

Factors affecting Staphylococcus epidermidis growth in peritoneal dialysis solutions.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequent cause of peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. We studied factors that might influence the growth of S. epidermidis in commercially available peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS). Test strains were inoculated into PDS and incubated overnight at 37 degrees C. Samples were removed at appropriate intervals, bacterial counts were performed, and growth curves were constructed. We studied the effects of various osmolarities...

Mcdonald, W. A.; Watts, J.; Bowmer, M. I.

1986-01-01

364

Forest edges in boreal landscapes - factors affecting edge influence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The boreal forest in Fennoscandia has been subjected to major loss and fragmentation of natural forests due to intensive forestry. This has resulted in that forest edges are now abundant and important landscape features. Edges have documented effects on the structure, function and biodiversity in forests. Edge influence on biodiversity is complex and depends on interactions between many local and regional factors. This thesis focuses on sharp forest edges and their potential to influence biod...

Jansson, Ulrika

2009-01-01

365

Analysis on some factors affecting MIMO in tunnel  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the 3D-GBSB (three-dimensional Geometrically Based Single-Bounce) model and MIMO channel capacity function, by geometric analysis, it is analyzed that transceiver antenna arrays, antenna spacing, antenna array angle, SNR and Rician K-factor and so on impact on the frequency-nonselective fading MIMO channel capacity. Monte Carlo method can be applied to stimulate the wireless fading channel and demonstrate Cumulative Distribution Function of above.

Zheng, Hong-Dang; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Zhao

2009-07-01

366

Factors affecting visual analysis in single-case designs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual inspection remains the most frequently applied method for detecting treatment effects in single-case designs. The advantages and limitations of visual inference are here discussed in relation to other procedures for assessing intervention effectiveness. The first part of the paper reviews previous research on visual analysis, paying special attention to the validation of visual analysts" decisions, inter-judge agreement, and false alarm and omission rates. The most relevant factors aff...

Ximenes, V. M.; Manolov, Rumen; Solanas Pe?rez, Antonio; Quera, Vicenc?

2009-01-01

367

Specialty Preference Among Medical Students and Factors Affecting It  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Medical education is one of the core part of educational system of any country. Medical education requires undergraduate students to study a wide range of medical specialties. It is often assumed that students do not make their career preferences until after they have graduated from medical school. So the reasons and factors responsible for preferences need to be found out among medical students. Material and Methods: It was a Cross sectional study on 180 medical students to assess preference for specialty and factors responsible. Results: Out of total 190 medical students more or less everyone (97.89% wanted to pursue specialization and majority of them (96.84% wanted to pursue the same in Medical Field(p>0.05. majority of male students were interested to pursue their specialization in the field of medicine (37.63%, surgery (23.65% and pediatrics (13.97%. On the other hand female students were more interested in medicine (24.17%, pediatrics (32.96% and obstetrics & gynecology (24.17%(p<0.05. Interest, by far was found to be most common factor (76.63% responsible for the preference of particular medical specialty among all four groups of students (1st professional-25.27%, 2nd professional-75.92%, final professional-89.47%, interns-68.42%.Conclusion: It is thus concluded there are many factors playing role in the specialty selection and preference among the medical students and should be equally justified and addressed.

Neeraj Gour

2011-07-01

368

Risk of Postpartum Depression and Affecting Factors in Konya Center  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: This study is proposed to determine the incidence of postpartum depression and the risk factors that may play role in arising of it in Konya because there is not any constructed study previously. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is constructed among 242 mothers in the postpartum period between 2-6 months who applied two village clinics of Meram County, Konya between 1 December 2005- 31 January 2006. Two forms were used to collect necessary data. First form was ?mother introductio...

Saniye Ozdemir; Kamile Marakoglu; Selma Civi

2008-01-01

369

Factors affecting the achievements of intellectually gifted children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study - to analyze the main factors of learning achievements of intellectually gifted children. The sample consists of 16 - 18 year old students (N = 54), whose Reasoning Total (RT) scores in Intelligence Structure Test 2000R (I-S-T 2000 R, Amthauer R., Brocke B., Liepmann D, Beauducel, 2001) are 90 percentile or higher. This thesis analyses the peculiarities of intellectual activity of intellectually gifted 16- 18 years old students, their learning achievements and has the obj...

2012-01-01

370

Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan be...

Ali Abdel Aziem A; Okud Amira

2013-01-01

371

Identifying factors affecting consumers purchase incidence at retail trade shows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article is to examine variables influencing purchase incidences at retail trade shows. To this end, retailer and consumer related antecedent variables are proposed. The retailer related variables are represented by store environmental cues of sales staff services, store atmosphere and product assortment. The consumer related variables are represented by impulse buying tendency and perceived time pressure. Drawing on relevant literature, hypotheses are developed to link eac...

2012-01-01

372

Factors affecting the consolidation of steam generator sludge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is hypothesized that sludge consolidation is promoted by chemical reactions involving the various sludge constituents, although the hardness of the final product will also depend on the total porosity. Oxidizing conditions and higher temperatures produce a harder sludge. The precipitation of Zn2SiO4, a potential binding agent, may also promote sludge consolidation. Several solutions to prevent sludge consolidation are suggested. (Author) 3 figs., 4 tabs., 3 refs

1993-03-07

373

DEHP Impairs Zebrafish Reproduction by Affecting Critical Factors in Oogenesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP...

Carnevali, Oliana; Tosti, Luca; Speciale, Claudia; Peng, Chun; Zhu, Yong; Maradonna, Francesca

2010-01-01

374

Feasibility Analysis of Critical Factors Affecting Cloud Computing in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud computing is an evolving and new way of delivering computing services and resources over the internet which are managed by third parties at remote sites. Cloud computing is based on existing technologies like web services, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA, web3.0, grid computing and virtualization, etc. Computing services includes data storage, processing and software. Cloud computing is enjoying a lot of buzz in Nigeria due to its perceived economic and operational benefits and stakeholders believe that it will transform the IT industry in Nigeria. Despite all its promises there still exist so many challenges before Cloud computing see the light of the day in Nigeria. This paper delivers an overview of Cloud computing together with its advantages and disadvantages. Thereafter, the challenges and drivers affecting the adoption of Cloud computing in Nigeria are outlined. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of Cloud computing is discussed with Nigeria as a case study.

Eustace Manayi Dogo

2013-10-01

375

Factors affecting texture and structure of duplex steel sheets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work deals with the texture and structure development in austenitic-ferritic steels of duplex type subjected to cold rolling within the range up to 90% of reduction of subsequently annealed at the temperatures 850-1050 oC. Performed investigations included X-ray phase analysis, measurements of pole figures, calculations of orientation distribution functions measurements of pole figures, calculations of orientation distribution functions (ODF's) and structure observations by means of optical microscopy. Obtained results indicate that considerable differences in the development of rolling and annealing textures in relation to one-phase steels result from two-phase character of the structure and phase instability of austenitic-ferritic steels. It was found that formation of ferrite-austenite banded structure and deformation induced (???) phase transformation as well as the inverse (???) transformation and sigma (?) phase precipitation occurring upon annealing, affect the appearance and intensity of main texture components of both phases. (author)

2003-09-07

376

Risk of Postpartum Depression and Affecting Factors in Konya Center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: This study is proposed to determine the incidence of postpartum depression and the risk factors that may play role in arising of it in Konya because there is not any constructed study previously. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is constructed among 242 mothers in the postpartum period between 2-6 months who applied two village clinics of Meram County, Konya between 1 December 2005- 31 January 2006. Two forms were used to collect necessary data. First form was ?mother introduction form? that was prepared by us to determine the sociodemographic properties of mothers, and the second form was Edinburgh Posnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to diagnose the risk of postpartum depression. RESULTS: While the cut-off point of EPDS was taken as 13 and over, the probability of experiencing postpartum depression was detected as 19.4%. The probability of experiencing postpartum depression according to EPDS was high in statistical sense among the mothers who had lower monthly income, psychological problems after the preceding pregnancy, 4 and lower prenatal controls, experienced attitude changes among their husbands and/or husbands? families after learning gender of baby, and medical problems during these pregnancies. CONCLUSION: The modifiable risk factors are determined as the number of prenatal controls, changing the preconceptions and obsessions related gender of baby of husbands and families via healthy education, and well-qualified prenatal care. The long-term improvable risk factors are detected as improving monthly incomes of the families. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 391-398

Saniye Ozdemir

2008-10-01

377

Factors affecting the viability of thermoluminescence dating of glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to achieve a better understanding of some of the factors that limit the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of glass. Using a 'model system' (lithium-disilicate samples having different levels of crystallinity from 0 to 100%), we show, first, that the TL of glass is reproducible only if the glass is not heated above its temperature glass transition and, second, and there is a clear connection between the TL sensitivity and the degree of crystallinity of the sample. We conclude that thermoluminescence is not a general dating method for archaeological glass, but it can be applied to particular glass samples that have specified characteristics. (author)

1993-08-01

378

Factors affecting the viability of thermoluminescence dating of glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to achieve a better understanding of some of the factors that limit the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of glass. Using a 'model system' (lithium-disilicate samples having different levels of crystallinity from 0 to 100%), we show, first, that the TL of glass is reproducible only if the glass is not heated above its temperature glass transition and, second, that there is a clear connection between the TL sensitivity and the degree of crystallinity of the sample. We conclude that thermoluminescence is not a general dating method for archaeological glass, but it can be applied to particular glass samples that have specified characteristics. (author)

1993-08-01

379

An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Huck’s Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Huckleberry Finn is one of Mark Twain’s outstanding masterpieces. Superficially, it tells a story about a 13 or 14 year old boy’s adventures with Negro Jim on the Mississippi river. In fact, it reflects the growth process of Huck through adventures. His growth is embodied by his choice on independence, his change of attitude towards Jim, his moral growth, and the different social roles he plays. Huck’s growth is influenced by the inner and outer factors. On the one hand, friendship, nat...

Yanxia Sang

2010-01-01

380

Factors affecting potential market penetration of laser fusion power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mini-model has been constructed to estimate the optimal size of laser fusion power plants and to estimate the allowable cost of the first such plant in relation to the next best alternative. In estimating the costs of laser fusion, the mini-model incorporates such factors as market penetration, learning, economies of scale, system size, transmission costs, reserve requirements, development and licensing costs and site costs. The results of the mini-model simulations indicate that the optimal laser fusion plant size is approximately 3 GWe; risk considerations unincorporated in the mini-model suggest an optimal size closer to 2.5 GWe

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Factors Affecting Detection Probability of Acoustic Tags in Coral Reefs  

Acoustic telemetry is an important tool for studying the movement patterns, behaviour, and site fidelity of marine organisms; however, its application is challenged in coral reef environments where complex topography and intense environmental noise interferes with acoustic signals, and there has been less study. Therefore, it is particularly critical in coral reef telemetry studies to first conduct a long-term range test, a tool that provides informa- tion on the variability and periodicity of the transmitter detection range and the detection probability. A one-month range test of a coded telemetric system was conducted prior to a large-scale tagging project investigating the movement of approximately 400 fishes from 30 species on offshore coral reefs in the central Red Sea. During this range test we determined the effect of the following factors on transmitter detection efficiency: distance from receiver, time of day, depth, wind, current, moon-phase and temperature. The experiment showed that biological noise is likely to be responsible for a diel pattern of -on average- twice as many detections during the day as during the night. Biological noise appears to be the most important noise source in coral reefs overwhelming the effect of wind-driven noise, which is important in other studies. Detection probability is also heavily influenced by the location of the acoustic sensor within the reef structure. Understanding the effect of environmental factors on transmitter detection probability allowed us to design a more effective receiver array for the large-scale tagging study.

Bermudez, Edgar F.

2012-05-01

382

The factors affecting mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH occurs usually from the rupture of vessels into the brain parenchyma and accounts for approximately 10% of all strokes. ICH occurs more commonly in Turkey than in other western countries and carries a significantly high mortality than ischemic strokeMaterials and methods: We evaluated 86 consecutive patients with ICH who were admitted to Neurology Clinics of SDU University Medical Faculty. The factors studied were age, gender, risk factors, electrocardiography results, blood pressure, fever, blood cells, biochemistry, hematoma volume and localization, clinical findings, and demographic characteristics.Results: ICH is a 30-day mortality rate between approximately 50%, with half of the deaths occurring within 48 hour from the onset.Conclusion: It was found that age, site and volume of hematoma, initial level of consciousness and drainage of hematoma into the ventricular cavity have significant effects on the prognosis. The prognosis of ICH remains frequently poor despite the best medical management, control of vital functions and infections. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 404-407

Serpil Demirci

2011-12-01

383

Factors affecting formation and rupture of intracranial saccular aneurysms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unruptured intracranial aneurysms represent a decisional challenge. Treatment risks have to be balanced against an unknown probability of rupture. A better understanding of the physiopathology is the basis for a better prediction of the natural history of an individual patient. Knowledge about the possible determining factors arises from a careful comparison between ruptured versus unruptured aneurysms and from the prospective observation and analysis of unbiased series with untreated, unruptured aneurysms. The key point is the correct identification of the determining variables for the fate of a specific aneurysm in a given individual. Thus, the increased knowledge of mechanisms of formation and eventual rupture of aneurysms should provide significant clues to the identification of rupture-prone aneurysms. Factors like structural vessel wall defects, local hemodynamic stress determined also by peculiar geometric configurations, and inflammation as trigger of a wall remodeling are crucial. In this sense the study of genetic modifiers of inflammatory responses together with the computational study of the vessel tree might contribute to identify aneurysms prone to rupture. The aim of this article is to underline the value of a unifying hypothesis that merges the role of geometry, with that of hemodynamics and of genetics as concerns vessel wall structure and inflammatory pathways. PMID:24306170

Bacigaluppi, S; Piccinelli, M; Antiga, L; Veneziani, A; Passerini, T; Rampini, P; Zavanone, M; Severi, P; Tredici, G; Zona, G; Krings, T; Boccardi, E; Penco, S; Fontanella, M

2014-01-01

384

Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention among UniSZA Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Graduates contributions to entrepreneurship would stimulate the country’s economic growth. The aim of this study is to determine and investigate factors influence on students’ perception of the entrepreneurial intention, in order to present the most contemporary future generation of entrepreneurs that can shape the future of the economy and the country. The area of this study covers demographic profiles, attitudinal and behavioral factors, and how these influence the intentions of students to become entrepreneurs. The finding suggests that the female students had significantly higher attitude and social skill and desire to succeed as compared to the male students. There was no significant difference with regards to race, age, parental working background, family and relative engaged in business, and heard about entrepreneurship ensuring that entrepreneurs are not clustered in any of these variables. Another major finding indicates that those who attended entrepreneurship course/training had significantly higher attitude and social skill. Most importantly, marketing skill, desire to success, leadership skill, and innovation and creativity inspire graduates in choosing entrepreneurship. Thus, examining the selected key unemployment of graduates’ issues from an entrepreneurship perspective can help to establish harmony and meaningful cooperation between entrepreneurs and learning institutions.

Zaharah Ghazali

2012-12-01

385

Factors affecting the selection of tour destination in Bangladesh:  

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Full Text Available Although multifaceted problems are causing the frustrating scenario of the country’s tourism sector, Bangladesh has the potentials to develop its tourism sector and earn huge foreign currency and generate employment opportunities like the neighboring countries, such as India, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Nepal who attract substantial number of tourists every year and thus generates huge amount of foreign currencies. The paper looks at different preferences of the tourist and examines the tour intention in selecting different tour destination. The study utilizes both exploratory and empirical research approach. The study collects data through interview with a structured self-administered questionnaire from 146 tourists, in utilizing convenient sampling technique. A multiple regression model was estimated to examine the effects of different factors on the tourists tour intention where nine factors related to different aspects of tourism such as service quality, natural beauty, known destination, convenient lodging, adventure, security, effective and efficient transportation, safe and quality food and shopping facility were used as indigenous variables where tour intention was used as exogenous variable of the model.  The regression result shows that Service quality, Natural Beauty, Security and Shopping Facility are statistically significant indicating 24.6% of the variation in explaining the intention to select a tour destination in Bangladesh. The study outlines some policy implications.

Md. Shah Azam

2010-02-01

386

Factors affecting the immobilization of metals in geopolymerized flyash  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geopolymerization, a fairly new technology based on a very old principle, has emerged during the last few years as a possible solution to some waste stabilization and solidification problems. Some commercial successes have been achieved, although the technique remains fairly unknown as well as seemingly unpopular. It has been shown that most waste materials containing sources of silica and alumina should be capable of taking part in a geopolymerization reaction. In this article, flyash was used as a reactant in creating a geopolymeric matrix for the immobilization of process water containing 25,000 ppm of Cu or Pb cations. By means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), compressive strength, as well as kinetic leaching analyses, the main factors influencing matrix stability, immobilization efficiency, and therefore leaching behavior were investigated and discussed qualitatively. It was found that relatively high strengths could be obtained using low Ca flyash. The environment and coordination number of source aluminum and silica seemed to play a major role in the eventual matrix stability. Other factors influencing matrix stability include the alkali metal cation used as well as the type of metal being immobilized. The kinetics of leaching of immobilized metals from the geopolymerized flyash were qualitatively found to proceed along a combination of pore diffusion and boundary diffusion control mechanisms. It is finally concluded that immobilization of metals in geopolymerized flyash proceeds by a combination of physical encapsulation and chemical bonding, with adsorption also thought to play a role.

Jaarsveld, J.G.S. van; Deventer, J.S.J. van [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Lorenzen, L. [Univ. of Stellenbosch (South Africa). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-02-01

387

Factors affecting PBSC mobilization and collection in healthy donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral blood stem cells are widely used as stem cell source for allografting. Progenitor cells can be effectively mobilized into peripheral blood in majority of healthy donors with a brief administration of G-CSF. A mobilization course in 111 donors (median age 40years) was retrospectively studied and the factors influencing the efficacy of mobilization were analyzed. The median number of CD34+ cells per kg recipient weight 5.1x10(6) was obtained after a median of two aphereses. The target cell dose (4.0x10(6)/kg) was reached in 69% of donors. Circulating CD34+ count and CD34+ yield were negatively associated with donor's age. Other independent factors associated with superior yield were precollection platelet and WBC counts. In multivariate analysis only CD34+ precount predicted for CD34+ yield. G-CSF had an acceptable short-term safety profile. Our data confirm that apheresis is a safe procedure in healthy including aged donors and suggest that older donors could be poorer mobilizers than younger. PMID:16209935

Lysák, Daniel; Koza, Vladimír; Jindra, Pavel

2005-11-01

388

Factors affecting the determination of ionized calcium in blood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproducibility with the same electrode on the same day is expressed by the CV. For standard solutions CV = 0.68%, for blood CV = 1.36%, for serum CV = 0.92%. The measure with 2 different Orion electrodes performed on blood samples on the same day gives no more variation between electrodes than within electrode. Results of Ca++ measured with SS-20 Orion and ICA1 Radiometer electrodes on the samples of normal blood or serum are significantly higher with the ICA1 electrode than with the SS-20 Orion. The use of decreasing concentration of NaCl (170 to 110 mmol/l) in calibration solutions shows an apparent increase of Ca++ concentration in normal blood. Sampling conditions may affect Ca++ results. The pH of peripheric venous blood drawn without torniquet in 57 normal people was 7.34 +/- 0.03 and differs from the normal arterial pH values (740 +/- 0.02). By applying the following equation: Ca++ (pH 7.40) = Ca++ [1-0.53 (7.40 - pH)], Ca++ can be adjusted to pH 7.40. The correction in pathologic condition should, however, take in account the real arterial pH of the subject. We tested if sitting versus recumbent position could modify Ca++ results. The difference was non significant. Heparin, necessary for blood and plasma sampling, may affect the electrode membrane and binds calcium ions. We compared in the same blood sampling the same dilutions of 2 kinds of heparin. Heparin Radiometer: 10 microliters in 1 ml blood (8 UI) and heparin Roche: 10 microliters in 1 ml blood (50 UI) and observed significantly higher Ca++ results with the lower concentration of heparin. Storage of serum 24 hours at -20 degrees C does not alter the Ca++ results. After 7 days at -20 degrees C the Ca++ decreases by 3.6% in average, mainly due to pH increase. PMID:6578571

Brauman, J; Delvigne, C; Deconinck, I; Willems, D

1983-01-01

389

Matrix factorizations, minimal models and Massey products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a method to compute the full non-linear deformations of matrix factorizations for ADE minimal models. This method is based on the calculation of higher products in the cohomology, called Massey products. The algorithm yields a polynomial ring whose vanishing relations encode the obstructions of the deformations of the D-branes characterized by these matrix factorizations. This coincides with the critical locus of the effective superpotential which can be computed by integrating these relations. Our results for the effective superpotential are in agreement with those obtained from solving the A-infinity relations. We point out a relation to the superpotentials of Kazama-Suzuki models. We will illustrate our findings by various examples, putting emphasis on the E6 minimal model

2006-05-01

390

Factors Affecting the Wheel Rutting on Rural Roads  

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Full Text Available In this study, the wheel ruts frequency and dimensions were investigated according to geographical aspects, longitudinal gradient and surfacing layer of rural roads in Denji Kola village, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Ruts were divided into shallow and deep wheel ruts. Results showed that the ruts length and area were significantly affected by longitudinal gradient of rural roads (p<0.0001. Ruts length in longitudinal gradient class 8-12% was significantly more than other classes (p<0.05. The mean of rut length in this class was 8.19 m. The deep ruts frequency in longitudinal gradient class 0-4% was more than shallow ruts, whereas the number of shallow ruts was more than deep ruts in other classes. The effects of geographical aspect on ruts length (p<0.0001, ruts width (p = 0.0019 and ruts area (p<0.0001 was significant. Although, the ruts width and depth on gravel-grassed surface was more than other surfacing layer, the number of ruts in this surfacing layer was less than bare soil and graveled surfacing layer. Thus, thickness layer of gravel which has been covered by grass is the best mixture for surfacing layer of rural roads.

A. Parsakhoo

2009-01-01

391

Factors affecting growth of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed apples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua increased by more than 2 log(10) units over a 24 h period on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs stored at 25 and 20 degrees C. L. innocua reached the same final population level at 10 degrees C meanwhile E. coli and Salmonella only increased 1.3 log(10) units after 6 days. Only L. innocua was able to grow at 5 degrees C. No significant differences were observed between the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious', 'Granny Smith' and 'Shampion' apples stored at 25 and 5 degrees C. The treatment of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith' apple plugs with the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (2%) and NatureSeal (6%), did not affect pathogen growth. The effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and L. innocua on 'Golden Delicious' apple slices was also tested. There were no significant differences in growth of pathogens in MAP conditions compared with air packaging of 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs, but the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms was inhibited. These results highlight the importance of avoiding contamination of fresh-cut fruit with foodborne pathogens and the maintenance of the cold chain during storage until consumption. PMID:19913695

Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel; Anguera, Marina; Oliveira, Marcia; Viñas, Inmaculada

2010-02-01

392

Factors affecting mechanical properties of biomass pellet from compost.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effectiveness of a densification process to create strong and durable bonding in pellets can be determined by testing the mechanical properties such as compressive strength (CS) and durability. Mechanical properties of pellet from composted municipal solid waste were determined at different raw material and densification conditions. Ground compost samples were compressed with three levels of moisture content (35%, 40% and 45% (wb)), piston compaction speed (2, 6 and 10 mm/s), die length (8, 10 and 12mm) and raw material particle size (0.3, 0.9 and 1.5mm) into cylindrical pellets utilizing opened-end dies under axial stress from a vertical piston applied by a hydraulic press. The effects of independent variables on mechanical properties were determined using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design (BBD). All independent variables affected the durability significantly. However, different piston speed and die length not produce any significant difference on CS of pellets. Also in this research the electron photography method was used to identify the binding mechanism of compost particles. PMID:24600888

Zafari, A; Kianmehr, M H

2014-01-01

393

Study on the factors affecting ?-AP RIA results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the effect of (1) storage time (2) hemolysis (3) excessive lipid content (4) bacterial contamination on the tested serum ?-AP RIA results. Methods: (1) Specimen was stored at 4 degree C and ?-AP contents determined daily for seven consecutive days (9 specimens). (2) specimen was assayed, then the clot forcibly broken to cause hemolysis and the serum re-assayed (8 specimens). (3) Hyperlipemic specimen was assayed, the excess lipid extracted with ether and serum re-assayed (8 specimens). (4) Specimen was assayed and left at room temperature for a few days. The specimen was re-assayed for several times after bacterial growth (10 specimens). Results: serum ?- AP contents were stable up to 4 days under 4 degree C (P > 0.05 ). Serum ? -AP contents increased significantly after hemolysis (P<0.01 ). ?-AP contents in hyperlipemic samples decreased significantly after ether treatment (P<0.01). With bacterial growth, the ?-AP contents could increase or decrease, depending upon the type of bacteria. Conclusion: Serum ?-AP was stable up to 4 days at 4 degree C, but rapid degraded under room temperature. Moreover, hemolysis, hyperlipemia and contamination would all affect the RIA result and should be carefully dealt with in daily work. (authors)

2005-10-01

394

Factors affecting floral herbivory in a limestone grassland  

Science.gov (United States)

The amount of herbivore damage to the petals of 41 species of herbaceous plant was surveyed from April to September in a limestone grassland in central England. Damage was recorded as the percentage of the petal area removed. Most damage was caused by invertebrates, particularly slugs. The amount of invertebrate damage differed significantly between plant species and with time of year. The mean damage across all species was only 2 %, ranging from an average of 0 % in Galium sterneri to 8 % in Primula vulgaris. In most species, less than a quarter of flowers received any damage, so those that were damaged were often severely affected. Species flowering early or late in the season received more damage, possibly because of greater slug activity. Hypotheses to explain the inter-specific variation in the amount of herbivory were examined by testing for correlations with a range of plant variables. No correlations with flower-stem length, flower-stem thickness or the longevity of flowers were apparent. The amount of petal damage correlated strongly with flower size and petal thickness. This appeared to result from the prevalence of large-flowered species early and late in the season rather than from a preference for flower size and petal thickness per se. The evolutionary significance of floral herbivory is discussed.

Breadmore, Karen N.; Kirk, William D. J.

1998-12-01

395

An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Huck’s Growth  

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Full Text Available Huckleberry Finn is one of Mark Twain’s outstanding masterpieces. Superficially, it tells a story about a 13 or 14 year old boy’s adventures with Negro Jim on the Mississippi river. In fact, it reflects the growth process of Huck through adventures. His growth is embodied by his choice on independence, his change of attitude towards Jim, his moral growth, and the different social roles he plays. Huck’s growth is influenced by the inner and outer factors. On the one hand, friendship, nature and society make up the outer environment for Huck’s growth. They have great effect on the development of his growth. On the other hand, his own instinct and his sound heart finally decide the direction of his growth.

Yanxia Sang

2010-09-01

396

Hyperplastic forming: Process potential and factors affecting formability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aluminum has an outstanding potential for reducing the mass of automobiles. One of the key problems is that it is very difficult to form without tearing. This paper has two distinct goals. First, the authors argue in an extended introduction that high velocity forming, as can be implemented through electromagnetic forming, is a technology that should be developed. As a process used in conjunction with traditional stamping, it may offer dramatically improved formability, reduced wrinkling and active control of springback among other advantages. In the body of the paper they describe the important factors that lead to improved formability at high velocity. In particular, high sample velocity can inhibit neck growth. There is a sample size dependence where larger samples have better ductility than those of smaller dimensions. These aspects are at least partially described by the recent model of Freund and Shenoy. In addition to this, boundary conditions imposed by sample launch and die impact can have important effects on formability.

Daehn, G.S.; Vohnout, V.J.; Datta, S.

2000-07-01

397

A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the preceding report, we dealt with the field size and the tube voltage. This paper covers the differences in patient dose due to the focus to film distance (FFD), the patient thickness and whether the grid is used or not. Regarding the FFD, 100 cm is most commonly employed except in X-ray examinations of the chest, but from the viewpoint of the patient dose, this requires special consideration as to whether there is any theoretical basis for it. The patient thickness has a great bearing on the patient dose, but there is an individual difference, and it is almost impossible to change it artificially. However, there has been no detailed report on the relation between the patient thickness and the patient dose, therefore, this report treats of such relationship as well. Concerning the grid, consideration is given to the exposure times (Bucky factor). (author)

1979-01-01

398

Factors affecting torque for a roller cone bit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several authors have presented theoretical bit torque relationships derived by equating the energy required to rotate a bit to the energy required to remove a unit volume of rock (energy balance concept). This approach has had little quantitative success in predicting bit torque because of difficulties in quantifying both the drilling efficiency and the specific energy of the rock under a given set of conditions. A torque relationship based on a force balance concept is presented to minimize the problems with the energybased relationships. The new torque relationship shows that for a given bit, the torque is determined largely by the applied weight on bit (WOB) and the depth of tooth penetration. The model is insensitive to moderate changes in factors such as bit hydraulics, fluid type, and formation type. Laboratory drilling tests and field data were used to confirm the validity of the new torque model.

Warren, T.M.

1984-09-01

399

Factors affecting umbilical venous perfusion during experimental cord knotting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim was to determine experimentally the factors that increase the risk of venous occlusion by applying a standardised tightening force to isolated perfused umbilical cords tied in a true knot in vitro. Umbilical cords were collected from patients undergoing Caesarean section. Cords were clamped, isolated and studied within 15 min. The umbilical vein was cannulated, the cord tied in a true knot and traction was applied using standard weights. The umbilical vein was perfused with modified Krebs solution at a constant pressure of 40 mmHg and the attached weight increased until perfusion ceased. The cord mass index (weight/length), hydration index/100-[(dry weight/wet weight)x100], and coiling index (coils/length) were determined. Cord morphometric analysis was performed on 193 cords. Intra uterine growth restriction was associated with decreased cord mass index (p=0.002) and increased coiling index (p=0.002). Venous perfusion experiments were performed on 75 cords. Using multivariate regression analysis, cord morphometric factors that increased the risk of cord occlusion were decreased cord mass index (p=0.008), decreased cord hydration index (p=0.004), and low venous flow capacity (p=0.001). During experimental cord knotting with applied traction, the susceptibility to venous occlusion was increased with low cord mass index, low cord hydration index and low venous flow capacity. These cord characteristics were associated with low fetal body weight and intrauterine growth restriction. An increased susceptibility to cord occlusion may contribute to the higher perinatal morbidity and mortality in growth restricted pregnancies. PMID:16226125

Tuxen, A J; Permezel, M; Walker, S P; Georgiou, H M

2005-11-01

400

Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

2014-01-15