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Factors Affecting Biodiesel Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable alternate fuel to diesel engines that could be partially orfully replace or reduce the use of petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be produced fromplant and animal fats through transesterification reaction. The transesterification reaction isaffected by molar ratio of alcohol, presence of water and Free Fatty Acid content, reactiontemperature, catalyst concentration and agitation speed. This review paper discuss aboutthe factors involved in transesterification reaction.

M.Mathiyazhagan

2011-06-01

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Factors Affecting Biodiesel Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biodiesel is a renewable alternate fuel to diesel engines that could be partially orfully replace or reduce the use of petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be produced fromplant and animal fats through transesterification reaction. The transesterification reaction isaffected by molar ratio of alcohol, presence of water and Free Fatty Acid content, reactiontemperature, catalyst concentration and agitation speed. This review paper discuss aboutthe factors involved in transesterification reaction.

Mathiyazhagan, M.; Ganapathi, A.

2011-01-01

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Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

Adnan Nazir

2013-05-01

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A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process  

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The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspec...

Eda Atilgan-Inan; Aslihan Buyukkupcu; Serkan Akinci

2010-01-01

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Factores grupales que inciden en la productividad / Group factors affecting productivity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las organizaciones en la actualidad están sometidas permanentemente a cambios acelerados, obligándolas a incrementar su flexibilidad y adaptabilidad para mantener su posición competitiva, sobrevivir a estas presiones lograr sus objetivos y ser más productivas. Por estas razones, la productividad del [...] factor humano es fundamental, ya que son las personas las que realizan los procesos creativos que generan resultados en las organizaciones. Cuando las personas interactúan en la organización se generan unos procesos de carácter psicosocial que incide en el desempeño de individuos, grupos y organización y se denominan Factores grupales, porque son producto de la actuación de las personas en grupos de trabajo. Dichos factores tienen impacto en la productividad, por lo que resulta de interés el estudio de estas relaciones. Con el fin de analizar este impacto, se presenta relaciones Factores Grupales-Productividad, mediante un Modelo de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM), donde los Factores Grupales y la Productividad son constructos o variables latentes explicadas por variables observables o indicadores. El modelo planteado, es aceptado de acuerdo con los índices globales de ajuste y a las cargas factoriales de las variables del modelo resultante. Se corroboró que los factores grupales, tales como Cohesión, Conflicto, Consenso y Moral, inciden en la productividad. Abstract in english Organizations today are undergoing rapid change permanently, forcing them to increase their flexibility and adaptability to stay competitive, to survive these pressures, achieve their goals and be more productive. For these reasons, the productivity of the human factor is critical because it is the [...] people doing the creative processes those results in organizations. When people interact in the organization are a generated psychosocial process that affects the performance of individuals, groups and organization and are called group factors, because they are the product of individual behavior in work groups. These factors have an impact on productivity, so it is interesting to study these relationships. To analyze this impact is presented group factors-productivity relationships through a Structural Equation Model (SEM), where the group factors and productivity are constructs or latent variables explained by observable variables or indicators. The proposed model is accepted in accordance with the global fit indices and factor loadings of the variables of the resulting model. It was confirmed that the group factors, such as Cohesion, Conflict, Consensus and Moral affect productivity.

Cequea, Mirza Marvel; Miguel, Núñez Bottini; Carlos, Rodríguez-Monroy.

2011-12-01

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Factors affecting CFC end-user conversion to substitute products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides an overview of the issues facing CFC end-users as they convert to non-CFC systems. The various end use applications for CFCs are quite diverse (e.g., refrigerants, blowing agents foam plastics, aerosol propellant, solvent cleaning); each of the applications will likely have different substitute solutions. For most applications there appears to be both a short-term and long-term solution to the problem, whereas in other applications no suitable replacement for CFCs are apparent. Other fluorocarbons, (i.e., HCFCs and HCFs) are under consideration for many applications. Some of the factors to be addressed that affect the conversion time include: substitute performance in end use application, equipment conversions required to use the substitutes, as well as commercial availability of substitutes

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ASSESMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF AMBER CHARKHA AND ERGONOMIC EVALUATION OF WORKERS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing demands of the cotton fabrics, now a day has made it necessary to increase the production of cotton fabrics. To increase the production it is necessary to study the factors affecting the performance of the women workers working on Amber charkha. Most of the Amber charkha in rural areas are hand operated (i.e. they runwith the help of human energy input). There are various medical, technical and environmental factors which affect the productivity of women workers working on Amber ch...

Thakre, G. V.; Patil, S. G.; Agrawal, D. N.

2011-01-01

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Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly

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FACTORS AFFECTING THE PHOTOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION OF CARBONYL SULFIDE IN SEAWATER  

Science.gov (United States)

Our laboratory studies indicate that the photochemical production of carbonyl sulfide (COS) in seawater can result from the photosensitized reaction of organosulfur compounds. Because natural photosensitizers are more prevalent in coastal waters than the open ocean, these results...

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Affecting the Choice Factors of Fishery Products Consumption in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines fish consumption behavior patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of choosing factors in determining food pattern of Turkish people. A total of 666 surveys in all around Turkey responded to a self-administered questionnaire about seafood consumption habits, past frequency of seafood consumption, attitude towards and intention to eat seafood. In this research some prompts were used such as health, taste, availability, versatility, the components of a good family meal, value for money and alternatives to red meat.

Hekimoglu Muge Aliye

2011-01-01

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Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya  

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This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text...

Margaret Njeri Gathura

2013-01-01

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Study of some factors affecting potato microtuber production in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of variety, growth regulators, sucrose, and low doses of gamma irradiation on the production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) microtubers in vitro were investigated. Nodal segments from virus free explants of 3 potato varieties were placed on six different media and irradiated with 4 doses of gamma radiation (2.5, 5, 10, 15 Gy).Potato varieties used in the study differed in their ability to produce microtubers. Variety Diamant was the best in microtuber production followed by Draga and Spunta. Kinetin played a significant role in inducing tuberization in vitro especially at a concentration of 4 mg-1. Tuberization was also enhanced by sucrose especially when its level was increased from 3% to 6%. Irradiating the explants with 2.5 Gy of gamma radiation leads to a significant increase in number of microtubers (34% increase over the control). Weight of microtubers was not significantly influenced by low doses of gamma irradiation or media components. Draga microtubers were the largest followed by Diamant and Spunta. Microtubers resembled mature tubers in shape (Spunta was elongated and Draga and Diamant were round). Size of microtubers was crucial for sprouting in vivo. It is suggested that only microtubers larger than 250 mg (5 mm in diameter) can be used to produce minitubers in vivo. Since 2.5 Gy is a low dose, it can be used to enhance tuberization in vitro without fear of genetic changes in the used varieties. (author)ieties. (author)

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Factors affecting future crude oil production in South East Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the face of booming regional demand, crude oil production in the South East Asian region will decline from a 1996 peak of 5.7 million barrels a day to 3.5 million barrels a day in 2005 unless major new exploration investments are undertaken. The current fiscal terms for such investment will not attract continued significant funds to the region given the low crude price outlook, tough competitive global environment for the upstream industry, and the emergence of more attractive fiscal terms in politically and commercially stable countries with proven prospectivity. There is evidence from the emerging trend toward fiscal terms softening and differentiation around risk in some countries, that the commercial reality is becoming accepted. It remains to be seen if the various national political, bureaucratic and industry constituencies guiding these decisions within the region can respond decisively to mitigate the growing crude import dependency. (author). 2 tabs

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Factors affecting industrial wood, material production yield in Turkey’s natural beech forests  

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Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to determine the most important factors affecting industrial wood material production yield in natural oriental beech forests in Turkey using a multifaceted approach and to help entrepreneurs consider these factors to develop more sensitive and realistic production plans. In Günye Forest Management in Bart?n province of the West Black Sea Region of Turkey, 41 production units were chosen as the study area. The 1277 ha study area was included in the 2007 and 2010 production management plan. The general state of the stand, natural stand structure, and production methods and tools are the factors thought most strongly affect industrial wood material production yield; 26 variables representing these factors were evaluated in the study. Through multidimensional statistical analyses, including main components, factor and regression  analysis, we found that the most important factors affecting production yield were fertility, aspect of land, skidding method, stand structure, skidding distance, growing stock, transportation and harmful abiotic factors. Production units were divided into three groups based on yield rates and the 26 variables, using discriminate analysis. From the results of the study, a sample model can be developed to help forest managers predict and plan annual industrial wood production more sensitively and realistically.

Atilla Atik

2014-07-01

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Ranking factors affecting the productivity of human resources using MADM techniques  

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Full Text Available For improving and efficient uses of various resources such as labor, capital, materials, energy and information, productivity is the purpose of all economic and industrial organizations and service enterprises. The human factor is the main strategic resource and the realization axis of productivity for each type of organization. Therefore the factors affecting the productivity, depends on suitable conditions for labor. This study is performed to identification and prioritization the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company. The objective of this research is an applied and the data collection methods and conclusions are descriptive - survey. Statistical sample size by using Cochran's formula is considered equal to 120. To perform this study with the Delphi method, we identify the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company and by using MADM techniques, prioritization of these factors has been done. Also Team Expert Choice2000 software have used for analysis. Research results show that factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company in order of importance are: Health aspects, leadership style, motivational factors, organizational commitment, work experience, general and applied education, demographic characteristics, physical environment within the organization, external environment and competitive spirit.

G. A. Shekari

2012-12-01

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Applying total interpretive structural modeling to study factors affecting construction labour productivity  

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Full Text Available Construction sector has always been dependent on manpower. Most of the activities carried out on any construction site are labour intensive. Since productivity of any project depends directly on productivity of labour, it is a prime responsibility of the employer to enhance labour productivity. Measures to improve the same depend on analysis of positive and negative factors affecting productivity. Major attention should be given to factors that decrease the productivity of labour. Factor analysis thus is an integral part of any study aiming to improve productivity.  Interpretive structural modeling is a methodology for identifying and summarizing relationships among factors which define an issue or problem. It provides a means to arrange the factors in an order as per their complexity. This study attempts to use the latest version of interpretive structural modeling i.e. total interpretive structural modeling to analyze factors negatively affecting construction labour productivity. It establishes interpretive relationship among these factors facilitating improvement in the overall productivity of construction site.

Sayali Shrikrishna Sandbhor

2014-03-01

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Analysis of Key Factors Affecting Ethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFST-072011  

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Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is affected not only by fermentation conditions (temperature, pH and sugar concentration) but also by the intrinsic factors e.g., culture medium, dissolved O2, immobilization and other micronutrients. In order to investigate the influence of key factors on ethanol production by S. cerevisiae, a laboratory strain S. cerevisiae IFST-072011 was used in this study. Several fermentation runs were carried out varyi...

Monzur Morshed Ahmed; Md. Abdul Quayum; Md. Fakruddin; Naiyyum Choudhury

2012-01-01

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Affecting Factors and Security System of Food Production - A Case Study of Mingshan County  

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Full Text Available The Grey Relational Analysis of food production has been established based on the data of grain production in Mingshan County, Sichuan province, collected from 2003 to 2008. According to the Relational Grade, factors that affect the County’s input on grain production and the degree of their influence have been analyzed. The conclusion is that unit grain yield, sown area of grain, and rural labor force is important factors affecting the county’s food production. Thus many advices were proposed, like giving priority to food security, strictly implementing farmland protection system, increasing grain yield through the improvement of per capita output, and improving preferential policies relating to grain production.

Lin zheng

2012-01-01

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Production of arabitol from glycerol: strain screening and study of factors affecting production yield.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycerol is a major by-product from biodiesel production, and developing new uses for glycerol is imperative to overall economics and sustainability of the biodiesel industry. With the aim of producing xylitol and/or arabitol as the value-added products from glycerol, 214 yeast strains, many osmotolerant, were first screened in this study. No strains were found to produce large amounts of xylitol as the dominant metabolite. Some produced polyol mixtures that might present difficulties to downstream separation and purification. Several Debaryomyces hansenii strains produced arabitol as the predominant metabolite with high yields, and D. hansenii strain SBP-1 (NRRL Y-7483) was chosen for further study on the effects of several growth conditions. The optimal temperature was found to be 30°C. Very low dissolved oxygen concentrations or anaerobic conditions inhibited polyol yields. Arabitol yield improved with increasing initial glycerol concentrations, reaching approximately 50% (w/w) with 150 g/L initial glycerol. However, the osmotic stress created by high salt concentrations (?50 g/L) negatively affected arabitol production. Addition of glucose and xylose improved arabitol production while addition of sorbitol reduced production. Results from this work show that arabitol is a promising value-added product from glycerol using D. hansenii SBP-1 as the producing strain. PMID:21127857

Koganti, Srujana; Kuo, Tsung Min; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Smith, Nathan; Ju, Lu-Kwang

2011-04-01

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Factors Affecting Agricultural Productivity among Arable Crop Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria  

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The main objectives of the study were to examine and identify the factors that affect agricultural productivity in Imo State, Nigeria. The method of proportionate random sampling technique was used in selecting a sample of 99 farmers who were interviewed using validated, structured questionnaire. Primary data collected were analyzed using frequencies, means, and the Ordinary Least Squares multiple regression analysis technique. The results of the analysis show that the marginal value produ...

Obasi, P. C.; Henri-ukoha, A.; Ukewuihe, I. S.; Chidiebere-mark, N. M.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Factors affecting bone growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone growth and development are products of the complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors. Longitudinal bone growth depends on the growth plate. The growth plate has 5 different zones-each with a different functional role-and is the final target organ for longitudinal growth. Bone length is affected by several systemic, local, and mechanical factors. All these regulation systems control the final length of bones in a complicated way. Despite its significance to bone stability, bone growth in width has not been studied as extensively as longitudinal bone growth. Bone growth in width is also controlled by genetic factors, but mechanical loading regulates periosteal apposition. In this article, we review the most recent data regarding bone growth from the embryonic age and analyze the factors that control bone growth. An understanding of this complex system is important in identifying metabolic and developmental bone diseases and fracture risk. PMID:25658073

Gkiatas, Ioannis; Lykissas, Marios; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis; Korompilias, Anastasios; Batistatou, Anna; Beris, Alexandros

2015-02-01

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Analysis of Key Factors Affecting Ethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFST-072011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is affected not only by fermentation conditions (temperature, pH and sugar concentration but also by the intrinsic factors e.g., culture medium, dissolved O2, immobilization and other micronutrients. In order to investigate the influence of key factors on ethanol production by S. cerevisiae, a laboratory strain S. cerevisiae IFST-072011 was used in this study. Several fermentation runs were carried out varying temperature, pH, sugar concentration, aeration, immobilization and supplementation of metal ions employed. Experimental data on several fermentation runs showed that reducing sugar concentration ranged between 5-6%, temperature of 30°C and pH between 5.0 and 6.0 were optimum for maximum yield of ethanol by S. cerevisiae IFST-072011.The strain produced 86.9 g L-1 ethanol by free cells using the initial reducing sugar concentration 5.50% at 48 h under shaking condition. Maximum yield of ethanol 94.8 g L-1 was produced by immobilized cells using the reducing sugar concentration 5.50% at 48 h. Ethanol production was higher by immobilized cells in shaking conditions than free cells with same culture conditions. Influence of boron, chromium, copper and magnesium was investigated on ethanol production. Only chromium was found to show slight stimulatory effect on ethanol production.

Monzur Morshed Ahmed

2012-01-01

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Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Collection Efficiency  

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Full Text Available Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q, male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-?-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on” and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h. Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

Fred J. Eller

2014-11-01

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Factors affecting remote handling productivity during installation of the ITER-like wall at JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The paper describes the challenges to achieve the installation of the ILW beryllium sliced wall. ? Examines the factual difference between estimated remote handling in-vessel durations and those achieved, with a view to quantifying the typical disparity between the two. ? The paper will elaborate and highlight the contributing factors. This offers an opportunity to provide provenance for availability estimates of devices such as ITER and DEMO. ? The paper will identify and describe the factors influencing the ratio between estimated versus the actual durations for remote handling operations. -- Abstract: Remote handling operations at JET have encountered many challenges to achieve the installation of the ILW beryllium sliced wall during the Enhanced Performance stage 2 (EP2) shutdown of JET. This was a demanding and challenging activity which was based on the experience gained from a period of over 15 years (20,000 h operations) of JET In-Vessel remote handling operations. This paper describes the difference between estimated remote handling in-vessel durations and those actually achieved with a view to quantifying the typical disparity between them. There are many factors that affect productivity of the remote handling operations and it is important to accommodate these either in the design of the component or within the production of the operational procedures with a view to minimise all impact on the final task duration. Some factors that affect the efficiency are outside the control of the design and operational procedures. These are unforeseen anomalies that were encountered during the removal, naked wall survey and installation of the components. Recoveries from these anomalies are extremely challenging and need to be addressed efficiently in order to minimise the impact on the shutdown duration and prevent optimised panned activities from becoming inefficient by fragmentation

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Factors affecting production of extracellular carbohydrate complexes by Escherichia coli O157:H7.  

Science.gov (United States)

Production of extracellular carbohydrate complexes (ECC) by foodborne pathogens on raw fruits and vegetables may result in protection against removal or inactivation by sanitizers. The influence of environmental conditions on cell growth, the total amount of ECC produced, and the amount of ECC produced on a per cell basis by Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains ATCC 43895 (wild type) and 43895-exopolysaccharides (EPS) (natural mutant, extensive EPS producer) was studied. To determine the effects of pH on the production of ECC on a per cell basis, E. coli O157:H7 was grown aerobically at 12 and 22 degrees C on tryptic soy agar (TSA) acidified to pH 7.0, 6.5, 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, 4.5, and 4.0. Lettuce, alfalfa sprout, cantaloupe, tomato, and apple juice agars (pH 4.46-6.50) were also evaluated for their support of the ECC production. Conditions generally favorable for growth of E. coli O157:H7 were a rich nutrient medium (TSA) vs. heated lettuce juice agar (HLJA) or minimal salts medium (MSM), 22 degrees C compared to 12 degrees C, and an aerobic atmosphere compared to modified atmosphere (1% O(2), 10% CO(2), and 89% N(2)). Conditions favorable for production of ECC on a per cell basis were HLJA, 12 degrees C, and an aerobic atmosphere. This suggests that modified atmosphere packaging of lettuce may not only decrease the growth of E. coli O157:H7 but also its propensity to form biofilm. There was a negative relationship between cell growth and production of ECC on a per cell basis, and environmental conditions that affected the total amount of ECC produced based on initial population reflected a combination of environmental conditions influencing both cell growth and ECC production on a per cell basis. A relative growth index factor (RGIF) was calculated to better understand ECC production as affected by various environmental conditions simultaneously. The production of ECC on a per cell basis by strain 43895-EPS showed a negative linear relationship with pH of TSA at both 12 and 22 degrees C. This strain generally produced a greater amount of ECC on fresh juice agar than on TSA at the same pH, but production of ECC on alfalfa sprout juice agar (FJA, pH 6.45) at 22 degrees C was significantly less than on TSA (pH 6.50). This indicates that nutrient limitation is not based only on nutrient availability. There may be other factors that repress the production of ECC on FJA, and the effects of those factors may be temperature dependent. Further studies will be required to better understand the relationship between nutrient availability and other factors on the production of ECC by E. coli O157:H7 on raw produce. PMID:15282131

Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Beuchat, Larry R

2004-09-01

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Factors affecting the corrosion of SiC layer by fission product palladium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HTR is one of the advanced nuclear reactors which has inherent safety system, graphite moderated and helium gas cooled. In general, these reactors are designed with the TRISO coated particle consist of four coating layers that are porous pyrolytic carbon (PyC). inner dense PyC (IPyC), silicon carbide (SiC), and outer dense PyC (OPyC). Among the four coating layers, the SiC plays an important role beside in retaining metallic fission products, it also provides mechanical strength to fuel particle. However, results of post irradiation examination indicate that fission product palladium can react with and corrode SiC layer, This assessment is conducted to get the comprehension about resistance of SiC layer on irradiation effects, especially in order to increase the fuel bum-up. The result of this shows that the corrosion of SiC layer by fission product palladium is beside depend on the material characteristics of SiC, and also there are other factors that affect on the SiC layer corrosion. Fuel enrichment, bum-up, and irradiation time effect on the palladium flux in fuel kernel. While, the fuel density, vapour pressure of palladium (the degree depend on the irradiation temperature and kernel composition) effect on palladium migration in fuel particle. (author)

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Analysis of Factors Affecting Total Factor Productivity of Rural Small Industries Sponsored by Jihad Agriculture Organization of Isfahan Province  

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Full Text Available This research was conducted to measure the total factor productivity (TFP of the rural small industries in Isfahan province comprising six types of industries: food, textile, metal, non-metal mineral, chemical, and cellulose. Among the 166 rural small industries sponsored by Jihad-Agriculture Organization of Isfahan in 2001(1380, 60 plants were selected. Cross-section information collected from the 60 plants by a questionnaire in that year confirmed the body of data for this study. The distribution of the types of the 60 selected plants followed the distribution of the types in the plant population. The analytical part of this research consisted of two sections. In the first section, the TFP of the rural small industries was established by applying Cobb-Douglas production function in which the value of the plant production was the dependent variable and the investment costs, total hours of labor, costs of raw materials, and the costs of energy and water were the independent variables. Factors affecting TFP were analyzed in the second section. The estimated coefficients of the first section and the actual data of the variables, were used to calculate the TFP for each plant. Then, another regression model was worked out in which the calculated TFPs were the dependent variable. The independent variables included the mean of the number of the employees' children, the percentage of the production employees with at least primary school level of education, annual number of the off days, dummy variable for the members of the cooperative association, and a few other variables. The results of the first section showed that the TFP of food industries was higher than that of other types of industries and there was no significant difference between the TFP of textile, metal, non metal mineral, chemical and cellulose industries. The results of the analysis for determining the factors affecting the TFP, showed that the existence of a research section in the plant, the insurance of the employees and the mean of the number of employees' children had a positive effect on the TFP. But, the level of the education of the production workers, the area of the plant buildings, and the number of the days off in plant had negative effects.

A. Dehghani

2005-04-01

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Factors Affecting Knowledge Production in Open and Distance Learning in Zimbabwe. Case of Zimbabwe Open University  

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Full Text Available Zimbabwe Open University has been in existence for over a decade and is the only institution offering open and distance learning in Zimbabwe. The institution when it started had the highest enrolment which was higher than four conventional state universities combined. Currently the university is on the enrolment decline. This is contrary to the fact that distance education is spreading to almost all areas of education and training worldwide. It is also against the background that the Government is channeling many resources towards the establishment of a fully integrated distance learning system which involves the development of course materials and providing student support and instruction. This exhibits negative forces acting against knowledge production as less and fewer graduates are produced. Therefore the purpose of this paper was be to examine the key factors affecting open and distance learning in Zimbabwe. A descriptive survey design was adopted in form of a structured questionnaire which was used to collect data from 70 undergraduates, and 20 students post graduates. Also an interview guide was developed to carry out interviews to 10 staff members consisting of 2 Regional Directors, 2 Regional administrators, and 6 lecturers. Descriptive statistical analysis was a basic one which involves finding frequency of factors and converts them to percentages. This method was able to reduce lots of data into simpler summaries to present easily.

Tawanda Dzama

2012-11-01

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Factors Affecting Alternate Rice-Fish Production of Mymensingh District in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cobb-Douglas production function has been used to measure the effect of various factors on alternate rice-fish production. The chosen factors were of fingerlings cost, cost of cow dung, cost of rice bran, cost of oil cake, cost of lime, cost of urea cost of human labour and cost of netting for fish production and for rice production the factors were human labour, animal labour. Cow dung, urea, TSP, MP, seed and irrigation cost. It was found that except cost of rice bran and lime for fish prod...

Rabbani M.G.; Hossain, M. I.; Islam, M. S.; Hossain, T. M. B.; Mannan, M. A.

2004-01-01

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Browning of model orange juice solution: factors affecting the formation of decomposition products.  

Science.gov (United States)

A model solution of orange juice was prepared and stored. Factors affecting browning and formation of such decomposition products as 3-hydroxy-2-pyrone (3OH2P), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, 5-hydroxymaltol, and 2-furoic acid were examined. Ascorbic acid (AsA) was essential for browning, which was stimulated by amino acids and citric acid, and repressed by chelators and radical scavengers (RS). 3OH2P was derived from AsA. Its formation was stimulated by sugars and repressed by citric acid, chelating agents, and RS. HMF was derived from fructose. Furfural was derived from AsA, and its formation was stimulated by sugars and chelating agents and repressed by RS. 5-hydroxymaltol and 2-furoic acid were derived from fructose and AsA respectively. We did not find any decomposition products showing the same formation pattern as the browning, but a furfural solution with added amino acids turned brown like the model orange juice solution. It might be an indicator for the browning of orange juice. PMID:16306695

Shinoda, Yuki; Komura, Hajime; Homma, Seiichi; Murata, Masatsune

2005-11-01

31

Optimization of factors affecting the production of biodiesel from crude palm kernel oil and ethanol  

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Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, studies on the sources of biodiesel and their properties as a substitute for fossil diesel have tended to be limited to Jatropha oil. This paper, however, reports the parameters that influences the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil, one of the vegetable oils obtained from oil palm which is the highest vegetable oil source in Ghana. The parameters studied are; mass ratio of ethanol to oil, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and reaction time using completely randomized 24 factorial design. Results indicated that ethanol to oil mass ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time were the most important factors affecting the ethyl ester yield. There was also an interaction effect between catalyst and time and ethanol- oil ratio and time on the yield. Accordingly, the optimal conditions for the production of ethyl esters from crude palm kernel oil were determined as; 1:5 mass ratio of ethanol to oil, 1% catalyst concentration by weight of oil, 90 minutes reaction time at a temperature of 30 oC.

David K. Kuwornoo, Julius C. Ahiekpor

2010-07-01

32

Factors Affecting Alternate Rice-Fish Production of Mymensingh District in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Cobb-Douglas production function has been used to measure the effect of various factors on alternate rice-fish production. The chosen factors were of fingerlings cost, cost of cow dung, cost of rice bran, cost of oil cake, cost of lime, cost of urea cost of human labour and cost of netting for fish production and for rice production the factors were human labour, animal labour. Cow dung, urea, TSP, MP, seed and irrigation cost. It was found that except cost of rice bran and lime for fish production all the factors were statistically significant and for the rice production animal labour, TSP and irrigation cost were the insignificant.

Rabbani M.G.

2004-01-01

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THE TAGUCHI APPROACH IN OPTIMIZING ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTIVITY IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the dominance effects of environmental factors such as illuminance, humidity and WBGT on operators’ productivity in the Malaysian automotive industry. A case study was carried out at an automotive components assembly factory. The environmental factors examined were the illuminance (lux, humidity and WBGT of the surrounding workstation area. Two sets of representative data including the illuminance, humidity and WBGT level and production rate were collected during the study. The production rate data were collected through observations and survey questionnaires while the illuminance level was measured using photometer model RS 180-7133, and the humidity and WBGT level were measured by using Quest Temp apparatus and humidity. The Taguchi method was utilized to find the sequence of dominant factors that contributed to the productivity of the operator at that specified production workstation. The study reveals that the dominant factor that contributed to the productivity was humidity, followed by illuminance and WBGT.

M.N.A. Rahman

2011-06-01

34

Factors affecting image formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Factors affecting image formation are discussed in terms of effects on lesion detectability. Lesion detectability is a function of spatial resolution, object contrast, count density, and lesion size. The image forming process is described. Image formation is a complicated process which can be affected by a variety of factors. These are discussed and include: the imaging agent, administered activity; collimator design; detector characteristics; preimage electronic processing; display and recording medium; image data manipulation; patient motion; and artifacts

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THE TAGUCHI APPROACH IN OPTIMIZING ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTIVITY IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study is to determine the dominance effects of environmental factors such as illuminance, humidity and WBGT on operators’ productivity in the Malaysian automotive industry. A case study was carried out at an automotive components assembly factory. The environmental factors examined were the illuminance (lux), humidity and WBGT of the surrounding workstation area. Two sets of representative data including the illuminance, humidity and WBGT level and production rate wer...

Rahman, M. N. A.; Deros, B. M.; Ismail, A. R.; Haniff, M. H. M.; Kardigama, K.

2011-01-01

36

Analyzing factors Affecting Consumers’ Attitude & Intention to Purchase Counterfeit products of luxury Brands In clothing Industry  

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Full Text Available One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit products & then the impact of attitude toward counterfeit products on intention to buy such products have been measured. The study method is a Survey type & in order to collect study data, a questionnaire designed with a combination of different available resources in literature has been used. To achieve the study goals, 384 individuals who purchased counterfeit products intentionally were chosen from Sari. To analyze data & test hypotheses, Study model & questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient tests, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM, Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA & one-way Variance analysis (ANONA have been applied & two Software Packages SPSS & LISREL were used. Through reviewing the literature available & analyzing experts’ views, generally, 11 variables have been identified: Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Ethical Issues, Risk averseness, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, as the influencing factors on attitude toward counterfeit products. Study Findings have indicated that the factors as Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Ethical Issues, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, have meaningful effect on attitude to counterfeit products & the impact of Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Risk averseness, was not meaningfull on view about counterfeit products. Besides, the findings have shown that attitude toward counterfeit products has a meaningful effect on intention to purchase such products.

Abdolhamid Ebrahimi

2012-01-01

37

Factors Affecting Gentamicin Assay  

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Measurements of gentamicin concentrations in serum by the luciferase method are affected by sodium phosphate, glucose, and heparin. The effects of the first two factors can be eliminated by omitting phosphate and increasing the level of glucose in the culture medium. The effects of heparin cannot be easily circumvented, thus precluding use of this agent as an anticoagulant. Bilirubin, which purportedly inhibits measurement of gentamicin in serum by the disk diffusion assay, does not affect th...

Nilsson, L.

1980-01-01

38

Demographic and Academic Factors Affecting Research Productivity at the University of KwaZulu-Natal  

Science.gov (United States)

Research output affects both the strength and funding of universities. Accordingly university academic staff members are under pressure to be active and productive in research. Though all academics have research interest, all are not producing research output which is accredited by the Department of Education (DOE). We analyzed the demographic and…

North, D.; Zewotir, T.; Murray, M.

2011-01-01

39

The maltose regulon of Vibrio cholerae affects production and secretion of virulence factors.  

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The effects of maltose on production and secretion of virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae in strain X28214, classical biotype, and in maltose-defective transposon mutants constructed from this strain were characterized. Maltose was found to inhibit secretion of cholera toxin and to reduce production of the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin and the soluble hemagglutinin-protease. In contrast, the amount of toxin-coregulated pilus was increased in the presence of maltose. The maltose effect was ...

La?ng, H.; Jonson, G.; Holmgren, J.; Palva, E. T.

1994-01-01

40

Factors affecting productivity and the role of customer relationship management: A case study of home appliance manufacturing  

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Full Text Available In today's competitive world, productivity- as a core source of production - is the most important target of the organization. Experimental studies in developed industrial countries prove that productivity improvements resulted from development of management systems play a more important role in production than physical increases in labor and capital factors. This paper, while focusing on productivity from a CRM perspective, employs a European Organizational Excellence Model framework to identify factors affecting productivity and the role of CRM systems. We perform an empirical study for a case study of home appliance manufacturing and using a questionnaire computed present status and compared with desired status of CRM components such as customer leadership, strategy, skill and motivation of labor work, effective use of information technology and process management.

Saeed Mirzamohammadi

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism in order to (1 determine its maximum theoretical plasmid-producing capacity, and to (2 identify factors that significantly impact plasmid production. Results Such a model was developed for the production of a high copy plasmid under conditions of batch aerobic growth on glucose minimal medium. The objective of the model was to maximize plasmid production. By employing certain constraints and examining the resulting flux distributions, several factors were determined that significantly impact plasmid yield. Acetate production and constitutive expression of the plasmid's antibiotic resistance marker exert negative effects, while low pyruvate kinase (Pyk flux and the generation of NADPH by transhydrogenase activity offer positive effects. The highest theoretical yield (592 mg/g resulted under conditions of no marker or acetate production, nil Pyk flux, and the maximum allowable transhydrogenase activity. For comparison, when these four fluxes were constrained to wild-type values, yields on the order of tens of mg/g resulted, which are on par with the best experimental yields reported to date. Conclusion These results suggest that specific plasmid yields can theoretically reach 12 times their current experimental maximum (51 mg/g. Moreover, they imply that abolishing Pyk activity and/or transhydrogenase up-regulation would be useful strategies to implement when designing host strains for plasmid production; mutations that reduce acetate production would also be advantageous. The results further suggest that using some other means for plasmid selection than antibiotic resistance, or at least weakening the marker's expression, would be beneficial because it would allow more precursor metabolites, energy, and reducing power to be put toward plasmid production. Thus far, the impact of eliminating Pyk activity has been explored experimentally, with significantly higher plasmid yields resulting.

Cunningham Drew S

2009-05-01

42

Factors Affecting Yield and Safety of Protein Production from Cassava by Cephalosporium eichhorniae  

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The properties of Cephalosporium eichhorniae 152 (ATCC 38255) affecting protein production from cassava carbohydrate, for use as an animal feed, were studied. This strain is a true thermophile, showing optimum growth at 45° to 47°C, maximum protein yield at 45°C, and no growth at 25°C. It has an optimum pH of about 3.8 and is obligately acidophilic, being unable to sustain growth at pH 6.0 and above in a liquid medium, or pH 7.0 and above on solid media. The optimum growth conditions of p...

Mikami, Y.; Gregory, K. F.; Levadoux, W. L.; Balagopalan, C.; Whitwill, S. T.

1982-01-01

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PREDICTING OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR THE CHOICE OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS BY LOGIT REGRESSION ANALYSIS  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine consumer behavior towards organic products in Samsun city center and to determine the factors affacting their preferences of organic products. The study was interviewed with 478 consumers living the city center of Samsun. Ad?yaman Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, Y?l: 5, Say?: 10, Aral?k 2012130According of the findings, ease of accesibility of organic products, spouse’s educational level, paying extra for the organic produce, aware of food health benefits, considering the harmful effects of conventional produce, having complete knowledge of organic farming and one unit increase household number income to result increase consumption of organic produce. Consumers were not aware of the certification and control process. As a result, easy of accesibility of organic produces in the supermarkets need to be improved.

Selma KARABA?

2012-01-01

44

A Review on Factors Affecting Drying Process of Pistachio and Their Impact on Product’s Quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review is focusing on the parameters affecting the quality of pistachio during hot-air drying process. Accordingly,
the various common existing processing methods are reviewed extensively using the current literature to investigate the
latest developments in this regard. The findings revealed that both of the type of method used as well as the parameters
controlling the drying rate, have different impacts on final product’s quality.
...

Abbas, K. A.; Saleh, A. M.; Ola Lasekan; Khalil, Sahar K.

2010-01-01

45

Factors affecting Anastrepha fraterculus female receptivity modulation by accessory gland products.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the context of the sterile insect technique (SIT), mass-rearing and male irradiation are imperative. Post-teneral treatments such as the addition of protein in adult's male diet and male hormonal treatment are used to improve sexual performance and to accelerate sexual maturation. In this work we investigated the effect of male accessory glands products (AGPs) on female receptivity of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), and the effect of strain rearing history, male irradiation, male diet and hormonal treatment on AGPs. Injections of aqueous extracts of male accessory glands into the abdomen of females reduced their receptivity. The AGPs from laboratory males were more effective in inhibiting female receptivity, compared to AGPs from wild males, irrespective of females' origin. The AGPs from fertile males were more effective than AGPs from sterile males. The AGPs from protein-fed males were more effective than AGPs from sugar-fed males. Finally, the AGPs of males treated with juvenile hormone were less effective in inhibiting female receptivity than AGPs of untreated males. We conclude that inhibition of sexual receptivity of A. fraterculus mated females is mediated by products in male accessory gland's and the way that these products act vary widely according to the effect of extrinsic factors. We discuss the results in the perspective of the SIT application for A. fraterculus. PMID:21907717

Abraham, Solana; Cladera, Jorge; Goane, Lucía; Teresa Vera, M

2012-01-01

46

Evaluation of Factors Affecting Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production by Comamonas sp. EB172 Using Central Composite Design  

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Full Text Available Aims: Statistical approach, central composite design (CCD was used to investigate the complex interaction among temperature (25-37 °C, initial medium pH (5-9, inoculum size (4-10 % (v/v, concentration of (NH42SO4 (0-1 g/L and concentration of mixed organic acids (5-10 g/L in the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Comamonas sp. EB172.Methodology and Results: Mixed organic acids derived from anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME containing acetic:propionic:butyric (ratio of 3:1:1 were used as carbon source in the batch culture of Comamonas sp. EB172 to produce polyhydoxyalkanoates (PHAs. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that all five factors were significantly important in the batch fermentation by shake flask with a P value of less than 0.001. The optimal temperature, initial medium pH, inoculum size, concentration of (NH42SO4 and concentration of mixed organic acids were 30 °C, 7.04, 4.0 % (v/v, 0.01 g/L and 5.05 g/L respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Optimization of the production medium containing mixed organic acids has improved the PHA production for more than 2 folds. Under optimal condition in the shake flask fermentation, the predicted growth is 2.98 g/L of dry cell weight (DCW with 47.07 wt % of PHA content. The highest yield of PHA was 0.28 g of PHA per g mixed organic acids.

Noor Azman Mohd Johar

2012-09-01

47

Factors affecting the production of nanostructure lipid carriers of valproic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to optimize a nano-lipid carrier (NLCs) of valproic acid for nasal delivery using statistical methods. NLCs were prepared by solvent diffusion method followed by ultrasonication. After a preliminary screening study using Taguchi design, the Box-Behnken statistical model using desirability function was applied to evaluate variables affecting key specifications (minimum particle size, maximum drug loading and optimum release) of nano-lipid carriers of valproic acid. Each variable was assessed at three levels of surfactant concentration, acetone/ethanol volume ratio and organic/aqueous phase volume ratio. The best predicted model for particle size and drug release was quadratic model, while for drug loading, 2 factor interaction model fitted better. The measured results for the optimized formulation were a mean size of 154 nm, 47% payload and 75% of drug content released within 21 days. The optimum formulation was obtained using 1% of Poloxamer-188 as surfactant, organic/aqueous phase volume ratio of 1/5 and acetone/ethanol volume ratio of 3/1. Overall, the results show that entrapment of valproic acid in nano-lipid carriers was achieved. Such carriers might be a promising delivery system in the treatment of seizures via the nasal route of administration. PMID:23627046

Varshosaz, Jaleh; Eskandari, Sharareh; Kennedy, Ross; Tabbakhian, Majid; Minaiyan, Mohsen

2013-02-01

48

Abiotic and biotic factors affect efficacy of chlorfenapyr for control of stored-product insect pests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory bioassays were conducted to assess pyrole chlorfenapyr as a potential grain protectant against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae, Prostephanus truncatus, Tribolium confusum, and Liposcelis bostrychophila. Factors such as dose (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 ppm), exposure interval (7 and 14 days), temperature (20, 25, and 30°C), relative humidity (RH; 55 and 75%), and commodity (wheat, maize, barley, and paddy rice) were evaluated. Progeny production was assessed after 74 days of exposure. For L. bostrychophila and T. confusum the increase of dose increased mortality. After 7 or 14 days of exposure, mortality was low at doses of ? 1 ppm and did not exceed 23 or 36%, respectively, for L. bostrychophila or 13 or 58%, respectively, for T. confusum. After 14 days of exposure, mortality of S. oryzae at 30°C and 75% RH was 82.2%. Mortality of P. truncatus was considerably higher than that of the other species. At 0.5 ppm, mortality exceeded 81% after 7 days of exposure and 91% after 14 days of exposure. Progeny production of L. bostrychophila was extremely high. Very few progeny were found for T. confusum. For S. oryzae, offspring emergence was high, except at 20°C and 55% RH. For P. truncatus, progeny production in the treated maize was not avoided, even at 10 ppm. In the case of S. oryzae, at 0.1 ppm and after 14 days of exposure, mortality in wheat was higher than in the other three commodities. For R. dominica, mortality was low at 0.1 and 1 ppm for paddy rice but reached 74.4% in barley after 14 days of exposure. For T. confusum, mortality was low at 0.1 and 1 ppm in all commodities. For progeny production counts, for S. oryzae or R. dominica, adult emergence was higher in paddy rice than in the other three commodities. Finally, overall T. confusum progeny was low. Chlorfenapyr efficacy varied remarkably among the combinations tested, and it may be a viable grain protectant in combination with other insecticides. PMID:21819655

Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Hatzikonstantinou, Ann N; Kavallieratou, Helen N

2011-08-01

49

Factors Affecting the Biomass and Lipid Production from Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 under Mixotrophic Culture  

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Full Text Available Effects of media compositions on biomass and lipid accumulation of the isolate Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 were investigated under a Plackett-Burman experimental design with mixotrophic cultivation conditions. Under this experimental design there were 15 different runs with ten factors-yeast extract, KH2PO4, MgSO4, FeSO4, MnCl2, CuSO4, Na2MoO4, H3BO3, ZnSO4 and pH. Cultures were grown mixotrophically under 16 h light and 8 h dark regime at 30 ºC for a period of 7 days. During the light regime, the light intensity at the surface of the vessels and agitation speed were set to 67.5 µmol photons m-2s-1 and 150 rpm, respectively. Initial cell concentration was set to an absorbance (A540 of 0.5. For high biomass production (2.2 g/L, run no. 6, the most effective and significant factors were yeast extract, KH2PO4, FeSO4 and ZnSO4 at concentrations 0.3 g/L, 0.3 g/L, 3 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. Whereas for high lipid accumulation (19.59 %DCW, run no. 2, these were KH2PO4, pH and yeast extract, at a level of 1.7 g/L, 6.0 and 0.1 g/L, respectively. No significant factors were obtained for higher lipid content. The best treatment for biomass and lipid content was run no. 6, whose medium formula consisted of 0.3 g/L yeast extract, 1.7 g/L KH2PO4, 1.7 g/L MgSO4, 1 mg/L FeSO4, 0.9 mg/L MnCl2, and pH 7.0, together with fixed concentrations of glucose, NaHCO3 and KNO3 at 5 g/L, 0.05 g/L and 0.5 g/L, respectively.

Mohammad Ariful HAQUE

2012-12-01

50

Population dynamics of dechlorinators and factors affecting the level and products of PCB dechlorination in sediments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) often stops although a significant number of removable chlorines remain. To determine the reason for the cessation, we investigated the limitation of organic carbon, PCB bioavailability, and inhibition by metabolic products. Enrichment with carbon sources did not induce additional chlorination, indicating the plateau was not due to depletion of organic carbon. The bioavailability was not limiting, since a subcritical micelle concentration of the surfactant, which enhanced desorption without inhibiting dechlorinating microorganisms, failed to lower the plateau. Neither was it due to accumulation of metabolites, since no additional dechlorination was detected when plateau sediments were incubated with fresh medium. Similarly, dechlorination was not inhibited in freshly spiked sediment slurries. Dechlorination ended up at the same level with nearly identical congener profiles, regardless of treatment. These results indicate that cessation of dechlorination was due to the accumulation of daughter congeners, which cannot be used as electron acceptors by microbes. To determine whether the decreasing availability affected the microorganisms, we determined the population dynamics of dechlorinators using the most probable number technique. The growth dynamics of the dechlorinators mirrored the time course of dechlorination. It started when the population increased by two orders of magnitude. Once dechlorination stopped the dechlorinating population also began to decrease. When dechlorinators were inoculated into PCB-free sediments, the population decreased over time. The decrease of the population as dechlorination ceased confirms that the diminishing availability of congeners was the reason for the incomplete dechlorination. Recent findings have shown that a second phase of dechlorination of certain congeners can occur after a long lag. 45 refs., 8 figs.

Kim, J.S.; Sokol, R.C.; Liu, X.; Bethoney, C.M.; Rhee, G.Y. [State Univ. of New York and New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

51

A Review on Factors Affecting Drying Process of Pistachio and Their Impact on Product’s Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This review is focusing on the parameters affecting the quality of pistachio during hot-air drying process. Accordingly,
the various common existing processing methods are reviewed extensively using the current literature to investigate the
latest developments in this regard. The findings revealed that both of the type of method used as well as the parameters
controlling the drying rate, have different impacts on final product’s quality.
The study concluded that the sun drying method has the best final quality as well as to lowest energy cost. This study
provides a guide for the food technologist to the select the optimum method by which the best quality can be produced and
minimum energy can be spent.

K. A. Abbas

2010-02-01

52

Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. PMID:25050049

Pham, C H; Vu, C C; Sommer, S G; Bruun, S

2014-07-01

53

Factors affecting process temperature and biogas production in small-scale rural biogas digesters in winter in northern Vietnam  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. © 2014 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.

Cuong, Pham Hung; Vu, C.C.

2014-01-01

54

Key factors affecting microbial anode potential in a microbial electrolysis cell for H{sub 2} production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to optimize operations of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) for hydrogen production, microbial anode potential (MAP) was analyzed as a function of factors in biofilm anode system, including pH, substrate and applied voltage. The results in ''H'' shape reactor showed that MAP reflected the information when any factor became limiting for hydrogen production. Commonly, hydrogen generation started around anode potential of -250 mV to -300 mV. While, higher current density and higher hydrogen rate were obtained when MAP went down to -400 mV or even lower in this study. Biofilm anode could work normally between pH 6.5 and 7.0, while the lowest anode potential appeared around 6.8-7.0. However, when pH was lower 6.0 or substrate concentration was less than 50 mg L{sup -1} in anode chamber, MAP went up to -300 mV or above, leading to hydrogen reduction. Applied voltage did not affect MAP much during the process of hydrogen production. Anode potential analysis also showed that planktonic bacteria in suspended solution presented positive effects on biofilm anode system and they contributed to enhance electron transfer by reducing internal resistance and lowering minimum voltage needed for hydrogen production to some extent. (author)

Wang, Aijie; Ren, Nanqi [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin 150090 (China); School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Liu, Wenzong [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Zhou, Jizhong [Institute for Environmental Genomics, and Department of Botany and Microbiology, Stephenson Research and Technology Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Cheng, Shaoan [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2010-12-15

55

IDENTIFICATION OF FACTOR THAT AFFECT TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study investigates the technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 250 farmers using purposive and simple random sampling with aid of structured schedule .The result of the stochastic frontier production 2 function analysis shows that the variance parameters, that is the sigma squared (? and the gamma (? were statistically significant at 1 % level for cowpea production. The coefficient of farm size, labour, seed and chemical were positive and significant at 1% level while family and hired labor was negative and insignificant. Profit level can be increased by increasing the amount of farm size, labour, quantity of seed and chemical, and decreasing the use of fertilizer. Mean efficiency were 0.73, Farmers operate at 27% below frontier level due to variation in technical efficiency. The inefficiency model shows that the coefficient of Age, family size and farming experience have negative apriori sign and in consonance with the apriori expectation

Jimjel Zalkuwi

2014-08-01

56

Exopolysaccharides Production by Pleurotus pulmonarius: Factors Affecting Formation and Their Structures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The optimization of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by Pleurotus pulmonarius was carried out. Malt extract at 1.5 % (w/v) showed the highest EPS production after 10 days of submerged incubation and initial pH 5.5. 5.5% (w/v) glucose and 0.4% (w/v) potassium nitrate as sole carbon and nitrogen sources were the best stimulators for EPS production respectively. Suitable incubation temperature was found to be 30°C. At the end of these series of experiments we have obtained (280 mg...

Nour El-dein, Mahmoud M.; El-fallal, Amira A.; Toson, El-shahat A.; Hereher, Faten E.

2004-01-01

57

Microbiological and physicochemical factors affecting Aspergillus section Flavi incidence in Cavendish banana (Musa cavendishii) chips production in Southern Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbiological and physicochemical factors affecting the incidence of Aspergillus section Flavi in dried Cavendish banana (Musa cavendishii) chips production in Southern Philippines were examined. The average counts of Aspergillus section Flavi (AFC) in fresh and dried Cavendish bananas from 10 production batches of the Philippine Agro-Industrial Development Cooperative in Davao del Norte, Southern Philippines were 1.2 x 10(2) and 1.6 x 10(2) cfu/g, respectively. Isolates from both samples were identified to be Aspergillus flavus based on spore type and conidial structure of isolates. An increasing trend in the AFC of Cavendish bananas was observed during dried banana chips processing. Variability in the AFC between production batches was attributed to differences in aerobic and fungal populations and physicochemical characteristics of the fruits, peel damage of the raw materials, concentration of AFC in the air and food-contact surfaces of the production area, and temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions of the environment during production and storage. Physicochemical characteristics of Cavendish bananas from the receipt of raw materials up to the first day of drying were within the reported range of values allowing growth and toxin production by aflatoxigenic fungi. Air-borne AFC varied depending on the section of the production area examined. The close proximity of the waste disposal area from the production operation to the preparation, drying and storage areas suggests that cross-contamination, probably air-borne or insect-borne was a likely occurrence. The hands of workers were also identified as AFC sources. Results of this study highlight the need for the development of strategies to control aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination in Philippine dried Cavendish bananas. PMID:15750731

Sales, A C; Azanza, P V; Yoshizawa, T

2005-01-01

58

Exopolysaccharides Production by Pleurotus pulmonarius: Factors Affecting Formation and Their Structures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The optimization of exopolysaccharides (EPS produced by Pleurotus pulmonarius was carried out. Malt extract at 1.5 % (w/v showed the highest EPS production after 10 days of submerged incubation and initial pH 5.5. 5.5% (w/v glucose and 0.4% (w/v potassium nitrate as sole carbon and nitrogen sources were the best stimulators for EPS production respectively. Suitable incubation temperature was found to be 30°C. At the end of these series of experiments we have obtained (280 mg/100 ml of EPS. The physicochemical characterization of EPS was studied and the structure was confirmed by the infrared spectroscopic analysis (IR.

Mahmoud M. Nour El-Dein

2004-01-01

59

Factors affecting the production and reproduction performance of tropically adapted beef cattle in southern Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the first study, non-genetic influences on pre- and post-weaning growth traits of a tropically adapted beef breed in the arid sub-tropical environment of Southern Africa were investigated. Production data of Santa Gertrudis cattle for a ten-year period were analysed. The herds were managed extensively under harsh arid environmental conditions in the northern thornveld region of Namibia. The cattle were divided into summer and winter breeding seasons, which were limited to 90 days for...

Taylor, Glen James

2007-01-01

60

Factors affecting the production of 4-ethylphenol by the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in enological conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The conversion of p-coumaric acid into 4-ethylphenol was studied in Dekkera bruxellensis ISA 1791 under defined conditions in synthetic media. The production of 4-ethylphenol occurred roughly between mid-exponential growth phase and the beginning of the stationary phase. This behaviour was observed when glucose was the only energy and carbon source, the conversion rate being close to 90%. Ethanol, as the single energy source, yielded conversion rates close to 80% while in the presenc...

Malfeito-ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgilio; Dias, L.; Pereira-da-silva, S.; Tavares, M.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Factors Related to Local Supply Base Development Affecting Production Localisation in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent years, foreign manufacturers have extended their manufacturing footprint to include China. According to the World Bank China has overtaken Japan as the world’s second-largest economy since 2010. China’s growth is largely funded by a continuous manufacturing boom where both domestic industries and infrastructure have developed extensively, facilitating foreign-owned manufacturing companies to locate production in China. An important issue of common interest to all manufacturing comp...

Xie, Jianyuan

2012-01-01

62

Factors affecting mining costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject is discussed under the following headings: investment decision-making, unit cost factors (declining ore grade, low-price contracts, ore grade/output relationship, above average cost increases). Economic, environmental, sociological and political aspects are considered. (U.K.)

63

Factors affecting productivity and the role of customer relationship management: A case study of home appliance manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In today's competitive world, productivity- as a core source of production - is the most important target of the organization. Experimental studies in developed industrial countries prove that productivity improvements resulted from development of management systems play a more important role in production than physical increases in labor and capital factors. This paper, while focusing on productivity from a CRM perspective, employs a European Organizational Excellence Model framework to iden...

Saeed Mirzamohammadi; Forough Basirat Fard

2012-01-01

64

Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

2009-01-01

65

ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

Carmen BOGHEAN

2013-12-01

66

Reproductive status following artificial insemination and factors affecting conception rate in dairy cows in smallholder production systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey was conducted to evaluate the reproductive status following artificial insemination (AI) and factors affecting conception rate (CR) in dairy cows under the smallholder production system, using the concentration of progesterone (P4) in milk samples taken on the day of AI (Sample 1), day 10-12 after AI (Sample 2) and day 22-24 after AI (Sample 3). The survey involved 115 cows in 33 farms. A follow-up study was carried out on four farms with interventions to improve record keeping, feed supplementation, heat detection and timely pregnancy diagnosis. Based on Sample 1 (n = 115), 93% of the cows had low P4 and were likely to have been in or close to oestrus at AI. Based on Samples 1 and 2 (n = 107), 85% of the cows had ovulatory oestrus. Based on all three samples (n = 59), 54.2% of the cows appeared to have conceived, 18.6% had either non-fertilization or early embryonic mortality and 18.6% had late embryonic mortality, luteal cyst or a persistent corpus luteum. The incidence of AI on pregnant animals was 1.7% and on those in doubtful reproductive status was 6.8%. The overall CR was 35.5% from 121 inseminations done on 115 cows. Mean intervals from calving to first AI (n = 77) and to conception (n = 43) were 90.7 and 113.6 days, respectively. The effects of level of milk production, lactation state and site of semen deposition on CR were significant (p 0.05) but CR tended to be lower in first parity cows and in cows with excessive body condition. The CR was also lower in farms that practice AI only in the afternoon, in farms where relatively less time was spent on dairy activities and in those farms practicing grazing and supplementation with concentrate only, as compared to those providing additional roughage supplementation. CR tended to be higher when AI was carried out by technicians with longer formal training. The survey showed that there was a high occurrence of ovulatory oestrus in cows under the smallholder production system but the CR obtained was low. This result can be attributed to factors related to the cow, nutrition, management and AI procedures. The interventions done on four farms resulted in shorter intervals from calving to first AI and conception, lower number of services per conception and higher CR, when compared with findings from the survey. (author)

67

Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants. IV-Factors affecting the characteristics of simulating polymer waste products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this study, which is part of a coordinated research program that was arranged by the International Atomic Energy Agency, was aimed at evaluating final waste forms and packages. Four different types of polymer matrices were used to incorporate simulating borate waste originating from a primary cooling circuit in a pressurized water reactor. The factors affecting the properties of simulated polymer waste products that were studied included polymer waste ratios, the effect of accumulated radiation dose, water content added to loaded dry simulating borate waste, and the effect of given chemical components of polymer matrix. The results obtained show that, where leaching criteria of the final waste form was concerned, 50% of the immobilized dry simulating waste powder was a reasonable loading for all polymers under investigation. The data obtained also indicated decreases in the compressive strength values of the solidified forms with an increase in the water content of the immobilized simulating borate waste powder. (author) 6 figs., 10 tabs., 35 refs

68

Factors affecting vegetable stand establishment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several factors can influence stand establishment in vegetable crop production. Environmental conditions such as soil physical characteristics, temperature and moisture, various cultural practices, and diseases may all be limiting factors in establishing maximum stands and achieving the highest possible yields. Measures taken to increase stands include soil improvements, implementing cultural practices, and use of chemical and biological seed treatments. Combining seed treatments and cultural...

Grassbaugh E. M.; Bennett M. A.

1998-01-01

69

Major Factors Affecting on the Productivity of Faculty Members and their Ranking using Multiple Criteria Decision Method. Case Study: Universities and Higher Education Centers of the Ardabil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research has examined differences between factors affecting productivity of faculty of universities and higher education centers of the Ardabil based on three groups involved means faculty, staff of educational and research units and students, and are considered as basis of rankings. Based on components of NASIRI POUR model (2011) and using ANOVA test unanimity of different aspects affecting efficiency in terms of the three groups studied. Due to significant differences in means, LSD pos...

Delshad Namin Shirin; Mirzaei Daryani Shahram; Sattari Ardabili Farzad

2013-01-01

70

Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the ...

McBride Sebastian D; Mills Daniel S

2012-01-01

71

Factors affecting prognosis in myelofibrosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies investigating factors affecting prognosis in primary myelofibrosis have been numerous over the years because of the high heterogeneity with regard to its natural clinical course. Recently, the increasing application of reduced-intensity conditioning with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as well as the ongoing rapid development of new experimental agents, such as JAK2 inhibitors, have made the requirement for simple and accurate scoring systems to select individual pa...

Onida, Francesco

2009-01-01

72

A Study of Factors Affecting on Men’s Skin Care ProductsPurchasing, Particularly in Karlstad, Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines in some depth the influences of marketing mix, social factors, emergence of the metrosexual, evolution of femininity and masculinity, self-esteem and customer decision making on the male consumer behavior in purchasing skin care products in Sweden, particular in Karlstad. In do so, the theories of masculinity and femininity, customer behavior theory, customer decision making’s theory, theory of metrosexual and theory of the four Ps in marketing mix strategy are employed ...

Surakiatpinyo, Jiraporn; Moungkhem, Chanintorn

2010-01-01

73

Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the s...

Pham, C. H.; Vu, C. C.; Sommer, S. G.; Bruun, S.

2014-01-01

74

Major Factors Affecting on the Productivity of Faculty Members and their Ranking using Multiple Criteria Decision Method. Case Study: Universities and Higher Education Centers of the Ardabil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research has examined differences between factors affecting productivity of faculty of universities and higher education centers of the Ardabil based on three groups involved means faculty, staff of educational and research units and students, and are considered as basis of rankings. Based on components of NASIRI POUR model (2011 and using ANOVA test unanimity of different aspects affecting efficiency in terms of the three groups studied. Due to significant differences in means, LSD post hoc test was used and it was determined that in organizational culture, the mean of student than the other two groups, in empowering, the mean of employees than other groups, in the motivational factors, the mean of student than another groups and in the way of managing, the mean of employees than other two groups are different. Finally, using the technique of TOPSIS, factors affecting productivity of faculty were ranked. The results showed that the components of empowerment, environmental conditions, organizational culture, leadership method (management and motivational factors are most important in enhancing the productivity of faculty members of Ardebil universities, respectively.

Delshad Namin Shirin

2013-12-01

75

The level of fertilizer use in sunflower production and the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the factors affecting the amount of fertilizer used in sunflower production have been investigated. Average sunflower production area was determined as 21.91 da and sunflower was grown in irrigated conditions. Average plant nutrients was 20.92 kg N/da, 14.33 kg P2O5/da, and 2.22 kg K2O/da. As a result of the study, it has been determined that farmers used excess fertilizer in sunflower production. In addition, in the use of plant nutrients, the factors such as farm size, sources of fertilizer, irrigation possibilities, credit use situation, and the quality of land were statistically significant contrary to the factors such as land usage situation, educational level of farmers and deciding on fertilization. Refs. 6 (author)

76

Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

McBride Sebastian D

2012-09-01

77

Seasonal factors affecting egg production and viability of eggs of Acartia tonsa Dana from East Lagoon, Galveston, Texas  

Science.gov (United States)

Egg production and hatching success were determined between March 1981 and March 1982 for the copepod Acartia tonsa Dana from East Lagoon, Galveston, Texas. During three-day experiments in the laboratory, field collected females were fed diets of (1) natural particles collected over the water column, (2) some modification of this and (3) the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. The latter served to isolate the effects of temperature and salinity from the effects of the natural particle diets on egg production. Specific rates of egg production, i.e. ?g egg biomass/?g body biomass/time, were consistently higher per unit carbon than nitrogen. The influence of seasonal factors on egg production was compared. Salinity was inversely correlated with egg production, but had less effect than temperature. Positive correlations with temperature were always higher for specific rates per unit nitrogen than carbon. At 15°C, females produced ˜0·25 of their body carbon (or nitrogen) as eggs per day, whereas at 28°C, they produced at least their own biomass as eggs per day (up to 1·80). These high rates of A. tonsa were probably due to its reproductive biology and adaptation to the subtropical habitat as well as the high temperatures and food concentrations. The correlation between specific egg production rate and temperature was less with the natural particle diets than with the unialgal diet. This indicated that the quantity or quality of natural particle assemblages in East Lagoon influenced egg production. Egg viability was highest in the spring, but was not related to diet or the percentage of females with spermatophores.

Ambler, Julie Weills

1985-06-01

78

Analysis of Factors Affecting on Risk Management of Wheat Production Among Wheat Farmers (Razavieh Region, Khorasan-E-Razavi Province, Iran)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of this study was to analyze the Factors Affecting on risk management in wheat production among farmers of Razavieh region (Khorasan-E-Razavi province, Iran). Statistical population of the study was 1520 farmers that they had water cultivation. By using of stratified proportional random sampling 156 respondents were selected from 8 villages. For the calculation of the risk-aversion coefficient degree among farmers, the Safety First Rule model was used. The findings revealed t...

Sarani, V.; Sookhtanlo, M.

2011-01-01

79

Factors Affecting Hydrogen Production from Cassava Wastewater by a Co-Culture of Anaerobic Sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Series of batch experiments were used to investigate the effects of environmental factors i.e., total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations, initial pH, illumination pattern and stirring conditions on hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by a co-culture of anaerobic sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum. The maximum of the hydrogen yield of 150.46 and 340.19 mL g-COD-1 was obtained at the total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations of 0.2 and 0.04 M, respectively. An effect of initial pH was investigated at COD:N:P ratio of 100:10:1. Results indicated that an optimum initial pH for hydrogen production was pH 7 with a high hydrogen yield of 158.78 mL g-COD-1 was obtained. No significantly different (p<0.05 in the effect of illumination pattern (24 h of light and 12 h dark/light cycle on hydrogen production were observed under continuous-illumination and periodic-illumination with hydrogen yield of 131.84 and 126.92 mL g-COD-1, respectively. Therefore, a periodic-illumination was applicable in hydrogen fermentation due to its cost-effective. Hydrogen fermentation with a stirring at 100 rpm provided more effective hydrogen production (164.83 mL g-COD-1 than static-fermentation (93.93 mL g-COD-1. The major soluble products from hydrogen fermentation were acetic and butyric acids, in the ranges of 28.33-48.30 and 35.23-66.07%, respectively, confirming an ability of a co-culture to produce hydrogen from cassava wastewater.

Alissara Reungsang

2007-01-01

80

Factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth factors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essential to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity. Therefore, we investigated the factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among the 5 breeds of dairy goats tested, milk from Nubian goats had the highest growth factor activity. Tight-junction leakage induced by a 24-h milking interval did not increase growth factor activity in the milk. Milk collected from pregnant does had a significantly higher growth factor activity than milk collected postpartum. Growth factor activity decreased during the first 8 wk of lactation, fluctuated thereafter, and then increased dramatically after natural mating. During wk 1 to 8, growth factor activity was inversely correlated with milk yield and week of lactation. No correlation was observed during wk 9 to 29. After natural mating of the goats, the growth factor activity in the milk correlated significantly with somatic cell count and conductivity (a measure of membrane permeability), and correlated inversely with milk yield. Based on the above data, goat milk with higher growth factor activity could be selectively collected from Nubian pregnant does. PMID:16702258

Wu, F Y; Tsao, P H; Wang, D C; Lin, S; Wu, J S; Cheng, Y K

2006-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

Jovanovic, Petar

82

Factors affecting patient dose in diagnostic radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report, Factors Affecting Patient Dose in Diagnostic Radiology is divided into three main sections. Part one is introductory and covers the basic principles of x-ray production and image formation. It includes discussion of x-ray generators and x-ray tubes, radiation properties and units, specification and measurement of x-ray beams, methods of patient dose measurement, radiation effects, radiation protection philosophy and finally the essentials of imaging systems. Part two examines factors affecting the x-ray output of x-ray machines and the characteristics of x-ray beams. These include the influence of heat ratings, kVp, waveform, exposure timer, filtration, focus-film distance, beam intensity distribution, x-ray tube age and focal spot size. Part three examines x-ray machine, equipment and patient factors which affect the dose received by individual patients. The factors considered include justification of examinations, choice of examination method, film/screen combinations, kVp, mAs, focus-film distance, collimation and field size, exposure time, projection, scatter, generator calibration errors, waveform, filtration, film processing and patient size. The patient dose implications of fluoroscopy systems, CT scanners, special procedures and mammography are also discussed. The report concludes with a brief discussion of patient dose levels in New Zealand and dose optimisation. 104 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs

83

Factors affecting forage stand establishment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

Sulc R.M.

1998-01-01

84

Factors affecting production of an antilisterial bacteriocin by Carnobacterium piscicola strain A9b in laboratory media and model fish systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims: To investigate factors influencing bacteriocin production and bacteriocin stability of the bioprotective culture Carnobacterium piscicola strain A9b. Methods and Results: Maximum activity was obtained in MRS7 broth (MRS adjusted to pH 7.2), with or without glucose. No bacteriocin was produced in APT broth when a low inoculum level (0.001%) was used. In contrast, inoculum level did not influence bacteriocin production in BHI and MRS7 without glucose. Bacteriocin production in APT was induced by the presence of an extracellular compound present in the sterile, filtered, cell- free supernatant fluid of a stationary-phase culture. Increasing concentrations of NaCl (2-7%) reduced bacteriocin production and maximum cell density of C. piscicola A9b when grown in cooked fish juice at VC. Conclusions: Media composition, inoculum level and sodium chloride concentration affected production. Significance and Impact of the Study: The influence of NaCl on bacteriocin production may negate the inhibitory effect of C. piscicola A9b against Listeria monocytogenes in salty foods.

Himelbloom, B.; Nilsson, Lilian

2001-01-01

85

FACTORS AFFECTING INTERNATIONAL LABOR MIGRATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  The article reviews the evolution of the main theories that explain the labor migration system impacts on international labor migration are shown. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of external labor migration factors in Ukraine based on the use of the basic tenets of the "push and pull factors" theory.

?.?. ???????

2012-03-01

86

Factors Affecting University Library Website Design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR); yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider u...

Kim, Yongi-mi University Of Oklahoma

2011-01-01

87

Protein digestibility and quality in products containing antinutritional factors are adversely affected by old age in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) has been recommended to be the most suitable method for routine evaluation of protein quality of foods by FAO/WHO. The PDCAAS method includes the use of young rats for predicting protein digestibility of foods for all ages including the elderly. To assess the usefulness of protein digestibility in old rats in the calculation of PDCAAS for the elderly, the influence of age on the digestibility of protein in 5-wk-old and 20-mo-old rats by the balance method was studied. Fifteen protein products were tested. Each protein product was fed as the sole source of 10% dietary protein. A protein-free diet was also included to obtain an estimate of metabolic fecal protein. Protein digestibility values (corrected for metabolic fecal protein loss) in old rats were significantly (P PDCAAS may overestimate protein digestibility and quality of these products for the elderly. For products specifically intended for the elderly, protein digestibility should be determined using old rats. PMID:12514294

Gilani, G Sarwar; Sepehr, Estatira

2003-01-01

88

An analysis of the factors affecting the level of fertilizer use in crop production. A case study of Tokat - Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, socio-economic factors (size of land, number of irrigation, age of farmers, educational level of farmers, soil analysis, and extension services) to be effected to the level of fertilizer use have been investigated. It has been determined that socio-economic factors have an important effect on fertilizer use in tomatoes growing. However, their effects on fertilization in wheat and sugar beet growing is limited due to traditional and contract farming. And also, there is no effect of extension services in the region on the level of fertilizer use in all crops. The quantity of fertilizer used was 51.64 kg/da in sugar beet, 18.20 kg/da in wheat (dry), 19.03 kg/da in wheat (irrigated) and 73.77 kg/da in tomatoes growing. Refs. 5 (author)

89

A review of factors affecting productivity of bald eagles in the Great Lakes region: implications for recovery.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population in North America declined greatly after World War II due primarily to the eggshell thinning effects of p,p'-DDE, a biodegradation product of DDT. After the banning of DDT in the United States and Canada during the early 1970s, the bald eagle population started to increase. However, this population recovery has not been uniform. Eagles nesting along the shorelines of the North American Great Lakes and rivers open to spawning runs of anadromo...

Bowerman, W. W.; Giesy, J. P.; Best, D. A.; Kramer, V. J.

1995-01-01

90

Some Factors Affecting the Production of Carotenoids by Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new yeast strain isolated from pin cushion flower (Scabiosa atropurpura) in our laboratory was selected from 200 yeast isolates as carotenoids producer and identified as Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis. The selected isolate was grown in synthetic medium to study the effect of carbon to nitrogen ratio, sources of nitrogen and carbon, mineral salts and incubation temperature on carotenoids production. The results indicated the following optimal conditions: carbon to nitrogen ratio of 5, am...

El-banna, Amr A.; Abd El-razek, Amal M.; El-mahdy, Ahmed R.

2012-01-01

91

Factors Affecting Performance of AODV  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) it is hard for a route to sustain for a longer period of time due to the mobility of nodes. High mobility of nodes results in active route failure and re-route discoveries. Such frequent route discoveries result in decreased network performance. In this study we have analyzed in detail the affect of different node mobility parameters on the performance of AODV (Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector) Routing Protocol. Simulation results are provided at the end.

Hussain, S. A.; Mahmood, K.; Garcia, E.

2007-01-01

92

FACTORS AFFECTING THE POST LARVAL PRODUCTION OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII (DE MAN BY USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF FEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study was conducted to know the importance of for the effects of different types of feed on larval survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  In this experiment total nine tanks are selected and were divided, placed under three experiments (Viz. E1, E2, and E3 each having three replicates. The feshly hatched out larvae (Zoea were collected and stocked in three different treatment tanks. The larvae were stoked in E1 (Artemia nauplii and egg custard, E2 (Artemia nauplii only and E3 (Freeze dried (Cyclop-eeze only.  The survival rate of postlarvae found to vary from 5 to 40%. Highest rate of survival was recorded for the treatment of E1 (31.5- 40.2 % and the lowest survival was recorded in E3 (3.0- 5.2 %. Such variations was occurred due to higher nutritive and growth promoting value of egg custard. The result obtained from the present study indicated that rearing of freshwater prawn larvae by improved management techniques can be considered economically viable and acceptable. So the production of post larvae of prawn was increased significantly by using Artemia nauplii and egg custard as larval diet.

Shailender M*, Krishna PV, Suresh Babu CH

2013-01-01

93

Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most important factors that affecting efficiency of solar cells. These effects are cell temperature, MPPT (maximum power point tracking and energy conversion efficiency. The changing of these factors improves solar cell efficiency for more reliable applications.

Furkan Dincer

2010-05-01

94

Factors Affecting Electricity Demand in Jordan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1) The paper examines the relationship between electricity demand and climate/non-climate related factors using statistical regression analysis. 2) It focuses on the environmental, demographic, policy (energy pricing) and technological factors as the main factors affecting the consumption pattern in Jordan. 3) The paper also presents the variations occurred in the electricity demand over the period 19...

Mohammad Awad Momani

2013-01-01

95

Factors That Affect Chinese EFL Learner's Acquisition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is concerned with factors affecting Chinese English-as-Second-Language (ESL) learner's acquisition in the Department of Foreign Languages at Tianjin Institute of Technology. These factors, which include language shock, culture differences, culture background knowledge, motivation, and ego permeability, create psychological distance…

Wang, Zhigang

96

Affective Productions of Mathematical Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

In underscoring the affective elements of mathematics experience, we work with contemporary readings of the work of Spinoza on the politics of affect, to understand what is included in the cognitive repertoire of the Subject. We draw on those resources to tell a pedagogical tale about the relation between cognition and affect in settings of…

Walshaw, Margaret; Brown, Tony

2012-01-01

97

A Survey on Factors Affecting on Consumer’s Potential Willingness to Pay for Organic Products in Iran (A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study determined factors influencing on consumer’s potential willingness to pay for organic products in Iran. Data collected with filling 240 questionnaires in 2006 from Mashhad’s households and analyzed using Tobit model. Results showed that product appearance and measure of consumers’ information is effective on willingness to pay for organic products. In addition, consumers’ anxieties from chemical residue in nutrition have positive effect on willingness to pay for these products. Also, results showed that household’s education level has negative effect on willingness to pay for organic products. encourage of consumers to organic products consumption, encourage farmers to produce organic products and without any chemical material and make sustainable marketing for organic products, increasing the households awareness about organic products, expansion of organic product cultivation, government payment for supporting of producers suggested.

M. Ghorbani

2009-01-01

98

Factors affecting Internet development: An Asian survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the relationship between the Internet development and various social, economic and political factors that are hypothesized to affect the Internet growth. Using secondary data for 28 sampled Asian countries, this study tested seven hypotheses about the impact of various factors on Internet growth. The findings show that the Internet penetration is related to a country’s wealth, telecommunication infrastructure, urbanization and stability of the government, but not related...

Xiaoming, Hao; Kay, Chow

2004-01-01

99

Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and...

Supangco, Vivien T.

2001-01-01

100

CLIL Learning: Achievement Levels and Affective Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully pupils had learned content in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and to assess pupils' affective learning factors, such as motivation and self-esteem, in CLIL. Learning was presented in terms of achievement level, which was described as the relationship between measured levels…

Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Factors Affecting Smoking Tendency and Smoking Intensity  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…

David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben

2009-01-01

102

Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability  

Science.gov (United States)

The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

2011-01-01

103

Factors affecting the production of seeds in fully fertile tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill. and those showing a tendency to parthenocarpy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparative studies on the development of the female gametophyte, pollination and fertilization in two lines of Lycopersicon esculentum, Kholodostoykye (Kh, fertile and A33 (with a tendency to parthenocarpy have revealed that seed production is affected by disturbances in embryo sac formation but mainly by its degeneration after anthesis, which is especially visible in line A33. Moreover, delayed development of some embryo sacs and incomplete pollination due to various stigma levels seem to be responsible for the diminution of seed number in line A33. Deep fluorescence of numerous pollen grains as well as whole pollen tubes in 83.3 per cent of A33 stigmas and only 24.1 per cent in the Kh line points to the heterogeneity of pollen. This could be one more reason for reduced fertility. The results of application of plant growth regulators (auxin, PCIB which affect seed production in tomato of line A33 remain inconclusive.

Barbara Gabara

1985-09-01

104

Factors affecting beam shape and quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The beam shape and quality are affected by hash, ripple, ion intensity distribution and geometrical and operational factors. Hash, which was found to be localized mainly at the sides of the beam (parasitic divergence ?), must be stopped by an appropriate diapharam to improve the image quality. The magnitude of ? is strongly dependent on the relative hash. Of all the source parameters, the magnetic field is the dominant factor in determining hash. Ripple in the cathode or arc power supplies of the source leads to a modulation of the beam divergence and consequently to an apparant increase of ?. The main result is an equivalent loss of transmission when ? is eliminated. Installing effective filters in the cathode and arc supplies of the MEIRA separator reduce the ripple by a factor of 10. Other factors found to increase the value of ? for long emission slits were faulty alignment of the electrode with the emission slit and non-uniform current density along this slit. Factors affecting ion current density distribution along the slit are described. Preliminary results are given concerning the variation of features of the divergence curve with operational parameters. (Auth.)

105

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of ...

Awases, Magdalene H.; Bezuidenhout, Marthie C.; Roos, Janetta H.

2013-01-01

106

Analysis and Measurement of Buildability Factors Affecting Edge Formwork  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Labour productivity is affected by several factors, but buildability is among the most important. Nevertheless, a thoroughexamination of the literature revealed a dearth of research into the influence of buildability factors on labour productivityof in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Although edge formwork is an importantlabour intensive activity, most often, its labour cost is either crudely estimated or lumped within the formwork cost of othera...

Jarkas, A. M.

2010-01-01

107

Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooper...

Rubporn Kittivachra; Rommanee Sanguandeekul; Rungpetch Sakulbumrungsil; Penphimon Phongphanphanee

2007-01-01

108

EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having th...

Yu-Jia Hu

2012-01-01

109

Factors Affecting E-Service Satisfaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

User satisfaction is an important predictor of online consumer behavior and the success of a web-based system. If customers are satisfied with the services received through the online system, it is likely they will keep using the system. To examine factors affecting user satisfaction with e-services, a questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of (615) students out of (5918) at Petra University in Jordan to explore their perceptions. Regression analysis was conducted to test the hypoth...

Mohammed Mufaddy Al-Kasasbeh; Subhasish Dasgupta; Abeer Hmoud AL-Faouri

2011-01-01

110

How Employee Turnover Affects Productivity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Research on employee turnover suggests that turnover results in negative organization-level outcomes. This paper provides a firm-level analysis of the impact of the in- and outflows of human resources on productivity and how the presence of organizational slack resources moderates the effects of employee turnover. Drawing on a unique longitudinal dataset of 2,926 Danish manufacturing firms that combine individual-level data with firm-level data, the paper shows that job turnover has a substantial negative effect on total productivity but that the firm’s size, its capital intensity, and its age moderate this effect so that the negative consequences of employee turnover are less severe for larger, older and capital intensive firms. These moderating variables indicate the presence of slack resources in the firm, and thus that the accumulation of slack reduces the efficiency losses from employee turnover.

Eriksen, Bo

111

From Perceptions to Practice: Factors Affecting Recast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review study was motivated by a debate about the role of recast in L2 learning. Recast is the most frequent type of feedback but probably the least effective one. While some researchers have criticized it as inefficient, others have supported it as an unobtrusive type of feedback especially useful during interactive activities. This review of studies on recast helps pinpoint the factors contributing to the effectiveness of recast. In this regard, two factors were found to have a determining role; saliency and learners’ proficiency level. Saliency concerns the noticeability of recast by learners. Different factors affect saliency including shortness of recast, added-stress on the erroneous part, number of corrections, and the focus of recast. On the other hand, the results of studies confirm the role of proficiency. In other words, proficient learners are more likely to notice their errors using recast even when it is insalient.

Sajjad Sepehrinia

2011-08-01

112

FACTORS AFFECTING THE SPORT RELATED CONSUMER EXPENDITURES  

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Full Text Available In recent years there has been a significant change in the importance given to economic and social role of sport related economic activities since sport has changed to a much broader concept involving sport clubs, associations, organizations and businesses where the implementation of carefully designed marketing strategies became vital for success. This study aims to explore the factors affecting the sport related consumer expenditures. Empirical results were obtained by means of a questionnaire survey in Izmir, the third biggest city in Turkey. The results include demographic and socio-economic analysis of respondents, their practices about sport related activities and expenditures associated with these activities. Six factors were obtained from the factor analysis depending on the respondents’ attitudes towards sporting activities were examined for their effects on sport related expenditures of the consumers.

Aykan CANDEM?R

2012-01-01

113

Factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry [...] matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistical analyses involved the application of descriptive and dispersion measures besides Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. The analyzed variables were highly correlated with feed efficiency. The feed efficiency of lactating goats was affected by the milk fat correction, dry matter digestibility, dietary fiber content, proportion of roughage in the diet and body weight. Among these factors, standardization of the milk fat appeared to be the most efficient in correcting the feed efficiency in lactating goats. Correction of some of these factors implies greater precision in the measurement of feed efficiency.

Tadeu Silva de, Oliveira; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; Cássio José da, Silva; Danielle Ferreira, Baffa; José Carlos, Pereira; Joanis Tilemahos, Zervoudakis.

2014-10-01

114

Factors Affecting Hydrogen Production from Cassava Wastewater by a Co-Culture of Anaerobic Sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Series of batch experiments were used to investigate the effects of environmental factors i.e., total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations, initial pH, illumination pattern and stirring conditions on hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by a co-culture of anaerobic sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum. The maximum of the hydrogen yield of 150.46 and 340.19 mL g-COD-1 was obtained at the total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations of 0.2 and 0.04 M, respecti...

Alissara Reungsang; Suksaman Sangyoka; Pawinee Chaiprasert; Tsuyoshi Imai

2007-01-01

115

AN OVERVIEW ON FACTORS AFFECTING GLOBAL HRM  

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Full Text Available The mounting economic interdependence of countries globally through rising volume and multiplicity of cross border transactions in goods and services and international capital flows, and also through the more rapid and prevalent diffusion of technology had influences organizations that compete for customers with high expectations for performance, quality, and cost. The globe trade and industry order is changing speedily. Evolutionary transformations are taking place at revolutionary speed, principally pressed by strong external forces, arising out of a desire to rising competitiveness and competence. The organizations of world are no longer defined by national boundaries. Globalization also put forth stress on the Human Resource Management (HRM function to adjust to changing organizational needs, add greater value and hence, HRM is especially involved with those employees who are working across national boundaries in multinational or global enterprises. Functioning on an international level entails that the assumption of a universality of HR policies and practices and the faith in to administer in one best way has become indefensible. Aglobal organization wishes a worldwide HRM system that features decision making from a global point of view, managers from across national boundaries, and thoughts contributed by people from a diversity of cultures. The participants from different countries and cultures contribute ideas from a position of equality, rather than the home country's culture dominating. Organizations that function in more than one country must be acquainted with the countries that are not identical and differ in terms of many factors. This present research paper is an attempt to reviews major factors affecting HRM. The intention of this study is to examine the challenges/factors affecting the role of HRM.

G. G. Gondane

2014-09-01

116

Factors Affecting Electricity Demand in Jordan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 1 The paper examines the relationship between electricity demand and climate/non-climate related factors using statistical regression analysis. 2 It focuses on the environmental, demographic, policy (energy pricing and technological factors as the main factors affecting the consumption pattern in Jordan. 3 The paper also presents the variations occurred in the electricity demand over the period 1994-2008. The variations that are observed during the period of study are: Shifting of the peak load occurrence from evening to morning period, Modification in the annual daily load curve especially in winter season, Variation in relationship between space temperature and demand especially in winter, and dramatic increase in electric generation after year 2003. The shift in peak load from evening to morning period is mainly due to technological factor as a result of wide use of the air conditions in houses, services and government offices for cooling in summer instead of ordinary air fans. The variations in consumption pattern between 2000 and 2007 are mainly associated with economic, social and demographic factors. The high demand at lower space temperature is governed by introducing new appliances for heating in winter as a result of low electricity pricing comparing with gasoline price. The dramatic increase in electric generation after 2003 is probably due to demographic factors as a result of high growth of population after the Gulf war II. 4 The correlation between the daily maximum loads in morning and evening periods with the differential temperature (?T above 20?C threshold in summer and below 15?C threshold in winter, shows pronounced changes in 2007 compared with year 2000. The regression tests show that a decrease of 1?C below 15?C threshold in winter 1 increases the morning demand by only 2 MW/?C in 2000 and 16.7 MW/?C in 2007, 2 decreases the evening peak by ?2.6 MW/1?C in 2000 and increases the evening peak by 22.9 MW/1?C in 2007. Results show that the demographic, technological, environmental and national energy pricing factors play a vital rule in consumption pattern in Jordan. Moreover, the paper reveals that planners and decision makers should be careful when applying new tariff in the developing countries such as Jordan.

Mohammad Awad Momani

2013-01-01

117

An experiment on the factors affecting simple reaction time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reaction time is considered as an important measure that affects performance of an individual both in business and private life. Especially, reaction time, which can be defined as a period of time being required for giving appropriate responses to the perceived stimuli, is an important factor in terms of efficiency of organization and also health and safety at work. Moreover, reaction time is regarded as an important factor in product design. In this study, an experiment is designed to reveal the factors that affect simple reaction time and the effects of (discrete / continuous variables such as age, height, weight, gender, sight defects, smoking and alcohol use, regular habits of sports and academic achievement on reaction time of individuals are investigated, and the findings are interpreted.

Hale Akkocao?lu

2013-10-01

118

EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

Yu-Jia Hu

2012-01-01

119

Factors affecting sporoplasm release in Kudoa septempunctata.  

Science.gov (United States)

The myxosporean parasite Kudoa septempunctata has been isolated from cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and was recently identified as a cause of food poisoning in humans. Since the sporoplasm plays an important role in causing diarrhea by invading intestinal cells, the specific factors affecting the release of sporoplasm from spores should be determined. Thus, we investigated the effect of digestive and serum enzymes, fetal bovine serum (FBS), temperature, and the role of glucose in cell culture media on the release of sporoplasm. Sporoplasm release was observed in the groups treated with FBS and media containing glucose. In addition, 1,10-phenanthroline inhibited the release of sporoplasm in the FBS medium. These results indicate that K. septempunctata uses glucose for releasing its sporoplasm and that zinc or metalloprotease is related to the release mechanism. The present study provides important information for the development of agents to prevent sporoplasm release and the consequent food poisoning caused by K. septempunctata. PMID:25563617

Shin, Sang Phil; Zenke, Kosuke; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi

2015-02-01

120

Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

 
 
 
 
121

Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

Clarissa C. David

2014-12-01

122

Factors affecting hydrocarbon removal by air stripping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper includes an overview of the theory of air stripping design considerations and the factors affecting stripper performance. Effects of temperature, contaminant characteristics, stripping tower geometry and air/water ratios on removal performance are discussed. The discussion includes treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as TCE and PCE. Control of VOC emissions from air strippers has become a major concern in recent years, due to more stringent restrictions on air quality in many areas. This paper includes an overview of available technology to control air emissions (including activated carbon adsorption, catalytic oxidation and steam stripping) and the effects of air emission control on overall efficiency of the treatment process. The paper includes an overview of the relative performance of various packing materials for air strippers and explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of comparative packing materials. Field conditions affecting selection of packing materials are also discussed. Practical guidelines for the design of air stripping systems are presented, as well as actual case studies of full-scale air stripping projects

123

Factors affecting dwell times on digital displaying  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of exploratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of advanced display formats and display media on pilot scanning behavior using Langley's oculometer, a desktop flight simulator, a conventional electro-mechanical meter, and various digital displays. The primary task was for the test subject to maintain level flight, on a specific course heading, during moderate turbulence. A secondary task of manually controlling the readout of a display was used to examine the effects of the display format on a subject's scan behavior. Secondary task scan parameters that were evaluated were average dwell time, dwell time histograms, and number of dwells per meter change. The round dial meter demonstrated shorter dwell times and fewer dwells per meter change than the digital displays. The following factors affected digital display scanning behavior: (1) the number of digits; (2) the update rate of the digits; (3) the display media; and (4) the character font. The size of the digits used in these tests (0.28 to 0.50 inches) did not affect scan behavior measures.

Williams, A. J.; Harris, R. L., Sr.

1985-01-01

124

Factors affecting the microstructure of porous ceramics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, porous ceramics were produced by using two methods: the polymeric sponge and foam method. Astudy of the effect of viscosity on the characteristics of the final product produced using the polymeric sponge method revealed that the microstructure of porous ceramics is highly affected by the viscosity of the slurry. The optimal ratio between porosity and the strength of the porous material was achieved by subsequently repeating the immersing and drying processes. Astudy of the porous material obtained using the foam method revealed that the pore size and foam volume can be controlled by varying the amounts of anhydride and thermal blowing agent. The problem related to foam collapsing was solved by using a thermal blowing agent. The microstructure of the samples was characterized by SEM.

DUSAN TRIPKOVIC

2006-03-01

125

FACTORS AFFECTING PHARMACOKINETIC DISPOSITION OF DRUGS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is a complex process the variability of which is influenced by many physicochemical and physiologic factors. The two most important physicochemical factors that affect both the extent and the rate of absorption are lipophilicity and solubility. The rate and extent of absorption are governed by the solubility, permeability and stability of the drug, with solubility being a pH-dependent parameter for weak acids and bases. The gastrointestinal tract can be viewed as discrete sections with a variety of differential local pH environments ranging from the acidic stomach to the more basic small intestine. The multiple peaking, double peaking or secondary peaking phenomena can occur in the disposition of a variety of xenobiotics during drug development (the pre-clinical phase and in subsequent clinical studies and use. The physicochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence of this phenomenon are often multi factorial and include but are not limited to solubility-limited absorption, modified-release formulations, complexation, enterohepatic recirculation, gastric emptying and the intestinal transit time, site-specific absorption, gastric secretion-enteral reabsorption. Double peak absorption has been described with several orally administered drugs such as cimetidine furosemide, piroxicam, ranitidine, talinolol, alprazolam and phenazopyridine.

Mehta Hiren R

2011-05-01

126

Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

Marius Liutvinavi?ius

2013-08-01

127

Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

Virgilijus Sakalauskas

2011-12-01

128

Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

G. Biscontin

2006-01-01

129

Analysis and Measurement of Buildability Factors Affecting Edge Formwork  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Labour productivity is affected by several factors, but buildability is among the most important. Nevertheless, a thoroughexamination of the literature revealed a dearth of research into the influence of buildability factors on labour productivityof in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Although edge formwork is an importantlabour intensive activity, most often, its labour cost is either crudely estimated or lumped within the formwork cost of otheractivities. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate and quantify the effects and relative influence of the followingbuildability factors on its labour productivity: (a depth of slab being edge-formed; (b slab geometric factor; and (ctype of formwork material used. To achieve this objective, a sufficiently large volume of productivity data was collected andanalyzed using the multiple categorical-regression method. As a result, the effects and relative influence of the buildabilityfactors investigated are determined. The findings show significant effects of these factors on edge formwork labour productivity,which can be used to provide designers feedback on how well their designs consider the requirements of buildabilityprinciples, and the consequences of their decisions on labour efficiency. On the other hand, the depicted patterns of resultsmay provide guidance to construction managers for effective activity planning and efficient labour utilization.

A. M. Jarkas

2010-01-01

130

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors inf [...] luencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. METHOD: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. RESULTS: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

Magdalene H., Awases; Marthie C., Bezuidenhout; Janetta H., Roos.

2013-01-01

131

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

Magdalene H. Awases

2013-01-01

132

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

Magdalene H. Awases

2013-04-01

133

Factors that affect toilet training in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To identify age of initiation of toilet training and affecting factors for children. Material and Methods: 861 children were included in this study. "Chi square test", "Mann-Whitney U Test" and "Kruskall-Wallis Variance Analysis" statistical analysis methods have been applied. Ethical permission has been provided by local ethical committee. Results: 861 children under age of five were evaluated in this study (average age was 4±0.9; 433 children were boy (50.3%, 428 children were girl (49.7%. Age of initiation of toilet training was younger than 1 years old for 45 children (5.2%, between 13-18 month for 223 children (25.9%, between 19-24 month for 307 children (35.7%, between 25-30 month for 201 children (23.3% and older than 30 month for 85 children (9.9%. That families who live below hunger threshold and small families initiate toilet training earlier that other families were determined (p=0.001. Children in 19-24 month have shorter duration of toilet training than other groups (p<0.05. That children who live in shanty have longer duration of toilet training than children who live in apartment were determined (p=0,031. That 219 children (25.4% who had faced traumatic experiences which may affect training process, recently have longer duration of toilet training than other children (p=0,008. Duration of the training is shorter for f amilies who did not use toilet training methods than families who used methods. Conclusion: In our study, we found that age of initiation of toilet training is smaller for children who belong to family which has low level of income and small families. Duration of training is the longer for children whose initiation of toilet training was earlier than 18 month and later than 30 month, live in shanty, faced traumatic experiences.

Serdar Önen

2012-01-01

134

Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Ba?kent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

Gül P?nar

2009-01-01

135

Factors affecting liver uptake of gallium-67  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From our clinical experience, we have suggested that the absence of liver uptake during Ga-67 scintigraphy was mainly due to markedly decreased unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC). We have succeeded in producing a rat model of absent liver uptake by administration of iron and vincristine to markedly decrease UIBC. However, the possibility of decreased liver uptake of Ga-67 due to liver dysfunction caused by these drugs can not be denied, so we performed further experiments. The changes of uptake by liver and other tissues, and UIBC induced by administration of apotransferrin (ATF) and deferoxamine (DEF) before the second scan were determined. The abscess uptake of Ga-67 during the absence of liver uptake was also determined. The administration of ATF one day before the second scan made liver uptake recover to almost normal levels and UIBC recover considerably. No recovery was produced by administration of DEF. The mechanism of Ga-67 uptake in various tissues is not completely clear. The theory that the amount of strage iron in the liver affects liver uptake has been proposed. The possibility is also suggested that antineoplastic agents may damage the synthesis of transferrin (TF) and intracellular Ga-67 carrier molecules, and/or block TF receptors in the hepatocyte to decrease liver uptake. The fact that liver uptake recovered rapidly after administration of ATF refutes these hypotheses, at least in vivo, and serum UIBC level is the decisive factor in liver uptakevel is the decisive factor in liver uptake of Ga-67. The lack of significant decrease in abscess uptake of Ga-67 during the absence of liver uptake may suggest that the pathway to the abscesses is different from that to the liver. (author)

136

Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With all the advances in professionalism, methods, technology, and human resource training, we should have seen an increase in productivity. However, this has not happened and the construction industry is losing the battle to be competitive and has instead become a high-cost, low-productivity sector. By applying the theory that insufficient cooperation is the result of low trust the aim was to investigate how conditions for formation of positive and lasting trustful relationships can be created. A questionnaire survey including clients, contractors, architects, engineers and client design advisor was carried out. The analysis showed that the ability to be trustful can be developed through the experience of different factors (e.g. control mechanisms, mutual respect, repeated cooperation, shared understanding and communication). Furthermore, the ability to trust other parties depends on knowledge of others' skillsets. Interdisciplinary collaboration through education would limit the formation of negative stereotypes and the overall trust level increases, due to more and better knowledge of other disciplines.

Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; HaugbØlle, Kim

2013-01-01

137

Some Environmental Factors Affecting on Growth Characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Live weights, weight gains and some body measurements at different ages of Eastern Anatolian Red Cattle (EAR were determined and some environmental factors affecting on these traits were investigated. The effect of dam’s age on the birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01. Although the lowest birth weight was obtained from calves of dams at the 3 years of age, the highest birth weight was obtained from calves given birth by cows at the 5 years of age. The males had heavier live weights and weight gains at different ages than the females. The effect of the sex on the live weights except for 9 and 12 months weights was found as highly significant (P<0.01. Feeding of the calves with different amount of milk had significant (P<0.01 influence on the 3, 6 and 9 months weights as well as weight gains. The effect of the years on the daily weight gains in EAR was also highly significant (P<0.01. The results shows the importance of the environmental effects on the traits studied and revealed that there is need for them to be corrected prior to the improvement studies.

N. Tuzemen

2007-01-01

138

Factors affecting small axial cooling fan performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Many factors such as outer diameter, hub ratio, blade numbers, shape and stagger angle affect the performance of small cooling fans. A small cooling fan was simulated using CFD software for three blade stagger angles (30.5°, 37.5°, 44.5°)and obtained the internal flow field and the static characteristics. Research indicated that the stagger angle has an obvious effect on the static characteristics of a fan. For flow rates below 0.0104 m3/s, total pressure is the greatest when the stagger angle is 37.5°; flow rates higher than 0.0104 m3/s, the total pressure is greatest when the stagger angle is 44.5° For the same flow rates, the velocity at inlet of pressure surface increases with increasing stagger angle, but the change of velocity on the suction surface is very small. For one model, vortices and the speed of revolution surfaces decrease with tip clearance increasing. But for other three models, increasing the stagger angle, the vortex intensity and speed of revolution surfaces at same height tip clearance increases, simultaneously, the position of vortex offset from the top of the rotor blade to the suction surface.

Wang, Lihong; Jin, Yingzi; Cui, Baoling; Jin, Yuzhen; Lin, Jin; Wang, Yanping; Wu, Chuanyu

2010-04-01

139

Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP. METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age of the patients (older or younger than 50 years old and polyp size (bigger or smaller than 10 mm and characteristics of the polyps (pseudopolyp or real polyps. ?2 tests were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. RESULTS: The median age was 50 (26-85 years and 91 of patients were female. Of 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy with GP diagnosis, only 99 had a histopathologically defined polyp; 77 of them had pseudopolyps and 22 had true polyps. Twenty-one patients had adenocarcinoma. Of these 21 patients, 11 were male, their median age was 61 (40-85 years and all malignant polyps had diameters > 10 mm (P 10 mm, 22 had true polyps. The sensitivity of USG was 84.6% for polyps with diameters > 10 mm (P 10 mm.

Pinar Sarkut

2013-01-01

140

Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044. The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

Rubporn Kittivachra

2007-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

Does Labour Diversity affect Firm Productivity?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a matched employer-employee dataset, we analyze how workforce diversity in cultural background, education and demographic characteristics affects productivity of firms in Denmark. Implementing a structural estimation of the firms' production function (Ackerberg et al., 2006) we find that labor diversity in education significantly enhances a firm's value added. Conversely, diversity in ethnicity and demographics induces negative effects on firm productivity. Hence, the negative effects, coming from communication and integration costs connected to a more culturally and demographically diverse workforce, seem to outweigh the positive effects coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers.

Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

2011-01-01

142

Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were used to divide the metabolites into the following three groups: 1) correlated to growth, 2) correlated to color formation, and 3) formed at high pH. Subsequently, a full factorial experiment with factors P, Mg and Cu, showed that low P concentrations (2000 mg/kg) induced yellow color formation. Among the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the yellow discoloration phenomenon observed in the dairy industry.

Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.

2002-01-01

143

Factors affecting thermally induced furan formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Furan, a potential carcinogen, can be induced by heat from sugars, ascorbic acid, and fatty acids. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of pH, phosphate, temperature, and heating time on furan formation. Heat-induced furan formation from free sugars, ascorbic acid, and linoleic acid was profoundly affected by pH and the presence of phosphate. In general, the presence of phosphate increased furan formation in solutions of sugars and ascorbic acid. In a linoleic acid emulsion, phosphate increased the formation of furan at pH 6 but not at pH 3. When an ascorbic acid solution was heated, higher amounts of furan were produced at pH 3 than at pH 6 regardless of phosphate's presence. However, in linoleic acid emulsion, more furan was produced at pH 6 than at pH 3. The highest amount of furan was formed from the linoleic acid emulsion at pH 6. In fresh apple cider, a product with free sugars as the major components (besides water) and little fatty acids, ascorbic acid, or phosphate, small or very low amounts of furan was formed by heating at 90-120 degrees C for up to 10 min. The results indicated that free sugars may not lead to significant amounts of furan formation under conditions for pasteurization and sterilization. Importantly, this is the first report demonstrating that phosphate (in addition to pH) plays a significant role in thermally induced furan formation. PMID:18811167

Fan, Xuetong; Huang, Lihan; Sokorai, Kimberly J B

2008-10-22

144

Factors That Affect Body Mass Index of Adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the factors that contribute to the body mass index (BMI of adults and evaluate the eating habits of the individuals. The study was conducted on 498 adults whose ages were ranging from 20 to 85 (39.1±14.9 year. The data were collected using a questionnaire form that consisted of questions concerning general characteristics of individuals, frequency of food consumption and eating habits. Food types in the food consumption frequency were grouped together according to Nutrition Guide for Turkey. Body weights and heights of the individuals were measured. BMI of the 55% of the individuals participated in the study is 25 or higher than 25. The average BMI of the individuals differs according to age, educational, marital, smoking status, parity and sleep duration (p0.05. A statistically significant correlation was found between BMI of participants and their habit of eating at night, appetite and use of sweeteners (p<0.05. Individuals with BMI<25 were determined to have a lower consumption frequency of milk and dairy products and fruits-vegetables monthly (p<0.05. In this study; age, educational, marital, smoking status and sleep duration were found to affect body mass index. Analysis of genetic and environmental factors affecting obesity is required to reveal the factors affecting body mass index of individuals more clearly.

Esma Asil

2014-01-01

145

Factsheet 2: Factors affecting waste generation  

Oct 1, 2008 ... undertaken by students on the Course „Environmental Control and Public Health\\?. The ... Both the quantities and composition of waste were affected by a .... \\disposable nappies was clearly dependent on whether or not infant ...

146

How do organizational factors affect compliance?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis qualitatively covers how and why leadership, competence, responsibility and contractors influence compliance with procedures, and whether or not there are other factors that may potentially influence these organizational factors and the relationship between them.The theoretical approach in this thesis is based on an MTO perspective in regards to assessing factors that may influence leadership, competence, responsibility, contractors and compliance. Compliance with procedures is re...

Skaugrud, Ida

2011-01-01

147

Epidemiological factors affecting low birth weight  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was conducted to determine the epidemiological factors influencing low birth weight. The prominent factors associated with low birth weight (LBW) such as maternal age, parity, obstetric and maternal anthropometry were studied in a rural community of district Dehradun. The average birth weight of all newborns was 2.67± 0.42 kg and 23.84% of newborns were LBW. The factors which were significant for LBW were antenatal care, parity, inter-pregnancy interval, gestati...

K S Negi, S. D. Kandpal

2006-01-01

148

Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service syste [...] m such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT) and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - 'wireless internet' and 'mobile applications' - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

Youngmo, Kang; Mingook, Lee; Sungjoo, Lee.

2014-07-01

149

Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service system such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - ‘wireless internet’ and ‘mobile applications’ - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

Youngmo Kang

2014-06-01

150

Optimization of physical factors affecting the production of thermo-stable organic solvent-tolerant protease from a newly isolated halo tolerant Bacillus subtilis strain Rand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Many researchers have reported on the optimization of protease production; nevertheless, only a few have reported on the optimization of the production of organic solvent-tolerant proteases. Ironically, none has reported on thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease to date. The aim of this study was to isolate the thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease and identify the culture conditions which support its production. The bacteria of genus Bacillus are active producers of extra-cellular proteases, and the thermostability of enzyme production by Bacillus species has been well-studied by a number of researchers. In the present study, the Bacillus subtilis strain Rand was isolated from the contaminated soil found in Port Dickson, Malaysia. Results A thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease producer had been identified as Bacillus subtilis strain Rand, based on the 16S rRNA analysis conducted, as well as the morphological characteristics and biochemical properties. The production of the thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease was optimized by varying various physical culture conditions. Inoculation with 5.0% (v/v of (AB600 = 0.5 inoculum size, in a culture medium (pH 7.0 and incubated for 24 h at 37°C with 200 rpm shaking, was the best culture condition which resulted in the maximum growth and production of protease (444.7 U/ml; 4042.4 U/mg. The Rand protease was not only stable in the presence of organic solvents, but it also exhibited a higher activity than in the absence of organic solvent, except for pyridine which inhibited the protease activity. The enzyme retained 100, 99 and 80% of its initial activity, after the heat treatment for 30 min at 50, 55, and 60°C, respectively. Conclusion Strain Rand has been found to be able to secrete extra-cellular thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease into the culture medium. The protease exhibited a remarkable stability towards temperature and organic solvent. This unique property makes it attractive and useful to be used in industrial applications.

Salleh Abu

2009-04-01

151

Key weather extremes affecting potato production in The Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The possible impact of climate change on frequency and severity of weather extremes is hotly debated among climate scientists. Weather extremes can have a significant impact on agricultural production, but their effect is often unclear; this due to interaction with other factors that affect yield and due to lack of precise definitions of relevant weather extremes. We show that an empirical analysis of historical yields can help to identifying such rare, high impact climate events. A reconstru...

Oort, P. A. J.; Timmermans, B. G. H.; Meinke, H.; Ittersum, M. K.

2012-01-01

152

Some Factors Affecting the Production of Carotenoids by <i>Rhodotorula glutinis</i> var. <i>glutinis</i>  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new yeast strain isolated from pin cushion flower (Scabiosa atropurpura) in our laboratory was selected from 200 yeast isolates as carotenoids producer and identified as Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis. The selected isolate was grown in synthetic medium to study the effect of carbon to nitrogen ratio, sources of nitrogen and carbon, mineral salts and incubation temperature on carotenoids production. The results indicated the following optimal conditions: carbon to nitrogen ratio of 5, am...

El-banna, Amr A.; Abd El-razek, Amal M.; El-mahdy, Ahmed R.

2012-01-01

153

Environmental factors affect efficacy of some essential oils and resveratrol to control growth and ochratoxin A production by Penicillium verrucosum and Aspergillus westerdijkiae on wheat grain.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study determined the efficacy of three essential oils (bay, clove and cinnamon oil) and the antioxidant resveratrol (0–500 ?g g?1) on the control of growth and ochratoxin A (OTA) production by Penicillium verrucosum and Aspergillus westerdijkiae (=A. ochraceus) under different water activity (aw, 0.90, 0.95, 0.995), and temperature (15, 25 °C) conditions on irradiated wheat grain. The most effective treatment (resveratrol) was then tested on natural grain. The ED50 values for growt...

Aldred, David; Cairns-fuller, Victoria; Magan, Naresh

2008-01-01

154

The Effects of Affective Factors in SLA and Pedagogical Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Affective factors are the most important factors in SLA and English teaching. These factors include emotion, feeling, mood, manner, attitude and so on. All these factors, especially, motivation, self-confidence and anxiety, decide the input and output of the second language. Under the guidance of the Affective Filter Hypothesis proposed by Krashen, the present paper makes a survey on advanced English majors. By collecting and analyzing research data, some useful results and implications have been found and can be used in future teaching. The affective factors will surely help the teachers to improve their teaching quality and students to cultivate an all-round development.

Hui Ni

2012-07-01

155

Factors Affecting Quality of Life Following Stroke  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stroke is a chronic and important health problem affecting all aspects of an individual’s life. Neurological impairment resulting from stroke leads to functional disability in patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of age, gender, duration of stroke and side of hemiplegia on the quality of life and the correlation between disability indices and the quality of life. Sixty-eight patients followed by the Stroke Policlinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Departmen...

Peker, Ozlen; Avcilar, Soner; Soylev, Gozde Ozcan; El, Ozlem; Senocak, Ozlem

2008-01-01

156

Factors affecting levodopa effects in Parkinson's disease.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Levodopa is the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD because of its outstanding clinical efficacy. However, the majority of patients experience various adverse reactions, including the wearing-off phenomenon, the on-off phenomenon, dyskinesia and psychiatric symptoms. The response to levodopa depends not only on the intrinsic responsiveness of the patients, but also on various other important factors including the type of levodopa preparation, its absorption/metabolism, the blood-brain barrier, age at onset of disease and concomitant use of anti-parkinsonian drugs. This review summarizes factors which influence the effects of levodopa in PD. To minimize levodopa-induced adverse reactions and to relieve long-term parkinsonian symptoms, levodopa therapy should be conducted by taking these factors into consideration.

Ogawa N

2000-06-01

157

Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

Felicity Murphy

1998-11-01

158

Key factors affecting on bio-hydrogen production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste and kitchen wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of sludge residence time (SRT) and dilution ratio (DR) on the continuous H2 production (HP) from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and kitchen wastewater (KWW) via mesophilic anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was investigated. Increasing DR from 1:2 to 1:3 significantly (Pfermentation facilitated carbohydrate, lipids, protein and volatile solids removal efficiencies of 87±5.8%, 74.3±9.12%, 76.4±11.3% and 84.8±4.1%, respectively. PMID:24656489

Tawfik, Ahmed; El-Qelish, Mohamed

2014-09-01

159

Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

160

Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management) scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response) and environmental (physical envi...

Nitzke Susan; Brown Roger; Chang Mei-Wei

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

The Direct and Indirect Factors on Affecting Organizational Sustainability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Successful firms pursue organizational sustainability. The aim of this study is to explore the direct and indirect factors affecting on organizational sustainability. Indirect factors being those that first influence competitive advantage, and then affecting organizational sustainability. This study analyzes 145 articles retrieved from the SDOL (Science Driect Online) database that were published between 2009 and January 2013. Papers were retrieved using ‘organizational sustainability’...

Meng-Shan Tsai; Meng-Chen Tsai; Chi-Cheng Chang

2013-01-01

162

Factors which affect fatigue strength of fasteners  

Science.gov (United States)

Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue failure and design parameters of fasteners for axial and bending cyclic load conditions. This paper reviews the factors which influence the fatigue strength of low alloy steel threaded fasteners, identifies those most significant to fatigue strength, and provides design guidelines based on the direct evaluation of fatigue tests of threaded fasteners. Influences on fatigue strength of thread manufacturing process (machining and rolling of threads), effect of fastener membrane and bending stresses, thread root radii, fastener sizes, fastener tensile strength, stress relaxation, mean stress, and test temperature are discussed.

Skochko, G. W.; Herrmann, T. P.

1992-11-01

163

Bioprosthetic valve endocarditis: factors affecting bad outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remains an uncommon but serious complication of cardiac valve replacement. We analysed several risk factors (active or healed, early or late endocarditis, congestive heart failure, arterial emboli etc.) in order to identify the factors which may predict bad outcome. The overall mortality rate was 46.8% (15/32 patients). There was a significantly higher mortality rate in patients with early endocarditis (80%) than in those with late endocarditis (38%) (p less than 0.01). In the group of patients who underwent reoperation, the mortality rate was higher in those with active endocarditis (70%) than in those with healed endocarditis (28.5%) (p less than 0.05). We believe that combined medical and surgical treatment is the best management for bioprosthetic valve endocarditis, with the institution of appropriate preoperative antibiotic therapy, to attempt to achieve sterilization. PMID:1752903

Gagliardi, C; Di Tommaso, L; Mastroroberto, P; Stassano, P; Spampinato, N

1991-01-01

164

Internal factors affecting the jury members verdict  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence, the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.

Kalashnikova A.S.

2013-09-01

165

Econometrics Analysis on Factors Affecting Student Achievement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: This study aims to identify school-level variables that influence academic outcomes, and to determine the extent of their influence. Using state-level panel data, this study estimates a simple achievement function to explore the nexus between three identified factors (percentage of students eligible for reduced/free lunch program, school enrolment and per-pupil expenditure) and student achievement (percentage of satisfactory of 4th...

Yueyi Sun

2014-01-01

166

Factors affecting levodopa effects in Parkinson's disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Levodopa is the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) because of its outstanding clinical efficacy. However, the majority of patients experience various adverse reactions, including the wearing-off phenomenon, the on-off phenomenon, dyskinesia and psychiatric symptoms. The response to levodopa depends not only on the intrinsic responsiveness of the patients, but also on various other important factors including the type of levodopa preparation, its absorption/metabolism,...

Ogawa N

2000-01-01

167

FACTORS AFFECTING VASECTOMY ACCEPTABILITY IN ETHIOPIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is one of the most effective but less utilized types of contraception method which could addresses the involvement of males to the family planning. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the awareness about and practice of men towards vasectomy among workers in Dashen brewery, Ethiopia. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using pre tested self-administered questioner to assess the Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with low utilization of vas...

E Admasu, Negalign Chekol

2013-01-01

168

Systematic factors that affect ostrich egg incubation traits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock maintained at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate environmental and genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), water loss of incubated eggs up to 21 days (WL21), water loss up to 35 days (WL35), pipping time (PT) and weight of day-old chicks (C [...] WT). Between 13806 and 19913 artificially incubated ostrich eggs during the 2003 to 2006 production years were used. Systematic factors affecting these traits such as production year, breeding season, female age, incubator type, storage time and ostrich breed, were initially assessed in single-trait-analyses, using ASREML. Eggs and chicks produced by Zimbabwean Blue (ZB) females were 5 and 7% heavier, respectively, than those produced by South African Black (SAB) females. WL21 and WL35 were not significantly different between ZB and SAB birds. There were trends for within-season effects on EWT and CWT, but no general, robust trend applicable to all years could be discerned. Season had a significant effect on WL21, WL35 and PT. An increase was apparent in EWT, CWT and PT with an increase in female age. There was a linear increase in pipping time as egg storage time prior to incubation increased. Incubator type had an effect on WL21 and WL35. Systematic factors affect traits such as WL21, WL35 and PT and should be accounted for before the estimation of genetic parameters. These factors should be considered when planning commercial ostrich husbandry and artificial incubation operations.

Z., Brand; S.W.P., Cloete; C.R., Brown; I.A., Malecki.

2008-04-01

169

Does Labor Diversity Affect Firm Productivity?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using an employer-employee dataset, we analyze how diversity in cultural background, skills and demographic characteristics a?ects total factor productivity (TFP) of ?rms in Denmark. Implementing structural estimation of ?rms' production function, we ?nd evidence that labor diversity in skills/education signi?cantly enhances ?rm performance as measured by ?rm TFP. Conversely, diversity in demographics and ethnicity brings mixed results - both dimensions of workforce diversity have either no or negative e?ects on ?rm TFP. Hence, it seems as if the negative e?ects, coming from communication and integration costs connected to a more demographically and culturally diverse workforce, counteract the positive e?ects of diversity on ?rm TFP, coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers. However, we ?nd that ethnic diversity is valuable for ?rms operating in industries characterized by above-average trade openness, giving support to the hypothesis that an ethnically diverse workforce provides information and accessto global markets.

Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

2010-01-01

170

Factors affecting the plasmin-plasminogen system in milk obtained from three Greek dairy sheep breeds with major differences in milk production capacity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of breed, stage of lactation, and health status of the udder on the plasmin-plasminogen system in ovine milk. A total of 38 ewes were used from 3 breeds [Boutsiko (n = 12), Chios (n = 12), and a synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 14)] with major differences in their genetic potential with respect to milk yield. Milk samples were collected every 2 wk throughout the lactation period and were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell count (SCC). In addition, milk plasmin (PL), plasminogen (PG), and plasminogen activator (PA) activities were determined. The Chios breed had the greatest average daily milk yield, the synthetic breed had an intermediate milk yield, and ewes of the Boutsiko breed had the lowest milk yield. Milk samples obtained from the Boutsiko breed had similar PL and PA activities, compared with those obtained from the other 2 breeds. The ratio of PG:PL was less in milk samples from the Boutsiko breed compared with the other 2 breeds, indicative of an increased rate of conversion of PG to PL for this breed. There was no correlation between PL activity and daily milk yield in ewes from all 3 breeds. Activities of PL, PG, and PA were greater in ovine milk with elevated SCC (>300,000/mL) compared with activities in milk with low SCC (<300,000/mL). The ratio of PG:PL was less in the high-SCC group compared with the low-SCC group, which indicates an increased rate of conversion of PG to PL for the high-SCC group. There was a decrease in PG and PA activities as well as in the PG:PL ratio in late lactation milk (mo 5 to 6) when compared with early or mid lactation milk (mo 1 to 4). Thus, the PL-PG system is affected by breed, stage of lactation, and the health status of the udder. No relationship was found between PL activity and daily milk yield in the 3 Greek dairy sheep breeds. Plasmin is not a marker for gradual involution in the Greek sheep breeds studied. PMID:17582110

Theodorou, G; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I

2007-07-01

171

Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in highith retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

172

Factores no Genéticos y de Grupo Racial que Afectan el Peso al Nacer en un Sistema de Producción con Vacunos de Carne / Non Genetic and Breed Group Factors Affecting Birth Weight in a Beef Cattle System Production  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para evaluar el efecto de factores no genéticos y de grupo racial sobre el peso al nacer (PN), se analizaron 5136 datos de becerros nacidos en una zona de bosque seco tropical. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando un modelo lineal aditivo por el método de máxima verosimilitud restringida que inclu [...] yó los efectos fijos: año de nacimiento (AN; 2001,..,2007); mes de nacimiento (MN; enero, febrero, octubre, noviembre y diciembre); edad de la madre al parto (EM; 3,..,11 años ó más), sexo (S; hembra-macho); grupo racial del becerro (GR1: mestizos Bos taurus de las razas Angus, Braunvieh, Carora, Holstein, Simmental, Romosinuano y Senepol; GR2: predominantemente Bos indicus de las razas Brahman, Nelore, Guzerat y Gyr). El AN, MN, EM y S afectaron (P Abstract in english To evaluate the effect of non-genetic factors and of breed group on birth weight (BW), 5136 records of calves born in a dry tropical forest were analyzed. The data was analyzed using an additive linear model by the restricted maximum verisimilitude method, that included the fixed effects of: year of [...] birth (YB; 2001,..., 2007); month of birth (MB; January, February, October, November, December); age of the mother at calving (AM; 3.., 11 years or more); sex (S; female - male); breed group of the calf (BG1: Crossbred Bos taurus of the breeds Angus, Braunvieh, Carora, Holstein, Simmental, Romosinuano, Senepol; BG2: mainly Bos indicus of the breeds Brahman, Nelore, Guzerat and Gyr). The YB, MB, AM and S affected (P

Francisco, Pacheco; Luis, Depablos; Gonzalo, Martínez; Daniel, Vargas.

2013-06-01

173

Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

Yurdun Kuyucu

2009-08-01

174

Some factors affecting signalized intersection capacity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The estimates of saturation flow needed to calculate the capacity of a signalized intersection can be obtained in two basic ways. The first approach involves conducting field studies to measure saturation flows at the intersection(s) of interest. In this approach, capacity-influencing factors are empirically included, and the measured saturation flows represent the maximum capacity of the intersection approach under the prevailing conditions. The second approach to the problem involves the use of base saturation flow values, such as theoretical maximum values. These basic values can be adjusted to account for the physical and operating conditions of the particular intersection approaches being analyzed and used in intersection capacity studies. The assumption implicit in the use of base flow rates in capacity studies is that quantifiable relationships exist between saturation flows and the physical and operating characteristics of signalized intersections. Validation of this assumption has been, and continues to be, a source of considerable controversy.

Stokes, R.W.

1989-01-01

175

Factors Affecting Bank Profitability in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between bank-specific and macro-economic characteristics over bank profitability by using data of top fifteen Pakistani commercial banks over the period 2005-2009. This paper uses the pooled Ordinary Least Square (POLS method to investigate the impact of assets, loans, equity, deposits, economic growth, inflation and market capitalization on major profitability indicators i.e., return on asset (ROA,return on equity (ROE, return on capital employed (ROCE and net interest margin (NIM separately. The empirical results have found strong evidence that both internal and external factors have a strong influence on the profitability. The results of the study are of value to both academics and policy makers.

Sehrish Gul

2011-03-01

176

Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. Opsomming
Een van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

Wilhelm Jordaan

2004-11-01

177

Human factors affecting NDE technician performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present an investigation of the problem of less than optimal performance among IGSCC inspection personnel both at the qualification training and in the field context. Two separate approaches were adopted: theory based, in which effective performance is a product of a skillful, motivated person interacting with a responsive environment; and empirical, in which performance is defined on the basis of the opinions of experts in the industry. In the empirical approach, two separate yet related studies were conducted. Study 1 was designed to elicit prototypical attributes of highly competent examiners from 37 subjects. Study 2 was designed to elicit prototypical attributes of typical, superior, and unusually poor occasions or episodes of performance based on the real-life experiences of 20 subjects generating a sample of 100 episodes. The results of these studies are discussed by the authors

178

Study of Factors Affecting Mental Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the simple and multiple relationships between role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload and mental health considering the moderating role of type A personality and sense of coherence. To this end correlation and regression analysis is utilized. Research sample includes 196 personnel working in Ahvaz Pipe-production factory during year 2007. Research results revealed that there is a significant relation between role ambiguity and mental health deficiency, but no one was found between role conflict and role overload and mental health deficiency; nevertheless, higher correlation level between role stressors and mental Health deficiency in low-level sense of coherence in comparison with high-level sense of coherence personnel was found. Also, a higher multiple correlations between role stressors and MH deficiency in personnel having further type A personality in comparison with personnel having not as much of mentioned group’s type A personality was observed.

Abdul-Kazem Naisi

2009-01-01

179

Factors affecting the soil sorption of iodine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iodine-129 is an important radionuclide released from nuclear facilities because of its long radioactive half-life and its environmental mobility. Its retention in surface soils has been linked to pH, organic matter, and Fe and Al oxides. Its inorganic solution chemistry indicates I will most likely exist as an anion. Three investigations were carded out to provide information on the role of the inorganic and organic chemistry during sorption of I by soil. Anion competition using C1- showed that anion exchange plays a role in I sorption in both mineral and organic soils. The presence of Cl decreased the loss of I- from solution by 30 and 50% for an organic and a carbonated sandy soil respectively. The I remaining in solution was associated primarily with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The loss rate from solution appears to depend on two reactions of I with the soil solids (both mineral and organic) creating both a release to and a loss from solution, and the reaction of I with the DOC (from very low to high molecular weight). Composition analyses of the pore water and the geochemical modelling indicate that I sorption affects the double-charged anion species in solution the most, particularly SO4--. Iodide introduced to natural bog groundwater at three concentrations (l0-3, 10-1 and 10 meq L-1) remained as I- and was not lost from solution quickly, indicating that the association quickly, indicating that the association of I with DOC is slow and does not depend on the DOC or I concentration. If sorption of I to soil solids or DOC is not sensitive to concentration, then stable I studies, which by necessity must be carried out at high environmental concentrations, can be linearly extrapolated to radioactive I at much lower molar concentrations. (author)

180

Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction During Endoscopic Procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the quality and patient satisfaction in Endoscopy Unit of Shifa International Hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Division of Gastroenterology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Quality and patient satisfaction after the endoscopic procedure was assessed using a modified GHAA-9 questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included with a mean age of 45 A+- 14.21 years. Out of all the procedures, 670 (65.17%) were gastroscopies, 181 (17.60%) were flexible sigmoidoscopies and 177 (17.21%) were colonoscopies. The maximum unsatisfactory responses were on the waiting time before the procedure (13.13 %), followed by unsatisfactory explanation of the procedure and answers to questions (7.58%). Overall, unsatisfied impression was 4.86%. The problem rate was 6.22%. Conclusion: The quality of procedures and level of satisfaction of patients undergoing a gastroscopy or colonoscopy was generally good. The factors that influence the satisfaction of these patients are related to communication between doctor and patient, doctor's manner and waiting time for the procedure. Feedback information in an endoscopy unit may be useful in improving standards, including the performance of endoscopists. (author)

 
 
 
 
181

Factors Affecting Penetrating Captive Bolt Gun Performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session. PMID:25415241

Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

2014-11-21

182

FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ?2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ?30 mg.l-1; spermidine ?10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ?5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

František Bu?ka

2012-04-01

183

Factors affecting proximal tubular reabsorption during development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies performed in several animal species have demonstrated that glomerulotubular balance is maintained throughout development despite the many changes that occur in the factors known to control it. In an attempt to understand the nature of this phenomenon the authors quantified the magnitude and described the profile of these changes in guinea pigs. The changes in physical forces were assessed from measurements of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, whereas those in the permeability characteristics of the proximal tubule epithelium were estimated from permanence to radioactivity-labelled macromolecules of graded radii, histologic measurements of the intercellular channels, and measurements of end-proximal ratio of tubular fluid-to-plasma osmolality (TF/P/sub osm/). Between 1 and 50 days of age the net pressure for reabsorption increased from 15.0 to 30.9 mmHg with the major change occurring during the first 2-3 wk of postnatal life. The urinary recovery of [3H]inulin, [14C]sucrose, and [14C]creatinine, injected in the early segment of proximal tubules did not vary with age. The urinary recovery of [14C]mannitol increased from 92% at birth to 100% at 49 days of age. The length of the zonulae occludens and the width of the intercellular channels did not change during this period. The findings support the hypothesis that during early postnatal life glomerulotubular balance is made possible by a high permeability of the proximsible by a high permeability of the proximal tubule, which compensates for the low net reabsorptive pressure. As the animal matures and the proximal tubule epithelium becomes tighter, for glomerulotubular balance to be maintained, an increase in the number of intercellular channels and in the active transport of sodium need to be postulated

184

Factors Affecting Software Cost Estimation in Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cost is the main driving factor for all projects. When it is done correctly, it helps in the successful completion of the project. In this research we have discussed various factors that affect the estimation procedure. These include team structure, team culture, managerial style, project type (Core application or integrated application, client’s working environment. Accurate estimation is far difficult in developing countries where most of the organizations follow local standards. These inaccurate estimations lead to late delivery, less profit or in worst case complete failure. Software requirement gathering, development, maintenance, quality assurance and cost of poor quality are major groups responsible for overall cost in software production process. The exact proportion among them varies significantly in consecutive software releases, which is caused by many factors. The ever increasing need for the reliability of the software systems, especially mission critical applications in the public safety domain, raises the bar for the accuracy of prediction and estimation techniques. The accuracy of estimations in many areas brings about more concerns regarding techniques already used in the software industry. Widely deployed techniques, such as Wideband Delphi method, stress the engineering and technical aspects of the process of how estimates are prepared.

Ali Javed

2013-04-01

185

Factors that affect the in vitro production of bovine embryos: A review Factores que afectan la producción in vitro de embriones bovinos: una revisión Fatores que afetam a produção in vitro de embriões bovinos: A revisão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro embryo production (IVP represents a way to increase gamete use from animals with high zootechnical value. In spite of the advances obtained in IVP over the last few years, production of transferable embryos is still low. The aim of this review is to discuss ways to produce in vitro embryos, as well as oocytes formation and maturation processes that can be related to the effectiveness of obtained results. Some studies show the influence of follicular growth factors, gonadotropins, steroids and other hormones on the follicular development and the quality of the cumulus oocyte complex (COC. The follicular phase of slow growth is critical for the development of the oocyte capacity to reach the final competence and diameter. Information about endocrine influences, or likewise, the dependence of growth of small antral follicles when a loss in the oocyte or follicle functionality occurs is scarce in the literature. A variable number of different techniques and protocols for treatment of oocytes donors are described with the aim of improve the results, the COCs recovering rate and the developmental competence in vitro of collected oocytes. From the considerations presented in this review, it is possible to verify the importance of better understanding the factors involved in the IVP process, with the aim of allow new alternatives to increase the results obtained in programs of animal assisted reproduction.La producción in vitro de embriones (PIV representa una manera de aumentar el uso de gametos de animales con alto valor zootécnico. A pesar de los avances obtenidos en PIV en los últimos años, la producción de embriones tranferibles sigue siendo baja. El objetivo de esta revisión es discutir maneras de producir embriones in vitro, así como los procesos de formación y de maduración de los oocitos que se pueden relacionar con la eficacia de los resultados obtenidos. Algunos estudios demuestran la influencia de los factores foliculares del crecimiento, gonadotrofinas, esteroides y otras hormonas en el desarrollo folicular y la calidad del complejo del cumulus oocito (CCO. La fase folicular del crecimiento lento es crítica para el desarrollo de la capacidad del oocito de alcanzar la capacidad y el diámetro final. Información sobre influencias endocrinas, o además, la dependencia del crecimiento de pequeños folículos antrales cuando ocurre una pérdida en la funcionalidad del oocito o del folículo, es escasa en la literatura. Un número variable de diversas técnicas y los protocolos para el tratamiento de oocitos de las donantes son descritos en esta revisión, con lo objetivo de mejorar los resultados, el índice de la recuperacion de CCOs y la capacidad de desarrollo in vitro de oocitos recogidos. De las consideraciones presentadas en esta revisión, es posible verificar la importancia de entender los factores implicados en el proceso de PIV, para permitir el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas que mejoren los resultados obtenidos en programas de la reproducción animal asistida.A produção in vitro (PIV de embriões representa uma maneira de incrementar o uso de gametas de animais de alto valor zootécnico. Apesar dos avanços obtidos na PIV nos últimos anos, a produção de embriões transferíveis ainda é baixa. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir maneiras de produzir embriões in vitro, assim como o processo de formação e maturação de oócitos, que pode estar relacionado a eficácia dos resultados obtidos. Aguns estudos demonstram a influência de fatores de crescimento, gonadotrofinas, esteróides e outros hormônios no desenvolvimento folicular e na qualidade do complexo cumulus oócito (CCO. A fase folicular de crescimento lento é critica para o desenvolvimento da capacidade do oócito de atingir a competência e o diâmetro finais. Informação sobre as influências endócrinas, ou seja, da dependência do crescimento de pequenos folículos antrais quando ocorre perda da funcionalidade do oócito ou folículo são escassas na literatura. Um número variável de diferent

Luiz F M Pfeifer

2008-03-01

186

Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer  

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Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

1984-05-01

187

Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

Sven Skjenneberg (ed.)

1984-01-01

188

Factors Affecting Wedding Banquet Venue Selection of Thai Wedding Couples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The wedding day is one of the most important days for couples, so they want their ceremony to be as near to perfect as possible. Finding a venue for the wedding banquet is the first stage of the couple’s planning and many factors affect this decision. The objective of this research was to study the factors that affect the selection of wedding banquet venues among Thai wedding couples. This study obtained data via questionnaires and used statistical tests such ...

Kulkanya Napompech

2014-01-01

189

Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3?) addition, carbon quality (labile...

Garci?a-marco, S.; Ravella, S. R.; Chadwick, D.; Vallejo, A.; Gregory, A. S.; Ca?rdenas, L. M.

2014-01-01

190

FACTORS AFFECTING INTENT TO PURCHASE VIRTUAL GOODS IN ONLINE GAMES  

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Online games increasingly sell virtual goods to generate real income. As a result, it isincreasingly important to identify factors and theory of consumption values that affect intent topurchase virtual goods in online games. However, very little research has been devoted to thetopic. This study is an empirical investigation of the factors and theory of consumption valuesthat affect intent to purchase virtual goods in online games. The study determines the effects ofgame type, satisfaction wit...

Cheng-Hsun Ho; Ting-Yun Wu

2012-01-01

191

FACTORS AFFECTING ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER PROPERTIES OF BERRY FRUITS  

Science.gov (United States)

Berry fruits have been shown to contain high levels of antioxidant compounds such as carotenoids, vitamins, phenols, flavonoids, dietary glutathionine, and endogenous metabolites. Many factors affect antioxidant levels in berry fruits. These factors include genotype variation and maturity, pre-har...

192

Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition  

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This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

Bista, Krishna K.

2008-01-01

193

Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, rchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

194

Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour  

Science.gov (United States)

The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

2013-06-01

195

Identifying the Factors Affecting the Participation of Agricultural Cooperatives' Members  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: 40-year history of agricultural production cooperatives in the country shows that this type of exploitation system has faced many ups and downs during this period. First, despite the help and support by the government, the cooperative sector has not been able to play a major role in the development of the country and its share has not exceeded 3% of development program. The main aim of this study is identifying the factors affecting the participation of Shirvan-Chardavol township?s agricultural cooperatives? members. Approach: This casual comparative applied research which uses survey method for data accumulation, is of Quasi-experimental research type because of impossibility of controlling the research variables. A researcher-made questionnair was used as the main tool for gathering data. The face and content validity of the questionnaire were confirmed by a group of university professors and cooperative experts; also the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed through calculating the Kronbach alfa coefficient (a = 0.80. Results: The statistical society of the research included 751 active members of Shirvan-Chardavol township?s agricultural cooperatives, among which 260 people were selected for the study using classified proportional random sampling method and with the aid of Morgan sample-volume table. Data processing was performed using SPSS estatistial software, as well as descriptive estatistics (central and inferential indexes and analytical estatistics (correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Conclusion: The correlation coefficient results show that there is significant relationship between the variables like age, background history of membership in cooperatives, the members? agricultural land areas, annual income of the members, socio-cultural features, economical features, educational-extensional features, managerial factors, psychological features, political factors and communicational-informational factors from the one hand and the dependent variable of agricultural cooperatives? members? level of participation from the other. The multiple regression analysis results showed that variables like political, economic, managerial and social factors have positive effect on the dependent variable of agricultural cooperatives? members? participation, describing 65% of the changes of the mentioned dependent variable.

Bagher Arayesh

2011-01-01

196

Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3 (-)) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3 (-) addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3 (-) and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

2014-07-01

197

Factors affecting the pace of world fusion development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal factors affecting the pace of world fusion development are costs, technical progress, and management. Costs are of two types: the inherent costs of the R and D and the money that governments are willing to make available. Technical progress can accelerate pace if it is ''positive'' but can slow pace if results are ''negative''. Management affects pace by the nature of national or regional decisions but also through cooperative international agreement. (author)

198

Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan  

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Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods...

Kashif Ud Din Khan; Shazia Gulzar; Farzan Yahya

2013-01-01

199

Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment  

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Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal charac...

Gardner, D. S.; Buttery, P. J.; Daniel, Z.; Symonds, M. E.

2007-01-01

200

Folate, Hormones and Infertility : Different factors affecting IVF pregnancy outcome  

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Various hormones have been studied as regards prediction of pregnancy outcome after infertility treatment, but no ideal candidate has been found. Folate and genetic variations in folate metabolism have also been associated with infertility, but it remains unclear how these factors affect IVF pregnancy outcome. It is known that infertility is associated with active folic acid supplement use, but the effect of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors on folic acid supplement use in infertile women h...

Murto, Tiina

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities  

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Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males) divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with ...

Al-Quran Firas A; Al-Ghalayini Raed F; Al-Zu'bi Bashar N

2011-01-01

202

Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.  

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OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. METHODS: A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at th...

Ash, J. S.

1999-01-01

203

Factors affecting influenza vaccination among pregnant women : a systematic review  

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Objective: Pregnancy has been recognized as a risk factor for severe pandemic influenza illness and this “vulnerable” group is suggested to be heightened alertness to the disease by WHO. This systemic review aims to identify the factors affecting the uptake of influenza vaccination among pregnant women as the immunization uptake among this particular group of population is low or suboptimal worldwide. Methods: Systematic literature reviews were conducted by using MEDLINE and PubMed wit...

Fong, Choi-ching; ???

2013-01-01

204

Factors Affecting The Profitability Rate of Leading Firms in Makassar  

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The purposes of this research are to investigate the factors which affecting firms’ profitability in Makassar. The factors are amount of capital, growth of sales, net working capital, leverage ratio, and current ratio. The sample involved in the survey 45 companies which identified as leading companies in Makassar. The result outlined that the leading businesses tended to consider financial ratio in implementing financial policy. The findings indicated that growth of sales, current ratio a...

Rakhman, Abdul

2010-01-01

205

Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

2009-01-01

206

Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A).…

Küçüközer, Asuman

2015-01-01

207

Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

Nergis, Aysegul

2013-01-01

208

Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

Kwan, Eugene E.

2005-01-01

209

Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

2011-01-01

210

Chemistry Time: Factors Affecting the Rate of a Chemical Reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents an activity that explores the factors affecting the rate of a chemical reaction. Contains information for the instructor such as details about the chemistry of the reaction, answers to student questions, and sources of additional information and related activities. (DDR)

Journal of Chemical Education, 1998

1998-01-01

211

Factors Affecting the Development and Use of Learning Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored barriers and facilitating factors affecting the development and use of learning objects in developing instructional materials and their use in supporting individualized learning. Over a two-month period, students in a graduate-level instructional design course developed instructional materials incorporating learning objects or…

Moisey, Susan D.; Ally, Mohamed; Spencer, Bob

2006-01-01

212

Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

Kwenda, Maxwell

2011-01-01

213

Factors affecting determination of the optical path in radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary factors affecting determination of the optical path in radiography are investigated. For two different detect ways, the direct and the converting screen methods, these factors are the same, including the scattering effect, the angle distribution effect of the exposure, and the inverse effect of the exposure to the square of radiographic distance. In the high-energy radiography, the scatter is very serious and it is the most important factor. The scatter effect makes the measured value of optical path 20%-40% lower than its actual value. Before CT reconstruct of the radiographic image, it is necessary to reduce scatter effect from the measured optical path. (author)

214

Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market.

215

Factors Affecting Wedding Banquet Venue Selection of Thai Wedding Couples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The wedding day is one of the most important days for couples, so they want their ceremony to be as near to perfect as possible. Finding a venue for the wedding banquet is the first stage of the couple’s planning and many factors affect this decision. The objective of this research was to study the factors that affect the selection of wedding banquet venues among Thai wedding couples. This study obtained data via questionnaires and used statistical tests such as the Mann-Whitney U test and one-way analysis of variance. Results showed that among the 30 factors that were assessed by 222 respondents, good service from employees, food quality, the venue’s atmosphere, size of the event room and facilities in the wedding room were the five most important factors determining the attractiveness of a wedding banquet venue. The results demonstrated that respondents who organized a wedding banquet at a hotel prioritized the atmosphere. In contrast, respondents who organized a wedding banquet at a restaurant placed highest priority on the facilities of the wedding room. Results showed that significant differences regarding the factors that affect the selection of wedding banquet venues exist across groups with different demographic variables (i.e., age, income, education level.

Kulkanya Napompech

2014-01-01

216

An Evaluation of Factors Affecting E-learner\\\\\\'s Satisfaction  

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Full Text Available Worldwide, the e-learning has a growth, but failures exist. Previous researches showed that user’s satisfaction is one of the most important factors in assessing the success of e-learning system implementation and a variety of factors affecting users' satisfaction. In this research, eight independent variables namely learner Internet self-efficacy, instructor response timeliness, e-learning course flexibility, e-learning course quality, technology quality, system usefulness, system ease of use, and diversity in assessment with nine hypotheses were discussed. The Spearman's correlation analysis was used to test initial eight hypotheses and a stepwise multiple linear regression model was conducted to test the ninth hypothesis. The results revealed that e-learning course flexibility, e-learning course quality, technology quality, and diversity in assessment were the critical factors affecting e-learner satisfaction that could not be neglected when implementing successful e-learning courses.

Davood Karimzadegan Moghadam

2012-03-01

217

Relationship between Factors of Construction Resources Affecting Project Cost  

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Full Text Available The success of any construction project highly depends on how proper and effective the management of construction resources flow. Studies show that various resources factors affected cost management and have resulted to significant amount of cost overrun worldwide. However, a few investigations had been carried out in Malaysia regarding the effect of resources in construction industry. Hence, this study focuses on identifying significant resource factors causing construction cost overrun and also assessing the relationship between these factors. Data collection was carried out through a structured questionnaire survey consisting of 20 factors identified through a comprehensive literature review. Data was analyzed using statistical software package SPSS. The Cronbach’s alpha of the data was 0.910 which means that the collected data was highly reliable. The factors were ranked through mean rank approach and it was found that 3 most significant factors are “fluctuation of prices of materials”, “cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors” and “shortages of materials”. While the least significant factors in causing cost overrun are “insufficient numbers of equipment”, “relationship between management and labour”, and “labour absenteeism”. The result of Spearman test indicates that “cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors” with “financial difficulties of owner” correlate strongly at a significant level of 0.752. This identification of factors and relationships will help construction community in controlling resopurce factors for achieving project completion within the budget.

Ismail Abdul Rahman

2012-12-01

218

FACTORS AFFECTING INTENT TO PURCHASE VIRTUAL GOODS IN ONLINE GAMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Online games increasingly sell virtual goods to generate real income. As a result, it isincreasingly important to identify factors and theory of consumption values that affect intent topurchase virtual goods in online games. However, very little research has been devoted to thetopic. This study is an empirical investigation of the factors and theory of consumption valuesthat affect intent to purchase virtual goods in online games. The study determines the effects ofgame type, satisfaction with the game, identification with the character, and theory ofconsumption values on intent to purchase virtual goods. The study used a survey to collectinformation from 523 virtual game users. Study results showed that game type is a moderatingvariable that affects intent to purchase virtual goods. And it demonstrated that role-playing gameusers are affected by theory of consumption values: functional quality, playfulness, and socialrelationship support. Moreover, war-strategy game users are affected by satisfaction with thegame, identification with the character, and theory of consumption values: price, utility, andplayfulness. The study also presents conclusions, proposes applications, and describesopportunities for further research.

Cheng-Hsun Ho

2012-10-01

219

Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral  

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Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

Bahieh Moradi

2011-12-01

220

Factors Affecting Nurses’ Coping With Transition: An Exploratory Qualitative Study  

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Full Text Available Aim: One of the most important factors contributing to staff shortage is nurses’ ineffective coping with transitions. Changes in nurses’ official positions are usually associated with varying degrees of transition. Identification of affecting factors on nurses’ coping in responding to transition can promote quality of nursing activity and prevent nurses’ shortage. So the aim of this study was to explore factors affecting nurses’ coping with transitions. Methods: The participant of this exploratory qualitative study consisted of sixteen nurses that were work in medical wards of four hospitals in Qazvin, Iran. Data collected by semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis approach. Results: The main theme of the study was ‘inadequate preparation for transition’. This theme consisted of six categories including “staff training and development”, “professional relationships”, “perceived level of support”, “professional accountability and commitment”, “welfare services”, and “nursing staff shortage”. Conclusion: Nursing managers and policy makers need to pay special attention to the affecting factors on nurses’ coping with transition and develop effective strategies for facilitating it.

Jalil Azimian

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

Environmental and genetic factors affecting cow survival of Israeli Holsteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives were to investigate the effects of various environmental factors that may affect herd-life of Israeli Holsteins, including first-calving age and season, calving ease, number of progeny born, and service sire for first calving in complete and truncated records; and to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations between herd-life and the other traits included in the Israeli breeding index. The basic data set consisted of 590,869 cows in milk recording herds with first freshening day between 1985 and at least 8 yr before the cut-off date of September 15, 2013. Herd-life was measured as days from first calving to culling. The phenotypic and genetic trends for herd-life were 5.7 and 16.8d/yr. The genetic trend was almost linear, whereas the phenotypic trend showed 4 peaks and 3 valleys. Cows born in February and March had the shortest herd-life, whereas cows born in September had the longest herd-life. Herd-life was maximal with calving age of 23mo, which is 1mo less than the mean calving age, and minimal at 19 and 31mo of calving age. Dystocia and twinning on first-parity calving reduced herd-life by approximately180 and 120d, but the interaction effect increased herd-life by 140d. Heritability for herd-life was 0.14. Despite the fact that the service sire effect was significant in the fixed model analysis, service sire effect accounted for milk, fat, and protein production, somatic cell score (SCS), and female fertility were all positive, except for SCS, in which negative values are economically favorable. The highest correlations with herd-life in absolute value were with female fertility and SCS. PMID:25468704

Weller, J I; Ezra, E

2015-01-01

222

Some factors affecting cellulose degradation with Pellicularia filamentosa cellulases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cellulose degradation with a crude cellulase preparation obtained from the culture filtrate of Pellicularia filamentosa strain FERM-P 1797 rapidly reached a plateau at a low level of degradation. To explain and prevent this phenomenon, several factors affecting cellulase activities were investigated for three cellulase components, I-A-3, I-A-4, and I-A-5, fractionated from the crude cellulase. Marked lowering of the cellulose degradation rate was observed in every component tested, as in the crude cellulase. However, no evidence was obtained that denaturation or product inhibition are involved under the conditions tested. In the case of I-A-4, a component of high substrate specificity toward crystalline cellulose, the sole condition for the phenomenon is the coexistence of cellulase and cellulose. The addition of at least 100 ..mu..g of non-cellulase protein per ml of reaction mixture prevented the lowering of activity. In the case of I-A-5, a component of high substrate specificity toward CM-cellulose, the occurrence of a gas-liquid interface under the coexistence of cellulase and substrate may be one cause of the lowering of activity. The phenomenon could be prevented by addition of non-cellulase protein with CM-cellulose as substrate, but not with crystalline cellulose. I-A-3, a component of high substrate specificity toward crystalline cellulose and CM-cellulose, showed the combined properties of the other two components with respect to the causes and methods of prevention of the lowering of activity.

Tanaka, M.; Takenawa, S.; Matsuno, R.; Kamikubo, T.

1978-01-01

223

Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2004-02-24

224

Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

Al-Quran Firas A

2011-12-01

225

A model assay to demonstrate how intrinsic factors affect diffusion of bacteriocins.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid and simple method to elucidate how intrinsic factors in a given food product affect bacteriocin diffusion and efficacy is described. The basic idea of this assay is to help predict which bacteriocin or other inhibitory substance to select for a given product, where increased security towards specific microorganisms is wanted. In an agar plate model system the effect of five factors (number of indicator cells, pH and concentration of NaCl, agar and soy oil) on the diffusion of the bacteriocins sakacin A, sakacin P, pediocin PA-1, piscicolin 61 and nisin was studied. An experimental design permitting simultaneous evaluation of the effect of all factors was used. The results indicated that each bacteriocin has a characteristic intrinsic factor effect profile. However, pH and load of indicator cells affect all the bacteriocins. PMID:9506275

Blom, H; Katla, T; Hagen, B F; Axelsson, L

1997-09-16

226

Analysis on Psychological Factors to Affect the Vocal Stage Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The stage performance is an important part of artistic practice for vocal students. To perfectly express the music on stage is the dream of every vocal music performer. This essay is about analysis of the psychological factors to affect the vocal stage performance and to explore the reasons for stage fright and the methods to overcome this, to enable students to further enhance the level of their vocal music.

Key words: Vocal music; Stage performance; Psychological factor

Xihong CHEN

2012-11-01

227

Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

2011-09-01

228

Factors affecting the dermal bioavailability of hydrocarbons in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science of risk assessment has advanced significantly in recent years, in a continuing effort to more accurately represent potential human health effects from exposure to chemicals in the environment. This paper describes some environmental factors that affect the behavior of chemicals in soil and the relationship of this chemical behavior to the prediction of dermal exposures relating to soil contamination. The information presented in this paper suggests that the mass transfer of chemicals from the soil to the skin is as much an issue in dermal exposures to soil-sorbed chemicals as the actual absorption of the chemical through the skin. Relevant factor affecting the sorption, desorption, and mass transfer of hydrocarbon chemicals in soil are discussed. A summary of the scientific literature related to research on chemicals sorbed to soil is also presented

229

Operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses,which comprised rotor speed (RS, louver inclination (LI, grain moisture content (MC, feed rate (FR, and grain to materialother than grain ratio (GM. Seventeen Thai corn-shelling threshers were random-sampled during the late rainy season cropof 2008 and ten threshers were sampled in the early rainy season crop of 2009 in Loei province, Northeast of Thailand.The results of this study indicated that LI and MC affected shelling losses whereas RS, FR and GM did not affect losses.Increased LI or decreased MC tended to reduce shelling losses. In operating the Thai threshers for corn shelling, if shellinglosses have to be kept lower that 0.5%, the moisture content should not exceed 20%wb and the louver inclination should notbe less than 85 degrees.

Somchai Chuan-udom

2013-02-01

230

The Economic and Social Factors Affecting Deforestation In Selected Countries: Using Environmental Kuznets Curve  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Deforestation has been recognized as one of the biggest environmental problems in the world. It is also one of the main elements of land productivity changes and one of the biggest factors which threaten world's environmental diversity. In this study, based on environmental Kuznets theory, factors which may affect deforestation have been investigated. Results obtained from 71 studied countries show that environmental Kuznets curve was not true for them. Population growth helps the speed of de...

Esmaeili, A.; Nasrnia, F.

2009-01-01

231

Survey Of Complaints And Factors Affecting Them In Firoozgar Hospital  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 Background and Aim: Complaint is the expression of dissatisfaction that needs a response and investigation. It is an effective tool to improve the quality of services. The aim of this study was the survey of complaints, factors affecting them, and the complaint process in Firoozgar Hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study. All registered complaints, such as written, verbal and telephone complaints were reviewed in 2012. The dat...

Saeedeh Movahednia; Zeinab Partovishayan; Mahmoud Bastani

2014-01-01

232

Factors affecting individual lactation curve in Italian river buffaloes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lactation curves for milk yield of 3860 Italian river buffaloes were modelled with the Wilmink function. For this species, a wide range of goodness of fit indicates much variation of shapes among animals. Moreover, about 30% of individual curves showed the atypical shape, i.e., characterised by the absence of the lactation peak. The presence of atypical curves may seriously bias results of analysis based on comparison between individual parameter values. Factors affecting the occurrence of at...

Macciotta, Nicolo? Pietro Paolo; Dimauro, Corrado; Catillo, Gennaro; Coletta, Angelo; Cappio Borlino, Aldo

2006-01-01

233

Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol) contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ...

Abu-alruz, K.; Afaneh, I. A.; Quasem, J. M.; Hmidat, M. A.; Abbady, J.; Mazahreh, A. S.

2011-01-01

234

Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

235

Five Factors Affecting Stability and Security in the Middle East  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are five factors that affect security and stability in the Middle East. The first of these is the ticking bomb of sectarianism between the Sunni and Shiite strands of Islam, which have become more widespread in recent years due to the politisation of sectarian tensions and their transformation among some actors to a means to achieve political demands. Secondly, the impact of the Arab revolutions and the accompanying rise of Islamist groups through the new democratic tendencies encourage...

Yahya Alshammari

2012-01-01

236

Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed ...

Bauer, S.; Ketema, M.

2012-01-01

237

Factors Affecting the Crevice Corrosion Susceptibility of Alloy 22  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The susceptibility or Alloy 22 (N06022) to crevice corrosion may depend on environmental or external factors and metallurgical or internal factors. Some of the most important environmental factors are chloride concentration, inhibitors, temperature and potential. The presence of a weld seam or second phase precipitation in the alloy are classified as internal factors. The localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 has been extensively investigated in the last five years, however not all affecting factors were considered in the studies. This paper discusses the current findings regarding the effect of many of these variables on the susceptibility (or resistance) of Alloy 22 to crevice corrosion. The effect of variables such as temperature, chloride concentration and nitrate are rather well understood. However there are only limited or no data regarding effect of other factors such as pH, other inhibitive or deleterious species and type of crevicing material and crevice geometry. There are contradictory results regarding the effect of metallurgical factors such as solution heat treatment.

Rebak, R B

2004-11-24

238

FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

239

[Application effect, affecting factors, and evaluation of nitrification inhibitor: a review].  

Science.gov (United States)

The agronomic, environmental, and ecological significances of applying nitrification inhibitor (NI) have been demonstrated by many researches, but the efficiency of NI application was affected by many factors. In this paper, the effects of NI on soil N transformation, nitrate leaching and greenhouse gases emission, fertilizer N use efficiency, yield and quality of agricultural products, and availability of soil nutrients besides N were reviewed, and the factors affecting the efficiency of NI application as well as the evaluation criteria of NI were summarized. PMID:18839927

Sun, Zhi-Mei; Wu, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Li-Jun; Ma, Xing-Zhu

2008-07-01

240

Factors affecting leachability of Cs-137 in cement matrix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various factors affecting the leachability of Cs-137 in cement matrix are investigated. System factors include such as pressure curing, vibration curing, pressure leaching and the dependency of exposed surface area. Solid factors are the effect of the clay(natural zeolite catalyst) addition, ion-exchange resin (IRN-77) addition, and CO/sub 2/ and air injection. Cement matrices usually may not contact directly with underground water in real repository, since the surroundings of disposed drums is filled with backfill material. Thus, the effect of backfill material to the leachability is also investigated. The well-known diffusion theory was utilized to predict long term leach rate and cumulative fraction leached of Cs-137 or non-radioactive species

 
 
 
 
241

Stromal cell-derived factor-1 production by spleen cells is affected by nitric oxide in protective immunity against blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi CR in C57BL/6j mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria, a major endemic tropical disease, is caused by the infection of blood cells by Plasmodium protozoa. Most patients control their parasitemia by a not fully understood spleen-dependent mechanism. SDF-1alpha is a chemokine produced by stromal cells such as reticular spleen cells. Nitric oxide (NO) has several immune functions, including killing of intracellular pathogens and its function in malaria is debated. We have previously shown that SDF-1alpha production peaks during the ascending parasitemia in Plasmodium chabaudi infection and its supplementation in lethal models could reduce the parasitemia. In the present study, we analyzed SDF-1 production by spleen cells as related to NO metabolism in the P. chabaudi rodent malaria model using IFN-gamma; TNFR and iNOS-knockout mice or iNOS-blocked, L-NAME- or aminoguanidine-treated mice. Parasitemia and production of SDF-1alpha and SDF-1beta were determined by RT-PCR. In vitro NO production by spleen adherent cells was also tested. The data showed that parasitemia was less intense in both iNOS(-/-) or NO-inhibited mice than in controls, with increased and long-lasting production of SDF-1alpha mRNA. In the absence of cytokines involved in the final regulation of NO production by effector cells, as is the case for TNFR(-/-) and GKO mice, the infection progressed in an uncontrolled manner regardless of SDF-1alpha production, suggesting that these cytokines must be involved in the control of parasitemia after the SDF-1alpha dependent process. The SDF-1beta isoform was constitutive in all experiments, with elevated levels only clearly seen in TNFR(-/-) mice. We conclude that SDF-1 is involved in the promotion of parasitemia control in malaria, and excessive NO could affect its production. PMID:14556970

Garnica, Margoth Ramos; Silva, João Santana; de Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco

2003-10-31

242

A conceptual model for factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Supply chain is a widely used concept around the world. Nowadays, companies need to integrate their production processes, from the raw materials to the end-user. Supply chain management is a phenomenon that achieves this in a way that ensures customers get reliable and fast service and high quality products at the lowest possible cost. There is very limited and sporadic research on supply chain integration and how it affects supply chain performance. Therefore there is no real understanding of the concept of supply chain integration and how it affects supply chain performance nor is there a holistic model. This paper thus aims to present a model that identifies factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. After analyzing the collected data on supply chain integration and customer delivery performance, the preliminary model was proposed and completed, and using expert opinion in the Imam Khomeini Oil Refinery the final model and for factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance were presented. To determine how these factors interrelate with each other, the DEMATEL method was then used. The statistical population included the staff at Imam Khomeini Oil Refinery in Shazand. The data, collected through the standard DEMATEL questionnaire, were analyzed using the DEMATEL method and a MATLAB program. The DEMATEL results indicate that intra-organizational factors, institutional norms, technological certainties are causal factors which influence other factors that affect the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. Intra-organizational factor have a greater influence also among effect factors, substructures have the greatest influence.

Peyman Ghafari Ashtiani

2013-09-01

243

An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors  

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Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

Takashi Kuremoto

2013-07-01

244

Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ended in July 2008. The following 11 factors were taken into consideration during sample collection: olive fly infection, topography, olive storage before pressing, geographical area, effect of olive seeds during oil extraction, effect of pressing temperature, presence of olive leaves during oil extraction, soil type, maturity index of the olive fruit, olive variety and oil preservation and storage in terms of storage container types. The results show that soil type, region, maturity index and olive fly infection are the main factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol. Pressing temperature, olive storage before pressing, olive variety and oil storage showed a moderate effect. Olive seeds, topography and presence of olive leaves had a negligible effect on D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil.

K. Abu-Alruz

2011-01-01

245

Factors Affecting The Entrepreneurial Behavior Of TUMS Research Centers Managers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Background and Aim: Entrepreneurial roles can be performed by managers at different levels. In fact, entrepreneurship can be interpreted as a tendency adopted by managers towards their environment in which they should have the ability to discover new opportunities for their innovative activities. This study aims to identify factors affecting entrepreneurial behavior of research centers managers at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS.  Materials and Methods: Considering the sample size determined through Cochran’s formula, 90 questionnaires were distributed among TUMS research centers managers. The data were analyzed based on structural equation modeling applying partial least squares approach through Smartpls.2 software.  Results: Of the 90 questionnaires distributed, 67 were acceptable for study. The model created for effective factors enjoyed an acceptable goodness of fit index (GOF=0.49. Factors loading for the observed variables were above 0.4 and the constructs had an acceptable level of reliability and validity.  Conclusion : The results show that contextual and behavioral factors have a positive effect on entrepreneurial behavior and that structural factors have a negative effect on it. 

Mahdi Khayatan

2014-09-01

246

Crop production in salt affected soils: A biological approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant are susceptible to deleterious effects of various abiotic and biotic stresses, thus grossly affecting the growth and productivity. Amongst the abiotic stresses, soil salinity is most significant and prevalent in both developed and developing countries. As a consequences, good productive lands are being desertified at a very high pace. To combat this problem various approaches involving soil management and drainage are underway but with little success. It seems that a durable solution of the salinity and water-logging problems may take a long time and we may have to learn to live with salinity and to find other ways to utilize the affected lands fruitfully. A possible approach could be to tailor plants to suit the deleterious environment. The saline-sodic soils have excess of sodium, are impermeable, have little or no organic matter and are biologically almost dead. Introduction of a salt tolerant crop will provide a green cover and will improve the environment for biological activity, increase organic matter and will improve the soil fertility. The plant growth will result in higher carbon dioxide levels, and would thus create acidic conditions in the soil which would dissolve the insoluble calcium carbonate and will help exchange sodium with calcium ions on the soil complex. The biomass produced could be used directly as fodder or by the use of biotechnological and other procedures it could be converted into other value added products. However, in order to tail added products. However, in order to tailor plants to suit these deleterious environments, acquisition of better understanding of the biochemical and genetic aspects of salt tolerance at the cellular/molecular level is essential. For this purpose model systems have been carefully selected to carry out fundamental basic research that elucidates and identifies the major factors that confer salt tolerance in a living system. With the development of modern biotechnological methods it is now possible to introduce any foreign genetic material known to confer salt tolerance into crop plants. Some of the approaches and results obtained are being discussed. (author). 43 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

247

Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are commonly used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP). DEAP films are used in making actuators, generators and sensors. In the large scale manufacture of DEAP films, release of films from the substrate (carrier web) induces some defects and pre-strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities of perfluoroether allylamide (PFE) lowered the surface energy which could ease the release. This is further investigated together with an evaluation of the resulting change in actuator performance. The relationship between the adhesive energy, surface energy, Young’s modulus and peel force of the films is analyzed.

Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Junker, Michael Daniel

2013-01-01

248

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

Lemontt, J F

1979-01-01

249

Factors Affecting the End-User Computing Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigate factors that are affecting the end-user computing of accounting information system satisfaction from financial managers' point of view. Our sample is selected from companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. This research is a descriptive - empirical field study. The required data is collected by sending out questionnaires to the financial managers of the sampled companies. Our findings indicate that, the information content, ease of using accounting information system, accuracy and correctness of information, format of the reports and timeliness of information have an impact on the end-user computing satisfaction.

Mohsen Dastgir

2012-07-01

250

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

251

Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A). Additionally, the resistance depends on the type of conductor. Resistance R can be thus be expressed as R = ?L/A, where ? is the resistivity of the conductor.

Küçüközer, Asuman

2015-01-01

252

A Study on Factors Affecting Turnover Intention of Hotel Empolyees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available his study used linear structural modeling to explore the factors affecting the turnover intention of hotel employees in Taiwan. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed to hotel employees. Among these, 350 were valid samples, a valid return rate of 87.50%. The empirical results showed that (1 more harmonious coworker relationships between hotel employees and a higher level of satisfaction regarding their work environment have a significantly positive effect on job satisfaction; (2 a higher level of organizational commitment among hotel employees has a significantly negative effect on turnover intention; (3 the direct effect of employee job satisfaction and salary level on turnover intention has not reached a significant level. Nevertheless, the two factors have indirect negative effects on turnover intention.

Chun-Chang Lee

2012-11-01

253

The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities within local school districts, the use of formal and informal professional development, and the needs of rural science teachers compared to urban and suburban teachers.

Roux, Judi Ann

254

Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged. PMID:25039397

Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

2014-12-01

255

Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

Masoud Samian

2014-12-01

256

A review of factors affecting vaccine preventable disease in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded "routine" (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay "voluntary" groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Ching, Michael Sl

2014-12-01

257

Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis. Key factors affecting efficiency of the process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemical processes of biodiesel production are energy-consuming and generate undesirable by-products such as soaps and polymeric pigments that retard separation of pure methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids from glycerol and di- and monoacylglycerols. Enzymatic, lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis has no such drawbacks. Comprehension of the latter process and an appreciable progress in production of robust preparations of lipases may soon result in the replacement of chemical catalysts with enzymes in biodiesel synthesis. Engineering of enzymatic biodiesel synthesis processes requires optimization of such factors as: molar ratio of substrates (triacylglycerols: alcohol), temperature, type of organic solvent (if any) and water activity. All of them are correlated with properties of lipase preparation. This paper reports on the interplay between the crucial parameters of the lipase-catalyzed reactions carried out in non-aqueous systems and the yield of biodiesel synthesis. (author)

Szczesna Antczak, Miroslawa; Kubiak, Aneta; Antczak, Tadeusz; Bielecki, Stanislaw [Institute of Technical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

2009-05-15

258

Factors affecting storage stability of various commercial phytase sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 360-d study was performed to evaluate the effects of different environmental conditions on storage stability of exogenous phytases. Coated and uncoated products from 3 phytase sources [Ronozyme P (DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland), OptiPhos (Phytex LLC, Sheridan, IN), and Phyzyme (Danisco Animal Nutrition, Marlborough, UK)] were stored as pure forms, in a vitamin premix, or in a vitamin and trace mineral (VTM) premix. Pure products were stored at -18, 5, 23, and 37°C (75% humidity). Premixes were stored at 23 and 37°C. Sampling was performed on d 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 270, and 360. Sampling of the pure products stored at -18 (lack of sample) and 5°C (because of mold growth) was discontinued after d 120. Stability was reported as the residual phytase activity (% of initial) at each sampling point. For the stability of the pure forms, all interactive and main effects of the phytase product, coating, time, and storage temperature were significant (P phytases retained at least 91, 85, 78, and 71% of their initial phytase activity at 30, 60, 90, and 120 d of storage, respectively. However, storing pure products at 37°C reduced (P phytase stability, with OptiPhos retaining the most (P storage temperature for Ronozyme and OptiPhos (from d 90 onward), but not for Phyzyme. For the stability of phytase in different forms of storage, all interactive and main effects of phytase product, form, coating, time, and temperature of storage were significant (P phytase activities for most the phytase sources were more than 85, 73, and 60% of the initial activity up to 180 d when stored as pure products, vitamin premixes, or VTM premixes, respectively. When stored at 37°C, pure phytase products had greater (P phytase activity than when phytases were mixed with the vitamin or VTM premixes. Coated phytases stored in any form had greater (P phytases at all sampling periods. Results indicate that storage stability of commercially available phytases is affected by duration of storage, temperature, product form, coating, and phytase source. Pure products held at 23°C or less were the most stable. In premixes, longer storage times and higher temperatures reduced phytase activity, but coating mitigated some of these negative effects. PMID:21890502

Sulabo, R C; Jones, C K; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Dritz, S S; Campbell, D R; Ratliff, B W; DeRouchey, J M; Nelssen, J L

2011-12-01

259

Factors Affecting Longevity of Tunneled Central Venous Cathe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate factors which affect the longevity of tunneled central venous catheters (T-CVCs). A retrospective study was conducted on 363 T-CVCs. We evaluated the relevant factors affecting the longevity of the T-CVCs, such as age, gender, indication for catheterization, site of entry vessel, diameter and type of T-CVC, catheter tip position, and underlying diseases. Of the 363 T-CVCs which had been inserted, 331 (91%) were placed through the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The catheter tip position was the strongest predictor for the longevity of the T-CVC. The short limb of the catheter tip placed either at the cavoatrial junction (CA junction) or below the lower margin of the right main bronchus had a good prognosis. The vessel through which the T-CVC was placed significantly influenced the longevity of the T-CVC; the RIJV was associated with better results than the left internal jugular vein. Also, a split-type catheter was significantly associated with a better result. A two distinct and separate type T-CVC placed through the RIJV in which the short limb catheter tip position was at the level of the CA junction, significantly increased the longevity of T-CVCs.

260

Factors affecting interaction of radiocesium with freshwater solids Pt. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper aims at the analysis of principal factors affecting the interaction of radiocesium with freshwater solids, important for the migration of radiocesium in rivers. Uptake and release of radiocesium by bottom sediment and suspended solids from a small stream were studied as a function of contact time during the uptake and release, of concentration of the solid phase and of temperature, using laboratory model experiments. Kinetics of the uptake were found to be significantly affected by temperature and concentration of the solid phase. The kinetics and the concentration effect can be quantitatively described using kinetic model of two parallel or consecutive reactions. Kinetic parameters for the model were determined. Distribution coefficient Kd is independent of sediment concentration in the range of 20-70mg·dm-3 but passes through a maximum at higher concentration values. Release of radiocesium absorbed on the freshwater solids was observed. The amount released decreased with increasing contact time of radiocesium with solid phase. Quantitative evaluation of the release revealed partial irreversibility of radiocesium uptake on the solids studied. Results obtained are compared with literature data and conclusions are drawn on the importance of the factors studied for modeling of radiocesium migration in rivers. (author) 40 refs.; 7 figs.; 6 tabs

 
 
 
 
261

Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

Naile Bilgili

2009-12-01

262

Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs. A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM. The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36, as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37. Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.

Michael D. Cusimano

2013-05-01

263

Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P4) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (?2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (?4.1 ng/mL) P4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

264

Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diff therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the material. After exposure, the detectors were subjected to a chemical etching process. The detectors were washed, dried and after that, the tracks caused by alpha particle were counted using an optical Olympus microscope at magnification 600X. Using the track density produced the parameters like radon diffusion coefficients and diffusion lengths through these building construction materials have been calculated in each case under study. The results of present investigations provide better insight into the selection of building construction materials capable of controlling the indoor radon levels. (author)

265

Geolocation by light: accuracy and precision affected by environmental factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. Geolocation by light allows for tracking animal movements, based on measurements of light intensity over time by a data-logging device (‘geolocator’). Recent developments of ultra-light devices (<2 g) broadened the range of target species and boosted the number of studies using geolocators. However, an inherent problem of geolocators is that any factor or process that changes the natural light intensity pattern also affects the positions calculated from these light patterns. Although the most important factors have been identified, estimation of their effect on the accuracy and precision of positions estimated has been lacking but is very important for the analyses and interpretation of geolocator data. 2. The ‘threshold method’ is mainly used to derive positions by defining sunrise and sunset times from the light intensity pattern for each recorded day. This method requires calibration: a predefined sun elevation angle for estimating latitude by fitting the recorded day / night lengthsto theoretical values across latitudes. Therewith, almost constant shading can be corrected for by finding the appropriate sun elevation angle. 3. Weather, topography and vegetation are the most important factors that influence light intensities. We demonstrated their effect on the measurement of day /night length, time of solar midnight /noon and the resulting position estimates using light measurements from stationary geolocators at known places and from geolocators mounted on birds. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of different calibration methods on the accuracy of the latitudinal positions. 4. All three environmental factors can influence the light intensity pattern significantly. Weather and an animal’s behaviour result in increased noise in positioning, whereas topography and vegetation result in systematic shading and biased positions. Calibration can significantly shift the estimated latitudes and potentially increase the accuracy, but detailed knowledge about the particular confounding factors and the behaviour of the studied animal is crucial for the choice of the most appropriate calibration method.

Lisovski, Simeon; Hewson, Chris M.

2012-01-01

266

Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods. Respondents were undergraduate students of university with different demographics. Results has presented graphically, descriptively and inferentially using SPSS and Excel. Pearson’s chi-square and correlation has applied to verify the relationship between stress factors and demographics. Results show that living persuasively under strict rules and regulations can be a family stressor. Unavailability of best choices and paramount match to live with as a partner can be an emotional stress. Less income students find difficulty to spend money on buying and enjoying which is a predictor of financial stress. Pressurized life and squat admiration from people has lied under Social stress. Other verdicts are also deemed according to Pakistani cultural context.

Kashif Ud Din Khan

2013-02-01

267

Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated questionnaires. First a modified version of The Attitude/Motivation Test Battery Questionnaire (AMTB originally developed by Gardner (2004 was used to determine the degree of learners’ motivation. Second a modified version of Warrington's (2005 questionnaire was administered to determine the demotivating factors from the students' point of view. Then, the IOPT (Interchange Objective Placement Test was administered to measure the general proficiency of the subjects under study. The comparison of the IOPT score means of the two groups revealed a significant difference in the results of IOPT of students with higher scores in the AMTB and those with lower scores. That is, the more motivated the students were, the higher their IOPT scores were. Furthermore, factors such as the improper method of English teaching, frequency of classes in a week, problems in understanding listening materials and lack of use of English in students’ real life were found to be the essential demotivating factors among Iranian seminary students. Having known the barriers of learning, the teachers and Islamic Propagation Office materials developers can organize their activities so that they would lead to better understanding of the lessons and improvement of teaching programs.

Omid Tabatabaei

2012-01-01

268

Factors affecting dry matter intake and its prediction for Holstein cows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many factors affects dry matter intake (DMI. Individual theories based on physical fill of the reticulorumen, metabolic-feedback factors, or oxygen consumption have been proposed to determine and predict DMI (NRC, 2001. Prediction of DMI is fundamentally important in nutrition because it establishes the amount of nutrients available to an animal for health and production. Actual or accurately estimated DMI is important for the formulation of diets to prevent underfeeding or overfeeding of nutrients and to promote efficient nutrient use. Underfeeding of nutrients restricts production and can affect the health of an animal. Overfeeding of nutrients increases feed costs, can results in excessive excretion of nutrients into the environment, and at excessively high amounts may be toxic or cause adverse health effects. Several DMI prediction equations have been developed for use in the field, but only a few have been given in this paper.

Glamo?i? Dragan M.

2003-01-01

269

Somatic cell and factors which affect their count in milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk quality is determined by chemical composition, physical characteristics and hygienic parameters. The main indicators of hygienic quality of milk are total number of microorganisms and somatic cell count (SCC. Environmental factors have the greatest influence on increasing SCC. The most important environmental parameters are status of udder infection, age of cow, stage of lactation, number of lactation, breed, housing, geographicalarea and seasons, herd size, stress, heavy physical activity and, milking. A farmer (milk producer himself can control a great number of environmental factors using good management practise and permanent education. Since SCC participate in creating the price of milk, it is necessary to inform milk producers how to organise their production so that they would produce maximum quantity of good hygienic quality milk.

Zrinka ?a?i?

2003-01-01

270

Rice Farms Efficiency and Factors Affecting the Efficiency in MADA Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malaysian rice farming is still constrained by the low productivity despite many supports and subsidies that have been enacted to this sector. The difficulties in improving the yield is potentially caused by the unintensive use of inputs due to the inefficient management on the rice farm. Thus this study aims to measure the rice farm efficiency and factors affecting that efficiency. Two stage analysis was adopted whereas in the first stage data envelopment analysis was used and corrected by t...

Lira Mailena; Mad Nasir Shamsudin; Alias Radam; Ismail Latief

2014-01-01

271

FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction & suggestions to improve them.

Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin

2011-10-01

272

Factors and mechanisms affecting corrosion of steel in concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic power plants possess reinforced concrete structures which are exposed to sea water or sea atmosphere. Sea water or its surrounding environment contain very corrosive species which cause corrosion of metal in concrete. It should be mentioned that corrosion of steel in concrete is a complex problem that is not completely understood. Some of the factors which influence the corrosion mechanism and can be related to the pore solution composition is discussed. Chloride ion caused problems are the main source of the corrosion damage seen on the reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion rate in concrete varies and depends on the way chloride ion diffuses into concrete. In addition, the associated cations can influence diffusion of chloride into concrete. The type of portland cement and also the concrete mix design all affect the corrosion behaviour of steel in concrete

273

FACTORS AFFECTING ATM USAGE IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS  

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Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for ATM services, by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The results indicate that graduated and employed male customers who belong from higher income groups and having a bank account preferably in public sector bank are greatly emphasized to use of the banking services. Significant positive influence of the characterized socio-economic attributes on the use of ATM service was found. The service occupied customers significantly more emphasized to the use of ATM services. Noticeable, the banking attributes such as account type, convenience, number of services offered, and cost of banking services don’t have very attentive influence on the use of advanced IT based banking services.

Shariq Mohammed

2012-06-01

274

studies on some factors affecting oxidative low density lipoprotein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of occupational radiation exposure on some oxidant antioxidant parameters in addition to other factors affecting oxidative stress such as age, smoking, hypertension, high sedimentation rate for this purpose. a total of 131 individuals were included in this study 81 of them working in the radiation field the age was from 27 to 63 years. the occupational time from five to more than 25 where the control groups was composed of 50 healthy volunteers who had never worked in radiology related job otherwise with the same characteristics . the parameters tested are LDL, HDL, triglycerides, cholesterol, vitamin E, SOD, MDA, hemoglobin, fasting blood sugar, urea, creatinine, and liver enzymes GOT, GPT.our results show that time of exposure to radiation shows remarkable effect beginning with decrease of vitamin E after five years exposure,extending to MDA, triglycerides and LDL which increased while SOD decreased

275

Factors affecting Brucella spp. blood cultures positivity in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brucella infections have a wide spectrum of symptoms especially in children, making the diagnosis a complicated process. The gold standard for the final diagnosis for brucellosis is to identify the Brucella spp. isolated from blood or bone marrow cultures. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the factors affecting the isolation of Brucella spp. from blood cultures. In our study, the ratio of fever, presence of hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly were found to be higher in the bacteremic group. In addition, C-reactive protein levels and liver function enzymes were found to be higher in the bacteremic group. In our opinion, while evaluating the febrile child with suspected Brucella infection, we highly recommend sampling blood cultures regardless of the history of previous antimicrobial therapy and duration of the symptoms. PMID:23421883

Apa, Hur?it; Devrim, Ilker; Memur, Seyma; Günay, Ilker; Gülfidan, Gamze; Celegen, Mehmet; Bayram, Nuri; Karaarslan, Utku; Ba?, Ozlem; I?güder, Rana; Oztürk, Aysel; Inan, Seyhan; Unal, Nurrettin

2013-03-01

276

Five Factors Affecting Stability and Security in the Middle East  

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Full Text Available There are five factors that affect security and stability in the Middle East. The first of these is the ticking bomb of sectarianism between the Sunni and Shiite strands of Islam, which have become more widespread in recent years due to the politisation of sectarian tensions and their transformation among some actors to a means to achieve political demands. Secondly, the impact of the Arab revolutions and the accompanying rise of Islamist groups through the new democratic tendencies encouraged by those revolutions. Thirdly, Iran’s behaviour through the use of both direct and indirect threats to several countries in the region. Fourthly, the existence of a fertile environment for terrorist groups in Yemen. Finally, the struggle between Arabs and Israelis over the existence of the State of Israel and the plight of the Palestinians. This article provides a clear set of linkages between these and investigates them with the intention of enhancing understanding and encouraging debate.

Yahya Alshammari

2012-12-01

277

Factors affecting cellulose hydrolysis based on inactivation of adsorbed enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose reaction is known to decrease significantly as the reaction proceeds. Factors such as reaction temperature, time, and surface area of substrate that affect cellulose conversion were analyzed relative to their role in a mechanistic model based on first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulases. The activation energies for the hydrolytic step and inactivation step were very close in magnitude: 16.3 kcal mol(-1) for hydrolysis and 18.0 kcal mol(-1) for inactivation, respectively. Therefore, increasing reaction temperature would cause a significant increase in the inactivation rate in addition to the catalytic reaction rate. Vmax,app was only 20% or less of the value at 72 h compared to at 2h as a result of inactivation of adsorbed cellulases, suggesting prolonged hydrolysis is not an efficient way to improve cellulose hydrolysis. Hydrolysis rate increased with corresponding increases in available substrate surface binding area. PMID:25027809

Ye, Zhuoliang; Berson, R Eric

2014-09-01

278

Potential factors affecting accumulation of unsupported 210Pb in soil  

Science.gov (United States)

Airborne 210Pb, daughter of 222Rn, is frequently used as a tracer in different studies concerning atmospheric transport, sedimentation, soil erosion, dating, etc. Concentration of 210Pb was measured in 40 soil samples collected in urban and industrial areas in order to get evidence of possible influence of some factors on accumulation of airborne 210Pb in soil. Different soil properties such as the content of organic matter, free CaCO3, and available phosphorus (P2O5) were measured to explore their possible correlation with the amount of 210Pb. Special attention was given to the correlation between 210Pb and stable lead accumulated in the soil. Several samples were taken near a battery manufacturer to check if extremely high concentrations of lead can affect the uptake of the airborne 210Pb in soil. Soil samples were also taken at different depths to investigate the penetration of lead through the soil.

Mihailovi?, Aleksandra; Vu?ini? Vasi?, Milica; Todorovi?, Nataša; Hansman, Jan; Vasin, Jovica; Krmar, Miodrag

2014-06-01

279

Total factor productivity and Bio Economy effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper develops a new measure of total factor productivity growth in agricultural Production which incorporates Bio Economic components effects.The new measure is called the Bio Economic-Oriented Total Factor Productivity (BTFP) index, and incorporates components of Bio Economic as liquid biofuels. BTFP measure changes in Bio Economic efficiency and can be decomposed into bio economy efficiency change (BEC), and Bio Economic technological change (BTC) components.An empirical analysis, inv...

Zuniga Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto

2012-01-01

280

Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within ± 3 cm3, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p < 0.0001), and this was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. These results will help to identify factors that affect prostate volume calculation and t affect prostate volume calculation and to contribute to the improved estimation of the prostate volume based on CT images.

 
 
 
 
281

Factors affecting sorption of radiocobalt by river sediments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the principal factors affecting the interaction of radio cobalt with fresh water sediments and their importance for migration of radio cobalt in surface water streams. The uptake percent (U%) of radio cobalt by Ismailia Cannal bottom sediments (ICUBS) have been studied as a function of contact time, ph, competing ion, carrier concentration and natural ligands such as humic acid using batch technique. Mineralogical analyses of the sediment samples were carried out. The amount sorbed per gram sediment, (X/m), increased as the carrier concentration increased from 10-8 mol. Following a Freundlich type isotherm. The uptake of radio cobalt was found to be affected by changing in the ph of the aqueous phase. Presence of Mg24 ions as competing cation decreases the sorption of 60Co. Presence of humic acid shows a slight effect on the sorption of 60Co. Desorption of the investigated metal ion from the loaded sediment samples was also studied. A mathematical model for the migration of the investigated radioisotope in Ismailia canal water stream was developed to predict the concentrations of cobalt ion at different distances in X-direction

282

Factors Affecting the Adoption of Genetically Modified Animals in the Food and Pharmaceutical Chains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production of genetically modified (GM animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scoping study was conducted to assess research relevant to understanding the main drivers influencing the adoption of GM applications and their potential risks and benefits. Public and producers’ acceptance, public policies, human health, animal welfare, environmental impact and sustainability are considered as the main factors affecting the application of GM animal techniques in livestock and pharmaceutical chains.

Natasha I. Valeeva

2013-03-01

283

Environmental factors affecting pregnancy: Endocrine disrupters, nutrients and metabolic pathways.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uterine adenogenesis, a unique post-natal event in mammals, is vulnerable to endocrine disruption by estrogens and progestins resulting in infertility or reduced prolificacy. The absence of uterine glands results in insufficient transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen to support conceptus development. Arginine, a component of histotroph, is substrate for production of nitric oxide, polyamines and agmatine and, with secreted phosphoprotein 1, it affects cytoskeletal organization of trophectoderm. Arginine is critical for development of the conceptus, pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation and placentation. Conceptuses of ungulates and cetaceans convert glucose to fructose which is metabolized via multiple pathways to support growth and development. However, high fructose corn syrup in soft drinks and foods may increase risks for metabolic disorders and increase insulin resistance in adults. Understanding endocrine disrupters and dietary substances, and novel pathways for nutrient metabolism during pregnancy can improve survival and growth, and prevent chronic metabolic diseases in offspring. PMID:25224489

Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory A; Wang, Xiaoqiu

2014-12-01

284

Major factors affecting severity of obstructive sleep apnea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Computed tomography (CT) has become a common method for evaluating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between CT parameters and clinical parameters in OSA patients to determine major factors affecting the severity of OSA. The records of 128 consecutive snoring patients (98 males, 30 females) diagnosed with OSA were retrospectively reviewed. Polysomnography was performed for each patient. On CT scans, airway areas were measured at the level of the hard palate, the soft palate, and the base of the tongue. Polysomnographic parameters were compared by gender and age using the Mann-Whitney U test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to analyze relationships between variables and the AHI in each age group. The women were significantly older than the men (p apnea index were significantly higher in men than in women. Stage 1 sleep and rapid eye movement sleep were more frequent in men than in women. The area at the base of the tongue was significantly smaller in women than in men (p = 0.027). In the 50-60 age group, the AHI was significantly higher in men (41.47 ± 19.67) than in women (17.14 ± 15.63) (p = 0.001). OSA severity varies with age, gender, and upper airway area. The OSA prognosis could be improved by evaluating the major factors and treating OSA patients according to epidemiological characteristics and anatomical structures. PMID:25621265

Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Boo-Young; Han, Jung Ju; Hwang, Jae Hyung; Jung, Kihwan; Kim, Min; Kim, Soo Whan

2015-03-01

285

Factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF. These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in a phosphate buffer. These factors include particle size and chemical composition, field strength, cold-wall temperature of the channel and the nature of the suspension medium. These results show that ThFFF can be used to fractionate colloidal particles according to size and that for an unknown colloidal sample material, a calibration curve must be obtained using particles of similar composition. This is necessary because the degree of retention of the colloidal material is dependent on chemical composition of sample material as evidenced by the chemical composition study. The potential of using ThFFF for physico-chemical characterization of colloidal material is illustrated through the evaluation of thermal diffusion coefficient of PS particles as a function of size, cold-wall temperature, and carrier solution composition. The tunabiliy of the extent of retention of the colloidal particles in a ThFFF channel is illustrated by results of the influence of field strength on retention.

Paul M. Shiundu

2002-06-01

286

Evaluation of hydraulic factors affecting flow accelerated corrosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is known as a complex phenomena of hydraulics and electro-chemicals. Essential mechanism of the hydraulic factors affecting FAC is the mass transfer of ferrous ions dissolved from the pipe surface. To predict the FAC rate in susceptible pipe elements, evaluation of the mass transfer in those geometry with eccentric flow is required. For this purpose, new model of mass transfer coefficient was proposed by combining knowledges of previous studies and consideration of local turbulent velocity. In this process, Chilton-Colburn analogy of heat and mass transfer and Blasius' friction factor were referred to. To validate the model, FAC experiment and flow numerical calculation were conducted. In the experiment, carbon steel test specimens were set in the downstream of a flow contraction in small rectangular flow ducts, and FAC rate profiles on the specimens were observed in PWR condensate condition. In the calculation, flow field for the experiment was calculated with the in-house code 'MATIS-I' utilizing LES turbulence model, and mean and turbulent velocity profiles on the specimen's surface were evaluated. By comparing these results, the new mass transfer coefficient showed good correlation with the local FAC rate, and the effect of introducing the turbulent velocity to the model was confirmed. (author)

287

Characterization of visibility and its affecting factors over Nanjing, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Visibility, Air Pollution Index (API) and meteorological parameters over Nanjing during 2004 are analyzed using multiple statistic methods to study the characterization of visibility and relevant affecting factors. The mean value of visibility during the study year is 8.8 km, with 57.9% of daily average less than 10 km. Annual average visibility exhibits a significant diurnal variation with minimum of 6.6 km at 07:00 Local Time (LT) and maximum of 10.7 km at 16:00 LT. Seasonal variations is weak: 9.2 km in spring (March-May), 9.8 km in summer (June-August), 8.2 km in autumn (September-November), and 8.1 km in winter (December-February), respectively. No significant weekend effect in visibility is found. Moreover, wavelet analysis reveals the significant periodic variations in visibility, with major periods of synoptic scale (2-8 days), and quasi-two-week scale (8-17 days). Using a high pass filtering technique to eliminate the seasonal trend, correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) are carried out to investigate the relations between visibility and relevant factors and to understand the dominated processes/causes to the synoptic changes in visibility. Our results highlight the significant impact of synoptic weather on air pollution and visibility in Nanjing.

Deng, Junjun; Wang, Tijian; Jiang, Ziqiang; Xie, Min; Zhang, Renjian; Huang, Xiaoxian; Zhu, Jialei

2011-08-01

288

Factors affecting RAIU in hyperthyroidism patients: an analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To analyze the factors affecting thyroid radioiodine uptake (RAIU) of hyperthyroidism patients. Methods; RAIU was performed in 106 hyperthyroidism patients. Some factors were studied to analyze influences on the peak of RAIU, including patients' age and sex, gland weight, taking antithyroid drugs (ATD) or not, time of ATD taking and withdrawal. Results: Patients' RAIU peak had no significant difference for different ages and sex (F=1.68, P=0.1439). If preparation was performed according to the requirements before RAIU measurement, taking ATD or not had no influence on RAIU (t=1.1362, P=0.2625). RAIU peak was different between patients whose gland weight was ? 30 g and >30 g. Conclusions: Age and sex have no influence on RAIU. As long as ATD was discontinued at least one week before RAIU measurement, time of taking ATD and discontinuation have no influence on RAIU, and the result of measurement coincide with that of patients who do not take medicine. RAIU peak has relation with gland weight, and RAIU of people with gland weight ?30 g was lower than that of people with gland weight >30 g

289

Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku are definedtogether withshowing the optimal ways of development.

Vusat AFANDIYEV

2014-12-01

290

Factors Affecting in-Hospital Mortality of Acute Myocardial Infarction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. Considering immense socioeconomic damages of growing AMI in developing countries we estimated prognostic value of major risk factors of AMI to predict probable In-hospital AMI mortality."nMethods: In a cohort survey from June 2004 to March 2006, 1798 patients hospitalized with proven AMI entered into two groups: Survived (patients discharged alive and Expired (patients expired during hospitalization due to AMI. We evaluated relationship of 17 risk factors including age, sex, smoking, opium usage, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, dyslipidemia, Killip class, existence of Q wave, St segment elevation, bundle branch blocks (BBB, involved surface of heart, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, mitral valve regurgitation (MR, and serum level of Troponin I and CKMB, with patients' survival and expiry by using chi square test, T test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. P value ? 0.05 was considered significant."nResults: There were 1629 (90.6% survived and 169 (9.4% expired patients. Factors significantly affected in-hospital mortality of AMI include: age (P< 0.001, femaleness (P< 0.001, smoking (P< 0.001, Killip class>II (P< 0.001, hy­per­tension (P= 0.036, DM (P< 0.001, bundle branch block (P< 0.001, Moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (P< 0.001, lower Mean LVEF (P< 0.001, and lower mean serum concentration of CKMB and Troponin I (P< 0.001. Mortality was significantly higher in anterolateral infarction."nConclusion: Mean age> 69.01 yr, femaleness, Killip class III & V, hypertension, DM, moderate to severe MR, anterolateral AMI, bundle branch block and higher serum concentration of CKMB & Troponin I are associated with higher In-hospital post-AMI mortality.

M Salarifar

2009-09-01

291

Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

2008-01-01

292

The Economic and Social Factors Affecting Deforestation In Selected Countries: Using Environmental Kuznets Curve  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deforestation has been recognized as one of the biggest environmental problems in the world. It is also one of the main elements of land productivity changes and one of the biggest factors which threaten world's environmental diversity. In this study, based on environmental Kuznets theory, factors which may affect deforestation have been investigated. Results obtained from 71 studied countries show that environmental Kuznets curve was not true for them. Population growth helps the speed of deforestation while higher rate of GDP growth decreases its rate. Institutions which help with the improvement of democracy, individual assets, civil right and political liberty can decrease the pressure on natural recourses and deforestation.

A Esmaeili

2009-07-01

293

Studies and Research on Friction, Friction Factor and Affecting Factors : A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The friction and friction factors are very significant factors in flow through pipes, channels, heat exchangers . From the pumping cost point of view, minimum friction is desirable as it will decrease the energy loss. In the rotating components like axle-shaft arrangements, the friction and slip are important factors. In case of heat exchanger, the friction factor is important as the heat transfer depends on it. The research was also reported on effect of submerged vegetation on friction for river. The friction coefficient was a function of flow depth and velocity. Also various models were suggested by investigators to predict friction coefficient based on their research related to factors affecting the friction coefficient and the nature and gravity of their effect on friction.

Sunil J. Kulkarni

2014-10-01

294

CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: ¿CÓMO AFECTA LA PRODUCCIÓN GANADERA? (Climatic change: How affect the livestock production?)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ResumenEl cambio climático es un proceso inequívoco; se dice cómo la producción bovina estimula uno de los factores que lo produce: el efecto invernadero; sin embargo es importante conocer su efecto contrario: cómo el cambio climático afecta la ganadería.SummaryClimate change is a distinct process; it’s knew how the cattle production stimulates one of the factors that produced it: the greenhouse effect, however it’s important to know the opposite effect: how climate change affects ...

Garzo?n Alfonso, J. E.

2011-01-01

295

40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Nnnnn of... - Performance Test Requirements for HCl Production Affected Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Performance Test Requirements for HCl Production Affected Sources 3 Table...63—Performance Test Requirements for HCl Production Affected Sources As stated...following requirements for performance tests for HCl production for each affected source....

2010-07-01

296

Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

2014-06-01

297

Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

Pyo, Katrina A.

2011-07-01

298

Analysis of Factors Affecting the Quality of an E-commerce Website Using Factor Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors which affect the quality and effectiveness of an e commerce website which also majorly affect customer satisfaction and ultimately customer retention and loyalty. This research paper examines a set of 23 variables and integrates them into 4 factors which affect the quality of a website. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to generate statistics regarding the preferences of the e-commerce website users.The 23 variables taken from customer survey are generalized into 4 major factors using exploratory factor analysis which are content, navigation, services and interface design. The research majorly consists of the responses of students between the age group of 18-25 years and considers different B2C commercial websites. Identified variables are important with respect to the current competition in the market as service of an e-commerce website also play a major role in ensuring customer satisfaction. Further research in this domain can be done for websites’ version for mobile devices.

Saurabh Mishra

2014-12-01

299

Interaction Between Optical and Neural Factors Affecting Visual Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The human eye suffers from higher order aberrations, in addition to conventional spherical and cylindrical refractive errors. Advanced optical techniques have been devised to correct them in order to achieve superior retinal image quality. However, vision is not completely defined by the optical quality of the eye, but also depends on how the image quality is processed by the neural system. In particular, how neural processing is affected by the past visual experience with optical blur has remained largely unexplored. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the interaction of optical and neural factors affecting vision. To achieve this goal, pathological keratoconic eyes were chosen as the ideal population to study since they are severely afflicted by degraded retinal image quality due to higher order aberrations and their neural system has been exposed to that habitually for a long period of time. Firstly, we have developed advanced customized ophthalmic lenses for correcting the higher order aberration of keratoconic eyes and demonstrated their feasibility in providing substantial visual benefit over conventional corrective methodologies. However, the achieved visual benefit was significantly smaller than that predicted optically. To better understand this, the second goal of the thesis was set to investigate if the neural system optimizes its underlying mechanisms in response to the long-term visual experience with large magnitudes of higher order aberrations. This study was facilitated by a large-stroke adaptive optics vision simulator, enabling us to access the neural factors in the visual system by manipulating the limit imposed by the optics of the eye. Using this instrument, we have performed a series of experiments to establish that habitual exposure to optical blur leads to an alteration in neural processing thereby alleviating the visual impact of degraded retinal image quality, referred to as neural compensation. However, it was also found that chronic exposure to poor optics caused neural insensitivity to fine spatial detail thus adversely limiting the achievable visual benefit when improving the eye's optical quality. Finally, we demonstrated that the altered, but plastic visual system could be re-adapted to improved optics such that it partially recovers its normal mechanism. These findings not only provide vast clinical implications for advanced customized vision correction methodologies for normal, pathologic and presbyopic eyes but also vital scientific insight into the neural processing of the visual system in response to the aberrated optics of the eye.

Sabesan, Ramkumar

300

Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.

Azin Ayatollahi

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

2010-12-01

302

Factors affecting the cost and competitiveness of nuclear electricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general context in which are carried out the investment choices of the electric sector has evolved in a significant way during these last years and the changes are to a certain extent irreversible. Economic globalization, deregulation of the electricity market, privatisation of electricity producers, and increasing awareness of environmental issues are modifying the policy-making landscape and the criteria and priorities of decision-makers in the power sector. Competitiveness remains a cornerstone for evaluating and choosing alternative technologies in the process of planning and decision-making for electricity system expansion or power plant replacement. Nevertheless, the production costs analysis inserts factors which were not taking before into account as for instance social impacts, health and environmental effects. These new approaches better reveal the total costs of the different production means. They will certainly lead to different choices than those based on the whole comparison of direct costs supported by producers. The economic studies carried out by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (NEA) cover all the preceding aspects and give objective information on the competitiveness of nuclear electricity. The nuclear industry has today the necessary means to take up the challenges of the electricity new markets. (O.M.)

303

Determination of 140La fission product interference factor for INAA  

Science.gov (United States)

Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is a technique widely used to determine the concentration of several elements in several kinds of matrices. However if the sample of interest has higher relative uranium concentration the obtained results can be interfered by the uranium fission products. One of these cases that is affected by interference due to U fission is the 140La , because this radioisotope used in INAA for the determination of concentration the La is also produced by the -? of 140Ba , an uranium fission product. The 140La interference factor was studied in this work and a factor to describe its time dependence was obtained.

Ribeiro, Iberê S., Jr.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Zahn, Guilherme S.

2014-11-01

304

Factors Affecting Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA Content in Milk, Meat, and Egg: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An increasing interest in enhancing the conjugated linoleic acids (CLA content in food products is attributed to its potential anti-carcinogenic, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-atherogenic, and immunomodulatory functions in experimental animal models. It is synthesized in the rumen from linoleic acid or from the endogenous conversion of t-11 C18:1 in the mammary gland by delta-9 desaturase. More than a dozen isomers of CLA have been detected in foods of ruminant origin, of which c-9, t-11 comprising 80 to 90%, and t-10, c-12 comprising 3-5% of total CLA are the isomers with known physiological importance. Although food products from ruminants are the richest source of CLA for humans, it is possible to enhance the CLA content of foods from non-ruminants by supplementing CLA in the diet. The CLA content in milk, meat, or egg varies greatly from a low 0.1% or less to a high 2% or more of the milk, tissue, or egg yolk lipids, with milk lipids from ruminants having the highest concentrations. A host of factors appear to affect the CLA content in milk, meat, and other food products from various species of animals, which could be broadly classified into diet, animal, and post-harvest related factors. Of all these factors, animal diet is the primary one and could be manipulated to a great extent for enhancing the concentration of CLA in food products, both from ruminants and non-ruminants. While animal-to-animal variation is also of great significance, post-harvest related factors appear to be of minor importance. In this context, the CLA content of milk, meat, and egg, and the factors affecting its concentration have been reviewed. Understanding the various factors affecting the CLA content in food products will have practical implications to the dairy, meat, or egg producers for its enrichment in food products so we can derive the potential health benefits associated with CLA.

R.C. Khanal

2004-01-01

305

Total Factor Productivity: An Unobserved Components Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract This work examines the presence of unobserved components in the time series of Total Factor Productivity, which is an idea central to modern Macroeconomics. The main approaches in both the study of economic growth and the study of business cycles rely on certain properties of the different components of the time series of Total Factor Productivity. In the study of economic growth, the Neoclassical growth model explains growth in terms of technical progress as measured by t...

Crespo, Raul Jose

2008-01-01

306

Human Factors in the Management of Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ‘Human factor’ is a major issue when optimizing manufacturing systems. The development in recommendations on how to handle this factor in the management of production reflects the change in dominating challenges faced by production in society. Presently, industrial societies are meeting new challenges. Qualitative interviews with Danish stakeholders in the education of engineers (BA & MA) confirm the picture given in international literature. Therefore, the didactics concerning the ?...

Jensen, Per Langa?; Alting, Leo

2007-01-01

307

Factors affecting the ion beam implantation in silicon  

CERN Document Server

The factors affecting the ion beam implantation in silicon have been studied using boron, phosphorus, oxygen, and argon ions having energy range 0.5 ke V-200 ke V. It was found that the range of the ions in silicon increases with the increase of their energy and decreases with the increase of their masses. The ionization process is found to be the main process for causing damage in the silicon matrix whether it is produced by the accelerated ions or by the recoiled silicon atoms. The magnitude of ionization in silicon is found to be inversely proportional to the mass of ions. Ionization produced by ions or recoils shows different contributions to the damage depending on the mass of ions where the ions energy loss to ionization decreases from 70% to 23% as the mass is increased from 11 for boron (B) to 40 for argon (Ar). Its magnitude, as produced by ions, is found to decrease with the increase of their masses. Its value is observed to increase in a complementary way with the mass increase. Ions energy loss to...

El-Shanshoury, A I

2003-01-01

308

Factors Affecting the Radii of Close-in Transiting Exoplanets  

CERN Document Server

The radius of an exoplanet may be affected by various factors, including irradiation, planet mass and heavy element content. A significant number of transiting exoplanets have now been discovered for which the mass, radius, semi-major axis, host star metallicity and stellar effective temperature are known. We use multivariate regression models to determine the dependence of planetary radius on planetary equilibrium temperature T_eq, planetary mass M_p, stellar metallicity [Fe/H], orbital semi-major axis a, and tidal heating rate H_tidal, for 119 transiting planets in three distinct mass regimes. We determine that heating leads to larger planet radii, as expected, increasing mass leads to increased or decreased radii of low-mass (2.0R_J) planets, respectively (with no mass effect on Jupiter-mass planets), and increased host-star metallicity leads to smaller planetary radii, indicating a relationship between host-star metallicity and planet heavy element content. For Saturn-mass planets, a good fit to the radii...

Enoch, B; Horne, K

2012-01-01

309

[Factors that affect adult men's decisions to hire a prostitute].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study analyzed demographic and psychological factors that affect adult men's decisions to solicit a prostitute. We administered a questionnaire to 1400 randomly sampled men aged 20 to 59, who live in the Tokyo metropolitan area (obtaining 664 valid responses). The results revealed that 14.6 percent of respondents have had the experience of being a client in prostitution at some point over the past four to five years. Men in their 50s, who spent their adolescence before the enforcement of anti-prostitution laws, had high prostitution acceptability. Those in their 20s and 30s, who spent their adolescence in the 1990s when "Enjyo-Kousai" (Japanese amateur prostitution) gained topicality, also showed high rates. These findings are considered to be birth cohort effects. In addition, those men who reported greater sexual drive and desire for intimate contact with others, as well as those who reported fewer attitudes of gender egalitarianism, had higher rates of prostitution solicitation. Finally, those men who reported less emotional family bonds also showed higher rates. PMID:18939442

Ui, Miyoko; Matsui, Yutaka; Fukutomi, Mamoru; Narita, Ken'ichi; Kamise, Yumiko; Yashiro, Kaoru

2008-08-01

310

THEORIES AND FACTORS AFFECTING MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioadhesion is an interfacial phenomenon in which two materials, at least one of which is biological, are held together by means of interfacial forces. When the associated biological system is mucous, it is called mucoadhesion. This property of certain polymeric systems have got place in the drug delivery research in order to prolong contact time in the various mucosal route of drug administration, as the ability to maintain a delivery system at a particular location for an extended period of time has a great appeal for both local action as well as systemic drug bioavailability. A complete and comprehensive theory that can predict adhesion based on the chemical and/or physical nature of a polymer is not yet available. Several theories have been proposed to explain the fundamental mechanisms of adhesion such as glues, adhesives, and paints, have been adopted to study the mucoadhesion. Mucoadhesion is a complex process and numerous theories have been presented to explain the mechanisms involved. These theories include mechanical-interlocking, electrostatic, diffusion–interpenetration, adsorption and fracture processes. They are Electronic theory, Adsorption theory, Wetting theory, Diffusion theory, Fracture theory. The objective of the study is to explain the different mechanisms involved in mucoadhesion and various factors affecting mucoadhesion.

Alexander Amit

2011-04-01

311

Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

Martino Cassandro

2012-01-01

312

Chordoma: review of clinico radiological features and factors affecting survival  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study reviews the clinico radiological features of cranial and sacrospinal chordomas and identifies factors affecting survival. Nineteen patients seen between January 1980 and December 2000 with histopathological diagnosis of chordomas were retrospectively reviewed with reference to clinical presentation, imaging features, treatment modalities and post-therapy status. Eight had tumours in the skull base while 11 patients had spinal and sacro-coccygeal lesions. Surgical resection was performed in 16 patients whose subsequent natural history was used to identify clinical indicators that may influence survival. Completeness of resection, age, gender and postoperative irradiation were subjected to analysis using the Cox proportional hazard models. Kaplan-Meir survival curves illustrate the survival distributions. Diplopia and facial pain are prime clinical presentations in cranial lesions, while extremity weakness and a sacrogluteal mass are common complaints in the sacrospinal group. Lesional calcifications are present in 40% while an osteolytic soft tissue mass is detectable by CT in all cases. Heterogeneous signals and internal septations on T2-weighted MRI are predominant features. In sacrospinal tumours, complete excision with adjuvant radiotherapy achieves the best results with a disease-free survival of more than 5 years. The clinical and imaging findings in this study are in accordance with those of other series. Except for complete surgical excisieries. Except for complete surgical excision followed by radiotherapy in the subset of patients with sacrospinal tumours, none of the other clinical indicators show a statistical significant influence on survival. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

313

Factors affecting the motivation of smokers to quit smoking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available smoking. Success of smoking cessation depends mainly on the balance between motivation and the degree of nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the motivation of smokers to stop smoking. Method: Data were collected from 139 smokers, aged 18-69 divided in two groups. Questionnaires were completed about the demographic data, smoking history, anthropometric characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, motivation degree and alcohol consumption. Results: Body Mass Index was positively correlated with the dependence degree and heavy smoking, while those who were overweight in adolescence showed a lower degree of motivation for smoking cessation. Individuals with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption, those who smoked in their working environment and were heavier smokers needed greater motivation. The low degree of dependence was associated with a lower degree of motivation, while those who showed medium dependence were moderately motivated. Conclusions: Health care professionals should take into account all the above components with the aim of motivating smokers to stop smoking.

Gourgoulianis K.

2011-07-01

314

Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank and State Bank of India and Canara Bank. The sample size of 450 has been taken from among the urban population of above 18 years of age. The result indicates that the educated respondents use the service of internet banking. Based on occupation we can say that the service class and the business class is the one who use internet banking service to nearly 2 times as other occupation. The high income respondents having more than 1 lack income prefer to use this service. The private sector bank account holders use this service as compared to public sector banks. The banking attributes i.e. convenience and security do have very attentive influence on the use of Internet banking.

Shariq Mohammed

2013-10-01

315

Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

Tan, K M

2012-02-01

316

Factors affecting the success of influenza laboratory diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza is one of the most common human infectious diseases, and has profound health and economic consequences. The laboratory diag- nosis of influenza virus infections plays an important role in the global surveillance of influenza. Therefore, there is a growing demand for highly sensitive and rapid methods for detecting influenza. The performance of particular diagnostic methods is affected by various factors. In this study, we assess the effects of patients' age and time to diagnosis on the probability of detecting influenza using four diagnostic methods (virus isolation, rapid test, RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR). We examined 3,546 samples from central and eastern Slovakia during the influenza seasons from 2005-2006 to 2010-2011. In general, the probability of influenza detection significantly decreased with the time from onset of illness to sample collection (T1) as well as with patients' age (AGE). On the contrary, time from sample collection to delivery (T2) did not play a role in the prob- ability of influenza detection. As judged by odds ratios, the virus isolation method was most sensitive to T1, followed by the rapid test and RT-PCR methods. For the effect of AGE, the rapid test and virus isolation methods were more sensitive than PCR-based methods. The effects of T1 and AGE were independent of each other. Laboratories which participate in inifluenza surveillance should use several methods to enable rapid and accurate influenza A and B virus detection. PMID:25438393

Kissová, Renáta; Svitok, Marek; Klement, Cyril; Mad'arová, Lucia

2014-09-01

317

Mechanical factors affecting reliability of pressure components (fatigue, cracking)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reliability of a pressure component can be seriously affected by the formation and development of cracks. The experimental studies presented in this paper are devoted to three different aspects of crack propagation phenomena which have been relatively little described. In close connection with safety analyses of PWR, the authors study the influence of the environment by carrying out fatigue tests with samples bathed in hot pressurized water. Ferritic, austenitic and Incolloy 800 steels were used and the results are presented in the form of fatigue curves in the oligocyclic region. The second part of the paper relates to crack initiation cirteria in ductile steels weakened by notches. The CT samples used make it possible to study almost all types of fracture (ductile, intermediate and brittle). The use of two criteria based on the load limit and on the toughness of the material constitutes a practical way of evaluating crack propagation conditions. A series of tests carried out on notched spherical vessels of different size shows that large vessels are relatively brittle; fast unstable fracture is observed as size increases. Crack growth rate in PWR primary circuits (3/6 steel) is studied on piping elements (0.25 scale) subjected to cyclic stress variations (2850C and with pressure varying between 1 and 160 bar in each cycle). By calculating the stress intensity factor, correlation with results obtained in the laboratory on CT samples is possible. (authoboratory on CT samples is possible. (author)

318

Some factors affecting the in vitro culture of banana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Factors affecting in vitro regeneration of shoots in shoot tip explant cultures of banana cultivar 'Basrai', such as solid and liquid media, growth regulators, vitamins, and antioxidants were studied. Three-quarters strength of MS liquid medium supplemented with 17.75 micro m 6-benzyladenine (BA), 11.42 micro M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 205 micro M adenine sulphate induced the formation of mean number of 12.3 shoots, with the mean length of 3.0 cm, after three weeks of culture. Maximum shoot multiplication (14.33) occurred in liquid medium containing 22.19 micro M BA. Addition of 2.0% activated charcoal (AC) to the liquid medium improved quality of the regenerated plants with expanded and glossy leaves, though the number of shoots was reduced (13.66). Profuse formation of roots was characteristically induced by AC. Addition of citric acid (CA) to the medium caused decline in morphogenetic expression of the cultures. (author)

319

Affective and ergonomic quality of a new bedding product  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is essential that design of bed clothes in healthcare and other industries e.g. hospitality are suitable for the personnel when they perform bedding tasks. The bed clothes are important not just for patients’ experience of healthcare service, but also for serving as tools for nurses satisfaction and performance in the bed making task. Ergonomics and work load of the nurses are directly affected from design and development of product characteristics (material, weight etc.) and related tas...

Ayas Pinar, Ebru

2008-01-01

320

Factors affecting stall use for different freestall bases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to compare stall use (stall occupancy and cow position) by barn side for factors affecting stall use. A closed circuit television system recorded stall use four times per day for a 9-mo period starting May 9, 2001. Six factors were analyzed: stall base, distance to water, stall location within stall base section, stall location within barn, inside barn temperature, and length of time cows were exposed to stall bases. Two barn sides with different stocking densities were analyzed: low (66%), with cows milked by robotic milker; and high (100%), with cows milked 2X in parlor. Six stall base types were tested: two mattresses, a waterbed, a rubber mat, concrete, and sand (high side only). The base types were grouped 3 to 7 stalls/section and randomly placed in each row. Cows spent more time in mattress-based stalls, but the highest percentage lying was in sand-based stalls. The following significant stall occupancy percentages were found: sand had the highest percentage of cows lying on the high stocking density side (69%), followed by mattress type 1 (65%) > mattress type 2 (57%) > waterbed (45%) > rubber mat (33%) > concrete (23%). Mattress type 1 had the highest percentage stalls occupied (88%), followed by mattress type 2 (84%) > sand (79%) > soft rubber mat (65%) > waterbed (62%) > concrete (39%). On the low stocking rate side, mattress type 1 had the highest percentage cows lying (45%) and occupied (59.6%), followed by mattress type 2 > waterbed > soft rubber mat > concrete. Cow lying and stalls occupied percentages were highest for stalls 1) not at the end of a section, and 2) on the outside row, and varied by base type for time cows exposed to stalls and inside barn temperature. Lying and occupied percentages were different for different mattress types. The percentage of stalls with cows standing was higher for mat and mattress-based stalls. Results show mattress type 1 and sand to be superior and rubber mats and concrete inferior stall bases. PMID:12836963

Wagner-Storch, A M; Palmer, R W; Kammel, D W

2003-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Total factor productivity - a misleading concept  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper criticises the concept of total factor productivity as a measure of technical change and economic performance on two grounds: (i theoretical, because it shares all the weaknesses of the neoclassical production function from which it is derived; (ii its relevance in helping to understand the present technological revolution in computer and information technologies, since it concerns only disembodied technical change. The practical conclusion is that total factor productivity is more a measure of "noise" than a genuine indicator of technical progress. In spite of the above drawbacks, total factor productivity is still widely used in empirical work on technical change. This is all the more surprising since the alternative concept ofproductivity of labour not only avoids the above mentioned criticisms but is theoretically superior to its rival concept because it captures the true nature of present technical change.

Angelo Reati

2001-09-01

322

Factors affecting performance of Nili-Ravi buffaloes in Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of herd, year, age, season, and lactation length on milk yield and reproductive efficiency for the Nili-Ravi breed of buffalo were determined by analysis of variance of 5,716 lactation records from two herds in Pakistan. Herds differed in all traits. Herd average milk yields were 1,702 and 2,064 kg. Year, season, herd, parity number, days in milk, days open, age, and sire all influenced milk yield. Herd, year, season, and parity number also had significant effects on days open and calving interval. Month of calving was important for time until return to estrus. Percentages of variance in milk yield attributed to herd, year, sire, cow, and residual were 20.3, 11.4, 4.3, 17.0, and 47.0. Classification of lactation length (greater than 60, greater than 250, or at least 305 days) markedly influenced the sire component of variance suggesting some interdependence of milk yield and lactation length. Total variance for milk yield was 466,911 kg2. Within herd heritability for milk yield was .25, and repeatability was low (.31). Predicted breeding values for sires for 250 to 305-day milk ranged from -172 kg to +260. Cows in Herd 1 completed 5.58 lactations with an average herd life of 12.3 yr; Herd 2 cows completed 4.52 lactations with culling at 10.6 yr. Frequency of termination of lactations because of mastitis, reproductive problems, or health was similar to frequencies for cattle. Factors affecting milk yield in buffaloes are similar to those of cattle. PMID:6841754

Cady, R A; Shah, S K; Schermerhorn, E C; McDowell, R E

1983-03-01

323

Some factors affecting the magnitude of comodulation masking release.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines some of the factors that can affect the magnitude of comodulation masking release (CMR). In experiment I, psychometric functions were measured for the detection of a 1-kHz sinusoidal signal in a "multiplied" narrow-band noise centered at 1 kHz (reference condition) and the same noise with two comodulated flanking bands added. The functions were slightly steeper for the comodulated than for the reference masker. Thus CMRs measured at a high percent correct point were slightly (0.4 dB) larger than CMRs measured at a low percent correct point. Large individual differences were found for the reference masker but not for the comodulated masker. Experiment II compared CMRs obtained with narrow-band Gaussian noise and multiplied noise, using a single flanking band. For a flanking band remote from the signal frequency, the CMRs were smaller and more variable for the multiplied noise than for the Gaussian noise. This variability arose mainly from individual differences in the reference condition. Experiment III compared growth-of-masking functions for a signal centered in Gaussian noise and multiplied noise. Thresholds were lower for the multiplied than for the Gaussian noise, and the differences were greatest at high noise levels. The results are consistent with the idea that, for multiplied noise, some subjects can detect a change in the distribution of the envelope of the stimulus, when the signal is added to the masker. Such subjects have low thresholds in the reference condition, and give small CMRs. Other subjects are relatively insensitive to this cue. They have higher thresholds in the reference condition, and give larger CMRs. For Gaussian noise, thresholds for the reference condition are relatively stable across subjects and CMRs tend to be substantial, even for flanking-band frequencies remote from the signal frequency. PMID:2262626

Moore, B C; Hall, J W; Grose, J H; Schooneveldt, G P

1990-10-01

324

Total Factor Productivity Growth when Factors of Production Generate Environmental Externalities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Total factor productivity growth (TFPG) has been traditionally associated with technological change. We show that when a factor of production, such as energy, generates an environmental externality in the form of CO2 emissions which is not internalized because of lack of environmental policy, then TFPG estimates could be biased. This is because the contribution of environment as a factor of production is not accounted for in the growth accounting framework. Empirical estimates confirm this hy...

Vouvaki, Dimitra; Xepapadeas, Anastasios

2008-01-01

325

Factors Affecting Students' Choice of Science and Engineering in Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the results of a study undertaken in Portugal to determine the influence of different factors on students' (n=499) decisions to study or refuse to study in one of the physical sciences or engineering. Some influencing factors are related to what goes on in school and during science lessons, and other factors are related to the…

de Almeida, Maria Jose B. M.; Leite, Maria Salete S. C. P.; Woolnough, Brian E.

326

Alpha radiolysis and other factors affecting hydrolysis of tributyl phosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary purpose of this study was to identify the principal degradation products produced by Pu(IV) loading in 30% tributyl phosphate/dodecane (TBP-DD) solutions and to determine the formation rates of these species as a function of temperature. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate HNO3 hydrolysis of TBP as a function of temperature and to compare the effects resulting from plutonium solvent loading with effects due to loading with uranium and zirconium. The results indicate that four factors are of particular significance: (1) dibutyl phosphate (DBP) is the principal plutonium-complexing species formed at temperatures of 500C or lower, while significant concentrations of monobutyl phosphate (MBP) are also formed at higher temperatures; (2) the TBP degradation rate due to alpha radiolysis or chemical hydrolysis is strongly dependent on temperature; (3) plutonium promotes TBP hydrolysis by two mechanisms, alpha radiolysis and metal-ion-induced hydrolysis, and, of these, metal-ion-induced hydrolysis can be the major effect; and (4) small amounts of an unidentified plutonium-complexing species are formed in experiments using plutonium of high specific activity [about 4 x 108 counts per minute per milligram (c/min dot mg)]. This species cannot be removed from 30% TBP-DD by Na2CO3 washing or other solvent cleanup procedures. The TBP degradation rates (determined as grams of plutonium complexed by degradation products) increased from 0.125 mg Pu/L dot h at 250C to 47.9 mg Pu/L dot h at 800C in 30% TBP-DD solutions that contained only 0.68 M HNO3. In solutions that additionally contained approx.20 g/L of plutonium (specific activity = 9 x 107 c/min dot mg) TBP degradation rates increased from 2.46 mg Pu/L dot h at 250C to 127.1 mg Pu/L dot h at 800C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

327

Production of Tuber-Inducing Factor  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for making a substance that regulates the growth of potatoes and some other economically important plants has been developed. The process also yields an economically important by-product: potatoes. The particular growth-regulating substance, denoted tuber-inducing factor (TIF), is made naturally by, and acts naturally on, potato plants. The primary effects of TIF on potato plants are reducing the lengths of the main shoots, reducing the numbers of nodes on the main stems, reducing the total biomass, accelerating the initiation of potatoes, and increasing the edible fraction (potatoes) of the overall biomass. To some extent, these effects of TIF can override environmental effects that typically inhibit the formation of tubers. TIF can be used in the potato industry to reduce growth time and increase harvest efficiency. Other plants that have been observed to be affected by TIF include tomatoes, peppers, radishes, eggplants, marigolds, and morning glories. In the present process, potatoes are grown with their roots and stolons immersed in a nutrient solution in a recirculating hydroponic system. From time to time, a nutrient replenishment solution is added to the recirculating nutrient solution to maintain the required nutrient concentration, water is added to replace water lost from the recirculating solution through transpiration, and an acid or base is added, as needed, to maintain the recirculating solution at a desired pH level. The growing potato plants secrete TIF into the recirculating solution. The concentration of TIF in the solution gradually increases to a range in which the TIF regulates the growth of the plants.

Stutte, Gary W.; Yorio, Neil C.

2006-01-01

328

AN ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The high performing East Asian development model sparked controversies in the academia: its success was ascribed alternatively to nation-states, markets, and sociocultural factors. This paper undertakes a comparative assessment of the last two generations of submodels, i.e. ASEAN-4 and China, by quantifying and interpreting their total factor productivity (TFP) using the Solow Model. Results show that capital accumulation was their major growth driver before the beginning of the millennium. S...

Ga?rdu, Dana

2011-01-01

329

Prioritization of the Factors Affecting Sport Tourism Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Today, tourism and sport enjoy a complementary interrelationship directly affecting the nations` economy. Also sport tourism is, nowadays, considered as the most lucrative industry worldwide. In addition, it may affect all the social strata economically and politically. Thus, needless to say that much more attention should be directed to the industry through clear-cut policies, visions and constructive plans in this regard. To this end, in this paper, the authors investigated and offered the ...

Sajjadi, S. N.; Arefeh Jamshidi; Akbar Heidary

2012-01-01

330

Incentive Contracts and Total Factor Productivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a transactions cost theory of total factor productivity. In a world with asymmetric information and transactions costs, effort, and thus productivity, must be induced by incentive schemes. Labor contracts trade off the marginal benefits and the marginal costs of effort. The latter include, in addition to the workers? marginal disutility of effort, also organizational costs and rents. As the economy grows, the optimal contracts change endogenously, inducing higher effort an...

Demougin, Dominique M.; Bental, Benjamin

2004-01-01

331

FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHERS’ USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers’ decisions to use ICT in the classroom: non-manipulative and manipulative school and teacher factors. These factors are interrelated. The success of the implementation of ICT is no...

Mojgan Afshari; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Wong Su Luan; Bahaman Abu Samah; Foo Say Fooi

2009-01-01

332

ACCURACY OF PESTICIDE REFERENCE STANDARD SOLUTIONS. PART I. FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIC SOLVENT EVAPORATION  

Science.gov (United States)

A gravimetric experiment was undertaken to identify the factors affecting solvent evaporation from analytical reference standard solutions and to establish the magnitude of the resultant solvent evaporation. The evaporation of organic solvent from standard solutions is affected b...

333

Cognitive Factors Affecting Student Understanding of Geologic Time.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)

Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

2003-01-01

334

Biologics Formulation Factors Affecting Metal Leachables from Stainless Steel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect...

Zhou, Shuxia; Scho?neich, Christian; Singh, Satish K.

2011-01-01

335

Factors determining production (FDP in basketball  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to introduce a simple and easily computable metric to assess the performance of basketball players through non-scoring box-score statistics. This metric was called Factors Determining Production (FDP. FDP was created through separating points made from the remaining variables which may bequantitatively recorded. FDP was derived from the outcome of several games, it considers both teams’ statistics, and it reflects the final result of a game with noticeable merit. This metric provides a simple linear weight formula which, together with the points made by each player, yields a comprehensible picture of how well a worker(player performed. FDP has been validated through different statistical procedures and it overcomes Win Score from a theoretical viewpoint, because it departs production (points from factors facilitating production.

Jose A. Martinez

2012-01-01

336

ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING EFFECTIVENESS OF RANGELAND-DEPENDENT DAIRY CATTLE FARMS IN ERZURUM PROVINCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With a special emphasis on the rangeland condition, factors affecting effectiveness of the farms were researched inthis study. Study area covers Erzurum Province, Turkey. Villages were purposively selected from those of whichrangeland conditions had been studied previously. Stratified sampling method was employed in determination of thesample size. Data were collected from the randomly selected farmers through face to face interviews, resulted in 99completed questionnaires. Collected data by structured questionnaires were of 2004-2005 production year. Farmswere studied under three farm size groups of 0-12, 12,1-25 and 25+ ha. In analysis of the data stepwise regressionand multiple linear and log-linear regression models were used. As farm success criteria, net product and grossmargin were calculated for every studied farm. According to the results, rangeland condition, stable type, number ofcattle, size of cultivated land, amount of labour per farm and small ruminant flock existence in the village andnumber of small ruminant were found to be the most important factors affecting farm effectiveness. It was concludedthat more robust and long-term studies should be conducted using a wider variation in rangeland condition toconfirm the study findings.

Abdurrahman KARA

2014-06-01

337

Review of the factors affecting the selection and implementation of waste management technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this publication is to identify and critically review the factors affecting the selection of waste management strategies and technologies; summarize and discuss the options available, and offer a systematic approach for considering these factors to design, install and operate appropriate technologies for waste streams generated. The scope of this publication includes the management of radioactive waste from all orientations including low and intermediate level waste arising from the production of radionuclides and their application in industry, agriculture, medicine, education and research; waste generated from research reactors, power reactors and from nuclear fuel cycle activities including reprocessing high level waste. Although waste from decommissioning is not specifically addressed, the management of this waste is not significantly different from other types of waste in the same category

338

Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-04-01

339

Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

2011-01-01

340

Factors and pharmaceuticals that affect the radiopharmaceuticals bio distributions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pattern of biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals may be affected by various agents and therapeutical procedures, chemotherapy agents, thyroid hormones, metals, radiotherapy, surgery, anesthetic agents, dialysis other radiopharmaceutical interactions. Recommendations for the detection of altered biodistribution in patients by causes not directly related with the pathology itself was given. pathology itself was given

 
 
 
 
341

Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

2009-01-01

342

Factors Affecting the Real Estate Prices in Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current study examines the effect of factors influencing the prices of real estate inQuetta city. Hypothetically, this study is based upon five observed factors(urbanization, refugees’ influx, monetary, lack of investment alternatives and inflow offoreign remittances) in relation to the prices of real estate. Questionnaire developed onthe basis of above variables were administered to a heterogeneous sample of 50property dealers and Quetta Development Authority. Descriptive statistics (p...

Mehmood khan kakar; Ali Kakar, M.

2011-01-01

343

Factors affecting appropriateness of hospital use in Massachusetts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine the extent of inappropriate hospital use, and to investigate factors related to variations in appropriateness, 8,031 hospital records of patients discharged from 41 hospitals in 3 Massachusetts professional standards review organization (PSRO) areas were reviewed in 1973 and 1978. The Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP) was used for the reviews and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze factors associated with inappropriate use.

Restuccia, Joseph D.; Kreger, Bernard E.; Payne, Susan M. C.; Gertman, Paul M.; Dayno, Susan J.; Lenhart, Gregory M.

1986-01-01

344

Factors Affecting Knowledge Transfer Success in Business Transforming Enterprise  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to provide the systematic analysis of an intra-generational KT (knowledge transfer) influence factor evaluation model in business transforming enterprises. The study examined factors such as knowledge context, relation context, transferor context, recipient context and enterprises transforming context, in which process semi-structured interviews and Delphi methods were employed in respect of the data collection and Interpretative ...

Zhaorong Zhuang; Dongqiang Guo

2013-01-01

345

Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function  

Science.gov (United States)

... factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... risk factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

346

Analysis on the Main Factors Affecting the Reliability of Test Papers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reliability is an important factor to evaluate test papers. This paper analyzes the factors which affect the reliability of test papers and discusses the methods to increase the reliability of test papers.

Jiang Zhu

2011-01-01

347

Factors Affecting the Yield of Sunflower in the Province of Punjab (Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pakistan spends major chunk of its foreign exchange reserves on the import of edible oil due to poor domestic base of oilseed production. Considering bleak economic condition of Pakistan, it is very essential to save forex reserves by enhancing domestic oilseed production. Among various types of oilseeds grown in the country, the sunflower, a non-traditional oilseeds has the potential to bridge the gap that exists between the domestic demand and supply due to its high oil contents and agronomic suitability to the climatic conditions of Pakistan. This research article attempts to investigate the factor affecting the yield performance of sunflower in the province of Punjab (Pakistan. A Cobb-Douglas type of function has been employed for estimation purpose.

Muhammad Siddique Javed

2001-01-01

348

FACTORS AFFECTING THE VEGETABLE FARMING EFFICIENCY IN BULGARIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficiency is the major economic category, which measures the final result and the expenses related to the production and provides value expression. The article aims to analyze the prospects and conditions for the development of field vegetable production in Bulgaria. Field vegetable farming is a traditional and fast developing sector of the Bulgarian agriculture. Its condition and development is determined by the various natural and geographic conditions in the country and the experience...

Stoeva, Teodora

2012-01-01

349

World Food Prices after WTO Foundation: Deterministic and Non-deterministic Factors in Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper develops a two-step method to estimate the influence of non-deterministic factors in production on subsequent food prices, and finds that non-deterministic factors of wheat production do significantly affect both wheat and corn prices in the world and, however, those of corn do not.

Meyer, Stefan; Yu, Xiaohua

2011-01-01

350

Assessing the total factor productivity of cotton production in egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of this paper is to decompose the productivity growth of Egyptian cotton production. We employ the stochastic frontier approach and decompose the changes in total factor productivity (CTFP) growth into four components: technical progress (TP), changes in scale component (CSC), changes in allocative efficiency (CAE), and changes in technical efficiency (CTE). Considering a situation of scarce statistical information, we propose four alternative empirical models, with the purpose of looking for convergence in the results. The results provide evidence that in this production system total productivity does not increase, which is mainly due to the negative average contributions of CAE and TP. Policy implications are offered in light of the results. PMID:25625318

Rodríguez, Xosé A; Elasraag, Yahia H

2015-01-01

351

A Study on Students’ Affective Factors in Junior High School English Teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Affect is considered as aspects of emotion, feeling, mood or attitude which condition behaviors in second language acquisition. Positive affect is good for studying while negative affect will inevitably hinder learners’ learning process. As we know, students in junior high school are special groups as they are experiencing great changes both in physiology and psychology. Their affect can be easily influenced by external and internal factors. Therefore, it is of vital importance to pay close attention to students’ affective factors in English learning process, particularly to the negative ones. Based on the results of the previous research about affects in second language acquisition, the study finds that junior high school students have the following negative affective factors such as boredom, anxiety, hopelessness, inhibition and low self-confidence in their English learning. Then some suggestions for cultivating and improving students’ affect are put forward in the hope of improving junior high school English teaching and learning.

Biyi Zhu

2012-06-01

352

[Factors affecting the response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents].  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has transformed the management chronic renal failure (CKD) and considerably improved the outcome of patients on regular chronic dialysis. However, a significant number of patients fail to respond to high of Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and several causes of inadequate response to epoetin therapy have been identified. Some factors, such as gender, age, length of time on dialysis, type of dialysis and co-morbidities such as hemoglobinopathy, are not susceptible to clinical intervention. However, many other factors can be adjusted. Iron deficiency, whether functional or absolute, is the most common factor that limits the response to rHuEPO. Monitoring of iron parameters and a large use of iron supplementation result in an efficient epoetin response. Infection and inflammation have been shown to reduce responsiveness to ESAs by disrupting iron metabolism and increasing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that inhibit erythropoiesis. Increase dialysis dose is associated with improvements in anemia correction and reduced requirements for ESAs. Severe hyperparathyroidism and aluminum overload lead to a reduced number of responsive erythroid progenitor cells. Finally, a number of nutritional factors, such as deficiencies of carnitine, vitamin B12, folic acid, and vitamin C, are susceptible to alter erythropoiesis. Optimizing patient response to ESAs therefore requires consideration of many of well-established factors and is important for both patient outcomes and cost of treatment. PMID:17373270

Jauréguy, Maïté; Choukroun, Gabriel

2006-09-01

353

Factors Affecting the Prescribing Patterns of Antibiotics and Injections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are serious problems concerning the inadequate prescription of antibiotics and overuse of injections in primary care. However, the determinants of prescription patterns in Korea are not well-documented. To examine the area characteristics affecting the prescription of antibiotics and injections in primary care practices in the treatment of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), a nationwide cross-sectional study was performed in all 250 administrative districts of Korea. The outcome was m...

Choi, Kyung-hyun; Park, Sang-min; Lee, Ju-hyun; Kwon, Soonman

2012-01-01

354

Factors Affecting the Wheel Rutting on Rural Roads  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the wheel ruts frequency and dimensions were investigated according to geographical aspects, longitudinal gradient and surfacing layer of rural roads in Denji Kola village, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Ruts were divided into shallow and deep wheel ruts. Results showed that the ruts length and area were significantly affected by longitudinal gradient of rural roads (p<0.0001). Ruts length in longitudinal gradient class 8-12% was significantly more than other classes (p<...

Parsakhoo, A.; Hosseini, S. A.

2009-01-01

355

Factors affecting mortality of shearwaters stranded by light pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Every year and across the world, thousands of fledglings of different petrel species crash into human structures because they are disorientated by artificial lights during their first flights. As this phenomenon is rather predictable, rescue cam- paigns are organized to help birds to reach the ocean, but unfortunately, a low proportion gets hurt or dies. Despite the huge number of affected individuals, and the fact that the problem was detected a long time ago, little is known ...

Rodri?guez, Airam; Rodri?guez, Beneharo; Curbelo, A. J.; Pe?rez, A.; Marrero, S.; Negro, Juan J.

2012-01-01

356

The factors affecting effectiveness of treatment in phages therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine, and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such as the bacteriophages/target bacteria ratio, the mode and moment of treatment, environmental conditions (pH, temperature...), the neutralization of phage and accessibility to target bacteria, amongst others. This report presents these factors and the challenges involved in developing phage therapy applications. PMID:24600439

Ly-Chatain, Mai Huong

2014-01-01

357

Factors Affecting Knowledge Transfer Success in Business Transforming Enterprise  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide the systematic analysis of an intra-generational KT (knowledge transfer influence factor evaluation model in business transforming enterprises. The study examined factors such as knowledge context, relation context, transferor context, recipient context and enterprises transforming context, in which process semi-structured interviews and Delphi methods were employed in respect of the data collection and Interpretative Structural Modeling and Analytic Network Process were used to establish the model. The case study shows that the recipient’s desire to learning new knowledge plays significant role in putting forward to undertake transfer activities.

Zhaorong Zhuang

2013-01-01

358

Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

Jantzen, Paul G.

1978-01-01

359

Historic Factors Affecting Educational Administration in Korean Higher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…

Lee, Jeong-Kyu

1999-01-01

360

Factors affecting employee retention : what do engineers think?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Much has been made of the skills shortage in South Africa. One of the main factors sited for the government’s inability to get on top of the backlog in infrastructure is the lack of skills in the country. In addition to this, the skills shortage is believed to have an adverse impact on the country’s growth rate.

Stanz, Karel J.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Factors Affecting Principal Turnover: A Study of Three Midwestern Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. This dissertation addresses the problem of principal turnover. Using state and city level administrative data, a study of principals and their schools in greater Kansas City, Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was conducted with the goal of discovering themes that emerge regarding the factors associated with turnover…

Belt, Charles M.

2009-01-01

362

Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

2008-01-01

363

Factors Affecting the Shape of Current-Potential Curves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Voltammetry, the fundamental electrochemical experiment, is the measurement of the current which flows at an electrode as a function of the potential applied to the electrode. Such an experiment is discussed, focusing on factors which influence the shape of the current potential curve. (JN)

Maloy, J. T.

1983-01-01

364

Factors affecting the acquisition of plural morphology in Jordanian Arabic.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the development of plural morphology in Jordanian Arab children, and explores the role of the predictability, transparency, productivity, and frequency of different plural forms in determining the trajectory that children follow in acquiring this complex inflectional system. The study also re-examines the development of the notion of default over several years. Sixty Jordanian children, equally divided among six age groups (three to eight years), completed an oral real-word pluralization task and a nonsense-word pluralization task. The findings indicate that feminine sound plurals are acquired before and extended to the other plural forms. Productivity and frequency seem to shape the acquisition patterns among younger children, but predictability becomes more critical at a later age. Younger children use the most productive plural as the default form, but older children tend to use two default forms based on frequency distributions in the adult language. The theoretical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25158792

Albirini, Abdulkafi

2014-08-27

365

Diffractive gauge bosons production beyond QCD factorization  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss single diffractive gauge boson (?*,W±,Z) production in proton-proton collisions at different (Large Hadron Collider and Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) energies within the color dipole approach. The calculations are performed for gauge bosons produced at forward rapidities. The diffractive cross section is predicted as a function of the fractional momentum and invariant mass of the lepton pair. We found a dramatic breakdown of the diffractive QCD factorization caused by an interplay of hard and soft interactions. Data from the CDF experiment on diffractive production of W and Z are well explained in a parameter-free way.

Pasechnik, R. S.; Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.

2012-12-01

366

Factors Affecting the Birth Weight of Cholistani Cattle Calves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of year, season and lactation number on birth weight of Cholistani calves was determined by analyzing the data of 709 cows recorded at Government Livestock Farm, Jugait Peer, district Bahawalpur during the years 1999-2007. The Cholistani calves showed a mean birth weight of 19.13 ± 0.06Kg and was significantly affected by year (P<0.05, calf sex (P<0.01 and lactation number (P<0.05. Male calves were heavier than the female (19.53 vs 19.04Kg.

F. Shahzad*, M. Yaqoob1, M. Younas1, U. Farooq, F. Sher2, M. Asim2, S. Qamar2, M. Akbar3 and I. Irshad4

2010-10-01

367

Chemical and biological factors affecting bioavailability of contaminants in seawater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the influence that salinity has on the bioavailability of the two largest classes of contaminants, trace metals and organic compounds will be discussed. Although data on contaminant toxicity will be used to draw inferences about chemical availability, this discussion will focus on the properties that contaminants are likely to exhibit in waters of varying salinities. In addition, information on physiological changes that are affected by salinity will be used to illustrate how biological effects can alter the apparent availability of contaminants

368

Immunosuppressive effects of factor IX products: an in vitro study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of a recombinant factor IX product (BeneFix), and of five plasma-derived factor IX products, AlphaNine, Immunine, Konyne, Mononine and Replinine on in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) immune function were compared in a blinded study. We assessed the effects of these products on Con-A-induced lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 and interleukin-10 secretion, expression of lymphocyte activation markers, and nitric oxide secretion by stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. At 1 mL-1 for 48 h, Konyne reduced Con-A-induced mitogenesis by 50% (P BeneFix had no effect. At 10 IU mL-1, Con-A-induced mi- togenesis was at control levels with Mononine and BeneFix, but was reduced to BeneFix. Dialysis of these products did not substantially affect these results. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte activation markers following Con-A stimulation showed that Konyne also decreased IL-2 receptor alpha and beta chain (CD25 and CD122) induction on PBMC. Konyne also inhibited nitric oxide secretion to levels <18% of controls. These results indicate that certain factor IX products, including some of purported higher purity, substantially depress in vitro immune function. The importance of these findings to in vivo immune function in haemophilia B patients remains to be established. PMID:10583529

Grosset, A B; McGregor, J R; Samlowski, W E; Rodgers, G M

1999-11-01

369

Factors that Affect the Microbiology of Commercial Shell Egg Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Intact shell eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents, protecting a developing embryo, but also contributing to their wholesomeness as human food. In order for eggs to be involved in human enteritis, there is often temperature abuse of raw product followed by consumption o...

370

Factors affecting the yield and properties of bacterial cellulose.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acetobacter xylinum E(25) has been applied in our studies in order to find optimal culture conditions for effective bacterial cellulose (BC) production. The strain displays significantly higher stability in BC production under stationary culture conditions. In contrast, intensive agitation and aeration appear to drastically reduce cellulose synthesis since such conditions induced formation of spontaneous cellulose nonproducing mutants (Cel-), which dominated in the culture. Mutation frequency strictly depends on the medium composition in agitated cultures. Enrichment of the standard SH and Yamanaka media with 1% ethanol significantly enhanced BC production in stationary cultures. Horizontal fermentors equipped with rotating discs or rollers were successfully applied in order to improve culture conditions. Relatively slow rotation velocity (4 rpm) and large surface area enabling effective cell attachment are optimal parameters for cellulose production. Physical properties of BC samples synthesized either in stationary cultures or in a horizontal fermentor revealed that cellulose from stationary cultures demonstrated a much higher value of Young's modulus, but a much lower value of water-holding capacity. PMID:12355318

Krystynowicz, A; Czaja, W; Wiktorowska-Jezierska, A; Gonçalves-Mi?kiewicz, M; Turkiewicz, M; Bielecki, S

2002-10-01

371

FACTORS AFFECTING THE VEGETABLE FARMING EFFICIENCY IN BULGARIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The efficiency is the major economic category, which measures the final result and the expenses related to the production and provides value expression. The article aims to analyze the prospects and conditions for the development of field vegetable production in Bulgaria. Field vegetable farming is a traditional and fast developing sector of the Bulgarian agriculture. Its condition and development is determined by the various natural and geographic conditions in the country and the experience in cultivating and farming vegetable crops, which are traditional for the Bulgarian population. The vegetable farming is organized in individual private agricultural farms and agricultural farming cooperatives and is performed in small areas. The crisis in the vegetable farming raised a lot of questions that need to be answered. It is necessary to overcome the decrease in vegetable production. This can happen by establishing efficiently operating organizational companies. The most important reasons for the reported decrease are the result of the improperly conducted reforms in the agriculture industry as a result of which the economic condition of the sector is declining. A serious flaw is that the farmers are selecting certain crop production without conducting any preliminary marketing and without any signed contracts for produce realization.

Teodora STOEVA

2012-01-01

372

The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

2010-01-01

373

Factors Affecting the Real Estate Prices in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study examines the effect of factors influencing the prices of real estate inQuetta city. Hypothetically, this study is based upon five observed factors(urbanization, refugees’ influx, monetary, lack of investment alternatives and inflow offoreign remittances in relation to the prices of real estate. Questionnaire developed onthe basis of above variables were administered to a heterogeneous sample of 50property dealers and Quetta Development Authority. Descriptive statistics (percentage,percentile and frequency distribution were used to identify the level of influence andthe relation of above mentioned attributes towards the prices of real estate. The resultsrevealed that the prices of real estate in the region have been on an increasing trendand strong influence of all variables especially of government’s monetary and fiscalpolices and urbanization was found significant on the prices of real estate in Quetta.

Mehmood khan kakar

2011-06-01

374

[Factors affecting the recovery in the intensive care unit].  

Science.gov (United States)

Urgency of the problem is defined by economical, regulatory and legislative acts, regional social and moral factors. There is critical situation in Russian Pediatric Healthcare system. This situation is due to inadequate funding, high medical technologies inaccessibility for some Russian children, their adverse health state. The article presents a retrospective analysis of intensive therapy and resuscitation outcomes with technical equipment and work environment assessment in the intensive care unit of Tushinskaya city pediatric clinic for the period from 2007 to 2011. Anaesthetic and emergency care quality and safety depend on several factors: permanent equipment improvement, comprehensive analysis of every fatal case and full implementation of "Anti-epidemic (prophylactic) actions plan" and "Program of monitoring compliance with the sanitary norms". PMID:23808260

Turkov, P N; Nikitin, V V; Antsupova, M A; Podkopaev, V N; Panfilova, R P; Ivanova, I N; Nesterova, L I

2013-01-01

375

Factors affecting visualization of posterior rib fractures in abused infants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rib fractures in abused infants commonly occur in the posterior rib arcs. Fractures occurring near the costovertebral articulations are usually identified radiographically only once callus has formed. To assess the factors influencing the visibility of fractures near the costovertical articulations, the authors studied 103 posterior rib fractures occurring in 16 abused infants. Radiologic findings were correlated with CT findings and pathologic material from nine ribs in four patients. The limited visibility of fractures relates to (1) the frequent superimposition of the transverse process over the rib fracture site, (2) a fracture line that crosses at an obliquity to the x-ray beam, and (3) nondisplacement of rib fragments due to preservation of the posterior periosteum. Fresh rib fractures invisible on a frontal projection may be clearly defined on axial CT scans, or on postmortem radiographs. A knowledge of the factors influencing the visibility of these important injuries is useful in planning an appropriate diagnostic evaluation of suspected infant abuse

376

Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

Pelham, J.

1991-12-31

377

Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

Pelham, J.

1991-01-01

378

Prioritization of the Factors Affecting Sport Tourism Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, tourism and sport enjoy a complementary interrelationship directly affecting the nations` economy. Also sport tourism is, nowadays, considered as the most lucrative industry worldwide. In addition, it may affect all the social strata economically and politically. Thus, needless to say that much more attention should be directed to the industry through clear-cut policies, visions and constructive plans in this regard. To this end, in this paper, the authors investigated and offered the guidelines for sport tourism development in Zanjan from economic, social and cultural perspectives. This was an applied research carried out as a field study. The statistical sample was divided into 2 groups: 1 Experts including physical education teachers, cultural heritage and physical education department employees and, 2 Customers including different sportsmen and sportswomen traveling to Zanjan. The research tool was a 43 item researcher-made questionnaire in Likert scale whose reliability and validity were confirmed by the board of university professors. We applied descriptive to describe the demography and T-test and Friedman to determine the differences and prioritize both groups` viewpoints regarding sport tourism development in Zanjan.

S.N. Sajjadi

2012-12-01

379

Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Patients' Satisfaction with Their Dialysis Therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim. To assess the degree of satisfaction among hemodialysis patients and the factors influencing this satisfaction. Methods. Patients were recruited from 3 Saudi dialysis centers. Demographic data was collected. Using 1 to 10 Likert scale, the patients were asked to rate the overall satisfaction with, and the overall impact of, their dialysis therapy on their lives and to rate the effect of the dialysis therapy on 15 qualities of life domains. Results. 322 patients were recruited (72...

Al Eissa, M.; Al Sulaiman, M.; Jondeby, M.; Karkar, A.; Barahmein, M.; Shaheen, F. A. M.; Al Sayyari, A.

2010-01-01

380

Factors affecting statistical power in the detection of genetic association  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mapping of disease genes to specific loci has received a great deal of attention in the last decade, and many advances in therapeutics have resulted. Here we review family-based and population-based methods for association analysis. We define the factors that determine statistical power and show how study design and analysis should be designed to maximize the probability of localizing disease genes.

Gordon, Derek; Finch, Stephen J.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Factors Affecting Blood Glucose Monitoring: Sources of Errors in Measurement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glucose monitoring has become an integral part of diabetes care but has some limitations in accuracy. Accuracy may be limited due to strip manufacturing variances, strip storage, and aging. They may also be due to limitations on the environment such as temperature or altitude or to patient factors such as improper coding, incorrect hand washing, altered hematocrit, or naturally occurring interfering substances. Finally, exogenous interfering substances may contribute errors to the system eval...

Ginsberg, Barry H.

2009-01-01

382

Environmental factors affecting indole metabolism under anaerobic conditions.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence of physiological and environmental factors on the accumulation of oxindole during anaerobic indole metabolism was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under methanogenic conditions, indole was temporarily converted to oxindole in stoichiometric amounts in media inoculated with three freshwater sediments and an organic soil. In media inoculated with methanogenic sewage sludge, the modest amounts of oxindole detected at 35 degrees C reached higher concentrations...

Madsen, E. L.; Francis, A. J.; Bollag, J. M.

1988-01-01

383

Factors affecting the achievements of intellectually gifted children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study - to analyze the main factors of learning achievements of intellectually gifted children. The sample consists of 16 - 18 year old students (N = 54), whose Reasoning Total (RT) scores in Intelligence Structure Test 2000R (I-S-T 2000 R, Amthauer R., Brocke B., Liepmann D, Beauducel, 2001) are 90 percentile or higher. This thesis analyses the peculiarities of intellectual activity of intellectually gifted 16- 18 years old students, their learning achievements and has the obj...

S?imelioniene?, Aida

2012-01-01

384

Factors affecting statistical power in the detection of genetic association  

Science.gov (United States)

The mapping of disease genes to specific loci has received a great deal of attention in the last decade, and many advances in therapeutics have resulted. Here we review family-based and population-based methods for association analysis. We define the factors that determine statistical power and show how study design and analysis should be designed to maximize the probability of localizing disease genes. PMID:15931375

Gordon, Derek; Finch, Stephen J.

2005-01-01

385

Social factors affecting women's susceptibility to HIV in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

India is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Asia. Previous research indicates that the majority of HIV-positive women in India were infected by their husbands, their only sexual partner, which makes them difficult identify as a high-risk population. This paper seeks to assess social factors associated with the transmission of HIV based on demographic determinants, such as age; sexual behavior; and gendered discrimination, such as domestic violence. Research for this paper consists of s...

Lall, Priya

2014-01-01

386

Somatic cell and factors which affect their count in milk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Milk quality is determined by chemical composition, physical characteristics and hygienic parameters. The main indicators of hygienic quality of milk are total number of microorganisms and somatic cell count (SCC.) Environmental factors have the greatest influence on increasing SCC. The most important environmental parameters are status of udder infection, age of cow, stage of lactation, number of lactation, breed, housing, geographicalarea and seasons, herd size, stress, heavy physical activ...

Zrinka ?a?i?; Samir Kalit; Neven Antunac; Mato ?a?i?

2003-01-01

387

Factors Affecting the Quality of Life in Patients with Fibromyalgia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal pain syndrome characterized by diffuse pain and specific painful tender points.This study was planned to gain a better understanding of the factors that may impact the quality of life of patients with fibromyalgia.Material and Methods: The study was carried out in the Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation outpatient clinic with 35 women with fibromyalgia and 20 healthy women with no current or past medical history as controls. The subjects we...

Nuri Çetin; ?eniz Akçay Yalbuzda?; Mehmet Tu?rul Cab?o?lu; Nur Turhan

2009-01-01

388

Factors affecting the species composition of arable field boundary vegetation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. In recent decades the botanical diversity of arable field boundaries has declined drastically. To determine the most important factors related to the species composition of arable field boundaries, the vegetation composition of 105 herbaceous boundaries, 1-m wide, in the central and eastern Netherlands was surveyed. Biomass samples of the boundary were taken at 0-33, 34-66 and 67-100 cm from the adjacent arable field. 2. Farmers were interviewed with respect to boundary management and lan...

Kleijn, D.; Verbeek, M.

2000-01-01

389

Factors affecting levels of genetic diversity in natural populations.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Genetic variability is the clay of evolution, providing the base material on which adaptation and speciation depend. It is often assumed that most interspecific differences in variability are due primarily to population size effects, with bottlenecked populations carrying less variability than those of stable size. However, we show that population bottlenecks are unlikely to be the only factor, even in classic case studies such as the northern elephant seal and the cheetah, where genetic poly...

Amos, W.; Harwood, J.

1998-01-01

390

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 1 Table...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX...XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources As...

2010-07-01

391

Factors affecting the consolidation of steam generator sludge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is hypothesized that sludge consolidation is promoted by chemical reactions involving the various sludge constituents, although the hardness of the final product will also depend on the total porosity. Oxidizing conditions and higher temperatures produce a harder sludge. The precipitation of Zn2SiO4, a potential binding agent, may also promote sludge consolidation. Several solutions to prevent sludge consolidation are suggested. (Author) 3 figs., 4 tabs., 3 refs

392

DEHP Impairs Zebrafish Reproduction by Affecting Critical Factors in Oogenesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP...

Carnevali, Oliana; Tosti, Luca; Speciale, Claudia; Peng, Chun; Zhu, Yong; Maradonna, Francesca

2010-01-01

393

Acute drug poisoning: outcome and factors affecting outcome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Patients with acute drug poisonings are common in emergency departments and hospitals. Patients typically ingest medical products, most commonly psychotropic drugs that lead to intoxication. The outcome is usually good and hospital stays are short, even among patients requiring intensive care. Complications such as aspiration pneumonia can prolong hospital stays. Acute mortality is low (usually less than 5%) but repetition of self-harm is common and long-term mortality is high. ...

Liisanantti, Janne

2012-01-01

394

FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TOLERANCE IN CROSSBRED CATTLE IN CENTRAL BRAZIL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compared the adaptation traits in common crosses of crossbred dairy cattle in central Brazil. Twenty animals of each of three genetic groups were used: zebu (Bos indicus, Simmental x Zebu (SZ and Holstein x Zebu (HZ. The test measured variations in rectal temperature (RT, respiration rate (RR and heart rate (HR of animals in the shade and after exposure to the sun, as well as mean daily milk production throughout the lactation period. The procedure was repeated three times. There were significant interactions between test group and genetic group for the traits investigated and the correlations among traits were low. The RR of the crossbred groups may be controlling body temperature in such a way as not to cause an increase in RT. Milk production influenced RR in crossbred cows exposed to the sun, confirming their poorer adaptation in comparison with zebu cows. We observed that the adaptation can be measured in terms of production within the same genetic group. In conclusion, the crosses with European breeds produced more milk than zebu, although they were influenced by heat/solar radiation.

Concepta Margaret McManus

2014-06-01

395

Feasibility Analysis of Critical Factors Affecting Cloud Computing in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud computing is an evolving and new way of delivering computing services and resources over the internet which are managed by third parties at remote sites. Cloud computing is based on existing technologies like web services, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA, web3.0, grid computing and virtualization, etc. Computing services includes data storage, processing and software. Cloud computing is enjoying a lot of buzz in Nigeria due to its perceived economic and operational benefits and stakeholders believe that it will transform the IT industry in Nigeria. Despite all its promises there still exist so many challenges before Cloud computing see the light of the day in Nigeria. This paper delivers an overview of Cloud computing together with its advantages and disadvantages. Thereafter, the challenges and drivers affecting the adoption of Cloud computing in Nigeria are outlined. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of Cloud computing is discussed with Nigeria as a case study.

Eustace Manayi Dogo

2013-10-01

396

Factors affecting texture and structure of duplex steel sheets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work deals with the texture and structure development in austenitic-ferritic steels of duplex type subjected to cold rolling within the range up to 90% of reduction of subsequently annealed at the temperatures 850-1050 oC. Performed investigations included X-ray phase analysis, measurements of pole figures, calculations of orientation distribution functions measurements of pole figures, calculations of orientation distribution functions (ODF's) and structure observations by means of optical microscopy. Obtained results indicate that considerable differences in the development of rolling and annealing textures in relation to one-phase steels result from two-phase character of the structure and phase instability of austenitic-ferritic steels. It was found that formation of ferrite-austenite banded structure and deformation induced (???) phase transformation as well as the inverse (???) transformation and sigma (?) phase precipitation occurring upon annealing, affect the appearance and intensity of main texture components of both phases. (author)

397

Faculty Research Productivity: Exploring the Role of Gender and Family-Related Factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the role of marriage, children, and aging parents on research productivity of a large national sample of college faculty. Found that factors affecting research productivity are nearly identical for men and women and that family-related variables exhibit little or no effects on productivity. (EV)

Sax, Linda J.; Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Arredondo, Marisol; DiCrisi, Frank A., III

2002-01-01

398

Risk of Postpartum Depression and Affecting Factors in Konya Center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: This study is proposed to determine the incidence of postpartum depression and the risk factors that may play role in arising of it in Konya because there is not any constructed study previously. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is constructed among 242 mothers in the postpartum period between 2-6 months who applied two village clinics of Meram County, Konya between 1 December 2005- 31 January 2006. Two forms were used to collect necessary data. First form was ?mother introduction form? that was prepared by us to determine the sociodemographic properties of mothers, and the second form was Edinburgh Posnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to diagnose the risk of postpartum depression. RESULTS: While the cut-off point of EPDS was taken as 13 and over, the probability of experiencing postpartum depression was detected as 19.4%. The probability of experiencing postpartum depression according to EPDS was high in statistical sense among the mothers who had lower monthly income, psychological problems after the preceding pregnancy, 4 and lower prenatal controls, experienced attitude changes among their husbands and/or husbands? families after learning gender of baby, and medical problems during these pregnancies. CONCLUSION: The modifiable risk factors are determined as the number of prenatal controls, changing the preconceptions and obsessions related gender of baby of husbands and families via healthy education, and well-qualified prenatal care. The long-term improvable risk factors are detected as improving monthly incomes of the families. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 391-398

Saniye Ozdemir

2008-10-01

399

An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Huck’s Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Huckleberry Finn is one of Mark Twain’s outstanding masterpieces. Superficially, it tells a story about a 13 or 14 year old boy’s adventures with Negro Jim on the Mississippi river. In fact, it reflects the growth process of Huck through adventures. His growth is embodied by his choice on independence, his change of attitude towards Jim, his moral growth, and the different social roles he plays. Huck’s growth is influenced by the inner and outer factors. On the one hand, friendship, nat...

Yanxia Sang

2010-01-01

400

Factors affecting pupil size after dilatation: the Twin Eye Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND/AIMS—Well dilated pupils make eye surgery easier. A classic twin study was established to examine the relative importance of genes and environment in the variance of pupil size after mydriasis, and to examine the effects of other factors such as age, iris colour, and refractive error.?METHODS—506 twin pairs, 226 monozygotic (MZ) and 280 dizygotic (DZ), aged 49-79 (mean age 62.2 years, SD 5.7) were examined. Dilated pupil size was measured using a standardised grid superimp...

Hammond, C.; Snieder, H.; Spector, T.; Gilbert, C

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Analysis of Factors Affecting Log Band Saw Capacity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this research was to measure the capacity of the log band saw by monitoring the sawing process per operation for each log and to determine what the influencing factors were and their effect on the technological capacity of the log band saw, based on recorded and processed data. The analysis of the recorded data shows that the processed log volume, whose increase also increases the saw capacity, has the most important effect on log band saw capacity. It is imperative to take into a...

Rajka Karan; Ružica Beljo Lu?i?; Matija Jug; Josip Ištvani?

2009-01-01

402

The factors affecting mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH occurs usually from the rupture of vessels into the brain parenchyma and accounts for approximately 10% of all strokes. ICH occurs more commonly in Turkey than in other western countries and carries a significantly high mortality than ischemic strokeMaterials and methods: We evaluated 86 consecutive patients with ICH who were admitted to Neurology Clinics of SDU University Medical Faculty. The factors studied were age, gender, risk factors, electrocardiography results, blood pressure, fever, blood cells, biochemistry, hematoma volume and localization, clinical findings, and demographic characteristics.Results: ICH is a 30-day mortality rate between approximately 50%, with half of the deaths occurring within 48 hour from the onset.Conclusion: It was found that age, site and volume of hematoma, initial level of consciousness and drainage of hematoma into the ventricular cavity have significant effects on the prognosis. The prognosis of ICH remains frequently poor despite the best medical management, control of vital functions and infections. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 404-407

Serpil Demirci

2011-12-01

403

Factors affecting the selection of tour destination in Bangladesh:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although multifaceted problems are causing the frustrating scenario of the country’s tourism sector, Bangladesh has the potentials to develop its tourism sector and earn huge foreign currency and generate employment opportunities like the neighboring countries, such as India, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Nepal who attract substantial number of tourists every year and thus generates huge amount of foreign currencies. The paper looks at different preferences of the tourist and examines the tour intention in selecting different tour destination. The study utilizes both exploratory and empirical research approach. The study collects data through interview with a structured self-administered questionnaire from 146 tourists, in utilizing convenient sampling technique. A multiple regression model was estimated to examine the effects of different factors on the tourists tour intention where nine factors related to different aspects of tourism such as service quality, natural beauty, known destination, convenient lodging, adventure, security, effective and efficient transportation, safe and quality food and shopping facility were used as indigenous variables where tour intention was used as exogenous variable of the model.  The regression result shows that Service quality, Natural Beauty, Security and Shopping Facility are statistically significant indicating 24.6% of the variation in explaining the intention to select a tour destination in Bangladesh. The study outlines some policy implications.

Md. Shah Azam

2010-02-01

404

Factors Affecting Detection Probability of Acoustic Tags in Coral Reefs  

Acoustic telemetry is an important tool for studying the movement patterns, behaviour, and site fidelity of marine organisms; however, its application is challenged in coral reef environments where complex topography and intense environmental noise interferes with acoustic signals, and there has been less study. Therefore, it is particularly critical in coral reef telemetry studies to first conduct a long-term range test, a tool that provides informa- tion on the variability and periodicity of the transmitter detection range and the detection probability. A one-month range test of a coded telemetric system was conducted prior to a large-scale tagging project investigating the movement of approximately 400 fishes from 30 species on offshore coral reefs in the central Red Sea. During this range test we determined the effect of the following factors on transmitter detection efficiency: distance from receiver, time of day, depth, wind, current, moon-phase and temperature. The experiment showed that biological noise is likely to be responsible for a diel pattern of -on average- twice as many detections during the day as during the night. Biological noise appears to be the most important noise source in coral reefs overwhelming the effect of wind-driven noise, which is important in other studies. Detection probability is also heavily influenced by the location of the acoustic sensor within the reef structure. Understanding the effect of environmental factors on transmitter detection probability allowed us to design a more effective receiver array for the large-scale tagging study.

Bermudez, Edgar F.

2012-05-01

405

Non Genetic Factors Affecting Local Kids` Growth Curve under Pastoral Mode in Tunisian Arid Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available About 5000 individual weights issued from periodical survey of 722 indigenous kids in 8 herds and during 4 years were analyzed in the present study. The aim is to identify the non genetic effects upon the growth curve of local goat population raised under arid conditions as a necessary step to improve kids` meat production on range lands. The Gompertz model was adopted to assess individual kids` growth curves. A non linear regression iterative procedure allows estimating 688 kids curves parameters and convergence criteria was 10-8. For each kid, curve parameters, asymptotic weight, inflexion age and weight, were considered as quantitative traits. A GLM procedure was applied to decompose the total variance of the kid`s traits. A means comparison test (SNK, ? = 0.05 was applied to identify homogenous class by factor. Results show that the GLM determination coefficient remains lower than 67% of all studied traits due to the observed data structure. All traits seem to be affected by the significant effects (p< 0.001 or 0.05 of the factors related to the restrictions and the irregularity of the technical and natural environment of pastoral husbandry. Specially, growth traits varied with year, herd, month of birth and natural region. Herd mobility contributes to stamp climatic stresses and resources irregularities. Equally, the year factor plays an important role upon the kids weight and it evolution till 6 months age. Kids growth curve loses its S-shape and becomes linear under harsh conditions of dry years. Also, the non-genetic factors impact increases with kids age and requirements. The sex, birth mode and mother age acts only during first 2 months age. So, arid environment affects both quantitatively and qualitatively individual kid`s growing behaviour and have to be considered for local goat rational genetic improvement modeling and planning.

Najari Sghaier

2007-01-01

406

Factors affecting virus dynamics and microbial host-virus interactions in marine environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine microorganisms constitute the largest percentage of living biomass and serve as the major driving force behind nutrient and energy cycles. While viruses only comprise a small percentage of this biomass (i.e., 5%), they dominate in numerical abundance and genetic diversity. Through host infection and mortality, viruses affect microbial population dynamics, community composition, genetic evolution, and biogeochemical cycling. However, the field of marine viral ecology is currently limited by a lack of data regarding how different environmental factors regulate virus dynamics and host-virus interactions. The goal of the present minireview was to contribute to the evolution of marine viral ecology, through the assimilation of available data regarding the manner and degree to which environmental factors affect viral decay and infectivity as well as influence latent period and production. Considering the ecological importance of viruses in the marine ecosystem and the increasing pressure from anthropogenic activity and global climate change on marine systems, a synthesis of existing information provides a timely framework for future research initiatives in viral ecology. PMID:24754794

Mojica, Kristina D A; Brussaard, Corina P D

2014-09-01

407

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING WEANING WEIGHT IN LOHI SHEEP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data on 3984 lambing records of 1285 Lohi ewes kept at the Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara for he period 1960-90 were analyzed by using Harvey’s Mixed Model Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood Computer Program. The purpose was to estimate the magnitude of various environmental sources of variation influencing weaning weight in this breed of sheep. The least squares mean for 120-day adjusted weaning weight was 23.09 ? 0.13 kg. The trait was significantly (P<0.01 influenced by the year and season of birth, type of birth and the sex of the lamb born.

M.E. Babar, Z. Ahmad, A. Nadeem and M. Yaqoob

2003-12-01

408

GENDER DIFFERENTIALS IN FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN LAGOS STATE – NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a lack of empirical data segregation on factors affecting gender as the variable of interest. However, previous research had indicated several factors that affect business performances among small-scale enterprise owners. Using feminist theory and a descriptive survey research design, data were collected from fifty (50) small-scale enterprise owners that were purposively chosen across the study area. The findings show that the factors that were significant for female were significant...

Yusuff Olabisi Sherifat

2013-01-01

409

Factors affecting skin tannin extractability in ripening grapes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acetone-extractable (70% v/v) skin tannin content of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was found to increase during late-stage ripening. Conversely, skin tannin content determined following ethanol extraction (10, 20, and 50% v/v) did not consistently reflect this trend. The results indicated that a fraction of tannin became less extractable in aqueous ethanol during ripening. Skin cell walls were observed to become more porous during ripening, which may facilitate the sequestering of tannin as an adsorbed fraction within cell walls. For ethanol extracts, tannin molecular mass increased with advancing ripeness, even when extractable tannin content was constant, but this effect was negligible in acetone extracts. Reconstitution experiments with isolated skin tannin and cell wall material indicated that the selectivity of tannin adsorption by cell walls changed as tannin concentration increased. Tannin concentration, tannin molecular mass, and cell wall porosity are discussed as factors that may influence skin tannin extractability. PMID:24432763

Bindon, Keren A; Madani, S Hadi; Pendleton, Phillip; Smith, Paul A; Kennedy, James A

2014-02-01

410

Analysis of Factors Affecting Log Band Saw Capacity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this research was to measure the capacity of the log band saw by monitoring the sawing process per operation for each log and to determine what the influencing factors were and their effect on the technological capacity of the log band saw, based on recorded and processed data. The analysis of the recorded data shows that the processed log volume, whose increase also increases the saw capacity, has the most important effect on log band saw capacity. It is imperative to take into account the volume of logs being processed when calculating the capacity of the log band saw. When monitoring the work of the operator, the use of fixed norms is not recommended and it is imperative that norms are connected to the volume of logs being processed.

Rajka Karan

2009-06-01

411

??????????????? The Research of Factors Affecting Consumer Channel Migration Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????PPM???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The advent of network economy, make the consumer formed a trend of movement from offline to online channels. This paper uses PPM model in the theory of migration and analyzes the factors influencing consumers from offline to online from the characteristic of consumers and channel characteristics, the study found that there are the positive correlation between the push effects of offline, pull effects of online and the migration intention and effect of pulling more obvious, there are the negative relationship between mooring effects of channels and migration intentions, indicating that the mooring effects will impede movement be-tween the consumer channel. Accordingly, the paper brings up multi-channel enterprise’s marketing enlighten-ment and limitations of the study and the future research direction.

??

2012-02-01

412

Factors affecting the precision of bone mineral measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An evaluation of the factors which influence the precision of bone mineral measurements using single photon absorptiometry (SPA) is presented. This incorporates several techniques which have been developed over the past few years to improve the reliability of such measurements. As such, the figures obtained should provide an objective and up-to-date basis for critical comparison with other modalities such as quantitative computerized tomography , dual photon absorptiometry using Gd-153, and quantitative digital radiography. Under optimum conditions, a precision of 0.3% was achievable for in vitro phantom measurements. Under current working conditions, however, a precision of 1.0% for phantoms and 1.4% for clinical studies was found to be more realistic for bone mineral content measurements. Derived parameters such as bone mineral density were generally less reliable, with a precision of 4.7%. It is estimated that these values cannot be improved substantially with current SPA technology. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

413

Factors affecting oral feeding with severe traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Safe and adequate nutrition, vital to the recovery from a traumatic brain injury, can be severely compromised by the presence of dysphagia. This study identified injury severity and swallowing factors that were associated with impaired oral intake in patients with severe brain injury. An admitting Glasgow Coma Scale (GSC) 3-5; a Rancho Los Amigos Scale of Cognitive Functioning (RLA) Level II; a computed tomography (CT) scan exhibiting midline shift, brainstem involvement, or brain pathology requiring emergent operative procedures; or ventilation time >/=15 days identified patients at highest risk for abnormal swallowing, aspiration, and delay in initiation of oral feeding and achievement of total oral feeding. When combined in multivariate models, RLA Level, CT scan, ventilation time and aspiration emerged as significant independent predictors of impaired oral intake. PMID:10653939

Mackay, L E; Morgan, A S; Bernstein, B A

1999-10-01

414

Hyperplastic forming: Process potential and factors affecting formability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aluminum has an outstanding potential for reducing the mass of automobiles. One of the key problems is that it is very difficult to form without tearing. This paper has two distinct goals. First, the authors argue in an extended introduction that high velocity forming, as can be implemented through electromagnetic forming, is a technology that should be developed. As a process used in conjunction with traditional stamping, it may offer dramatically improved formability, reduced wrinkling and active control of springback among other advantages. In the body of the paper they describe the important factors that lead to improved formability at high velocity. In particular, high sample velocity can inhibit neck growth. There is a sample size dependence where larger samples have better ductility than those of smaller dimensions. These aspects are at least partially described by the recent model of Freund and Shenoy. In addition to this, boundary conditions imposed by sample launch and die impact can have important effects on formability.

Daehn, G.S.; Vohnout, V.J.; Datta, S.

2000-07-01

415

Factors affecting interaction of radiocobalt with river sediments Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper contains the data obtained in the study of radiocobalt interaction with sediments from a small river receiving low-level activity liquid wastes from a decomissioning and an operating nuclear power plant, respectively. These data are important for mathematical modelling of radiocobalt migration in the river. The effects of pH, solution composition, concentration of cobalt and contact time on radiocobalt uptake and release are discussed in this first part of the paper. In the second part effects of composition, the concentration of the sediment and other factors are analyzed. The paper does not aim at producing quantitative data directly usable in migration models but it should help in assessment of parameters important for inclusion into the models. (author) 31 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

416

Factors affecting prostate volume estimation in computed tomography images.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within ± 3 cm(3), regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p images. PMID:20202814

Yang, Cheng-Hsiu; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chao-An

2011-01-01

417

Factors affecting mechanical properties of biomass pellet from compost.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effectiveness of a densification process to create strong and durable bonding in pellets can be determined by testing the mechanical properties such as compressive strength (CS) and durability. Mechanical properties of pellet from composted municipal solid waste were determined at different raw material and densification conditions. Ground compost samples were compressed with three levels of moisture content (35%, 40% and 45% (wb)), piston compaction speed (2, 6 and 10 mm/s), die length (8, 10 and 12mm) and raw material particle size (0.3, 0.9 and 1.5mm) into cylindrical pellets utilizing opened-end dies under axial stress from a vertical piston applied by a hydraulic press. The effects of independent variables on mechanical properties were determined using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design (BBD). All independent variables affected the durability significantly. However, different piston speed and die length not produce any significant difference on CS of pellets. Also in this research the electron photography method was used to identify the binding mechanism of compost particles. PMID:24600888

Zafari, A; Kianmehr, M H

2014-01-01

418

A Psychological Factor Affecting a Cardiac Condition in a Psychotherapist  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been established that intense emotions can affect the development and course of cardiac arrhythmias. This study sought to convey that a lack of expression of emotion can also have an effect on arrhythmias. A psychotherapist with Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation and an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator measured his rate of Premature Ventricular Contractions using a Holter monitor during three separate six-week periods and in three domains: A work days vs. off days, B a 27 hour work week vs. 22 hour work week, and C in 5 different modalities including 1 Meeting with department head 2 Individual psychotherapy with patients 3 Group therapy with patients 4 Supervision of residents 5 Personal psychoanalysis. The results showed more than a 3-fold increase of arrhythmogenic activity during the 27-hour work week vs. 22 and a 5-fold increase in arrhythmogenic activity on work days compared to days off. Department Head meetings were found to be most arrhythmogenic and personal psychoanalysis was least. The data suggest that the psychiatrist’s lack of emotional expression in his clinical work has been demonstrated to markedly worsen his arrhythmia. The results also point to the potential ameliorating effects of the therapist’s own psychotherapy.

R Waxman

2009-03-01

419

Factors Affecting the Wheel Rutting on Rural Roads  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the wheel ruts frequency and dimensions were investigated according to geographical aspects, longitudinal gradient and surfacing layer of rural roads in Denji Kola village, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Ruts were divided into shallow and deep wheel ruts. Results showed that the ruts length and area were significantly affected by longitudinal gradient of rural roads (p<0.0001. Ruts length in longitudinal gradient class 8-12% was significantly more than other classes (p<0.05. The mean of rut length in this class was 8.19 m. The deep ruts frequency in longitudinal gradient class 0-4% was more than shallow ruts, whereas the number of shallow ruts was more than deep ruts in other classes. The effects of geographical aspect on ruts length (p<0.0001, ruts width (p = 0.0019 and ruts area (p<0.0001 was significant. Although, the ruts width and depth on gravel-grassed surface was more than other surfacing layer, the number of ruts in this surfacing layer was less than bare soil and graveled surfacing layer. Thus, thickness layer of gravel which has been covered by grass is the best mixture for surfacing layer of rural roads.

A. Parsakhoo

2009-01-01

420

Study on the factors affecting ?-AP RIA results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the effect of (1) storage time (2) hemolysis (3) excessive lipid content (4) bacterial contamination on the tested serum ?-AP RIA results. Methods: (1) Specimen was stored at 4 degree C and ?-AP contents determined daily for seven consecutive days (9 specimens). (2) specimen was assayed, then the clot forcibly broken to cause hemolysis and the serum re-assayed (8 specimens). (3) Hyperlipemic specimen was assayed, the excess lipid extracted with ether and serum re-assayed (8 specimens). (4) Specimen was assayed and left at room temperature for a few days. The specimen was re-assayed for several times after bacterial growth (10 specimens). Results: serum ?- AP contents were stable up to 4 days under 4 degree C (P > 0.05 ). Serum ? -AP contents increased significantly after hemolysis (P<0.01 ). ?-AP contents in hyperlipemic samples decreased significantly after ether treatment (P<0.01). With bacterial growth, the ?-AP contents could increase or decrease, depending upon the type of bacteria. Conclusion: Serum ?-AP was stable up to 4 days at 4 degree C, but rapid degraded under room temperature. Moreover, hemolysis, hyperlipemia and contamination would all affect the RIA result and should be carefully dealt with in daily work. (authors)

 
 
 
 
421

Scoping experimental analysis of factors affecting cask contamination weeping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One issue of particular concern to both the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) involves the control of in-transit 'weeping' of surface contamination on pool-loaded spent fuel transportation casks. Weeping is the release of semi-fixed radioactive particulates from an exterior surface of a transportation cask so