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1

Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most important factors that affecting efficiency of solar cells. These effects are cell temperature, MPPT (maximum power point tracking) and energy conversion efficiency. The changing of these factors improves solar cell efficiency for more reliable applications.

Furkan Dincer; Mehmet Emin Meral

2010-01-01

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Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

Marius Liutvinavi?ius; Virgilijus Sakalauskas

2011-01-01

3

Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most ...

Furkan Dincer; Mehmet Emin Meral

4

Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

Kwan, Eugene E.

2005-01-01

5

The quantum walk search algorithm: Factors affecting efficiency  

CERN Document Server

We numerically study the quantum walk search algorithm of Shenvi, Kempe and Whaley [PRA \\textbf{67} 052307] and the factors which affect its efficiency in finding an individual state from an unsorted set. Previous work has focused purely on the effects of the dimensionality of the dataset to be searched. Here, we consider the effects of interpolating between dimensions, connectivity of the dataset, and the possibility of disorder in the underlying substrate: all these factors affect the efficiency of the search algorithm. We show that, as well as the strong dependence on the spatial dimension of the structure to be searched, there are also secondary dependencies on the connectivity and symmetry of the lattice, with greater connectivity providing a more efficient algorithm. In addition, we also show that the algorithm can tolerate a non-trivial level of disorder in the underlying substrate.

Lovett, Neil B; Heath, Robert M; Kendon, Viv

2011-01-01

6

The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship. (author)

Chang, Dong-Shang; Chen, Yi-Tui [National Central University, Department of Business Administration 300, Jhongda Road, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Den [Professor of Tunghai University, Department of Economics, No. 181, Section 3, Taichung Harbor Road, Taichung 40704, Taiwan (China)

2009-12-15

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An Exploratory Study of Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Sorting Techniques (Shell, Heap and Treap)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The efficiency of sorting techniques has a significant impact on the overall efficiency of a program. The efficiency of Shell, Heap and Treap sorting techniques in terms of both running time and memory usage was studied, experiments conducted and results subjected to factor analysis by SPSS. The study revealed the main factor affecting these sorting techniques was time taken to sort.

Olusegun Folorunso; Olufunke R. Vincent; Oluwatimilehin Salako

2010-01-01

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An Exploratory Study of Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Sorting Techniques (Shell, Heap and Treap)  

CERN Document Server

The efficiency of sorting techniques has a significant impact on the overall efficiency of a program. The efficiency of Shell, Heap and Treap sorting techniques in terms of both running time and memory usage was studied, experiments conducted and results subjected to factor analysis by SPSS. The study revealed the main factor affecting these sorting techniques was time taken to sort.

Folorunso, Olusegun; Salako, Oluwatimilehin

2012-01-01

9

Exploring health professionals' perspectives on factors affecting Iranian hospital efficiency and suggestions for improvement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While numerous studies have been undertaken in many developed countries and in a few developing countries, there has so far been no systematic attempt to identify factors affecting efficiency in the Iranian hospitals. This study was designed to elicit the perspectives of a group of health professionals and managers so as to analyse factors affecting the efficiency of hospitals owned by the Iranian Social Security Organization (SSO), which is the second largest institutional source of hospital care in that country. This study also aimed to identify actions that would improve efficiency. Using purposive sampling (to identify key informants), interviews with seventeen health professionals and hospital managers involved in the SSO health system were conducted. The respondents identified a number of organizational factors affecting efficiency, particularly the hospital budgeting and payment system used to fund physicians, and the lack of the managerial skills needed to manage complex facilities such as hospitals. The interviewees stressed the necessity for reforms of the regulatory framework to improve efficiency. A few participants recommended the concept of a funder-provider split. The results of this exploratory study have provided meaningful insight into Iranian health professionals views of factors affecting efficiency, and of possible remedial actions. It is expected that the findings will provide guidance for health policy makers and hospital managers in the Iranian SSO to analyse factors affecting efficiency and to identify remedial actions to improve efficiency. Hospitals in other developing countries may be affected by similar factors.

Afzali HH; Moss JR; Mahmood MA

2011-01-01

10

Ecological Factors Affecting Efficiency and Health in Warships*  

Science.gov (United States)

The environment of those who live and work in warships is closely related to the way the ships are built and employed. In stating the requirements for the atmosphere between decks the emphasis has swung during the past 50 years from the need for controlling the chemical constituents to the control of the factors which comprise the thermal environment, and now, with the advent of the nuclear-powered submarine, to the need for achieving, as nearly as possible, complete physical, chemical, and microbiological control. Between 1944 and 1953 the thermal factors between decks were investigated in a series of studies carried out in H.M. Ships. The average effective temperatures on the mess decks and in the work places of 11 ships in the Eastern Fleet in 1944 exceeded 84°F. (28·9°C.). In compartments where radiant heat was an added factor the average corrected effective temperature levels were 1° or 2°F. (0·55-1·1°C.) higher than the corresponding effective temperatures. The effects of climatic conditions on naval personnel were investigated by psychological studies to determine the levels of warmth at which performance deteriorated; by physiological experiments to show the levels of warmth at which the collapse of men working at different work rates might be expected; by comfort surveys in ships and on shore to determine the levels of warmth at which the majority enjoyed optimum comfort; and by relating the monthly incidence of the common causes of ill-health to the average monthly upper-deck temperature as recorded at noon each day in order to determine the temperature level above which sickness increased. It was concluded that the upper desirable level of warmth to consider when designing ships for hot climates was an effective temperature of 78°F. (25·5°C.). As it is usually impracticable in many compartments to achieve temperatures below 78°F. (25·5°C.) in the tropics without the generous application of air cooling, attention was then directed to the associated effects on the chemical and bacterial constituents of restricting air supplies, an unavoidable feature of most air conditioning systems, and to defining the permissible lower limits for fresh air requirements. The nuclear submarine with its capacity for remaining submerged for very long periods raises new problems relating to life in a confined space and involving very prolonged exposure to the submarine environment. These problems have still to be investigated.

Ellis, F. P.

1960-01-01

11

An Evaluation of the Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Some Sorting Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sorting allows information or data to be put into a meaningful order. As efficiency is a major concern of computing, data are sorted in order to gain the efficiency in retrieving or searching tasks. The factors affecting the efficiency of shell, Heap, Bubble, Quick and Merge sorting techniques in terms of running time, memory usage and the number of exchanges were investigated. Experiment was conducted for the decision variables generated from algorithms implemented in Java programming and factor analysis by principal components of the obtained experimental data was carried out in order to estimate the contribution of each factor to the success of the sorting algorithms. Further statistical analysis was carried out to generate eigenvalue of the extracted factor and hence, a system of linear equations which was used to estimate the assessment of each factor of the sorting techniques was proposed. The study revealed that the main factor affecting these sorting techniques was time taken to sort. It contributed 97.842%, 97.693%, 89.351%, 98.336% and 90.480% for Bubble sort, Heap sort, Merge sort, Quick sort and Shell sort respectively. The number of swap came second contributing 1.587% for Bubble sort, 2.305% for Heap sort, 10.63% for Merge sort, 1.643% for Quick sort and 9.514% for Shell sort. The memory used was the least of the factors contributing negligible percentage for the five sorting techniques. It contributed 0.571% for Bubble sort, 0.002% for Heap sort, 0.011% for Merge sort, 0.021% for Quick sort and 0.006% for Shell sort.

Olabiyisi S.O.; Adetunji A.B.; Oyeyinka F.I.

2013-01-01

12

Factors affecting SFHR gene correction efficiency with single-stranded DNA fragment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A 606-nt single-stranded (ss) DNA fragment, prepared by restriction enzyme digestion of ss phagemid DNA, improves the gene correction efficiency by 12-fold as compared with a PCR fragment, which is the conventional type of fragment used in the small fragment homologous replacement method [H. Tsuchiya, H. Harashima, H. Kamiya, Increased SFHR gene correction efficiency with sense single-stranded DNA, J. Gene Med. 7 (2005) 486-493]. To reveal the characteristic features of this gene correction with the ss DNA fragment, the effects on the gene correction in CHO-K1 cells of the chain length, 5'-phosphate, adenine methylation, and transcription were studied. Moreover, the possibility that the ss DNA fragment is integrated into the target DNA was examined with a radioactively labeled ss DNA fragment. The presence of methylated adenine, but not the 5'-phosphate, enhanced the gene correction efficiency, and the optimal length of the ss DNA fragment (?600 nt) was determined. Transcription of the target gene did not affect the gene correction efficiency. In addition, the target DNA recovered from the transfected CHO-K1 cells was radioactive. The results obtained in this study indicate that length and adenine methylation were important factors affecting the gene correction efficiency, and that the ss DNA fragment was integrated into the double-stranded target DNA

2005-11-04

13

Factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: To investigate the factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide(AS-ODNs) transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles. Methods: Lipid microbubbles filled with two types of gases-air and C{sub 3}F{sub 8}, were prepared respectively. An AS-ODNs sequence HA824 and a breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 were used to define the various operating variables determining the transfection efficiency of insonated microbubbles. Two mixing methods, three levels of mixing speed, different mixing durations and various ultrasound initiation time after mixing were examined respectively. Transfection efficiency was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Results: C{sub 3}F{sub 8} microbubbles gave higher levels of AS-ODNs transfection efficiency than air microbubbles in all test conditions. Transfection efficiency resulted from mixing method A (incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells) did not show significant difference with that of mixing method B (without incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells). Mixing speed, duration of mixing and ultrasound initiation time after mixing were central to determining HA824 transfection efficiency in vitro. The optimum parameters for SK-BR-3 cells were found at a mixing speed of 40-50 rpm for 30-60 s with less than 60 s delay before ultrasound. Conclusion: Ultrasound-mediated AS-ODNs transfection enhanced by C{sub 3}F{sub 8}-filled lipid microbubbles represents an effective avenue for AS-ODNs transfer.

Zhao Yingzheng [General Hospital of Beijing Military Command of PLA, Department of Clinical Pharmacology (China)], E-mail: lctuua@yahoo.com.cn; Lu Cuitao [Madam Medical Management Group (China)

2008-03-15

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Factors affecting energy and nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows: A meta-analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A meta-analysis was performed to explore the correlation between energy and nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows, and to study nutritional and animal factors that influence these efficiencies, as well as their relationship. Treatment mean values were extracted from 68 peer-reviewed studies, including 306 feeding trials. The main criterion for inclusion of a study in the meta-analysis was that it reported, or permitted calculation of, energy efficiency (Eeff; energy in milk/digestible energy intake) and nitrogen efficiency (Neff; nitrogen in milk/digestible nitrogen intake) at the digestible level (digestible energy or digestible protein). The effect of nutritional and animal variables, including neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber (ADF), digestible energy, digestible protein, proportion of concentrate (PCO), dry matter intake, milk yield, days in milk, and body weight, on Eeff, Neff, and the Neff:Eeff ratio was analyzed using mixed models. The interstudy correlation between Eeff and Neff was 0.62, whereas the intrastudy correlation was 0.30. The higher interstudy correlation was partly due to milk yield and dry matter intake being present in both Eeff and Neff. We, therefore, also explored the Neff:Eeff ratio. Energy efficiency was negatively associated with ADF and PCO, whereas Neff was negatively associated with ADF and digestible energy. The Neff:Eeff ratio was affected by ADF and PCO only. In conclusion, the results indicate a possibility to maximize feed efficiency in terms of both energy and nitrogen at the same time. In other words, an improvement in Eeff would also mean an improvement in Neff. The current study also shows that these types of transverse data are not sufficient to study the effect of animal factors, such as days in milk, on feed efficiency. Longitudinal measurements per animal would probably be more appropriate.

Phuong HN; Friggens NC; de Boer IJ; Schmidely P

2013-09-01

15

Directed evolution study unveiling key sequence factors that affect translation efficiency in Escherichia coli.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Synonymous mutations in protein coding genes significantly impact translation efficiency. We synthesized a pair of genes encoding green fluorescent protein that were separated by 160 synonymous mutations to investigate key factors that affect translation efficiency. One sequence was optimized for Escherichia coli (GFP(Eco)) and the other for Bacillus subtilis (GFP(Bsu)). When the genes were expressed in E. coli, GFP(Eco) fluoresced 12-fold stronger than GFP(Bsu), confirming the suboptimal nature of the GFP(Bsu) gene. We then employed directed evolution to improve the expression of GFP(Bsu). Random mutagenesis and DNA shuffling was used to generate mutant libraries, which were screened for fluorescence. A variant showing 6-fold fluorescence enhancement was identified, which contained a single mutation (G10A) in a rare codon for Gly-4. However, the substitution generated another type of rare codon, AGA, for Arg, suggesting that the improvement was caused by a factor other than the rare codon. We next applied saturation mutagenesis to Gly-4. The darkest variant contained a GGG codon (GFP(Bsu)-G) for Gly-4. Taking the location of the mutation into account, we hypothesized that destabilization of the mRNA secondary structure around the initiation codon improved the expression. We then randomized the nucleotide triplet in 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) of GFP(Bsu), which is complementary to the Gly-4 codon. A variant showing 6-fold fluorescence enhancement was identified, which exhibited a destabilized secondary structure. When this 5'UTR sequence was combined with GFP(Bsu)-G, 22-fold fluorescent improvement was achieved. Collectively, the stability of the mRNA secondary structure around the initiation codon predominantly affected the translation efficiency.

Tsukuda M; Miyazaki K

2013-06-01

16

Energy-efficient housing alternatives: a predictive model of factors affecting household perceptions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major purpose of this investigation was to assess the impact of household socio-economic factors, dwelling characteristics, energy conservation behavior, and energy attitudes on the perceptions of energy-efficient housing alternatives. Perceptions of passive solar, active solar, earth sheltered, and retrofitted housing were examined. Data used were from the Southern Regional Research Project, S-141, Housing for Low and Moderate Income Families. Responses from 1804 households living in seven southern states were analyzed. A conceptual model was proposed to test the hypothesized relationships which were examined by path analysis. Perceptions of energy efficient housing alternatives were found to be a function of selected household and dwelling characteristics, energy attitude, household economic factors, and household conservation behavior. Age and education of the respondent, family size, housing-income ratio, utility income ratio, energy attitude, and size of the dwelling unit were found to have direct and indirect effects on perceptions of energy-efficient housing alternatives. Energy conservation behavior made a significant direct impact with behavioral energy conservation changes having the most profound influence. Conservation behavior was influenced by selected household and dwelling characteristics, energy attitude, and household economic factors.

Schreckengost, R.L.

1985-01-01

17

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sorghum: factors that affect transformation efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results presented in this work support the hypothesis that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sorghum is feasible, analogous to what has been demonstrated for other cereals such as rice, maize, barley and wheat. The four factors that we found most influenced transformation were: the sensitivity of immature sorghum embryos to Agrobacterium infection, the growth conditions of the donor plant, type of explant and co-cultivation medium. A major problem during the development of our protocol was a necrotic response which developed in explants after co-cultivation. Immature sorghum embryos proved to be very sensitive to Agrobacterium infection and we found that the level of embryo death after co-cultivation was the limiting step in improving transformation efficiency. The addition of coconut water to the co-cultivation medium, the use of vigorous and actively growing immature embryos and the removal of excess bacteria significantly improved the survival rate of sorghum embryos and was critical for successful transformation. Hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) proved to be a good selectable marker for sorghum. We also found that b-glucuronidase (GUS) activity was low in most of the transgenic plant tissues tested, although it was very high in immature inflorescences. Although promising, the overall transformation efficiency of the protocol is still low and further optimization will require particular attention to be given to the number of Agrobacterium in the inoculum and the selection of sorghum genotypes and explants less sensitive to Agrobacterium infection.

Carlos Henrique S. Carvalho; Usha B. Zehr; Nilupa Gunaratna; Joseph Anderson; Halina H. Kononowicz; Thomas K. Hodges; John D. Axtell

2004-01-01

18

Meta-analysis of factors that affect the utilization efficiency of phosphorus in lactating dairy cows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A meta-analysis investigation based on literature data was conducted to estimate the effect size of nutritional and animal factors on phosphorus (P) excretion in feces and concentrations of P in milk. Two data sets were created for statistical analysis: One to derive prediction equations for P in feces (25 studies; 130 treatments) and another for P in milk (19 studies; 94 treatments). Prediction equations were derived using mixed model regression analysis with a random effect for study, and equations were evaluated based on values for Bayesian information criterion (BIC), root mean square prediction error (RMSPE), and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) statistics. In terms of RMSPE and CCC values, fecal P excretion was best predicted by P intake, where P in feces (g/d)=-3.8(±3.45) + 0.64(±0.038) × P intake (g/d) (RMSPE: 18.3%, CCC: 0.869). However, significant effects of crude protein [g/kg of dry matter (DM)], neutral detergent fiber (g/kg of DM), and milk yield (kg/d) on fecal P excretion were also found. Despite a lack of improvement in terms of RMSPE and CCC values, these parameters may still explain part of the variation in fecal P excretion. For milk P, expressed as a fraction of P intake, the following equation had the highest CCC and the lowest RMSPE value: P in milk as a fraction of P intake (g/g)=0.42(±0.065) + 0.23(±0.018) × feed efficiency (i.e., fat- and protein-corrected milk yield/dry matter intake) - 0.11(±0.0199) × P in feed (g/kg of DM) (RMSPE: 19.7%; CCC: 0.761). Equations derived to predict fecal P as a fraction of P intake (g/g) or milk P content (g/kg) could not adequately explain the observed variation and did not perform well in terms of RMSPE and CCC values. Examination of the residuals showed that P balance was a seemingly confounding factor in some of the models. The results presented here can be used to estimate P in feces and milk based on commonly measured dietary and milk variables, but could also be used to guide development of mechanistic models on P metabolism in lactating dairy cattle. Factors to consider in future research and modeling efforts regarding efficiency of P use include the effects of dietary neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, starch, variation in P content of milk, and effects of P resorption from bone and body tissues during early lactation.

Klop G; Ellis JL; Bannink A; Kebreab E; France J; Dijkstra J

2013-06-01

19

FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENCY OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CATTLE AND BUFFALO IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect the success of artificial insemination (A.I) services under field conditions. The data from a total of 459 inseminations were analyzed. The effects of farm, animal, semen/bull and A.I. technician on conception rate were studied. Milk progesterone concentration was used as an indicator of conception. Milk samples were collected from animals at day 0, 11 and 22 post-insemination and analysed for progesterone (P4) concentrations using radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits. Results indicated that the overall conception rate through A.I. under field condition was 29%. Among the farm-related factors, only region had a significant effect on conception rate (P0.05). Animals inseminated within 24 hours after the onset of estrus had a higher, though statistically insignificant, conception rate than those inseminated after 24 hours. Among the animal-related factors, species, milk production, body condition score (BCS), lactation state, heat signs and uterine tone had a significant effect on conception rate. The conception rate in buffaloes was higher than in cattle (P<0.05). Animals with the higher BCS had a better conception rate than those having lower condition. Conception rate in the milking animals was more than the dry ones (P<0.05). Animals showing the passage of mucus from external genitalia (P<0.05) and marked uterine tone (P<0.01) showed better conception rate. Among the semen/bull related factors, bull breed, semen type, quality and source had a marked effect on conception rate. The conception rate was higher with the semen of cross bred and buffalo bulls (P<0.05). The conception rate with liquid semen was high and low with frozen semen (P<0.01). Good quality semen yielded higher conception rate than poor quality semen (P<0.01). The conception rate varied significantly due to A.I. technician (P<0.01). In conclusion, there is a tremendous scope to improve the existing A.I. technology in field through improved management of both animal and farm, supply of high quality frozen semen and enhancement in insemination skill of A.I. technicians.

M. Anzar*, U. Farooq**, M.A. Mirza*, M. Shahab** and N. Ahmad*

2003-01-01

20

Transgenic ramie [Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.]: factors affecting the efficiency of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and regeneration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation system was developed for ramie [Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.] based on the examinations of several factors affecting plant transformation efficiency. The effects of Agrobacterium cell density, acetosyringone, co-cultivation temperature, co-cultivation duration, co-cultivation photoperiod and pH on stable transformation were evaluated. Agrobacterium at a concentration of OD = 0.5-0.8 improved the efficiency of transformation. Concentration of acetosyringone at 50 mg/L during co-cultivation significantly increased transformation efficiency. Co-cultivation at 20 degrees C, in comparison to 15, 25 and 28 degrees C, consistently resulted in higher transformation frequencies. A relatively short co-cultivation duration (3 days) was optimal for ramie transformation. Co-cultivation medium at pH 5.9 and co-cultivation in darkness both improved the transformation efficiencies of ramie. An overall scheme for producing transgenic ramie is presented, through which an average transformation rate from 10.5 to 24.7% in five ramie varieties was obtained. Stable expression and integration of the transgenes were confirmed by histochemical GUS assay, kanamycin painting assay, PCR and Southern blotting. This optimized transformation system should be employed for efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of ramie.

Wang B; Liu L; Wang X; Yang J; Sun Z; Zhang N; Gao S; Xing X; Peng D

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Transgenic ramie [Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.]: factors affecting the efficiency of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation system was developed for ramie [Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaud.] based on the examinations of several factors affecting plant transformation efficiency. The effects of Agrobacterium cell density, acetosyringone, co-cultivation temperature, co-cultivation duration, co-cultivation photoperiod and pH on stable transformation were evaluated. Agrobacterium at a concentration of OD = 0.5-0.8 improved the efficiency of transformation. Concentration of acetosyringone at 50 mg/L during co-cultivation significantly increased transformation efficiency. Co-cultivation at 20 degrees C, in comparison to 15, 25 and 28 degrees C, consistently resulted in higher transformation frequencies. A relatively short co-cultivation duration (3 days) was optimal for ramie transformation. Co-cultivation medium at pH 5.9 and co-cultivation in darkness both improved the transformation efficiencies of ramie. An overall scheme for producing transgenic ramie is presented, through which an average transformation rate from 10.5 to 24.7% in five ramie varieties was obtained. Stable expression and integration of the transgenes were confirmed by histochemical GUS assay, kanamycin painting assay, PCR and Southern blotting. This optimized transformation system should be employed for efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of ramie. PMID:19533144

Wang, Bo; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Xuxia; Yang, Jinyu; Sun, Zhenxia; Zhang, Na; Gao, Shimei; Xing, Xiulong; Peng, Dingxiang

2009-06-16

22

Factors that affect the quality and efficiency of artificial insemination in oestrus synchronization programmes in dairy cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were performed during a three-year period in order to identify the factors affecting quality and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) when it is used in cattle subjected to oestrus induction and synchronization (OIS) programmes. The study took place in the Western part of the country and 3 herds with a total of 6357 animals were used. The first study was a survey to evaluate the factors affecting the efficiency of AI in OIS. The second study examined the effects of body condition score (BCS) and three different regimes of OIS on the results of AI. Progesterone levels were measured in blood and milk using radioimmunoassay to determine the incidence of acyclic animals in the herds. Data were recorded and analysed using the artificial insemination database application (AIDA) and further statistical analyses were done using Systat. The results found in the survey showed a low conception rate (18%) and a great variability in the period from calving to conception (154 ± 98.11 days). The latter parameter was significantly different between herds (P

2001-01-01

23

Affordability and other factors affecting the purchase of energy-efficient manufactured homes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) conducted this study to evaluate the manufactured home owner`s purchase decision process and to provide Bonneville with a better understanding of how consumers view a manufactured home`s affordability and energy efficiency. This study addresses manufactured homes built under the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) standards; these homes are sometimes referred to as HUD-code homes or mobile homes. Manufactured home owners in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington were included in this analysis. This report adds to the information presented in Sandahl et al. (1992), which discussed the practices of lenders, appraisers, and dealers -- all of whom play a key role in the manufactured home market due to the impact their practices have on the overall affordability of manufactured homes. This report focuses exclusively on the most important, and probably least understood, player -- the home buyer. The primary data were collected via a mail survey sent to 1,550 manufactured home owners in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington in late 1992. A 71% response rate was achieved; 1,106 usable responses were received. This study focuses on the Pacific Northwest but presents information that may be relevant to other parts of the country.

Hattrup, M.P.; Lee, A.D.; Sandahl, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Onisko, S.A. [USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

1993-06-01

24

The many factors that affect the success of regulatory mechanisms designed to foster investments in energy efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A utility's profit-maximizing level of investment in energy efficiency or demand-side management (DSM) programs and mix of programs is affected by natural load growth, the frequency of rate cases, program costs, and the structure of any mechanism designed to either compensate the utility for foregone profits or sever the link between sales and profits. Under a range of reasonable assumptions, decoupling can incent a utility to invest in DSM. However, a utility experiencing high natural load growth and little inflation is likely to resist the imposition of a decoupling mechanism, as it would tend to lower profits. A utility with low growth in per-customer sales will tend to favor decoupling, as it will tend to lead to higher profits than under traditional regulation. The results presented here are quite sensitive to the assumptions made regarding natural load growth, regulatory lag, the frequency of price changes, price elasticity of demand, and other factors. This suggests that there is not a single approach to promoting energy efficiency without penalizing utility profits that will work in all situations for all utilities.

Zarnikau [LBJ School of Public Affairs and Division of Statistics of the College of Natural Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 (United States)

2012-08-15

25

Variants in the 3' UTR of general Transcription factor IIF, polypeptide 2 affect female calving efficiency in Japanese Black cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Calving efficiency can be described as the measure of a cow's ability to produce viable offspring within a specific period of time. This trait is crucial in beef cattle because calves are necessary both for the production of beef and for heifer replacements. Recently, the number of calves produced at 4 years of age (NCP4) has been used to evaluate the calving efficiency of Japanese Black cattle. To identify variants associated with calving efficiency in Japanese Black cattle, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 688 animals with extreme NCP4 values selected from 15,225 animals. RESULTS: We identified genetic variants on bovine chromosome 12 (BTA12) that were associated with NCP4. The General Transcription Factor IIF, polypeptide 2 (GTF2F2), located in the 132 kbp-associated region, proved to be in strong linkage disequilibrium. We found 15 associated variants in the promoter and the 3' UTR regions. Consistent with this finding, transcripts of GTF2F2 derived from the haplotype (Q) with the increased number of calves were 1.33-fold more abundant than q-derived transcripts. Furthermore, luciferase assays revealed that the activity of the 3' UTR, a region that includes nine SNPs, was higher in constructs with the Q haplotype than in those with the q haplotype by approximately 1.35-fold. In contrast, the activity of the promoter region did not differ between haplotypes. The association was replicated in an independent sample of 827 animals that were randomly selected from the remainder of the cohort from the same farms used in the GWAS. In the replicated population, the frequency of the Q haplotype is 0.313, and this haplotype accounts for 2.69% of the total phenotypic variance. The effect of the Q to q haplotype substitution on NCP4 was 0.054 calves. These findings suggest that variants in the 3' UTR of GTF2F2 affect the level of GTF2F2 mRNA, which is associated with calving efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: This GWAS has identified variants in the 3' UTR of GTF2F2 that were associated with the NCP4 of Japanese Black cattle, and this association was validated in an independent sample. The Q haplotype will be immediately useful in improving the calving efficiency of Japanese Black cattle.

Sasaki S; Ibi T; Watanabe T; Matsuhashi T; Ikeda S; Sugimoto Y

2013-01-01

26

Factor analysis of the most informative parameters affecting the efficiency of training wrestling students of physical education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comprehensively analyzed the various factors that affect the absorption of the students practical course in wrestling. The study involved 98 boys - 3rd year students of the Faculty of Physical Education, who begin the study of the course Combating and methods of teaching. Also, 32 students who are engaged in the struggle. The results of studies of anthropometric, physical, functional, ergonomics students. The input data for the factor analysis were the first 3-ranking figure, biomechanical, physical fitness and functional status, anthropometric. It is established that the content of the first most significant factors included biomechanical parameters that demonstrate the value of balance and coordination abilities of others.

Tkachenko S.V.

2013-01-01

27

Factors affecting adoption of energy efficient and environmentally sound industrial technologies in a developing country like India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reviews the status of technologies in selected industries in a developing country like India. The energy-intensive industrial sectors chosen were cement, iron & steel and pulp & paper A comparison of energy intensity of these industries is made with a few industrially developed countries. The paper analyses the, factors that inhibit and those that help in the promotion and propagation of energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies. The factors were divided into two categories: those that were internal to the organisation and those that were external.

Aneja, A.K.

1997-12-31

28

Factors affecting corneoscleral topography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate factors affecting corneoscleral profile (CSP) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in combination with conventional videokeratoscopy. METHODS: OCT DATA WERE COLLECTED FROM 204 SUBJECTS OF MEAN AGE 34.9 YEARS (SD: ±15.2 years, range 18-65) using the Zeiss Visante AS-OCT and Medmont M300 corneal topographer. Measurements of corneal diameter (CD), corneal sagittal height (CS), iris diameter (ID), corneoscleral junction angle (CSJ), and scleral radius (SR) were extracted from multiple OCT images. Horizontal visible iris diameter (HVID) and vertical palpebral aperture (PA) were measured using a slit lamp graticule. Subject body height was also measured. Associations were then sought between CSP variables and age, height, ethnicity, sex, and refractive error. RESULTS: Significant correlations were found between age and ocular topography variables of HVID, PA, CSJ, SR, and ID (P < 0.0001), while height correlated with HVID, CD, and ID, and power vector terms with vertical plane keratometry, CD, and CS. Significant differences were noted between ethnicities with respect to CD (P = 0.0046), horizontal and vertical CS (P = 0.0068 and P = 0.0095), and horizontal ID (P = 0.0010). The same variables, with the exception of vertical CS, also varied with sex; horizontal CD (P = 0.0018), horizontal CS (P = 0.0018), and ID (P = 0.0012). Age accounted for the greatest variance in topography variables (36%). CONCLUSIONS: Age is the main factor influencing CSP; this should be taken into consideration in contact lens design, IOL selection, and in the optimization of surgical procedures. Ocular topography also varied with height, sex, ethnicity, and refractive error.

Hall LA; Hunt C; Young G; Wolffsohn J

2013-05-01

29

Factors affecting study efficiency and item non-response in health surveys in developing countries: the Jamaica national healthy lifestyle survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Health surveys provide important information on the burden and secular trends of risk factors and disease. Several factors including survey and item non-response can affect data quality. There are few reports on efficiency, validity and the impact of item non-response, from developing countries. This report examines factors associated with item non-response and study efficiency in a national health survey in a developing Caribbean island. Methods A national sample of participants aged 15–74 years was selected in a multi-stage sampling design accounting for 4 health regions and 14 parishes using enumeration districts as primary sampling units. Means and proportions of the variables of interest were compared between various categories. Non-response was defined as failure to provide an analyzable response. Linear and logistic regression models accounting for sample design and post-stratification weighting were used to identify independent correlates of recruitment efficiency and item non-response. Results We recruited 2012 15–74 year-olds (66.2% females) at a response rate of 87.6% with significant variation between regions (80.9% to 97.6%; p Conclusion Informative health surveys are possible in developing countries. While survey response rates may be satisfactory, item non-response was high in respect of income and sexual practice. In contrast to developed countries, non-response to questions on income is higher and has different correlates. These findings can inform future surveys.

Wilks Rainford; Younger Novie; Mullings Jasneth; Zohoori Namvar; Figueroa Peter; Tulloch-Reid Marshall; Ferguson Trevor; Walters Christine; Bennett Franklyn; Forrester Terrence; Ward Elizabeth; Ashley Deanna

2007-01-01

30

Dual-function radiation sensitizers and bioreductive drugs: factors affecting cellular uptake and sensitizing efficiency in analogues of RSU 1069  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alkyl aziridine analogues of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RSU 1069 have been synthesized and one, RB 7040, containing tetramethyl substituted aziridine, is a more efficient sensitizer in vitro than RSU 1069 (Ahmed et al., 1986). The extent to which variation in drug uptake can influence the sensitizing efficiency of RSU 1069 and its analogues has been investigated by determining cellular uptake as a function of pH of extracellular medium (pHsub(e)) over the range 5.4-8.4. Following exposure of V79 cells for 1 h at room temperature, the ratio of intra-to extracellular concentration (Ci/Ce) was near unity at pH 5.4. Increasing pHsub(e) to 8.4 resulted in no change in the ratio Ci/Ce for RSU 1069 (pKsub(a) = 6.04). Values of Ci/Ce increased three-fold for RSU 1165 (pKsub(a) 7.38) and eleven-fold for RB 7040 (pKsub(a) = 8.45). Radiosensitization by RSU 1069 showed little dependence on pHsub(e) whereas increasing pH caused an apparent increase in sensitizing efficiency of both RSU 1165 and RB 7040. When enhancement ratios for sensitization were normalized to take account of the effect of extracellular pH on drug uptake, efficiency of sensitization was independent of pHsub(e). (author).

1988-01-01

31

Factors affecting pediatric isotonic fluid resuscitation efficiency: a randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of syringe size.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Goal-directed therapy guidelines for pediatric septic shock resuscitation recommend fluid delivery at speeds in excess of that possible through use of regular fluid infusion pumps. In our experience, syringes are commonly used by health care providers (HCPs) to achieve rapid fluid resuscitation in a pediatric fluid resuscitation scenario. At present, it is unclear which syringe size health care providers should use when performing fluid resuscitation to achieve maximal fluid resuscitation efficiency. The objective of this study was therefore to determine if an optimal syringe size exists for conducting manual pediatric fluid resuscitation. METHODS: This 48-participant parallel group randomized controlled trial included 4 study arms (10, 20, 30, 60 mL syringe size groups). Eligible participants were HCPs from McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton, Canada blinded to the purpose of the trial. Consenting participants were randomized using a third party technique. Following a standardization procedure, participants administered 900 mL (60 mL/kg) of isotonic saline to a simulated 15 kg child using prefilled provided syringes of the allocated size in rapid sequence. Primary outcome was total time to administer the 900 mL and this data was collected through video review by two blinded outcome assessors. Sample size was predetermined based upon a primary outcome analysis using one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: 12 participants were randomized to each group (n=48) and all completed trial protocol to analysis. Analysis was conducted according to intention to treat principles. A significant difference in fluid resuscitation time (in seconds) was found between syringe size group means: 10 mL, 563s [95% CI 521; 606]; 20 mL, 506s [95% CI 64; 548]; 30 mL, 454s [95% CI 412; 596]; 60 mL, 455s [95% CI 413; 497] (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The syringe size used when performing manual pediatric fluid resuscitation has a significant impact on fluid resuscitation speed, in a setting where fluid filled syringes are continuously available. Greatest efficiency was achieved with 30 or 60 mL syringes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01494116.

Harvey G; Foster G; Manan A; Thabane L; Parker MJ

2013-01-01

32

Identifying the factors affecting the willingness to pay for fuel-efficient vehicles in Turkey. A case of hybrids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper aims to determine the factors that have an impact on the consumers' willingness to pay a premium for hybrid automobiles in Turkey. A web-based random survey was conducted in different regions of Turkey. A questionnaire was administered to 1983 participants in January-March of 2009. The questionnaire was prepared by taking the issues raised in various sources into account. An ordered Probit model was used to meet the objective. Results show that variables such as income, gender, education, concerns about global warming, number of automobiles, importance of automobile performance, risk preference, attitude toward the alternative energy sources have an impact on the consumers' willingness to pay a premium for hybrids. Findings suggest that consumers who have high income, higher educational level, and concerns about the global warming are more likely to pay a premium for hybrids. This study is expected to make important contributions to the current literature related to the consumers' willingness to pay for hybrids by providing a research study from a developing country's perspective. Results of this study also make important contributions to the policy and decision makers, environmental groups and automotive industry. (author)

Erdem, Cumhur; Sentuerk, Ismail; Simsek, Tuerker [Department of Economics Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat 60200 (Turkey)

2010-06-15

33

Identifying the factors affecting the willingness to pay for fuel-efficient vehicles in Turkey: A case of hybrids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper aims to determine the factors that have an impact on the consumers' willingness to pay a premium for hybrid automobiles in Turkey. A web-based random survey was conducted in different regions of Turkey. A questionnaire was administered to 1983 participants in January-March of 2009. The questionnaire was prepared by taking the issues raised in various sources into account. An ordered Probit model was used to meet the objective. Results show that variables such as income, gender, education, concerns about global warming, number of automobiles, importance of automobile performance, risk preference, attitude toward the alternative energy sources have an impact on the consumers' willingness to pay a premium for hybrids. Findings suggest that consumers who have high income, higher educational level, and concerns about the global warming are more likely to pay a premium for hybrids. This study is expected to make important contributions to the current literature related to the consumers' willingness to pay for hybrids by providing a research study from a developing country's perspective. Results of this study also make important contributions to the policy and decision makers, environmental groups and automotive industry.

2010-01-01

34

Epidemiological factors affecting "Hepatitis C".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection is often asymptomatic, but once established, chronic infection can progress to scarring of the liver (fibrosis), and advanced scarring (cirrhosis) which is generally apparent after many years. The main goal of this work is the investigation of the important factors that affect hepatitis C. Epidemiological and Statistical analysis using non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Willis, Mann-Whitney) are considered to present the amount of significant differences between important factors. Proposed model are analyzed when logistic regression is applied.

Diomidous M; Zimeras S; Elefsiniotis IS

2013-01-01

35

Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

McBride Sebastian D; Mills Daniel S

2012-01-01

36

The factors affecting the recarburization process indicators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the factors affecting the carburizing rates obtained (rate and efficiency) during the process of melting cast iron. The analysis includes the recarburizer type (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke) and particle size. Further factors considered in work are the methods of recarburization (recarburizer introduction to a solid charge and on the surface of the metal bath) and the parameters of the melt (temperature and chemical composition). The analysis was based on experiments performed, the calculation results of computer simulations and literature data.

K. Janerka; J. Szajnar; J. Jezierski; D. Bartocha

2011-01-01

37

Principal Factors Affecting IDBT Evolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on Italian Double-entry Bookkeeping Thought (IDBT) evolution are seldom found in such aspects as accounts with persons (AP), accounts with goods (AG), and accounts equilibria (AE), etc., so we studied IDBT evolution in the aspects stated above and the principal factors for IDBT evolution, including their selection, contribution and sequence in this thesis. By our analysis, IDBT evolved in such aspects as accounts with persons (AP), accounts with goods (AG), loss and net income accounts (LNIA), capital accounts (AC) and accounts equilibria (AE), etc., and ripened in the period of 1430-1482. Principal factors affecting IDBT evolution can be ordered by contribution as follows: social conditions (SCS3) and relationships between supply and demand of accounting thought (RBSDAT2). And our related advice is as follows: governments should adopt appropriate policy, and help to build proper social conditions and strengthen the relationships between supply and demand of accounting thought to promote the evolution of accounting thought. Especially as to social conditions, IDBT evolution is mainly owing to external causes from the outside of Italy. Once the outside motive disappeared, IDBT would lose the strong power of evolution and slow down its pace. So governments should place more emphases on building proper social conditions by encouraging internal powers from the inside of Italy.

Changqing Liu; Haili Yuan

2011-01-01

38

Factors affecting forage stand establishment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

Sulc R.M.

1998-01-01

39

Factors affecting vegetable stand establishment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several factors can influence stand establishment in vegetable crop production. Environmental conditions such as soil physical characteristics, temperature and moisture, various cultural practices, and diseases may all be limiting factors in establishing maximum stands and achieving the highest possible yields. Measures taken to increase stands include soil improvements, implementing cultural practices, and use of chemical and biological seed treatments. Combining seed treatments and cultural/tillage practices to minimize environmental constraints can lead to maximum stands and yields in the production of high quality vegetable crops.

Grassbaugh E. M.; Bennett M. A.

1998-01-01

40

Use of a standardized protocol to identify factors affecting the efficiency of artificial insemination services for cattle through progesterone measurement in fourteen countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of this co-ordinated research project (CRP) was to quantify the main factors limiting the efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) services in cattle under the prevailing conditions of developing countries, in order to recommend suitable strategies for improving conception rates (CR) and the level of usage of AI by cattle farmers. A standardized approach was used in 14 countries over a five-year period (1995-1999). The countries were: Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam in Asia; and Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela in Latin America. A minimum of 500 cows undergoing first insemination after calving were expected to be monitored in each country. Data regarding farms, AI technicians, semen used, cow inseminated, characteristics of the heat expression and factors related to the insemination were recorded. Three milk samples (or blood samples for dairy heifers and beef cows) were collected for each service to measure progesterone by radioimmunoassay. These were collected on the day of service (day 0) and on days 10-12 and 22-24 after service. Field and laboratory data were recorded in the computer package AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) which was developed for this CRP. The study established the current status of AI services at selected locations in participating countries and showed important differences between Asian and Latin American farming systems. The mean (±s.d.) of the interval from calving to first service for 7992 observations was 120.0 ± 82.1 days (median 95 days) with large differences between countries (P

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Factors Affecting Performance of AODV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) it is hard for a route to sustain for a longer period of time due to the mobility of nodes. High mobility of nodes results in active route failure and re-route discoveries. Such frequent route discoveries result in decreased network performance. In this study we have analyzed in detail the affect of different node mobility parameters on the performance of AODV (Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector) Routing Protocol. Simulation results are provided at the end.

S.A. Hussain; K. Mahmood; E. Garcia

2007-01-01

42

The influence pattern of key factors affecting the purpose of organizational excellence consulting on the efficiency of businesses consulting services (A case study of small and medium-size food enterprises in Tehran province)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consulting helps managers or other people find appropriate solutions for challenges they face in their businesses. Most of the losses incurred by the people and the society could be prevented using appropriate consultation. Consultation, also, refers to people's participation in decision making. Despite dramatic development in management consulting industry in the world during the last three decades, consulting industry in Iran has faced numerous challenges. This study aims to examine the factors affecting the efficiency of management consulting services in small and medium-sized businesses and it focuses on food industries in Tehran as a real-world case study. The necessary suggestions regarding the hiring of a consultant and increasing the efficiency of management consulting services in business have been offered in this study. Some recommendations deal with the way that management consultants should respond to the managers' needs, act as a reliable and efficient adviser in public or private businesses and find their position in the Iranian market. The conceptual model of this study shows the influence of key factors affecting the purpose of consulting on the efficiency of management consulting services. To do the research, 90 people are selected as the sample size in a descriptive study with random sampling of the managers of aforementioned companies using a questionnaire. Cronbach’s alpha method was used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. For assessing the validity of the questionnaire, we use standard questionnaire, which has already been used.

Mansour Ezati Jivan

2012-01-01

43

Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

Adnan Nazir; Ghulam Ali Jariko; Mumtaz Ali Junejo

2013-01-01

44

Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

Erman YUKSELTURK; Fethi Ahmet INAN

2006-01-01

45

Environmental factors affecting autoimmune thyroid disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of environmental factors affect the incidence and progression of autoimmune thyroid disease. Exposure to excess iodine, certain drugs, infectious agents and pollutants, and stress have all been implicated.

Safran, M.; Paul, T.L.; Roti, E.; Braverman, L.E.

1987-06-01

46

EFL Teachers' Factors and Students' Affect  

Science.gov (United States)

Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…

Qin, Lei

2007-01-01

47

Primary Factors Affecting Safety of Control System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim of the paper is to point out some of the factors that affect safety of control system. Already in initial stages of the control system life-cycle it is necessary to analyze the effect of each of these factors on safety of a designed control system. Following this analysis, it is possible to prop...

Karol Rastocny; Michal Foltan

48

Efficient parallel sparse Cholesky factorization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scalable implementations of sparse Cholesky factorization use block mappings of the dense parts of the matrix onto a 2-D processor grid, mappings which reduce communication cost. With naive cyclic mappings, block-oriented approaches (specifically, the block fan-out method) suffer from poor balance of the computational load and modest efficiency. Here, we show that heuristic remapping of the block rows and columns essentially removes load imbalance as a cause of inefficiency, producing a 20% increase in realized performance on a 196-node Paragon multicomputer. To attack the remaining inefficiency, we consider the scheduling of available tasks at each node. Priorities based on elimination tree depth yield another 10% improvement.

Rothberg, E. [Silicon Graphics, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Schreiber, R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

1995-12-01

49

Primary Factors Affecting Safety of Control System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to point out some of the factors that affect safety of control system. Already in initial stages of the control system life-cycle it is necessary to analyze the effect of each of these factors on safety of a designed control system. Following this analysis, it is possible to propose appropriate measures for achieving specified safety goals.

Karol Rastocny; Michal Foltan

2006-01-01

50

Factors affecting reproductive performance of Holstein heifers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives were to evaluate factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy heifers. Holstein heifers (6389) were housed in a feed lot located in Parma, ID. Each week heifers weighing > or =290 kg were initiated in the reproductive program, which consisted of one injection of PGF(2alpha) and AI on detection of estrus. Heifers not inseminated by 11 days after the initiation of the breeding program received a second injection of PGF(2alpha). Pregnancy was diagnosed at 40+/-3 and 90+/-3 days after AI. Average daily minimum temperature (ADMnT), average daily maximum temperature (ADMxT), and average daily rainfall (ARF) were recorded between 15 days prior to and 15 days after the day of AI or the day of initiation of the breeding program. Exposure to air temperature was classified as: cold stress (CS=ADMnT4 degrees C and ADMxT or =29 degrees C). Exposure to rainfall was classified as above (HRF) or below (LRF) the mean for the period in question. Heifers were classified according to body weight at initiation of the breeding program as thin (TH365 kg). Service sire was associated with conception rate at 40 and 90 days after first AI. Although exposure to air temperature was not correlated with conception rate at 40 days after first AI, heifers exposed to cold stress had smaller conception rates at 90 days after first AI because they were more likely to lose pregnancy between 40 and 90 days of gestation. The proportion of heifers inseminated after initiation of the breeding program was correlated with body weight and exposure to cold stress. Exposure to cold stress was also correlated with the proportion of heifers conceiving within 11 and 22 days after initiation of the breeding program. From this study a correlation was established between body weight and rate of insemination and between the exposure to cold stress and reproductive efficiency of Holstein heifers. PMID:17045427

Chebel, Ricardo C; Braga, Fernando A; Dalton, Joseph C

2006-09-10

51

Factors that affect toilet training in children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To identify age of initiation of toilet training and affecting factors for children. Material and Methods: 861 children were included in this study. "Chi square test", "Mann-Whitney U Test" and "Kruskall-Wallis Variance Analysis" statistical analysis methods have been applied. Ethical per...

Serdar Önen; ?lknur Aksoy; M. Ay?in Ta?ar; Y?ld?z Dallar Bilge

52

Factores que afectan la eficiencia técnica y asignativa en el sector cafetero colombiano: una aplicación con análisis envolvente de datos/ Factors that affect the technical and allocative efficiency in the colombian coffee sector: An application with data envelopment analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La eficiencia técnica y asignativa son análisis relativos, empleados en procesos productivos para conocer el máximo nivel producido y cantidad óptima utilizada de insumos acorde con sus precios. El presente estudio maneja datos microeconómicos de caficultores pequeños, medianos y grandes en los departamentos de Caldas, Quindío y Risaralda, para determinar la eficiencia técnica y asignativa mediante el método no parámetrico Análisis Envolvente de Datos - DEA (Da (more) ta Envolpment Analysis, siglas en inglés). La eficiencia técnica promedio encontrada para pequeños fue de 3,76%, medianos de 51,71%, grandes de 60,15% y todo el sector¹ de 42,38%. Mientras en eficiencia asignativa la media estadística obtenida, sobre las mismas unidades cafeteras, se ubicó así: 36,13%, 42,98%, 18,86% y 36,50%, respectivamente. Estas cifras, en el plano general, posiblemente presumen un sector cafetero y por tamaño de caficultor, en la muestra, ineficiente técnica y asignativamente. Resaltando a los grandes productores como más eficientes técnicamente e ineficientes asignativamente de todos los grupos involucrados. Esto significa que las unidades empresariales emplean muy bien la cantidad de insumos para maximizar su producción pero no logran producir al mínimo costo, dada la ineficiencia asignativa. Mientras los minifundistas, los campesinos y el sector general no explotan sus factores óptimamente y tampoco llegan al menor costo en producción por tener ineficiencia técnica y asignativa. Abstract in english Technical and Allocative efficiency are relative concepts, first it is used conventionally, to know if a producer obtain the maximum level of production, according to the amount of inputs used in the process. The second looks for to know if the producer uses the optimal amounts of inputs in the production process, according to the prices of these production factors. This study use microeconomic data on coffee producers of the Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda to determinate (more) the levels of technical and allocative efficiency using "Data Envelopment Analysis - DEA". Technical efficiency for small producers it is 3.76%, for middle producer it is 51.71% and big producers it is 60.15%, for the all coffee sector the technical efficiency it is 42.38%. Whereas for the allocative efficiency, the results are 36.13%, 42.98%, 18.86% and 36.50%, respectively. This results show that the coffee Colombian sector it is inefficient technical and allocatively. This means that the big producers uses the correct amount of inputs for maximize the coffee production but they do not produce following the schedule of minimum cost. On the other hand, small and middle producers and for all coffee sector they do not use efficiently the inputs, they do not maximize your coffee production and they do not produce following the minimum cost schedule, this because they are technical and allocatively inefficient.

Perdomo, Jorge Andrés; Mendieta, Juan Carlos

2007-09-01

53

Forest stand factors affecting precommercial thinning productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The New Brunswick Dept of Natural Resources uses a density-based productivity model for determining reimbursement rates for precommercial thinning (PCT) on Crown land. In response to concerns that the model makes no provision for non- density related stand conditions and the possibility that the model may be unfair to private woodlot operators or to those working in atypical stands, a study was initiated to identify what factors (in addition to stand density) affect PCT productivity, and to develop a productivity model or models based on these factors. Study methods included observations made of operators performing PCT with spacing saws, with a particular effort to focus on high- and low- density areas and to observe a wide range of stand conditions in order to capture factors other than density that may affect PCT productivity. Field data collection included a pre-thin stand assessment, a time study of operator activities (average observation time about 3.6 hours), and a post-thin assessment. Regression analyses were used to identify stand factors having a significant effect on PCT productivity and to develop suitable models. Ancillary stand factors examined included species composition, tree size, and tree spatial distribution.

Needham, T.D.; Hart, D.

1991-12-31

54

Factors affecting beam shape and quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The beam shape and quality are affected by hash, ripple, ion intensity distribution and geometrical and operational factors. Hash, which was found to be localized mainly at the sides of the beam (parasitic divergence ?), must be stopped by an appropriate diapharam to improve the image quality. The magnitude of ? is strongly dependent on the relative hash. Of all the source parameters, the magnetic field is the dominant factor in determining hash. Ripple in the cathode or arc power supplies of the source leads to a modulation of the beam divergence and consequently to an apparant increase of ?. The main result is an equivalent loss of transmission when ? is eliminated. Installing effective filters in the cathode and arc supplies of the MEIRA separator reduce the ripple by a factor of 10. Other factors found to increase the value of ? for long emission slits were faulty alignment of the electrode with the emission slit and non-uniform current density along this slit. Factors affecting ion current density distribution along the slit are described. Preliminary results are given concerning the variation of features of the divergence curve with operational parameters. (Auth.)

1976-12-01

55

Factors affecting reproductive performance of Holstein heifers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives were to evaluate factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy heifers. Holstein heifers (6389) were housed in a feed lot located in Parma, ID. Each week heifers weighing > or =290 kg were initiated in the reproductive program, which consisted of one injection of PGF(2alpha) and AI on detection of estrus. Heifers not inseminated by 11 days after the initiation of the breeding program received a second injection of PGF(2alpha). Pregnancy was diagnosed at 40+/-3 and 90+/-3 days after AI. Average daily minimum temperature (ADMnT), average daily maximum temperature (ADMxT), and average daily rainfall (ARF) were recorded between 15 days prior to and 15 days after the day of AI or the day of initiation of the breeding program. Exposure to air temperature was classified as: cold stress (CS=ADMnT< or =4 degrees C), no stress (NS=ADMnT>4 degrees C and ADMxT<29 degrees C), and heat stress (HS=ADMxT> or =29 degrees C). Exposure to rainfall was classified as above (HRF) or below (LRF) the mean for the period in question. Heifers were classified according to body weight at initiation of the breeding program as thin (TH<340 kg); moderate (MD=340-365 kg); and heavy (HY>365 kg). Service sire was associated with conception rate at 40 and 90 days after first AI. Although exposure to air temperature was not correlated with conception rate at 40 days after first AI, heifers exposed to cold stress had smaller conception rates at 90 days after first AI because they were more likely to lose pregnancy between 40 and 90 days of gestation. The proportion of heifers inseminated after initiation of the breeding program was correlated with body weight and exposure to cold stress. Exposure to cold stress was also correlated with the proportion of heifers conceiving within 11 and 22 days after initiation of the breeding program. From this study a correlation was established between body weight and rate of insemination and between the exposure to cold stress and reproductive efficiency of Holstein heifers.

Chebel RC; Braga FA; Dalton JC

2007-10-01

56

Experimental factors affecting white strobe pulse frequency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes made to the standard strobe compositions used as a baseline, and the resultant effects in intensity, duration and pulse frequency are described. The changes involved variations in particle sizes and mix ratios in order to cause performance changes in the original pyrotechnic strobe composition. Several factors, such as binder material, binder percentage, the addition of sulfur or antimony trisulfide and sulfates were found to affect strobe frequency. Technical data, photographic and videotape evidence of burning characteristics are highlighted. 3 refs., 7 figs.

Domanico, J. A. [Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (United States)

2000-04-01

57

Factors affecting air quality in Hong Kong  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hong Kong is a thriving territory of over 6 million people, well known for its manufacturing and trade, and also as a popular city for visitors. However, in common with many Asian cities, it experiences air pollution problems that are potential health risks and that also reduce the quality of life for visitors and residents alike. In this presentation, the factors affecting air quality in populated areas are discussed

Gervat, G.P.; Lee, F.Y.P. [Hong Kong Government, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept., Air Service Group

1995-12-31

58

Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural developmentin Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have abetter insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as alearning forum for bringing about changes for all participants,they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciativeinquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting thefacilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors andpreventing factors. The former are: two-way communication,election of rural eligible facilitators, participation, sense ofresponsibility, and the latter are: cultural and tribal fanaticism,lack of permanent female extension workers and frequentmanagement changes. Appreciative inquiry as a positive modeof action research could facilitate the process of education andcommunication for all stakeholders. We suggested that thereshould be a shift from the extension as a knowledge transfer tofacilitation as people’s own knowledge creation. This studyshowed that appreciative inquiry could facilitate the process ofchange and gender-awareness. This research method couldalso facilitate mutual communication between the rural facilitatorsand extension workers.

Farideh Azimi; Mohammad Bagher Kamali

2011-01-01

59

FACTORS AFFECTING THE SPORT RELATED CONSUMER EXPENDITURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years there has been a significant change in the importance given to economic and social role of sport related economic activities since sport has changed to a much broader concept involving sport clubs, associations, organizations and businesses where the implementation of carefully designed marketing strategies became vital for success. This study aims to explore the factors affecting the sport related consumer expenditures. Empirical results were obtained by means of a questionnaire survey in Izmir, the third biggest city in Turkey. The results include demographic and socio-economic analysis of respondents, their practices about sport related activities and expenditures associated with these activities. Six factors were obtained from the factor analysis depending on the respondents’ attitudes towards sporting activities were examined for their effects on sport related expenditures of the consumers.

Aykan CANDEM?R; Ali Erhan ZALLUHO?LU

2012-01-01

60

Factors affecting culture fluorescence when monitoring bioreactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the investigation of major factors which affect culture fluorescence signals from bioreactors, in particular, culture fluorescence signals from excited tryptophan, pyridoxine, NADH, and riboflavin. Major facrors chosen for the investigation are as follows; probe position, agitation and aeration rates, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, inner filter effects, and cascade effects. Among these factors, inner filter effects, temperature, probe position, and agitation and aeration rates were found to be most important to quantify the culture fluorescence signals. The effect of pH was especially important to quantify the culture fluorescence signals from tryptophan and pyridoxine. Effects of dissolved oxygen and cascade were not important factors for any of the above four cellular fluorophores dissolved in buffer. Furthermore, mathematical models were derived to explain effects of pH, temperature, and inner filter on the back scattered fluorescence signals. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Li, J. (Merck and Co. Inc., PA (USA)); Humphrey, A. (Lehigh University, PA (United States))

1992-08-25

 
 
 
 
61

Power factor benefits of high efficiency motors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many high efficiency motors have higher power factors than the standard motors they replace. For facilities that have power factor penalty charges, carefully choosing a high efficiency motor that also has a higher power factor can result in electric cost savings that will improve the payback time of the more costly, high efficiency motor. This paper discusses the availability of high power factor motors, and quantifies the added benefits that come from reduced power factor charges. Several examples are shown to illustrate these economic benefits.

Capehart, B.L.; Slack, K.D.

1996-05-01

62

Factors affecting ice nucleation in plant tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors affecting the ice nucleation temperature of plants and plant tissues were examined. The mass of a sample had a marked effect on ice nucleation temperature. Small tissue samples supercooled to -10 degrees C and were not accurate predictors of the nucleation temperature of intact plants in either laboratory or field experiments. This effect was not unique to plant tissues and was observed in autoclaved and control soil samples. Ice nucleation temperatures of bean, corn, cotton, and soybean seedlings were influenced by the length of subzero exposure, presence of ice nucleation active bacteria, and leaf surface wetness. The number of factors influencing ice nucleation temperature suggested that predicting the freezing behavior of plants in the field will be complex. PMID:16664524

Ashworth, E N; Davis, G A; Anderson, J A

1985-12-01

63

Factors affecting ice nucleation in plant tissues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Factors affecting the ice nucleation temperature of plants and plant tissues were examined. The mass of a sample had a marked effect on ice nucleation temperature. Small tissue samples supercooled to -10 degrees C and were not accurate predictors of the nucleation temperature of intact plants in either laboratory or field experiments. This effect was not unique to plant tissues and was observed in autoclaved and control soil samples. Ice nucleation temperatures of bean, corn, cotton, and soybean seedlings were influenced by the length of subzero exposure, presence of ice nucleation active bacteria, and leaf surface wetness. The number of factors influencing ice nucleation temperature suggested that predicting the freezing behavior of plants in the field will be complex.

Ashworth EN; Davis GA; Anderson JA

1985-12-01

64

An experiment on the factors affecting simple reaction time  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reaction time is considered as an important measure that affects performance of an individual both in business and private life. Especially, reaction time, which can be defined as a period of time being required for giving appropriate responses to the perceived stimuli, is an important factor in terms of efficiency of organization and also health and safety at work. Moreover, reaction time is regarded as an important factor in product design. In this study, an experiment is designed to reveal the factors that affect simple reaction time and the effects of (discrete / continuous) variables such as age, height, weight, gender, sight defects, smoking and alcohol use, regular habits of sports and academic achievement on reaction time of individuals are investigated, and the findings are interpreted.

Ufuk Türen; Burcu Kaya; Hale Akkocao?lu

2013-01-01

65

[Factors that affect inpatients' quality of sleep].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to identify factors that interfere with the sleep quality of patients admitted to a university hospital in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This was an exploratory, cross sectional study using non-probability sampling. Participants were 117 patients (59% men, mean age 48.0 years, standard deviation 16.9) hospitalized for at least 72 hours in stable clinical condition. The data were collected with an identification questionnaire and the Factors Affecting Sleep Quality (FASQ) questionnaire. Data processing was performed with descriptive statistics; each item of the FASQ underwent a test and a retest. The factors most often reported were waking up early (55.6%), disrupted sleep (52.1%), excessive lighting (34.2%), receipt of care by nursing staff (33.3%) and organic disorders such as pain and fatigue (26.5%). It is suggested that nurses should plan interventions to modify factors that require intense noise and lighting at night in order to reduce disruption and, consequently, sleep deprivation among patients.

da Costa SV; Ceolim MF

2013-02-01

66

Predictive factors affecting outcome following cervical laminoplasty.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Study Design. Systematic ReviewObjective. To determine whether various preoperative factors affect patient outcome following cervical laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and/or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL).Summary of Background Data. Cervical laminoplasty is a procedure designed to decompress the spinal cord by enlarging the spinal canal while preserving the lamina. Prior research has identified a variety of potential predictive factors that might affect outcomes following this procedure.Methods. A systematic search of multiple major medical reference databases was conducted to identify studies explicitly designed to evaluate the effect of preoperative factors on patient outcome following cervical laminoplasty for CSM or OPLL. Studies specifically designed to evaluate potential predictive factors and their associations with outcome were included. Only cohort studies that used multivariate analysis, enrolled at least 20 patients, and adjusted for age as a potential confounding variable were included. JOA, modified JOA, and JOACMEQ-L were the main outcome measures. Clinical recommendations and consensus statements were made through a modified Delphi approach by applying the GRADE/AHRQ criteria.Results. The search strategy yielded 433 citations, of which 1 prospective and 11 retrospective cohort studies met our inclusion criteria. Overall, the strength of evidence from the 12 studies is low or insufficient for most of the predictive factors. Increased age was not associated with poorer JOA outcome for CSM patients, but there is insufficient evidence to make a conclusion for OPLL patients. Increased severity of disease and longer duration of symptoms might be associated with JOA outcome for CSM patients. Hill-shaped lesions might be associated with poorer JOA outcomes for OPLL patients. There is insufficient evidence to permit conclusions regarding other predictive factors.Conclusion. Overall, the strength of evidence for all of the predictive factors was insufficient or low. Given that cervical myelopathy due to CSM tends to be progressive and that increased severity of myelopathy and duration of symptoms might be associated with poorer outcomes after cervical laminoplasty for CSM, it is preferable to perform laminoplasty in patients with CSM earlier rather than waiting for symptoms to get worse. Further research is needed to more clearly identify predictive factors that affect outcomes following cervical laminoplasty as there were relatively few studies identified that used multivariate analyses to control for confounding factors and many of these studies did not provide a detailed description of the multivariate analyses or the magnitude of effect estimates.Recommendation #1: For CSM patients, increased age is not a strong predictor of clinical neurological outcomes following laminoplasty, therefore age by itself should not preclude cervical laminoplasty for CSM.Overall Strength of Evidence: LowStrength of Recommendation: StrongRecommendation #2: For CSM patients, increased severity of disease and longer duration of symptoms might be associated with poorer clinical neurological outcomes following laminoplasty, therefore we recommend that patients be informed about this.Overall Strength of Evidence: LowStrength of Recommendation: StrongSummary Statement: For OPLL patients, Hill-shaped lesions might be associated with poorer clinical neurological outcomes following laminoplasty therefore surgeons might consider potential benefits and risks of alternative or additional surgery.

Yoon T; Raich A; Hashimoto R; Riew D; Shaffrey CI; Rhee J; Tetreault LA; Skelly A; Fehlings MG

2013-08-01

67

Prognostic factors in radical cystectomy affecting survival.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic factors in radical cystectomy affecting survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 100 hundred patients were included in the study. Incontinent diversion was applied to 73 of these, and continent diversion to 27. Prospective and retrospective data of the patients were examined. The prognostic value for survival was evaluated for of lymph node involvement, tumor grade (low grade: grade 0-II, high grade: ? III or epidermoid carcinoma), tumor stage (low stage: stage pT0-2, high stage: stage ? 3a pT3a), presence of preoperative unilateral of bilateral hydronephrosis, presence of preoperative uremia (serum urea value: ? 60), and age (> 70 and ? 70 years of age) on survival were investigated. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-Rank statistical methods were used in the study. RESULTS: Grade, stage, uremia, and lymph node involvement had significant effects on survival (p values 0.0002, 0.03, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). Presence of preoperative hydronephrosis and age had no statistically significant effects on survival (p values 0.8 and 0.2, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Tumor grade, tumor stage, preoperative uremia, and lymph node involvement are prognostic factors affecting survival. Advanced age and presence of preoperative hydronephrosis have no prognostic value for survival. The presence of uremia in the preoperative assessment of the patients is more important than hydronephrosis.

Aglamis E; Toktas G; Unluer E; Tasdemir C; Ceylan C

2012-09-01

68

Factors affecting aural detections of songbirds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many factors affect the number of birds detected on point count surveys of breeding songbirds. The magnitude and importance of these factors are not well understood. We used a bird song simulation system to quantify the effects of detection distance, singing rate, species differences, and observer differences on detection probabilities of birds detected by ear. We simulated 40 point counts consisting of 10 birds per count for five primary species (Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia, Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens, Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens, Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina, and Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus) over a range of 15 distances (34-143 m). Songs were played at low (two songs per count) and high (13-21 songs per count) singing rates. Detection probabilities averaged across observers ranged from 0.60 (Black-and-white Warbler) to 0.83 (Hooded Warbler) at the high singing rate and 0.41 (Black-and-white Warbler) to 0.67 (Hooded Warbler) at the low singing rate. Logistic regression analyses indicated that species, singing rate, distance, and observer were all significant factors affecting detection probabilities. Singing rate x species and singing rate X distance interactions were also significant. Simulations of expected counts, based on the best logistic model, indicated that observers detected between 19% (for the worst observer, lowest singing rate, and least detectable species) and 65% (for the best observer, highest singing rate, and most detectable species) of the true population. Detection probabilities on actual point count surveys are likely to vary even more because many sources of variability were controlled in our experiments. These findings strongly support the importance of adjusting measures of avian diversity or abundance from auditory point counts with direct estimates of detection probability.

Alldredge MW; Simons TR; Pollock KH

2007-04-01

69

Factors Affecting Electricity Demand in Jordan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 1) The paper examines the relationship between electricity demand and climate/non-climate related factors using statistical regression analysis. 2) It focuses on the environmental, demographic, policy (energy pricing) and technological factors as the main factors affecting the consumption pattern in Jordan. 3) The paper also presents the variations occurred in the electricity demand over the period 1994-2008. The variations that are observed during the period of study are: Shifting of the peak load occurrence from evening to morning period, Modification in the annual daily load curve especially in winter season, Variation in relationship between space temperature and demand especially in winter, and dramatic increase in electric generation after year 2003. The shift in peak load from evening to morning period is mainly due to technological factor as a result of wide use of the air conditions in houses, services and government offices for cooling in summer instead of ordinary air fans. The variations in consumption pattern between 2000 and 2007 are mainly associated with economic, social and demographic factors. The high demand at lower space temperature is governed by introducing new appliances for heating in winter as a result of low electricity pricing comparing with gasoline price. The dramatic increase in electric generation after 2003 is probably due to demographic factors as a result of high growth of population after the Gulf war II. 4) The correlation between the daily maximum loads in morning and evening periods with the differential temperature (?T) above 20?C threshold in summer and below 15?C threshold in winter, shows pronounced changes in 2007 compared with year 2000. The regression tests show that a decrease of 1?C below 15?C threshold in winter 1) increases the morning demand by only 2 MW/?C in 2000 and 16.7 MW/?C in 2007, 2) decreases the evening peak by ?2.6 MW/1?C in 2000 and increases the evening peak by 22.9 MW/1?C in 2007. Results show that the demographic, technological, environmental and national energy pricing factors play a vital rule in consumption pattern in Jordan. Moreover, the paper reveals that planners and decision makers should be careful when applying new tariff in the developing countries such as Jordan.

Mohammad Awad Momani

2013-01-01

70

Efficient networks for quantum factoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We consider how to optimize memory use and computation time in operating a quantum computer. In particular, we estimate the number of memory quantum bits (qubits) and the number of operations required to perform factorization, using the algorithm suggested by Shor [in {ital Proceedings} {ital of} {ital the} 35{ital th} {ital Annual} {ital Symposium} {ital on} {ital Foundations} {ital of} {ital Computer} {ital Science}, edited by S. Goldwasser (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, 1994), p. 124]. A {ital K}-bit number can be factored in time of order {ital K}{sup 3} using a machine capable of storing 5{ital K}+1 qubits. Evaluation of the modular exponential function (the bottleneck of Shor{close_quote}s algorithm) could be achieved with about 72{ital K}{sup 3} elementary quantum gates; implementation using a linear ion trap would require about 396{ital K}{sup 3} laser pulses. A proof-of-principle demonstration of quantum factoring (factorization of 15) could be performed with only 6 trapped ions and 38 laser pulses. Though the ion trap may never be a useful computer, it will be a powerful device for exploring experimentally the properties of entangled quantum states. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Beckman, D.; Chari, A.N.; Devabhaktuni, S.; Preskill, J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

1996-08-01

71

Efficient networks for quantum factoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider how to optimize memory use and computation time in operating a quantum computer. In particular, we estimate the number of memory quantum bits (qubits) and the number of operations required to perform factorization, using the algorithm suggested by Shor [in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, edited by S. Goldwasser (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, 1994), p. 124]. A K-bit number can be factored in time of order K3 using a machine capable of storing 5K+1 qubits. Evaluation of the modular exponential function (the bottleneck of Shor close-quote s algorithm) could be achieved with about 72K3 elementary quantum gates; implementation using a linear ion trap would require about 396K3 laser pulses. A proof-of-principle demonstration of quantum factoring (factorization of 15) could be performed with only 6 trapped ions and 38 laser pulses. Though the ion trap may never be a useful computer, it will be a powerful device for exploring experimentally the properties of entangled quantum states. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

1996-01-01

72

Factors affecting success of agricultural producers groups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Poor organisation of agricultural markets in Poland remains one of the biggest problems for agricultural sector. There are about 510 agricultural producer groups, but only 2% of Polish farmers selling for market are members. Knowledge on cooperation determinants and different aspects of producer groups performance is crucial to build references for policy makers and producer groups’ managers. The aim of the article was to discuss factors affecting success of producers groups understood as a level of members’ satisfaction. Data for 2006 and 2011 from 30 producers groups in fruit and vegetable sector were analysed using logit model. Three determinants occurred to be statistically important: scope of a group functions, informal cooperation with farmers before starting a formal cooperation and homogeneity of farms.

Aleksandra Chlebicka

2011-01-01

73

Factors affecting the quality of bottled water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ever-increasing popularity of bottled water means that it is important to analyze not only its mineral content but also, above all, its content of possible contaminants, especially the organic ones. In this respect, bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic chemical contaminants derived from the well from which they were acquired, their secondary contamination is always possible, during treatment or storage or transport in unsuitable conditions (sunlight and elevated temperature). This paper describes how various factors, from the area around the well, and the method of drawing and treating water, to the manner in which the finished product is stored and transported may affect the quality of bottled waters. It also summarizes literature information on the levels of organic contaminants in various kinds of bottled water samples.

Diduch M; Polkowska ?; Namie?nik J

2013-03-01

74

Rate factors affecting western railroad coal transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Events of the mid-1970s have materially affected US coal production and transportation by railroad. Coal, as a replacement or substitute for petroleum fuels, has been hauled in significantly increased tonnages. Concurrent with the new demand, the railroad regulatory environment has undergone major changes, especially in deregulation activity. Those two events have produced considerable litigation regarding coal rates. This paper discusses the factors involved with railroad rates and topics such as revenue adequacy, Ramsey Pricing, stand-alone cost, and differential pricing. In addition, an update on the western railroad merger situation and the implications for coal transportation are presented. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the current regulatory climate and future prospects.

Frank, W.B.

1984-01-01

75

EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

Yu-Jia Hu

2012-01-01

76

Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

1989-01-01

77

Factors Affecting E-Service Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available User satisfaction is an important predictor of online consumer behavior and the success of a web-based system. If customers are satisfied with the services received through the online system, it is likely they will keep using the system. To examine factors affecting user satisfaction with e-services, a questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of (615) students out of (5918) at Petra University in Jordan to explore their perceptions. Regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results indicated that website design, navigation, and personalization were found to be predictors of e-service satisfaction. The results of this study provide a comprehensive set of implications for practitioners and researchers. This study shows how the website design, navigation, and personalization play a crucial role in the overall evaluation of e-service satisfaction. Management of universities need to be aware that a bad experience with website design, navigation, and personalization can affect satisfaction, if a student has a bad experience regarding interactivity, customization, or website design, then a student might make an overall e-service judgment even before a transaction can take place. If customers believe that an organization’s website is hard to use, poorly designed, and doesn’t take into consideration distinguished services for each user, then customers are likely to move to other organizations’ websites.

Mohammed Mufaddy Al-Kasasbeh; Subhasish Dasgupta; Abeer Hmoud AL-Faouri

2011-01-01

78

Factors affecting force loss with prolonged stretching.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors underlying the force loss occurring after prolonged, static, passive stretching. Subjects were tested before and 5-10 min following 20 min of static, passive stretching of the quadriceps (N=12) or a similar period of no stretch (control, N=6). Measurements included isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force, surface integrated electromyographic (iEMG) activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings, evoked contractile properties (twitch and tetanic force), and quadriceps inactivation as measured by the interpolated twitch technique (ITT). Following stretching, there was a significant 12% decrement in MVC with no significant changes in the control group. Muscle inactivation as measured by the ITT and iEMG increased by 2.8% and 20.2%, respectively. While twitch forces significantly decreased 11.7%, there was no change in tetanic force post-stretch. Although possible increases in muscle compliance affected twitch force, a lack of tetanic force change would suggest that post-stretch force decrements are more affected by muscle inactivation than changes in muscle elasticity.

Behm DG; Button DC; Butt JC

2001-06-01

79

Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

Sertac Gonenc; Harun Tanrivermis

2007-01-01

80

Factors that affect toilet training in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To identify age of initiation of toilet training and affecting factors for children. Material and Methods: 861 children were included in this study. "Chi square test", "Mann-Whitney U Test" and "Kruskall-Wallis Variance Analysis" statistical analysis methods have been applied. Ethical permission has been provided by local ethical committee. Results: 861 children under age of five were evaluated in this study (average age was 4±0.9); 433 children were boy (50.3%), 428 children were girl (49.7%). Age of initiation of toilet training was younger than 1 years old for 45 children (5.2%), between 13-18 month for 223 children (25.9%), between 19-24 month for 307 children (35.7%), between 25-30 month for 201 children (23.3%) and older than 30 month for 85 children (9.9%). That families who live below hunger threshold and small families initiate toilet training earlier that other families were determined (p=0.001). Children in 19-24 month have shorter duration of toilet training than other groups (p<0.05). That children who live in shanty have longer duration of toilet training than children who live in apartment were determined (p=0,031). That 219 children (25.4%) who had faced traumatic experiences which may affect training process, recently have longer duration of toilet training than other children (p=0,008). Duration of the training is shorter for f amilies who did not use toilet training methods than families who used methods. Conclusion: In our study, we found that age of initiation of toilet training is smaller for children who belong to family which has low level of income and small families. Duration of training is the longer for children whose initiation of toilet training was earlier than 18 month and later than 30 month, live in shanty, faced traumatic experiences.

Serdar Önen; ?lknur Aksoy; M. Ay?in Ta?ar; Y?ld?z Dallar Bilge

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150) who applied to the delivery service of the Ba?kent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7%) and were multipara (66.0%). It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05).Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05).

Gül P?nar; Nevin Do?an; Lale Alg?er; Necibe Kaya; Filiz Çakmak

2009-01-01

82

Analysis and Measurement of Buildability Factors Affecting Edge Formwork  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Labour productivity is affected by several factors, but buildability is among the most important. Nevertheless, a thoroughexamination of the literature revealed a dearth of research into the influence of buildability factors on labour productivityof in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Although edge formwork is an importantlabour intensive activity, most often, its labour cost is either crudely estimated or lumped within the formwork cost of otheractivities. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate and quantify the effects and relative influence of the followingbuildability factors on its labour productivity: (a) depth of slab being edge-formed; (b) slab geometric factor; and (c)type of formwork material used. To achieve this objective, a sufficiently large volume of productivity data was collected andanalyzed using the multiple categorical-regression method. As a result, the effects and relative influence of the buildabilityfactors investigated are determined. The findings show significant effects of these factors on edge formwork labour productivity,which can be used to provide designers feedback on how well their designs consider the requirements of buildabilityprinciples, and the consequences of their decisions on labour efficiency. On the other hand, the depicted patterns of resultsmay provide guidance to construction managers for effective activity planning and efficient labour utilization.

A. M. Jarkas

2010-01-01

83

Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR) using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044). The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

Rubporn Kittivachra; Rommanee Sanguandeekul; Rungpetch Sakulbumrungsil; Penphimon Phongphanphanee

2007-01-01

84

Factors affecting cervical screening among Turkish women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is second most common cancer among women worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To determinate pap smear test rates and affecting factors among Turkish women. METHODS: This descriptive and cross-sectional questionnaire study covered 397 women consulting at Gynecology Outpatient Clinic of Birth and Children's Hospital in Ordu province, enrolled non-consecutively as volunteers after providing informed consent. Data for women who had a history of at least one pap smear in her history were compared with those having none. RESULTS: 24.7% of women had knowledge about the pap smear test and 11.8% of them had undergone at least one pap smear test. Higher mean age (p=0.000), high education level (p=0.013), duration of marriage (p=0.001), working outside home (p=0.000), use of contraceptive method (p=0.000), history of cancer in women's family or relatives (p=0.021), having a sexually transmitted disease history (p=0.042), positive attitude towards gynecologic examination of women (p=0.000) and considering oneself in a cervical cancer risk group (p=0.004) were positively associated with a pap smear test history. CONCLUSION: Since the rate of pap smear testing was very low, education of women about screening and protection against cervical cancer appears a high priority.

Erbil N; Tezcan Y; Gür EN; Yildirim M; Ali? N

2010-01-01

85

Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) were investigated. Types of explants, strains and densities of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and co-culture methods were examined to optimize gene transformation. The results showed that among strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tested, LBA 4404 containing pBI 121 gave the calli with the highest resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin at the concentration of 50-100 mg/l was the best range for selection of transformants. Higher density of agrobacteria tended to promote higher frequency of transformation. The best co-culture method was dipping the explant in a solution of agrobacteria for 10 minutes, followed by culturing onto co-culture medium without antibiotic for 48 hours. Among the explants used to co- culture with bacteria, half leaf treatment gave the best result for transformation; however, callus proliferation and plantlet regeneration were inferior to whole leaf treatment. Activity of ?-Glucuronidase (GUS) could not be detected, thus resistance to kanamycin was used for detecting transformability. Shoot primordia could be induced from kanamycin-resistant calli grown in regeneration medium. After maintenance by subculturing to the same medium 2 to 3 times in 2-3 months, the developed shoots turned brown and finally died. Hence, the transformed plant of mangosteen was not obtained from this experiment.

Sompong Te-chato; Vitoon Chaipakdee

2003-01-01

86

Factors affecting complications in radiated breast reconstruction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Breast irradiation in combination with breast reconstruction is associated with increased complications. Because of the diminishing threshold for radiotherapy, breast reconstruction irradiation is rising. Our aim was to evaluate factors affecting outcomes in irradiated breast reconstructions. METHODS: A review of consecutive patients who underwent mastectomy, radiation, and breast reconstruction was conducted. Patient demographics, operative procedure, breast irradiation timing, and postoperative complications were collected. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-four patients (157 breast reconstructions) were included with a mean follow-up of 6 years. Average age at reconstruction was 50 years. One hundred nine cases were immediate and 48 cases were delayed. Sixty-eight cases were autologous reconstructions and 89 cases were implant-based. Thirty-seven cases used acellular dermal matrices (ADMs); 60% of cases were radiated before reconstruction and 40% were radiated afterward. Major complications occurred in 43% of patients and minor complications occurred in 17%. The presence of ADM led to an increase in complication rate with a 2.3-fold greater chance of requiring reoperation (P = 0.03). No significant difference in complication rates was associated with presence of hypertension, diabetes, smoking, elevated body mass index, autologous versus implant-based reconstructions, delayed versus immediate reconstructions, and time between radiation and reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Radiation after prosthetic reconstruction may produce an increase in failure rates. The use of ADMs in the face of breast irradiation increases the likelihood of a complication requiring reoperation.

Pestana IA; Campbell DC; Bharti G; Thompson JT

2013-05-01

87

[Factors affecting mortality in blunt thoracic trauma].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Blunt thoracic trauma is usually associated with extra-thoracic injuries, but the effect of blunt thoracic trauma on mortality is not known. METHODS: Patients with blunt thoracic trauma were evaluated with regard to clinical findings and factors affecting mortality. RESULTS: There were 76 patients (37.2±15 years) in the study group. Traffic accidents (63%) were the most common cause of trauma. Pneumothorax (54%), rib fracture (42%), hemothorax (22%) and lung contusion (22%) were common thoracic injuries. Extra-thoracic injuries were most commonly seen in the extremities (46%) and abdomen (40%). Glasgow Coma, Injury Severity and Revised Trauma Scores were 14±2.6, 19±13 and 7.4±1.5, respectively. Non-operative management was effective in 37 (48.7%) patients, tube thoracotomy and thoracotomy were performed in 37 (48.7%) and 2 (2.6%) patients, respectively. Mortality rate was 10.5%. Systolic blood pressure lower than 90 mmHg and superficial and apneic respiration at the first admission, and values of trauma scoring systems were significantly associated with mortality (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The effect of thoracic trauma on mortality with regard to thoracic pathology is not shown, although it is usually associated with extra-thoracic injuries. There was a close relationship between the pattern of respiration, values of systolic blood pressure and trauma scoring systems, and mortality. Non-operative management and tube thoracotomy were effective in most of the cases.

Hasbahçeci M; Ozpek A; Ba?ak F; Cal??kan M; Ener BK; Alimo?lu O

2013-03-01

88

Some Environmental Factors Affecting on Growth Characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Live weights, weight gains and some body measurements at different ages of Eastern Anatolian Red Cattle (EAR) were determined and some environmental factors affecting on these traits were investigated. The effect of dam’s age on the birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01). Although the lowest birth weight was obtained from calves of dams at the 3 years of age, the highest birth weight was obtained from calves given birth by cows at the 5 years of age. The males had heavier live weights and weight gains at different ages than the females. The effect of the sex on the live weights except for 9 and 12 months weights was found as highly significant (P<0.01). Feeding of the calves with different amount of milk had significant (P<0.01) influence on the 3, 6 and 9 months weights as well as weight gains. The effect of the years on the daily weight gains in EAR was also highly significant (P<0.01). The results shows the importance of the environmental effects on the traits studied and revealed that there is need for them to be corrected prior to the improvement studies.

A. Ozluturk; O. Guler; M. Yanar; O. Akbulut; N. Tuzemen

2007-01-01

89

Sequential addition of reprogramming factors improves efficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Addition of a specific set of transcription factors reprograms somatic cell nuclei to a pluripotent state. Sequential addition of these factors, rather than the simultaneous exposure used in standard protocols, improves reprogramming efficiency. This sequential method favours a transition through a state with enhanced mesenchymal characteristics before driving an epithelial transformation on the way to the pluripotent state.

Gaeta X; Xie Y; Lowry WE

2013-07-01

90

Political ideology affects energy-efficiency attitudes and choices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This research demonstrates how promoting the environment can negatively affect adoption of energy efficiency in the United States because of the political polarization surrounding environmental issues. Study 1 demonstrated that more politically conservative individuals were less in favor of investment in energy-efficient technology than were those who were more politically liberal. This finding was driven primarily by the lessened psychological value that more conservative individuals placed on reducing carbon emissions. Study 2 showed that this difference has consequences: In a real-choice context, more conservative individuals were less likely to purchase a more expensive energy-efficient light bulb when it was labeled with an environmental message than when it was unlabeled. These results highlight the importance of taking into account psychological value-based considerations in the individual adoption of energy-efficient technology in the United States and beyond.

Gromet DM; Kunreuther H; Larrick RP

2013-06-01

91

Factors affecting liver uptake of gallium-67  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From our clinical experience, we have suggested that the absence of liver uptake during Ga-67 scintigraphy was mainly due to markedly decreased unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC). We have succeeded in producing a rat model of absent liver uptake by administration of iron and vincristine to markedly decrease UIBC. However, the possibility of decreased liver uptake of Ga-67 due to liver dysfunction caused by these drugs can not be denied, so we performed further experiments. The changes of uptake by liver and other tissues, and UIBC induced by administration of apotransferrin (ATF) and deferoxamine (DEF) before the second scan were determined. The abscess uptake of Ga-67 during the absence of liver uptake was also determined. The administration of ATF one day before the second scan made liver uptake recover to almost normal levels and UIBC recover considerably. No recovery was produced by administration of DEF. The mechanism of Ga-67 uptake in various tissues is not completely clear. The theory that the amount of strage iron in the liver affects liver uptake has been proposed. The possibility is also suggested that antineoplastic agents may damage the synthesis of transferrin (TF) and intracellular Ga-67 carrier molecules, and/or block TF receptors in the hepatocyte to decrease liver uptake. The fact that liver uptake recovered rapidly after administration of ATF refutes these hypotheses, at least in vivo, and serum UIBC level is the decisive factor in liver uptake of Ga-67. The lack of significant decrease in abscess uptake of Ga-67 during the absence of liver uptake may suggest that the pathway to the abscesses is different from that to the liver. (author).

Nogami, Makoto; Shinotsuka, Akira; Hirono, Yoshisada; Takenaka, Hiroki (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

1990-06-01

92

Factors affecting bone strength other than osteoporosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Osteoporosis is the most common cause of bone fragility, especially in post-menopausal women. Bone strength may be compromised by several other medical conditions and medications, which must be ruled out in the clinical management of patients affected by fragility fractures. Indeed, 20-30 % of women and up to 50 % of men affected by bone fragility are diagnosed with other conditions affecting bone strength other than osteoporosis. These conditions include disorders of bone homeostasis, impaired bone remodeling, collagen disorders, and medications qualitatively and quantitatively affecting bone strength. Proper diagnosis allows correct treatment to prevent the occurrence of fragility fractures.

Ratti C; Vulcano E; Canton G; Marano M; Murena L; Cherubino P

2013-09-01

93

Factors and perspectives affecting nursing resource consumption in community hospitals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The consumption of professional and non-professional nursing resources on medical/surgical nursing units varies sharply among community hospitals. In an effort to explain the variation, this study examines several factors: socio-economic characteristics of the population; supply of registered nurses; hospital characteristics such as size, complexity and diversity of services; patient characteristics such as case mix index and nursing care acuity index; and production system characteristics such as efficiency of technical support systems and the structure of nursing care delivery. Nursing skill mix varies more than the staffing levels among hospitals. The research suggests that factors associated with a clinical-rational model such as nursing acuity index and the efficiency of clinical/support systems explains little, whereas factors associated with economic-rational model of hospital revenues--like case mix, number of hospital services, poverty (through Medicaid program) and age distribution (through Medicare program)--do significantly affect nursing resource consumption. The results point to the presence of resource allocation to nursing based on hospital revenues rather than patient care needs. PMID:10122811

Shukla, R K

1992-11-01

94

Factors and perspectives affecting nursing resource consumption in community hospitals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The consumption of professional and non-professional nursing resources on medical/surgical nursing units varies sharply among community hospitals. In an effort to explain the variation, this study examines several factors: socio-economic characteristics of the population; supply of registered nurses; hospital characteristics such as size, complexity and diversity of services; patient characteristics such as case mix index and nursing care acuity index; and production system characteristics such as efficiency of technical support systems and the structure of nursing care delivery. Nursing skill mix varies more than the staffing levels among hospitals. The research suggests that factors associated with a clinical-rational model such as nursing acuity index and the efficiency of clinical/support systems explains little, whereas factors associated with economic-rational model of hospital revenues--like case mix, number of hospital services, poverty (through Medicaid program) and age distribution (through Medicare program)--do significantly affect nursing resource consumption. The results point to the presence of resource allocation to nursing based on hospital revenues rather than patient care needs.

Shukla RK

1992-11-01

95

Managerial and institutional factors affect prescribed burning costs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prescribed burning costs are extremely variable, even if conditions are similar. This variability complicates planning and evaluation of prescribed burning programs and budgets, resulting in imprecise projections of their economic benefits. Evaluating the worth of prescribed burning efforts in objective terms is difficult, but the continual shrinkage of USDA Forest Service budgets requires an increase in program efficiency and understanding the causes of variability for prescribed burning costs. An analysis of variance model was used to describe and quantify the relative effect of managerial and institutional factors, such as smoke emission limitations or the constraint to control all types of fires, on prescribed burning costs. Data were collected by using a questionnaire to fire and fuel managers in the USDA Forest Service's Northern, Intermountain, and Pacific Northwest Regions. Estimated prescribed burning costs were significantly affected by changes in the managerial and institutional factors, such as minimizing escape potential or complying with smoke emission standards presented to these fire managers. Contrary to our expectations, burn objective (the main reason for conducting the burn) was not a significant cost factor. Unit size of the burned area affected prescribed burning costs more than either change in slope or unit shape, both of which increase the amount of burn perimeter relative to the area burned. Costs per acre demonstrated economies of scale: the larger the unit burned, the lower its per-acre cost.

Gonzalez-Caban A

1997-11-01

96

The efficiency factor for a precussive mechanism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design and operating principle of a gas-hydraulic percussive mechanism for crushing rock is described. The efficiency factor for a percussive mechanism increases with an increase in the impact and battery energy and decreases when the compression ratio rises. The data make it possible to establish the optimum parameters for a gas-hydraulic percussive mechanism for crushing rock.

Katarzhikov, M.A.

1980-01-01

97

Factors affecting coke-oven productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors examine the parameters affecting coke-oven productivity. They begin by defining productivity and, having assessed the significance of 400 kg oven tests, they proceed to investigate; (1) The influence of carbonisation parameters which they classify as constitutional parameters and operating parameters. (2) The effect of the charging method. The findings suggest that variations in oven productivity are very much linked to the quality of heat transfer in the charge. Certain parameters were deliberately left aside. (10 refs.) (In French)

Yax, E.; Duchene, S.M.

1984-01-01

98

Factors affecting levodopa effects in Parkinson's disease.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Levodopa is the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) because of its outstanding clinical efficacy. However, the majority of patients experience various adverse reactions, including the wearing-off phenomenon, the on-off phenomenon, dyskinesia and psychiatric symptoms. The response to levodopa depends not only on the intrinsic responsiveness of the patients, but also on various other important factors including the type of levodopa preparation, its absorption/metabolism, the blood-brain barrier, age at onset of disease and concomitant use of anti-parkinsonian drugs. This review summarizes factors which influence the effects of levodopa in PD. To minimize levodopa-induced adverse reactions and to relieve long-term parkinsonian symptoms, levodopa therapy should be conducted by taking these factors into consideration.

Ogawa N

2000-01-01

99

Epidemiological Factors Affecting Low Birth Weight  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the epidemiological factors influencing low birthweight. The prominent factors associated with low birth weight (LBW) such as maternal age, parity,obstetric and maternal anthropometry were studied in a rural community of district Dehradun. Theaverage birth weight of all newborns was 2.67± 0.42 kg and 23.84% of newborns were LBW. Thefactors which were significant for LBW were antenatal care, parity, inter-pregnancy interval, gestationalweight, and bad obstetric history. However, the relationship between maternal age and height withlow birth weight was not found to be statistically significant (p>.05).

K.S. Negi, S.D. Kandpal, M. Kukreti

2006-01-01

100

Controlling external factors affecting accounts receivable.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

External factors such as complex billing arrangements, decreasing healthcare benefits, and increasing numbers of uninsured workers contribute to a hospital's outstanding accounts receivable. Instituting measures for getting payment in full and as soon as possible can help control for outside influences and reduce outstanding receivables.

Ramey N; Bradley L

1991-08-01

 
 
 
 
101

Continuing education: factors which affect cognitive benefits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 16-week continuing education course in clinical chemistry provided for a group of laboratory professionals was evaluated in terms of those factors in the participants' backgrounds which influenced their performance on precourse and postcourse examinations. Work setting, facility size, educational background, and sex influenced precourse scores. Educational background and occupational function influenced postcourse test scores.

Parker SL; Davis SH

1979-01-01

102

Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 2004–2008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value add...

Zbigniew Go?a?

103

FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction & suggestions to improve them.

Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin; M M Nurul Kabir

2011-01-01

104

Factors affecting bony impingement in hip arthroplasty.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Computer modeling of 10 patients' computed tomographic scans was used to study the variables affecting hip arthroplasty range of motion before bony impingement (ROMBI) including acetabular offset and height, femoral offset, height and anteversion, and osteophyte removal. The ROMBI was compared with the ROM before component impingement and the native hip ROM. The ROMBI decreased with decreased total offset and limb shortening. Acetabular offset and height had a greater effect on ROMBI than femoral offset and height. The ROMBI lost with decreased acetabular offset was not fully recoverable with an increase in femoral offset or osteophyte removal. Bony impingement increased and component impingement decreased with decreased acetabular offset and increased head diameter.

Kurtz WB; Ecker TM; Reichmann WM; Murphy SB

2010-06-01

105

Factors limiting device efficiency in organic photovoltaics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The power conversion efficiency of the most efficient organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells has recently increased to over 10%. To enable further increases, the factors limiting the device efficiency in OPV must be identified. In this review, the operational mechanism of OPV cells is explained and the detailed balance limit to photovoltaic energy conversion, as developed by Shockley and Queisser, is outlined. The various approaches that have been developed to estimate the maximum practically achievable efficiency in OPV are then discussed, based on empirical knowledge of organic semiconductor materials. Subsequently, approaches made to adapt the detailed balance theory to incorporate some of the fundamentally different processes in organic solar cells that originate from using a combination of two complementary, donor and acceptor, organic semiconductors using thermodynamic and kinetic approaches are described. The more empirical formulations to the efficiency limits provide estimates of 10-12%, but the more fundamental descriptions suggest limits of 20-24% to be reachable in single junctions, similar to the highest efficiencies obtained for crystalline silicon p-n junction solar cells. Closing this gap sets the stage for future materials research and development of OPV. PMID:23225148

Janssen, René A J; Nelson, Jenny

2012-12-06

106

Factors limiting device efficiency in organic photovoltaics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The power conversion efficiency of the most efficient organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells has recently increased to over 10%. To enable further increases, the factors limiting the device efficiency in OPV must be identified. In this review, the operational mechanism of OPV cells is explained and the detailed balance limit to photovoltaic energy conversion, as developed by Shockley and Queisser, is outlined. The various approaches that have been developed to estimate the maximum practically achievable efficiency in OPV are then discussed, based on empirical knowledge of organic semiconductor materials. Subsequently, approaches made to adapt the detailed balance theory to incorporate some of the fundamentally different processes in organic solar cells that originate from using a combination of two complementary, donor and acceptor, organic semiconductors using thermodynamic and kinetic approaches are described. The more empirical formulations to the efficiency limits provide estimates of 10-12%, but the more fundamental descriptions suggest limits of 20-24% to be reachable in single junctions, similar to the highest efficiencies obtained for crystalline silicon p-n junction solar cells. Closing this gap sets the stage for future materials research and development of OPV.

Janssen RA; Nelson J

2013-04-01

107

Internal factors affecting the jury members verdict  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence), the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.

Kalashnikova A.S.; Levochkina N.S.

2013-01-01

108

Factors affecting triadimefon degradation in soils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The degradation of triadimefon [1-(4-chlorophenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-one] was studied in two soils, mollisol and inseptisol, under varying conditions of moisture and temperature, and the role of cow manure amendment and soil sterilization on fungicide degradation was ascertained. The soil moisture content affected the pathway followed for triadimefon degradation. In nonflooded soils (60% water-holding capacity), triadimefon was reduced to triadimenol, and in flooded soils, it was metabolized to the diol derivative [1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-3,3-dimethylbutan-2-one-1,4-diol]. In nonflooded soils, triadimefon was more persistent in soil having more organic carbon content (mollisol), and the amendment of cow manure (5%) further enhanced its persistence. On the contrary, in flooded soil systems, the higher the soil organic carbon content was, the less persistent was the fungicide, and amendment of cow manure further enhanced its degradation. Triadimefon degradation was faster at 35 degrees C than at 27 degrees C. Triadimefon degradation in soils was mediated by the microorganisms, and no triadimefon degradation was observed in sterile soils. Triadimefon (1 mg/kg) did not affect soil phosphatase activity in either of the soils; however, soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly reduced, especially in mollisol soil.

Singh N

2005-01-01

109

SOME FACTORS AFFECTING UNDERGRADUATE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A related series of studies, most of which have been published previously, is described. These studies form a coherent whole and demonstrate the development of a theme, namely, the identification of factors in the student and the medical school which, in their interaction, influenced undergraduate academic performance at one medical school. In the population concerned no reliable positive or negative correlation could be demonstrated between cognitive ability and academic performance, when the former was measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Medical College Admission Test, and the latter by the current assessment methods of the medical school. Other factors, including socioeconomic and individual personality variables, are at present under investigation as to their effect on academic achievement. It is emphasized that the results of these studies cannot be regarded as valid for all medical schools, but the methods employed can be generalized.

HUNTER RC

1965-04-01

110

Factors which affect fatigue strength of fasteners  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Axial load cycling fatigue tests of threaded fasteners are useful in determining fastener fatigue failure or design properties. By using appropriate design factors between the failure and design fatigue strengths, such tests are used to establish fatigue failure and design parameters of fasteners for axial and bending cyclic load conditions. This paper reviews the factors which influence the fatigue strength of low Alloy steel threaded fasteners, identifies those most significant to fatigue strength, and provides design guidelines based on the direct evaluation of fatigue tests of threaded fasteners. Influences on fatigue strength of thread manufacturing process (machining and rolling of threads), effect of fastener membrane and bending stresses, thread root radii, fastener sizes, fastener tensile strength, stress relaxation, mean stress, and test temperature are discussed.

Skochko, G.W.; Herrmann, T.P.

1992-11-01

111

Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 2004–2008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value added and depreciation costs, and using linear stepwise regression. The study shows that despite significant progress, the level of labour productivity in domestic manufacturing significantly lower than the average in the European Union. Lower than in Poland, the level of labour productivity gain only companies in Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Estimated parameters of the regression function showed that the most important determinants of labour productivity in manufacturing are technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, assets productivity, level of added value in relation to revenues. These factors explain the variability of labour productivity in 2004–2008 in a high degree.

Zbigniew Go?a?

2010-01-01

112

Factors Affecting Labour Productivity in Manufacturing Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis of the factors influencing labour productivity in the manufacturing business sector in 20042008. Labour productivity was analyzed in the context of the assets productivity, technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, wages, value added and depreciation costs, and using linear stepwise regression. The study shows that despite significant progress, the level of labour productivity in domestic manufacturing significantly lower than the average in the European Union. Lower than in Poland, the level of labour productivity gain only companies in Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Estimated parameters of the regression function showed that the most important determinants of labour productivity in manufacturing are technical equipment of work, labour intensity of production, assets productivity, level of added value in relation to revenues. These factors explain the variability of labour productivity in 20042008 in a high degree.

Zbigniew Go?a?

2011-01-01

113

Eco-efficiency and factors; Ekotehokkuus ja factor-ajattelu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

`Eco-efficiency` has become a new concept in Finnish as well as international environmental discussion. A similar philosophy is to be traced behind the slogans Factor 4 and Factor 10, in which the idea is to lower the medium and long term material intensity within production - i.e. the input of raw materials, natural resources and energy in terms of the output - to a fraction of their present level The content of eco-efficiency is still inadequately defined but generally speaking the aim is to give radically increased weight to the goal of `producing more from less`. Eco-efficiency and the related `factor` thinking have the merit of paying proper attention to the initial phases of production and development and to the efficient utilization of natural resources in proportion to the created prosperity. Increased prosperity and environmentally sustainable development are by no means mutually exclusive even globally speaking. The targets in Factor 10 and Factor 4 as formulated to date are not based on any detailed environmental any more than socio-economic impact analyses. Duly recognising the gravity of the challenges, they urge, however, to activity and reflect well the overall magnitude of the changes. Research relating to eco-efficiency and its impact must be increased so as to quantify targets and the measures called for. The sustainable development policies of government and other actors are generally speaking appropriate although the implementation of these policies is, despite good results obtained here an there, merely beginning as to its long-term goals. (orig.)

NONE

1998-09-01

114

Factors affecting the microstructure of porous ceramics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, porous ceramics were produced by using two methods: the polymeric sponge and foam method. Astudy of the effect of viscosity on the characteristics of the final product produced using the polymeric sponge method revealed that the microstructure of porous ceramics is highly affected by the viscosity of the slurry. The optimal ratio between porosity and the strength of the porous material was achieved by subsequently repeating the immersing and drying processes. Astudy of the porous material obtained using the foam method revealed that the pore size and foam volume can be controlled by varying the amounts of anhydride and thermal blowing agent. The problem related to foam collapsing was solved by using a thermal blowing agent. The microstructure of the samples was characterized by SEM.

DUSAN TRIPKOVIC; VESNA RADOJEVIC; RADOSLAV ALEKSIC

2006-01-01

115

Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues.

Small, Emma [Forestry Commission Wales, Victoria House, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 2DQ (United Kingdom); Sadler, Jon P. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.p.sadler@bham.ac.uk; Telfer, Mark [UK Headquarters, The RSPB, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL (United Kingdom)

2006-05-01

116

Examining Factors Affecting Classroom Attendance and Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: This study examined the relationship between four class attitudinal variables and how it affects class attendance and performance. A questionnaire was administered to 134 undergraduate students at medium sized college in Taiwan. The data included questions about the participant’s rating of the level of difficulty of the course (Difficulty), the topics covered in the course (Topics), their motivation towards attending the course (Motivation), and whether or not the participants felt that the course is practical and useful to their future (Practicality). The results of the Pearson correlation coefficients showed that 4 out of the 15 correlations were statistically significant. The negative correlation found between motivation and topics; and practicality and topics suggest the attitude that when choosing courses, students tend to choose courses that they think would easy to pass. The finding that none of the variables were significantly correlated to course attendance and course performance suggests that the strongest predictor of success of a course is based on the student’s level of attendance. This lead to the discussion in the conclusion about pedagogical implications for what teachers can do in their classrooms.

Peter Tze-Ming Chou; Ya-Hui Kuo

2012-01-01

117

Environmental factors affecting corrosion of munitions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spent small arms munitions have accumulated for years at outdoor firing ranges operated by the DoD and other groups. Used bullets are often subjected to moisture sources. There is increasing concern that accumulations of lead-based munitions represent potential sources of water and soil pollution. To understand both the severity of and solutions to this problem, it is necessary to measure how rapidly bullets corrode and to determine the soil variables affecting the process. In this study M16 bullets were buried in samples of soil taken from Louisiana army firing ranges. Four environmental conditions were simulated; rain water, acid rain, sea water, and 50% sea water/50% acid rain. The three electrode technique was used to measure the bullet corrosion. Graphite rods served as counter electrodes. A saturated calomel reference electrode was used along with a specially constructed salt bridge. Electrochemical measurements were conducted using a computer-controlled potentiostat to determine corrosion potential, soil resistance, and corrosion current. The rate of corrosion was found to markedly increase with decreasing soil pH and increasing chloride and moisture contents, with the chloride content being the most influential variable. High soil resistance and noble corrosion potential were found to be associated with low corrosion rates. This is important since both parameters can be readily measured in the field.

Bundy, K. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States); Bricka, M.; Morales, A. [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

1995-12-31

118

Factors affecting radiocaesium transfer to ruminants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The studies performed in the 2 year CEG/DG XII Radiation Protection Programme described here have tried to identify and quantify some of the most important factors influencing the radiocaesium levels in animal food products. The programme involved 9 laboratories in 6 countries: Belgium, Ireland, Greece, Italy, Sweden and the UK. Scientists from Norway and Germany also participated on an informal basis and are formally involved in a subsequent project. Experimental studies have largely been conducted using sheep, although some comparative studies have been performed with dairy cattle. In parallel to the experimental studies, a number of research models have been developed by participants in Greece and the UK to be interactively used with a number of different aspects in the programme. This presentation gives a short overview and discussion of the main findings of this project. (orig./DG)

Voigt, G.; Howard, B.J.; Vandecasteele, C.; Mayes, R.W.; Belli, M.; Sansone, U.; Stakelum, G.; Colgan, P.A.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Crout, N.M.J.; Jones, B.E.V., Hove, K. [GSF-ISS, Neuherberg (Germany)]|[ITE, Merlewood (United Kingdom)]|[CEN, Mol (Belgium)]|[MLURI, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)]|[ENEA-DISP, Rome (Italy)]|[MPRC, Fermoy (Ireland)]|[RPII, Dublin (Ireland)]|[Ioannina Univ., Nuclear Physics (Greece)]|[Nottingham Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences (United Kingdom)]|[Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Clinical Chemistry]|[Agricultural Univ., Aas (Norway). Animal Sciences

1993-12-31

119

Factors affecting the MTW zeolite cristallization process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthesis mechanism of the high silica zeolite types other than MFI is rarely studied in the open literature. This work is devoted to the role of different parameters governing the zeolite MTW crystallization process. The influence of the most important factors: the nature of the silica and alumina source, the type of the organic cation, the alkalinity of the reaction mixture and the crystallization temperature, was studied. The molar composition of the initial hydrogel was varied in other to determine the crystallization field of the zeolite MTW. The observed morphology and particle size of the crystallites are related to the corresponding reaction conditions. The competitive formation of the other zeolite types (prevalently MFI and BEA) is discussed.

Katovic, A.; Giordano, G. [Universita della Calabria, Rende (Italy)

1995-12-01

120

Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. OpsommingEen van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

Margie Sutherland; Wilhelm Jordaan

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS) have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS) economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1) public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2) support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3) the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1) and 2), as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

Maria S. Bowman; David Zilberman

2013-01-01

122

Factors affecting crowded acuity: eccentricity and contrast.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Acuity measurement is a fundamental method to assess visual performance in the clinic. Little is known about how acuity measured in the presence of neighboring letters, as in the case of letter charts, changes with contrast and with nonfoveal viewing. This information is crucial for acuity measurement using low-contrast charts and when patients cannot use their fovea. In this study, we evaluated how optotype acuity, with and without flankers, is affected by contrast and eccentricity. METHODS: Five young adults with normal vision identified the orientation of a Tumbling-E presented alone or in the presence of four flanking Tumbling-Es. Edge-to-edge letter spacing ranged from 1 to 20 bar widths. Stimuli were presented on a white background for 150 ms with Weber contrast ranging from -2.5% to -99%. Flankers had the same size and contrast as the target. Testings were performed at the fovea, 3°, 5°, and 10° in the inferior visual field. RESULTS: When plotted as a function of letter spacing, acuity remains unaffected by the presence of flankers until the flankers are within the critical spacing, which averages an edge-to-edge spacing of 4.4 bar widths at the fovea and approximately 16 bar widths at all three eccentricities. Critical spacing decreases with a reduction in contrast. When plotted as a function of contrast, acuity only worsens when the contrast falls below approximately 24% at the fovea and 17% in the periphery, for flanked and unflanked conditions alike. CONCLUSIONS: The letter spacing on conventional letter charts exceeds the critical spacing for acuity measurement at the fovea, at all contrast levels. Thus, these charts are appropriate for assessing foveal acuity. In the periphery, the critical spacing is larger than the letter spacing on conventional charts. Consequently, these charts may underestimate the acuity measured in the periphery because of the effects of crowding.

Coates DR; Chin JM; Chung ST

2013-07-01

123

Factors affecting participation after traumatic brain injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: The aim of this work was to explore the extent to which social, cognitive, emotional and physical aspects influence participation after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design/subjects: An explorative study of the patient perspective of participation 4 years after TBI. The cohort consisted of all patients (age range 18-65 years), presenting in 1999-2000, admitted to the hospital (n?=?129). Sixty-three patients responded; 46 males and 17 females, mean age 41 (range 19-60) years. Methods: Four years after the injury, the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ), EuroQol-5D, Swedish Stroke Register Questionnaire and Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) questionnaire were sent to the sample. Data were analysed with logistic regression. Results: On the EBIQ, 40% of the sample reported problems in most questions. According to IPA, between 20% and 40% did not perceive that they had a good participation. The analyses gave 5 predictors reflecting emotional and social aspects, which could explain up to 70% of the variation in participation. Conclusion: It is not easy to find single predictors, as there seems to be a close interaction between several aspects. Motor deficits appear to have smaller significance for participation in this late state, while emotional and social factors play a major role.

Larsson J; Björkdahl A; Esbjörnsson E; Sunnerhagen KS

2013-09-01

124

Factors affecting participation after traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The aim of this work was to explore the extent to which social, cognitive, emotional and physical aspects influence participation after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design/subjects: An explorative study of the patient perspective of participation 4 years after TBI. The cohort consisted of all patients (age range 18-65 years), presenting in 1999-2000, admitted to the hospital (n?=?129). Sixty-three patients responded; 46 males and 17 females, mean age 41 (range 19-60) years. Methods: Four years after the injury, the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ), EuroQol-5D, Swedish Stroke Register Questionnaire and Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) questionnaire were sent to the sample. Data were analysed with logistic regression. Results: On the EBIQ, 40% of the sample reported problems in most questions. According to IPA, between 20% and 40% did not perceive that they had a good participation. The analyses gave 5 predictors reflecting emotional and social aspects, which could explain up to 70% of the variation in participation. Conclusion: It is not easy to find single predictors, as there seems to be a close interaction between several aspects. Motor deficits appear to have smaller significance for participation in this late state, while emotional and social factors play a major role. PMID:24002312

Larsson, Jerry; Björkdahl, Ann; Esbjörnsson, Eva; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S

2013-09-01

125

Factors affecting the performance of ultrasonic flowmeters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A programme of work is currently underway at NEL to investigate and characterise the performance of liquid ultrasonic meters over a wide range of conditions. This paper presents the results of laboratory evaluations in addition to the initial results of combined flow and flowmeter modelling. Two-phase, oil/gas performance tests were conducted on commercially available meters of 4-inch nominal bore. Specific results have been selected to illustrate performance variations related to factors in meter design and operation. Two-phase, oil/water performance tests with water-cuts of up to 15 % were also conducted on the above meters. These results are presented in their entirety. The results show deviations from single-phase performance which vary for each meter design. Baseline calibration results for four commercially available clamp-on meters are presented. The results were obtained in good installation conditions on stainless steel pipes of 4-inch and 8-inch nominal bore. The results show different levels of accuracy associated with each meter and a general conformation with predicted behaviour. The final section of the paper presents results obtained by a systematic numerical method of determining the flow profile sensitivity of various meter configurations. The results provide quantitative confirmation of the reduced sensitivity of multipath designs to variations in the velocity profile. (author)

Brown, G.J.

1997-07-01

126

Factors affecting seal life in downhole motors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The life expectancy of rotary seals in downhole motors depends on temperature generated by sliding friction as well as ambient temperature. Heat transfer calculations show that sliding friction can produce a significant rise in temperature across seal assemblies, great enough to deteriorate the seal material and cause premature failure. Thermal conductivities of seal materials and thicknesses of shaft, sleeve, and housing are major design factors influencing steady state temperature profiles across seal assemblies. In general, smaller dimensions and higher thermal conductivities allow the friction generated heat to dissipate at a lower temperature. A parameter study led to an improved rotary seal configuration which will significantly lower peak seal temperatures in downhole motors. The design will channel drilling mud near the sliding friction surface for better dissipation of the friction generated heat. Plans are being made to incorporate this improvement into the bearing seal test assembly. It is doubtful that seals made of Buna-N will perform successfully on downhole motors, even when used in the improved design. On the other hand, calculated maximum temperatures are within material limitations of Grafoil.

Dareing, D.W.

1980-01-01

127

Factors affecting recurrence of sinonasal inverted papilloma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim is to study clinical characteristics and recurrence rates for sinonasal inverted papilloma (NIP), to evaluate relevant factors for its recurrence, and to compare the curative rates of different surgical approaches. The Krouse classification for the 156 follow-up cases of the patients with NIP was as following: 26 cases in T1, 33 cases in T2, 94 cases in T3, and 3 cases in T4. A total number of 99 cases of endoscopic sinus surgery were included, of which 26 cases of lateral rhinotomy approach were combined with Caldwell Luc approach, and 31 cases of nasal endoscopy combined with traditional surgery, with average postoperative follow-up of 3-11 years. Of the 156 studied patients with NIP, male:female = 1.69:1, age varied from 18 to 77 years, with average of 56 years, 19 cases showed postoperative recurrence, of which 8 cases developed to be squamous cell carcinoma. Among these 8 cases, 3 patients showed no recurrence after treatment in 5 years, and the other 5 patients died in 3-2 years period. Tumor recurrence rates for different surgical approach are: 9.09 % for endoscopic surgical group, 23.08 % for traditional surgical group, and 12.12 % for combined surgical group; tumor malignancy rates for different surgical approach are: 2.02 % for endoscopic surgical group, 11.54 % traditional surgical group, and 9.09 % for combined group, and Chi-square test showed that the differences in recurrence and malignancy rates for NIP patients with different surgical treatments were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Recurrence rates for different stages are: T1 at 3.85 %, T2 at 12.12 %, T3 at 14.89 %, and T4 at 0.00 %, and the differences in the recurrence rates for different stages were not statistically significant (P > 0.05) by Chi-square test. There are clear clinical features for NIP, and the recurrence is related to the thoroughness of the first time surgical removal of lesions and is less relevant with Krouse classification stage and surgical approaches.

Xiao-Ting W; Peng L; Xiu-Qing W; Hai-Bo W; Wen-Hui P; Bing L; Er-Peng Z; Guang-Gang S

2013-03-01

128

Factors affecting recurrence of sinonasal inverted papilloma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim is to study clinical characteristics and recurrence rates for sinonasal inverted papilloma (NIP), to evaluate relevant factors for its recurrence, and to compare the curative rates of different surgical approaches. The Krouse classification for the 156 follow-up cases of the patients with NIP was as following: 26 cases in T1, 33 cases in T2, 94 cases in T3, and 3 cases in T4. A total number of 99 cases of endoscopic sinus surgery were included, of which 26 cases of lateral rhinotomy approach were combined with Caldwell Luc approach, and 31 cases of nasal endoscopy combined with traditional surgery, with average postoperative follow-up of 3-11 years. Of the 156 studied patients with NIP, male:female = 1.69:1, age varied from 18 to 77 years, with average of 56 years, 19 cases showed postoperative recurrence, of which 8 cases developed to be squamous cell carcinoma. Among these 8 cases, 3 patients showed no recurrence after treatment in 5 years, and the other 5 patients died in 3-2 years period. Tumor recurrence rates for different surgical approach are: 9.09 % for endoscopic surgical group, 23.08 % for traditional surgical group, and 12.12 % for combined surgical group; tumor malignancy rates for different surgical approach are: 2.02 % for endoscopic surgical group, 11.54 % traditional surgical group, and 9.09 % for combined group, and Chi-square test showed that the differences in recurrence and malignancy rates for NIP patients with different surgical treatments were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Recurrence rates for different stages are: T1 at 3.85 %, T2 at 12.12 %, T3 at 14.89 %, and T4 at 0.00 %, and the differences in the recurrence rates for different stages were not statistically significant (P > 0.05) by Chi-square test. There are clear clinical features for NIP, and the recurrence is related to the thoroughness of the first time surgical removal of lesions and is less relevant with Krouse classification stage and surgical approaches. PMID:23064461

Xiao-Ting, Wang; Peng, Li; Xiu-Qing, Wei; Hai-Bo, Wang; Wen-Hui, Pang; Bing, Li; Er-Peng, Zhang; Guang-Gang, Shi

2012-10-12

129

Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

Sven Skjenneberg (ed.)

1984-01-01

130

Factors affecting the internal brain drain of Saudi healthcare professionals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To investigate factors affecting the internal brain drain of healthcare professionals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an anonymous self-administered online questionnaire...

Zuhair T. Bakhsh; Ameerah Y. Mansour; Edward K. Mensah; Kevin G. Croke; James L. Drummond; Anne Koerber

131

Discuss the factors that affect the outcome of endodontic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Factors affecting the outcome of endodontic treatment are discussed from the theoretical viewpoint (microbes, foreign bodies and epithelium) and from a clinical aspect (preoperative factors, intraoperative factors and miscellaneous factors). The following conditions favour endodontic success significantly: the absence of a periapical infection, a well-condensed root filling, the root filling extending to 2 mm within the radiographic apex and not beyond, a satisfactory coronal restoration, use of a rubber dam during treatment and cases involving primary root canal treatment as opposed to retreatment. Other factors have the potential to affect success rates, but these have not yet been quantified. Although there is an array of potential factors that influence the outcome of endodontic treatment, success is most significantly dependent upon the elimination of root canal infection present when treatment starts and the prevention of contamination during treatment.

Chandra A

2009-08-01

132

Factors Affecting Milk Production in Buffaloes: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study quantified the effect of major factors affecting the milk production in buffaloes. The important factors considered for the estimation of milk production included the value of dry fodder, the value of green fodder, the value of concentrate, number of lactations and the value of labour hours. A production function for milk was estimated by employing Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression. In the estimated model among all the relevant variables, green fodder, lactation number and labour hours were found to be the influential factors affecting milk production in this species.

Maqsood Hussain*, Abdul Ghafoor1and Abdul Saboor2

2010-01-01

133

Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

2013-06-06

134

Political factors and the efficiency of municipal expenditure in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo analisa como fatores políticos e institucionais afetama eficiência do gasto municipal no provimento do bem estar para a população ao longo da década dos noventa. O modelo adota a abordagem da fronteira de produção estocástica, condicionada por variáveis relacionadas ao custo da provisão dos serviços e os incentivos que afetam a eficiência municipal. O resultado indica que não podemos rejeitar: 1) economias de escala; 2) o efeito da margem de voto (more) no município e do tipo de mandato (primeiro ou segundo) do governador eleito, indicando uma forma de clientelismo; e que 3) a política local e a existência de comitê setoriais não afetam o nível da eficiência do gasto, o que sugere assimetria de informação entre os políticos e os eleitores. Abstract in english This study analyses how political and institutional factors affected the performance of municipalities in improving social welfare in Brazil in the period from1990 to 2000. Themodel adopts a stochastic production frontier, conditioned by variables related to the provision costs of services and those that can affect municipal efficiency. The results indicated that we can not reject:1) economies of scale; 2) the effect of vote margin in the municipality and the type (first (more) or second) of mandate of elected governor, which indicates a form of patronage; and 3) that local politics and the existence of sectorial boards did not affect the level of efficiency for municipal spending, suggesting an asymmetry of information between politics and voters.

Motta, Ronaldo Seroa da; Moreira, Ajax

2009-12-01

135

Statistical analysis of the different factors affecting the diarrhea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diarrhea is a worldwide problem facing both developing countries and developed countries, especially in pediatric population. Because of shortage of health facilities and lack of good food in developing countries, it is known fact that developing countries are facing this death taking problem more. The main purpose of this study was to examine the various factors which affect the recovery time of diarrhea. A multiple linear regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a model. The response variable for the study was the recovery time of diarrhea. The results of the analysis show that the Zinc is the main factor which affect the recovery time in Peshawar.

Zaman Q; Khan I

2011-09-01

136

Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM)  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management) scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response) and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation) factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions), physical activity (eight dimensions), and stress management (eight dimensions). Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American and white mothers in community settings.

Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan

2008-01-01

137

Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management) scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response) and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation) factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions), physical activity (eight dimensions), and stress management (eight dimensions). Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American and white mothers in community settings.

Chang Mei-Wei; Brown Roger; Nitzke Susan

2008-01-01

138

Analysis on Psychological Factors to Affect the Vocal Stage Performance  

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Full Text Available The stage performance is an important part of artistic practice for vocal students. To perfectly express the music on stage is the dream of every vocal music performer. This essay is about analysis of the psychological factors to affect the vocal stage performance and to explore the reasons for stage fright and the methods to overcome this, to enable students to further enhance the level of their vocal music.Key words: Vocal music; Stage performance; Psychological factor

Xihong CHEN

2012-01-01

139

Environmental factors affecting monogeneans parasitic on freshwater fishes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental factors that act on fish parasites have received increasing attention in recent years. The effects of changing environmental conditions on parasite communities can provide valuable information on the effects of pollution on the ecosystem as a whole. This, of course, demands that we have a detailed knowledge o f parasite communities and the mechanisms acting upon them in a variety of natural conditions. Here, Mari Koskivaaro looks at those environmental factors that affect monogeneans parasitic on freshwater fishes. PMID:15463531

Koskivaara, M

1992-10-01

140

Environmental factors affecting monogeneans parasitic on freshwater fishes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The environmental factors that act on fish parasites have received increasing attention in recent years. The effects of changing environmental conditions on parasite communities can provide valuable information on the effects of pollution on the ecosystem as a whole. This, of course, demands that we have a detailed knowledge o f parasite communities and the mechanisms acting upon them in a variety of natural conditions. Here, Mari Koskivaaro looks at those environmental factors that affect monogeneans parasitic on freshwater fishes.

Koskivaara M

1992-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Factors affecting Iran`s future. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the factors affecting Iran`s future by focusing on the demographic, economic, and military trends in Iran and their impact on the country`s national security objectives in the next decade. The paper also assesses the implications of an economic embargo on Iran and potential Iranian threats to regional and United States national interests.

Sinai, J.

1993-05-28

142

Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

Kwenda, Maxwell

2011-01-01

143

Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

2009-01-01

144

Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The populatio...

Naile Bilgili; Sultan Ayaz

145

Factors that affect the accuracy of method 21  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the enactment of the HON and the petroleum refinery NESHAP, EPA method 21 will shortly become an enormous fact of life for all petroleum & petrochemical refineries across the United States; and yet, little is known about it. This presentation looks at factors that can affect the accuracy of method 21 when it is used to make precision ppm measurements under actual field conditions. What does method 21 actually measure? Which chemicals are compatible with method 21, and which are not? How does a ppm reading obtained by method 21 correlate to a leak rate? Do variables such as process line pressure, temperature, and weather conditions affect leak measurements? These, along with other factors that affect leak detection, will be discussed.

Dolan, P. [Adsistor Environmental Systems, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

1996-12-31

146

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research. PMID:23718720

Awases, Magdalene H; Bezuidenhout, Marthie C; Roos, Janetta H

2013-04-19

147

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

Magdalene H. Awases; Marthie C. Bezuidenhout; Janetta H. Roos

2013-01-01

148

Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

Awases MH; Bezuidenhout MC; Roos JH

2013-01-01

149

Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

2008-01-01

150

FACTORS AFFECTING INTENT TO PURCHASE VIRTUAL GOODS IN ONLINE GAMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Online games increasingly sell virtual goods to generate real income. As a result, it isincreasingly important to identify factors and theory of consumption values that affect intent topurchase virtual goods in online games. However, very little research has been devoted to thetopic. This study is an empirical investigation of the factors and theory of consumption valuesthat affect intent to purchase virtual goods in online games. The study determines the effects ofgame type, satisfaction with the game, identification with the character, and theory ofconsumption values on intent to purchase virtual goods. The study used a survey to collectinformation from 523 virtual game users. Study results showed that game type is a moderatingvariable that affects intent to purchase virtual goods. And it demonstrated that role-playing gameusers are affected by theory of consumption values: functional quality, playfulness, and socialrelationship support. Moreover, war-strategy game users are affected by satisfaction with thegame, identification with the character, and theory of consumption values: price, utility, andplayfulness. The study also presents conclusions, proposes applications, and describesopportunities for further research.

Cheng-Hsun Ho; Ting-Yun Wu

2012-01-01

151

Are Affective Factors a Good Predictor of Science Achievement? Examining the Role of Affective Factors Based on PISA 2006  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated how affective factors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…

Ozel, Murat; Caglak, Serdar; Erdogan, Mehmet

2013-01-01

152

Factors affecting receipt of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Libby Morimoto1, Jenna Coalson1, Fionna Mowat1, Cynthia O’Malley21Exponent Health Sciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA; 2Amgen Global Epidemiology, Thousand Oaks, CA, USAAims: To review literature describing factors associated with receipt of chemotherapy for breast cancer, to better understand what factors are most relevant to women’s health and whether health disparities are apparent, and to assess how these factors might affect observational studies and outcomes research. Patterns of care for metastatic breast cancer, for which no standard-of-care exists, were of particular interest.Methods: Relevant studies written in English, Italian, French, or Spanish, published in 2000 or later, were identified through MEDLINE and reviewed. Review articles and clinical trials were excluded; all observational studies and surveys were considered. Articles were reviewed for any discussion of patient characteristics, hospital/physician/insurance characteristics, psychosocial characteristics, and clinical characteristics affecting receipt of chemotherapy by breast cancer patients.Results: In general, factors associated with increased likelihood of receiving chemotherapy included younger age, being Caucasian, having good general health and few co-morbidities, having more severe clinical disease, having responded well to previous treatment, and having breast cancer that is estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-negative. Many of the clinical factors found to increase the likelihood of receiving chemotherapy were consistent with current oncology guidelines. Of the relevant 19 studies identified, only six (32%) reported data specific to metastatic cancer; most studies aggregated women with stage I–IV for purposes of analysis.Conclusion: Studies of patterns of care in breast cancer treatment can help identify challenges in health care provided to particular subgroups of women and can aid researchers in designing studies that account for such factors in clinical and outcomes research. Although scarce, studies evaluating only women with metastatic breast cancer indicate that factors affecting decisions related to receipt of chemotherapy are similar across stage for this disease.Keywords: breast cancer, chemotherapy, metastatic, treatment decisions, health disparities

Libby Morimoto; Jenna Coalson; Fionna Mowat; et al

2010-01-01

153

Which Factors Affect Software Projects Maintenance Cost More?  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The software industry has had significant progress in recent years. The entire life of software includes two phases: production and maintenance. Software maintenance cost is increasingly growing and estimates showed that about 90% of software life cost is related to its maintenance phase. Extraction and considering the factors affecting the software maintenance cost help to estimate the cost and reduce it by controlling the factors. Methods In this study, the factors affecting software maintenance cost were determined then were ranked based on their priority and after that effective ways to reduce the maintenance costs were presented. This paper is a research study. 15 software related to health care centers information systems in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and hospitals function were studied in the years 2010 to 2011. Results and discussion Among Medical software maintenance team members, 40 were selected as sample. After interviews with experts in this field, factors affecting maintenance cost were determined. In order to prioritize the factors derived by AHP, at first, measurement criteria (factors found) were appointed by members of the maintenance team and eventually were prioritized with the help of EC software. Based on the results of this study, 32 factors were obtained which were classified in six groups. “Project” was ranked the most effective feature in maintenance cost with the highest priority. By taking into account some major elements like careful feasibility of IT projects, full documentation and accompany the designers in the maintenance phase good results can be achieved to reduce maintenance costs and increase longevity of the software.

Dehaghani, Sayed Mehdi Hejazi; Hajrahimi, Nafiseh

2013-01-01

154

Which factors affect software projects maintenance cost more?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The software industry has had significant progress in recent years. The entire life of software includes two phases: production and maintenance. Software maintenance cost is increasingly growing and estimates showed that about 90% of software life cost is related to its maintenance phase. Extraction and considering the factors affecting the software maintenance cost help to estimate the cost and reduce it by controlling the factors. METHODS: In this study, the factors affecting software maintenance cost were determined then were ranked based on their priority and after that effective ways to reduce the maintenance costs were presented. This paper is a research study. 15 software related to health care centers information systems in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and hospitals function were studied in the years 2010 to 2011. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Among Medical software maintenance team members, 40 were selected as sample. After interviews with experts in this field, factors affecting maintenance cost were determined. In order to prioritize the factors derived by AHP, at first, measurement criteria (factors found) were appointed by members of the maintenance team and eventually were prioritized with the help of EC software. Based on the results of this study, 32 factors were obtained which were classified in six groups. "Project" was ranked the most effective feature in maintenance cost with the highest priority. By taking into account some major elements like careful feasibility of IT projects, full documentation and accompany the designers in the maintenance phase good results can be achieved to reduce maintenance costs and increase longevity of the software.

Dehaghani SM; Hajrahimi N

2013-03-01

155

Nurse aide decision making in nursing homes: factors affecting empowerment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors affecting structural empowerment among nurse aides in nursing homes. BACKGROUND: Structural empowerment can be defined as the actual rather than perceived ability to make autonomous decisions within an organisation. Given the paucity of research on the subject, this study helps to close the gap by identifying factors that affect nurse aide empowerment, that is, decision-making among nurse aides. METHODS: The data for the study come from self-administered questionnaires distributed to direct-care workers (nurse aides) in 11 nursing homes in a southern state in the USA. Ordinary least square regression models were estimated to analyse the effects of demographic predictors, personal factors (competency, emotional exhaustion and positive attitude) and structural characteristics (coworker and supervisor support, information availability and shared governance) on nurse aide decision-making. RESULTS: Findings suggest race among demographic predictors, emotional exhaustion among personal characteristics, and supervisor support, and shared governance among structural factors, significantly affect nurse aide decision-making. CONCLUSION: It is important to explore race as one of the central determinants of structural empowerment among nurse aides. In addition, the nature and type of emotional exhaustion that propels decision-making needs to be further examined. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The study shows the importance of shared governance and supervisor support for fostering nurse aide empowerment.

Chaudhuri T; Yeatts DE; Cready CM

2013-09-01

156

Factors Affecting Hoteliers’ Decision to Advertise in Travel Magazine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advertising is a paid, mass-mediated attempt to persuade. That mean Advertising is paid communication by a company or organization that wants its information disseminated through a communication medium designed to reach more than one person, typically a large number or mass of people and advertising includes an attempt to persuade consumer to like the brand and because of that liking to eventually buy the brand. Advertising in travel magazine is one of the promotional methods to promote hoteliers products or services to the market place. By advertising in travel magazine, it can reach the target audience, educate them about the products or services, and move them closer to make a purchase. The purpose of the research is to recognize and rank the factors affecting hotelier’s decision to advertise in travel magazine. The respondents for the research are those hoteliers operating in Malaysia. The factors for this research are reached target readers, cost of advertising, contents of the magazine, frequency of advertising and media of advertising. The result of the research shows two of the factors significantly affecting hoteliers advertising decision. Furthermore, cost of advertising ranks the first follow by reach target readers, contents of magazine, media of advertising and frequency of advertising ranks the last. This research will help the publisher of travel magazine to understand and recognize the ranking of factors affecting hoteliers’ decision to advertise in travel magazine.

Mohd Faiz Hilmi; Ah Hwa Ngo

2011-01-01

157

Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5%) such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

Bahieh Moradi; Majid Maleki; Maryam Esmaeilzadeh; Hooman Bakhshandeh Abkenar

2011-01-01

158

Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5%) such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

Moradi, Bahieh; Maleki, Majid; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Abkenar, Hooman Bakhshandeh

2011-01-01

159

Physician-related factors affecting cardiac rehabilitation referral.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician's attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. RESULTS: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5%) such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians' fee were other factors reported by the physicians. CONCLUSION: Cardiologists' inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

Moradi B; Maleki M; Esmaeilzadeh M; Abkenar HB

2011-11-01

160

Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2004-02-24

 
 
 
 
161

Factors That Affect Feed Intake of Meat Birds: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feed intake is the major factor that influences both the body weight gain and feed efficiency in meat-type poultry. Because so many factors can influence feed intake, it is often difficult to correct a problem of poor feed intake unless a complete review of feed and management practices is made. Management and flock health issues are usually more likely to reduce feed intake than dietary factors. Dietary factors that influence feed intake would be common among all flocks in a complex rather than on individual flocks. In contrast, environmental or immunological stresses have the most profound effects on flock variation in feed intake. Any management protocol that would alleviate these stressors will improve feed intake. To improve flock feed intake, initially investigate the source of greatest stress or disease challenge.

Peter R. Ferket; Abel G. Gernat

2006-01-01

162

Confounding factors affect the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a newly diagnosed esophageal disease in adult and children. The clinical and pathological characteristics of this disease have been established and were recently summarized in the expert clinical guideline published in 2011. In spite of the wide knowledge accumulated on this disease, there are many areas where scientific data are missing, especially in regard to the disease’s pathophysiology. Recent publications have suggested that other confounding factors modify the disease and may affect its clinical-phenotypic presentation. Those factors may include place of living, air pollution, race, genetic factors and other. In the present report we discussed and review those confounding factors, the new developments, and what direction we should go to further advance our knowledge of this disease.

Elitsur, Yoram

2012-01-01

163

Confounding factors affect the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis is a newly diagnosed esophageal disease in adult and children. The clinical and pathological characteristics of this disease have been established and were recently summarized in the expert clinical guideline published in 2011. In spite of the wide knowledge accumulated on this disease, there are many areas where scientific data are missing, especially in regard to the disease’s pathophysiology. Recent publications have suggested that other confounding factors modify the disease and may affect its clinical-phenotypic presentation. Those factors may include place of living, air pollution, race, genetic factors and other. In the present report we discussed and review those confounding factors, the new developments, and what direction we should go to further advance our knowledge of this disease.

Yoram Elitsur

2012-01-01

164

Factors affecting sleep disturbances in children and adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: To determine factors affecting sleep disturbances in children.Background: Factors affecting sleep disturbances have been studied extensively in adults, but relatively few studies have been done in children.Methods: As part of the twelfth survey of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study of Obstructive Airways Disease (TESOAD, 1991-1992), children, ages 3-14, of adult cohort members were administered a health questionnaire which contained items related to sleep problems as well as items related to respiratory diseases and symptoms. Participants were classified as having sleep disturbances if they reported disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) or snoring. Potential factors affecting sleep included age, gender, obesity, asthma, other bronchial problems, cough and sputum production, wheezing and rhinitis.Results: The overall prevalence rates were 16.8, 4 and 22.9% for DIMS, EDS, and snoring, respectively. We found a significantly higher prevalence of DIMS in 11-14-year-old girls (30.4%) and snoring (32.3%) in 3-6-year-old boys. Certain respiratory factors were more prevalent in children with sleep disturbances. Multivariate analysis revealed that risk factors for DIMS included female gender, age 11-14 and wheezing. The risk for EDS was increased in those children with cough and sputum production. Cough and sputum production also were risk factors for snoring as was rhinitis and age 3-6.Conclusions: We conclude that in children as in adults, respiratory symptoms are associated with sleep disturbances. Further, the increased insomnia seen in adult women may begin in early adolescence.

Camhi SL; Morgan WJ; Pernisco N; Quan SF

2000-04-01

165

Proliferation Rate of Somatic Cells Affects Reprogramming Efficiency*  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells provides not only new approaches for cell replacement therapy, but also new ways for drug screening. However, the undefined mechanism and relatively low efficiency of reprogramming have limited the application of iPS cells. In an attempt to further optimize the reprogramming condition, we unexpectedly observed that removing c-Myc from the Oct-4, Sox-2, Klf-4, and c-Myc (OSKM) combination greatly enhanced the generation of iPS cells. The iPS cells generated without c-Myc attained salient pluripotent characteristics and were capable of producing full-term mice through tetraploid complementation. We observed that forced expression of c-Myc induced the expression of many genes involved in cell cycle control and a hyperproliferation state of the mouse embryonic fibroblasts during the early stage of reprogramming. This enhanced proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts correlated negatively to the overall reprogramming efficiency. By applying small molecule inhibitors of cell proliferation at the early stage of reprogramming, we were able to improve the efficiency of iPS cell generation mediated by OSKM. Our data demonstrated that the proliferation rate of the somatic cell plays critical roles in reprogramming. Slowing down the proliferation of the original cells might be beneficial to the induction of iPS cells.

Xu, Yongyu; Wei, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Min; Zhang, Ru; Fu, Yanbin; Xing, Mingzhe; Hua, Qiuhong; Xie, Xin

2013-01-01

166

Proliferation rate of somatic cells affects reprogramming efficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells provides not only new approaches for cell replacement therapy, but also new ways for drug screening. However, the undefined mechanism and relatively low efficiency of reprogramming have limited the application of iPS cells. In an attempt to further optimize the reprogramming condition, we unexpectedly observed that removing c-Myc from the Oct-4, Sox-2, Klf-4, and c-Myc (OSKM) combination greatly enhanced the generation of iPS cells. The iPS cells generated without c-Myc attained salient pluripotent characteristics and were capable of producing full-term mice through tetraploid complementation. We observed that forced expression of c-Myc induced the expression of many genes involved in cell cycle control and a hyperproliferation state of the mouse embryonic fibroblasts during the early stage of reprogramming. This enhanced proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts correlated negatively to the overall reprogramming efficiency. By applying small molecule inhibitors of cell proliferation at the early stage of reprogramming, we were able to improve the efficiency of iPS cell generation mediated by OSKM. Our data demonstrated that the proliferation rate of the somatic cell plays critical roles in reprogramming. Slowing down the proliferation of the original cells might be beneficial to the induction of iPS cells.

Xu Y; Wei X; Wang M; Zhang R; Fu Y; Xing M; Hua Q; Xie X

2013-04-01

167

Proliferation rate of somatic cells affects reprogramming efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells provides not only new approaches for cell replacement therapy, but also new ways for drug screening. However, the undefined mechanism and relatively low efficiency of reprogramming have limited the application of iPS cells. In an attempt to further optimize the reprogramming condition, we unexpectedly observed that removing c-Myc from the Oct-4, Sox-2, Klf-4, and c-Myc (OSKM) combination greatly enhanced the generation of iPS cells. The iPS cells generated without c-Myc attained salient pluripotent characteristics and were capable of producing full-term mice through tetraploid complementation. We observed that forced expression of c-Myc induced the expression of many genes involved in cell cycle control and a hyperproliferation state of the mouse embryonic fibroblasts during the early stage of reprogramming. This enhanced proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts correlated negatively to the overall reprogramming efficiency. By applying small molecule inhibitors of cell proliferation at the early stage of reprogramming, we were able to improve the efficiency of iPS cell generation mediated by OSKM. Our data demonstrated that the proliferation rate of the somatic cell plays critical roles in reprogramming. Slowing down the proliferation of the original cells might be beneficial to the induction of iPS cells. PMID:23439651

Xu, Yongyu; Wei, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Min; Zhang, Ru; Fu, Yanbin; Xing, Mingzhe; Hua, Qiuhong; Xie, Xin

2013-02-25

168

Analysis of Factors that Affect e-Governance .  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available e-Governance is an application of ICT (Information & Communication technology) to provide government services to its citizens and organizations. Punjab is one of the leading states in implementation of e-Governance but still there are some obstacles in its effective implementation at rural level. This research paper highlights the factors that are affecting the implementation of e-Governance. It also includes a survey questionnaire which takes all the factors into account and before starting actual survey a pilot study for this questionnaire was done which confirms its acceptance

Dr. Pardeep Mittal; Amandeep Kaur

2013-01-01

169

Total-factor energy efficiency in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper uses a total-factor framework to investigate energy efficiency in 23 developing countries during the period of 1980-2005. We explore the total-factor energy efficiency and change trends by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) window, which is capable of measuring efficiency in cross-sectional and time-varying data. The empirical results indicate that Botswana, Mexico and Panama perform the best in terms of energy efficiency, whereas Kenya, Sri Lanka, Syria and the Philippines perform the worst during the entire research period. Seven countries show little change in energy efficiency over time. Eleven countries experienced continuous decreases in energy efficiency. Among five countries witnessing continuous increase in total-factor energy efficiency, China experienced the most rapid rise. Practice in China indicates that effective energy policies play a crucial role in improving energy efficiency. Tobit regression analysis indicates that a U-shaped relationship exists between total-factor energy efficiency and income per capita. - Research Highlights: ? To measure the total-factor energy efficiency using DEA window analysis. ? Focus on an application area of developing countries in the period of 1980-2005. ? A U-shaped relationship was found between total-factor energy efficiency and income.

1022-01-00

170

Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author); Mumtaz Ali Junejo; Muhammad Saleem Rahpoto; Maqsood Zia Shah

2011-01-01

171

Factors affecting the dermal bioavailability of hydrocarbons in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The science of risk assessment has advanced significantly in recent years, in a continuing effort to more accurately represent potential human health effects from exposure to chemicals in the environment. This paper describes some environmental factors that affect the behavior of chemicals in soil and the relationship of this chemical behavior to the prediction of dermal exposures relating to soil contamination. The information presented in this paper suggests that the mass transfer of chemicals from the soil to the skin is as much an issue in dermal exposures to soil-sorbed chemicals as the actual absorption of the chemical through the skin. Relevant factor affecting the sorption, desorption, and mass transfer of hydrocarbon chemicals in soil are discussed. A summary of the scientific literature related to research on chemicals sorbed to soil is also presented.

1991-01-01

172

Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

M. Ketema; S. Bauer

2012-01-01

173

Ranking factors affecting the productivity of human resources using MADM techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For improving and efficient uses of various resources such as labor, capital, materials, energy and information, productivity is the purpose of all economic and industrial organizations and service enterprises. The human factor is the main strategic resource and the realization axis of productivity for each type of organization. Therefore the factors affecting the productivity, depends on suitable conditions for labor. This study is performed to identification and prioritization the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company. The objective of this research is an applied and the data collection methods and conclusions are descriptive - survey. Statistical sample size by using Cochran's formula is considered equal to 120. To perform this study with the Delphi method, we identify the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company and by using MADM techniques, prioritization of these factors has been done. Also Team Expert Choice2000 software have used for analysis. Research results show that factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company in order of importance are: Health aspects, leadership style, motivational factors, organizational commitment, work experience, general and applied education, demographic characteristics, physical environment within the organization, external environment and competitive spirit.

G. A. Shekari; S. Khayat Moghadam; Adeleh Hakimzadeh; S. Salahshour; A. K. Keifi

2012-01-01

174

Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

1990-01-01

175

Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

1983-09-01

176

Factors affecting Culicoides species composition and abundance in avian nests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mechanisms affecting patterns of vector distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of vectors, hosts and the parasites transmitted. We studied the role of different factors affecting the species composition and abundance of Culicoides found in nests of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We identified 1531 females and 2 males of 7 different Culicoides species in nests, with C. simulator being the most abundant species, followed by C. kibunensis, C. festivipennis, C. segnis, C. truncorum, C. pictipennis and C. circumscriptus. We conducted a medicationxfumigation experiment randomly assigning bird's nests to different treatments, thereby generating groups of medicated and control pairs breeding in fumigated and control nests. Medicated pairs were injected with the anti-malarial drug Primaquine diluted in saline solution while control pairs were injected with saline solution. The fumigation treatment was carried out using insecticide solution or water for fumigated and control nests respectively. Brood size was the main factor associated with the abundance of biting midges probably because more nestlings may produce higher quantities of vector attractants. In addition, birds medicated against haemoparasites breeding in non-fumigated nests supported a higher abundance of C. festivipennis than the rest of the groups. Also, we found that the fumigation treatment reduced the abundance of engorged Culicoides in both medicated and control nests, thus indicating a reduction of feeding success produced by the insecticide. These results represent the first evidence for the role of different factors in affecting the Culicoides infracommunity in wild avian nests. PMID:19523254

Martínez-de la Puente, J; Merino, S; Tomás, G; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Talavera, S; Sarto I Monteys, V

2009-06-15

177

Factors affecting Culicoides species composition and abundance in avian nests.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mechanisms affecting patterns of vector distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of vectors, hosts and the parasites transmitted. We studied the role of different factors affecting the species composition and abundance of Culicoides found in nests of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We identified 1531 females and 2 males of 7 different Culicoides species in nests, with C. simulator being the most abundant species, followed by C. kibunensis, C. festivipennis, C. segnis, C. truncorum, C. pictipennis and C. circumscriptus. We conducted a medicationxfumigation experiment randomly assigning bird's nests to different treatments, thereby generating groups of medicated and control pairs breeding in fumigated and control nests. Medicated pairs were injected with the anti-malarial drug Primaquine diluted in saline solution while control pairs were injected with saline solution. The fumigation treatment was carried out using insecticide solution or water for fumigated and control nests respectively. Brood size was the main factor associated with the abundance of biting midges probably because more nestlings may produce higher quantities of vector attractants. In addition, birds medicated against haemoparasites breeding in non-fumigated nests supported a higher abundance of C. festivipennis than the rest of the groups. Also, we found that the fumigation treatment reduced the abundance of engorged Culicoides in both medicated and control nests, thus indicating a reduction of feeding success produced by the insecticide. These results represent the first evidence for the role of different factors in affecting the Culicoides infracommunity in wild avian nests.

Martínez-de la Puente J; Merino S; Tomás G; Moreno J; Morales J; Lobato E; Talavera S; Sarto I Monteys V

2009-08-01

178

Factors Affecting the Crevice Corrosion Susceptibility of Alloy 22  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The susceptibility or Alloy 22 (N06022) to crevice corrosion may depend on environmental or external factors and metallurgical or internal factors. Some of the most important environmental factors are chloride concentration, inhibitors, temperature and potential. The presence of a weld seam or second phase precipitation in the alloy are classified as internal factors. The localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 has been extensively investigated in the last five years, however not all affecting factors were considered in the studies. This paper discusses the current findings regarding the effect of many of these variables on the susceptibility (or resistance) of Alloy 22 to crevice corrosion. The effect of variables such as temperature, chloride concentration and nitrate are rather well understood. However there are only limited or no data regarding effect of other factors such as pH, other inhibitive or deleterious species and type of crevicing material and crevice geometry. There are contradictory results regarding the effect of metallurgical factors such as solution heat treatment.

Rebak, R B

2004-11-24

179

Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland  

Science.gov (United States)

The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user's committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user's committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

180

Factors affecting M13 bacteriophage inactivation by methylene blue photosensitization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have investigated the factors that affect the virucidal activity of methylene blue (MB) photosensitization. The M13 bacteriophage was more rapidly inactivated at higher temperatures (6 degrees C < 24 degrees C < 38 degrees C). Rate constants for inactivation were 0.072, 0.139 and 0.260 (log10 inactivation)/ (J/cm2) at 6 degrees C, 24 degrees C and 38 degrees C, respectively. On the other hand, dye penetration into virus particles, which was monitored by the fluorescence of YOYO-1, was unchanged with incubation temperature. These data suggest that temperature dependency of M13 inactivation was due to factors other than dye permeability. The pH of the virus suspension also affected the rate of M13 inactivation by MB. The M13 bacteriophage was inactivated faster in basic suspensions and slower in acidic suspensions compared with neutral buffers. These results suggest that temperature and pH are factors that influence the extent of MB photosensitization, and hence, the control of these factors will be necessary for MB phototreatment of plasma products in transfusion medicine.

Abe H; Wagner SJ; Kuwabara M; Kamo N; Ikebuchi K; Sekiguchi S

1997-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

An Exploration of Viral Transfer Efficiency Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Viruses exist on common household surfaces and persist on them (Abad 1994, Rusin 2002). In addition to this, they are able to transfer from surface to surface, and when in contact with humans, can cause illness. In a previous study, we were able to test out the transfer efficiencies of three different phages. Transfer efficiency is defined as follows: Transfer Efficiency: Phage recovered from surface 2 / (Phage recovered from surface 2 + Phage recovered from surface 1) The phages tested have similar size and shape, but vary in isoelectric points and route of infection (Maier 2000). Preliminary studies have suggested that the transfer efficiencies for each phage may be different. Because of this, we are investigating what is the cause of this difference in phage transfer. Two possibilities for these differences are the phage's properties and the cotton tip swab elution from each surface. Using the statistical method known as the student t-test and the experimental methods for phage elution and a double agar overlay phage enumeration, we examined whether the cotton tip swab elution was responsible for phage transfer differences.

Tamayo, F. J.; Julian, T.; Boehm, A.

2008-12-01

182

Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market.

2010-01-01

183

FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHERS’ USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers’ decisions to use ICT in the classroom: non-manipulative and manipulative school and teacher factors. These factors are interrelated. The success of the implementation of ICT is not dependent on the availability or absence of one individual factor, but is determined through a dynamic process involving a set of interrelated factors. It is suggested that ongoing professional development must be provided for teachers to model the new pedagogies and tools for learning with the aim of enhancing the teaching-learning process. However, it is important for teacher trainers and policy makers to understand the factors affecting effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different approaches to ICT use in teacher training so training strategies can be appropriately explored to make such changes viable to all.

Mojgan Afshari; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Wong Su Luan; Bahaman Abu Samah; Foo Say Fooi

2009-01-01

184

The production factors efficiency estimation of the  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of use of stochastic frontier methodology for the analysis of the intellectual capital and other major manufacture factors influence on the quantity indicators, the competitiveness of the company characterizing, are described.

Sergei A. Aivasian; Mikhail Yu. Afanasiev

2011-01-01

185

Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were used to divide the metabolites into the following three groups: 1) correlated to growth, 2) correlated to color formation, and 3) formed at high pH. Subsequently, a full factorial experiment with factors P, Mg and Cu, showed that low P concentrations (2000 mg/kg) induced yellow color formation. Among the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the yellow discoloration phenomenon observed in the dairy industry.

Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.

2002-01-01

186

An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL) has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs), problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL). Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

Takashi Kuremoto; Tetsuya Tsurusaki; Kunikazu Kobayashi; Shingo Mabu; Masanao Obayashi

2013-01-01

187

Subjectively impaired bed mobility in Parkinson disease affects sleep efficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Impaired bed mobility (IBM) may be an important reason for the high prevalence of sleep insomnia in Parkinson disease (PD). Here we assessed the influence of subjectively IBM on both subjective and objective sleep parameters in insomnia PD patients with (PD+IBM) and without (PD-IBM) concerns of IBM and controls with primary insomnia. METHODS: We included 44 PD patients with sleep initiation or maintenance concerns and 44 control subjects with primary insomnia. Sleep questionnaires, polysomnographic sleep parameters, activity data, and the number of body position changes were compared between PD patients and controls as well as within the PD group between PD+IBM vs PD-IBM subjects. RESULTS: There were 54.5% of PD subjects who reported having IBM. In the PD+IBM group, the number of body position changes was significantly lower than in PD-IBM (0.4/h [0.0-1.8] vs 1.4/h [0.0-4.6], P=.015). Sleep efficiency (SE) was lower in PD+IBM patients (63.5; 26.2-85.6) compared to PD-IBM patients (78.4; 54.8-92.6; P<.001). CONCLUSION: PD patients who report IBM have fewer sleep-related body position changes (i.e., nocturnal hypokinesia) than PD patients without such concerns. Furthermore, objective SE is significantly diminished in these patients.

Louter M; van Sloun RJ; Pevernagie DA; Arends JB; Cluitmans PJ; Bloem BR; Overeem S

2013-07-01

188

Rad52 SUMOylation affects the efficiency of the DNA repair  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Homologous recombination (HR) plays a vital role in DNA metabolic processes including meiosis, DNA repair, DNA replication and rDNA homeostasis. HR defects can lead to pathological outcomes, including genetic diseases and cancer. Recent studies suggest that the post-translational modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein plays an important role in mitotic and meiotic recombination. However, the precise role of SUMOylation during recombination is still unclear. Here, we characterize the effect of SUMOylation on the biochemical properties of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae recombination mediator protein Rad52. Interestingly, Rad52 SUMOylation is enhanced by single-stranded DNA, and we show that SUMOylation of Rad52 also inhibits its DNA binding and annealing activities. The biochemical effects of SUMO modification in vitro are accompanied by a shorter duration of spontaneous Rad52 foci in vivo and a shift in spontaneous mitotic recombination from single-strand annealing to gene conversion events in the SUMO-deficient Rad52 mutants. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of Rad52 SUMOylation as part of a 'quality control' mechanism regulating the efficiency of recombination and DNA repair.

Altmannova, Veronika; Eckert-Boulet, Nadine

2010-01-01

189

Factors affecting stair-ascent patterns in unilateral transfemoral amputees.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Patterns and ease of stair ambulation influence amputees' level of satisfaction with their rehabilitation, confidence level, and motivation for continued rehabilitation, demonstrating the importance of stair-ascent data for rehabilitation. However, little is known about the determinants of stair-ascent patterns in unilateral transfemoral amputees. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the factors affecting stair-ascent patterns in transfemoral amputees. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: Stair-ascent patterns were evaluated using the Stair Assessment Index. We collected Stair Assessment Index data as well as demographic and clinical data (sex, age, height, mass, amputation side, reason for amputation, time since amputation, and residual limb length) from 25 transfemoral amputees. RESULTS: Statistical analyses revealed that age was negatively correlated and time since amputation was positively correlated with Stair Assessment Index. In contrast, height, body mass, and residual limb lengths were not correlated with Stair Assessment Index. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that in unilateral transfemoral amputee, (1) both age and time since amputation could affect stair-climbing patterns and (2) residual limb length should not be a limiting factor for stair climbing if the transfemoral amputee has a certain minimum residual limb length. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Rehabilitation teams should carefully consider nonmodifiable predisposing factors such as age and time since amputation. However, they may be able to carry on stair-ascent rehabilitation for transfemoral amputees disregarding residual limb length (depending on the length).

Hobara H; Kobayashi Y; Tominaga S; Nakamura T; Yamasaki N; Ogata T

2013-06-01

190

Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol) contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ended in July 2008. The following 11 factors were taken into consideration during sample collection: olive fly infection, topography, olive storage before pressing, geographical area, effect of olive seeds during oil extraction, effect of pressing temperature, presence of olive leaves during oil extraction, soil type, maturity index of the olive fruit, olive variety and oil preservation and storage in terms of storage container types. The results show that soil type, region, maturity index and olive fly infection are the main factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol. Pressing temperature, olive storage before pressing, olive variety and oil storage showed a moderate effect. Olive seeds, topography and presence of olive leaves had a negligible effect on D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil.

K. Abu-Alruz; I.A. Afaneh; J.M. Quasem; M.A. Hmidat; J. Abbady; A.S. Mazahreh

2011-01-01

191

Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

Taylor D Robin; Mandhane Piush; Greene Justina M; Hancox Robert J; Filsell Sue; McLachlan Christene R; Williamson Avis J; Cowan Jan O; Smith Andrew D; Sears Malcolm R

2007-01-01

192

Factors affecting tube dwelling time after percutaneous nephrolithotomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about the impact of nephrostomy tubes on morbidity and quality of life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The tube dwelling time and the factors influencing it were determined in 165 patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). RESULTS: The mean tube dwelling time was 21+/-30 days. The duration of tube drainage after PCNL was 13+/-17 days. Most of this time was preoperative when the tube was inserted for urgent reasons--obstruction or sepsis (31+/-33 days). On multivariate analysis, the number of secondary PCNLs and postoperative complications were the most significant factors affecting tube dwelling time. Age correlated with intubation time but did not reach statistical significance (P < 0.09). Neither the stone's side and type nor the patient's sex had a significant influence. CONCLUSIONS: A significant factor affecting the duration of tube drainage is preoperative medical evaluation and patient preparation, and these steps should be completed expeditiously in order to minimize the time to PCNL. Completion of PCNL in one session should shorten the postoperative intubation time.

Kleinmann J; Siegel Y; Cipele H; Goren E; Zisman A; Leibovici D; Lindner A

2001-10-01

193

Recruitment and retention: factors that affect pericyte migration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pericytes are critical for vascular morphogenesis and contribute to several pathologies, including cancer development and progression. The mechanisms governing pericyte migration and differentiation are complex and have not been fully established. Current literature suggests that platelet-derived growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-?, sphingosine 1-phosphate/endothelial differentiation gene-1, angiopoietin-1/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, angiopoietin-2/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 1, transforming growth factor ?/activin receptor-like kinase 5, Semaphorin-3A/Neuropilin, and matrix metalloproteinase activity regulate the recruitment of pericytes to nascent vessels. Interestingly, many of these pathways are directly affected by secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). Here, we summarize the function of these factors in pericyte migration and discuss if and how SPARC might influence these activities and thus provide an additional layer of control for the recruitment of vascular support cells. Additionally, the consequences of targeted inhibition of pericytes in tumors and the current understanding of pericyte recruitment in pathological environments are discussed.

Aguilera KY; Brekken RA

2013-08-01

194

Factors affecting aromatic VOC removal by electron beam treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study has been conducted to investigate the effects of dose, humidity, and temperature on the decomposition of representative volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by electron beam irradiation. For this study, toluene--a commonly used VOC in the various industrial coating processes, was selected as a representative VOC. The degradation characteristics under different concentrations and irradiation doses were extensively investigated to determine and improve VOC removal efficiencies. In general, this study illustrates that the removal efficiencies of aromatic VOCs increase as their concentrations decrease and the irradiation doses increase. Addition of water vapor and/or aerosol moisture into the reactor of a flow system results in 10-20% increase in VOC removal efficiencies compared to the experiments run without moisture added, presumably due to OH radical formation leading to additional degradation pathways. The level of decomposition was higher with the addition of water vapor compared to those observed with added aerosol moisture. The temperature variations from 30 deg. C to 130 deg. C did not significantly affect the decomposition rates of the toluene compound at 160 ppm C. However, there was a significant decrease in toluene decomposition rate at a higher temperature of 170 deg. C.

Kim, J.-C. E-mail: jckim@white.dongshinu.ac.kr

2002-11-01

195

Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are commonly used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP). DEAP films are used in making actuators, generators and sensors. In the large scale manufacture of DEAP films, release of films from the substrate (carrier web) induces some defects and pre-strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities of perfluoroether allylamide (PFE) lowered the surface energy which could ease the release. This is further investigated together with an evaluation of the resulting change in actuator performance. The relationship between the adhesive energy, surface energy, Young’s modulus and peel force of the films is analyzed.

Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Junker, Michael Daniel

2013-01-01

196

Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y. [National University of Singapore, (Singapore)

2007-07-01

197

Factors affecting the interferon sensitivity of human cytomegalovirus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several factors affected the interferon sensitivity of human cytomegalovirus in human foreskin fibroblast cultures. An inoculum of infected cells was up to 300-fold less sensitive than a cell-free inoculum of equivalent input multiplicity. A 10-fold increase in the dose of infectious units of either type of inoculum was associated with a 10-fold or greater decrease in interferon sensitivity. Several aspects of the virus-cell interaction were examined and parameters indicative of cell infection were less inhibited by interferon than were those for virus replication. PMID:202571

Holmes, A R; Rasmussen, L; Merigan, T C

1978-01-01

198

Factors affecting the interferon sensitivity of human cytomegalovirus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several factors affected the interferon sensitivity of human cytomegalovirus in human foreskin fibroblast cultures. An inoculum of infected cells was up to 300-fold less sensitive than a cell-free inoculum of equivalent input multiplicity. A 10-fold increase in the dose of infectious units of either type of inoculum was associated with a 10-fold or greater decrease in interferon sensitivity. Several aspects of the virus-cell interaction were examined and parameters indicative of cell infection were less inhibited by interferon than were those for virus replication.

Holmes AR; Rasmussen L; Merigan TC

1978-01-01

199

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

1979-06-28

200

Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

1979-06-28

 
 
 
 
201

Chinese multinationals: how do institutional factors affect their location patterns?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of various host country institutional factors on the location patterns of 29 large Chinese multinationals. From a sample of 127 outward foreign direct investment (FDI) decisions made in 52 countries, our findings suggest that a greater difficulty in doing business and a high political risk in the host country do not discourage Chinese multinationals. However, the presence of overseas Chinese in the host country, a larger absolute host market size and a higher volume of Chinese exports to that country affect positively.

Diego Quer Ramón; Enrique Claver Cortés; Laura Rienda García

2011-01-01

202

Factors Affecting Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Performance and Reproducibility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of fuel cells is often based on small-scale laboratory studies. Due to limited time and budgets, a minimum number of cells are usually prepared and tested, thus, conclusions about improved performance are often drawn from studies of a few cells. Generally, statistics showing the significance of an effect are seldom reported. In this work a simple PEM fuel cell electrode optimization experiment is used as an example to illustrate the importance of statistical evaluation of factors affecting cell performance. The use of fractional factorial design of experiments to reduce the number of cells that have to be studied is also addressed.

Moller-Holst S.

1998-11-01

203

Factors Affecting the End-User Computing Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigate factors that are affecting the end-user computing of accounting information system satisfaction from financial managers' point of view. Our sample is selected from companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. This research is a descriptive - empirical field study. The required data is collected by sending out questionnaires to the financial managers of the sampled companies. Our findings indicate that, the information content, ease of using accounting information system, accuracy and correctness of information, format of the reports and timeliness of information have an impact on the end-user computing satisfaction.

Mohsen Dastgir; Ahmad S. Mortezaie

2012-01-01

204

Factors affecting public acceptance of wind turbines in Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind power is growing in Sweden, but the high-level of opposition to turbine proposals has meant that many proposals are never realised. This opposition in a country that has a measured 74% support for wind power leads to questions being raised as to what is causing this opposition. Many have suggested that it is due to prevalent NIMBY attitudes; this, however, is only one factor affecting the public acceptance of turbines. The over-riding factor is the spatial distance between the costs incurred and the benefits derived from wind power. Perceived need for wind power, level of participation, individual considerations of visual impact and the amount to which the local community benefits determine the realisation of turbine proposals. (author)

Devlin, E.

2005-12-15

205

A Study on Factors Affecting Turnover Intention of Hotel Empolyees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available his study used linear structural modeling to explore the factors affecting the turnover intention of hotel employees in Taiwan. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed to hotel employees. Among these, 350 were valid samples, a valid return rate of 87.50%. The empirical results showed that (1) more harmonious coworker relationships between hotel employees and a higher level of satisfaction regarding their work environment have a significantly positive effect on job satisfaction; (2) a higher level of organizational commitment among hotel employees has a significantly negative effect on turnover intention; (3) the direct effect of employee job satisfaction and salary level on turnover intention has not reached a significant level. Nevertheless, the two factors have indirect negative effects on turnover intention.

Chun-Chang Lee; Sheng-Hsiung Huang; Chen- Yi Zhao

2012-01-01

206

Extrinsic factors affecting accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters for LMFBRs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Assuming that ultrasonic flowmeters of suitable intrinsic accuracy are feasible, this report explores factors extrinsic to the flowmeter which affect the accuracy such as asymmetric flow profile, regions of high turbulence and thermal stratification. By integrating isovelocity flow profile maps, the predicted performance of various flowmeter configurations may be compared to experimental data. For the two pipe arrangements analyzed, the single diametral path flowmeter results were within 5 percent of true flow rate. Theoretical correction factors could reduce the error for the straight pipe but increased the error for asymmetrical flow. On the same pipe arrangements a four path ultrasonic flowmeter spaced for Gaussian integration gave less than 1 percent error. For more general conclusions a range of flow profiles produced by typical LMFBR piping arrangements must be analyzed

1976-01-01

207

Human Factor in State Internal Financial Control Efficiency Provision  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The place of the human factor, among other factors that affect the public internal financial control is outlined. The notion of "the human factor in the public internal financial control" and its components is specified. Problems of human development in the Public Internal Financial Control and directions to overcome them are generalized.

L. Dikan’; Ye. Deyneko

2011-01-01

208

An Efficient Watermarking Algorithm to Improve Payload and Robustness without Affecting Image Perceptual Quality  

CERN Multimedia

Capacity, Robustness, & Perceptual quality of watermark data are very important issues to be considered. A lot of research is going on to increase these parameters for watermarking of the digital images, as there is always a tradeoff among them. . In this paper an efficient watermarking algorithm to improve payload and robustness without affecting perceptual quality of image data based on DWT is discussed. The aim of the paper is to employ the nested watermarks in wavelet domain which increases the capacity and ultimately the robustness against attacks and selection of different scaling factor values for LL & HH bands and during embedding not to create the visible artifacts in the original image and therefore the original and watermarked image is similar.

Aggarwal, Er Deepak; Anantdeep, Er

2010-01-01

209

Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05) CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000): 497-502

Naile Bilgili; Sultan Ayaz

2009-01-01

210

11-year experience with gastroschisis: factors affecting mortality and morbidity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery, operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) related complications. The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined. FINDINGS: Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure) without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but not mortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section. CONCLUSION: In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

Erdo?an D; Az?l? MN; Cavu?o?lu YH; Tuncer IS; Karaman I; Karaman A; Ozgüner IF

2012-09-01

211

Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

Francis GA; Gallone A; Nychas GJ; Sofos JN; Colelli G; Amodio ML; Spano G

2012-01-01

212

11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality.Methods: Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively.Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery,operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) related complications.The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined.Findings: Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure) without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but notmortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section.Conclusion: In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

Derya Erdo?an; Müjdem Nur Az?l?; Yusuf Hakan Çavu?o?lu; ?lker SaA Tuncer; ?brahim Karaman; Ay?e Karaman; ?smet Faruk Özgüner

2012-01-01

213

11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality. Methods Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery, operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) related complications. The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined. Findings Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure) without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but not mortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section. Conclusion In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

Erdogan, Derya; Az?l?, Mujdem Nur; Cavusoglu, Yusuf Hakan; Tuncer, Ilker SaA; Karaman, Ibrahim; Karaman, Ayse; Ozguner, Ismet Faruk

2012-01-01

214

Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations.

Salewski V; Hochachka WM; Fiedler W

2013-01-01

215

Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations. PMID:23593131

Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

2013-04-08

216

Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

Hill, L.J.

1994-01-01

217

Factors affecting residual platelet aggregation in prasugrel treated patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Identification of factors affecting platelet reactivity (PR) and high PR (HPR) or high platelet inhibition (HPI) rates while on prasugrel maintenance dose (MD) might be helpful in avoiding ischemic or bleeding complications. We retrospectively analyzed all patients (n=233) treated in our institution between April 2010 and November 2012 who had platelet function assessment pre-prasugrel and following prasugrel 10 mg MD for at least 5 days, using the Verify Now P2Y12 platelet function assay. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were applied to identify independent factors affecting post-prasugrel PR level, HPR and HPI status. The amount of variance in PR under prasugrel MD that could be explained by the model was 25.9% (adjusted R(2)), p<0.001. Pre-prasugrel treatment PR, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), prasugrel loading and smoking uniquely accounted for 10.8%, 1.3%, 3.5% and 1.2% of the observed variance, respectively. HPR and HPI were observed in 7.7% and 13.7% of the cases, respectively. On multivariate analysis, pre-prasugrel PR in the upper quartile (>313 PRU) was the only independent factor associated with HPR under prasugrel MD. In contrast, pre-prasugrel PR in the lower quartile (<242 PRU) and prasugrel loading emerged as the only independent predictors of HPI. In patients under different clinical settings receiving prasugrel 10 mg MD a significant amount of the PR variability in response to prasugrel may be explained by pre- treatment PR level, ACS, prasugrel loading and smoking status. A high pre- treatment PR is associated with HPR, while a low pre-treatment PR and prasugrel loading predict HPI.

Alexopoulos D; Xanthopoulou I; Perperis A; Siapika A; Stavrou K; Tsoni E; Davlouros P; Hahalis G

2013-01-01

218

Geolocation by light: accuracy and precision affected by environmental factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. Geolocation by light allows for tracking animal movements, based on measurements of light intensity over time by a data-logging device (‘geolocator’). Recent developments of ultra-light devices (<2 g) broadened the range of target species and boosted the number of studies using geolocators. However, an inherent problem of geolocators is that any factor or process that changes the natural light intensity pattern also affects the positions calculated from these light patterns. Although the most important factors have been identified, estimation of their effect on the accuracy and precision of positions estimated has been lacking but is very important for the analyses and interpretation of geolocator data. 2. The ‘threshold method’ is mainly used to derive positions by defining sunrise and sunset times from the light intensity pattern for each recorded day. This method requires calibration: a predefined sun elevation angle for estimating latitude by fitting the recorded day / night lengthsto theoretical values across latitudes. Therewith, almost constant shading can be corrected for by finding the appropriate sun elevation angle. 3. Weather, topography and vegetation are the most important factors that influence light intensities. We demonstrated their effect on the measurement of day /night length, time of solar midnight /noon and the resulting position estimates using light measurements from stationary geolocators at known places and from geolocators mounted on birds. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of different calibration methods on the accuracy of the latitudinal positions. 4. All three environmental factors can influence the light intensity pattern significantly. Weather and an animal’s behaviour result in increased noise in positioning, whereas topography and vegetation result in systematic shading and biased positions. Calibration can significantly shift the estimated latitudes and potentially increase the accuracy, but detailed knowledge about the particular confounding factors and the behaviour of the studied animal is crucial for the choice of the most appropriate calibration method.

Lisovski, Simeon; Hewson, Chris M.

2012-01-01

219

Assessing psychological factors affecting medical conditions: comparison between different proposals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We compared the provisional Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for Somatic Symptom Disorders (SSD) and an alternative classification based on the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR) as to prevalence and associations with dimensional measures of psychological distress and functioning in a population of medical patients. METHOD: Seventy consecutive outpatients with congestive heart failure were administered an ad hoc structured clinical interview for the identification of DSM-5 SSD, the section concerning hypochondriasis of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Structured Interview for DCPR and Paykel's Clinical Interview for Depression. Subjects also completed the Symptom Questionnaire and the Psychosocial Index. Global assessment of functioning was performed with the DSM-IV Axis V. RESULTS: A diagnosis within DSM-5 SSD was found in 13 patients (18.5%): 61.5% of them were diagnosed with the Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition category. Twenty-nine patients (41.4%) were classified according to the DCPR-based proposal: illness denial, demoralization and irritable mood were the most frequent specifiers. The DCPR-based classification showed a greater number of significant associations with dimensional measures of psychological distress, global functioning and stress. CONCLUSION: Compared to DSM-5 SSD, the DCPR-based proposal was more sensitive in detecting psychological factors relevant to illness course and provided a better characterization of such factors. The DCPR-based proposal was also superior in identifying patients with increased psychological distress and poor psychosocial functioning.

Guidi J; Rafanelli C; Roncuzzi R; Sirri L; Fava GA

2013-03-01

220

Statistical appraisal of intrinsic factors affecting spontaneous combustion of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is concerned with the statistical prediction of the liability of coal to spontaneous combustion. The experimental data consisted of adiabatic oxidation test results on 47 different coals, together with the laboratory evaluation of intrinsic properties of individual coal samples. The measures of propensity of coal to spontaneous combustion were based on the initial rate of heating and total temperature rise in an adiabatic oxidation experiment. These parameters were statistically correlated with various intrinsic properties of coal to isolate the most important intrinsic factors affecting the spontaneous heating potential of coal. A multiple regression analysis between initial rate of heating and total temperature rise and thirteen independent variables have generated a set of equations to predict the liability of coal to spontaneous combustion. It is shown that the predictive equations derived by subdividing the data set according to rank classification can permit accurate prediction of temperature rise, thus evaluating the liability of coal to self-heating. The contribution made by various intrinsic factors to the self-heating potential of coal have also been evaluated by using isolated factor analysis techniques. 12 figs., 3 tabs., 4 refs.

Singh, R.N.; Demirbilek, S.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING EXCHANGE RATE VARIABILITY IN PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Paper examines/analyzed the factors contributing exchange rate vitality in Pakistan. The study was conducted on some major factors contributing to exchange rate volatility, and their relative importance. Annual data for the period 1975-2010 is used, taken from Economic Survey of Pakistan (various issues) and International Financial Statistics. The main variables used to check variability are inflation, Growth rate, imports and exports on exchange rate volatility. Simple Linear Regression model with ordinary least method (OLS) is used to analyze the results. The study revealed that inflation is the main factor affecting exchange rate in Pakistan. The study further show that the second important variable which bring more variation in exchange rate is economic growth, while order of export and import in variation lies at third and fourth position. Based on the finding of the study it is recommended to harmonize fiscal policies with monetary policy first and then make effective link of both these policies with trade policy.

ShabanaParveen; Abdul Qayyum Khan; Muammad Ismail

2012-01-01

222

Factors Affecting Software Cost Estimation in Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cost is the main driving factor for all projects. When it is done correctly, it helps in the successful completion of the project. In this research we have discussed various factors that affect the estimation procedure. These include team structure, team culture, managerial style, project type (Core application or integrated application), client’s working environment. Accurate estimation is far difficult in developing countries where most of the organizations follow local standards. These inaccurate estimations lead to late delivery, less profit or in worst case complete failure. Software requirement gathering, development, maintenance, quality assurance and cost of poor quality are major groups responsible for overall cost in software production process. The exact proportion among them varies significantly in consecutive software releases, which is caused by many factors. The ever increasing need for the reliability of the software systems, especially mission critical applications in the public safety domain, raises the bar for the accuracy of prediction and estimation techniques. The accuracy of estimations in many areas brings about more concerns regarding techniques already used in the software industry. Widely deployed techniques, such as Wideband Delphi method, stress the engineering and technical aspects of the process of how estimates are prepared.

Ali Javed; Mirza Ahsan Ullah; Aziz-ur-Rehman

2013-01-01

223

Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

Maurer M; Wolfram M; Anja H

2010-01-01

224

Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures. PMID:20595751

Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

2010-01-01

225

GATA factors efficiently direct cardiac fate from embryonic stem cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The GATA4 transcription factor is implicated in promoting cardiogenesis in combination with other factors, including TBX5, MEF2C and BAF60C. However, when expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), GATA4 was shown to promote endoderm, not cardiac mesoderm. The capacity of related GATA factors to promote cardiogenesis is untested. We found that expression of the highly related gene, Gata5, very efficiently promotes cardiomyocyte fate from murine ESCs. Gata5 directs development of beating sheets of cells that express cardiac troponin T and show a full range of action potential morphologies that are responsive to pharmacological stimulation. We discovered that by removing serum from the culture conditions, GATA4 and GATA6 are each also able to efficiently promote cardiogenesis in ESC derivatives, with some distinctions. Thus, GATA factors can function in ESC derivatives upstream of other cardiac transcription factors to direct the efficient generation of cardiomyocytes.

Turbendian HK; Gordillo M; Tsai SY; Lu J; Kang G; Liu TC; Tang A; Liu S; Fishman GI; Evans T

2013-04-01

226

Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7%) decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2%) students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%), 17 (11.8%), and 16 (11.1%) students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4%) of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8%) and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3%) were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065) more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002). Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

Rawan Al-Fouzan; Sarah Al-Ajlan; Yousef Marwan; Mervat Al-Saleh

2012-01-01

227

Factors affecting readmission for acute asthmatic attacks in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Readmission following acute asthmatic attack has an impact on children's quality of life and the cost of hospitalization. The objective of this study was to define the risk factors associated with readmission following acute asthmatic attacks in children. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study in children who were admitted because of acute asthmatic attacks at the Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. The admissions were classified into 2 groups, admission and readmission within one-month to one-year after the first admission. The medical records were reviewed and the factors that might affect readmission were evaluated. RESULTS: Seventy six children, 49 males and 27 females, were included. There were 56 children who were admitted only once and 20 children who were readmitted. The 1-year readmission rate for children with asthma was 26.3 %. The risk factors which made readmission more likely were a parental history of allergic disease (Odd Ratio, OR, = 3.17; 95% CI 1.10-9.10), a history of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission (OR 29.62; 95% CI 3.35-262.18), methylprednisolone usage during the 1st admission (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.46-28.19) and the level of asthma control. Increased risk of readmission was found in partly controlled asthma (OR 4.83; 95% CI 1.24-18.88) and uncontrolled asthma (OR 29; 95% CI 2.25-373.77). The factor that decreased the chances of readmission was a history of influenza vaccination (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.16-0.36). CONCLUSION: A history of ICU admission at the first admission and the level of asthma control (partly controlled and uncontrolled according to Global of Initiative for Asthma guideline) increased the chances of readmission while influenza vaccination reduced the chances of readmission.

Visitsunthorn N; Lilitwat W; Jirapongsananuruk O; Vichyanond P

2013-06-01

228

Factors affecting torque for a roller cone bit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several authors have presented theoretical bit torque relationships derived by equating the energy required to rotate a bit to the energy required to remove a unit volume of rock (energy balance concept). This approach has had little quantitative success in predicting bit torque because of difficulties in quantifying both the drilling efficiency and the specific energy of the rock under a given set of conditions. A torque relationship based on a force balance concept is presented to minimize the problems with the energybased relationships. The new torque relationship shows that for a given bit, the torque is determined largely by the applied weight on bit (WOB) and the depth of tooth penetration. The model is insensitive to moderate changes in factors such as bit hydraulics, fluid type, and formation type. Laboratory drilling tests and field data were used to confirm the validity of the new torque model.

Warren, T.M.

1984-09-01

229

Human papillomavirus vaccines: factors that affect vaccine knowledge and delivery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Although both vaccines are designed to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV2 and HPV4 have different indications. This study sought to determine HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge among providers and examine factors affecting HPV vaccine delivery. METHODS: An e-mail survey was sent to adolescent health care providers via listserv. RESULTS: Provider HPV vaccine knowledge level and number of providers offering vaccine to males (84%) were high. The ability of providers to correctly distinguish between the two vaccines was associated with years in practice, proportion of female patients, provider subspecialty status, and practicing in a hospital setting. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that adolescent medicine providers, in particular, are knowledgeable about HPV and HPV vaccines. They reported routinely offering HPV vaccine to male patients during the time before the recent change in recommendation for universal, routine HPV vaccination of males by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.

Holder NA; Katzenellenbogen R; Middleman AB

2013-09-01

230

Developing worksheet based on science process skills: Factors affecting solubility  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at Giresun University, Turkey. Action research methodology was used in this study. Thoughts from experts were received during the development of the worksheet. The study had some limitations in providing concrete evidence as to how the WS based on SPS effects the PST SPS, since the paper is a suggestion. For this reason, to investigate its effectiveness in a comparative manner, further research should be undertaken.

Fethiye KARSLI; Çi?dem ?AH?N

2009-01-01

231

Investigation of the Factors Affecting Real Exchange Rate in Iran  

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Full Text Available his paper intends to investigate the factors affecting the real exchange rate in Iran in the period of 1978-2008. In this part, the econometric methodology and vector autoregressive model that is known as VAR is used to investigate the effect of proper variables on the real exchange rate. The results of Johansson-Jousilious test confirmed co-integration between variables, and thus long-run equilibrium relationship was confirmed among proper variables. Overall, the impulse and response functions showed that the shocking of variables, oil price and volume of money flows, has a positive impact on the real exchange rate and put it above its permanent level in the whole period of study. The results of variance decomposition showed that the most effects belonged to oil price and then volume of money flow that in fact represents greater relative importance of these variables in comparison with other variables among all model variables.

Komeil Khanarinejad; Mostafa Goudarzi; Zahra Ardakani

2012-01-01

232

Investigation of the Factors Affecting Real Exchange Rate in Iran  

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Full Text Available This paper intends to investigate the factors affecting the real exchange rate in Iran in the period of 1978-2008. In this part, the econometric methodology and vector autoregressive model that is known as VAR is used to investigate the effect of proper variables on the real exchange rate. The results of Johansson-Jousilious test confirmed co-integration between variables, and thus long-run equilibrium relationship was confirmed among proper variables. Overall, the impulse and response functions showed that the shocking of variables, oil price and volume of money flows, has a positive impact on the real exchange rate and put it above its permanent level in the whole period of study. The results of variance decomposition showed that the most effects belonged to oil price and then volume of money flow that in fact represents greater relative importance of these variables in comparison with other variables among all model variables.

Mostafa Goudarzi; Komeil Khanarinejad; Zahra Ardakani

2012-01-01

233

FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA) are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography) equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ?2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ?30 mg.l-1; spermidine ?10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ?5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

Pavel Pleva; Leona Bu?ková; Andrea Lauková; Eva Lorencová; Vlastimil Kubá?; František Bu?ka

2012-01-01

234

SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively

Tarek FOUDA; Assad DERBALA; Mohamed GHONAME

2013-01-01

235

Factors Affecting Linear Type Traits of Valdostana Cattle  

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Full Text Available Four composite and 22 individual linear type traits, measured between 1997 and 2012 on 33,206 Aosta Red Pied (ARP) and 19,551 Aosta Black Pied and Aosta Chestnut (ABP-CN) strains of Valdostana cattle, were used to investigate the non-genetic factors affecting morphological evaluation. Average values for type traits ranged from 2.81 (teat placement rear view and foot angle) to 3.34 (thinness) for ARP, and from 2.48 (teat placement side view) to 3.67 (udder depth) for ABP-CN. Results from the ANOVA showed significant effect of herd-year-classifier on type traits of both ARPand ABP-CN, and of days in milk and age at calving for almost all traits, with few exceptions. The model used in this study is a useful starting point to calculate genetic parameters for Valdostana cattle.

Serena Mazza; Cristina Sartori; Donagh Berry; Roberto Mantovani

2013-01-01

236

Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire  

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In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

Sohail, Muhammad

2009-01-01

237

Factors Affecting Mortality in Endosulfan Ingestion With Suicidal Intent  

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Full Text Available Objective: Most pesticides containing Endosulfan have either been restricted or prohibited due to the fact that they remain active longer in nature, and have a long half-life and mid-level toxicity in the body. Acute or chronic exposure to Endosulfan, which may be life-threatening or at times fatal, has rarely been reported. Our aim was to analyze the affective factors of endosulfan toxicity on clinical findings and mortality cases.Materials and Methods: In the study, all patients who called upon the emergency service due to suicidal endosulfan ingestion were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-seven patients over the age of 15 years with definite proof that they used medicine containing an endosulfan substance were included into the study. Results: The average age of our patients was 26.56±13.6 years (15-68). The number of male patients was 10 (37.1%), while that of female patients was 17 (62.9%). There were 17 patients (62.9%) who presented with nausea and vomiting complaints, 12 (44.4%) patients with seizure, and 15 (55.5%) with loss of consciousness. The 5 patients who died had loss of consciousness and seizure, and required mechanical ventilation support during seizure and follow-up. In the surviving group, however, loss of consciousness was detected in 10 patients, seizure during follow-up in 5, and ventilation support was required in 5 patients. Conclusion: Loss of consciousness following suicidal endosulfan ingestion, seizure on arrival and/or during follow-up and need for mechanical ventilation support were the factors which affected mortality.

Murat Orak; Mehmet Üstünda?; Ayhan Özhasenekler; Yusuf Ali Altunc?; Cahfer Gülo?lu; Yusuf Tamam

2010-01-01

238

Factors Affecting Treatment Seeking Behaviour of Individuals with Locomotor Disabilities  

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Full Text Available Background: Among the different types of disabilities, the prevalence of locomotor disability is highest in the country. Quality of life and disability limitation is affected by the availability and utility of rehabilitative services. Thus knowledge of the treatment seeking behaviour will help in implementing successful intervention programmes. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional observation study was conducted in an urban slum of Mumbai. Total sample of 3665 individuals were screened. 205 were identified with loco motor disabilities who were subjected to a structured questionnaire. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months. The data was analysed using SPSS software (Version 17). 95 % confidence limits for prevalence was calculated to estimate the prevalence in the general population and Chi-square test was applied to identify the association between two variables. Results: The prevalence of loco motor disabilities is found to be 5.59 %. Females were more affected than the males.75% of the sample was unemployed and 49.3 % was illiterate. Utility of rehabilitative services was found to be poor (35.6%). 50.7 % of these were treated by General practitioners. Very few approached speciality rehabilitative services. Low literacy levels and poor awareness of rehabilitation facilities were the major factors affecting treatment seeking pattern of individuals with locomotor disability (p<0.001) Conclusion: Improving literacy rates, developing community based rehabilitation services and training medical under-graduates, creating awareness regarding the available facilities, will lead to greater utilization of rehabilitative services and thus early diagnosis and disability limitation. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000): 145-148

Padhyegurjar Mansi S; Padhyegurjar Shekhar B

2012-01-01

239

Factors affecting the valve movements in freshwater unionids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to avoid harmful conditions, freshwater unionids are able to close their valves and to resist extended long periods of complete anoxia. Xenobiotics and diverse abiotic and biotic factors can change the rhythm of valve movements and thus affect the accumulation of heavy metals in these bivalves. When bivalves are used a bioindicators in the field and when the accumulation of toxicants are studied under the laboratory conditions, the effects of valve movements and shell closure have to be involved. In this study, the authors have recorded valve movements of two different unionid species (Anodonta anatina, Unio tumidus) in the field and in the laboratory using a digital monitoring system. Several experimental arrangements were compared (caged mussels vs. sediment dwelling mussels, flow-through vials vs. static aquaria with and without sediment). Some parameters of the mussel hemolymph, such as electrolytes, gases and acid base status, were compared with the results on the valve activity (time with valves open, number of adductions). The natural valve activity of the two unionid species differed clearly. In the field, effects of transfer and caging were found, and in the laboratory, sediment and water flow changed their behavior. The level of the blood oxygen was most affected, whereas, the acid-base status and the concentrations of electrolytes were effectively regulated by the unionids. The correlation between valve movements and the hemolymph parameters was weaker than expected.

Pynnoenen, K.S.; Englund, V.P.M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

1994-12-31

240

Factors affecting the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes in palestine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although medical research has proven that breastfeeding is unparalleled in providing the ideal nutrition for infants, "the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes" is a little-known concept. This empirical study tackled the origin and definition of demarketing, examined the different factors affecting the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes in Palestine from the breastfeeding woman's point of view, and developed an appropriate model for the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes. The article subsequently concludes with recommendations for areas of further academic research in the World Health Assembly, for policy makers in Palestine, and for the breastfeeding women themselves. Subjects and METHODS: An empirical study was conducted to collect the primary data using a questionnaire as a tool in order to test the hypotheses. The questionnaire was distributed to 400 breastfeeding women who were randomly selected from the population. RESULTS: The findings proved that there is a relationship between independent variables (i.e., product, price, place, and promotion) and the dependent variable (i.e., demarketing of breastmilk substitutes) based on several reasons discussed thoroughly in this article. CONCLUSIONS: Product, price, place, and promotion affect the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes in Palestine.

Salem MZ

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

Institutional factors affecting DOE waste management and environmental restoration planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The magnitude and impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) waste management and environmental restoration program requires a drastic change in DOE's culture to include the participation of all levels of government, public forum representatives, and the public. Early in the process of developing a new, comprehensive five-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management, Secretary Watkins invited affected States, Indian Nations, and organizations of elected officials to form the State and Tribal Government Working Group to comment on two formulative drafts of the plan. Management Systems Laboratories of Virginia Tech was asked to help plan and facilitate two review sessions in the spring and summer of 1989, based on perception of impartiality, experience with similar groups, and active affiliations with State governments. A third session in the fall was devoted to reviewing the draft applied R D plan and guiding institutional factors affecting DOE's future: the need for ongoing, pervasive culture change; the need to display this change through truly cooperative planning; and the need to involve the regulatory community in the process of technology development so innovative solutions can be applied with the least possible delay.

Walker, J. A.; Middleman, L. I.

1990-01-01

242

Factors affecting the selection of tour destination in Bangladesh:  

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Full Text Available Although multifaceted problems are causing the frustrating scenario of the country’s tourism sector, Bangladesh has the potentials to develop its tourism sector and earn huge foreign currency and generate employment opportunities like the neighboring countries, such as India, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Nepal who attract substantial number of tourists every year and thus generates huge amount of foreign currencies. The paper looks at different preferences of the tourist and examines the tour intention in selecting different tour destination. The study utilizes both exploratory and empirical research approach. The study collects data through interview with a structured self-administered questionnaire from 146 tourists, in utilizing convenient sampling technique. A multiple regression model was estimated to examine the effects of different factors on the tourists tour intention where nine factors related to different aspects of tourism such as service quality, natural beauty, known destination, convenient lodging, adventure, security, effective and efficient transportation, safe and quality food and shopping facility were used as indigenous variables where tour intention was used as exogenous variable of the model.  The regression result shows that Service quality, Natural Beauty, Security and Shopping Facility are statistically significant indicating 24.6% of the variation in explaining the intention to select a tour destination in Bangladesh. The study outlines some policy implications.

Md. Shah Azam

2010-01-01

243

[Introduction of preventive measures toward contact infection without affecting the efficiency of the outpatient blood collection].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At the University of Tokyo Hospital, an average of 956 venopunctures/day was performed for outpatients in the period between 2008 and 2011. At the outpatient clinic, the collection of blood without delay, and the prevention of contact infection, are always important matters to be addressed. For the prevention of infection, changing gloves, and wiping of tables and tourniquets with antiseptic cotton, for each patient has been performed since August 2010. Because the time required for each blood collection was prolonged about 19 sec., after the introduction of these preventive measures, we analyzed the factors which affected the waiting time at the blood collection room. The waiting time required for the blood collection between period of August and October, 2010, i.e., after the introduction of the preventive measures, was analyzed and compared with that between August and October, 2009, as the control. After the implementation of the preventive measures, the percentage of patients with waiting time of blood collection shorter than 10 min decreased from 73% to 58%. Thus, to improve the efficiency of blood collection and shorten the collection time, one collection booth was added, and the blood collection procedure was standardized. Also, the number of outpatients waiting for phlebotomy and the number of available phlebotomists are automatically transferred from the computer system for blood collection to the laboratory computer system, which, based on these data, displays an alert for the need of additional phlebotomists, when required. By the implementation of these measures, the percentage of patients with waiting time shorter than 10 min increased from 73% to 83%. From the present results, we considered that the preventive measures against contact infection could be successfully implemented, without affecting on the waiting time, and consequently, efficient management at the outpatient clinic could be achieved.

Sone S; Yokota H; Takahashi K; Yatomi Y

2012-09-01

244

Environmental factors affecting methyl mercury accumulation in zooplankton  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship between environmental factors and methyl mercury accumulation in filter-feeding macrozooplankton was investigated in an effort to obtain an integrated measure of the bioavailability of methyl mercury in the water column. Since macrozooplankton are an important food source for fish, the factors that affect their bioaccumulation of mercury are directly relevant to the contamination of fish. Methyl mercury accumulation in zooplankton collected from 24 lakes in south-central Ontario ranged from 19 to 448 ng.g dry mass{sup -}1{sup ,} and was highest in acidic brown-water lakes. Water color and pH were found to be the best predictors of methyl mercury levels, being positively correlated with water color and inversely correlated with pH. There was a positive correlation with drainage ratio and per cent wetland in the catchment. Zooplankton methyl mercury levels were also well correlated with mercury concentrations in smallmouth bass and largemouth bass, confirming that zooplankton is a good indicator of mercury bioavailability at the base of the food chain. 67 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

Westcott, K.; Kaiff, J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1996-10-01

245

Spatial factors affecting statistical power in testing marine fauna displacement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Impacts of offshore wind farms on marine fauna are largely unknown. Therefore, one commonly adheres to the precautionary principle, which states that one shall take action to avoid potentially damaging impacts on marine ecosystems, even when full scientific certainty is lacking. We implement this principle by means of a statistical power analysis including spatial factors. Implementation is based on geostatistical simulations, accommodating for zero-inflation in species data. We investigate scenarios in which an impact assessment still has to be carried out. Our results show that the environmental conditions at the time of the survey is the most influential factor on power. This is followed by survey effort and species abundance in the reference situation. Spatial dependence in species numbers at local scales affects power, but its effect is smaller for the scenarios investigated. Our findings can be used to improve effectiveness of the economical investment for monitoring surveys. In addition, unnecessary extra survey effort, and related costs, can be avoided when spatial dependence in species abundance is present and no improvement on power is achieved.

Pérez Lapeña B; Wijnberg KM; Stein A; Hulscher SJ

2011-10-01

246

Evaluation of hydraulic factors affecting flow accelerated corrosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is known as a complex phenomena of hydraulics and electro-chemicals. Essential mechanism of the hydraulic factors affecting FAC is the mass transfer of ferrous ions dissolved from the pipe surface. To predict the FAC rate in susceptible pipe elements, evaluation of the mass transfer in those geometry with eccentric flow is required. For this purpose, new model of mass transfer coefficient was proposed by combining knowledges of previous studies and consideration of local turbulent velocity. In this process, Chilton-Colburn analogy of heat and mass transfer and Blasius' friction factor were referred to. To validate the model, FAC experiment and flow numerical calculation were conducted. In the experiment, carbon steel test specimens were set in the downstream of a flow contraction in small rectangular flow ducts, and FAC rate profiles on the specimens were observed in PWR condensate condition. In the calculation, flow field for the experiment was calculated with the in-house code 'MATIS-I' utilizing LES turbulence model, and mean and turbulent velocity profiles on the specimen's surface were evaluated. By comparing these results, the new mass transfer coefficient showed good correlation with the local FAC rate, and the effect of introducing the turbulent velocity to the model was confirmed. (author)

2009-10-02

247

Factors Affecting Forest Area Changes in Cambodia: An Econometric Approach  

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Full Text Available Clarifying factors affecting forest area changes is critical to implementing REDD+ scheme properly. We analyzed some socio-economic factors and clarified their relationships with deforestation in Cambodia for the period of 2002 to 2010. A panel data analysis was conducted for 18 provinces, while six other provinces were deleted from the list because only a small amount of their land was forested. Time effects, cross-sectional dependence, serial correlation in idiosyncratic errors, and heteroskedasticity were tested, and robust variance matrix estimations were obtained to solve the problems of heteroskedasticity and serial correlation. The model estimation results showed that population, gross agricultural production and large-scale plantation development have negative impacts on forest area changes. On the other hand, the impacts of rice cultivation, gross industrial production, household income and house floor area by household were found not to be significant. Overall, however, the results indicated that forests in Cambodia still face pressure from the increases in population, agriculture production, and the enlargement of land development. As the increase in productivity of agriculture gives a better use of current agricultural land and lessens the pressure on forest, intensifying agriculture is important. It is also important to develop industry and other economic ventures to grow national economy while not imposing pressure on forest. This research reminds decision makers to use discretion when developing large-scale plantations.

Tetsuya Michinaka; Motoe Miyamoto; Yasuhiro Yokota; Heng Sokh; Sethaphal Lao; Vuthy Ma

2013-01-01

248

[Exploring factors affecting meaning of life perceptions among ESRD elders].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The number of patient with end stage renal disease (ESRD) has been growing in Taiwan. Nearly 50% of ESRD sufferers are 65 years of age or older. The disease as well as issues related to patient physiology, psychology, and spiritual well-being are worth taking seriously. While research into this topic area has been conducted, most studies addressed issues in the physiological and psychological dimensions. Studies addressing the domain of spiritual well-being remain inadequate. The purpose of this study was to explore factors affecting meaning of life perceptions in ESRD elders. METHODS: Using a descriptive-correlation research approach, we employed purposive sampling to collect data from 80 ESRD elders currently under the care of a hemodialysis center in southern Taiwan. Research instruments used included a demographic questionnaire and Meaning in Life Scale. Data were analysed using SPSS 12.0 software. RESULTS: Findings showed that ESRD elders had relatively low meaning in life scores compared to the overall ESRD population in Taiwan. Influencing factors included education level, socio-economic status, and level of participation in leisure activities. CONCLUSION: Study findings may provide health professionals a better understanding of meaning of life perceptions amongst elders with ESRD, and, as a result, help them target better spiritual care and supportive interventions.

Hsieh LY; Lin SY

2009-10-01

249

Factors Affecting Participation in Population-Based Mammography Screening  

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Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to investigate the demographic or risk factors affecting participation in a population-based breast screening with mammography program in a rural area of Turkey.Patients and Methods: This definitive epidemiological study was carried out between December 2002 and August 2003, in a town of Ankara. Of the 784 women, 710 were interviewed and 462 (58.9%) of them participated in the screening. A questionnaire was used for collecting data.Results: The mean age of the women was 50.7±10.0 years. Fifty four percent of the single, widowed or divorced women (p=0.001), 62.5% of those aged 60 years or older (p<0.001), and 42.8% of the illiterate or literate women (p<0.001) did not participate the screening. Women, who were elder had a 1.1-fold greater risk of nonparticipation in mammography screening than younger ones (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.09), and those who were postmenopausal had 1.5-fold greater risk than those who were premenopausal (95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.22).Conclusion: Age, marital, educational and menopausal statuses seem to be effective on participation in the population-based study. Screening programs should be planned considering these factors.

Is?l MARAL

2010-01-01

250

Multivariate analysis of factors affecting survival in pelvic exenteration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Of 153 patients with primary or recurrent pelvic malignancy referred for consideration of exenteration, only 40.6% (62 patients) were found to be suitable for exenteration after full assessment. Thirty percent (46 patients) were found to be inoperable on examination under anesthesia. Of the remaining 107 patients, 33% (35 patients) were found to be inoperable at laparotomy, 9% (10 patients) underwent radical hysterectomy and 58% (62 patients) had an exenterative procedure. One patient had no active disease found on final histologic review of the exenteration surgical specimen and was excluded, as the aim of this study was to look at the prognostic factors affecting survival. There remained 61 patients in the exenteration group who were analyzed. The 2-year survival rate was less than 2% for patients with inoperable disease, 48% for patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and 54.1% for patients who underwent exenteration. The 5-year survival rate for all patients undergoing exenteration for pelvic malignancies was 44% and that for cervical cancer only was 52%. Multivariate analysis of patients who had undergone exenteration showed four significantly poor prognostic factors influencing survival. They were: (a) aged older than 69 years, (b) recurrence of the tumor within 3 years, (c) persistent recurrence, and (d) positive resection margins.

Shepherd JH; Ngan HY; Neven P; Fryatt I; Woodhouse CR; Hendry WF

1994-11-01

251

Intrinsic factors that affect amino acid geochronology: protein diagenesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Use of alloisoleucine/isoleucine ratios as a geochronological tool has been the basis of many stratigraphic studies of the Quaternary. In a number of these studies, the amino acid dates have been remarkably good, allowing chronologies to be established and sequences checked, at least in limited geographic locations. However, in other studies the variability and scatter of dates have obscured or confounded interpretation of the geochronology. A number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors may contribute to this variability. One intrinsic factor may be the varying rates of epimerization and breakdown of the many proteins within the shell matrix of the organism that is being analyzed; the shell matrix of planktonic foraminifera contains at least two classes, or types, of proteins and up to 40 protein components. Individual proteins differ in stability based on differences of structure. This stability will have direct ramifications on racemization rates. Traditionally, amino acid ratios have been analyzed from the remnants of the total organic material of shells, such as mollusk or planktonic foraminifera. To examine how the diagenetic breakdown of specific proteins may affect allisoleucine/isoleucine ratios of the total organic matrix, different classes of proteins from fossil planktonic foraminifera were analyzed and compared. Although planktonic foraminifera were used as a model system, the molluscan shell is analogous.

Robbins, L.L.

1989-03-01

252

Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future.

Kim, Chang Ho; Jeong, Won Mee [Inha Hospital, Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seung Hum; Lee Sun Hee [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Tae Yong [Yuhan College, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-02-01

253

Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future.

1997-01-01

254

Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the material. After exposure, the detectors were subjected to a chemical etching process. The detectors were washed, dried and after that, the tracks caused by alpha particle were counted using an optical Olympus microscope at magnification 600X. Using the track density produced the parameters like radon diffusion coefficients and diffusion lengths through these building construction materials have been calculated in each case under study. The results of present investigations provide better insight into the selection of building construction materials capable of controlling the indoor radon levels. (author)

2011-01-01

255

Charging-discharging system with high power factor, high efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents equipment for charging and discharging with high power factor and high efficiency. This equipment is consisted of 3{Phi} SPWM AC/DC converter for improving input current waveform and input power factor, and bidirectional DC/DC converter for electric isolation in the DC link Part. Therefore, Input power factor and the total efficiency in the proposed system can be increased more than in the conventional phase-controlled thyristor charging-discharging System. (author). 7 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

Kim, Eun Soo; Joe, Kee Yeon; Byun, Young Bok; Koo, Heun Hoi [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

1995-07-01

256

Identifying the Factors Affecting the Participation of Agricultural Cooperatives' Members  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: 40-year history of agricultural production cooperatives in the country shows that this type of exploitation system has faced many ups and downs during this period. First, despite the help and support by the government, the cooperative sector has not been able to play a major role in the development of the country and its share has not exceeded 3% of development program. The main aim of this study is identifying the factors affecting the participation of Shirvan-Chardavol township?s agricultural cooperatives? members. Approach: This casual comparative applied research which uses survey method for data accumulation, is of Quasi-experimental research type because of impossibility of controlling the research variables. A researcher-made questionnair was used as the main tool for gathering data. The face and content validity of the questionnaire were confirmed by a group of university professors and cooperative experts; also the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed through calculating the Kronbach alfa coefficient (a = 0.80). Results: The statistical society of the research included 751 active members of Shirvan-Chardavol township?s agricultural cooperatives, among which 260 people were selected for the study using classified proportional random sampling method and with the aid of Morgan sample-volume table. Data processing was performed using SPSS estatistial software, as well as descriptive estatistics (central and inferential indexes) and analytical estatistics (correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis). Conclusion: The correlation coefficient results show that there is significant relationship between the variables like age, background history of membership in cooperatives, the members? agricultural land areas, annual income of the members, socio-cultural features, economical features, educational-extensional features, managerial factors, psychological features, political factors and communicational-informational factors from the one hand and the dependent variable of agricultural cooperatives? members? level of participation from the other. The multiple regression analysis results showed that variables like political, economic, managerial and social factors have positive effect on the dependent variable of agricultural cooperatives? members? participation, describing 65% of the changes of the mentioned dependent variable.

Bagher Arayesh

2011-01-01

257

Factors affecting the outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY QUESTION: Which clinical and laboratory factors affect live birth rate (LBR) after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Top quality embryo characteristics, endometrial preparation protocol, number of embryos transferred and BMI affected independently the LBR in FET. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FET is an important part of present-day IVF/ICSI treatment. There is limited understanding of the factors affecting success rates after FET. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This is a two-centre retrospective cohort study. Analysis was carried out on 1972 consecutive FET cycles in 1998-2007, with embryos frozen on Day 2. The primary outcome was LBR per cycle. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We assessed the independent effect on LBR of the following variables: female age, female age at embryo freezing, BMI, diagnosis, primary versus secondary infertility, fertilization by IVF versus ICSI, pregnancy in the fresh cycle, type (spontaneous, spontaneous with luteal progesterone and estrogen/progesterone substitution) and rank of the FET cycle, as well as number and presence (yes versus no) of top quality embryo(s) at freezing, thawing and transfer, damaged thawed embryos and overnight culture. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In 78% of the cycles with top quality embryos frozen (n = 1319), at least one embryo still had high-quality morphology after thawing. Top quality embryo morphology observed at any stage of culture improved the outcome even if high-quality characteristics disappeared before transfer. LBRs after the transfer of a top quality embryo were similar in the FET (24.9%) and fresh cycles of the same period (21.9%). The chance of live birth increased significantly if ?1 top quality embryo was present at freezing (odds ratio (OR) 1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-3.14), at thawing (OR 1.93, CI 1.20-3.11) or at transfer (OR 3.41, CI 2.12-5.48). Compared with spontaneous cycles with luteal support, purely spontaneous cycles (OR 0.58, CI 0.40-0.84) and hormonally substituted FET (OR 0.47, CI 0.32-0.69) diminished the odds of pregnancy. BMI (OR 0.96, CI 0.92-0.99) and transfer of two embryos versus one (OR 1.45, CI 1.08-1.94) were other factors that improved LBR after FET. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The sample sizes available in some subanalyses were small, limiting the power of the study. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The presence of ?1 top quality embryo at any step of the freezing and thawing process increases the chance of pregnancy. The data do not support the freezing of all embryos for transfer in order to improve the outcome. A top quality embryo transferred in FET may even have the same potential as in a fresh cycle. On the contrary, LBR in the group with no top quality embryos frozen was quite low (10.4%), raising the question of whether a re-evaluation of freezing criteria is necessary to avoid costly treatments with a low success rate. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The Sigrid Jusélius Foundation, the Academy of Finland, Oulu University Hospital. No conflict of interest to declare.

Veleva Z; Orava M; Nuojua-Huttunen S; Tapanainen JS; Martikainen H

2013-09-01

258

Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

Pyo, Katrina A.

259

Analysis of factors affecting ventriculoperitoneal shunt survival in pediatric patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Management of hydrocephalus with insertion of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is associated with significant complications in both adult and pediatric patients. These may be more common in developing countries due to poor economic conditions and a dearth of available resources. We report a 6 years' experience with VP shunt insertion in pediatric patients from a developing country, focusing particularly on factors affecting shunt failure. METHODS: Patients aged below 15 years, who had undergone insertion of VP shunts for hydrocephalus during the years 2006 to 2011, were included. A retrospective analysis of shunt survival was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Logrank (Cox-Mantel) test. RESULTS: Among the total 113 patients, the most common etiologies of hydrocephalus were congenital hydrocephalus (19.5 %), brain tumors (14.2 %), and postcranial surgery (13.3 %). Overall shunt failure at a mean follow-up of 11 months was 23 % with the median time to first shunt failure being 68 days. Shunt survival was worse in patients with meningitis (p?=?0.024), aqueductal stenosis (p?=?0.008), postcranial surgery hydrocephalus (p?=?0.006), Caesarean mode of delivery (p?=?0.036), congenital abnormalities (p?=?0.031), and a past history of surgical excision of mass lesion (p?=?0.044).Frequency of shunt failure was also significantly affected by the location of brain tumor (p?=?0.015) and prematurity (p?=?0.015). CONCLUSION: Premature infants still have a higher rate of shunt failure. Patients with meningitis, aqueductal stenosis, postcranial surgery hydrocephalus, congenital abnormalities, and a past history of surgical excision of mass lesion may have early shunt failure. However, the frequency of shunt failure that we observed (23 %) was much lower than that quoted earlier in the literature and this may be a consequence of rigorous periodic evaluation of patients with VP shunt in situ.

Khan F; Shamim MS; Rehman A; Bari ME

2013-05-01

260

Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD).Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years) participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29).Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs) pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001), but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL), disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.

Azin Ayatollahi; Mohammad Reza Mohajeri-Tehrani; Shahriar Nafissi

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Psychological factors affecting response to antidepressant drugs in fibromyalgia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The use of antidepressant drugs in fibromyalgia is extensive despite small evidence of the real impact in the clinical practice setting. This study was aimed to evaluate the long-term efficiency of antidepressant treatment in fibromyalgia and the role of psychosocial factors in treatment response. METHODS: A total of 102 consecutive patients with fibromyalgia from primary health care centers were studied with psychopathological and psychological assessment interviews and questionnaires. Sustained release venlafaxine was added to previous treatments in flexible doses from 150 to 300 mg daily for a 6-month period. Efficacy measures included the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale (patient and clinician versions) and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) score reduction. RESULTS: At 6 months, 48% patients were considered responders to treatment (CGI change score 1 or 2) and 23.5% had a mild response. Of note, 57.8% had less fatigue and 31.4% had less pain. The proportion of responders was greater in the group with major depression (65%) than in those without depression (45%), but the difference did not reach statistical significance. However, the reduction of FIQ scores was significantly greater in depressed (21.1; IQR: 1.4-42.0) than in non-depressed patients (41.4; IQR: 23.6-52.6) (P<0.05). FIQ score reduction was significantly smaller in patients taking concomitant opiate treatment (P<0.01) and in patients seeking incapacitation (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Antidepressant treatment in fibromyalgia was effective in patients with and without major depression, but the functional response was greater in depressed patients. Treatment response to antidepressants might be significantly influenced by attitudinal and psychosocial factors of the disease.

Díaz-Marsá M; Palomares N; Morón MD; Tajima K; Fuentes ME; López-Ibor JJ; Carrasco JL

2011-05-01

262

Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojection are investigated: (1) image uniformity (flood) corrections, (2) image sampling (pixel size) and (3) count allocation methods. An analytic expression for uniformity correction is developed that incorporates factors for spatial-dependent detector sensitivity and geometric effects from acceptance angle limits on coincidence events. There is good agreement between experimental floods from a PEM system with a pixellated detector and numerical simulations. The analytic uniformity corrections are successfully applied to image reconstruction of compressed breast phantoms and reduce the necessity for flood scans at different image planes. Experimental and simulated compressed breast phantom studies show that lesion contrast is improved when the image pixel size is half of, rather than equal to, the detector pixel size, though this occurs at the expense of some additional image noise. In PEM reconstruction counts usually are allocated to the pixel in the image plane intersected by the line of response (LOR) between the centers of the detection pixels. An alternate count allocation method is investigated that distributes counts to image pixels in proportion to the area of the tube of response (TOR) connecting the detection pixels that they overlay in the image plane. This TOR method eliminates some image artifacts that occur with the LOR method and increases tumor signal-to-noise ratios at the expense of a slight decrease in tumor contrast. Analysis of image uniformity, image sampling and count allocation methods in PEM image reconstruction points to ways of improving image formation. Further work is required to optimize image reconstruction parameters for particular detection or quantitation tasks.

2001-01-01

263

Factors affecting the adoption of quality assurance technologies in healthcare.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: In the light of public concern and of strong policy emphasis on quality and safety in the nursing care of patients in hospital settings, this paper aims to focus on the factors affecting the adoption of innovative quality assurance technologies. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Two sets of complementary literature were mined for key themes. Next, new empirical insights were sought. Data gathering was conducted in three phases. The first involved contact with NHS Technology Hubs and other institutions which had insights into leading centres in quality assurance technologies. The second phase was a series of telephone interviews with lead nurses in those hospitals which were identified in the first phase as comprising the leading centres. The third phase comprised a series of face to face interviews with innovators and adopters of healthcare quality assurance technologies in five hospital trusts. FINDINGS: There were three main sets of findings. First, despite the strong policy push and the templates established at national level, there were significant variations in the nature and robustness of the quality assurance toolkits that were developed, adapted and adopted. Second, in most of the adopting cases there were important obstacles to the full adoption of the toolkits that were designed. Third, the extent and nature of the ambition of the developers varied dramatically - some wished to see their work impacting widely across the health service; others had a number of different reasons for wanting to restrict the impact of their work. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The general concerns about front-line care and the various inquiries into care quality failures emphasise the need for improved and consistent care quality assurance methodologies and practice. The technology adoption literature gives only partial insight into the nature of the challenges; this paper offers specific insights into the factors inhibiting the full adoption of quality assurance technologies in ward-based care.

Storey J

2013-01-01

264

Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojection are investigated: (1) image uniformity (flood) corrections, (2) image sampling (pixel size) and (3) count allocation methods. An analytic expression for uniformity correction is developed that incorporates factors for spatial-dependent detector sensitivity and geometric effects from acceptance angle limits on coincidence events. There is good agreement between experimental floods from a PEM system with a pixellated detector and numerical simulations. The analytic uniformity corrections are successfully applied to image reconstruction of compressed breast phantoms and reduce the necessity for flood scans at different image planes. Experimental and simulated compressed breast phantom studies show that lesion contrast is improved when the image pixel size is half of, rather than equal to, the detector pixel size, though this occurs at the expense of some additional image noise. In PEM reconstruction counts usually are allocated to the pixel in the image plane intersected by the line of response (LOR) between the centers of the detection pixels. An alternate count allocation method is investigated that distributes counts to image pixels in proportion to the area of the tube of response (TOR) connecting the detection pixels that they overlay in the image plane. This TOR method eliminates some image artifacts that occur with the LOR method and increases tumor signal-to-noise ratios at the expense of a slight decrease in tumor contrast. Analysis of image uniformity, image sampling and count allocation methods in PEM image reconstruction points to ways of improving image formation. Further work is required to optimize image reconstruction parameters for particular detection or quantitation tasks.

Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Andrew G. Weisenberger; Douglas A. Kieper; Raymond R. Raylman; Timothy G. Turkington

2001-11-01

265

Factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine in water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the major factors affecting sonolytic degradation of sulfamethazine (SMT), a typical pharmaceutically active compound, in water were evaluated. The factors tested included two operational parameters (i.e. initial SMT concentration and ultrasonic power), three dissolved gases (i.e. Ar, O2 and N2), five most frequently found anions in water (NO3(-),Cl(-),SO4(2-),HCO3(-)andBr(-)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and four alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol). Typically, the degradation rate was increased with the increasing initial SMT concentration and power. The degradation rate was accelerated in the presence of argon or oxygen, but inhibited by nitrogen. Effects of anions on the ultrasonic treatment were species-dependent. The SMT degradation rate was slightly inhibited by NO3(-),Cl(-),and,SO4(2-) but significantly improved by HCO3(-)andBr(-). The negative effects of alcohols acted as hydroxyl radicals scavengers with the following order: tert-butyl alcohol>isopropyl alcohol>ethanol>methanol. The synergetic effect of ferrous ion was mainly due to production of additional hydroxyl radicals (·OH) through Fenton chemistry. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that the degradation of SMT by ultrasonic irradiation is mainly ascribed to ·OH oxidation. Of interest, although the SMT could be rapidly degraded by ultrasonic irradiation, the degradation products were rarely mineralized. For example, ~100% of 180 ?M SMT was decomposed, but only 8.31% TOC was reduced, within 2h at an irradiation frequency of 800 kHz and a power of 100 W. However, the products became much biodegradable (BOD5/COD was increased from 0.04 to 0.45). Therefore, an aerobic biological treatment may be an appropriate post-treatment to further decompose the SMT degradation products.

Gao YQ; Gao NY; Deng Y; Gu JS; Gu YL; Zhang D

2013-11-01

266

Factors affecting length of stay in the pediatric emergency department.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A large volume of visits can cause an emergency department (ED) to become overcrowded, resulting in a longer length of stay (LOS). The objective of this study was to analyze factors affecting the LOS in the pediatric ED. METHODS: Records of all visits to the pediatric ED of the study hospital, from July 1, 2006 to June 31, 2007, were retrospectively retrieved. Data were collected from the hospital's computerized records system. Eta-squared correlation ratio and Cramer's V test evaluated the associations between variables. Two-thirds of the database was randomized for the classification and regression tree (CART) model-building dataset, and one-third was used for the validation dataset. RESULTS: A total of 29,035 patients visited the pediatric ED during the evaluation period. Of the total visits, 61.1% were due to complaints of fever. The mean LOS was 2.6 ± 4.67 hours, and 74.3% of visits had an LOS of shorter than 2 hours. The CART analysis selected five factors (waiting time for hospitalization, laboratory tests, door-to-physician time, gastrointestinal symptoms, and patient outcome) to produce a total of nine subgroups of patients. The mean LOS of the model-building dataset closely correlated with that of the validation dataset (r(2) = 0.999). CONCLUSION: Patients who were waiting for hospitalization for less than 8 hours or were not admitted, those without any laboratory tests, those having door-to-physician time less than 60 minutes, and those without any gastrointestinal symptoms had the shortest LOS. Patients who waited for hospitalization for more than 16 hours had the longest LOS.

Li ST; Chiu NC; Kung WC; Chen JC

2013-06-01

267

Factors affecting orthodontists' management of the retention phase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: To test the null hypothesis that orthodontist characteristics and factors related to retainer choice do not influence the management of the retention phase with regard to frequency and duration of follow-up care provided. Materials and Methods: Orthodontists (n ?=? 1000) were randomly selected to participate in an online survey divided into three categories: background, retainer choice, and time management. Results: Of the 1000 selected participants, 894 responded. When deciding the type of retainer to use, the following were considered most frequently: pretreatment malocclusion (91%), patient compliance (87%), patient oral hygiene (84%), and patients' desires (81%). Orthodontists who considered the presence of third molars (P ?=? .03) or "special needs" patients (P ?=? .02) had significantly more follow-up visits than those who did not. When vacuum-formed retainers (VFRs) were prescribed, there were significantly fewer visits (P ?=? .02) compared to when other types of retainers were used. As practitioner experience increased, so did the number of visits (P < .0001). Orthodontists who considered the primary responsibility of retention to fall on the patient had significantly fewer follow-up visits (P < .0001) than those who considered it either a joint or orthodontist-only responsibility. Conclusions: The null hypothesis was rejected because the number of follow-up visits during the retention phase was affected by practitioner experience, whether VFRs were used, whether the orthodontist considered the presence of third molars or special-needs patients when choosing the type of retainer, and to whom the orthodontist attributed responsibility during the retention phase.

Bibona K; Shroff B; Best AM; Lindauer SJ

2013-08-01

268

Factors affecting the motivation of smokers to quit smoking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available smoking. Success of smoking cessation depends mainly on the balance between motivation and the degree of nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the motivation of smokers to stop smoking. Method: Data were collected from 139 smokers, aged 18-69 divided in two groups. Questionnaires were completed about the demographic data, smoking history, anthropometric characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, motivation degree and alcohol consumption. Results: Body Mass Index was positively correlated with the dependence degree and heavy smoking, while those who were overweight in adolescence showed a lower degree of motivation for smoking cessation. Individuals with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption, those who smoked in their working environment and were heavier smokers needed greater motivation. The low degree of dependence was associated with a lower degree of motivation, while those who showed medium dependence were moderately motivated. Conclusions: Health care professionals should take into account all the above components with the aim of motivating smokers to stop smoking.

Mplouchou P.; Goudouva E.; Apostolidou E.; Gourgoulianis K.; Chatzoglou C.

2011-01-01

269

Factors affecting the erosion resistance of weld overlays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research was conducted to study factors affecting the solid particle erosion resistance of weld overlay coatings. Eleven weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process and erosion tested at 400 C. Erosion resistance was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. Ultimet, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings showed the best erosion resistance at 30 and 90{degree} impact angles. Microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples below the erosion surface to determine the size of the plastically deformed zone and it was found that one group of coatings deformed plastically as a result of the particle impact while the others did not. No correlations were found between average microhardness at 400 C and volumetric erosion rates for plastically deformed weld overlays. For this group of overlays erosion resistance was correlated to the area under the curve of microhardness versus distance from the eroded surface. The physical significance of this parameter is discussed. For coatings that did not deform plastically, an increase in average microhardness at 400 C led to an increase in their volumetric erosion rates. The possible erosion mechanisms for these coating groups are discussed.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

270

Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

2013-10-01

271

Factors affecting oligomerization status of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.  

Science.gov (United States)

UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) is involved in the production of UDP-glucose, a key precursor to polysaccharide synthesis in all organisms. UGPase activity has recently been proposed to be regulated by oligomerization, with monomer as the active species. In the present study, we investigated factors affecting oligomerization status of the enzyme, using purified recombinant barley UGPase. Incubation of wild-type (wt) UGPase with phosphate or Tris buffers promoted oligomerization, whereas Mops and Hepes completely dissociated the oligomers to monomers (the active form). Similar buffer effects were observed for KK127-128LL and C99S mutants of UGPase; however, the buffers had a relatively small effect on the oligomerization status of the LIV135-137NIN mutant, impaired in deoligomerization ability and showing only 6-9% activity of the wt. Buffer composition had no effect on UGPase activity at UGPase protein concentrations below ca. 20 ng/ml. However, at higher protein concentration the activity in Tris, but not Mops nor Hepes, underestimated the amount of the enzyme. The data suggest that oligomerization status of UGPase can be controlled by subtle changes in an immediate environment (buffers) and by protein dilution. The evidence is discussed in relation to our recent model of UGPase structure/function, and with respect to earlier reports on the oligomeric integrity/activity of UGPases from eukaryotic tissues. PMID:16289256

Kleczkowski, Leszek A; Martz, Françoise; Wilczynska, Malgorzata

2005-11-11

272

Factors affecting oligomerization status of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) is involved in the production of UDP-glucose, a key precursor to polysaccharide synthesis in all organisms. UGPase activity has recently been proposed to be regulated by oligomerization, with monomer as the active species. In the present study, we investigated factors affecting oligomerization status of the enzyme, using purified recombinant barley UGPase. Incubation of wild-type (wt) UGPase with phosphate or Tris buffers promoted oligomerization, whereas Mops and Hepes completely dissociated the oligomers to monomers (the active form). Similar buffer effects were observed for KK127-128LL and C99S mutants of UGPase; however, the buffers had a relatively small effect on the oligomerization status of the LIV135-137NIN mutant, impaired in deoligomerization ability and showing only 6-9% activity of the wt. Buffer composition had no effect on UGPase activity at UGPase protein concentrations below ca. 20 ng/ml. However, at higher protein concentration the activity in Tris, but not Mops nor Hepes, underestimated the amount of the enzyme. The data suggest that oligomerization status of UGPase can be controlled by subtle changes in an immediate environment (buffers) and by protein dilution. The evidence is discussed in relation to our recent model of UGPase structure/function, and with respect to earlier reports on the oligomeric integrity/activity of UGPases from eukaryotic tissues.

Kleczkowski LA; Martz F; Wilczynska M

2005-12-01

273

FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF COBAMIDE COENZYMES IN CLOSTRIDIUM TETANOMORPHUM.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Toohey, J. I. (University of California, Berkeley), and H. A. Barker. Factors affecting the formation of cobamide coenzymes in Clostridium tetanomorphum. J. Bacteriol. 87:504-509. 1964.-Tests were carried out to determine the optimal culture conditions for the production of cobamide coenzymes in Clostridium tetanomorphum strain H1. A method is described for carrying out coenzyme determinations on the cells from 10-ml cultures of the bacterium. In a basal medium containing magnesium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate, sodium molybdate, calcium chloride, and potassium phosphate, the optimal concentration of monosodium glutamate was 0.1 m and of yeast extract was 3 g per liter. Addition of glucose at a concentration of 0.05 m was found to double the yield of cells and to increase tenfold the specific coenzyme yield. Addition of cobaltous chloride (2 x 10(-5)m) also increased coenzyme production. Addition of benzimidazole caused an apparent increase in coenzyme production by causing the synthesis of the highly active benzimidazole analogue. Addition of methionine (5 x 10(-6)m) appeared to inhibit coenzyme production.

TOOHEY JI; BARKER HA

1964-03-01

274

Factors affecting precipitation of vancomycin and ceftazidime on intravitreal injection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that affect the precipitation of vancomycin and ceftazidime which are currently used in intravitreal injections for infectious endophthalmitis. METHODS: The minimum concentration required for precipitation of the 2 antibiotics was estimated by 2-fold dilution. In addition, the amount of the precipitate that formed was measured at 4, 3, 2, and 1?mL volumes, temperatures (37°C or 4°C), and in different medias (balanced salt solution plus and normal saline). RESULTS: When 2-fold serial dilutions of vancomycin and ceftazidime were mixed, precipitates started forming at a concentration of 12.5?mg/mL for ceftazidime and 10?mg/mL for vancomycin. The precipitation of vancomycin and ceftazidime increased at lower temperatures (4°C) and lower media volumes (1?mL). However, using a micropipette with a complete mixed media and an antibiotic (vancomycin or ceftazidime) prevented the formation of a precipitate when the other antibiotic was added. CONCLUSION: The formation of a precipitate associated with intravitreal injections was correlated with the diffusion rate of the antibiotics in the media. Precipitation increased at lower temperatures, lower media volumes, and at higher antibiotic concentrations.

Park I; Lee SJ

2013-02-01

275

Factors affecting medication adherence in patients with hypertension.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study descriptive study was to evaluate concordance with medication and those factors that affect the use of medicine in patients with hypertension. Data were collected using a questionnaire completed by 750 patients with hypertension between December 25, 2003, and April 30, 2004, in an outpatient hypertension clinic in Erzincan, Turkey. It was found that 57.9% of the patients did not use their medicines as prescribed. Forgetfulness, aloneness, and negligence were ranked as the top three reasons for this non-concordance, accounting for almost half (49.3%) of all patients with hypertension studied; price (expensive medicines) accounted for another quarter (26.5%). A statistically significant relationship with non-concordance was found for age, education level and profession. Patients' lack of knowledge related to the complications of hypertension was also found to have a statistically significant relationship with not taking medicines as prescribed. Gender, location of residence and salary were not found to be statistically related to concordance. These results indicate the need to educate patients with hypertension on how to use their medicine regularly and indicate also the target populations for this. PMID:23127428

Karakurt, Papatya; Ka?ikçi, Ma?firet

2012-12-01

276

Chordoma: review of clinico radiological features and factors affecting survival  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study reviews the clinico radiological features of cranial and sacrospinal chordomas and identifies factors affecting survival. Nineteen patients seen between January 1980 and December 2000 with histopathological diagnosis of chordomas were retrospectively reviewed with reference to clinical presentation, imaging features, treatment modalities and post-therapy status. Eight had tumours in the skull base while 11 patients had spinal and sacro-coccygeal lesions. Surgical resection was performed in 16 patients whose subsequent natural history was used to identify clinical indicators that may influence survival. Completeness of resection, age, gender and postoperative irradiation were subjected to analysis using the Cox proportional hazard models. Kaplan-Meir survival curves illustrate the survival distributions. Diplopia and facial pain are prime clinical presentations in cranial lesions, while extremity weakness and a sacrogluteal mass are common complaints in the sacrospinal group. Lesional calcifications are present in 40% while an osteolytic soft tissue mass is detectable by CT in all cases. Heterogeneous signals and internal septations on T2-weighted MRI are predominant features. In sacrospinal tumours, complete excision with adjuvant radiotherapy achieves the best results with a disease-free survival of more than 5 years. The clinical and imaging findings in this study are in accordance with those of other series. Except for complete surgical excision followed by radiotherapy in the subset of patients with sacrospinal tumours, none of the other clinical indicators show a statistical significant influence on survival. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

2001-01-01

277

Smoking prevalence in military men, and factors affecting this.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to determine smoking prevalence among noncommissioned officers and privates and the factors affecting it. This study was carried out in a division of 20,000 soldiers. One of every 10 names on the roster was chosen at random. Responses were received from 1,822 subjects (91.1%), all male, in the final month of their 18-month military service with a mean age of 20.3 +/- 2.2 years. Individuals performing their military service were surveyed using a self-administered, anonymous, personal, and voluntary questionnaire. It was determined that 1,160 (63.7%) of the participants were smokers: 180 (9.9%) were occasional smokers, and 980 (53.8) were heavy smokers. For the fathers of the participants, these rates were 15.4% and 40.5%, respectively. The frequency of smoking was found to be higher in subjects who had high incomes, who had high levels of education, whose fathers smoked, and who were raised in environments in which there were many smokers. It was determined that 31.4% of subjects had begun smoking within the previous 2 years during their period of military service.

Tekbas F; Vaizo?lu SA; Guleç M; Hasde M; Güler C

2002-09-01

278

Non-auditory factors affecting urban soundscape evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception.

Jeon JY; Lee PJ; Hong JY; Cabrera D

2011-12-01

279

Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS) on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels), artificial insemination stud (4 levels) and sire of bull (137 levels). All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

Mara Battagin; Mauro Penasa; Martino Cassandro

2012-01-01

280

Efficient Algorithms for Factorization and Join of Blades  

Science.gov (United States)

Subspaces are powerful tools for modeling geometry. In geometric algebra, they are represented using blades and constructed using the outer product. Producing the actual geometrical intersection (meet) and union (join) of subspaces, rather than the simplified linearizations often used in Grassmann-Cayley algebra, requires efficient algorithms when blades are represented as a sum of basis blades. We present an efficient blade factorization algorithm and use it to produce implementations of the join that are approximately 10 times faster than earlier algorithms.

Fontijne, Daniel; Dorst, Leo

 
 
 
 
281

Factores grupales que inciden en la productividad/ Group factors affecting productivity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las organizaciones en la actualidad están sometidas permanentemente a cambios acelerados, obligándolas a incrementar su flexibilidad y adaptabilidad para mantener su posición competitiva, sobrevivir a estas presiones lograr sus objetivos y ser más productivas. Por estas razones, la productividad del factor humano es fundamental, ya que son las personas las que realizan los procesos creativos que generan resultados en las organizaciones. Cuando las personas interactúa (more) n en la organización se generan unos procesos de carácter psicosocial que incide en el desempeño de individuos, grupos y organización y se denominan Factores grupales, porque son producto de la actuación de las personas en grupos de trabajo. Dichos factores tienen impacto en la productividad, por lo que resulta de interés el estudio de estas relaciones. Con el fin de analizar este impacto, se presenta relaciones Factores Grupales-Productividad, mediante un Modelo de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM), donde los Factores Grupales y la Productividad son constructos o variables latentes explicadas por variables observables o indicadores. El modelo planteado, es aceptado de acuerdo con los índices globales de ajuste y a las cargas factoriales de las variables del modelo resultante. Se corroboró que los factores grupales, tales como Cohesión, Conflicto, Consenso y Moral, inciden en la productividad. Abstract in english Organizations today are undergoing rapid change permanently, forcing them to increase their flexibility and adaptability to stay competitive, to survive these pressures, achieve their goals and be more productive. For these reasons, the productivity of the human factor is critical because it is the people doing the creative processes those results in organizations. When people interact in the organization are a generated psychosocial process that affects the performance o (more) f individuals, groups and organization and are called group factors, because they are the product of individual behavior in work groups. These factors have an impact on productivity, so it is interesting to study these relationships. To analyze this impact is presented group factors-productivity relationships through a Structural Equation Model (SEM), where the group factors and productivity are constructs or latent variables explained by observable variables or indicators. The proposed model is accepted in accordance with the global fit indices and factor loadings of the variables of the resulting model. It was confirmed that the group factors, such as Cohesion, Conflict, Consensus and Moral affect productivity.

Mirza Marvel, Cequea; Núñez Bottini, Miguel; Rodríguez-Monroy, Carlos

2011-12-01

282

Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129

Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

2013-01-01

283

Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas.

Jie Y; Isa ZM; Jie X; Ju ZL; Ismail NH

2013-01-01

284

Factors Affecting Perceptual Threshold in Argus II Retinal Prosthesis Subjects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The Argus II epiretinal prosthesis has been developed to provide partial restoration of vision to subjects blinded from outer retinal degenerative disease. Participants were surgically implanted with the system in the United States and Europe in a single arm, prospective, multicenter clinical trial. The purpose of this investigation was to determine which factors affect electrical thresholds in order to inform surgical placement of the device. METHODS: Electrode-retina and electrode-fovea distances were determined using SD-OCT and fundus photography, respectively. Perceptual threshold to electrical stimulation of electrodes was measured using custom developed software, in which current amplitude was varied until the threshold was found. Full field stimulus light threshold was measured using the Espion D-FST test. Relationships between electrical threshold and these three explanatory variables (electrode-retina distance, electrode-fovea distance, and monocular light threshold) were quantified using regression. RESULTS: Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between electrical threshold and electrode-retina distance (R (2) = 0.50, P = 0.0002; n = 703 electrodes). 90.3% of electrodes in contact with the macula (n = 207) elicited percepts at charge densities less than 1 mC/cm(2)/phase. These threshold data also correlated well with ganglion cell density profile (P = 0.03). A weaker, but still significant, inverse correlation was found between light threshold and electrical threshold (R (2) < 0.52, P = 0.01). Multivariate modeling indicated that electrode-retina distance and light threshold are highly predictive of electrode threshold (R (2) = 0.87; P < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that while light threshold should be used to inform patient selection, macular contact of the array is paramount. TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: Reported Argus II clinical study results are in good agreement with prior in vitro and in vivo studies, and support the development of higher-density systems that employ smaller diameter electrodes. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00407602).

Ahuja AK; Yeoh J; Dorn JD; Caspi A; Wuyyuru V; McMahon MJ; Humayun MS; Greenberg RJ; Dacruz L

2013-04-01

285

Efficient determination of Q factor by structured nonorthogonal FDTD method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A structured nonorthogonal finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method incorporating existing perturbation techniques is used to determine the Q factor of an arbitrary three-dimensional cavity resonator. The new scheme combines the efficiency of the Cartesian mesh with the accuracy of the conformal ...

Hao, Y; Railton, CJ

286

Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper analyzes energy efficiencies of 29 administrative regions in China for the period 1995-2002 with a newly introduced index. Most existing studies of regional productivity and efficiency neglect energy inputs. We use the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to find the target energy input of each region in China at each particular year. The index of total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) then divides the target energy input by the actual energy input. In our DEA model, labor, capital stock, energy consumption, and total sown area of farm crops used as a proxy of biomass energy are the four inputs and real GDP is the single output. The conventional energy productivity ratio regarded as a partial-factor energy efficiency index is computed for comparison in contrast to TFEE; our index is found fitting better to the real case. According to the TFEE index rankings, the central area of China has the worst energy efficiency and its total adjustmentof energy consumption amount is over half of China's total. Regional TFEE in China generally improved during the research period except for the western area. A U-shape relation between the area's TFEE and per capita income in the areas of China is found, confirming the scenario that energy efficiency eventually improves with economic growth

2006-01-01

287

Factors affecting the absorption of hydrogen by zircaloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A proton model has been employed to calculate how the elements Sn, Fe, Cr and Ni in Zircaloy affect the absorption of hydrogen compared with in zirconium. It is found that Fe, Cr and Ni reduce the absorption of hydrogen by almost equal amounts per atom added, whereas Sn has little or no affect on the absorption. (orig.)

1979-03-09

288

Factors Affecting Students' Choice of Science and Engineering in Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper presents the results of a study undertaken in Portugal to determine the influence of different factors on students' (n=499) decisions to study or refuse to study in one of the physical sciences or engineering. Some influencing factors are related to what goes on in school and during science lessons, and other factors are related to the…

de Almeida, Maria Jose B. M.; Leite, Maria Salete S. C. P.; Woolnough, Brian E.

289

AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING CREDIT MARKET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigate through an econometric approach the credit market and the factors that interact with it. The current research is beyond the minor aspects of the behavior and determinants of credit market in Romania and our concerns go to macroeconomic factors, consumption, investments and capital market. Results demonstrate a relationship between complex factors such as monetary policy and the credit market.

CRISTIAN-FLORIN DANANAU

2012-01-01

290

Factors affecting contact-angle measurement of reservoir rocks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Much attention has been devoted to the study of the improved oil recovery (IOR) method(s). However, it still remains a challenge to evaluate the reservoir wettability quantitatively using actual core samples. Contact angle is considered as one of the most common methods to measure the preferential affinity of reservoir rocks. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the influence of droplet volume, brine salinity, liquid saturated rocks, oil acid number, and temperature on rock wettability of carbonate reservoir rock using sessile droplet method. Sixteen runs were undertaken using oil droplet volumes of 10, 15, 20, and 25 ml with different brine salinities of zero, 50,000, 100,000, and 150,000 ppm of NaCl, respectively. This has been done to study the effect of droplet volume and salinity on contact angle. In three runs, different crude oils having acid numbers of 0.374, 0.561, and 0.986 mg KOH/g samples were performed to investigate the influence of acid number on the contact angle. Three runs were carried out using brine, crude oil, and polymer solutions to study the effect of liquid-type saturated rock on contact angle. Finally, two runs were used to study the effect of temperature on contact angle. In all experiments, actual rock and crude oil samples were used. Results indicated that there is a specific droplet volume attained at critical water salinity. This critical water salinity is defined as the salinity at which the oil droplet volume has no effect on contact angle. Rock wettability decreases below the critical salinity and increases above it, depending on the droplet volume. The attained results indicate that liquid saturated rock has an important role on measured values of contact angle. Results also show that an increase in acid number of the crude oil decreases the contact angle. Therefore, carbonate oil reservoirs containing oils of low acid number are expected to be more oil-wet than that ones containing oils of higher acid number. The increase of temperature and bath liquid viscosity reduced the measured contact angle.The results of this study developed a new concept of critical salinity and provided better understanding of some factors affecting wettability measurements using contact-angle technique.

Shedid, Shedid A.; Ghannam, Mamdouh T. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, College of Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17555, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

2004-11-15

291

Factors affecting European badger (Meles meles) capture numbers in one county in Ireland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding factors affecting the number of badgers captured at and around badger setts (burrows) is of considerable applied importance. These factors could be used to estimate probable badger densities for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control and also for monitoring badger populations from a conservation perspective. Furthermore, badger management and vaccination programs would benefit by increasing the probability of efficiently capturing the target badger populations. Within this context, it was investigated whether badger capture numbers can be estimated from field signs and previous capture histories. Badger capture records (initial and repeated capture numbers at a sett) from a large-scale removal program (405 km(2), 643 setts) were used. Univariable count models indicated that there were a number of significant potential predictors of badger numbers, during initial capture attempts. Using a multivariable zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model of initial captures we found that badger capture numbers were significantly affected by sett type, season, year, and the number of sett entrances in active use. Badger capture numbers were also affected by the total previous catch during repeated capture events and by the number of previous capture attempts. There was a significant negative trend in badger captures across events. Measures of the ability of these models to estimate badger captures suggested that the models might be useful in estimating badger numbers across a population; however the confidence intervals associated with these predictions were large.

Byrne AW; O'Keeffe J; Sleeman DP; Davenport J; Martin SW

2013-04-01

292

Compositional Factors Affecting Weldability of Extruded Aluminum Alloys,  

Science.gov (United States)

The weldability of extruded aluminum alloys is examined in terms of five different properties including ease of welding, propensity for porosity formation, hot tearing susceptibility, joint efficiency, and corrosion resistance. The relation between compos...

C. E. Cross D. L. Olson

1988-01-01

293

Control and manipulation of factors affecting small ruminant reproductive performance in tropical conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In tropical areas, reproductive efficiency in small ruminants is affected by various factors, including season, rainfall, male effect, nutritional state or corporal condition (CC) and physiological factors such as post-partum interval, milk production, lactational stages and suckling. Animals with good CC show early puberty, shorter anoestrous periods and better response to male effect and synchronized treatment than animals with low CC; reproductive efficiency is increased by 33% in sheep with CC over 2 (on a scale of 0 to 5) and lambing is 20% lower in the dry than in the rainy season. These data suggest that seasonal sexual inhibition is not too deep in a tropical environment. The response to male effect is good in the different seasons but in animals with low CC this effect is not enough to compensate for the negative influence of undernutrition. Hormonal treatments are effective if animals have adequate CC but the cost is too high. In animals with low CC these treatments must be combined with nutritional flushing. Male introduction at the beginning or 48 h before the end of treatment improves efficiency. Oestrus-ovulation dissociation is observed in tropical sheep after hormonal synchronization and male introduction (9.3%); this is higher in animals with low CC (11.9 vs. 6.8%). Embryo mortality in synchronized goats was affected by nutritional state, being twice as frequent in goats with low CC (26.3 vs. 11.5%). In tropical conditions, appropriate use of male effect and CC can improve reproductive performance by strategic programming of breeding and parturition during the season with better conditions and pasture availability. (author). 35 refs, 8 tabs

1991-01-01

294

Factors affecting absorption, transport, and form of plutonium in plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The absorption of Pu by plants was related primarily to differences in soil properties and to the presence of natural and synthetic organic ligands that partially stabilized Pu against hydrolysis in soil. Plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) were also affected by a series of secondary processes related to plant growth rate and production of biomass. The valence state of Pu added to soil did not affect CR values due to reduction of Pu(VI) to Pu(IV). The Pu was transported in plant xylem fluid to aerial leaf tissue as Pu(IV) organic acid complexes. Variables affecting the chemical form of Pu in plants after uptake included plant age, plant species, and the presence of nutrient elements (especially Fe, Zn, and Cu) that competed for reaction sites on plant organic ligands. Test plants used were alfalfa, peas, soybeans, squash, and bushbeans.

1987-01-01

295

Fuel-mix, fuel efficiency, and transport demand affect prospects for biofuels in northern Europe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rising greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the road transport sector represents a difficult mitigation challenge due to a multitude of intricate factors, namely the dependency on liquid energy carriers and infrastructure lock-in. For this reason, low-carbon renewable energy carriers, particularly second generation biofuels, are often seen as a prominent candidate for realizing reduced emissions and lowered oil dependency over the medium- and long-term horizons. However, the overarching question is whether advanced biofuels can be an environmentally effective mitigation strategy in the face of increasing consumption and resource constraints. Here we develop both biofuel production and road transport consumption scenarios for northern Europe-a region with a vast surplus of forest bioenergy resources-to assess the potential role that forest-based biofuels may play over the medium- and long-term time horizons using an environmentally extended, multiregion input-output model. Through scenarios, we explore how evolving vehicle technologies and consumption patterns will affect the mitigation opportunities afforded by any future supply of forest biofuels. We find that in a scenario involving ambitious biofuel targets, the size of the GHG mitigation wedge attributed to the market supply of biofuels is severely reduced under business-as-usual growth in consumption in the road transport sector. Our results indicate that climate policies targeting the road transport sector which give high emphases to reducing demand (volume), accelerating the deployment of more fuel-efficient vehicles, and promoting altered consumption patterns (structure) can be significantly more effective than those with single emphasis on expanded biofuel supply.

Bright RM; Strømman AH

2010-04-01

296

ACCURACY OF PESTICIDE REFERENCE STANDARD SOLUTIONS. PART I. FACTORS AFFECTING ORGANIC SOLVENT EVAPORATION  

Science.gov (United States)

A gravimetric experiment was undertaken to identify the factors affecting solvent evaporation from analytical reference standard solutions and to establish the magnitude of the resultant solvent evaporation. The evaporation of organic solvent from standard solutions is affected b...

297

Factors and pharmaceuticals that affect the radiopharmaceuticals bio distributions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The pattern of biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals may be affected by various agents and therapeutical procedures, chemotherapy agents, thyroid hormones, metals, radiotherapy, surgery, anesthetic agents, dialysis other radiopharmaceutical interactions. Recommendations for the detection of altered biodistribution in patients by causes not directly related with the pathology itself was given. pathology itself was given

1994-07-01

298

Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan-how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan

2008-01-01

299

Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan - how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan. (author)

Honma, Satoshi [Faculty of Economics, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8503 (Japan); Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)

2008-02-15

300

Factors Affecting the Reporting of Sexual Harassment in the Navy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Only a small fraction of Navy members who experience sexual harassment use the Navy's formal grievance channels to report it. This study was conducted to identify factors associated with reporting of sexual harassment and with the filing of formal sexual ...

S. Booth-Kewley

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

[The Factors which Affect the Neurological Condition in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The factors which were related to the neurological condition were analyzed in 233 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Bivariate analysis and multiple(binomial)logistic regression analysis were performed as for Hunt & Kosnik grade, modified Rankin Scale at discharge and modified Rankin Scale in the out-patient department to detect the factors which were related to the neurological condition. Hematoma-filled intraventricular hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage with midline shift, acute subdural hematoma and aneurysm of the vertebrobasilar system were the representative factors which caused poor neurological condition. Hunt & Kosnik grade was poor when rebleeding occurred or hematoma was formed in the sylvian fissure. Hunt & Kosnik grade and modified Rankin Scale at discharge tended to be poor in the cases with acute hydrocephalus. The elevation of intracranial pressure was the major factor in neurological deterioration.

Oyama H; Wada K; Kito A; Maki H; Noda T

2013-10-01

302

Factors Affecting Malaysian Mobile Banking Adoption: An Empirical Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This empirical study aims to investigate the factors that influence Malaysians’ intention to adopt mobile banking by extending the renowned framework of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A self-administrated questionnaire had been developed and distributed in Malaysia. Out of the 400 questionnaires, only 175 usable questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 43.75 percent. Results were subsequently analyzed by using multiple regression and factor analysis. Factors such as perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), relative advantages (RA) and personal innovativeness (PI) were found positively related with theintention to adopt mobile banking services. However, social norms (SN) were the only factor found insignificant. As expected, perceived risks (PR) was negatively associated with the mobile banking adoption. The research findings provide several important implications for banks, service developers, and software engineer with better strategic insights to design and implement mobile banking services to yield higher consumer acceptance towards mobile banking in Malaysia.

Ching Mun Cheah; Aik Chuan Teo; Jia Jia Sim; Kam Hoe Oon; Boon In Tan

2011-01-01

303

Altering SARS coronavirus frameshift efficiency affects genomic and subgenomic RNA production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In previous studies, differences in the amount of genomic and subgenomic RNA produced by coronaviruses with mutations in the programmed ribosomal frameshift signal of ORF1a/b were observed. It was not clear if these differences were due to changes in genomic sequence, the protein sequence or the frequency of frameshifting. Here, viruses with synonymous codon changes are shown to produce different ratios of genomic and subgenomic RNA. These findings demonstrate that the protein sequence is not the primary cause of altered genomic and subgenomic RNA production. The synonymous codon changes affect both the structure of the frameshift signal and frameshifting efficiency. Small differences in frameshifting efficiency result in dramatic differences in genomic RNA production and TCID50 suggesting that the frameshifting frequency must stay above a certain threshold for optimal virus production. The data suggest that either the RNA sequence or the ratio of viral proteins resulting from different levels of frameshifting affects viral replication.

Plant EP; Sims AC; Baric RS; Dinman JD; Taylor DR

2013-01-01

304

Soil factors affecting tree growth on former opencast coal land  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growth of three tree species (Alnus glutinosa, Betula spp. and Quercus spp.) was related to soil factors on two restored opencast coal sites in South Wales, UK. The main factors favouring tree growth were greater soil depth and organic content. Factors limiting growth included poor site drainage and high magnesium levels. Whilst all species were related to most of the above factors, soil depth was of particular importance for Alnus glutinosa and Betula spp., whilst site drainage had the greatest influence for Betula spp. Soil-tree associations tended to be closer on the older of the two sites. Combinations of soil depth, percentage clay and percentage organic content in a multiple regression predicted around 40% of the growth variation in Alnus glutinosa, between 6.9 and 32% of that for Betula spp. and between 14.5 and 32.6% of that for Quercus spp. Growth prediction for Betula spp. improved to 40.9 and 34.8% when a site drainage factor was included in the regression. The development of such predictive relationships might contribute to the planning of site reinstatement for tree planting after opencast mining, and to a better `matching` of tree species to site characteristics.

Scullion, J.; Malinovszky, K.M. [University of Wales, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom). Inst. of Biological Sciences, Soil Science Unit

1995-12-01

305

Discrimination, Affect, and Cancer Risk Factors among African Americans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether stress or depressive symptoms mediated associations between perceived discrimination and multiple modifiable behavioral risk factors for cancer among 1363 African American adults. METHODS: Nonparametric bootstrapping procedures, adjusted for sociodemographics, were used to assess mediation. RESULTS: Stress and depressive symptoms each mediated associations between discrimination and current smoking, and discrimination and the total number of behavioral risk factors for cancer. Depressive symptoms also mediated the association between discrimination and overweight/obesity (p values < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Discrimination may influence certain behavioral risk factors for cancer through heightened levels of stress and depressive symptoms. Interventions to reduce cancer risk may need to address experiences of discrimination, as well as the stress and depression they engender.

Cuevas AG; Reitzel LR; Adams CE; Cao Y; Nguyen N; Wetter DW; Watkins KL; Regan SD; McNeill LH

2014-01-01

306

FACTORS AFFECTING THE OUTCOME OF OOCYTE DONATION CYCLES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The success of oocyte donation is influenced by multiple factors. We performed a retrospective analysis to evaluate prognostic factors in oocyte donation cycles. The main outcome measurements including recipient age, donor age, estradiol level in midcycle, the day of transfer and number of transferred embryos were not different in pregnant and non pregnant groups. Endometrial pattern but not endometrial thickness was useful in predicting pregnancy outcome. Clinical pregnancy rates were not different relative to etiology of infertility. Clinical pregnancy rates in poor responders and patients with ovarian failure were 23.8% and 26.7%, respectively. Clinical pregnancy rate for zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) and rapid ZIFT was 31% vs 11.1% for uterine embryo transfer.Predictive factors for pregnancy in oocyte donation cycle were endometrial pattern and route of transfer (ZIFT and rapid ZIFT).

L. Safdarian; S. Peyvandi

2005-01-01

307

Total-factor energy productivity growth, technical progress, and efficiency change: An empirical study of China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article introduces total-factor energy productivity change index (TFEPI) based on the concept of total-factor energy efficiency and the Luenberger productivity index to evaluate the energy productivity change of regions in China with a total-factor framework. Moreover, the TFEPI can be decomposed into change in energy efficiency and shift in the energy use technology. According to the computation results, China's energy productivity was decreasing by 1.4% per year during 2000-2004. The average total-factor energy efficiency improves about 0.6% per year, while total-factor energy technical change declines progressively 2% annually. The factors affecting TFEPI are also examined: (1) The east area has a higher TFEPI than the central and west area; (2) increasing the development status and electricity share of energy consumption will improve the region's TFEPI performance, while increasing the proportion of GDP generated by the secondary industry deteriorates TFEPI of a region. (author)

Chang, Tzu-Pu; Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)

2010-10-15

308

Factors affecting subjective memory complaints in the AIBL aging study: biomarkers, memory, affect, and age.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in the diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer's type is unclear. While some studies have found an association between SMCs and cognitive decline, many have found a stronger association with depression, which raises questions about their diagnostic utility. METHODS: We examined the cross-sectional association between SMC severity (as measured using the MAC-Q, a brief SMC questionnaire) and affect, memory, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers (?-amyloid deposition and the apolipoprotein E ?4 (APOE?4) allele) in healthy elderly controls (HC; M = 78.74 years, SD = 6.7) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; M = 72.74 years, SD = 8.8). We analyzed a subset of individuals drawn from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Study of Aging. RESULTS: SMCs were more severe in MCI patients than in HCs. SMC severity was related to affective variables and the interaction between age and group membership (HC/MCI). Within the HC group, SMC severity was related to affective variables only, while severity correlated only with age in the MCI group. SMCs were not related to cognitive variables or AD biomarkers. CONCLUSION: SMCs were related to solely by poorer mood (greater depressive and anxious symptomatology) in the cognitively healthy elderly however mean levels were subclinical. This finding argues for the assessment of affective symptomatology in conjunction with cognitive assessment in elderly memory complainers. Future AIBL research will focus on assessing other AD biomarkers, such as brain atrophy and A? plasma markers, in relation to complaint severity. Once our 36-month follow-up data are collected, we propose to assess whether SMCs can predict future cognitive decline.

Buckley R; Saling MM; Ames D; Rowe CC; Lautenschlager NT; Macaulay SL; Martins RN; Masters CL; O'Meara T; Savage G; Szoeke C; Villemagne VL; Ellis KA

2013-08-01

309

Variables affecting energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the steel industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specific energy consumption (SEC) is an energy efficiency indicator widely used in industry for measuring the energy efficiency of different processes. In this paper, the development of energy efficiency and CO2 emissions of steelmaking is studied by analysing the energy data from a case mill. First, the specific energy consumption figures were calculated using different system boundaries, such as the process level, mill level and mill site level. Then, an energy efficiency index was developed to evaluate the development of the energy efficiency at the mill site. The effects of different production conditions on specific energy consumption and specific CO2 emissions were studied by PLS analysis. As theory expects, the production rate of crude steel and the utilisation of recycled steel were shown to affect the development of energy efficiency at the mill site. This study shows that clearly defined system boundaries help to clarify the role of on-site energy conversion and make a difference between the final energy consumption and primary energy consumption of an industrial plant with its own energy production.

2010-01-01

310

Mechanisms and factors affecting the adsorption of sodium alginate onto modified clays  

Science.gov (United States)

Algal organic materials (AOMs) are one critical factor affecting the efficiency of modified clays used for the mitigation of harmful algal blooms (HABs). This study was conducted to develop a deeper understanding of the mechanisms and factors affecting the adsorption of AOMs onto modified clays. Sodium alginate (polysaccharide) and kaolinite modified with polyaluminium chloride (PACl) were used as AOMs and modified clay model substances, respectively, and the effects of modifier dosage, contact time, solution pH and ionic strength were investigated through batch adsorption experiments. Kinetics revealed that the alginate adsorption rate was described well by a pseudo-second order model. PACl effectively enhanced the adsorption capacity of kaolinite and increased the adsorption rate, and the optimum additive amount of PACl was 5%. The experimental data fitted both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption equations well. The adsorption thermodynamics for alginate onto modified clays suggests that alginate adsorption is a spontaneous process. The adsorption of alginate onto modified clays was highly dependent on pH, with a decrease in adsorption observed with increased pH to 9.48, but the opposite was true above pH 9.48. Finally, adsorption increased with increasing ionic strength.

Lin, Yongxin; Cao, Xihua; Song, Xiuxian; Wang, Nan; Yu, Zhiming

2013-07-01

311

Assessment of factors affecting industrial electricity demand. Final report (revision version)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Chapter 2, we identify those factors affecting the industrial product mix - taste, relative output prices, and relative input prices - and isolate several determinants which have not been adequately accounted for to date in industrial electricity demand forecasts. We discuss how the lower energy prices of foreign producers affect domestic producers and how the growth in the number of substitutes for intermediate products such as steel and aluminum with plastics and composites affects the composition of production and, hence, the demand for electricity. We also investigate how the changing age structure of the population brought on by the baby boom could change the mix of outputs produced by the industrial sector. In Chapter 3, we review the history of the 1970s with regard to changes in output mix and the manufacturing demand for electricity, and with regard to changes in the use of electricity vis-a-vis the other inputs in the production process. In Chapter 4, we generate forecasts using two models which control for efficiency changes, but in different ways. In this chapter we present the sensitivity of these projections using three sets of assumptions about product mix. The last chapter summarizes our results and draw from those results implications regarding public policy and industrial electricity demand. Two appendices present ISTUM2 results from selected electricity intensive industries, describes the ISTUM and ORIM models.

None

1983-07-01

312

An evaluation of factors affecting duration of orthodontic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One of the first questions asked by new orthodontic patients is: How long will I need to wear my braces? A multitude of factors have the potential to influence the answer to this question. The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify some of the primary factors that influence orthodontic treatment duration. Few studies have attempted to evaluate these factors. Data were gathered from 140 consecutively completed, comprehensive treatment patient records in five orthodontic offices. Thirty-one variables related to patient characteristics, diagnostic factors, modality of treatment, and patient cooperation were evaluated. Average treatment time was 28.6 months with a range of 23.4 to 33.4 months among the five offices. Nearly half (46.9%) of the variation in treatment duration was explained by a five-step multiple regression analysis. Included in the regression equation were the number of missed appointments, the number of replaced brackets and bands, the number of treatment phases, the number of negative chart entries regarding oral hygiene, and the prescription of headgear wear during treatment. An additional 6.7% of the variance was explained by variation among the five offices. Six of the 31 variables examined made a statistically significant (alpha =.01) contribution to the explanation of variation in treatment time. The quality of the finished cases and the appropriateness of the original diagnosis and treatment plan were not evaluated. Developing an objective assessment to evaluate these areas may be important for increasing our understanding of treatment time variation.

Beckwith FR; Ackerman RJ Jr; Cobb CM; Tira DE

1999-04-01

313

A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of management in the related periods. The results indicated that organizational factors have always been important for new product development process, which is in line with the nature of the innovation process. But the emphasis on internal factors has increased in the 21st century which is congruent with the change in management perspective foregrounding resource based view. The study differs from the similar literature review studies on the point that it deals with the topic from international marketing perspective. Therefore, R&D and other marketing studies are not included in the review and the study proposes the important factors from international firms’ point of view.

Eda Atilgan-Inan; Aslihan Buyukkupcu; Serkan Akinci

2010-01-01

314

Factors affecting the implementation of green specifications in construction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Green specifications constitute one of the important elements in green construction. New sustainability requirements and changing priorities in construction management have spurred the emerging green specifications to a faster pace of development. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted in Hong Kong in 2007 to identify principal factors leading to the success of preparing green specifications. Based on extensive construction management literature, 20 variables concerning sustainable construction were summarized. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, the subtle differences between stakeholders in specifying construction work have been detected even with the high consistency of the responses among the groups. Moreover, five independent factors for successful specification of green construction have been categorized by factor analysis. They are related to (1) green technology and techniques, (2) reliability and quality of specification, (3) leadership and responsibility, (4) stakeholder involvement, and (5) guide and benchmarking systems. Whilst the first and fourth factors are generally more important, different stakeholder groups have different emphases. The results of the survey have been validated against established principles.

Lam PT; Chan EH; Poon CS; Chau CK; Chun KP

2010-01-01

315

Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors

Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

2013-01-01

316

Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.

Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine

2006-01-01

317

Factors affecting cosmic-ray doses at aircraft altitudes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cosmic rays make a significant, but not normally a dominant, contribution to the radiation dose of people all over the world. However, doses rise with altitude and the earth's magnetic field means that latitude also becomes important. Solar activity imposes a further, time dependent, variation. This article gives more details of these factors in the context of radiation protection as applied to air travel.

Kendall GM

2000-11-01

318

Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

|Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors

Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

2013-01-01

319

Factors Affecting Location Decisions of Food Processing Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to examine the determinants of location choices for food processing plants using the results of 59 personal surveys. The 61.3% of the food processing plants that were interviewed are small scale plants, 9.1% are large scale plants and 29.6% are medium scale plants. Sixteen of the firms process vegetables, 12 process poultry, 12 process dairy and 9 process seafood products. Business climate factors are divided into six categories (market, infrastructure, raw material, labor, personal and environmental) and 17 specific location factors are considered. The survey responses are analyzed by types of raw materials processed and by plant size. 43.7, 55.3 and 42.2% of the respondents cited categories of Market, Raw Material and Infrastructure respectively as important, while 44.3, 50.7 and 74.4% of the respondents cited, labor, personal and environmental regulation categories of as not important. Thus survey findings indicate that plant location choices are mainly driven by market, raw material and infra structural factors. Environmental factors such as environmental regulations and permissions are relatively insignificant.

Sule Turhan; Basak Canan Ozbag; Bahattin Cetin

2007-01-01

320

Factors affecting local progression after percutaneous cryoablation of lung tumors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate factors predicting local tumor progression after percutaneous cryoablation of lung tumors (PCLT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one consecutive patients with 210 tumors (11 primary and 199 metastatic pulmonary neoplasms; mean maximum diameter, 12.8 mm) were treated with 102 sessions of PCLT. Rates of local tumor progression and technique effectiveness were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. Multiple variables were evaluated with the log-rank test, followed by uni- and multivariate multilevel analyses to identify independent risk factors, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Median follow-up period was 454 days (range, 79-2,467 d). Local tumor progression occurred in 50 tumors (23.8%). One-, 2-, and 3-year local progression-free rates were 80.4%, 69.0%, and 67.7%, respectively, and technique effectiveness rates were 91.4%, 83.0%, and 83.0%, respectively. Existence of a thick vessel (diameter?3 mm) no more than 3 mm from the edge of the tumor was assessed as an independent factor (HR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.59-9.30; P = .003) associated with local progression by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of a vessel at least 3 mm in diameter close to the tumor represents an independent risk factor for local progression after PCLT.

Yashiro H; Nakatsuka S; Inoue M; Kawamura M; Tsukada N; Asakura K; Yamauchi Y; Hashimoto K; Kuribayashi S

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

COMPARISONOF FACTORS AFFECTING THE DETECTION OF SMALL IMPURITIES IN BREAST CANCER USING EIT.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer among women. It is very essential to detect breast cancer at an early stage so as to cure it efficiently. This paper mainly focuses on detecting impurities of small dimensions in circular plastic phantom which relate small tumors in breast. Benign cancertumor is analogous to non conducting impurity while malignant tumor is analogous to conducting impurity. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) based conductivity images are obtained for both conducting as well as non conducting impurities using Electrical Impedance and Diffused Optical Reconstruction Software (EIDORS). Different factors affecting the shape and size of reconstructed impurity like frequency of current source, type of forward model, material of electrodes, are discussed and compared.

VIDYA SARODE; SNEHA S. PATKAR; ALICE N. CHEERAN

2013-01-01

322

Analyzing the factors affecting network lifetime cluster-based wireless sensor network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cluster-based wireless sensor networks enable the efficient utilization of the limited energy resources of the deployed sensor nodes and hence prolong the node as well as network lifetime. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (Leach) is one of the most promising clustering protocol proposed for wireless sensor networks. This paper provides the energy utilization and lifetime analysis for cluster-based wireless sensor networks based upon LEACH protocol. Simulation results identify some important factors that induce unbalanced energy utilization between the sensor nodes and hence affect the network lifetime in these types of networks. These results highlight the need for a standardized, adaptive and distributed clustering technique that can increase the network lifetime by further balancing the energy utilization among sensor nodes. (author)

2010-01-01

323

Culinary and nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds as affected by environmental factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Efficient selection for specific culinary and nutritional quality traits needs a better understanding of the genetic and environmental control of quality traits at the structural, physiological and biochemical levels. Field experiments indicate great variability in the Phaseolus gene pool regarding the content of antinutritional compounds, as well as in cooking characteristics of the seeds. These seed attributes are strongly affected by geographic location, edaphic and climatic conditions at site of cultivation. However, information on the influence of specific environmental factors (such as temperature, water availability, edaphic conditions, etc.) on seed quality traits, as well as on their stability is very scarce. This lack of knowledge impairs a faster progress in the improvement of Phaseolus seed quality.

Kigel J.

1999-01-01

324

A Study on Students’ Affective Factors in Junior High School English Teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Affect is considered as aspects of emotion, feeling, mood or attitude which condition behaviors in second language acquisition. Positive affect is good for studying while negative affect will inevitably hinder learners’ learning process. As we know, students in junior high school are special groups as they are experiencing great changes both in physiology and psychology. Their affect can be easily influenced by external and internal factors. Therefore, it is of vital importance to pay close attention to students’ affective factors in English learning process, particularly to the negative ones. Based on the results of the previous research about affects in second language acquisition, the study finds that junior high school students have the following negative affective factors such as boredom, anxiety, hopelessness, inhibition and low self-confidence in their English learning. Then some suggestions for cultivating and improving students’ affect are put forward in the hope of improving junior high school English teaching and learning.

Biyi Zhu; Yaping Zhou

2012-01-01

325

Chemical and biological factors affecting bioavailability of contaminants in seawater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the influence that salinity has on the bioavailability of the two largest classes of contaminants, trace metals and organic compounds will be discussed. Although data on contaminant toxicity will be used to draw inferences about chemical availability, this discussion will focus on the properties that contaminants are likely to exhibit in waters of varying salinities. In addition, information on physiological changes that are affected by salinity will be used to illustrate how biological effects can alter the apparent availability of contaminants.

Knezovich, J.P.

1992-09-01

326

Factors affecting the direct mineralization of CO2 with olivine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Olivine, one of the most abundant minerals existing in nature, is explored as a CO2 carbonation agent for direct carbonation of CO2 in flue gas. Olivine based CO2 capture is thermodynamically favorable and can form a stable carbonate for long-term storage. Experimental results have shown that water vapor plays an important role in improving CO2 carbonation rate and capacities. Other operation conditions including reaction temperature, initial CO2 concentration, residence time corresponding to the flow rate of CO2 gas stream, and water vapor concentration also considerably affect the performance of the technology.

Kwon S; Fan M; DaCosta HF; Russell AG

2011-01-01

327

Factors Affecting the Birth Weight of Cholistani Cattle Calves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of year, season and lactation number on birth weight of Cholistani calves was determined by analyzing the data of 709 cows recorded at Government Livestock Farm, Jugait Peer, district Bahawalpur during the years 1999-2007. The Cholistani calves showed a mean birth weight of 19.13 ± 0.06Kg and was significantly affected by year (P<0.05), calf sex (P<0.01) and lactation number (P<0.05). Male calves were heavier than the female (19.53 vs 19.04Kg).

F. Shahzad*, M. Yaqoob1, M. Younas1, U. Farooq, F. Sher2, M. Asim2, S. Qamar2, M. Akbar3 and I. Irshad4

2010-01-01

328

Efficient MATLAB computations with sparse and factored tensors.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the term tensor refers simply to a multidimensional or N-way array, and we consider how specially structured tensors allow for efficient storage and computation. First, we study sparse tensors, which have the property that the vast majority of the elements are zero. We propose storing sparse tensors using coordinate format and describe the computational efficiency of this scheme for various mathematical operations, including those typical to tensor decomposition algorithms. Second, we study factored tensors, which have the property that they can be assembled from more basic components. We consider two specific types: a Tucker tensor can be expressed as the product of a core tensor (which itself may be dense, sparse, or factored) and a matrix along each mode, and a Kruskal tensor can be expressed as the sum of rank-1 tensors. We are interested in the case where the storage of the components is less than the storage of the full tensor, and we demonstrate that many elementary operations can be computed using only the components. All of the efficiencies described in this paper are implemented in the Tensor Toolbox for MATLAB.

Bader, Brett William; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Lab, Livermore, CA)

2006-12-01

329

Prioritization of the Factors Affecting Sport Tourism Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, tourism and sport enjoy a complementary interrelationship directly affecting the nations` economy. Also sport tourism is, nowadays, considered as the most lucrative industry worldwide. In addition, it may affect all the social strata economically and politically. Thus, needless to say that much more attention should be directed to the industry through clear-cut policies, visions and constructive plans in this regard. To this end, in this paper, the authors investigated and offered the guidelines for sport tourism development in Zanjan from economic, social and cultural perspectives. This was an applied research carried out as a field study. The statistical sample was divided into 2 groups: 1) Experts including physical education teachers, cultural heritage and physical education department employees and, 2) Customers including different sportsmen and sportswomen traveling to Zanjan. The research tool was a 43 item researcher-made questionnaire in Likert scale whose reliability and validity were confirmed by the board of university professors. We applied descriptive to describe the demography and T-test and Friedman to determine the differences and prioritize both groups` viewpoints regarding sport tourism development in Zanjan.

S.N. Sajjadi; Arefeh Jamshidi; Akbar Heidary

2012-01-01

330

Host factors that affect Ty3 retrotransposition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The retrovirus-like element Ty3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae integrates at the transcription initiation region of RNA polymerase III. To identify host genes that affect transposition, a collection of insertion mutants was screened using a genetic assay in which insertion of Ty3 activates expression of a tRNA suppressor. Fifty-three loci were identified in this screen. Corresponding knockout mutants were tested for the ability to mobilize a galactose-inducible Ty3, marked with the HIS3 gene. Of 42 mutants tested, 22 had phenotypes similar to those displayed in the original assay. The proteins encoded by the defective genes are involved in chromatin dynamics, transcription, RNA processing, protein modification, cell cycle regulation, nuclear import, and unknown functions. These mutants were induced for Ty3 expression and assayed for Gag3p protein, integrase, cDNA, and Ty3 integration upstream of chromosomal tDNA(Val(AAC)) genes. Most mutants displayed differences from the wild type in one or more intermediates, although these were typically not as severe as the genetic defect. Because a relatively large number of genes affecting retrotransposition can be identified in yeast and because the majority of these genes have mammalian homologs, this approach provides an avenue for the identification of potential antiviral targets.

Aye M; Irwin B; Beliakova-Bethell N; Chen E; Garrus J; Sandmeyer S

2004-11-01

331

Factors affecting physician visits in Chinese and Chinese immigrant samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines predictors of Western physician utilization using the Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use for Chinese elders who reside in Shanghai and immigrant Chinese elders who reside in the US Chinese elders are under-studied relative to their population size and in the US are known to underutilize the healthcare system. Underutilization is highly correlated with poor health and well-being. A unique dataset allowed us to examine predictors of physician utilization for Chinese elders who resided in different countries, in an effort to determine how being an immigrant affects utilization. One hundred and seventy-seven Chinese elders in Boston and 420 Chinese elders in Shanghai participated in the survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted separately for each sample. Predictors of physician visits for the Boston sample are insurance status, health, and social network, and for the Shanghai sample, use of Chinese medicine, health, and marital status predicted physician visits. We found that access to care variables significantly affects physician utilization for immigrant elders, and that Chinese elders in Shanghai utilize a bicultural system of care. The results indicate that in order to create effective healthcare practices for elder Chinese, alternative healthcare beliefs should be understood by Western physicians. PMID:17996348

Miltiades, Helen B; Wu, Bei

2007-11-08

332

Factors affecting physician visits in Chinese and Chinese immigrant samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines predictors of Western physician utilization using the Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use for Chinese elders who reside in Shanghai and immigrant Chinese elders who reside in the US Chinese elders are under-studied relative to their population size and in the US are known to underutilize the healthcare system. Underutilization is highly correlated with poor health and well-being. A unique dataset allowed us to examine predictors of physician utilization for Chinese elders who resided in different countries, in an effort to determine how being an immigrant affects utilization. One hundred and seventy-seven Chinese elders in Boston and 420 Chinese elders in Shanghai participated in the survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted separately for each sample. Predictors of physician visits for the Boston sample are insurance status, health, and social network, and for the Shanghai sample, use of Chinese medicine, health, and marital status predicted physician visits. We found that access to care variables significantly affects physician utilization for immigrant elders, and that Chinese elders in Shanghai utilize a bicultural system of care. The results indicate that in order to create effective healthcare practices for elder Chinese, alternative healthcare beliefs should be understood by Western physicians.

Miltiades HB; Wu B

2008-02-01

333

Factors Affecting the Real Estate Prices in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study examines the effect of factors influencing the prices of real estate inQuetta city. Hypothetically, this study is based upon five observed factors(urbanization, refugees’ influx, monetary, lack of investment alternatives and inflow offoreign remittances) in relation to the prices of real estate. Questionnaire developed onthe basis of above variables were administered to a heterogeneous sample of 50property dealers and Quetta Development Authority. Descriptive statistics (percentage,percentile and frequency distribution) were used to identify the level of influence andthe relation of above mentioned attributes towards the prices of real estate. The resultsrevealed that the prices of real estate in the region have been on an increasing trendand strong influence of all variables especially of government’s monetary and fiscalpolices and urbanization was found significant on the prices of real estate in Quetta.

Mehmood khan kakar; M. Ali kakar

2011-01-01

334

[Factors affecting the recovery in the intensive care unit].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urgency of the problem is defined by economical, regulatory and legislative acts, regional social and moral factors. There is critical situation in Russian Pediatric Healthcare system. This situation is due to inadequate funding, high medical technologies inaccessibility for some Russian children, their adverse health state. The article presents a retrospective analysis of intensive therapy and resuscitation outcomes with technical equipment and work environment assessment in the intensive care unit of Tushinskaya city pediatric clinic for the period from 2007 to 2011. Anaesthetic and emergency care quality and safety depend on several factors: permanent equipment improvement, comprehensive analysis of every fatal case and full implementation of "Anti-epidemic (prophylactic) actions plan" and "Program of monitoring compliance with the sanitary norms".

Turkov PN; Nikitin VV; Antsupova MA; Podkopaev VN; Panfilova RP; Ivanova IN; Nesterova LI

2013-01-01

335

Collection efficiency and decontamination factor of HEPA filter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It is very important in a nuclear air cleaning system that HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter is for reduction of releasing amounts of airborne radioactive particles. HEPA filter, by definition, has a minimum collection efficiency of 99.97 % for 0.3 ?m particles. However, DF (Decontamination Factor), which is necessary for safety management, can not be directly derived from the efficiency. And the current standard defined for 0.3 ?m particles has no scientific justification, because it has been found that the most penetrating particle size through HEPA filter is not always 0.3 ?m. In the present paper, a numerical experiment was made in order to estimate a relationship between DF and the efficiency. And new standard, in which the minimum DF is able to be easily obtained, was proposed. In the multistage filtration system, it was found that lower values of DF was possible to be experimentally indicated in the second and the third stages, even if the collection performance of the each filter is the same. (author)

1986-01-01

336

Factors affecting radon levels in homes in British Columbia, Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

British Columbia, Canada's most westerly province, has diverse geologic and climatic characteristics, making it a region where predicting radon gas level is quite complex. Data recently obtained for eleven (11) communities confirm an association between background terrestrial gamma radiation measurements and indoor radon levels in homes. Direct links between radon levels and other factors such as home design/construction features and heating/ventilation systems were observed in data for some communities, but not necessarily from the overall data. (author)

1992-01-01

337

About some factors affecting suppression of vitrinite reflectance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Perhydrogenated vitrain samples from Cretaceous and Jurassic formations of different basins were studied by means of global geochemical analyses and textural analysis by transmission electron microscopy. Two processes appeared to be the main factors for the perhydrogenated character: impregnation by hydrocarbons for Jurassic vitrains; and probably the peculiar nature of botanical precursors due to a process of resinisation for the Cretaceous ones. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Perrussel, B.-P.; Laggoun-Defarge, F.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Jimenez, A.; Iglesias, M.J.; Rouzaud, J.-N. [CNRS-Univ. D' Orleans, Orleans (France)

1999-07-01

338

Factors Affecting the Fuel Consumption of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Primary Factors that Impact the Fuel Consumption of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles RICHARD ‘BARNEY’ CARLSON, MATTHEW G. SHIRK Idaho National Laboratory 2525 N. Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA richard.carlson@inl.gov Abstract Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have proven to significantly reduce petroleum consumption as compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICE) by utilizing electrical energy for propulsion. Through extensive testing of PHEV’s, analysis has shown that the fuel consumption of PHEV’s is more significantly affected than conventional vehicles by either the driver’s input or by the environmental inputs around the vehicle. Six primary factors have been identified that significantly affect the fuel consumption of PHEV’s. In this paper, these primary factors are analyzed from on-road driving and charging data from over 200 PHEV’s throughout North America that include Hymotion Prius conversions and Hybrids Plus Escape conversions. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) tests plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) vehicles as part of its conduct of DOE’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). In collaboration with its 75 testing partners located in 23 states and Canada, INL has collected data on 191 PHEVs, comprised of 12 different PHEV models (by battery manufacturer). With more than 1 million PHEV test miles accumulated to date, the PHEVs are fleet, track, and dynamometer tested. Six Primary Factors The six primary factors that significantly impact PHEV fuel consumption are listed below. Some of the factors are unique to plug-in vehicles while others are common for all types of vehicles. 1. Usable Electrical Energy is dictated by battery capacity, rate of depletion as well as when the vehicle was last plugged-in. With less electrical energy available the powertrain must use more petroleum to generate the required power output. 2. Driver Aggressiveness impacts the fuel consumption of nearly all vehicles but this impact is greater for high efficiency powertrains. 3. Accessory Utilization like air conditioner systems or defroster systems can use a significant amount of additional energy that is not contributing to the propulsion of the vehicle. 4. Route Type such as city, highway or mountainous driving can affect the fuel consumption since it can involve stop and go driving or ascending a step grade. 5. Cold Start / Key On includes control strategies to improve cold start emissions as well as control routines to quickly supply cabin heat. These control strategies are necessary for consumer acceptance even though fuel consumption is negatively impacted. 6. Ambient Temperature can reduce the efficiency of many powertrain components by significantly increasing fluid viscosity. For vehicles that utilize battery energy storage systems, the temperature of the battery system can greatly affect the power output capability therefore reducing its system effectiveness. The analysis of the six primary factors that impact fuel economy of PHEV’s helped to identify areas of potential further development as well as may assist in informing drivers of these effects in an effort to modify driving behavior to reduce petroleum consumption.

Richard " Barney" Carlson; Matthew G. Shirk; Benjamin M. Geller

2001-11-01

339

Factors affecting the retention of nurses. A survival analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To identify and explore factors that mostly influence nurses’ turnover and retention, and to estimate the length of employment for nurses in the hospital. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study examining the standard Exit Questionnaires completed by all the female pediatric nurses who joined and left the hospital during the period between January 2006 and October 2010. The Developed Questionnaires where completed by nurses who were still employees in October 2010. The nurses who left the job will be considered as events and the nurses who are still working will be considered as censored.The study took place at the Pediatric Department, Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: A total of 254 nurses were included in the study. Most of the nurses left their jobs due to family reasons (39.7%) followed by other reasons (37.3%). Seventy five percent of all the pediatric nurses remained in their jobs, on average, for 2.2 years. Both simple and multivariate analysis indicated a strong positive correlation between length of employment (turnover) and the demographic and organization factors. Conclusion: This study has identified several factors that played a key role in staff retention, which can help in predicting nursing turnover at  PSMMC. The findings of this study could help PSMMC and its Nursing Administration, in particular, to understand the seriousness of the high turnover rates, to develop and implement strategies to reduce this problem, and improve the retention of nursing staff. 

Noufa A. Alonazi; Maye A. Omar

2013-01-01

340

Factors affecting bowel gangrene development in patients with sigmoid volvulus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sigmoid gangrene develops in 6.1% to 93.4% of sigmoid volvulus (SV) cases, and increases the mortality rate from 0% to 40% without bowel gangrene to 3.7% to 80%. This study aimed to investigate factors that induce bowel gangrene development in SV patients. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Retrospective study from a single center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We determined whether there was any correlation between sigmoid gangrene and the following factors: age, gender, a previous history of a volvulus, previous history of abdominal surgery, pregnancy, major comorbidities, shock, duration of symptoms, direction and degree of rotation of volvulus, and ileosigmoid knotting. RESULTS: Of 442 patients, 271 (61.3%) had sigmoid gangrene. The presence of pregnancy was negatively cor.related with sigmoid gangrene development (P < .05), while comorbid diseases (P < .01), associated shock (P < .01), prolonged symptom duration (P < .05), overrotation (P < .05), and associated ileosigmoid knotting (P < .01) were positively correlated with bowel gangrene. However, no correlation was observed between sigmoid gangrene and the other studied factors. CONCLUSION: An inverse correlation between pregnancy and sigmoid gangrene was observed. On the other hand, a positive correlation was noted between bowel gangrene and comorbid diseases, shock, prolonged duration of symptoms, overrotation, and associated ileosigmoid knotting.

Atamanalp SS; Kisaoglu A; Ozogul B

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Factors affecting near vision after monofocal intraocular lens implantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To identify factors that influence near vision after monofocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for distance vision. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of patients who underwent cataract surgery with monofocal IOL implantation from October 2009 to April 2010 at Samsung Medical Center. Eyes were classified as having good (? J4) or poor (< J4) near vision. Factors analyzed included age, sex, intraocular lens (IOL) movement, axial length, pupil size, degree and type of astigmatism, IOL type, total aberration, and higher-order aberrations. Binary logistic regression and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were determined. RESULTS: This retrospective study involved 84 eyes of 84 patients. Thirty-four eyes were classified as having good near vision and 50 eyes as having poor near vision. All groups had a postoperative uncorrected visual acuity greater than 0.2 logMAR (Snellen 20/32) and a refractive error within ± 0.5 diopter of spherical equivalent. Pupil size and axial length were inversely associated with good near vision (P = .034 and .039, respectively). A pupil size smaller than 2.6 mm and an axial length less than 23.0 mm resulted in better near vision than larger measurements after monofocal IOL implantation for distant target. CONCLUSIONS: Among the factors analyzed, small pupil size and short axial length predicted good near vision after phacoemulsification and monofocal IOL implantation.

Lim DH; Han JC; Kim MH; Chung ES; Chung TY

2013-03-01

342

Factors affecting diagnostic yield in needle biopsy for brain lesions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: We analyse the factors that are associated with the diagnostic yield of needle brain biopsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present a retrospective series of 124 consecutive biopsies in a 30-month period. Patients' demographics (age, gender), lesion topography (side, location, depth), lesion characteristics (histology, volume, radiological enhancement), type of biopsy procedure (freehand, ultrasound guided, frameless and frame-based stereotactic) and the use of intraoperative histologic examination were correlated with the diagnostic rate. Descriptive statistics and a nominal logistic regression model were used to evaluate the factors influencing diagnostic yield. RESULTS: 63 men and 61 women were included in the study with mean age 59.2 (range: 16-86). 55 were frame-based stereotactic biopsies, 33 were frameless stereotactic biopsies, 29 biopsies were performed under ultrasound guidance and 7 freehand. The diagnostic yield in our series is 93.5%. The gender, lesion topography, biopsy method, use of intraoperative histology and enhancement did not correlate with the diagnostic yield. Younger age had a negative impact on diagnostic yield. 6 out of 8 inconclusive biopsies were in non-glial lesions (p < 0.05). The odds of obtaining a positive diagnosis increased sevenfold with every cc increase in lesion volume. CONCLUSION: The age of the patient, the volume and the histology of the brain lesion had an impact on the diagnostic yield of needle biopsy. None of the other factors significantly influenced the diagnostic rate.

Tsermoulas G; Mukerji N; Borah AJ; Mitchell P; Ross N

2013-04-01

343

Temperature-related factors affecting ozone formation in polluted areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using an atmospheric chemical reaction mechanism applied to air parcels near the Earth`s surface (a box model), the sensitivity of ozone (O{sub 3}) formation rates to changes in four meteorologically-controlled parameters is studied. Temperature, sunlight intensity, water vapor mixing ratio, and isoprene concentrations all increase on hotter days, and all influence ozone formation rates. Over a wide range of NO{sub x} and anthropogenic hydrocarbon concentrations, enhanced photolysis rates and elevated isoprene concentrations are calculated to be the most important factors contributing to increased O{sub 3} formation rates on warmer days. These results suggest that the most uncertain yet important meteorological factor controlling regional-scale O{sub 3} formation is fractional cloudiness and its impact on photolysis rates. Past studies have attempted to remove a temperature effect using only temperature. Perhaps a better factor to normalize longer-term ozone trends in polluted areas would be cloud coverage derived from routine surface-derived meteorological measurements. Only through such normalization could year-to-year variability be adequately accounted for when assessing the impact of emission control strategies on undesirable ozone concentrations.

Walcek, C.J. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

1997-12-31

344

Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

2010-12-01

345

Factors affecting surgical alloy/bone cement interface adhesion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Interfaces were formed between acrylic bone cement and three commonly used surgical alloys (316L SS, Co-Cr-Mo, and Ti-6A1-4V), in an attempt to further define cementation parameters of acrylic bone cement for use in orthopaedic surgery. Metal/cement interfaces were made at three distinct times during the setting cycle of the cement and were cured for 1 hr, 1 day, and 1 week. The metals were prepared with roughly polished or finely polished prepassivated surfaces. Tensile bond strengths and residual cement on metal coverage data indicated that, for each metal system, interfaces created prior to and at the onset of the dough stage formed superior interfaces for implantation compared to those formed late in the dough stage. Furthermore, electropolishing plus prepassivation offered a more efficient bonding surface than mechanical polishing.

Keller JC; Lautenschlager EP; Marshall GW Jr; Meyer PR Jr

1980-09-01

346

Statistical Study on Principal Factors Affecting Employment of Chinese Undergraduates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the heavy employment pressure in china, the employment of the undergraduates attracts much attention in recent years. Accordingly, this study proposes a SPSS-based statistical method to study the employment issue, where thirteen parameters are carefully chosen to construct the employment database. The proposed method first performs the quantitative and the standardized operations and then calculates the correlated matrix of parameters. Moreover, after proving that the correlated matrix satisfies Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) condition, we perform eigenvalue decomposition and compute the variance contribution rate through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) techniques. Both the eigenvalue and the variance contribution rate are used to study the importance of each parameter and finally lead to an importance sort. Therefore, we can quantificationally study the influence of each parameter thrown on the undergraduate employment and find three most important parameters affecting undergraduate employment: university, major and family location.

J. Hua; W. Zhuge; K. Zhou; L. Meng

2010-01-01

347

Evaluation of factors affecting diffusion in compacted bentonite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The information available from the open literature and studies on exclusion, sorption and diffusion mechanisms of ionic and neutral species in bentonite has been compiled and re-examined in relation to the microstructure of bentonite. The emphasis is placed on a more thorough understanding of the diffusion processes taking place in compacted bentonite. Despite the scarcity of experiments performed with neutral diffusants, these imply that virtually all the pores in compacted bentonite are accessible to neutral species. Anion exclusion, induced by the overlap of electrical double layers, may render the accessible porosity for anions considerably less than the porosity obtained from the water content of the clay. On the basis of the compiled data, it is highly probable that surface diffusion plays a significant role in the transport of cations in bentonite clays. Moreover, easily soluble compounds in bentonite can affect the ionic strength of porewater and, consequently, exclusion, equilibrium between cations, and surface diffusion

1995-12-01

348

Factors affecting the determination of ionized calcium in blood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reproducibility with the same electrode on the same day is expressed by the CV. For standard solutions CV = 0.68%, for blood CV = 1.36%, for serum CV = 0.92%. The measure with 2 different Orion electrodes performed on blood samples on the same day gives no more variation between electrodes than within electrode. Results of Ca++ measured with SS-20 Orion and ICA1 Radiometer electrodes on the samples of normal blood or serum are significantly higher with the ICA1 electrode than with the SS-20 Orion. The use of decreasing concentration of NaCl (170 to 110 mmol/l) in calibration solutions shows an apparent increase of Ca++ concentration in normal blood. Sampling conditions may affect Ca++ results. The pH of peripheric venous blood drawn without torniquet in 57 normal people was 7.34 +/- 0.03 and differs from the normal arterial pH values (740 +/- 0.02). By applying the following equation: Ca++ (pH 7.40) = Ca++ [1-0.53 (7.40 - pH)], Ca++ can be adjusted to pH 7.40. The correction in pathologic condition should, however, take in account the real arterial pH of the subject. We tested if sitting versus recumbent position could modify Ca++ results. The difference was non significant. Heparin, necessary for blood and plasma sampling, may affect the electrode membrane and binds calcium ions. We compared in the same blood sampling the same dilutions of 2 kinds of heparin. Heparin Radiometer: 10 microliters in 1 ml blood (8 UI) and heparin Roche: 10 microliters in 1 ml blood (50 UI) and observed significantly higher Ca++ results with the lower concentration of heparin. Storage of serum 24 hours at -20 degrees C does not alter the Ca++ results. After 7 days at -20 degrees C the Ca++ decreases by 3.6% in average, mainly due to pH increase.

Brauman J; Delvigne C; Deconinck I; Willems D

1983-01-01

349

Factores que pueden afectar la seguridad del paciente/ Factors that may affect patient's safety  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Fundamento: la seguridad del paciente es la garantía de las personas de estar libres de sufrir cualquier tipo de daño cuando interactúan con alguno de los servicios de salud. Objetivo: determinar factores que podrían afectar la seguridad del paciente a través de una investigación realizada en el Hospital Provincial y en el Hospital Pediátrico. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, mediante la búsqueda de información bibliográfica sobre la temática de la (more) seguridad del paciente, en las bases de datos disponibles en INFOMED. Para la primera etapa se diseña e implementa una encuesta de 49 preguntas que se les realiza en el año 2009 a trabajadores vinculados a la atención de salud. Para la segunda etapa se implementa una encuesta de 23 preguntas derivadas de las preguntas más relevantes de la primera etapa que se implementó en el Hospital Pediátrico y se va a realizar en el Hospital Provincial Univerrsitario Manuel Ascunce Domenech. El método analítico utilizado para ambas encuestas fue la técnica de componentes principales que permitió valorar la coincidencia de cada pregunta en relación a las posibles afectaciones a la seguridad del paciente. Resultados: la encuesta aplicada, para evaluar factores que afectan la seguridad del paciente fue adecuada. La técnica de componentes principales permitió valorar la importancia de cada pregunta en relación a las posibles afectaciones a la seguridad del paciente, las variables de respuesta se agruparon en seis constructos con un 62,1 % de varianza explicada. Las encuestas arrojaron que las afectaciones del ambiente laboral, el nivel general de interconexión y comunicación, el nivel de gestión del conocimiento, la capacidad de enfrentar imprevistos, la capacidad técnica, el cansancio y la pérdida de concentración podrían afectar la seguridad del paciente. Conclusiones: es posible obtener información in situ a partir del instrumento final obtenido en la última etapa que permita corregir de forma precoz algunas fallas que pudieran afectar la seguridad del paciente y corregirlas. La técnica de componentes principales resultó adecuada para evaluar estas respuestas en conjunto. Abstract in english ABSTRACT Background: patient's safety is the guarantee of people to be free of suffering any kind of damage when interacting any of the health services. Objective: to determine factors that may affect patient's safety. Method: a descriptive study through a bibliographic review on patient's safety was conducted. The study was divided into two stages, in which surveys according to the technique of main components were implemented; this allowed value the coincidence of each (more) question in relation to the possible impact to the patient´s safety. Results: the applied survey was appraised of adequate; response variables were grouped into six, with a 62.1 % of explained variance. The survey showed that affectations on labor atmosphere, general level of interconnection and communication, level on knowledge management, the capacity to face accidental facts, technical capacity, fatigue and loss of concentration could affect patient's safety. Conclusions: the information was obtained from the final instrument in the last stage. Some failures that could affect patient´s safety may be corrected early. The technique of main components was adequate to evaluate the answers as a whole.

Betancourt Betancourt, José A; Cepero Morales, Raúl J; Gallo Borrero, Clara Mirella

2011-12-01

350

Factors affecting results of treatment of Hypopharyngeal Carcinoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: A retrospective review of patients with malignant neoplasms of the hypopharynx treated with combined surgery and radiotherapy is presented to highlight the results of treatment and the factors of treatment success for this malignant disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1995 and 2004 at the University ORL Clinic Nis 89 patients with malignant neoplasms of hypopharynx (85 males, 4 females, and age ranging from 44 to 77 years) were treated. In the 89 patients (stage I, n=4; stage II, n=3; stage III, n=34; stage IV, n=48), the sites of origin were pyriform sinus (n=75), postcrycoid (n=8), posterior pharyngeal wall (n=3) and superior hypopharynx (n=3). RESULTS: Laryngeal preservation surgery was achieved in 11.2% of patients, while 88.8% had laryngectomy with partial or total pharyngectomy. Pyriform sinus was the most common site of origin of hypopharyngeal carcinoma in 84.3%. Totally 93% of patients had neck metastases, and tumors extended beyond the hypopharynx in 41.6% of patients. TNM stage was highly significant parameter of outcome. Five year survival was 100% for stage I, 66.6% for stage II, 53.9% for stage III, and 33.3% for stage IV. Residual disease (5.6%) and recurrent disease (2.2%) were low. Postoperative fistula developed in 16.8% of patients, and in 60% it was closed successfully using local flaps, while in 40% pectoralis flap was needed. Localization of disease was also an important factor of survival. Retrocrycoid carcinoma resulted in very poor survival rate (12.5%), high residual disease, lymph node metastasis, and pharyngocutaneous fistula formation. CONCLUSION: Localization and TNM stage are highly significant factors for clinical course, treatment, and outcome of hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

Milisavljevic D; Stankovic M; Zivic M; Popovic M; Radovanovi? Z

2009-07-01

351

Risk of Postpartum Depression and Affecting Factors in Konya Center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: This study is proposed to determine the incidence of postpartum depression and the risk factors that may play role in arising of it in Konya because there is not any constructed study previously. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is constructed among 242 mothers in the postpartum period between 2-6 months who applied two village clinics of Meram County, Konya between 1 December 2005- 31 January 2006. Two forms were used to collect necessary data. First form was ?mother introduction form? that was prepared by us to determine the sociodemographic properties of mothers, and the second form was Edinburgh Posnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to diagnose the risk of postpartum depression. RESULTS: While the cut-off point of EPDS was taken as 13 and over, the probability of experiencing postpartum depression was detected as 19.4%. The probability of experiencing postpartum depression according to EPDS was high in statistical sense among the mothers who had lower monthly income, psychological problems after the preceding pregnancy, 4 and lower prenatal controls, experienced attitude changes among their husbands and/or husbands? families after learning gender of baby, and medical problems during these pregnancies. CONCLUSION: The modifiable risk factors are determined as the number of prenatal controls, changing the preconceptions and obsessions related gender of baby of husbands and families via healthy education, and well-qualified prenatal care. The long-term improvable risk factors are detected as improving monthly incomes of the families. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000): 391-398

Saniye Ozdemir; Kamile Marakoglu; Selma Civi

2008-01-01

352

Affecting the Choice Factors of Fishery Products Consumption in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines fish consumption behavior patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of choosing factors in determining food pattern of Turkish people. A total of 666 surveys in all around Turkey responded to a self-administered questionnaire about seafood consumption habits, past frequency of seafood consumption, attitude towards and intention to eat seafood. In this research some prompts were used such as health, taste, availability, versatility, the components of a good family meal, value for money and alternatives to red meat.

Saygi Hulya; Hekimoglu Muge Aliye

2011-01-01

353

Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Mobile Banking Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on defining the factors influencing mobile banking adoption and aims at forming a model describing consumer behaviour patterns. Thus it also evaluates the applicability of Rogers' (1995) model in this context. In consequence we are able to state what are the drivers and inhibitors of using banking services via wireless delivery channel. A quantitative survey sheds more light on this researched issue. The data was collected in Finland during May-July 2002 and includes 1253 survey responses.

Minna Mattila Ph.D. Econ,

2003-01-01

354

Factors affecting potential market penetration of laser fusion power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mini-model has been constructed to estimate the optimal size of laser fusion power plants and to estimate the allowable cost of the first such plant in relation to the next best alternative. In estimating the costs of laser fusion, the mini-model incorporates such factors as market penetration, learning, economies of scale, system size, transmission costs, reserve requirements, development and licensing costs and site costs. The results of the mini-model simulations indicate that the optimal laser fusion plant size is approximately 3 GWe; risk considerations unincorporated in the mini-model suggest an optimal size closer to 2.5 GWe

1979-01-01

355

Comparative study of thermoluminescent efficiencies before variation of experimental factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation for quantifying the influence of varying distinct experimental factors in the measurements of relative thermoluminescent efficiency of 3 MeV protons was realized with respect to gamma radiation in LiF: Mg, Ti. Variations in a dosemeters batch were considered, as presentation, applied thermal treatments and reader equipment. The main conclusion of this work is to emphasize the importance for measuring entire series of experiments in the same laboratory following a protocol defined carefully and using dosemeters of the same batch for obtaining response before charging particle and the response before gamma radiation with identical procedures of baking and reading. (Author)

2001-01-01

356

Correlation between broiler aflatoxicosis and European production efficiency factor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ten broiler flocks claimed to be suffering from aflatoxicosis in Ninavah governorate were subjected to study the correlation between natural contamination of feed samples with aflatoxin and European production efficiency factor (EPEF). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was adopted for estimation of AF level in broiler feeds. Growth performance parameters were recorded including final body weight, mortality, feed consumption and conversion ratio. Aflatoxins levels in feeds were ranged from 31 to 2381.8 ppb and EPEF was between 91.55-151.05. There was a highly negative correlation between AF concentration in broiler flock feeds and their EPEF (-0.828).

A. M. Shareef; O. S. Bayon; T. S. Qubih

2008-01-01

357

Cassava sector development in Cameroon: Production and marketing factors affecting price  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Regular and available supply is the prerequisite of an effective and efficient commercialization process. Using multivariate regression analysis on field data, this research appraises the production and marketing factors that influence cassava market price. The production factors include cultivated area, planting material, yield, and farmers’ field schools; while farmers access to a paved road, having a telephone, the transportation costs of fresh roots, the level of root perishability, and the prices of rice and maize stand as marketing factors. The results show that farmers who attended farmers’ field school adopted improved planting materials, propagated them in their localities and the yields in these communities increased significantly. The farm size also has a significant influence on the availability of fresh roots. On the marketing side, transportation costs, access to a paved road, the prices of rice and maize significantly affect cassava’s market price and tighten the relationship between producers and marketers. We conclude that to increase fresh roots supply, roads leading to cultivating areas should be paved, better transportation provided, communication costs reduced, even distribution of planting materials and appropriate warehouses.

Elise Stephanie Meyo Mvodo; Dapeng Liang

2012-01-01

358

The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

2010-01-01

359

Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention among UniSZA Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Graduates contributions to entrepreneurship would stimulate the country’s economic growth. The aim of this study is to determine and investigate factors influence on students’ perception of the entrepreneurial intention, in order to present the most contemporary future generation of entrepreneurs that can shape the future of the economy and the country. The area of this study covers demographic profiles, attitudinal and behavioral factors, and how these influence the intentions of students to become entrepreneurs. The finding suggests that the female students had significantly higher attitude and social skill and desire to succeed as compared to the male students. There was no significant difference with regards to race, age, parental working background, family and relative engaged in business, and heard about entrepreneurship ensuring that entrepreneurs are not clustered in any of these variables. Another major finding indicates that those who attended entrepreneurship course/training had significantly higher attitude and social skill. Most importantly, marketing skill, desire to success, leadership skill, and innovation and creativity inspire graduates in choosing entrepreneurship. Thus, examining the selected key unemployment of graduates’ issues from an entrepreneurship perspective can help to establish harmony and meaningful cooperation between entrepreneurs and learning institutions.

Zaharah Ghazali; Nor Asmahani Ibrahim; Fakhrul Anwar Zainol

2012-01-01

360

Factors affecting children's oral health: perceptions among Latino parents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to understand factors that influence the oral health-related behaviors of Latino children, as reported by their parents. METHODS: Focus groups and in-depth interviews assessed parental perceptions, experiences, attributions, and beliefs regarding their children's oral health. Guiding questions focused on a) the participant's child dental experiences; b) the impact of dental problems on the child's daily activities, emotions, self-esteem; c) parental experiences coping with child's dental problems; and d) hygienic and dietary habits. Participants were purposively sampled from dental clinics and public schools with a high concentration of Latinos; 92 urban low-income Latino Spanish-speaking parents participated. Transcriptions of the audio files were thematically analyzed using a grounded theory approach. RESULTS: Parents' explanations of their children's dental experiences were categorized under the following themes: caries and diet, access to dental care, migration experiences, and routines. CONCLUSIONS: Findings revealed fundamental multilevel (i.e., individual/child, family, and community) factors that are important to consider for future interventions to reduce oral health disparities: behaviors leading to caries, parental knowledge about optimal oral health, access to sugary foods within the living environment and to fluoridated water as well as barriers to oral health care such as lack of health insurance or limited health insurance coverage, among others.

Cortés DE; Réategui-Sharpe L; Spiro Iii A; García RI

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Exploratory investigation of factors affecting dietetic workforce satisfaction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aim: The purpose of the present study was to explore factors cited by metropolitan dietitians as being critical to their workforce satisfaction in the literature and a previous study. Methods: Twenty dietitians from three metropolitan hospitals in Brisbane, Australia, were recruited by convenience sample to participate in seven focus group sessions. Group discussion transcriptions were thematically analysed by two independent researchers. Results: Participants identified career progression, professional development, resource availability, team and physical environment, reward and recognition as impacting upon their satisfaction. Overwhelmingly, they identified the availability of flexitime arrangements as symbolising workplace flexibility, which was considered the most influential of satisfaction factors. Intangible forms of reward and recognition were also desired and highly valued. Conclusions: Workplace satisfaction among this sample of metropolitan dietitians is multifactorial. Increasing perceived flexibility in work hours may increase satisfaction. Provision of intangible reward and recognition is likely to be well accepted. Future research should involve another survey of a representative sample of practitioners and managers, with the view to developing practical initiatives to improve satisfaction and maintain service delivery.

CODY S; FERGUSON M; DESBROW B

2011-09-01

362

Investigating factors affecting students’ performance to PISA Science items  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper aims to investigate, on the one hand, the extent to which PISA Science items validly assess the knowledge and skills of 15 year-old Greek students, while, on the other hand, to examine the effect of the following factors: student’s gender, scientific processes and contexts (situations) on the students’ performance in these PISA items. The research used paper-and-pencil test with published PISA Science items, conducted individual semi-structured interviews with 15 year-old students and finally marked the students’ responses, according to the PISA marking guide. ?he basic finding resulting from the data analysis is that the paper-and-pencil test with the PISA Science items does not tend, unlike the interview, to effectively record the Greek students’ Science knowledge and skills. Moreover, the analysis revealed that the performance of students in the PISA Science items (paper-and-pencil test and interview) tend to be independent of the student’s gender and depend on the context in which the knowledge and processes are assessed. Additionally, the possible correlation between the students’ performance and the factor of scientific processes seems to depend on the setting in which the students provide their responses (paper-and-pencil test or interview).

A. Psalidas; C. Apostolopoulos; V. Hatzinikita

2008-01-01

363

A Prospective Study of Factors Affecting Recovery from Musculoskeletal Injuries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purpose Research suggests the importance of psychosocial factors in recovery from musculoskeletal injuries. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of recovery among U.S. Marines who had musculoskeletal injuries of the back, knee, or shoulder. Methods A sample of 134 participants was assessed at baseline and followed for 1 year to determine outcome information. Results The strongest predictor of injury recovery at the 1-year follow-up was recovery expectations. In a multivariate logistic model with key demographic and psychosocial factors controlled, individuals who had high recovery expectations at baseline were over five times as likely to be recovered at follow-up as individuals who had low expectations (OR = 5.18, p < .01). Conclusions This finding is consistent with a large body of research that has linked recovery expectations with better recovery outcomes in patients with musculoskeletal injuries as well as with research linking recovery expectations with better outcomes across a wide range of medical conditions. Applied to military populations, interventions designed to modify recovery expectations may have the potential to improve rates of return to duty and to reduce rates of disability discharge.

Booth-Kewley S; Schmied EA; Highfill-McRoy RM; Sander TC; Blivin SJ; Garland CF

2013-06-01

364

Factors affecting repeated influenza vaccination among older people in Taiwan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study identifies factors that influence repeated influenza vaccination among people aged 65 years and older in Taiwan. METHODS: Data of this retrospective cohort study were drawn from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and the 2005-2007 National Health Insurance claims data; a sample of 1384 older people was analyzed. The pattern of repeated influenza vaccination was divided into 3 groups: unvaccinated all 3 years, vaccinated 1-2 times over 3 years, and vaccinated all 3 years. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Only 20.6% of older people were vaccinated all 3 years. Those 70-74 years of age (odds ratio [OR]=1.81), living in rural areas (OR=2.47), having one (OR=2.07) or more (OR=2.41) chronic conditions, frequent outpatient visits (OR=1.48), and undergoing preventive health examinations (OR=2.22) were more likely to have repeated vaccinations. However, those with difficulties performing one or more activities of daily living (ADL difficulty) (OR=0.41) and seeking care from alternative medicine (OR=0.48) were less likely to undergo regular vaccinations. CONCLUSION: The repeated influenza vaccination rates in our Taiwan sample were far from optimal. Factors identified in this analysis may help to improving influenza vaccination programs.

Chang YC; Huang N; Chen LS; Hsu SW; Chou YJ

2013-01-01

365

[Factors affecting results of coronary bypass surgery in elderly patients].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Study aim was to compare rates of perioperative complications of coronary bypass surgery in patients of various age groups and to analyze factors associated with their appearance. We retrospectively studied 2411 case histories of patients subjected to coronary artery bypass surgery between January 2006 and December 2009. According to their age at surgery patients were divided in 4 groups: <60 years (n=1555, mean age 53+/-6 years), 60-64 years (n=379, mean age 61+/-3 years), 65-69 years (n=335, mean age 67+/-2 years), >70 years (n=142, mean age 71+/-3 years). In older age groups hospital mortality and total number of complications were greater than in patients aged <60 years. Hospital mortality and rates of postoperative complications did not significantly differ between groups of patients aged 60-64, 65-69, and more or equal 70 years. Besides age the following factors were independently associated with hospital mortality: characteristics of extent of atherosclerosis (significant occlusive-stenotic lesions in arteries of lower extremities and extracranial arteries, history of stroke); lowering of left ventricular ejection fraction; and use of cardiopulmonary bypass.

Sumin AN; Ga?fulin RA; Bezdenezhnykh NA; Ivanov SV; Barbarash OL; Barbarash LS

2013-01-01

366

Factors affecting proppant flowback with resin coated proppants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Resin coated proppants (RCPs) have been used to prevent proppant flowback for several years in the hydraulic fracturing of oil and gas wells. Proppant flowback problems, however, still exist with the commercially available RCPs and several operators report failures around the world under a variety of well conditions. To date, a clear explanation of the RCP failure mechanisms and the conditions under which failure occurs has not been presented in the industry. A correlation between the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of RCP materials and the proppant flowback potential has been previously presented by Vreeburg, et al. This paper will present the results of a study on a variety of factors which effect the proppant flowback of a number of commercially available RCP materials. These factors include (1) the effect of fluid pH (7 to 12) and fluid type (KCL, seawater and a HPG/Borate fracturing fluid), (2) the effect of fluid/proppant slurry shear, (3) the effect of closure pressure during RCP curing, (4) the effect of stress cycling and (5) the effect of downhole flow conditions on proppant flowback.

Almond, S.W.; Penny, G.S.; Conway, M.W. [Stim-Lab, Inc., Duncan, OK (United States)

1995-12-31

367

Patient factors affecting Helicobacter pylori eradication with triple therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Duodenal ulcer recurrence and gastritis are reduced with successful Helicobacter pylori treatment. To identify the patient factor influencing H. pylori eradication, we prospectively evaluated 96 consecutive patients undergoing a single 2-wk course of bismuth, tetracycline, and metronidazole therapy. At the time of initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies, each patient had a profile obtained which included demographic information, gastrointestinal pathology, and H. pylori status of the spouse. Elimination of H. pylori was confirmed by repeat esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies 4 wk after the completion of therapy and serial urea breath tests. Eradication at 4 wk was successful in 80 of 96 (83%) patients. On multivariate analysis, H. pylori elimination was associated with advanced age (p = 0.002) and a greater amount of chronic inflammation on baseline antral biopsy (p = 0.024). Eradication was inversely associated with the presence of a gastric ulcer (p = 0.008) and lack of medication compliance (p = 0.030). Successful eradication reduced the severity of both acute and chronic antral mucosal inflammation. Household income, gender, ethnic group, smoking, alcohol intake, and H. pylori status of the spouse did not differ between the eradicated and noneradicated groups. We conclude that it will be important to control for influential patient factors in future studies of H. pylori treatment regimens.

Cutler AF; Schubert TT

1993-04-01

368

Agricultural factors affecting methane oxidation in arable soil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CH4 oxidation activity in a sandy soil (Ardoyen) and agricultural practices affecting this oxidation were studied under laboratory conditions. CH4 oxidation in the soil proved to be a biological process. The instantaneous rate of CH4 consumption was in the order of 800 micromole CH4 kg-1 day-1 (13 mg CH4 kg-1 day-1) provided the soil was treated with ca. 4.0 mmol CH4 kg-1 soil. Upon repeated supplies of a higher dose of CH4, the oxidation was accelerated to a rate of at least 198 mg CH4 kg-1 day-1. Addition of the plant-growth promoting rhizopseudomonad strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ANP15 significantly decreased the CH4 oxidation by 20 to 30% during a 5-day incubation. However, with further incubation this suppression was no longer detectable. Growing maize plants prevented the suppression of CH4 oxidation. The numbers of methanotrophic bacteria and fungi increased significantly after the addition of CH4, but there were no significant shifts in the population of total bacteria and fluorescent pseudomonads. Drying and rewetting of soil for at least 1 day significantly reduced the activity of the indigenous methanotrophs. Upon rewetting, their activity was regained after a lag phase of about 3 days. The herbicide dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) had a strong negative effect on CH4 oxidation. The application of 5 ppm increased the time for CH4 removal; at concentrations above 25 ppm 2,4-D CH4-oxidizing activity was completely hampered. After 3 days of delay, only the treatments with below 25 ppm 2,4-D showed recovery of CH4-oxidizing activity. This finding suggests that it can be important to include a CH4-removal bioassay in ecotoxicology studies of the side effects of pesticides. Changes in the native soil pH also affected the CH4-oxidizing capacity. Permanent inhibition occurred when the soil pH was altered by 2 pH units, and partial inhibition by 1 pH unit change. A rather narrow pH range (5.9-7.7) appeared to allow CH4 oxidation. Soils pre-incubated with NH4+ had a lower CH4-removal capacity. Moreover, the nitrification inhibitor 2-chloro-6-trichloromethyl pyridine (nitrapyrin) strongly inhibited CH4 oxidation. Probably methanotrophs rather than nitrifying microorganisms are mainly responsible for CH4 removal in the soil studied. It appears that the causal methanotrophs are remarkably sensitive to soil environmental disturbances.

Syamsul Arif MA; Houwen F; Verstraete W

1996-01-01

369

Factors Affecting Return to Work After Lumbar Disc Herniation Surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The disability caused by the lower back pain is one of the leading factors contributing to work absenteeism. This disability which is usually due to spinal disc herniation prevents anemployee from doing his/her daily job, thus creating numerous destructive socioeconomic consequences for him/her as well as the society. The goal of this study is to determine the patientsreturn-to-work rate after undergoing the lumbar disc herniation surgery and to study the related factors.Methods: This study was a cross sectional study. All patients suffered from lumber discetomy from 2005 to 2009 at two TUMS (Tehran University of Medical Sciences) educational hospitals were included in this study. Required data about the patients were gathered from the hospital documents,and the return-to-work rate was evaluated by following up on patients via phone calls. Chi-square and T tests were used for evaluation of quantitative and qualitative variables, respectively.Results: From 603 final participants, at least 6 month after the surgery, 504 cases (83.6%) returned to work. From these 504 cases, 364 patients (72.2%) returned full time, and 140 patients (27.8%)returned part time. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the return-to-work rate has a strong correlation with age, sex, educational level, body mass index, positive expectation from the surgery before doing it, doctor's encouragement, hospitalization time, manual work, and job satisfaction (p0.05).Conclusions: Our findings show the importance of work related and psychological factors as thedeterminants of the return-to-work rate after the lumbar disc surgery. From this study, it is apparent that appropriate strategies and team work (between the patient, the surgeon, the rehabilitationspecialist, the occupational medicine specialist, and the employer) would elevate the job satisfaction and positive expectations about the surgery, and therefore, they encourage the patient to return to work at a suitable time which in turn, may increase the total return-to-work rate.

Maryam Darenhal; Mirsaeed Attarchi; Seyed Mohammad Seyed Mehdi; Abbas Rahimiyan; Taraneh Yazdanparast

2011-01-01

370

Factors affecting survival after orthotopic liver transplantation in infants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The technical and medical management of small infants requiring orthotopic liver transplantation remains a challenge. The present study examined 117 orthotopic liver transplantations performed in 101 infants from <1 to 23 months of age between March 1988 and February 1995 to determine factors that influence patient and graft outcome. Factors analyzed included etiology of liver disease, recipient and donor age and weight, United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) status, retransplantation, ABO-compatibility, full-size (FS) versus reduced-size grafts, vascular thrombosis (VT), including hepatic artery and portal vein (PVT), and the presence of lymphoproliferative disease (LPD). UNOS status 1, fulminant hepatic failure, and the development of Epstein-Barr virus-associated LPD were each associated with 10-20% lower patient and graft survival rates. Of 101 infants, 11 (11%) developed LPD with an associated 36% mortality. VT occurred in 10 (9 hepatic artery and 1 portal vein) of 117 orthotopic liver transplantations (9%), all less than 1 year of age, and was associated with significantly poorer 1-year (50% vs. 85% no VT, P<0.01) and 5-year patient survival rates (50% vs. 83% no VT, P<0.01). One-year graft survival rates for FS grafts in recipients <12 months versus 12-23 months were 67% vs. 94% (P<0.01); the patient survival rate was also significantly lower in FS graft recipients <12 months (76% vs. 100%, P<0.05). Recipients <5 months of age had the worst survival rates: 1-year and 5-year patient survival rates were 65% and 46% for recipients 0-4 months (n=17) versus 82% and 82% for recipients 5-11 months (n=56), and 93% and 93% for recipients age 12-23 months (n=28; P<0.05). In summary, factors associated with reduced survival rates include recipient age <5 months, recipient age <12 months who received FS grafts, development of VT and donor weight <6 kg. There was a trend for UNOS status 1, fulminant hepatic failure, and presence of LPD to be associated with reduced survival rates.

Cacciarelli TV; Esquivel CO; Moore DH; Cox KL; Berquist WE; Concepcion W; Hammer GB; So SK

1997-07-01

371

Factors Affecting the Wheel Rutting on Rural Roads  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the wheel ruts frequency and dimensions were investigated according to geographical aspects, longitudinal gradient and surfacing layer of rural roads in Denji Kola village, Mazandaran Province, Iran. Ruts were divided into shallow and deep wheel ruts. Results showed that the ruts length and area were significantly affected by longitudinal gradient of rural roads (p<0.0001). Ruts length in longitudinal gradient class 8-12% was significantly more than other classes (p<0.05). The mean of rut length in this class was 8.19 m. The deep ruts frequency in longitudinal gradient class 0-4% was more than shallow ruts, whereas the number of shallow ruts was more than deep ruts in other classes. The effects of geographical aspect on ruts length (p<0.0001), ruts width (p = 0.0019) and ruts area (p<0.0001) was significant. Although, the ruts width and depth on gravel-grassed surface was more than other surfacing layer, the number of ruts in this surfacing layer was less than bare soil and graveled surfacing layer. Thus, thickness layer of gravel which has been covered by grass is the best mixture for surfacing layer of rural roads.

A. Parsakhoo; S.A. Hosseini

2009-01-01

372

Factors affecting growth of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed apples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua increased by more than 2 log(10) units over a 24 h period on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs stored at 25 and 20 degrees C. L. innocua reached the same final population level at 10 degrees C meanwhile E. coli and Salmonella only increased 1.3 log(10) units after 6 days. Only L. innocua was able to grow at 5 degrees C. No significant differences were observed between the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious', 'Granny Smith' and 'Shampion' apples stored at 25 and 5 degrees C. The treatment of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith' apple plugs with the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (2%) and NatureSeal (6%), did not affect pathogen growth. The effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and L. innocua on 'Golden Delicious' apple slices was also tested. There were no significant differences in growth of pathogens in MAP conditions compared with air packaging of 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs, but the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms was inhibited. These results highlight the importance of avoiding contamination of fresh-cut fruit with foodborne pathogens and the maintenance of the cold chain during storage until consumption. PMID:19913695

Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel; Anguera, Marina; Oliveira, Marcia; Viñas, Inmaculada

2009-08-27

373

Factors affecting growth of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed apples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua increased by more than 2 log(10) units over a 24 h period on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs stored at 25 and 20 degrees C. L. innocua reached the same final population level at 10 degrees C meanwhile E. coli and Salmonella only increased 1.3 log(10) units after 6 days. Only L. innocua was able to grow at 5 degrees C. No significant differences were observed between the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious', 'Granny Smith' and 'Shampion' apples stored at 25 and 5 degrees C. The treatment of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith' apple plugs with the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (2%) and NatureSeal (6%), did not affect pathogen growth. The effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and L. innocua on 'Golden Delicious' apple slices was also tested. There were no significant differences in growth of pathogens in MAP conditions compared with air packaging of 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs, but the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms was inhibited. These results highlight the importance of avoiding contamination of fresh-cut fruit with foodborne pathogens and the maintenance of the cold chain during storage until consumption.

Alegre I; Abadias M; Anguera M; Oliveira M; Viñas I

2010-02-01

374

Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (range 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within ± 3 cm3, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p

2011-01-01

375

Factors affecting heavy metal uptake in plant selection for phytoremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heavy metal uptake of ten plant species was studied under different soil and climatic conditions. Effects of soil pH, temperature, plant species and phenophase on the heavy metal content of stems and leaves were determined in pot experiments. Plants and soil samples were collected from a lead/zinc mine ore (Gyoengyoesoroszi, Hungary) and characterised by high contents of Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Cu. The possibility of an adapted phytoremediation technology was indicated by different bioconcentration factors (BCF). The BCF depended markedly (10- to 100-fold) on plant species and environmental conditions. Based on our results a ''season-adapted'' phytoextraction technology with differe