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Sample records for factors affecting efficiency

  1. Factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tadeu Silva de, Oliveira; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; Cássio José da, Silva; Danielle Ferreira, Baffa; José Carlos, Pereira; Joanis Tilemahos, Zervoudakis.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry [...] matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistical analyses involved the application of descriptive and dispersion measures besides Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. The analyzed variables were highly correlated with feed efficiency. The feed efficiency of lactating goats was affected by the milk fat correction, dry matter digestibility, dietary fiber content, proportion of roughage in the diet and body weight. Among these factors, standardization of the milk fat appeared to be the most efficient in correcting the feed efficiency in lactating goats. Correction of some of these factors implies greater precision in the measurement of feed efficiency.

  2. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Sakalauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  3. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Liutvinavi?ius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  4. Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Furkan Dincer; Mehmet Emin Meral

    2010-01-01

    A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most important factors that affecting efficiency of solar cells. These effects are cell temperature, MPPT (maximum power point tracking) and energy conversion efficiency. The changing of these factors i...

  5. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by Rhizobium

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah M. K. Al-Falih

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports pointed to a decline in agricultural dependence on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and in the use of rhizobial inoculants. The aim of the present review was to study the environmental factors that affect the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium in soil. These factors included pH, salinity, moisture, temperature, microorganisms, organic matter and soil texture. The overall conclusion is that symbiotic nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium is a critical biological process...

  6. The quantum walk search algorithm: Factors affecting efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Lovett, Neil B; Heath, Robert M; Kendon, Viv

    2011-01-01

    We numerically study the quantum walk search algorithm of Shenvi, Kempe and Whaley [PRA \\textbf{67} 052307] and the factors which affect its efficiency in finding an individual state from an unsorted set. Previous work has focused purely on the effects of the dimensionality of the dataset to be searched. Here, we consider the effects of interpolating between dimensions, connectivity of the dataset, and the possibility of disorder in the underlying substrate: all these factors affect the efficiency of the search algorithm. We show that, as well as the strong dependence on the spatial dimension of the structure to be searched, there are also secondary dependencies on the connectivity and symmetry of the lattice, with greater connectivity providing a more efficient algorithm. In addition, we also show that the algorithm can tolerate a non-trivial level of disorder in the underlying substrate.

  7. The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship.

  8. Rice Farms Efficiency and Factors Affecting the Efficiency in MADA Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lira Mailena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian rice farming is still constrained by the low productivity despite many supports and subsidies that have been enacted to this sector. The difficulties in improving the yield is potentially caused by the unintensive use of inputs due to the inefficient management on the rice farm. Thus this study aims to measure the rice farm efficiency and factors affecting that efficiency. Two stage analysis was adopted whereas in the first stage data envelopment analysis was used and corrected by the bootstrap method. Then in the second stage a Tobit model was employed to estimate factors affecting the efficiency. On average, the technical efficiency score estimated by DEA was about 0.6375 and implied with a given amount of inputs, the rice farms could increase its output by 57.31%. However, after correcting for the bias, the technical efficiency score was about 0.5366 and indicated that rice farms in MADA could increase its output at 86.35%. Further, by considering the lower and the higher bounds of efficiency scores, on the average, the rice farms could increase its output in the range from 20.13-99.12 with 95% confidence interval. Three factors that significantly affect the rice farm efficiency were the household size, land ownership and secondary level of education of sampled farmers. The positive significant effect of household size implied that farms with more household member was appeared to be more efficiently manage their production. Then, the negative effect of land ownership to the efficiency implied farmers who had the own land were tend to be more inefficient than those who rent the land. It was related to their motivation on the production whereas tenant farmers were more motivated to improve their production and get higher income so that they strived to manage the production in a professional manner and receptive to new technology as well. Further, farmers with secondary education level more efficiently managed the rice farm than others because of their passion for managing their production.

  9. Investigating factors affecting the efficiency of gas turbine power cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaderi, R.; M. Damircheli

    2014-01-01

    Today, the use of gas turbines in power generation cycles has been growing. Small size, easy installation, high power-to-mass ratio and the ability to load and unload the cycle quickly are the advantages of such systems. Low efficiency is considered as one of the major disadvantages of such power plants. Thus providing a way to increase cycle efficiency can be very effective in making the cycle more efficient and thus saving fuel consumed in such systems. In this paper the thermal efficiency ...

  10. An Exploratory Study of Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Sorting Techniques (Shell, Heap and Treap)

    CERN Document Server

    Folorunso, Olusegun; Salako, Oluwatimilehin

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of sorting techniques has a significant impact on the overall efficiency of a program. The efficiency of Shell, Heap and Treap sorting techniques in terms of both running time and memory usage was studied, experiments conducted and results subjected to factor analysis by SPSS. The study revealed the main factor affecting these sorting techniques was time taken to sort.

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING THE VEGETABLE FARMING EFFICIENCY IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora STOEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency is the major economic category, which measures the final result and the expenses related to the production and provides value expression. The article aims to analyze the prospects and conditions for the development of field vegetable production in Bulgaria. Field vegetable farming is a traditional and fast developing sector of the Bulgarian agriculture. Its condition and development is determined by the various natural and geographic conditions in the country and the experience in cultivating and farming vegetable crops, which are traditional for the Bulgarian population. The vegetable farming is organized in individual private agricultural farms and agricultural farming cooperatives and is performed in small areas. The crisis in the vegetable farming raised a lot of questions that need to be answered. It is necessary to overcome the decrease in vegetable production. This can happen by establishing efficiently operating organizational companies. The most important reasons for the reported decrease are the result of the improperly conducted reforms in the agriculture industry as a result of which the economic condition of the sector is declining. A serious flaw is that the farmers are selecting certain crop production without conducting any preliminary marketing and without any signed contracts for produce realization.

  12. Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis. Key factors affecting efficiency of the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczesna Antczak, Miroslawa; Kubiak, Aneta; Antczak, Tadeusz; Bielecki, Stanislaw [Institute of Technical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Chemical processes of biodiesel production are energy-consuming and generate undesirable by-products such as soaps and polymeric pigments that retard separation of pure methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids from glycerol and di- and monoacylglycerols. Enzymatic, lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis has no such drawbacks. Comprehension of the latter process and an appreciable progress in production of robust preparations of lipases may soon result in the replacement of chemical catalysts with enzymes in biodiesel synthesis. Engineering of enzymatic biodiesel synthesis processes requires optimization of such factors as: molar ratio of substrates (triacylglycerols: alcohol), temperature, type of organic solvent (if any) and water activity. All of them are correlated with properties of lipase preparation. This paper reports on the interplay between the crucial parameters of the lipase-catalyzed reactions carried out in non-aqueous systems and the yield of biodiesel synthesis. (author)

  13. Exploring health professionals' perspectives on factors affecting Iranian hospital efficiency and suggestions for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Hossein Haji Ali; Moss, John R; Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal

    2011-01-01

    While numerous studies have been undertaken in many developed countries and in a few developing countries, there has so far been no systematic attempt to identify factors affecting efficiency in the Iranian hospitals. This study was designed to elicit the perspectives of a group of health professionals and managers so as to analyse factors affecting the efficiency of hospitals owned by the Iranian Social Security Organization (SSO), which is the second largest institutional source of hospital care in that country. This study also aimed to identify actions that would improve efficiency. Using purposive sampling (to identify key informants), interviews with seventeen health professionals and hospital managers involved in the SSO health system were conducted. The respondents identified a number of organizational factors affecting efficiency, particularly the hospital budgeting and payment system used to fund physicians, and the lack of the managerial skills needed to manage complex facilities such as hospitals. The interviewees stressed the necessity for reforms of the regulatory framework to improve efficiency. A few participants recommended the concept of a funder-provider split. The results of this exploratory study have provided meaningful insight into Iranian health professionals views of factors affecting efficiency, and of possible remedial actions. It is expected that the findings will provide guidance for health policy makers and hospital managers in the Iranian SSO to analyse factors affecting efficiency and to identify remedial actions to improve efficiency. Hospitals in other developing countries may be affected by similar factors. PMID:20603856

  14. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fred J. Eller; Debra E. Palmquist

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-?-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about ...

  15. Main factors that affect the economic efficiency of broiler breeder production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EH, Carvalho; JB, Zilli; AS, Mendes; GM, Morello; DV, Bonamigo.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the factors that affect the economic efficiency of broiler breeder production using the analysis of stochastic profit frontier function. Data were collected in 48 broiler breeder farms contracted by a commercial company located in southwestern Paraná, Brazil. The coll [...] ected data refer to the last batch of fertile eggs that was delivered to the company, between January, 2008, and July, 2009. The following parameters were evaluated: production of hatching eggs per hen (number of eggs/hen), hatchability (hatch %), feed intake per hatching egg (g feed/ egg), production scale (number of birds/batch), farmer's experience in production activities, and labor type. Factors, such as area of occupied land, electricity costs, and invested capital were also evaluated. Results showed that the cost of electricity, as well as area of occupied land, production scale, and feed intake per hatching egg significantly affect the economic efficiency of the broiler breeder farms in Southwestern Paraná, Brazil.

  16. Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ziyi; Sun, Xingshen; Chen, Juan; Leno, Gregory H.; ENGELHARDT, JOHN F.

    2005-01-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females is a foundational strategy for a number of assisted reproductive technologies, including cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In an attempt to develop efficient ET in domestic ferrets, factors affecting development of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts in the oviduct or uterus was evaluated in recipient nulliparous or primiparous females. Developing fetuses were collected from recipie...

  17. An Evaluation of the Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Some Sorting Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabiyisi S.O.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sorting allows information or data to be put into a meaningful order. As efficiency is a major concern of computing, data are sorted in order to gain the efficiency in retrieving or searching tasks. The factors affecting the efficiency of shell, Heap, Bubble, Quick and Merge sorting techniques in terms of running time, memory usage and the number of exchanges were investigated. Experiment was conducted for the decision variables generated from algorithms implemented in Java programming and factor analysis by principal components of the obtained experimental data was carried out in order to estimate the contribution of each factor to the success of the sorting algorithms. Further statistical analysis was carried out to generate eigenvalue of the extracted factor and hence, a system of linear equations which was used to estimate the assessment of each factor of the sorting techniques was proposed. The study revealed that the main factor affecting these sorting techniques was time taken to sort. It contributed 97.842%, 97.693%, 89.351%, 98.336% and 90.480% for Bubble sort, Heap sort, Merge sort, Quick sort and Shell sort respectively. The number of swap came second contributing 1.587% for Bubble sort, 2.305% for Heap sort, 10.63% for Merge sort, 1.643% for Quick sort and 9.514% for Shell sort. The memory used was the least of the factors contributing negligible percentage for the five sorting techniques. It contributed 0.571% for Bubble sort, 0.002% for Heap sort, 0.011% for Merge sort, 0.021% for Quick sort and 0.006% for Shell sort.

  18. Factors affecting SFHR gene correction efficiency with single-stranded DNA fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 606-nt single-stranded (ss) DNA fragment, prepared by restriction enzyme digestion of ss phagemid DNA, improves the gene correction efficiency by 12-fold as compared with a PCR fragment, which is the conventional type of fragment used in the small fragment homologous replacement method [H. Tsuchiya, H. Harashima, H. Kamiya, Increased SFHR gene correction efficiency with sense single-stranded DNA, J. Gene Med. 7 (2005) 486-493]. To reveal the characteristic features of this gene correction with the ss DNA fragment, the effects on the gene correction in CHO-K1 cells of the chain length, 5'-phosphate, adenine methylation, and transcription were studied. Moreover, the possibility that the ss DNA fragment is integrated into the target DNA was examined with a radioactively labeled ss DNA fragment. The presence of methylated adenine, but not the 5'-phosphate, enhanced the gene correction efficiency, and the optimal length of the ss DNA fragment (?600 nt) was determined. Transcription of the target gene did not affect the gene correction efficiency. In addition, the target DNA recovered from the transfected CHO-K1 cells was radioactive. The results obtained in this study indicate that length and adenine methylation were important factors affecting the gene correction efficiency, and that the ss DNA fragment was integrated into the double-stranded target DNA

  19. Factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide(AS-ODNs) transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles. Methods: Lipid microbubbles filled with two types of gases-air and C3F8, were prepared respectively. An AS-ODNs sequence HA824 and a breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 were used to define the various operating variables determining the transfection efficiency of insonated microbubbles. Two mixing methods, three levels of mixing speed, different mixing durations and various ultrasound initiation time after mixing were examined respectively. Transfection efficiency was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Results: C3F8 microbubbles gave higher levels of AS-ODNs transfection efficiency than air microbubbles in all test conditions. Transfection efficiency resulted from mixing method A (incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells) did not show significant difference with that of mixing method B (without incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells). Mixing speed, duration of mixing and ultrasound initiation time after mixing were central to determining HA824 transfection efficiency in vitro. The optimum parameters for SK-BR-3 cells were found at a mixing speed of 40-50 rpm for 30-60 s with less than 60 s delay before ultrasound. Conclusion: Ultrasound-mediated AS-ODNs transfection enhanced by C3F8-filled lipid microbubbles represents an effective avenue for AS-ODNs transfer

  20. Factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yingzheng [General Hospital of Beijing Military Command of PLA, Department of Clinical Pharmacology (China)], E-mail: lctuua@yahoo.com.cn; Lu Cuitao [Madam Medical Management Group (China)

    2008-03-15

    Objective: To investigate the factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide(AS-ODNs) transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles. Methods: Lipid microbubbles filled with two types of gases-air and C{sub 3}F{sub 8}, were prepared respectively. An AS-ODNs sequence HA824 and a breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 were used to define the various operating variables determining the transfection efficiency of insonated microbubbles. Two mixing methods, three levels of mixing speed, different mixing durations and various ultrasound initiation time after mixing were examined respectively. Transfection efficiency was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Results: C{sub 3}F{sub 8} microbubbles gave higher levels of AS-ODNs transfection efficiency than air microbubbles in all test conditions. Transfection efficiency resulted from mixing method A (incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells) did not show significant difference with that of mixing method B (without incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells). Mixing speed, duration of mixing and ultrasound initiation time after mixing were central to determining HA824 transfection efficiency in vitro. The optimum parameters for SK-BR-3 cells were found at a mixing speed of 40-50 rpm for 30-60 s with less than 60 s delay before ultrasound. Conclusion: Ultrasound-mediated AS-ODNs transfection enhanced by C{sub 3}F{sub 8}-filled lipid microbubbles represents an effective avenue for AS-ODNs transfer.

  1. Investigation of some factors affecting the efficiency of carbon steel security in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors such as current intensity impose, anode materials and electrode auxiliary substances affect to the protective effect for carbon steel cathodic in the soil by external current impose. When increasing current intensity impose from 0.14; 0.5 and 1 mA, the protective cathodic effect increased, however, for the system by current impose 0.14 mA, after 96 hours of protection, voltage of carbon steel cathodic is -1.27 V/Cu/CuSO4 and in the range of voltage protection standard (-0.85 to -1.45 V/Cu/CuSO4). Efficiency of the cathodic protective system increases when using PbO2/304 stainless anode 2-TiO2/304 stainless nanocomposite 2- TiO2/304 stainless composite. Electrode auxiliary substance on the basis of 65% bentonite + 6% carbon powder + 29% H2O reduced effective protection of cathode. (author)

  2. Analysis of factors affecting the light collection efficiency in CT detector: CWO+PIN diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Sung W.; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Ho K.; Cho, Gyuseong; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Goh, Sung Min; Lee, Yoon; Park, Jung Byung

    2002-05-01

    The solid-state detector(SSD) for X-CT consists of photodiode coupled to CdWO4$(CWO. It is important to maximize the light collection in respect of a patient's dose, radiation effect and X-ray efficiency. The factors affecting the light collection efficiency are analyzed and optimized by using experimental data and appropriate simulation code. Quantum nomogram is used to investigate the signal propagation characteristics of optimally designed solid-state detector and to ensure at which stage quantum sink occurs. This paper shows that the part of SSD, the CWO of treatment with ground top/ground side yields higher quanta than that of ground top/polish side, which is different from the result of previous studies. We also shows that optimum thickness of SiN passivation and p-layer is 0.12mm and 0.1mm, respectively. From the quantum nomogram calculated for optimal design, it is predicted that the most serious signal degradation occurs at the photodiode.

  3. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Collection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred J. Eller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q, male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-?-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on” and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h. Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

  4. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Fred J; Palmquist, Debra E

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-?-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after "lights on") and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils. PMID:26462948

  5. Factors Affecting the Technical Efficiency Level of Inshore Fisheries in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Latiff; Mohd. Ariff Hussein; Nalini Arumugam; Nurul Aisyah

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine factors affectingthe technical efficiency of the inshore fisheries in KualaTerengganu. Data for the study was collected from a surveyconducted between June and August 2007 where 100 fishermenin 14 villages were chosen by stratified sampling. Data envelopmentanalysis (DEA) and Tobit analysis were employed to determinethe technical efficiency level and factors influencing technicalefficiency among the fishermen. Results of the study show that,most fis...

  6. Comparison of Soybean Transformation Efficiency and Plant Factors Affecting Transformation during the Agrobacterium Infection Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Jia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of soybean genotype to Agrobacterium infection is a key factor for the high level of genetic transformation efficiency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the plant factors related to transformation in cotyledonary nodes during the Agrobacterium infection process. This study selected three genotypes (Williams 82, Shennong 9 and Bert with high transformation efficiency, which presented better susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection, and three low transformation efficiency genotypes (General, Liaodou 16 and Kottman, which showed a relatively weak susceptibility. Gibberellin (GA levels and soybean GA20ox2 and CYP707A2 transcripts of high-efficiency genotypes increased and were higher than those of low-efficiency genotypes; however, the opposite performance was shown in abscisic acid (ABA. Higher zeatin riboside (ZR content and DNA quantity, and relatively higher expression of soybean IPT5, CYCD3 and CYCA3 were obtained in high-efficiency genotypes. High-efficiency genotypes had low methyl jasmonate (MeJA content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD activity, and relatively lower expression of soybean OPR3, PPO1 and PRX71. GA and ZR were positive plant factors for Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation by facilitating germination and growth, and increasing the number of cells in DNA synthesis cycle, respectively; MeJA, PPO, POD and ABA were negative plant factors by inducing defence reactions and repressing germination and growth, respectively.

  7. Comparison of Soybean Transformation Efficiency and Plant Factors Affecting Transformation during the Agrobacterium Infection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuying; Yao, Xingdong; Zhao, Mingzhe; Zhao, Qiang; Du, Yanli; Yu, Cuimei; Xie, Futi

    2015-01-01

    The susceptibility of soybean genotype to Agrobacterium infection is a key factor for the high level of genetic transformation efficiency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the plant factors related to transformation in cotyledonary nodes during the Agrobacterium infection process. This study selected three genotypes (Williams 82, Shennong 9 and Bert) with high transformation efficiency, which presented better susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection, and three low transformation efficiency genotypes (General, Liaodou 16 and Kottman), which showed a relatively weak susceptibility. Gibberellin (GA) levels and soybean GA20ox2 and CYP707A2 transcripts of high-efficiency genotypes increased and were higher than those of low-efficiency genotypes; however, the opposite performance was shown in abscisic acid (ABA). Higher zeatin riboside (ZR) content and DNA quantity, and relatively higher expression of soybean IPT5, CYCD3 and CYCA3 were obtained in high-efficiency genotypes. High-efficiency genotypes had low methyl jasmonate (MeJA) content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, and relatively lower expression of soybean OPR3, PPO1 and PRX71. GA and ZR were positive plant factors for Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation by facilitating germination and growth, and increasing the number of cells in DNA synthesis cycle, respectively; MeJA, PPO, POD and ABA were negative plant factors by inducing defence reactions and repressing germination and growth, respectively. PMID:26262617

  8. Factors affecting pheromone production by the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and collection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several factors which might affect pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were investigated. Included were a comparison of porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), the effect of male age, the effect of time of day, the effect of mal...

  9. Factors Affecting the Technical Efficiency Level of Inshore Fisheries in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Latiff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine factors affectingthe technical efficiency of the inshore fisheries in KualaTerengganu. Data for the study was collected from a surveyconducted between June and August 2007 where 100 fishermenin 14 villages were chosen by stratified sampling. Data envelopmentanalysis (DEA and Tobit analysis were employed to determinethe technical efficiency level and factors influencing technicalefficiency among the fishermen. Results of the study show that,most fishing units exhibit a low degree of technical efficiency.This implies that either fishing inputs were used inefficiently orinsufficient inputs were used in fishing activities. The meantechnical efficiency for the sample was estimated to be 55% forthe peak season and 40% for the non peak season. About 37%and 62% of the fishermen had less than 40% level of technicalefficiency in peak season and non peak season respectively.Management variables (planning, staffing and controlling anddemographic variables (size of horsepower, size of family andformal education exert positive effects on technical efficiencyof inshore fisheries in Kuala Terengganu. These findings suggestthat there is much room for improvement in efficiency among alarge segment of the inshore fishermen. With appropriate trainingand using more advanced technologies, fishermen’ level oftechnical efficiency can be raised.

  10. Factors affecting efficient in vitro micropropagation of Muscari muscarimi Medikus using twin bulb scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Unal, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Endemic Muscari muscarimi Medikus is the most fragrant plant among Muscari species and has a high ornamental potential. The natural populations of M. muscarimi, are severely affected by increased environmental pollution and urbanization. There is a need to develop a micropropagation method that should serve effectively for commercial propagation and conservation. Therefore, the study targeted to set up a strategy for efficient in vitro bulblet regeneration system of M. muscarimi using twin sc...

  11. Regeneration in Jatropha curcas: Factors affecting the efficiency of in vitro regeneration

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Sweta K.

    2011-07-01

    Factors influencing in vitro regeneration through direct shoot bud induction from hypocotyl explants of Jatropha curcas were studied in the present investigation. Regeneration in J. curcas was found to be genotype dependent and out of four toxic and one non-toxic genotype studied, non-toxic was least responsive. The best results irrespective of genotype were obtained on the medium containing 0.5mgL-1 TDZ (Thidiazuron) and in vitro hypocotyl explants were observed to have higher regeneration efficiency as compared to ex vitro explant in both toxic and non-toxic genotypes. Adventitious shoot buds could be induced from the distal end of explants in all the genotypes. The number of shoot buds formed and not the number of explants responding to TDZ treatment were significantly affected by the position of the explant on the seedling axis. Explants from younger seedlings (≤15 days) were still juvenile and formed callus easily, whereas the regeneration response declined with increase in age of seedlings after 30 days. Transient reduction of Ca2+ concentrations to 0.22gL-1 in the germination medium increased the number of responding explants.Induced shoot buds, upon transfer to MS medium containing 2mgL-1 Kn (Kinetin) and 1mgL-1 BAP (6-benzylamino purine) elongated. These elongated shoots were further proliferated on MS medium supplemented with 1.5mgL-1 IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and 0.5mgL-1 BAP and 3.01-3.91cm elongation was achieved after 6 weeks. No genotype specific variance in shoot elongation was observed among the toxic genotypes except the CSMCRI-JC2, which showed reduced response. And for proliferation among the toxic genotypes, CSMCRI-JC4 showed highest number of shoots formed. Among the rest, no significant differences were observed. The elongated shoot could be rooted by pulse treatment on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 3mgL-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), 1mgL-1 IAA, 1mgL-1 NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) and subsequent transfer on 0.25mgL-1 activated charcoal medium. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% success. No significant differences were observed in rooting of shoots in the different toxic genotypes. However, rooting response was reduced in non-toxic genotype as compared to toxic genotypes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENCY OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CATTLE AND BUFFALO IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    M. Anzar*, U. Farooq**, M.A. Mirza*, M. Shahab** and N. Ahmad*

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect the success of artificial insemination (A.I) services under field conditions. The data from a total of 459 inseminations were analyzed. The effects of farm, animal, semen/bull and A.I. technician on conception rate were studied. Milk progesterone concentration was used as an indicator of conception. Milk samples were collected from animals at day 0, 11 and 22 post-insemination and analysed for progesterone (P4) concentr...

  13. Factors affecting the efficiency of foal production in a commercial oocyte transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Fernando L; Roldán, Jaime E; Gomez, José; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    Transfer of donor oocytes to the oviducts of inseminated recipient mares (oocyte transfer, OT) presents a valuable method for production of foals from otherwise infertile mares. Little information is available, however, on factors affecting success of OT in a clinical setting. We report the findings over three breeding seasons in a commercial OT program developed at an equine embryo transfer center in Argentina. Overall, 25 mares were enrolled, and 197 follicle aspiration procedures were performed. The average mare age was 23 years. Follicle aspiration was performed with a needle placed through the flank; the oocyte recovery rate per follicle aspirated was 149 of 227 (66%). Induction of donor ovulation with deslorelin + hCG resulted in a significantly higher oocyte recovery rate than did induction with deslorelin alone (75% vs. 58%). There was no significant effect of mare age (17-20, 21-24, or 25-27 years) on oocyte recovery rate. Twelve oocytes were degenerating or lost during handling; transfer of the remaining 137 oocytes resulted in 42 pregnancies (31%) at 14 days. Of these, 32 (23% per transfer) went on to produce a foal or ongoing pregnancy. Transfer of oocytes recovered with a compact cumulus, without donor follicle induction, or less than 20 hours after induction was associated with a significantly reduced pregnancy rate (1/16, 6%), as was use of noncycling, hormone-treated recipients (2/22, 9%). To evaluate management factors affecting pregnancy rate, noncycling, hormone-treated recipients were disregarded, and only procedures using mature (expanded cumulus) oocytes recovered and transferred on the standard schedule (n = 99) were included. Mare age did not significantly affect rates of pregnancy or pregnancy loss. Similar pregnancy rates were obtained using recipients inseminated from 1 to 27 hours before transfer. Counterintuitively, insemination of recipients immediately (1-2 hours) after aspiration of the recipient follicle was associated with a high pregnancy rate (10/12, 83%). There was no significant effect on pregnancy rate of donor induction agent, the time the oocyte was in culture (2-20 hours) before transfer, time from recipient insemination to transfer, or total time from donor induction to transfer (32-45 hours). These findings establish that OT is robust, in that it is effective over a wide variation in timing of the different components involved, and can be successfully developed in a private embryo transfer practice. PMID:26709118

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENCY OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CATTLE AND BUFFALO IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anzar*, U. Farooq**, M.A. Mirza*, M. Shahab** and N. Ahmad*

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect the success of artificial insemination (A.I services under field conditions. The data from a total of 459 inseminations were analyzed. The effects of farm, animal, semen/bull and A.I. technician on conception rate were studied. Milk progesterone concentration was used as an indicator of conception. Milk samples were collected from animals at day 0, 11 and 22 post-insemination and analysed for progesterone (P4 concentrations using radioimmunoassay (RIA kits. Results indicated that the overall conception rate through A.I. under field condition was 29%. Among the farm-related factors, only region had a significant effect on conception rate (P0.05. Animals inseminated within 24 hours after the onset of estrus had a higher, though statistically insignificant, conception rate than those inseminated after 24 hours. Among the animal-related factors, species, milk production, body condition score (BCS, lactation state, heat signs and uterine tone had a significant effect on conception rate. The conception rate in buffaloes was higher than in cattle (P<0.05. Animals with the higher BCS had a better conception rate than those having lower condition. Conception rate in the milking animals was more than the dry ones (P<0.05. Animals showing the passage of mucus from external genitalia (P<0.05 and marked uterine tone (P<0.01 showed better conception rate. Among the semen/bull related factors, bull breed, semen type, quality and source had a marked effect on conception rate. The conception rate was higher with the semen of cross bred and buffalo bulls (P<0.05. The conception rate with liquid semen was high and low with frozen semen (P<0.01. Good quality semen yielded higher conception rate than poor quality semen (P<0.01. The conception rate varied significantly due to A.I. technician (P<0.01. In conclusion, there is a tremendous scope to improve the existing A.I. technology in field through improved management of both animal and farm, supply of high quality frozen semen and enhancement in insemination skill of A.I. technicians.

  15. Factors affecting efficient in vitro micropropagation of Muscari muscarimi Medikus using twin bulb scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Unal, Fatma

    2015-03-01

    Endemic Muscari muscarimi Medikus is the most fragrant plant among Muscari species and has a high ornamental potential. The natural populations of M. muscarimi, are severely affected by increased environmental pollution and urbanization. There is a need to develop a micropropagation method that should serve effectively for commercial propagation and conservation. Therefore, the study targeted to set up a strategy for efficient in vitro bulblet regeneration system of M. muscarimi using twin scale bulb explants on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.44, 8.88, 17.76 ?M BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) plus 2.685, 5.37, 10.74 ?M NAA (?-Naphthalene acetic acid). Maximum number of 19 daughter axillary bulblets and 16 daughter adventitious bulblets per twin bulb scale explant was regenerated on 1.0 × MS medium containing 17.76 ?M BAP plus 10.74 ?M NAA and 17.76 ?M BAP plus 2.685 ?M NAA respectively. The daughter bulblets regenerated on twin bulb scales on 8 out of 9 regeneration treatment could be easily rooted on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.9 ?M IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid). The daughter bulblets regenerated on 9th treatment (1.0 × MS medium containing 17.76 ?M BAP plus 10.74 ?M NAA) were transferred to 1.0 × MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose to break negative carry over effect of this dose of BAP-NAA, where they grew 2-3 roots of variable length. Daughter bulblet diameter was increased by culturing them on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.44 ?M BAP plus 5.37 ?M NAA. The results verified that both age and the source of explants had significant effect on regeneration. In another set of experiments, twin scales were obtained from in vitro regenerated daughter bulblets, although they induced bulblets, yet their bulblet regeneration percentage, mean number of bulblets per explant and their diameter were significantly reduced. In vitro regenerated bulblets were acclimatized in growth chamber under ambient conditions of temperature and humidity on peat moss, where they flowered. The study provides important information about selection of suitable micropropagation medium, strategies to improve bulblet diameter and rooting of M. muscarimi which offers a scope for commercial propagation. PMID:25737643

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING EFFICIENT CONSTRUCTION PROJECT DESIGN DEVELOPMENT: A PERSPECTIVE FROM INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanshu Pandit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Internationally projects exhibit time and cost overrun. It is observed that problems during design development contribute significantly to delays. In India, projects undertaken by government were largely planned and designed by departmental planners and engineers. However, after globalization, projects have increased in number resulting in design outsourcing, but with attendant challenges. The paper is aimed at identifying and analysing factors in the design development phase that can have impact on project success. 30 factors related to design development were identified through two separate brainstorming sessions. A questionnaire was then administered to determine importance ranking of these factors. Relative importance index (RII was used to prioritise these factors. Top ten factors in design development identified using RII include structural design parameters, soil investigations, design quality control, topographic survey, and architectural design parameters. The results can help firms improve their design development practices by prioritising activities that could have more impact on project performance.

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTOR THAT AFFECT TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimjel Zalkuwi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 250 farmers using purposive and simple random sampling with aid of structured schedule .The result of the stochastic frontier production 2 function analysis shows that the variance parameters, that is the sigma squared (? and the gamma (? were statistically significant at 1 % level for cowpea production. The coefficient of farm size, labour, seed and chemical were positive and significant at 1% level while family and hired labor was negative and insignificant. Profit level can be increased by increasing the amount of farm size, labour, quantity of seed and chemical, and decreasing the use of fertilizer. Mean efficiency were 0.73, Farmers operate at 27% below frontier level due to variation in technical efficiency. The inefficiency model shows that the coefficient of Age, family size and farming experience have negative apriori sign and in consonance with the apriori expectation

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENCY OF BUSINESS WITH INNOVATIVE TOOLS OF INTERCOMPANY AND STRATEGIC PLANNING AT INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchepakin M. B.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative tools of intercompany and strategic planning are designed to form interconnected tasks structural units of industrial enterprises and complexes in the sought after amount based on the cost of production of interdependent. Intercompany planning has no tools based on chain planning with cyclic calculations. Allocation of factors affecting business performance is a mandatory procedure in the development of innovative tools and intercompany strategic planning in industrial plants and complexes. Factors determining the efficiency of intercompany and strategic planning at industrial enterprises and complexes require detailed classification. The article examines the factors that determine the effectiveness of intercompany and strategic planning. The classification of factors, that are offered, which can form a conceptual framework of business development strategy for a long period of time, based on the use of interrelated production plans for the following criteria: conceptual, stabilization and functional. The developed classification of factors, which determines the efficiency of intercompany and strategic planning, allows us to: generate the concept of strategic business development; establish the optimum parameters of the structure and volume of internal and external supply, to determine the required size of lending and investment; achieve stabilization of interests of the economy and the level of investment attractiveness of the business, etc. Based on it, becomes possible to develop a methodology and logical approach to the formation of innovative tools intercompany and strategic planning at industrial enterprises (complexes

  19. Factors affecting the efficiency of producing porcine embryos expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein by ICSI-mediated gene transfer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Wan, Peng-Cheng; Hao, Ze-Dong; Zeng, Shen-Ming

    2009-07-01

    This study aims to investigate factors that affect the efficiency of blastocyst development and enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) expression in porcine embryos following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-mediated DNA transfer. Frozen-thawed dead spermatozoa were exposed to different concentrations (0.01 microg/mL, 0.05 microg/mL or 0.1 microg/mL) of EGFP DNA solution, and then microinjected into in vitro matured oocytes. The optimal concentration for EGFP expression of resultant embryos was 0.05 microg/mL. When oocytes were microinjected on a warm stage at 30 degrees C, the percentage of EGFP-expressing embryos was higher than that at 38.5 degrees C (40.1% vs. 20.9%, Psperm and DNA prevented the embryos from expressing EGFP. The EGFP expression of ICSI oocytes was affected neither by intracytoplasmic injection using sperm heads or whole spermatozoa, nor by washing of the sperm after preincubation. The above-mentioned factors did not affect embryonic developmental competence, apart from 6-DMAP treatment after electro-activation. In conclusion, most exogenous DNA molecules were tightly bound on the membranes of sperm head after incubation of DNA and sperm, and the temperature during ICSI, 6-DMAP treatment, exogenous DNA concentrations and constructs could significantly affect EGFP expression in porcine embryos following ICSI-mediated DNA transfer. PMID:18804336

  20. Factors Affecting the Technical Efficiency of Health Systems: A Case Study of Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO Countries (2004–10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Ravangard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Improving efficiency of health sector is of particular importance in all countries. To reach this end, it is paramount to measure the efficiency. On the other hand, there are many factors that affect the efficiency of health systems. This study aimed to measure the Technical Efficiency (TE of health systems in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO countries during 2004–10 and to determine the factors affecting their TE. Methods This was a descriptive-analytical and panel study. The required data were gathered using library and field studies, available statistics and international websites through completing data collection forms. In this study, the TE of health systems in 10 ECO countries was measured using their available data and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA through two approaches. The first approach used GDP per capita, education and smoking as its inputs and life expectancy and infant mortality rates as the outputs. The second approach, also, used the health expenditures per capita, the number of physicians per thousand people, and the number of hospital beds per thousand people as its inputs and life expectancy and under-5 mortality rates as the outputs. Then, the factors affecting the TE of health systems were determined using the panel data logit model. Excel 2010, Win4Deap 1.1.2 and Stata 11.0 were used to analyze the collected data. Results According to the first approach, the mean TE of health systems was 0.497 and based on the second one it was 0.563. Turkey and Turkmenistan had, respectively, the highest and lowest mean of efficiency. Also, the results of panel data logit model showed that only GDP per capita and health expenditures per capita had significant relationships with the TE of health systems. Conclusion In order to maximize the TE of health systems, health policy-makers should pay special attention to the proper use of healthcare resources according to the people’s needs, the appropriate management of the health system resources, allocating adequate budgets to the health sector, establishing an appropriate referral system to provide better public access to health services according to their income and needs, among many others.

  1. Factors that affect the quality and efficiency of artificial insemination in oestrus synchronization programmes in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed during a three-year period in order to identify the factors affecting quality and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) when it is used in cattle subjected to oestrus induction and synchronization (OIS) programmes. The study took place in the Western part of the country and 3 herds with a total of 6357 animals were used. The first study was a survey to evaluate the factors affecting the efficiency of AI in OIS. The second study examined the effects of body condition score (BCS) and three different regimes of OIS on the results of AI. Progesterone levels were measured in blood and milk using radioimmunoassay to determine the incidence of acyclic animals in the herds. Data were recorded and analysed using the artificial insemination database application (AIDA) and further statistical analyses were done using Systat. The results found in the survey showed a low conception rate (18%) and a great variability in the period from calving to conception (154 ± 98.11 days). The latter parameter was significantly different between herds (P<0.001). A high percentage of animals selected for OIS programmes (37%) showed a poor BCS (<2.5 on a scale of 1-5). Motility of semen used for AI was low (<30%) in 47% of the samples evaluated. The results from progesterone measurements demonstrated that the reasons for poor fertility were low accuracy in oestrus detection, poor response to treatment for OIS, non-fertilization, embryo mortality and functional disturbances present after treatment. Under our field conditions during the dry season, acyclicity (anoestrus) is a frequent problem in primiparous cows and in those with poor BCS. The BCS in heifers and the quality of different treatments had a significant effect on the conception rate. These results confirm that the use of progesterone measurement together with data management using AIDA is a very appropriate way to evaluate and improve the quality and efficiency of AI in OIS programmes. (author)

  2. Factors affecting nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the factors affecting nuclear development, some depend more or less on public authorities, but many are out of public authorities control (foreign policies, market and deregulation, socials and environmental impacts, public opinion). As far as possible, the following study tries to identify those factors. (D.L.). 2 photos

  3. Integrated Analysis of Transcriptomic and Proteomic Datasets Reveals Information on Protein Expressivity and Factors Affecting Translational Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangxin; Wu, Gang; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Integrated analysis of large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic data can provide important insights into the metabolic mechanisms underlying complex biological systems. In this chapter, we present methods to address two aspects of issues related to integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. First, due to the fact that proteomic datasets are often incomplete, and integrated analysis of partial proteomic data may introduce significant bias. To address these issues, we describe a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP)-based model to uncover the complicated relationships between protein abundances and mRNA expression levels, and then apply them to predict protein abundance for the proteins not experimentally detected. The ZIP model takes into consideration the undetected proteins by assuming that there is a probability mass at zero representing expressed proteins that were undetected owing to technical limitations. The model validity is demonstrated using biological information of operons, regulons, and pathways. Second, weak correlation between transcriptomic and proteomic datasets is often due to biological factors affecting translational processes. To quantify the effects of these factors, we describe a multiple regression-based statistical framework to quantitatively examine the effects of various translational efficiency-related sequence features on mRNA-protein correlation. Using the datasets from sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris, the analysis shows that translation-related sequence features can contribute up to 15.2-26.2 % of the total variation of the correlation between transcriptomic and proteomic datasets, and also reveals the relative importance of various features in translation process. PMID:25762301

  4. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  5. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Yohannes Worku; Mammo Muchie

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency...

  6. Factor analysis of the most informative parameters affecting the efficiency of training wrestling students of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko S.V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensively analyzed the various factors that affect the absorption of the students practical course in wrestling. The study involved 98 boys - 3rd year students of the Faculty of Physical Education, who begin the study of the course Combating and methods of teaching. Also, 32 students who are engaged in the struggle. The results of studies of anthropometric, physical, functional, ergonomics students. The input data for the factor analysis were the first 3-ranking figure, biomechanical, physical fitness and functional status, anthropometric. It is established that the content of the first most significant factors included biomechanical parameters that demonstrate the value of balance and coordination abilities of others.

  7. FACTORS AFFECTING PITCH DISCRIMINATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERGAN, JOHN R.

    EFFECTS OF TONAL MEMORY OF TWO KINDS OF FACTORS WERE STUDIED. THE FACTORS WERE (1) THE CHARACTERISTICS OF STIMULI PRESENTED TO THE SUBJECT IN A PITCH IDENTIFICATION TASK, AND (2) THOSE EFFECTING THE RESPONSE THAT THE SUBJECT MAKES IN SUCH A TASK. FIVE HYPOTHESES WERE ADVANCED FOR STUDY. THE UNDERLYING ASSUMPTION WAS THAT THERE ARE IMPORTANT…

  8. Factors Affecting Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    M.Mathiyazhagan; A.Ganapathi

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable alternate fuel to diesel engines that could be partially orfully replace or reduce the use of petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be produced fromplant and animal fats through transesterification reaction. The transesterification reaction isaffected by molar ratio of alcohol, presence of water and Free Fatty Acid content, reactiontemperature, catalyst concentration and agitation speed. This review paper discuss aboutthe factors involved in transesterification reaction.

  9. Factors Affecting Students' Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Harb, Nasri; El-Shaarawi, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Determinants of students' performance have been the subject of ongoing debate among educators, academics, and policy makers. There have been many studies that sought to examine this issue and their findings point out to hard work, previous schooling, parents’ education, family income and self motivation as factors that have a significant effect on the students GPA. Most of those studies have focused on students' performance in the U.S. and Europe. However, since cultural differences may p...

  10. Factors affecting study efficiency and item non-response in health surveys in developing countries: the Jamaica national healthy lifestyle survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Franklyn

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health surveys provide important information on the burden and secular trends of risk factors and disease. Several factors including survey and item non-response can affect data quality. There are few reports on efficiency, validity and the impact of item non-response, from developing countries. This report examines factors associated with item non-response and study efficiency in a national health survey in a developing Caribbean island. Methods A national sample of participants aged 15–74 years was selected in a multi-stage sampling design accounting for 4 health regions and 14 parishes using enumeration districts as primary sampling units. Means and proportions of the variables of interest were compared between various categories. Non-response was defined as failure to provide an analyzable response. Linear and logistic regression models accounting for sample design and post-stratification weighting were used to identify independent correlates of recruitment efficiency and item non-response. Results We recruited 2012 15–74 year-olds (66.2% females at a response rate of 87.6% with significant variation between regions (80.9% to 97.6%; p Conclusion Informative health surveys are possible in developing countries. While survey response rates may be satisfactory, item non-response was high in respect of income and sexual practice. In contrast to developed countries, non-response to questions on income is higher and has different correlates. These findings can inform future surveys.

  11. Investigations into factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of dairy cattle in peri-urban areas of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the productivity, feeding and fertility of 63 cows from 6 farms and a second survey of 49 cows from 5 farms, including in both surveys one with pure bred Holstein Friesians and the rest with cross breeds, showed that those calving in thinner body condition had significantly poorer subsequent fertility. This implied that nutrition in late pregnancy may be an important determining factor in fertility in dairy cows in the peri-urban areas of Khartoum. Cows calving during the dry season were more at risk. No clear advantages or disadvantages were identified for pure-bred cows. Laboratory analysis of feeds, some assessment of intakes and some blood metabolite measurements suggested that neither dietary protein nor phosphate were constraints. The number of days to first progesterone rise on all farms was not extended and many cows conceived in less than 83 days after calving. Many others did not conceive at all but the number showing no evidence of oestrous cycles was small. Failure to conceive seemed to have been a greater problem than failure to cycle. With 27% of blood samples showing evidence of chronic inflammation through high globulin values, investigations into possible disease causes of poor fertility are needed. (author)

  12. Identifying the factors affecting the willingness to pay for fuel-efficient vehicles in Turkey: A case of hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to determine the factors that have an impact on the consumers' willingness to pay a premium for hybrid automobiles in Turkey. A web-based random survey was conducted in different regions of Turkey. A questionnaire was administered to 1983 participants in January-March of 2009. The questionnaire was prepared by taking the issues raised in various sources into account. An ordered Probit model was used to meet the objective. Results show that variables such as income, gender, education, concerns about global warming, number of automobiles, importance of automobile performance, risk preference, attitude toward the alternative energy sources have an impact on the consumers' willingness to pay a premium for hybrids. Findings suggest that consumers who have high income, higher educational level, and concerns about the global warming are more likely to pay a premium for hybrids. This study is expected to make important contributions to the current literature related to the consumers' willingness to pay for hybrids by providing a research study from a developing country's perspective. Results of this study also make important contributions to the policy and decision makers, environmental groups and automotive industry.

  13. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    OpenAIRE

    McBride Sebastian D; Mills Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of af...

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  15. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  16. Use of a standardized protocol to identify factors affecting the efficiency of artificial insemination services for cattle through progesterone measurement in fourteen countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this co-ordinated research project (CRP) was to quantify the main factors limiting the efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) services in cattle under the prevailing conditions of developing countries, in order to recommend suitable strategies for improving conception rates (CR) and the level of usage of AI by cattle farmers. A standardized approach was used in 14 countries over a five-year period (1995-1999). The countries were: Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam in Asia; and Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela in Latin America. A minimum of 500 cows undergoing first insemination after calving were expected to be monitored in each country. Data regarding farms, AI technicians, semen used, cow inseminated, characteristics of the heat expression and factors related to the insemination were recorded. Three milk samples (or blood samples for dairy heifers and beef cows) were collected for each service to measure progesterone by radioimmunoassay. These were collected on the day of service (day 0) and on days 10-12 and 22-24 after service. Field and laboratory data were recorded in the computer package AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) which was developed for this CRP. The study established the current status of AI services at selected locations in participating countries and showed important differences between Asian and Latin American farming systems. The mean (±s.d.) of the interval from calving to first service for 7992 observations was 120.0 ± 82.1 days (median 95 days) with large differences between countries (P<0.05). The overall CR to first service was 40.9% (n=8196), the most efficient AI services being the ones in Vietnam (62.1%), Chile (61.9%) and Myanmar (58.9%). The interval between the first and second service was 44.6 ± 44.4 days (n=1959). Progesterone data in combination with clinical findings showed that 17.3% of the services were performed in non-cyclic cows; within this group 10.4% of cows were anoestrous or anovulatory, 2.2% were non-pregnant but bearing an active corpus luteum, and 4.7% were already pregnant. The highest incidence of problems was observed in farms of Cuba, Costa Rica, Indonesia and Venezuela. Progesterone data also showed that 27.4% of inseminated cows did not conceive but subsequent heats were unobserved, resulting in their non-pregnancy status being identified only at manual pregnancy diagnosis, usually 80-120 days after service. A further 10.1% of inseminated cows most probably conceived but lost their embryos between 16 and 50-60 days after service. These results show that nearly half of the inseminations were associated with factors of management deficiency or human error in the farms or in the AI service, thus adversely affecting the reproductive performance of the herds and leading to low efficiency of AI services. (author)

  17. Psychological Factors Affecting Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sati Unal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed to determine the psychological factors affecting infertile women presenting at the infertility outpatients department. METHOD: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women who presented at the IVF center of a special branch hospital or a university hospital, March 2008 through September 2008, as determined by the non-random sampling method. All participating women gave their informed consent. The data were collected using the Data Form that consisted of questions on socio-demographic features and the Infertility Distress Scale (IDS. In the results, percentages were provided along with the Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation tests. RESULTS: The mean IDS was 39.01±9.6. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the mean IDS score and age (r=0.106, p=0.048, marriage duration (r=0.232, p<0.001 and duration of desire to have a child (r=0.217, p<0.001. Women who were primary school graduates (X²=13.03, p=0.004, did not work (p=0.007, had no social security benefits (p=0.021 or from low socioeconomic status (X²=24.85, p<0.001 had significantly higher mean IDS scores. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show women become more adversely affected by infertility as their age, duration of marriage, and duration of desire to have a child increase. Women who are primary school graduates, do not work, have no social security benefits or have lower income are affected more negatively. We believe that taking these features into account when evaluating and planning supportive approaches for women presenting at the infertility treatment center and determining the psychological state of the women using the IDS will increase treatment success. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 481-486

  18. Factors affecting alkali jarosite precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrizac, J. E.

    1983-12-01

    Several factors affecting the precipitation of the alkali jarosites (sodium jarosite, potassium jarosite, rubidium jarosite, and ammonium jarosite) have been studied systematically using sodium jarosite as the model. The pH of the reacting solution exercises a major influence on the amount of jarosite formed, but has little effect on the composition of the washed product. Higher temperatures significantly increase the yield and slightly raise the alkali content of the jarosites. The yield and alkali content both increase greatly with the alkali concentration to about twice the stoichiometric requirement but, thereafter, remain nearly constant. At 97 °C, the amount of product increases with longer retention times to about 15 hours, but more prolonged reaction times are without significant effect on the amount or composition of the jarosite. Factors such as the presence of seed or ionic strength have little effect on the yield or jarosite composition. The amount of precipitate augments directly as the iron concentration of the solution increases, but the product composition is nearly independent of this variable. A significant degree of agitation is necessary to suspend the product and to prevent the jarosite from coating the apparatus with correspondingly small yields. Once the product is adequately suspended, however, further agitation is without significant effect. The partitioning of alkali ions during jarosite precipitation was ascertained for K:Na, Na:NH4, K:NH4, and K:Rb. Potassium jarosite is the most stable of the alkali jarosites and the stability falls systematically for lighter or heavier congeners; ammonium jarosite is slightly more stable than the sodium analogue. Complete solid solubility among the various alkali jarosite-type compounds was established.

  19. Factors affecting calculation of L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotola, Mark P.

    2001-08-01

    A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient, radio signals from billions of stars. SETI could succeed tomorrow, or it may be an endeavor for multiple generations. We are a very young technology in a very old galaxy. While our own leakage radiation continues to outshine the Sun at many frequencies, we remain detectable to others. When our use of the spectrum becomes more efficient, it will be time to consider deliberate transmissions and the really tough questions: Who will speak for Earth? What will they say?

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING INTERNATIONAL LABOR MIGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ???????

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  The article reviews the evolution of the main theories that explain the labor migration system impacts on international labor migration are shown. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of external labor migration factors in Ukraine based on the use of the basic tenets of the "push and pull factors" theory.

  1. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    OpenAIRE

    Fethi Ahmet INAN; Erman YUKSELTURK

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention ...

  2. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  3. Factors affecting road crash modeling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Malaya, Mohanty; Ankit, Gupta.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Road accident fatalities have been on an increasing trend for the last decade or so in India. Hence traffic safety management has emerged as a topic of discussion for researchers all over the world. Hence accident modelling on different factors causing them has to be conducted. Accident mod [...] elling helps us to know the real causative agents behind an accident to occur. The effect of one cause can be greater than the other. And those causes can only be known from accident modelling. In this paper we have tried to divide this accident modelling techniques into two different categories based on the location of road i.e. accidents on urban roads and on rural roads. In both urban and rural road accident studies it was seen that mainly regression techniques like linear, multi-linear, logit and poisons regression have been used for modelling the road crashes. It was also marked that mostly authors have tried to research on one cause and go deep into it rather considering all factors at a time. From the studies it was found that speed and age along with gender has been the area of study for accident causes in urban areas whereas in rural roads mostly all authors have limited their studies to speed on roads and has been noted as the major cause of accidents in rural areas. This paper has tried to review as much papers as possible and various gaps in research along with future scope of study in this area has been indicated. Starting from the basic models like negative binomial/Poisson's model to the logistic and linear regressions to the new modeling techniques involving genetic mining and fuzzy logics have been discussed explicitly in the paper.

  4. Factors Affecting Hurricane Evacuation Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Protective actions for hurricane threats are a function of the environmental and information context; individual and household characteristics, including cultural worldviews, past hurricane experiences, and risk perceptions; and motivations and barriers to actions. Using survey data from the Miami-Dade and Houston-Galveston areas, we regress individuals' stated evacuation intentions on these factors in two information conditions: (1) seeing a forecast that a hurricane will hit one's area, and (2) receiving an evacuation order. In both information conditions having an evacuation plan, wanting to keep one's family safe, and viewing one's home as vulnerable to wind damage predict increased evacuation intentions. Some predictors of evacuation intentions differ between locations; for example, Florida respondents with more egalitarian worldviews are more likely to evacuate under both information conditions, and Florida respondents with more individualist worldviews are less likely to evacuate under an evacuation order, but worldview was not significantly associated with evacuation intention for Texas respondents. Differences by information condition also emerge, including: (1) evacuation intentions decrease with age in the evacuation order condition but increase with age in the saw forecast condition, and (2) evacuation intention in the evacuation order condition increases among those who rely on public sources of information on hurricane threats, whereas in the saw forecast condition evacuation intention increases among those who rely on personal sources. Results reinforce the value of focusing hurricane information efforts on evacuation plans and residential vulnerability and suggest avenues for future research on how hurricane contexts shape decision making. PMID:26299597

  5. Physiological factors affecting intrinsic water use efficiency of potato clones within a dihaploid mapping population under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topbjerg, Henrik Bak; Kaminski, Kacper Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing crops water use is essential for ensuring food production under future climate scenarios. Therefore, new cultivars that are capable of maintaining production under limited water resource are needed. This study screened for clonal differences in intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) within a dihaploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) mapping population under well-watered (WW) and drought-stress (DS) conditions. The factorial dependency of WUEi on several plant bio-physiological traits was analyzed, and clonal difference of WUEi was compared. Significant differences in WUEi were found among the clones within the population. Under WW the two clones showing the highest WUEi were significantly different from the two lowest WUEi performing clones. This could only be seen as a trend under DS. Under WW, WUEi differences were closely associated to net photosynthetic rate (An) and nitrogen isotope composition (?15N) in the leaf biomass, but did not relate to stomatal conductance (gs) and carbon isotope composition (?13C) in the leaf biomass. An was found to correlate significantly with leaf nitrogen concentration ([N]leaf) and chlorophyll content index (CCI) under WW. Leaf abscisic acid concentration did not correspond to the changes in gs, indicating that other factors might have been involved in controlling gs among the different clones. Collectively, the clonal differences in WUEi were attributed mainly to the variation in An, which in turn was influenced by plant N metabolism. Clones with high WUEi could be potentially used as material in future breeding programs. Furthermore CCI seemed to be a reliable tool in estimating the clonal An and thereby WUEi.

  6. The influence pattern of key factors affecting the purpose of organizational excellence consulting on the efficiency of businesses consulting services (A case study of small and medium-size food enterprises in Tehran province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ezati Jivan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Consulting helps managers or other people find appropriate solutions for challenges they face in their businesses. Most of the losses incurred by the people and the society could be prevented using appropriate consultation. Consultation, also, refers to people's participation in decision making. Despite dramatic development in management consulting industry in the world during the last three decades, consulting industry in Iran has faced numerous challenges. This study aims to examine the factors affecting the efficiency of management consulting services in small and medium-sized businesses and it focuses on food industries in Tehran as a real-world case study. The necessary suggestions regarding the hiring of a consultant and increasing the efficiency of management consulting services in business have been offered in this study. Some recommendations deal with the way that management consultants should respond to the managers' needs, act as a reliable and efficient adviser in public or private businesses and find their position in the Iranian market. The conceptual model of this study shows the influence of key factors affecting the purpose of consulting on the efficiency of management consulting services. To do the research, 90 people are selected as the sample size in a descriptive study with random sampling of the managers of aforementioned companies using a questionnaire. Cronbach’s alpha method was used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. For assessing the validity of the questionnaire, we use standard questionnaire, which has already been used.

  7. Factors Affecting Students' Retention at Kuwait University

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKandari, Nabila

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…

  8. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Ahmet INAN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

  9. Environmental factors affecting autoimmune thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safran, M.; Paul, T.L.; Roti, E.; Braverman, L.E.

    1987-06-01

    A number of environmental factors affect the incidence and progression of autoimmune thyroid disease. Exposure to excess iodine, certain drugs, infectious agents and pollutants, and stress have all been implicated.

  10. Physiological factors affecting intrinsic water use efficiency of potato clones within a dihaploid mapping population under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topbjerg, Henrik Bak; Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Markussen, Bo; Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann; Kirk, Hanne Grethe; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing crops water use is essential for ensuring food production under future climate scenarios. Therefore, new cultivars that are capable of maintaining production under limited water resource are needed. This study screened for clonal differences in intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) within a dihaploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) mapping population under well-watered (WW) and drought-stress (DS) conditions. The factorial dependency of WUEi on several plant bio-physiological traits was...

  11. Study of kinetic factors affecting the efficiency of separation of transplutonium and rare-earth elements during the extraction by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, A.P.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of the extraction of transplutonium and rare-earth elements with HDEHP from solutions of different complex-forming reagents has been studied. The possibility of the improvement of intragroup separation of these elements with the use of dynamic factors has been demonstrated. 23 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  12. Factors affecting porcine sperm mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, Francisco Alberto; Ruiz, Salvador; Grullón, Luis Alberto; de Ondiz, Aitor; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Gadea, Joaquín

    2011-12-01

    "Sperm mediated gene transfer" (SMGT) is based on the ability of sperm cells to bind exogenous DNA. The main objective of this study was to improve the production of transgenic pigs by SMGT. Taking into account that there is a lack of repeatability in studies of SMGT and that the mechanism of binding and internalization of exogenous DNA is a question that has not been solved, different factors involved in the production of transgenic animals by SMGT method were evaluated. Here we set out to: (1) evaluate the sperm capacity to bind exogenous DNA after DMSO treatment; (2) determine the location of the transgene-spermatozoa interaction; and (3) evaluate the efficiency of production of transgenic piglets by deep intrauterine artificial insemination (AI) with sperm incubated with DNA. The percentage of DNA binding was higher than 30% after 2h of co-culture, but it was not affected by sperm treatment with DMSO (0.3% or 3%). The integrity of the sperm plasma membrane plays a critical role in DNA interaction, and altered plasma membranes facilitate interactions with exogenous DNA. DNA bound mainly to spermatozoa with reduced viability. DNA molecules were found to be mainly associated to the post-acrosomal region (61.9%). After deep intrauterine AI a total of 29 piglets were obtained, but none of them integrated the transgene. In conclusion, although it has been confirmed that DNA can associate with boar spermatozoa, the efficiency of producing transgenic pigs by AI was not confirmed by the present experiments, mainly due to a reduced DNA binding to functional spermatozoa. PMID:20980036

  13. Factors affecting tenure choice in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Jiancong; ???

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the factors that affect the home-ownership propensity of households using a modified two-period equilibrium model. In particular, the study examines the impacts of some social, political and economic factors that in theory should affect housing tenure choice but have limited empirical evidence so far. To test the impacts of these factors, five sets of Hong Kong Census and By-Census cross sectional data over the period from 1991 to 2011 were used to estimate Binary Logi...

  14. Physiological factors affecting intrinsic water use efficiency of potato clones within a dihaploid mapping population under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topbjerg, Henrik Bak; Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Markussen, Bo; Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann; Kirk, Hanne Grethe; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    ) within a dihaploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) mapping population under well-watered (WW) and drought-stress (DS) conditions. The factorial dependency of WUEi on several plant bio-physiological traits was analyzed, and clonal difference of WUEi was compared. Significant differences in WUEi were found......Optimizing crops water use is essential for ensuring food production under future climate scenarios. Therefore, new cultivars that are capable of maintaining production under limited water resource are needed. This study screened for clonal differences in intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi...

  15. The factors affecting women's contraceptive choices

    OpenAIRE

    KURTOĞLU, Emel; ARPACI, Haldun

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting women’s contraceptive choices. In this study, we included 507 subjects, of whom 108 were nulliparous and 399 of whom were multiparous. All were married women who were between 15-49 years old and had applied to the Ministry of Health Konya Eregli Hospital Obstetric and Gynaecology Polyclinic. An inquiry form was filled in during a face-to-face conversation which included their contraceptive choices, the factors affecting them, t...

  16. Market conditions affecting energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global energy efficiency market is growing, due in part to energy sector and macroeconomic reforms and increased awareness of the environmental benefits of energy efficiency. Many countries have promoted open, competitive markets, thereby stimulating economic growth. They have reduced or removed subsidies on energy prices, and governments have initiated energy conservation programs that have spurred the wider adoption of energy efficiency technologies. The market outlook for energy efficiency is quite positive. The global market for end-use energy efficiency in the industrial, residential and commercial sectors is now estimated to total more than $34 billion per year. There is still enormous technical potential to implement energy conservation measures and to upgrade to the best available technologies for new investments. For many technologies, energy-efficient designs now represent less than 10--20% of new product sales. Thus, creating favorable market conditions should be a priority. There are a number of actions that can be taken to create favorable market conditions for investing in energy efficiency. Fostering a market-oriented energy sector will lead to energy prices that reflect the true cost of supply. Policy initiatives should address known market failures and should support energy efficiency initiatives. And market transformation for energy efficiency products and services can be facilitated by creating an institutional and legal structure that favors commercially-oriented entities

  17. Factors affecting Internet development: An Asian survey

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoming, Hao; Kay, Chow

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the Internet development and various social, economic and political factors that are hypothesized to affect the Internet growth. Using secondary data for 28 sampled Asian countries, this study tested seven hypotheses about the impact of various factors on Internet growth. The findings show that the Internet penetration is related to a country’s wealth, telecommunication infrastructure, urbanization and stability of the government, but not related t...

  18. Factors Affecting Profitability of Layer Hens Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Ebraheem Altahat; Ali AL-Sharafat; Mohammad Altarawneh

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Layer hen enterprises suffer from low profitability or losses in many of developing countries all over the world. Jordan is not an acceptance. Approach: This study aimed at investigating the influence of ten main factors affecting the profitability of layer hen producers. The investigated factors include price of purchased pullet, feed price, cost of labor, cost of veterinary service and medicine, building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneou...

  19. CLIL Learning: Achievement Levels and Affective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully pupils had learned content in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and to assess pupils' affective learning factors, such as motivation and self-esteem, in CLIL. Learning was presented in terms of achievement level, which was described as the relationship between measured levels…

  20. Factors Affecting the Speed of Free Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Jonathan; Horne, Joanna; Singleton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting the free writing speed of 11-year-old students were investigated using the Group and Individual Assessment of Handwriting Speed. Intelligence, gender, legibility and whether the student has special educational needs or speaks English as an additional language were all found to impact on writing speed to a significant extent. In…

  1. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  2. INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN FACTORS AFFECTING LABOUR MOBILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SELLIER, F.; ZARKA, C.

    THE GEOGRAPHICAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND INTERFIRM MOBILITY, AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THESE MOVEMENTS FOR WORKERS IN FRANCE, ITALY, GERMANY, AND SWEDEN IN THE PERIOD SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR ARE STUDIED. DATA OBTAINED FROM INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS AND GENERAL CENSUSES WERE USED TO COMPARE THE FOUR COUNTRIES WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THE UNITED STATES.…

  3. Factors Affecting Smoking Tendency and Smoking Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…

  4. Factors Affecting Children's Attention on TV Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sophia T.

    This study investigated what and how preschool children view children's television programs, with a focus on cultural and ecological factors which might affect their visual attention and the nature of their immediate recall of content. The secondary task method (in which an individual is required to perform two tasks simultaneously) was applied to…

  5. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  6. An experiment on the factors affecting simple reaction time

    OpenAIRE

    Hale Akkocao?lu; Burcu Kaya; Ufuk Türen

    2013-01-01

    Reaction time is considered as an important measure that affects performance of an individual both in business and private life. Especially, reaction time, which can be defined as a period of time being required for giving appropriate responses to the perceived stimuli, is an important factor in terms of efficiency of organization and also health and safety at work. Moreover, reaction time is regarded as an important factor in product design. In this study, an experiment is designed to reveal...

  7. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside. FP has been successful in Yingshan County in Hubei Province because education was given a priority and farmers' consciousness about population was raised. PMID:12317921

  8. Factores que afectan la eficiencia técnica y asignativa en el sector cafetero colombiano: una aplicación con análisis envolvente de datos / Factors that affect the technical and allocative efficiency in the colombian coffee sector: An application with data envelopment analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Andrés, Perdomo; Juan Carlos, Mendieta.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available La eficiencia técnica y asignativa son análisis relativos, empleados en procesos productivos para conocer el máximo nivel producido y cantidad óptima utilizada de insumos acorde con sus precios. El presente estudio maneja datos microeconómicos de caficultores pequeños, medianos y grandes en los depa [...] rtamentos de Caldas, Quindío y Risaralda, para determinar la eficiencia técnica y asignativa mediante el método no parámetrico Análisis Envolvente de Datos - DEA (Data Envolpment Analysis, siglas en inglés). La eficiencia técnica promedio encontrada para pequeños fue de 3,76%, medianos de 51,71%, grandes de 60,15% y todo el sector¹ de 42,38%. Mientras en eficiencia asignativa la media estadística obtenida, sobre las mismas unidades cafeteras, se ubicó así: 36,13%, 42,98%, 18,86% y 36,50%, respectivamente. Estas cifras, en el plano general, posiblemente presumen un sector cafetero y por tamaño de caficultor, en la muestra, ineficiente técnica y asignativamente. Resaltando a los grandes productores como más eficientes técnicamente e ineficientes asignativamente de todos los grupos involucrados. Esto significa que las unidades empresariales emplean muy bien la cantidad de insumos para maximizar su producción pero no logran producir al mínimo costo, dada la ineficiencia asignativa. Mientras los minifundistas, los campesinos y el sector general no explotan sus factores óptimamente y tampoco llegan al menor costo en producción por tener ineficiencia técnica y asignativa. Abstract in english Technical and Allocative efficiency are relative concepts, first it is used conventionally, to know if a producer obtain the maximum level of production, according to the amount of inputs used in the process. The second looks for to know if the producer uses the optimal amounts of inputs in the prod [...] uction process, according to the prices of these production factors. This study use microeconomic data on coffee producers of the Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda to determinate the levels of technical and allocative efficiency using "Data Envelopment Analysis - DEA". Technical efficiency for small producers it is 3.76%, for middle producer it is 51.71% and big producers it is 60.15%, for the all coffee sector the technical efficiency it is 42.38%. Whereas for the allocative efficiency, the results are 36.13%, 42.98%, 18.86% and 36.50%, respectively. This results show that the coffee Colombian sector it is inefficient technical and allocatively. This means that the big producers uses the correct amount of inputs for maximize the coffee production but they do not produce following the schedule of minimum cost. On the other hand, small and middle producers and for all coffee sector they do not use efficiently the inputs, they do not maximize your coffee production and they do not produce following the minimum cost schedule, this because they are technical and allocatively inefficient.

  9. Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Petar

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

  10. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette; Peacock, Linda; Jacobi, Marianne; Hassenbalch, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases. A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made acco...

  11. Factors affecting breeding in captive Carnivora

    OpenAIRE

    Schmalz-Peixoto, Karin E. von.; Dawkins, Marian Stamp; Macdonald, David W.; Stephen J. Simpson; Prof. Marian Dawkins; Prof. David MacDonald; Prof. Stephen Simpson

    2003-01-01

    ?Captive carnivores pose a challenge for conservationists and institutions alike, presenting many problems that range from diseases to poor welfare and unsuccessful breeding. Available databases of captive populations are rich sources of information that can help determine which factors can affect breeding success and the real potential of these populations in conservation programmes. Some species, such as tigers Panthera tigris, seem to preserve in captivity the same reprod...

  12. Factors Affecting Radon Concentration in Houses

    OpenAIRE

    AL-SHARIF, A.

    2001-01-01

    The dangers to the human health upon exposure to radon and its daughter products is the main motivation behind the vast number of studies performed to find the concentration of radon in our living environment, including our houses. The presence of radon and its daughter products in houses are due to various sources including building materials and the soil under the houses. Many factors affect radon concentration in our houses, the elevation above ground level,ventilation, building mater...

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING THE SPORT RELATED CONSUMER EXPENDITURES

    OpenAIRE

    Aykan CANDEM?R; Ali Erhan ZALLUHO?LU

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a significant change in the importance given to economic and social role of sport related economic activities since sport has changed to a much broader concept involving sport clubs, associations, organizations and businesses where the implementation of carefully designed marketing strategies became vital for success. This study aims to explore the factors affecting the sport related consumer expenditures. Empirical results were obtained by means of a questionna...

  14. Which Factors Affect Adolescent Food Preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main There are various factors that affect food preferences. Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main factors affecting food preferences. Additionally, general nutritional habits, family, friends, commercials, and availability of the food are also important for food preferences. Also, past experiences with foods are related to preferring or rejecting some foods. Socializing more with increasing age causes change in the food preferences of adolescents. Unhealthy nutrition habits form as a result of the adolescents consuming fast foods, spending time with their friends outside the house, and consuming more ready-made foods. Current developments in the food industry result in an increase in variety and consumption of snacks such as cookies, chocolate, chips, and crackers in adolescents. Considering all these, in this rewiev article, environmental and personal factors affecting food preferences have been investigated. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2013; 11: 121-7

  15. Temperature affects radiation use efficiency in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to study, under field conditions, the effect of temperature on radiation use efficiency (RUE) of maize. Field evidence of the negative effect of low temperature on this variable is lacking. Experiments with different sowing dates and five years of experimentation with October plantings provided a range of average temperatures during the vegetative period from 15.8 to 20.9°C. Delaying the sowing time from September to November produced a highly significant increase in RUE. There was a positive association between RUE and mean temperature from emergence to flowering. Efficiencies varied from 2.27 to 3.17 g of dry matter per MJ of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation for October plantings of five different years. With these data, a positive and significant association between RUE and mean temperature during the November–December vegetative period was found. Across years and planting dates, RUE and mean temperature during the vegetative period were closely correlated (r = 0.87). The regression equation was RUE = ?1.8 + 0.07 T. Based on this evidence, it was concluded that low temperatures reduce RUE in maize. (author)

  16. Efficient networks for quantum factoring

    CERN Document Server

    Beckman, D; Devabhaktuni, S; Preskill, J; Beckman, David; Chari, Amalavoyal N; Devabhaktuni, Srikrishna; Preskill, John

    1996-01-01

    We consider how to optimize memory use and computation time in operating a quantum computer. In particular, we estimate the number of memory qubits and the number of operations required to perform factorization, using the algorithm suggested by Shor. A K-bit number can be factored in time of order K^3 using a machine capable of storing 5K+1 qubits. Evaluation of the modular exponential function (the bottleneck of Shor's algorithm) could be achieved with about 72 K^3 elementary quantum gates; implementation using a linear ion trap would require about 396 K^3 laser pulses. A proof-of-principle demonstration of quantum factoring (factorization of 15) could be performed with only 6 trapped ions and 38 laser pulses. Though the ion trap may never be a useful computer, it will be a powerful device for exploring experimentally the properties of entangled quantum states.

  17. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette; Peacock, Linda; Jacobi, Marianne; Hassenbalch, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases. A...... group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS...

  18. Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

  19. AN OVERVIEW ON FACTORS AFFECTING GLOBAL HRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Gondane

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mounting economic interdependence of countries globally through rising volume and multiplicity of cross border transactions in goods and services and international capital flows, and also through the more rapid and prevalent diffusion of technology had influences organizations that compete for customers with high expectations for performance, quality, and cost. The globe trade and industry order is changing speedily. Evolutionary transformations are taking place at revolutionary speed, principally pressed by strong external forces, arising out of a desire to rising competitiveness and competence. The organizations of world are no longer defined by national boundaries. Globalization also put forth stress on the Human Resource Management (HRM function to adjust to changing organizational needs, add greater value and hence, HRM is especially involved with those employees who are working across national boundaries in multinational or global enterprises. Functioning on an international level entails that the assumption of a universality of HR policies and practices and the faith in to administer in one best way has become indefensible. Aglobal organization wishes a worldwide HRM system that features decision making from a global point of view, managers from across national boundaries, and thoughts contributed by people from a diversity of cultures. The participants from different countries and cultures contribute ideas from a position of equality, rather than the home country's culture dominating. Organizations that function in more than one country must be acquainted with the countries that are not identical and differ in terms of many factors. This present research paper is an attempt to reviews major factors affecting HRM. The intention of this study is to examine the challenges/factors affecting the role of HRM.

  20. Assisted suicide: factors affecting public attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, L T; Yeatts, D E

    Public support for assisted suicide has been growing despite the ethical questions raised by members of the medical profession. Previous research suggests that age, gender, experience, and religiosity are factors affecting individuals' attitudes. This study examines the effect of demographic and ideological factors, as well as individuals' caregiving experiences, on attitudes toward assisted suicide. Random-digit-dialing procedures produced a sample of 156 residents of Denton, Texas, in March 1998. T-tests were conducted to measure significance, while gamma values were used to measure level of association and percent reduction in error. The data indicate that age, gender, and caregiving experience were not significant predictors of attitudes. Situational factors, including whether a physician or friend/family member should assist and whether a child or a terminally ill patient experiencing no pain should receive assistance, all were highly significant and positively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide. Respondents were most likely to support physician-assisted suicide for individuals experiencing no pain. The data also indicated that the depth of commitment to the beliefs that suffering has meaning, that life belongs to God, and that physician-assisted suicide is murder, were highly significant and negatively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide. PMID:12557886

  1. Factors Affecting Profitability of Layer Hens Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebraheem Altahat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Layer hen enterprises suffer from low profitability or losses in many of developing countries all over the world. Jordan is not an acceptance. Approach: This study aimed at investigating the influence of ten main factors affecting the profitability of layer hen producers. The investigated factors include price of purchased pullet, feed price, cost of labor, cost of veterinary service and medicine, building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, length of production cycle, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate, egg sale price and laying percentage. Results: The study used a multiple regression profit model to estimate the effect of the above mentioned factors on profit per kg egg produced. The direction and quantity of relationship between profit per kg egg and variables affecting profit were investigated. Data from 40 operating and randomly selected egg production enterprises in the country was collected. Data was obtained directly from the producers during April to mid August 2010. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a pre-tested questionnaire. The data obtained via interview surveys were processed to calculate profit per kg egg and other relevant information for inclusion in a profit function model. Fifteen eggs are registered to be 1 kg in the study. Cost and income items used to calculate profit in the study. The results of the study revealed that the feed price was found to be the factor which has the highest negative impact on the profitability showing the coefficient-3.01. The egg sale price was with high positive impact on profitability showing the coefficient 2.633. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results of the study it could be concluded that higher prices of purchased or breeding pullet, higher feed price, higher cost of labor, higher cost of veterinary service and medicine, higher other costs including building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, higher feed quantity to be converted to eggs and higher mortality rate are associated with lower profitability of laying hen enterprises, while higher length of production cycle, higher egg sale price and higher laying percentage are associated with higher profitability. Critical limits indicated for various cost components should be used as a guideline to adjust budget in commercial egg operation thereby, ensuring higher net profit per bird.

  2. Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

  3. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

  4. Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Gonenc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It has been found that milk has the largest share of animal produce values consumed by the household, while particularly processed milk products are sold informally and that the consumption and sales values of animal produce processed in the households are required to be added to the unrecorded value calculation. Consumption of crops varies depending on the type of product. The own consumption ratio of crops is affected by the size of the enterprise, the number of individuals in the households and particularly the access to the markets of the enterprises in each region. An average informal value of 6,400.04 USD has been calculated per household, which is higher than the farm income, accounting for 4/5 of total household income. This can be attributed to the fact that the farms are generally small family enterprises with limited market-access opportunities.

  5. Factors Affecting E-Service Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mufaddy Al-Kasasbeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available User satisfaction is an important predictor of online consumer behavior and the success of a web-based system. If customers are satisfied with the services received through the online system, it is likely they will keep using the system. To examine factors affecting user satisfaction with e-services, a questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of (615 students out of (5918 at Petra University in Jordan to explore their perceptions. Regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results indicated that website design, navigation, and personalization were found to be predictors of e-service satisfaction. The results of this study provide a comprehensive set of implications for practitioners and researchers. This study shows how the website design, navigation, and personalization play a crucial role in the overall evaluation of e-service satisfaction. Management of universities need to be aware that a bad experience with website design, navigation, and personalization can affect satisfaction, if a student has a bad experience regarding interactivity, customization, or website design, then a student might make an overall e-service judgment even before a transaction can take place. If customers believe that an organization’s website is hard to use, poorly designed, and doesn’t take into consideration distinguished services for each user, then customers are likely to move to other organizations’ websites.

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING PHARMACOKINETIC DISPOSITION OF DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Hiren R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is a complex process the variability of which is influenced by many physicochemical and physiologic factors. The two most important physicochemical factors that affect both the extent and the rate of absorption are lipophilicity and solubility. The rate and extent of absorption are governed by the solubility, permeability and stability of the drug, with solubility being a pH-dependent parameter for weak acids and bases. The gastrointestinal tract can be viewed as discrete sections with a variety of differential local pH environments ranging from the acidic stomach to the more basic small intestine. The multiple peaking, double peaking or secondary peaking phenomena can occur in the disposition of a variety of xenobiotics during drug development (the pre-clinical phase and in subsequent clinical studies and use. The physicochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence of this phenomenon are often multi factorial and include but are not limited to solubility-limited absorption, modified-release formulations, complexation, enterohepatic recirculation, gastric emptying and the intestinal transit time, site-specific absorption, gastric secretion-enteral reabsorption. Double peak absorption has been described with several orally administered drugs such as cimetidine furosemide, piroxicam, ranitidine, talinolol, alprazolam and phenazopyridine.

  7. Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biscontin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

  8. Factors that affect toilet training in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Önen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify age of initiation of toilet training and affecting factors for children. Material and Methods: 861 children were included in this study. "Chi square test", "Mann-Whitney U Test" and "Kruskall-Wallis Variance Analysis" statistical analysis methods have been applied. Ethical permission has been provided by local ethical committee. Results: 861 children under age of five were evaluated in this study (average age was 4±0.9; 433 children were boy (50.3%, 428 children were girl (49.7%. Age of initiation of toilet training was younger than 1 years old for 45 children (5.2%, between 13-18 month for 223 children (25.9%, between 19-24 month for 307 children (35.7%, between 25-30 month for 201 children (23.3% and older than 30 month for 85 children (9.9%. That families who live below hunger threshold and small families initiate toilet training earlier that other families were determined (p=0.001. Children in 19-24 month have shorter duration of toilet training than other groups (p<0.05. That children who live in shanty have longer duration of toilet training than children who live in apartment were determined (p=0,031. That 219 children (25.4% who had faced traumatic experiences which may affect training process, recently have longer duration of toilet training than other children (p=0,008. Duration of the training is shorter for f amilies who did not use toilet training methods than families who used methods. Conclusion: In our study, we found that age of initiation of toilet training is smaller for children who belong to family which has low level of income and small families. Duration of training is the longer for children whose initiation of toilet training was earlier than 18 month and later than 30 month, live in shanty, faced traumatic experiences.

  9. Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Te-chato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. were investigated. Types of explants, strains and densities of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and co-culture methods were examined to optimize gene transformation. The results showed that among strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tested, LBA 4404 containing pBI 121 gave the calli with the highest resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin at the concentration of 50-100 mg/l was the best range for selection of transformants. Higher density of agrobacteria tended to promote higher frequency of transformation. The best co-culture method was dipping the explant in a solution of agrobacteria for 10 minutes, followed by culturing onto co-culture medium without antibiotic for 48 hours. Among the explants used to co- culture with bacteria, half leaf treatment gave the best result for transformation; however, callus proliferation and plantlet regeneration were inferior to whole leaf treatment. Activity of ?-Glucuronidase (GUS could not be detected, thus resistance to kanamycin was used for detecting transformability. Shoot primordia could be induced from kanamycin-resistant calli grown in regeneration medium. After maintenance by subculturing to the same medium 2 to 3 times in 2-3 months, the developed shoots turned brown and finally died. Hence, the transformed plant of mangosteen was not obtained from this experiment.

  10. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien T. Supangco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality of position does not augur well for women. This result implies that despite the fact that the women in the sample were intelligent (that is, they passed the stringent MBA screening, motivated and obviously were able to manage their time well-being able to balance work, school and in some cases, family responsibilities-they were still far removed from the top. These women still faced some hostile environment that prevented them from fully contributing to making decisions that matter.

  11. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    Poland joined the EU in 2004 and still has one of the Europe’s least developed information societies. Broadband penetration in Poland is still amongst the lowest in the EU and significantly below the EU average. Considering the present state of information technology, the key challenge for Poland is to reduce the gap between Poland and other EU Member Countries in the area of the development and implementation of information and communication technologies. However, Poland’s accession to the European Union and the implementation of EU regulation mechanisms accelerate the integration of Poland’s telecommunications market with the European market. The market reflects all the global trends, a gradually growing significance of mobile telecommunications services, broadband Internet access, construction of offers directed towards clients’ needs, and a strong trend towards market consolidation, which will gradually change the previous balance of power. The specific problem of the Polish market is its very poor infrastructure development and the lack of competitors on the fixed market. This translates into limited access to services for end users particularly in the rural areas. A much lower level of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level/distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined – with the ‘lightest’forms of intervention first and the ‘strongest’at the end. Furthermore, empirical evidence on the developments in access technologies and the policy initiatives taken by the Polish government are presented. Finally, there is a conclusion regarding the importance of the different types of public policy initiatives for broadband take-up in Poland.

  12. Factors affecting newborn care practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Md; Ahmed, M Ranzu; Rahman, M Mokhlesur; Afroz, Afsana

    2012-01-01

    Newborn care is of immense importance for the proper development and healthy life of a baby. Although child and infant mortality in South Asia has reduced substantially, the rate of neonatal mortality is still high, although these deaths can be prevented by adopting simple interventions at the community level. The aim of the study was to identify the associated factors which affect newborn care practices. Data for the study were drawn from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007, in which 6150 mothers were considered. The mean age of the mothers was 18 (±3.2) years. A little over 62% of the pregnant women received at least one antenatal check-up during the entire period of their pregnancy. About 70% of deliveries were conducted at home either by unskilled family members or by relatives. A clean instrument was used for cutting the cord of 87% of the newborn babies, while about 34% of them were reported to have had their first bath immediately after delivery. Initiation of breast feeding immediately after birth was practised in only about 19% of the cases. Compared with mothers with no education, those with secondary or higher levels were associated with clean cord care [odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 1.9] and early breast feeding [OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2, 2.2]. The study revealed an urgent need to educate mothers, and train traditional birth attendants and health workers on clean delivery practices and early neonatal care. Increasing the number of skilled birth attendants can be an effective strategy to increase safe delivery practices, and to reduce delivery complications. PMID:22150703

  13. Analysis and Measurement of Buildability Factors Affecting Edge Formwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Jarkas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Labour productivity is affected by several factors, but buildability is among the most important. Nevertheless, a thoroughexamination of the literature revealed a dearth of research into the influence of buildability factors on labour productivityof in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Although edge formwork is an importantlabour intensive activity, most often, its labour cost is either crudely estimated or lumped within the formwork cost of otheractivities. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate and quantify the effects and relative influence of the followingbuildability factors on its labour productivity: (a depth of slab being edge-formed; (b slab geometric factor; and (ctype of formwork material used. To achieve this objective, a sufficiently large volume of productivity data was collected andanalyzed using the multiple categorical-regression method. As a result, the effects and relative influence of the buildabilityfactors investigated are determined. The findings show significant effects of these factors on edge formwork labour productivity,which can be used to provide designers feedback on how well their designs consider the requirements of buildabilityprinciples, and the consequences of their decisions on labour efficiency. On the other hand, the depicted patterns of resultsmay provide guidance to construction managers for effective activity planning and efficient labour utilization.

  14. Factors affecting the reactivity of organolanthanide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors affecting the reactivity of organolanthanide and organoyttrium complexes were probed by hydrogenolysis and thermal reactions. Hydrogenolysis of the complexes [(C5H4R)2LnCH3]2 (R = H, CH3; Ln = Er, Lu, Y, Yb), (C5H4R)>LnR' (R = H, CH3; Ln = Lu, Y, Yb; R' = CH2SiMe3, CMe3) and [(C5H4R)2LnR'2] [Li[S]4] (R = H, CH3; Ln = Y, Yb; R' = CH3, CH2SiMe3, [S] = dimethoxyethane, tetramethylethylenediamine) revealed the importance of steric effects and solvation to the reactivity of biscyclopentadienyl alkyl and dialkyl complexes. Using these data, optimum conditions for obtaining ytterbium hydrides were determined, and the ytterbium hydride analogues of [(C5H5)2YH(THF)]2 and {[(C5H4)YH]3H}{Li(THF)4} were prepared. Thermolysis of the complexes (C5H4R)2 Y(CH2SiMe3) (THF) and (C5H5)2 YbCH3 (THF) resulted in the formation of the enolate complexes [(C5H4R)2Ln(?-OCH = CH2]2. These complexes can also be generated by the metathesis reaction involved LiOHC = CH2 and [(C5H4R)2LnCl]2. The effect of coordinating solvent upon the stability of organolanthanide complexes is also discussed. Application of the principles revealed by these investigated led to the successful synthesis of the monocyclopentadienyl complexes [(C5H4R)Y(CH2SiMe3)3][Li[S]4] (R = H, CH3' S4 = (DME)2, (THF)4). Over the course of these investigations, the crystal structures of (C5H5)2YbCH3 (THF), [(CH3C5H4)2Y(?-OCH = CH2]2, [(C5H5)2Y(CH2SiMe3)2]2Li2(CH3OCH2CH2OCH3)2(?-1,4-C4H8O2) and [(C5H5)3Y]2(?-1,4-C4H8O2) were obtained

  15. Nrf2 affects the efficiency of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Ludtmann, Marthe H. R.; Angelova, Plamena R.; Zhang, Ying; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2 p45-related factor 2) regulates the cellular redox homoeostasis and cytoprotective responses, allowing adaptation and survival under conditions of stress. The significance of Nrf2 in intermediary metabolism is also beginning to be recognized. Thus this transcription factor negatively affects fatty acid synthesis. However, the effect of Nrf2 on fatty acid oxidation is currently unknown. In the present paper, we report that the mitochondrial oxidation of long-ch...

  16. Factors Affecting Degradation of Aldicarb and Ethoprop

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Russell L.; Norris, Frank A.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical and microbial degradation of the nematicides-insecticides aldicarb and ethoprop has been studied extensively in both laboratory and field studies. These studies show that temperature is the most important variable affecting the degradation rate of aldicarb and its carbamate metabolites in surface soils. Temperature and organic matter appear to be the most important variables affecting degradation rates of ethoprop in soils under normal agricultural conditions, with organic matter bei...

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  18. How Student Satisfaction Factors Affect Perceived Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C.

    2010-01-01

    Data from students in two sections of a general education course offered at a research university in spring 2009 were used to explore whether student satisfaction factors are associated with perceived learning as rated by students. A list of 22 elements in the learning environment was explored. The 22 were used in creating 3 satisfaction factors…

  19. Removal of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in Taihu Lake using local soils III. Factors affecting the removal efficiency and an in situ field experiment using chitosan-modified local soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Gang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: gpan@mail.rcees.ac.cn; Zou Hua [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Chen Hao [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Yuan Xianzheng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2006-05-15

    Effects of ionic strength, pH, organic content, cell concentration, and growth phase on the removal of MA cells using chitosan-modified sepiolite were studied in the laboratory. The MA removal efficiency increased with the increase of salinity for normal clay flocculation. In contrast, for chitosan-modified clays/soils, MA removal efficiency increased with the decrease of salinity. The removal efficiency of chitosan-modified sepiolite was not significantly affected by pH (6-9), but dropped dramatically beyond pH 10. Humic acid had a small negative effect on the removal of MA cells. Cells were removed more effectively by clays around the early senescence growth phase than other growth stages. The removal efficiency increased as the cell concentration increased. In a field enclosure of Taihu Lake, a loading of 0.025 g/L chitosan-modified local soils removed 99% algal cells and no increase of chlorophyll-a was observed during the following one month's monitoring process. - A loading of 0.025 g/L chitosan-modified local soils removed 99% algal cells in 16 h in a field enclosure of Taihu Lake.

  20. Removal of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in Taihu Lake using local soils III. Factors affecting the removal efficiency and an in situ field experiment using chitosan-modified local soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of ionic strength, pH, organic content, cell concentration, and growth phase on the removal of MA cells using chitosan-modified sepiolite were studied in the laboratory. The MA removal efficiency increased with the increase of salinity for normal clay flocculation. In contrast, for chitosan-modified clays/soils, MA removal efficiency increased with the decrease of salinity. The removal efficiency of chitosan-modified sepiolite was not significantly affected by pH (6-9), but dropped dramatically beyond pH 10. Humic acid had a small negative effect on the removal of MA cells. Cells were removed more effectively by clays around the early senescence growth phase than other growth stages. The removal efficiency increased as the cell concentration increased. In a field enclosure of Taihu Lake, a loading of 0.025 g/L chitosan-modified local soils removed 99% algal cells and no increase of chlorophyll-a was observed during the following one month's monitoring process. - A loading of 0.025 g/L chitosan-modified local soils removed 99% algal cells in 16 h in a field enclosure of Taihu Lake

  1. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    A review is given of the factors determining placental oxygen transfer and the oxygen supply to the fetus. In the case of continuous variables, such as the rate of placental blood flow, it is not possible to trace evolutionary trends. Discontinuous variables, for which we can define character states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into...

  2. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Richard A. Watson

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position,...

  3. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  4. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into the evolution of the beta-globin gene complex. In higher primates, duplication of an embryonic...

  5. Factors affecting patient education from cultural perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD REZA HEIDARI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient education is influenced by cultural factors. This study aims to find out the role of culture in patient education. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted on 23 Iranian nurses. Inclusion criteria were minimum 5 years of working experience in clinical nursing. Semistructured face to face interviews were used to collect the data. Interviews were taped, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis method. Results: The main theme of ‘cultural sensitivity’ was extracted from the interviews. Sub-themes were cultural divergence, cultural connection literacybased instruction. Conclusion: A dynamic process of patient education is influenced by various cultural factors. Nurses must be aware of the cultural norms in patient education to meet their expectations in a respectful manner.

  6. Internal factors affecting the jury members verdict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence, the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.

  7. Factors affecting patient education from cultural perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMAD REZA HEIDARI; REZA NOROUZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Patient education is influenced by cultural factors. This study aims to find out the role of culture in patient education. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted on 23 Iranian nurses. Inclusion criteria were minimum 5 years of working experience in clinical nursing. Semistructured face to face interviews were used to collect the data. Interviews were taped, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis method. Results: The main theme of ‘cultural sensitiv...

  8. Econometrics Analysis on Factors Affecting Student Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Yueyi Sun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to identify school-level variables that influence academic outcomes, and to determine the extent of their influence. Using state-level panel data, this study estimates a simple achievement function to explore the nexus between three identified factors (percentage of students eligible for reduced/free lunch program, school enrolment and per-pupil expenditure) and student achievement (percentage of satisfactory of 4th grade math and read) in the United States. Method: B...

  9. Risk factors that affect recurrence in strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Bayba?

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent stroke is defined as a new cerebrovascular event which occurs after the stabilization of the previous stroke. Recurrence of stroke increases likelihood of disability-mortality associated with stroke. Systematic evaluation of stroke cases can help to reduce the risk of recurrence. Objective: In order to predict strokes which carry the risk of recurrence, we aimed to compare data related to risk factors, stroke type, etiology and disability-mortality rates associated with stroke. Material And Method: Patients with stroke who referred to Bak?rkoy Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases Training and Research State Hospital between June 1, 2002 and February 28, 2003 were recorded into the stroke database in a consecutive and prospective manner. Strokes were classified as ischemic/hemorrhagic and first/recurrent. For recurrent strokes, information about previous strokes was also recorded. Risk factors were classified as hypertension (HT, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation (AF, coronary artery disease (CAD, migraine, transient ischemic accident (TIA, family history of cerebrovascular accident (CVA, oral contraceptive use, PAD, congestive heart failure (CHF, other heart diseases, smoking cigarette and alcohol consumption. Disability-mortality rates associated with stroke were evaluated. All data were compared for first and recurrent strokes. Results: In our study, 631 patients were evaluated, 52.3% of whom were female and 47.7% male. Frequency of stroke was statistically high (p<0.001 in females over 70 years old. Recurrent strokes were of the same type. For the first and recurrent strokes, HT was the highest risk factor. AF frequency increased with age (p<0.001. The rate of disability-mortality was found high in strokes of undetermined and cardioembolic origin. Conclusion: Knowledge of etiologic group can help to predict recurrence of stroke and prevent death. We think that effective treatment of modifiable risk factors identified in stroke groups where recurrence is the highest, and prioritising the investigation of cardioembolic risk factors in elderly women are significant in terms of primary and secondary stroke prevention.

  10. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction & suggestions to improve them.

  12. Factors affecting home range of mallard pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechmann, J.H.

    1976-06-01

    Certain habitat and social factors were investigated for their effect on home range size of mallard (Anas platyhynchos) pairs breeding in a forested region of north-central Minnesota during the spring of 1971--72. Data from 31 radio-marked hens and drakes were used, but primary emphasis was placed on 8 pairs (5 with both members of the pair marked). Pairs were radio-tracked on river marsh areas, river channels, and large sand lakes to provide comparative data for evaluating home range size differences. Home ranges varied from an average of 53 ha for pairs using primarily river habitat to 871 ha for pairs using only large sand lakes. River and lake shorelines varied considerably in species and density of vegetation. Interaction between pairs as well as density of flocked males appeared to be influenced by these habitat differences with resultant effects on home range sizes.

  13. Genetic factors affecting susceptibility to udder pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detilleux, J C

    2009-02-16

    Many studies have identified genetic factors underlying resistance or susceptibility to mastitis in dairy cows and heifers. Some authors focused on polygenic variation while others searched for genes and/or quantitative trait loci with major effects on mastitis. Classical traits related to mastitis include somatic cell counts, electrical conductivity and clinical cases of the disease. With the development of automatic milking devices and '-omics' technologies, new traits are considered, such as acute phase proteins, immunological assays, and milk flow patterns, and new biological pathways are discovered, for example the role of mammary epithelium and the nervous system. The usefulness of these traits for the identification of resistant cows is discussed in relation to the biological mechanisms underlying the development of the disease. In addition, the utility of these traits for genetic improvement is reviewed. Finally, the problem of durability in resistance is addressed, including co-evolution and the cost of resistance. PMID:18930606

  14. Factors affecting radiolysis of dilute iodine solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radiation on the chemical forms of iodine species in dilute aqueous solutions has been investigated using a semi-batch type flow-system and a pulse radiolysis, and the recent results are summarised. It was found that the several factors have a large influence on the chemical form of iodine species in the radiolysis of their dilute solutions, and they are the concentration of the iodine species, pH of the systems, the concentrations of oxygen dissolved, temperature and initial oxidation state of iodine species. Among them, pH is the most important. To explain these effects some kinetic data of aqueous iodine systems were obtained by the pulse radiolysis

  15. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdun Kuyucu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  16. Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems

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    Maria S. Bowman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1 public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2 support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3 the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1 and 2, as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

  17. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsa M.E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol is one of the major risk factors for individuals’ and society’s health. Alcohol consumption is present since ancient years in Europe, constituting tradition, with Europeans preferring different kinds of alcohol depending on the geographic location of their country. The economic crisis that European citizens are undergoing nowadays, has an impact on their health and more specifically there has been a significant increase in alcohol consumption. Material and Methods: The purpose of this study is to explore the factors which effect the alcohol consumption and consequences of this consumption in Europe. Literature review of relevant articles, published from 2005 to 2013, to these databases: WHO, Google scholar, PubMed. Finally, 42 studies were used to our review. Results: The alcohol consumption is connected with the economic situation of the country, the availability of alcohol, the restrictions and taxes of each country. Alcohol consumption is also related with the gender and age of each individual. In Central-eastern Europe, in contrast to the south Europe, the greatest percentage of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption is found. 35,95% is the mortality rate which is found in Europe. Regarding Greece in recent years, alcohol consumption has declined, while the rates of intoxication have shown as light increase. Conclusions: The lack of legislation, the non-existence of a minimum sale price and the increased availability, can lead to increased incidence of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption. Further research regarding the correlation of economic crisis and alcohol consumption is necessary.

  18. Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Sutherland

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. OpsommingEen van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

  19. Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction During Endoscopic Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the quality and patient satisfaction in Endoscopy Unit of Shifa International Hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Division of Gastroenterology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Quality and patient satisfaction after the endoscopic procedure was assessed using a modified GHAA-9 questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included with a mean age of 45 A+- 14.21 years. Out of all the procedures, 670 (65.17%) were gastroscopies, 181 (17.60%) were flexible sigmoidoscopies and 177 (17.21%) were colonoscopies. The maximum unsatisfactory responses were on the waiting time before the procedure (13.13 %), followed by unsatisfactory explanation of the procedure and answers to questions (7.58%). Overall, unsatisfied impression was 4.86%. The problem rate was 6.22%. Conclusion: The quality of procedures and level of satisfaction of patients undergoing a gastroscopy or colonoscopy was generally good. The factors that influence the satisfaction of these patients are related to communication between doctor and patient, doctor's manner and waiting time for the procedure. Feedback information in an endoscopy unit may be useful in improving standards, including the performance of endoscopists. (author)

  20. Factors affecting mortality in patients with burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erbi?

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increase in life quality and expectancy causes an increase in the elderly population. Improvements in burn treatment resulted in decreased mortality in children and young adults but in elderly patients burns are still an important trauma that should be handed differently than other age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors effecting mortality in patients with burns over 45 years old. Methods: Fifty-eight patients over 45 years of age, who were treated in our burns unit in the last 3 years were included in our study. Their age, burn percentage and depth, coexisting diseases and mortality rates were examined retrospectively. Results: The average age of surviving patients was 57.4 years while it was 70 years for nonsurviving patients (p=0.002. The width of burn area was 21.1 % in surviving and 50 % in nonsurviving patients (p<0.01. The effect of additional coexistent diseases on mortality was significant (p=0.001. The most common reasons of mortality were sepsis and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: We found out that the age, percentage of burns and coexistent diseases had a negative effect on success of treatment and mortality. Mortality rates will decrease in these cases with careful follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 240-243

  1. Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; HaugbØlle, Kim

    2013-01-01

    With all the advances in professionalism, methods, technology, and human resource training, we should have seen an increase in productivity. However, this has not happened and the construction industry is losing the battle to be competitive and has instead become a high-cost, low-productivity sector. By applying the theory that insufficient cooperation is the result of low trust the aim was to investigate how conditions for formation of positive and lasting trustful relationships can be created. A questionnaire survey including clients, contractors, architects, engineers and client design advisor was carried out. The analysis showed that the ability to be trustful can be developed through the experience of different factors (e.g. control mechanisms, mutual respect, repeated cooperation, shared understanding and communication). Furthermore, the ability to trust other parties depends on knowledge of others' skillsets. Interdisciplinary collaboration through education would limit the formation of negative stereotypes and the overall trust level increases, due to more and better knowledge of other disciplines.

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING VASECTOMY ACCEPTABILITY IN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Admasu , Negalign chekol , Temesegen Chekol , Z. Shewamene*, Zelalem Eteffa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is one of the most effective but less utilized types of contraception method which could addresses the involvement of males to the family planning. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the awareness about and practice of men towards vasectomy among workers in Dashen brewery, Ethiopia. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using pre tested self-administered questioner to assess the Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with low utilization of vasectomy. A total of 187 study participants were included to this study using single population proportion formula and random sampling technique. Majority of the participants 155 (82.9% never heard about vasectomy as a contraception method. Their knowledge about vasectomy is generally very poor as large proportion of respondents didn’t know how it works, its effectiveness and its effect on their sexual performance. None of the respondents have ever used vasectomy as a modern male contraception method. Misleading information towards its impact on sexual performance/desire was reported as a main reason not to use this method. Among others need of more children, unavailability of services, lack of information, spouse refusal and religious concerns were mentioned as a potential reasons for their negative perception towards vasectomy. Lack of awareness, myths and rumors, limited access to services, and indifference and bias on the part of providers about vasectomy limit its popularity in Ethiopia. Therefore, it is vital to introduce appropriate educational plan to increase awareness and usage of vasectomy in Ethiopia.

  3. Factors affecting proximal tubular reabsorption during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies performed in several animal species have demonstrated that glomerulotubular balance is maintained throughout development despite the many changes that occur in the factors known to control it. In an attempt to understand the nature of this phenomenon the authors quantified the magnitude and described the profile of these changes in guinea pigs. The changes in physical forces were assessed from measurements of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, whereas those in the permeability characteristics of the proximal tubule epithelium were estimated from permanence to radioactivity-labelled macromolecules of graded radii, histologic measurements of the intercellular channels, and measurements of end-proximal ratio of tubular fluid-to-plasma osmolality (TF/P/sub osm/). Between 1 and 50 days of age the net pressure for reabsorption increased from 15.0 to 30.9 mmHg with the major change occurring during the first 2-3 wk of postnatal life. The urinary recovery of [3H]inulin, [14C]sucrose, and [14C]creatinine, injected in the early segment of proximal tubules did not vary with age. The urinary recovery of [14C]mannitol increased from 92% at birth to 100% at 49 days of age. The length of the zonulae occludens and the width of the intercellular channels did not change during this period. The findings support the hypothesis that during early postnatal life glomerulotubular balance is made possible by a high permeability of the proximal tubule, which compensates for the low net reabsorptive pressure. As the animal matures and the proximal tubule epithelium becomes tighter, for glomerulotubular balance to be maintained, an increase in the number of intercellular channels and in the active transport of sodium need to be postulated

  4. Factors Affecting Perceived Stigma in Leprosy Affected Persons in Western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bipin; Kaehler, Nils; Chapman, Robert S.; Raut, Shristi; Roche, Paul; Akogun, Oladele B

    2014-01-01

    Background There are various factors which construct the perception of stigma in both leprosy affected persons and unaffected persons. The main purpose of this study was to determine the level of perceived stigma and the risk factors contributing to it among leprosy affected person attending the Green Pastures Hospital, Pokhara municipality of western Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 135 people affected by leprosy at Green Pastures Hospital and Rehabilita...

  5. Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Faculty-Doctoral Student Coauthorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Michelle A.; Timmerman, Briana Crotwell; Feldon, David F.; Strickland, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Using faculty narratives, this study identifies factors affecting the occurrence of faculty-doctoral student coauthorship. Norms of the discipline, resources, faculty goals for students, faculty goals for themselves, and institutional expectations emerged as dominant factors. Each factor is explored separately and as part of an interlocking…

  6. Nrf2 affects the efficiency of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtmann, Marthe H R; Angelova, Plamena R; Zhang, Ying; Abramov, Andrey Y; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

    2014-02-01

    Transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2 p45-related factor 2) regulates the cellular redox homoeostasis and cytoprotective responses, allowing adaptation and survival under conditions of stress. The significance of Nrf2 in intermediary metabolism is also beginning to be recognized. Thus this transcription factor negatively affects fatty acid synthesis. However, the effect of Nrf2 on fatty acid oxidation is currently unknown. In the present paper, we report that the mitochondrial oxidation of long-chain (palmitic) and short-chain (hexanoic) fatty acids is depressed in the absence of Nrf2 and accelerated when Nrf2 is constitutively active. Addition of fatty acids stimulates respiration in heart and liver mitochondria isolated from wild-type mice. This effect is significantly weaker when Nrf2 is deleted, whereas it is stronger when Nrf2 activity is constitutively high. In the absence of glucose, addition of fatty acids differentially affects the production of ATP in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from wild-type, Nrf2-knockout and Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1)-knockout mice. In acute tissue slices, the rate of regeneration of FADH2 is reduced when Nrf2 is absent. This metabolic role of Nrf2 on fatty acid oxidation has implications for chronic disease conditions including cancer, metabolic syndrome and neurodegeneration. PMID:24206218

  7. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This type of intervention—maintaining a substantial percent reduction in caloric intake—has been shown to substantially extend the longevity ...

  8. Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

  9. Factors affecting the prognosis of meniscectomy in soccer players.

    OpenAIRE

    Muckle, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    Meniscectomy is a frequent surgical procedure in young soccer players but the results are unpredictable. A long-term survey was carried out to assess certain fundamental features and to establish the predictive factors which affect the prognosis after meniscectomy.

  10. Kjell J. Nilssen; Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available The thesis Factors affecting energy expenditure in reindeer by Kjell J. Nilssen was approved for the Phil, dr's degree at the University of Tromsø. The dissertation took place in Tromsø December 15.1984.

  11. Factors Affecting Wedding Banquet Venue Selection of Thai Wedding Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkanya Napompech

    2014-01-01

    The wedding day is one of the most important days for couples, so they want their ceremony to be as near to perfect as possible. Finding a venue for the wedding banquet is the first stage of the couple’s planning and many factors affect this decision. The objective of this research was to study the factors that affect the selection of wedding banquet venues among Thai wedding couples. This study obtained data via questionnaires and used statistical tests such ...

  12. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Cusimano; Faress, Ahmed; Wilson P. Luong; Amin, Khizer; Eid, Joanne; Abdelshaheed, Tamer; Russell, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs). A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers) and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action) that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One h...

  13. Factors affecting adoption of eHealth in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mekawie, Nermeen Magdi

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates the factors that affect technology acceptance in the eHealth domain with regard to Egypt. It also focuses on the impact of the perceptions and attitudes of online privacy, due to the sensitivity of healthcare information, and trust, in addition to the other technology acceptance factors affecting acceptance of eHealth in Egypt. The aims of the research were to (i) understand the impact of general attitudes to online privacy and associated concerns on the accep...

  14. An Investigation of Affecting Factors on Civilians\\\\\\' Social Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available JAbstract:Trust is one of the main variables of social capital which is studied in the framework of social order. Trustaspects get changed according to social change. Nowadays with change in society, aspects and circle of trustare no longer confined to family members and local communities. The level of social trust is defined inrelation to different organizations, foundations and occupations. Accordingly in order to gain trust there existsome requirements that organizations have to meet. Among these requirements are honesty, efficiency andmoving towards realizing public aims. The present paper is done on the basis of surveys carried out in thefield of social trust in Tehran, Qazvin, and Qom. Factor analysis of items shows that items of interpersonaltrust are gathered under one factor and have a high correlation. As a second factor items related to trustinggroups, social occupations and media have a high correlation. Therefore interpersonal trust can be termed"trusting familiar groups" and the other group can be termed "trusting unfamiliar groups". The average levelof trust on the first group is by far higher than the second group.Regards to ,regrestion result 10 influence independent variation on dependent variation ,(social trustThe variation of appropriate located general molarity with affected coefficient 0/25 has been the mostinfluence on social trust and then the variation of social security feeling with 0/24 is located second rankingthe variations of social solidarity with 0/18 social satisfaction 0/16,religious loyality ,altruism mentality with0/12,social acceptability with 0/08 are located next ranking .But the result of studying is shown ,the variation of social and economic base ,social alienation anddisappointment feeling had been inverted coefficient effect to the variation of social trust .Namely,with increasing very unit of recently 3variation responders , rang of social trust had been reduced inamount of 0/05.

  15. KEY FACTORS FOR IMPROVING TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF UPLAND RICE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaporn Athipanyakul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food security problems are major issues in developing countries, especially under the conditions of restricted farm resources and environmental degradation. The re-allocation of existing farm resources in the upland in order to reach a production of maximum output under given technologies and the estimated value of the technical efficiency have been important information for this purpose. The objective of this study, therefore, was to measure the technical efficiency of upland rice production in Thailand. The identification of key factors to improve the technical efficiency was additionally carried out. A stochastic frontier approach with the Cobb-Douglas production function was applied. Data used in this study has been drawn from 181 farmers. The findings showed that on average the technical efficiency was 0.70 and the rank of its value varied from 0.22 to 0.94. A significant factor affecting the technical efficiency has been support in terms of transforming knowledge through a training program on upland rice production. Farmers, who grew upland rice for both household consumption and for commercial purposes, had a better performance than those who grew upland rice only for home consumption.

  16. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  17. Factors affecting attendance at population-based mammography screening

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerlund, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to explore factors affecting attendance at outreach mammography screening, and to assess possible associations between socioeconomic factors and breast cancer survival. The relation of non-attendance at mammography screening to sociodemographic factors, indicators of general health behavior, self-rated health, experience of cancer in others, and own cancer or breast problems was studied in a case-control study with 434 ...

  18. Prioritizing the Factor Weights Affecting Tourism Performance by FAHP

    OpenAIRE

    Quang Hung Do; Jeng Fung Chen

    2013-01-01

    The allocation of limited resources to effectively promote tourism is one of the most important issues in the tourism industry, especially in tough economic times. This paper seeks to investigate the relative importance of the key factors affecting tourism performance by applying the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method. Specifically, the paper identifies the factors and sub-factors of the hierarchical structure from the literature relating to tourism performance. The framework base...

  19. A study of epidemiological factors affecting low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Hayat, Humera; Khan, Parwez Sajad; Hayat, Gazala; Hayat, Rehana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. About half of all deaths in perinatal period aredirectly or indirectly related to low birth. A multifactorialinter-relationship exists between the pregnant mother’s environment and growthof fetus. There are numerous factors associated with low birth weight and ifthese factors are detected early and addressed properly, the low birth weightand the consequences thereof can be reduced. Toidentify the epidemiological factors affecting low birth weight in our set up.Thisa cross sectional ...

  20. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured ques...

  1. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  2. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  3. Ranking factors affecting the productivity of human resources using MADM techniques

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. Shekari; S. Khayat Moghadam; Adeleh Hakimzadeh; Salahshour, S.; A. K. Keifi

    2012-01-01

    For improving and efficient uses of various resources such as labor, capital, materials, energy and information, productivity is the purpose of all economic and industrial organizations and service enterprises. The human factor is the main strategic resource and the realization axis of productivity for each type of organization. Therefore the factors affecting the productivity, depends on suitable conditions for labor. This study is performed to identification and prioritization the factors a...

  4. Design and Factors Affecting State Supervision of the Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miros?aw Je?owski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to identify the factors that affect the development of the models of financial market state supervision and to identify the factors that have influenced the evolution of the supervision model in Poland. Methodology: critical analysis of literature, legal provisions and documents. Findings: The completely integrated and the fully dispersed model of supervision are located at the opposite ends of the spectrum. A variety of the hybrid models can be identified between them. Factors that affect supervision organization are both economic and non-economic. Factors that have influenced the Polish model of supervision include political aspects, administration costs and, in due course, also the development of the financial market. Research implications: The variety of state supervision structures, combined with the ambiguity and multiplicity of factors that affect their evolution create a new research challenge. Significant problems in accessing documents have been identified. Originality: The author presents an overview of models of state supervision of financial markets and factors affecting the evolution and structure of supervision. Conclusions drawn from the analysis were used to identify factors that influence the evolution and supervision of the Polish financial market.

  5. Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Luc, J.E.; Crow, W. T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for eit...

  6. Does vegetation affect the methane oxidation efficiency of passive biosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndanga, Éliane M; Bradley, Robert L; Cabral, Alexandre R

    2015-04-01

    It is often reported in the technical literature that the presence of vegetation improves the methane oxidation efficiency of biosystems; however, the phenomena involved and biosystem performance results are still poorly documented, particularly in the field. This triggered a study to assess the importance of vegetation in methane oxidation efficiency (MOE). In this study, 4 large scale columns, each filled with sand, topsoil and a mixture of compost and topsoil were tested under controlled conditions in the laboratory and partially controlled conditions in the field. Four series of laboratory tests and two series of field tests were performed. 4 different plant covers were tested for each series: Trifolium repens L. (White clover), Phleum pratense L. (Timothy grass), a mixture of both, and bare soil as the control biosystem. The study results indicated that up to a loading equal to 100 g CH4/m(2)/d, the type of plant cover did not influence the oxidation rates, and the MOE was quite high (? 95%) in all columns. Beyond this point, the oxidation rate continued to increase, reaching 253 and 179 g CH4/m(2)/d in laboratory and field tests respectively. In the end, the bare soil achieved as high or higher MOEs than vegetated biosystems. Despite the fact that the findings of this study cannot be generalized to other types of biosystems and plants and that the vegetation types tested were not fully grown, it was shown that for the short-term tests performed and the types of substrates and plants used herein, vegetation does not seem to be a key factor for enhancing biosystem performance. This key conclusion does not corroborate the conclusion of the relatively few studies published in the technical literature assessing the importance of vegetation in MOE. PMID:25690413

  7. Political factors and the efficiency of municipal expenditure in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronaldo Seroa da, Motta; Ajax, Moreira.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa como fatores políticos e institucionais afetama eficiência do gasto municipal no provimento do bem estar para a população ao longo da década dos noventa. O modelo adota a abordagem da fronteira de produção estocástica, condicionada por variáveis relacionadas ao custo da provisão [...] dos serviços e os incentivos que afetam a eficiência municipal. O resultado indica que não podemos rejeitar: 1) economias de escala; 2) o efeito da margem de voto no município e do tipo de mandato (primeiro ou segundo) do governador eleito, indicando uma forma de clientelismo; e que 3) a política local e a existência de comitê setoriais não afetam o nível da eficiência do gasto, o que sugere assimetria de informação entre os políticos e os eleitores. Abstract in english This study analyses how political and institutional factors affected the performance of municipalities in improving social welfare in Brazil in the period from1990 to 2000. Themodel adopts a stochastic production frontier, conditioned by variables related to the provision costs of services and those [...] that can affect municipal efficiency. The results indicated that we can not reject:1) economies of scale; 2) the effect of vote margin in the municipality and the type (first or second) of mandate of elected governor, which indicates a form of patronage; and 3) that local politics and the existence of sectorial boards did not affect the level of efficiency for municipal spending, suggesting an asymmetry of information between politics and voters.

  8. Political factors and the efficiency of municipal expenditure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Seroa da Motta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses how political and institutional factors affected the performance of municipalities in improving social welfare in Brazil in the period from1990 to 2000. Themodel adopts a stochastic production frontier, conditioned by variables related to the provision costs of services and those that can affect municipal efficiency. The results indicated that we can not reject:1 economies of scale; 2 the effect of vote margin in the municipality and the type (first or second of mandate of elected governor, which indicates a form of patronage; and 3 that local politics and the existence of sectorial boards did not affect the level of efficiency for municipal spending, suggesting an asymmetry of information between politics and voters.Este estudo analisa como fatores políticos e institucionais afetama eficiência do gasto municipal no provimento do bem estar para a população ao longo da década dos noventa. O modelo adota a abordagem da fronteira de produção estocástica, condicionada por variáveis relacionadas ao custo da provisão dos serviços e os incentivos que afetam a eficiência municipal. O resultado indica que não podemos rejeitar: 1 economias de escala; 2 o efeito da margem de voto no município e do tipo de mandato (primeiro ou segundo do governador eleito, indicando uma forma de clientelismo; e que 3 a política local e a existência de comitê setoriais não afetam o nível da eficiência do gasto, o que sugere assimetria de informação entre os políticos e os eleitores.

  9. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Thi Nguyen; Wendy Warren; Heather Fehring

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study’s findings show that many factors hinder the quality of English teaching and learning: uninteresting teaching style; insufficient time for communicative activities; grammar...

  10. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalene H. Awases; Marthie C Bezuidenhout; Janetta H Roos

    2013-01-01

    Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of ...

  11. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Lavinia Mihaela GU?U

    2015-01-01

    Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing...

  12. Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kashif Ud Din Khan; Shazia Gulzar; Farzan Yahya

    2013-01-01

    Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods. Re...

  13. Factors Affecting Software Cost Estimation in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Javed; Mirza Ahsan Ullah; Aziz-ur-Rehman,

    2013-01-01

    Cost is the main driving factor for all projects. When it is done correctly, it helps in the successful completion of the project. In this research we have discussed various factors that affect the estimation procedure. These include team structure, team culture, managerial style, project type (Core application or integrated application), client’s working environment. Accurate estimation is far difficult in developing countries where most of the organizations follow local standards. These in...

  14. Factors Affecting the Formation of Food Preferences in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles-White, Monica L.; Welch, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    Identifies and discusses factors that affect the development of food preferences in preschool children, including familiarity, age, parents, peers, teachers, and programs designed to influence food habits. Makes recommendations to preschool and day care programs for creating an atmosphere conducive to trying new foods. (Author/DST)

  15. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  16. Organizational and Cultural Factors Affecting International Transfer of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Doo H.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the results of a study of a global company that examined the effect of training design and work environment on the transfer of human resources development training. Presents a model of international transfer of training and discusses organizational factors and cultural differences that affected the transfer of training. (LRW)

  17. Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergis, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

  18. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Use of Moodle: Students' Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damnjanovic, Vesna; Jednak, Sandra; Mijatovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of Moodle from the students' perspective. The research hypotheses derived from the suggested extended Seddon model have been empirically validated using the responses to a survey on e-learning usage among 255 users. We tested the model across higher education…

  19. Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

  20. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  1. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  2. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  3. Factors Affecting Coefficient Alpha: A Mini Monte Carlo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Brian M.

    Factors affecting a lower-bound estimate of internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, are explored. Theoretically, coefficient alpha is an estimate of the correlation between two tests drawn at random from a pool of items like the items in the test under consideration. As a practical matter, coefficient alpha can be an index…

  4. Total-factor energy efficiency in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xing-Ping; Cheng, Xiao-Mei; Yuan, Jia-Hai; Gao, Xiao-Jun [School of Economics and Management, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2011-02-15

    This paper uses a total-factor framework to investigate energy efficiency in 23 developing countries during the period of 1980-2005. We explore the total-factor energy efficiency and change trends by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) window, which is capable of measuring efficiency in cross-sectional and time-varying data. The empirical results indicate that Botswana, Mexico and Panama perform the best in terms of energy efficiency, whereas Kenya, Sri Lanka, Syria and the Philippines perform the worst during the entire research period. Seven countries show little change in energy efficiency over time. Eleven countries experienced continuous decreases in energy efficiency. Among five countries witnessing continuous increase in total-factor energy efficiency, China experienced the most rapid rise. Practice in China indicates that effective energy policies play a crucial role in improving energy efficiency. Tobit regression analysis indicates that a U-shaped relationship exists between total-factor energy efficiency and income per capita. (author)

  5. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market.

  6. Efficient factorization of DSP transforms using taylor expansion diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Guillot, Jérémie; Boutillon, Emmanuel; Ren, Qian; Ciesielski, Maciej; Gomez Prado, Daniel; Askar, Serkan

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient method to perform factorization of DSP transforms based on Taylor Expansion Diagram (TED). It is shown that TED can efficiently represent and manipulate mathematical expressions. We demonstrate that it enables efficient factorization of arithmetic expressions of DSP transforms, resulting in a simplification of the computation.

  7. Factors Affecting Wedding Banquet Venue Selection of Thai Wedding Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkanya Napompech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wedding day is one of the most important days for couples, so they want their ceremony to be as near to perfect as possible. Finding a venue for the wedding banquet is the first stage of the couple’s planning and many factors affect this decision. The objective of this research was to study the factors that affect the selection of wedding banquet venues among Thai wedding couples. This study obtained data via questionnaires and used statistical tests such as the Mann-Whitney U test and one-way analysis of variance. Results showed that among the 30 factors that were assessed by 222 respondents, good service from employees, food quality, the venue’s atmosphere, size of the event room and facilities in the wedding room were the five most important factors determining the attractiveness of a wedding banquet venue. The results demonstrated that respondents who organized a wedding banquet at a hotel prioritized the atmosphere. In contrast, respondents who organized a wedding banquet at a restaurant placed highest priority on the facilities of the wedding room. Results showed that significant differences regarding the factors that affect the selection of wedding banquet venues exist across groups with different demographic variables (i.e., age, income, education level.

  8. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  9. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  10. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magdalene H., Awases; Marthie C., Bezuidenhout; Janetta H., Roos.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors inf [...] luencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. METHOD: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. RESULTS: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  11. Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

  12. A study of factors affecting indoor radon properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors affecting indoor radon properties in Hong Kong have been studied, including the radon concentration, the total potential alpha energy concentration of radon progeny, the equilibrium factor, and the fraction of unattached radon progeny. These factors fall into three categories, namely, (1) the building characteristics, including cooling method, age of the buildings, wall coverings and floor coverings; (2) the location of sites, including nearby environments, geological materials of the area, and the elevation of the sites; and (3) the meteorological parameters, including rainfall, relative humidity, pressure, temperature, and wind speeds. For category (1), only the ventilation is found to affect the indoor radon properties. For category (2), only the nearby environments have effects. For category (3), the rainfall and temperature are found to have significant effects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  13. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg...... and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored...... metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening...

  14. Factors affecting functional prognosis of patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M T

    2011-01-01

    Having a hip fracture is considered one of the most fatal fractures for elderly people, resulting in impaired function, and increased morbidity and mortality. This challenges clinicians in identifying patients at risk of worse outcome, in order to optimise and intensify treatment in these patients. A variety of factors such as age, prefracture function and health status, fracture type, pain, anaemia, muscle strength, and the early mobility level have been shown to influence patient outcome. Thus, the outcome of patients with hip fracture is considered multi-factorial, and can therefore not be related to just one or two single factors. The current article reviews important factors affecting the functional prognosis, and clinicians are encouraged to include all factors potentially influencing the outcome of patients with hip fracture in their individualised treatment and rehabilitation plan. Especially, older age and having a low prefracture functional level are considered strong factors.

  15. Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahieh Moradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

  16. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  17. Confounding factors affect the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoram Elitsur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis is a newly diagnosed esophageal disease in adult and children. The clinical and pathological characteristics of this disease have been established and were recently summarized in the expert clinical guideline published in 2011. In spite of the wide knowledge accumulated on this disease, there are many areas where scientific data are missing, especially in regard to the disease’s pathophysiology. Recent publications have suggested that other confounding factors modify the disease and may affect its clinical-phenotypic presentation. Those factors may include place of living, air pollution, race, genetic factors and other. In the present report we discussed and review those confounding factors, the new developments, and what direction we should go to further advance our knowledge of this disease.

  18. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855

  19. Factors Affecting Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr, Southern Iran and Pars Clinic, Iran were enrolled by a simple random sampling method. They all completed a questionnaire to consider reasons for cosmetic procedures. The collected data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS Demographical, sociological and psychological factors such as age, gender, educational level, marital status, media, perceived risks, output quality, depression and self-improvement were determined as factors affecting tendency of individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery in this region. Trend to undergo cosmetic surgery was more prevalent in educational below bachelor degree, married subjects, women population of 30-45 years age group. Education level, age, marital status and gender were respectively the influential factors in deciding to undergo cosmetic surgery. Among the socio-psychological factors, self-improvement, finding a better job opportunity, rivalry, media, health status as well as depression were the most persuasive factors to encourage people to undergo cosmetic surgery too. Cost risk was not important for our samples in decision making to undergo cosmetic surgery. CONCLUSION We need to fully understand the way in which the combination of demographic, social and psychological factors influence decision-making to undergo cosmetic surgery. PMID:25734051

  20. Factors Affecting the Ethical Judgment of Business Ethics’ Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine the factors that affect the ethical judgment of Business Ethics students. The factors are year of study, gender, academic major, overall academic performance and Business Ethics result. A questionnaire survey was administered to 209 students taking Business Ethics course in a higher learning institution in Malaysia. Ethical vignettes obtained from Emerson and Conroy (2004 were used to capture how students evaluate the ethical behavior depicted in the vignettes. A multiple regression analysis revealed that Business Ethics result and year of study are factors that have a significant effect on the ethical judgment of students. The study reveals that Business Ethics result and year of study are significant factors that affect the ethical judgment of the students. The findings of this study may assist accounting practitioners and future employers in recruiting prospective employees. Employers may want to emphasis the significant factors in the hiring process future employees to ensure that the employees they employ have an appropriate level of ethical behavior.

  1. Analysis on Psychological Factors to Affect the Vocal Stage Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihong CHEN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The stage performance is an important part of artistic practice for vocal students. To perfectly express the music on stage is the dream of every vocal music performer. This essay is about analysis of the psychological factors to affect the vocal stage performance and to explore the reasons for stage fright and the methods to overcome this, to enable students to further enhance the level of their vocal music.

    Key words: Vocal music; Stage performance; Psychological factor

  2. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  3. Operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Chuan-udom

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses,which comprised rotor speed (RS, louver inclination (LI, grain moisture content (MC, feed rate (FR, and grain to materialother than grain ratio (GM. Seventeen Thai corn-shelling threshers were random-sampled during the late rainy season cropof 2008 and ten threshers were sampled in the early rainy season crop of 2009 in Loei province, Northeast of Thailand.The results of this study indicated that LI and MC affected shelling losses whereas RS, FR and GM did not affect losses.Increased LI or decreased MC tended to reduce shelling losses. In operating the Thai threshers for corn shelling, if shellinglosses have to be kept lower that 0.5%, the moisture content should not exceed 20%wb and the louver inclination should notbe less than 85 degrees.

  4. Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shariq Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab Nation...

  5. Tumour lysis as a factor affecting blood levels of CEA.

    OpenAIRE

    Quayle, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed that tumour lysis may be an important factor affecting blood levels of CEA. This has been explored in an experimental study with a model tumour system, consisting of immune-deprived mice bearing human CEA-producing tumours. Using agents such as irradiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, diphtheria toxin and techniques such as cryosurgery, it has been shown that tumour lysis is important when it is both rapid and extensive. The extent to which this may occur in patients rema...

  6. Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

  7. Factors Affecting the Disposition Effect in Tehran Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Tehrani; Niloofar Gharehkoolchian

    2012-01-01

    Given the significance and perceived inevitability of disposition effect and its impact on investment decisions, we investigate factors affecting the disposition effect in the Tehran Stock Exchange. Four hypotheses were developed and the data used in the study were collected through availability sampling. One-sample t-test, two-sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were run to analyze the data while Pearson correlation test and multiple regressions were used to assess relationships among variables ...

  8. Factors affecting bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Azin Ayatollahi; Mohammad Reza Mohajeri-Tehrani; Shahriar Nafissi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD).Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years) pa...

  9. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Sohail, Muhammad; Khan, Abdur Rashid

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of exper...

  10. Success factors affecting E-business:case Taobao

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, X.

    2015-01-01

    E-business has aroused great concern and become a hot topic in both information technology and business field. With many companies’ success in doing e-business, there are also abundant of failure cases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the success factors that can affect e-business so as to provide beneficial guidance to companies. Virtually, many researchers have also studied e-business relating to its success from different perspectives and in various areas. However, ...

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING ANXIETY IN ELITE SPORTSMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Gündo?du, Cemal; ÇELEB?, Evrim; HAL?SDEM?R, Nurhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anxiety the triathlon sportsmen of national teams experience before competitions and the factors that affect this kind of anxiety. This descriptive study was carried out with the voluntary participation of 104 sportsmen who participated in the Istanbul European Cup, Elaz?g Balkan Grand Prix and Alanya World Cup in 2014. The data collection instrument was an interview questionnaire developed by the researchers, and the Cronbach alpha of the questi...

  12. Factors Affecting the End-User Computing Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Dastgir; Ahmad S. Mortezaie

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate factors that are affecting the end-user computing of accounting information system satisfaction from financial managers' point of view. Our sample is selected from companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. This research is a descriptive - empirical field study. The required data is collected by sending out questionnaires to the financial managers of the sampled companies. Our findings indicate that, the information content, ease of using accounting in...

  13. Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

    1983-09-01

    An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

  14. Analysis on Psychological Factors to Affect the Vocal Stage Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Xihong CHEN

    2012-01-01

    The stage performance is an important part of artistic practice for vocal students. To perfectly express the music on stage is the dream of every vocal music performer. This essay is about analysis of the psychological factors to affect the vocal stage performance and to explore the reasons for stage fright and the methods to overcome this, to enable students to further enhance the level of their vocal music.

    Key words: Vocal music; Stag...

  15. Midterm Outcome of Femoral Artery Stenting and Factors Affecting Patency

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jae Seoung; Park, Keun-Myoung; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu; Hong, Kee Chun; Shin, Woo Young; Choe, Yun-Mee; Shin, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Kyung Rae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early and midterm results of superficial femoral artery (SFA) stenting with self-expanding nitinol stents and to identify the factors affecting patency. Materials and Methods: SFA stenting was performed in 165 limbs of 117 patients from January 2009 to December 2013. Patients were followed-up for the first occurrence of occlusion or stenosis based on computed tomography and duplex scan results and a decrease in ankle brachial index of >15...

  16. Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    K. Abu-Alruz; I.A. Afaneh; J.M. Quasem; M.A. Hmidat; J. Abbady; A.S. Mazahreh

    2011-01-01

    The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol) contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ...

  17. Factors Affecting Liquid-Metal Embrittlement in C-103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclemore, R.; Lampson, F. K.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a study of weld cracks on Space Shuttle control thrustors point toward better understanding of cracking problem in columbium metal, which has also plagued nonaerospace users. Although liquid-metal embrittlement is known to be cause of problem, factors affecting growth and severity of cracks are not well understood. New results tie crack growth to type of contaminants present, grain size and level of stress present while welding is done.

  18. Environmental factors affecting tourists' experience in South African national parks

    OpenAIRE

    Saayman, Melville; Du Plessis, Liezel; Van Der Merwe, Petrus

    2012-01-01

    This study, the first of its kind involving South African National Parks, aimed to determine which environmental factors in these parks have a negative effect on tourists’ experience, and whether tourists who visit parks frequently are more aware of environmental impacts than those who visit only occasionally. The findings will help to inform South African National Parks (SANParks) management about the impacts of tourism in the parks and how these affect tourists’ experience. Data was obtaine...

  19. Factors Affecting Willingness to Pay for Chicken from Biosecure Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Lestari, Veronica; Natsir, Asmuddin; Karim, Hasmida; Patrick, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to know factors affecting willingness to pay for chicken meat from biosecure farms. This research was conducted in Makassar regency, South Sulawesi province. Sample were choosed through random sampling at two supermarkets namely Lotte Mart and Gelael. Total sample were 50 respondents which consisted of chicken meat consumers. To know the willingness to pay for chicken meat from biosecure farms, contingent valuation method was used. Data were collected through int...

  20. Did the Financial Crisis Affect Environmental Efficiency? Evidence from the Japanese Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Assaf, A. George; Managi, Shunsuke; Matousek, Roman

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the financial crisis on the environmental and technical efficiencies of the Japanese manufacturing industry. Overall, we found that while the crisis had a negative impact on technical efficiency it did not affect environmental efficiency- the only exception was the transportation equipment sector which improved its environmental efficiency following the crisis. Additionally, we found that capital intensity does not necessarily affect environmental efficiency....

  1. Nonnegative Matrix Factorization for Efficient Hyperspectral Image Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacchetta, Alexander S.; Fienup, James R.; Leisawitz, David T.; Bolcar, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging for remote sensing has prompted development of hyperspectral image projectors that can be used to characterize hyperspectral imaging cameras and techniques in the lab. One such emerging astronomical hyperspectral imaging technique is wide-field double-Fourier interferometry. NASA's current, state-of-the-art, Wide-field Imaging Interferometry Testbed (WIIT) uses a Calibrated Hyperspectral Image Projector (CHIP) to generate test scenes and provide a more complete understanding of wide-field double-Fourier interferometry. Given enough time, the CHIP is capable of projecting scenes with astronomically realistic spatial and spectral complexity. However, this would require a very lengthy data collection process. For accurate but time-efficient projection of complicated hyperspectral images with the CHIP, the field must be decomposed both spectrally and spatially in a way that provides a favorable trade-off between accurately projecting the hyperspectral image and the time required for data collection. We apply nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) to decompose hyperspectral astronomical datacubes into eigenspectra and eigenimages that allow time-efficient projection with the CHIP. Included is a brief analysis of NMF parameters that affect accuracy, including the number of eigenspectra and eigenimages used to approximate the hyperspectral image to be projected. For the chosen field, the normalized mean squared synthesis error is under 0.01 with just 8 eigenspectra. NMF of hyperspectral astronomical fields better utilizes the CHIP's capabilities, providing time-efficient and accurate representations of astronomical scenes to be imaged with the WIIT.

  2. Factors affecting the probability of bacteriological cure of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, S; Paduch, J-H; Hoedemaker, M; Krömker, V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review factors affecting the probability of cure of bovine mastitis and thereby establish criteria for deciding whether to treat or cull individual animals. A further objective was to avoid redundant treatment with antibiotics so as to reduce the risk of pathogen resistance and enhance economic benefit. In evaluating success of therapy, bacteriological cure is the standard type of cure and is defined as elimination of mastitis-causing pathogens from the mammary gland. Administration of antibiotics is considered reasonable only when there is a prospect of bacteriological cure. In addition to age of the affected cow, the history of mastitis, number of infected quarters and somatic cell count affect the probability of bacteriological cure. Identifying and characterising chronic mastitis, which causes enormous production losses, are especially important to prevent unnecessary treatment and to decide whether or not to cull. To our knowledge, this is the first work providing a complete list of factors that have been confirmed in scientific literature to influence the probability of cure. This review should support farmers and veterinarians in deciding between culling and administering appropriate therapy to an affected animal. PMID:25960107

  3. Total-factor energy efficiency in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses a total-factor framework to investigate energy efficiency in 23 developing countries during the period of 1980-2005. We explore the total-factor energy efficiency and change trends by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) window, which is capable of measuring efficiency in cross-sectional and time-varying data. The empirical results indicate that Botswana, Mexico and Panama perform the best in terms of energy efficiency, whereas Kenya, Sri Lanka, Syria and the Philippines perform the worst during the entire research period. Seven countries show little change in energy efficiency over time. Eleven countries experienced continuous decreases in energy efficiency. Among five countries witnessing continuous increase in total-factor energy efficiency, China experienced the most rapid rise. Practice in China indicates that effective energy policies play a crucial role in improving energy efficiency. Tobit regression analysis indicates that a U-shaped relationship exists between total-factor energy efficiency and income per capita. - Research Highlights: ? To measure the total-factor energy efficiency using DEA window analysis. ? Focus on an application area of developing countries in the period of 1980-2005. ? A U-shaped relationship was found between total-factor energy efficiency and income.

  4. Total-factor energy efficiency in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xingping, E-mail: zxp@ncepu.edu.c [School of Economics and Management, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Cheng Xiaomei; Yuan Jiahai; Gao Xiaojun [School of Economics and Management, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2011-02-15

    This paper uses a total-factor framework to investigate energy efficiency in 23 developing countries during the period of 1980-2005. We explore the total-factor energy efficiency and change trends by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) window, which is capable of measuring efficiency in cross-sectional and time-varying data. The empirical results indicate that Botswana, Mexico and Panama perform the best in terms of energy efficiency, whereas Kenya, Sri Lanka, Syria and the Philippines perform the worst during the entire research period. Seven countries show little change in energy efficiency over time. Eleven countries experienced continuous decreases in energy efficiency. Among five countries witnessing continuous increase in total-factor energy efficiency, China experienced the most rapid rise. Practice in China indicates that effective energy policies play a crucial role in improving energy efficiency. Tobit regression analysis indicates that a U-shaped relationship exists between total-factor energy efficiency and income per capita. - Research Highlights: {yields} To measure the total-factor energy efficiency using DEA window analysis. {yields} Focus on an application area of developing countries in the period of 1980-2005. {yields} A U-shaped relationship was found between total-factor energy efficiency and income.

  5. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user’s committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user’s committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

  6. Predictive factors affecting cecal intubation failure in colonoscopy trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful cecal intubation (SCI is not only a quality indicator but also an important marker in a colonoscopy trainee’s progress. We conducted this study to determine factors predicting SCI in colonoscopy trainees, and to compare these factors before and after trainees achieve technical competence. Methods Design of this study was a cross-sectional studies of two time series design for one year at a single center. From March 2011 to February 2012, a total 2,050 subjects who underwent colonoscopy by four first-year gastrointestinal fellows were enrolled at Christian hospital, Wonju, Republic of Korea. Four gastrointestinal fellows have filled out the colonoscopic documentation. Main outcome measurement was predictive factors affecting cecal intubation failure and learning curves. Results Colonoscopy was successfully completed to the cecum in 1,720 patients (83.9%. Success rates gradually increased as trainees performed more colonoscopies: the rate of SCI was 62% in the first 50 cases, and grew to 93% by the 250th case. Logistic regression analysis of factors affecting cecal intubation failure showed that female gender, low BMI (BMI Conclusion Several patient characteristics were identified that may predict difficulty of cecal intubation in colonoscopy trainees. Particularly, low BMI, inadequate bowel cleansing, and previous stomach operation were predictors of cecal intubation failure before the trainees have reached technical competency. The results could be informative so that trainees enhance the success rate regarding better colonoscopy training programs.

  7. Ranking factors affecting the productivity of human resources using MADM techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Shekari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For improving and efficient uses of various resources such as labor, capital, materials, energy and information, productivity is the purpose of all economic and industrial organizations and service enterprises. The human factor is the main strategic resource and the realization axis of productivity for each type of organization. Therefore the factors affecting the productivity, depends on suitable conditions for labor. This study is performed to identification and prioritization the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company. The objective of this research is an applied and the data collection methods and conclusions are descriptive - survey. Statistical sample size by using Cochran's formula is considered equal to 120. To perform this study with the Delphi method, we identify the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company and by using MADM techniques, prioritization of these factors has been done. Also Team Expert Choice2000 software have used for analysis. Research results show that factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company in order of importance are: Health aspects, leadership style, motivational factors, organizational commitment, work experience, general and applied education, demographic characteristics, physical environment within the organization, external environment and competitive spirit.

  8. Key factors affecting the efficiency of transport interchanges

    OpenAIRE

    Monzón de Cáceres, Andrés; Alonso Ramos, Andrea; López Lambas, Maria Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a meta-analysis of long/short distance passenger interconnectivity within the European context. The analysis is based on the results of the European project HERMES of the 7th EU R&D Programme. The study collected stakeholders and travelers’ valuation and preferences in 5 interchanges in 3 EU countries. To that end a common survey was conducted in the following sites: Gothenburg Central Station (Sweden), Avenida de America Interchange in Madrid, Lleida-Zaragoza railway stat...

  9. An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuremoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

  10. Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abu-Alruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ended in July 2008. The following 11 factors were taken into consideration during sample collection: olive fly infection, topography, olive storage before pressing, geographical area, effect of olive seeds during oil extraction, effect of pressing temperature, presence of olive leaves during oil extraction, soil type, maturity index of the olive fruit, olive variety and oil preservation and storage in terms of storage container types. The results show that soil type, region, maturity index and olive fly infection are the main factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol. Pressing temperature, olive storage before pressing, olive variety and oil storage showed a moderate effect. Olive seeds, topography and presence of olive leaves had a negligible effect on D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil.

  11. Factors Affecting The Entrepreneurial Behavior Of TUMS Research Centers Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Khayatan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Aim: Entrepreneurial roles can be performed by managers at different levels. In fact, entrepreneurship can be interpreted as a tendency adopted by managers towards their environment in which they should have the ability to discover new opportunities for their innovative activities. This study aims to identify factors affecting entrepreneurial behavior of research centers managers at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS.  Materials and Methods: Considering the sample size determined through Cochran’s formula, 90 questionnaires were distributed among TUMS research centers managers. The data were analyzed based on structural equation modeling applying partial least squares approach through Smartpls.2 software.  Results: Of the 90 questionnaires distributed, 67 were acceptable for study. The model created for effective factors enjoyed an acceptable goodness of fit index (GOF=0.49. Factors loading for the observed variables were above 0.4 and the constructs had an acceptable level of reliability and validity.  Conclusion : The results show that contextual and behavioral factors have a positive effect on entrepreneurial behavior and that structural factors have a negative effect on it. 

  12. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  13. Factors affecting aromatic VOC removal by electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been conducted to investigate the effects of dose, humidity, and temperature on the decomposition of representative volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by electron beam irradiation. For this study, toluene--a commonly used VOC in the various industrial coating processes, was selected as a representative VOC. The degradation characteristics under different concentrations and irradiation doses were extensively investigated to determine and improve VOC removal efficiencies. In general, this study illustrates that the removal efficiencies of aromatic VOCs increase as their concentrations decrease and the irradiation doses increase. Addition of water vapor and/or aerosol moisture into the reactor of a flow system results in 10-20% increase in VOC removal efficiencies compared to the experiments run without moisture added, presumably due to OH radical formation leading to additional degradation pathways. The level of decomposition was higher with the addition of water vapor compared to those observed with added aerosol moisture. The temperature variations from 30 deg. C to 130 deg. C did not significantly affect the decomposition rates of the toluene compound at 160 ppm C. However, there was a significant decrease in toluene decomposition rate at a higher temperature of 170 deg. C

  14. Chinese multinationals: how do institutional factors affect their location patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Quer Ramón

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of various host country institutional factors on the location patterns of 29 large Chinese multinationals. From a sample of 127 outward foreign direct investment (FDI decisions made in 52 countries, our findings suggest that a greater difficulty in doing business and a high political risk in the host country do not discourage Chinese multinationals. However, the presence of overseas Chinese in the host country, a larger absolute host market size and a higher volume of Chinese exports to that country affect positively.

  15. Factors Affecting Palm Oil Price Based on Extremes Value Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kantaporn Chuangchid; Aree Wiboonpongse; Songsak Sriboonchitta; Chukiat Chaiboonsri

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the dependence structure of extreme realization of growth rate between palm oil prices and factors affecting, which are soybean oil and crude oil prices. We employ the Bivariate Extreme Value methods for daily palm oil, soybean oil and crude oil prices ranging from July 1988 to January 2012. The results provide that the growth rate of palm oil and soybean oil prices has some dependence in extremes, but the growth rate of palm oil and crude oil prices has fairly weak depend...

  16. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  17. The concept of and factors affecting transport accessibility of seaports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz D?browski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport accessibility of seaports is a frequently studied area in economic research. In practice, port operators and authorities use it to promote their services and compete in the market. Up to this day, theoretical basis of seaports transport accessibility has not been properly described. The article attempts to systematize and expend the knowledge in this field. New definitions of transport availability from wider and narrower perspectives were suggested; different types of accessibility and their mutual relations were explained. These ideas were complemented by introducing classification of factors affecting transport accessibility of seaports.

  18. A preliminary assessment of factors affecting radon levels in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With rising energy prices in the 1970's, a nationwide surge of home weatherization began. Unfortunately, these efforts can cause indoor air pollutants, such as radon, to be trapped and concentrate in homes. Much of Idaho is underlain by granitic and related rocks associated with the Idaho Batholith. Since granitic-type rocks commonly have higher concentrations of radium which decays to radon, the Idaho Division of Environment obtained a grant from the Idaho Cancer Coordinating Committee to survey radon levels throughout the state. This paper presents the results of the first phase of this state-wide survey and examines the possible factors affecting these levels in two Idaho counties

  19. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  20. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  1. Prioritizing the Factor Weights Affecting Tourism Performance by FAHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Hung Do

    2013-10-01

    determine the relative weights of the factors and subfactors in contributing to tourism performance. An application case related to the Vietnamese context is used to illustrate the proposed framework. The results of this study consolidated the tourism theory and suggested recommendations and solutions for the Vietnamese tourism industry. The proposed framework could be used by a group of decision-makers to achieve a consensus, as well as deal with uncertainty in the decision-making process. The findings of the study may serve as a tool for assistance for planners in improving the efficiency of tourism performance.

  2. Factors affecting the retirement of commercial transport jet aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    The historical background of the technology and economics of aircraft replacement and retirement in the prejet era is reviewed in order to determine whether useful insights can be obtained applicable to the jet era. Significant differences between the two periods are noted. New factors are identified and examined. Topics discussed include concern over current policies regarding deregulation, regulatory reform, and retroactive noise regulations; financing and compliance legislation; aging; economic environment and inflation; technological progress; fuel efficiency and cost; and a financial perspective of replacement decisions.

  3. Factors affecting the prevalence of obesity among primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kürtüncü

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the risk factors affecting obesity in students in the 6-15 years old age group. There were 868 students registered at Bahçelievler Elementary School in Zonguldak and were present for face-to-face meetings on the days the research data was collected. Data was collected using demographic questionary forms and weight-length measurements from March to April in 2010. Results: Difference is found to be statistically meaningful with respect to the relationship between obesity of children and their age, gender, number of siblings, fathers’ jobs, education level of their mothers, fast food consumption and family history of obesity (p<0.05. Conclusions: The study concludes that there are certain ciriteria related to the development of obesity during a specific period of childhood and that taking certain precautions are effective in preventing the development of obesity. Keywords: Body Mass Index; Children; Obesity; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Turkey.

  4. Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmo Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service system such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - ‘wireless internet’ and ‘mobile applications’ - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

  5. Factors affecting clinical assessment of insulin sensitivity in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firshman, A M; Valberg, S J

    2007-11-01

    Insulin resistance is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of many equine conditions such as pars intermedia dysfunction, equine metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipaemia, laminitis, endotoxaemia and osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD); whereas polysaccharide storage myopathy in Quarter Horses and equine motor neuron disease (EMD) have been associated with increased insulin sensitivity. However, it is clear that there is not one ideal test, in terms of both practicality and accuracy, for evaluating insulin sensitivity in horses and improved diagnostic techniques are required. This review sets out the background to the subject and identifies current knowledge regarding the measurement of insulin sensitivity by tolerance testing and clamping techniques. Factors affecting insulin sensitivity, such as breed, pregnancy, lactation, obesity and nutritional factors are discussed. In addition, the relationship with training, nutritional supplementation and drug administration are considered. PMID:18065318

  6. Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Youngmo, Kang; Mingook, Lee; Sungjoo, Lee.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service syste [...] m such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT) and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - 'wireless internet' and 'mobile applications' - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

  7. Geolocation by light: accuracy and precision affected by environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisovski, Simeon; Hewson, Chris M.; Klaassen, Raymond H.G.; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Kristensen, Mikkel Willemoes; Hahn, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    1. Geolocation by light allows for tracking animal movements, based on measurements of light intensity over time by a data-logging device (‘geolocator’). Recent developments of ultra-light devices (<2 g) broadened the range of target species and boosted the number of studies using geolocators....... However, an inherent problem of geolocators is that any factor or process that changes the natural light intensity pattern also affects the positions calculated from these light patterns. Although the most important factors have been identified, estimation of their effect on the accuracy and precision of...... positions estimated has been lacking but is very important for the analyses and interpretation of geolocator data. 2. The ‘threshold method’ is mainly used to derive positions by defining sunrise and sunset times from the light intensity pattern for each recorded day. This method requires calibration: a...

  8. Factors that affect electric-utility stranded commitments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.; Baxter, L.

    1996-07-01

    Estimates of stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned utilities range widely, with many falling in the range of $100 to $200 billion. These potential losses exist because some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts and fuel-supply contracts, regulatory assets, and expenses for public-policy programs have book values that exceed their expected market values under full competition. This report quantifies the sensitivity of stranded- commitment estimates to the various factors that lead to these above- market-value estimates. The purpose of these sensitivity analyses is to improve understanding on the part of state and federal regulators, utilities, customers, and other electric-industry participants about the relative importance of the factors that affect stranded- commitment amounts.

  9. Evaluation of different factors affecting antimicrobial properties of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinnejad, Mahmoud; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2016-04-01

    Chitosan as one of the natural biopolymers with antimicrobial activities could be a good choice to be applied in many areas including pharmaceuticals, foods, cosmetics, chemicals, agricultural crops, etc. There have been many studies in the literature which show this superb polymer is dependent on many factors to display its antimicrobial properties including the environmental conditions such as pH, type of microorganism, and neighbouring components; and its structural conditions such as molecular weight, degree of deacetylation, derivative form, its concentration, and original source. In this review, after a brief explanation of antimicrobial activity of chitosan and its importance, we will discuss the factors affecting the antimicrobial properties of this biopolymer based on recent studies. PMID:26780706

  10. Factors affecting compliance with measles vaccination in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimmasane, Maniphet; Douangmala, Somthana; Koffi, Paulin; Reinharz, Daniel; Buisson, Yves

    2010-09-24

    In line with WHO objectives, the Lao Government is committed to eliminate measles by 2012. Yet from 1992 to 2007, the annual incidence of measles remained high while the vaccination coverage showed a wide diversity across provinces. A descriptive study was performed to determine factors affecting compliance with vaccination against measles, which included qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative study used a convenience sample of 13 persons in charge of the vaccination program, consisting of officials from different levels of the health care structure and members of vaccination teams. The quantitative study performed on the target population consisted of a matched, case-control survey conducted on a stratified random sample of parents of children aged 9-23 months. Overall, 584 individuals (292 cases and 292 controls) were interviewed in the three provinces selected because of low vaccination coverage. On the provision of services side (supply), the main problems identified were a lack of vaccine supply and diluent, a difficulty in maintaining the cold chain, a lack of availability and competence among health workers, a lack of coordination and a limited capacity to assess needs and make coherent decisions. In the side of the consumer (demand), major obstacles identified were poor knowledge about measles immunization and difficulties in accessing vaccination centers because of distance and cost. In multivariate analysis, a low education level of the father was a factor of non-immunization while the factors of good compliance were high incomes, spacing of pregnancies, a feeling that children must be vaccinated, knowledge about immunization age, presenting oneself to the hospital rather than expecting the mobile vaccination teams and last, immunization of other family members or friends' children. The main factors affecting the compliance with vaccination against measles in Laos involve both the supply side and the demand side. Obtaining an effective coverage requires upgrading and training the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) staff and a reinforcement of health education for target populations in all provinces. PMID:20692220

  11. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities within local school districts, the use of formal and informal professional development, and the needs of rural science teachers compared to urban and suburban teachers.

  12. Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

  13. Structural Factors That Affect the Performance of Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen

    2013-08-27

    The performance of polymer:fullerene solar cells is strongly affected by the active layer morphology and polymer microstructure. In this Perspective, we review ongoing research on how structural factors influence the photogeneration and collection of charge carriers as well as charge carrier recombination and the related open-circuit voltage. We aim to highlight unexplored research opportunities and provide some guidelines for the synthesis of new conjugated polymers for high-efficiency solar cells. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cusimano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs. A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM. The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36, as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37. Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.

  15. Factors affecting the plasma ion implantation of metallic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UTK Plasma Science Laboratory has been engaged in a research program, under the sponsorship of the Army Research Office and the UTK Center for Materials Processing, to access the effects of plasma ion implantation on the corrosion resistance of common engineering materials. In this paper, the authors report on the research on the factors affecting the plasma ion implantation of metallic samples. The authors have considered 3 factors in the research: The geometry of the sample; the rate of implantation (or the frequency of the implantation pulses); and the method used to prepare the sample for electrochemical analysis to detect and measure any corrosion inhibition. The research indicates that samples flush with the surrounding surface of the sample holder have a better dose uniformity than ones that are raised above the sample holder. Circular samples are more uniform than a square shape. Samples raised above the surface of the sample have a less uniform dose due to the concentration of the electric field lines at edges, and at the corners of noncircular samples. Also, samples implanted at a lower pulse repetition frequency, from 1 to 20 Hz, have shown better results than ones implanted above 200 Hz. Thermal diffusion caused by heating of the sample resulting from high pulse repetition rates causes lower corrosion inhibition (pitting potential). Finally, before the sample is electrochemically tested for corrosion inhibition, it has to be passivated using nitric acid, which can affect the corrosion inhibition of the sample tested

  16. 11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Erdo?an

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality.Methods: Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively.Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery,operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN related complications.The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined.Findings: Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but notmortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section.Conclusion: In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

  17. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  18. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail. PMID:22530712

  19. Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P4) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (?2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (?4.1 ng/mL) P4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

  20. Factors affecting the tissues composition of pork belly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzi?ski, K; Knecht, D; Lisiak, D; Janiszewski, P

    2015-11-01

    Bellies derived from the commercial population of pig carcasses are diverse in terms of tissue composition. Knowledge of the factors influencing it and the expected results, permits quick and easy evaluation of raw material. The study was designed to determine the factors affecting the tissues composition of pork bellies and to estimate their lean meat content. The research population (n=140 pig carcasses) was divided into groups according to sex (gilts, barrows), half-carcass mass (<40, 40 to 43.9, 44 to 46.9, ?47 kg) and lean meat content class: S (?60%), E (55% to 60%), U (50% to 55%), R (<50%). Bellies were subjected to a detailed dissection. Half-carcass mass affected the levels of all the analysed parameters. The only exception was the mass of the fat with the skin in the 40 to 43.9 kg group, for which the value did not differ statistically between the two groups <40 and 44 to 46.9 kg. Decrease in lean meat content affected the growth of the fat and skin mass in a linear way. No differences were observed between class S and E in terms of belly muscle mass. A 0.37% higher share of belly in the half-carcass was found for barrows (P<0.001), although bellies issued from barrows were characterized by a higher proportion of fat with skin compared with gilts (P=0.02). Interactions were observed between sex and half-carcass mass, so the sex of heavy half-carcasses becomes an important determinant for conditioning the muscle content. Equations were calculated and allow a fast and highly accurate determination of the lean meat content in bellies, suggesting they may be used directly in the production line. PMID:26215158

  1. Factors affecting chemical remediation of oil contaminated water-wetted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amro, M.M. [Petroleum Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2004-08-01

    The removal of hydrocarbons from contaminated soil is an essential practice because of environmental concerns, and in order to avoid surface and groundwater contamination. There are different methods applied to remove the hydrocarbons from the soil environment. However, the efficiency of soil remediation depends on several factors, such as the penetration depth of the oil into the soil, the type of oil and polluted soil and the age and degree of contamination. Chemical extraction is one of the approaches employed in handling contaminated sites. Many operations in the petroleum exploration, production and transportation have the potential to affect the environment in different degrees. Leakages from pipelines and stranded oil spills are the major sources of oil-contamination. If hydrocarbon contamination occurs in the soil, the affected portion of soil must be treated to prevent subsequent pollution of groundwater. In this study, a laboratory investigation of factors affecting the chemical extraction using different solvents was conducted to remove the hydrocarbon from artificially contaminated soil samples in presence of water. Moreover, two different types of crude oil were used to study the effect of oil composition on the removal process. The results have identified large variation in the removal efficiency of the applied solvents, depending mainly on the solvent and the type of oil. The main factors affecting the removal process are presented and investigated. In addition, these results were compared with those of dry soil samples. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  3. Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could be reduced approximately 200-fold at pH 6 as compared to pH 10, leaving only 0.1 mg/mL in solution. Solubility could also be dramatically manipulated using salts. The choice of anions was found to be more important than of the cations, and the lowest solubility was found using sodium sulphate. For the anions, solubility followed the order expected from the Hofmeister series, however, a more complex behaviour was seen for the cations. With the exception of lithium, their efficiency to influence the solubility was reversed to what was expected. The polydispersity of the solution was reduced by salt addition and zeta potential measurements indicated a shift in pI caused by lithium. Possible explanations for the observations are discussed, extending our present understanding of how salts affect the solubility of proteins, one that to date is primarily based on experiments with lysozyme. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rad52 SUMOylation affects the efficiency of the DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmannova, Veronika; Eckert-Boulet, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) plays a vital role in DNA metabolic processes including meiosis, DNA repair, DNA replication and rDNA homeostasis. HR defects can lead to pathological outcomes, including genetic diseases and cancer. Recent studies suggest that the post-translational modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein plays an important role in mitotic and meiotic recombination. However, the precise role of SUMOylation during recombination is still unclear. Here, we characterize the effect of SUMOylation on the biochemical properties of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae recombination mediator protein Rad52. Interestingly, Rad52 SUMOylation is enhanced by single-stranded DNA, and we show that SUMOylation of Rad52 also inhibits its DNA binding and annealing activities. The biochemical effects of SUMO modification in vitro are accompanied by a shorter duration of spontaneous Rad52 foci in vivo and a shift in spontaneous mitotic recombination from single-strand annealing to gene conversion events in the SUMO-deficient Rad52 mutants. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of Rad52 SUMOylation as part of a 'quality control' mechanism regulating the efficiency of recombination and DNA repair.

  5. Factors affecting circulating growth hormone binding protein in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar-Dupres, E T; Froman, D P; Davis, S L

    1993-12-01

    Growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) may be an important factor in the regulation of growth and might provide an indirect, relatively noninvasive means of predicting the status of hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) activity. Several factors have been reported to influence growth hormone (GH), GHR, or GHBP. Therefore, these studies were conducted to test how age, sex, nutritional status, and glucocorticoids (cortisone acetate, CA) influence serum concentrations of chicken GHBP. Serum GHBP activity was highest (mean percentage specific binding (%SB) = 12.43 +/- .80) at hatch and decreased linearly (P .08). Short-term nutrient deprivation (24-h) of 4-wk-old broilers also had a significant effect on serum GHBP activity (P feed) restored %SB to normal values. Feeding broilers a low-protein diet (12% CP) did not significantly affect serum GHBP activity when compared with that of broilers fed a commercial broiler diet (23% CP; P > .30). Administration of cortisone (1, 5, and 10 mg/day), every 24 h for 7 days, had no effect, at any dose, on serum GHBP activity at 48 h and 1 wk after the last injection. These results indicate that serum GHBP activity is influenced by factors such as age and feed deprivation. It remains to be determined whether these changes in GHBP are associated with changes in GHR as reported for mammalian species. PMID:8309883

  6. Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Ud Din Khan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods. Respondents were undergraduate students of university with different demographics. Results has presented graphically, descriptively and inferentially using SPSS and Excel. Pearson’s chi-square and correlation has applied to verify the relationship between stress factors and demographics. Results show that living persuasively under strict rules and regulations can be a family stressor. Unavailability of best choices and paramount match to live with as a partner can be an emotional stress. Less income students find difficulty to spend money on buying and enjoying which is a predictor of financial stress. Pressurized life and squat admiration from people has lied under Social stress. Other verdicts are also deemed according to Pakistani cultural context.

  7. A study of factors affecting the quality of measurements in gamma spectrometry counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma spectrometry is widely used as a tool to measure qualitative and quantitative gamma ray emitters in a sample. Container size, sample to detector distance, and sample volumes are well known factors that affecting the quality of gamma spectrometry measurement. However, other factors such as the age of the counting system and surrounding conditions have not much been reported. Therefore, the objective of this study is to find how the age factor and surrounding conditions affecting the quality of the measurements. From this study, it is found that when the age of a system increases, the system tends to have a higher lower limit of detection and poorer linearity. Point source checks found drifting of several parameters such as efficiency, FWHM, and peak position against changing trend of surrounding conditions such as room temperature and humidity. (author)

  8. Total-factor energy productivity growth, technical progress, and efficiency change: An empirical study of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article introduces total-factor energy productivity change index (TFEPI) based on the concept of total-factor energy efficiency and the Luenberger productivity index to evaluate the energy productivity change of regions in China with a total-factor framework. Moreover, the TFEPI can be decomposed into change in energy efficiency and shift in the energy use technology. According to the computation results, China's energy productivity was decreasing by 1.4% per year during 2000-2004. The average total-factor energy efficiency improves about 0.6% per year, while total-factor energy technical change declines progressively 2% annually. The factors affecting TFEPI are also examined: (1) The east area has a higher TFEPI than the central and west area; (2) increasing the development status and electricity share of energy consumption will improve the region's TFEPI performance, while increasing the proportion of GDP generated by the secondary industry deteriorates TFEPI of a region.

  9. SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively

  10. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  11. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    Sohail, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

  12. Factors affecting the deterioration of concrete pavement slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Morozov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of constructions under actual operating conditions is affected by exposure to the environment. It is important that concrete roads and airport pavings are resistant not only to mechanical damage, but also to the effects of alternate freezing and thawing. The causes of early failure in concrete have been shown using prefabricated road slabs as an example. The causes of loss of performance properties of the roadway have been established, which are primarily dependent on the quality of raw materials in the concrete. It was found that, aside from durability, uniformity and porosity are important factors in determining the frost resistance of concrete roadways. It was shown that high aluminate content in the cement leads to concrete destruction in the first year of structure use. The results may also indirectly indicate a violation of forming technology during slab production.

  13. Five Factors Affecting Stability and Security in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Alshammari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are five factors that affect security and stability in the Middle East. The first of these is the ticking bomb of sectarianism between the Sunni and Shiite strands of Islam, which have become more widespread in recent years due to the politisation of sectarian tensions and their transformation among some actors to a means to achieve political demands. Secondly, the impact of the Arab revolutions and the accompanying rise of Islamist groups through the new democratic tendencies encouraged by those revolutions. Thirdly, Iran’s behaviour through the use of both direct and indirect threats to several countries in the region. Fourthly, the existence of a fertile environment for terrorist groups in Yemen. Finally, the struggle between Arabs and Israelis over the existence of the State of Israel and the plight of the Palestinians. This article provides a clear set of linkages between these and investigates them with the intention of enhancing understanding and encouraging debate.

  14. Exploratory investigation of factors affecting the wing tip vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, J.; Megrail, J. L.; Shivers, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to study some factors affecting the tip vortex of a wing. It was found that there was a pronounced effect of Reynolds number on the tip-vortex core size. An attempt was made to determine what aerodynamic parameters, such as lift, drag, or induced drag, influence the size of the vortex core, but no particular function of the parameters was found to be superior to all others. Various spoilers placed on the upper and lower surfaces of the wing to increase the boundary-layer thickness resulted in a reduction in the vorticity as determined from the tuft grid. Various solid objects placed in the vortex core downstream of the wing tip seemed to decrease the vorticity within the vortex core.

  15. Factors affecting CFC end-user conversion to substitute products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the issues facing CFC end-users as they convert to non-CFC systems. The various end use applications for CFCs are quite diverse (e.g., refrigerants, blowing agents foam plastics, aerosol propellant, solvent cleaning); each of the applications will likely have different substitute solutions. For most applications there appears to be both a short-term and long-term solution to the problem, whereas in other applications no suitable replacement for CFCs are apparent. Other fluorocarbons, (i.e., HCFCs and HCFs) are under consideration for many applications. Some of the factors to be addressed that affect the conversion time include: substitute performance in end use application, equipment conversions required to use the substitutes, as well as commercial availability of substitutes

  16. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Motivation of Agricultural Students at Razi University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematollah Shiri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting entrepreneurial motivations of agricultural students at Razi University. Statistical population of this study consisted of all agricultural undergraduate students (senior (N=186, that 164 of them were selected as research sample using proportionate stratified sampling method. The main instrument in this study was questionnaire which its validity was confirmed by the panel of experts and its reliability was established by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data was analyzed by SPSSWin20 software. Findings revealed that agricultural students at Razi University have the entrepreneurial motivations at moderate to high level. In addition, multiple regression analysis showed that three variables including the attitude toward entrepreneurship, the role model, and the courses of entrepreneurship education can be explaining 35.5 percent of variances of the student's entrepreneurial motivations. Results of this study have applications for planners of higher agricultural education system in order to improving the agricultural student's entrepreneurial motivations.

  17. Factors affecting hazardous waste solidification/stabilization: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malviya, Rachana; Chaudhary, Rubina

    2006-09-01

    Solidification/stabilization is accepted as a well-established disposal technique for hazardous waste. As a result many different types of hazardous wastes are treated with different binders. The S/S products have different property from waste and binders individually. The effectiveness of S/S process is studied by physical, chemical and microstructural methods. This paper summarizes the effect of different waste stream such as heavy metals bearing sludge, filter cake, fly ash, and slag on the properties of cement and other binders. The factors affecting strength development is studied using mix designs, including metal bearing waste alters the hydration and setting time of binders. Pore structure depends on relative quantity of the constituents, cement hydration products and their reaction products with admixtures. Carbonation and additives can lead to strength improvement in waste-binder matrix. PMID:16530943

  18. Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation of osteoid osteomas: factors affecting therapeutic outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine factors which affect local recurrence of osteoid osteomas treated with percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation. A prospective study was carried out on 45 patients with osteoid osteoma who underwent percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation with a minimum follow-up of 12 months There were seven local recurrences (16%); all occurred within the first year. Local recurrence was significantly related to a non-diaphyseal location (P<0.01). There was no significant relationship (P=0.05) between local recurrence and age of the patient, duration of symptoms, previous treatment, size of the lesion, positive biopsy, radiofrequency generator used or the number of needle positions. There were no complications. Osteoid osteomas in a non-diaphyseal location are statistically more likely to recur than those in a diaphyseal location when treated with CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation. This relationship between local recurrence and location has not been previously reported. (orig.)

  19. [Infection of Phytophthora capsici on pepper: models and affecting factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-min; Zhou, Yan-ling; Li, Li-jun

    2007-05-01

    Under controlled conditions in growth chamber, this paper studied the mortality of pepper seedlings caused by Phytophthora capsici. The results showed that soil temperature and water content were the important factors affecting the infection of P. capsici, and their optimum values for the infection were 22-28 TC and 40%, respectively. The relationships of the mortality of pepper seedlings caused by Phytophthora capsici with soil temperature, water content and their interactions could be described by mathematical models. Field observation suggested that Gompertz model was the best one for describing the epidemic dynamics of the disease, and the incidence of P. capsici was significantly related to the initial incidence of P. capsici, soil temperature, soil water content, and air temperature. The forecast model of P. capsici incidence on field pepper was established. PMID:17650858

  20. Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation of osteoid osteomas: factors affecting therapeutic outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribb, G.L.; Goude, W.H.; Cool, P.; Tins, B.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.; Mangham, D.C. [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    To examine factors which affect local recurrence of osteoid osteomas treated with percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation. A prospective study was carried out on 45 patients with osteoid osteoma who underwent percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation with a minimum follow-up of 12 months There were seven local recurrences (16%); all occurred within the first year. Local recurrence was significantly related to a non-diaphyseal location (P<0.01). There was no significant relationship (P=0.05) between local recurrence and age of the patient, duration of symptoms, previous treatment, size of the lesion, positive biopsy, radiofrequency generator used or the number of needle positions. There were no complications. Osteoid osteomas in a non-diaphyseal location are statistically more likely to recur than those in a diaphyseal location when treated with CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation. This relationship between local recurrence and location has not been previously reported. (orig.)

  1. Factors affecting medication discontinuation in patients with overactive bladder symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Young-Mi; Kim, Donguk

    2015-01-01

    Objective To find out the factors affecting medication discontinuation in patients with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. Methods The clinical data of 125 patients with OAB symptoms who had taken antimuscarinics and behavioral therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Antimuscarinics related outcomes were evaluated by an independent observer with telephone interview. All patients were asked about duration of medication and reason of continuation or discontinuation of antimuscarinics. To determine pre-treatment factors predicting self-report discontinuation of antimuscarinics, variables of only those with P-values <0.25 on the univariate analysis were included in the Cox proportional hazard modeling. Results Mean follow-up was 39.6 months and the proportion of discontinuation of antimuscarinics was 60.0% (75/125). The mean duration of medication was 21.2 months in the continuation group and 3.3 months in the discontinuation group. The reasons of discontinuation of antimuscarinics were improved OAB symptoms (46.7%), tolerable OAB symptoms (33.3%), no change of OAB symptoms (1.3%), side-effects (8.0%) and no desire to take long-term medication (10.7%). The variables affecting remaining cumulative probability of antimuscarinics were age, history of anti-incontinence surgery or vaginal surgery, and having stress predominant urinary incontinence on urodynamic study. Conclusion The lower rate of cumulative continuation of antimuscarinics encourages us to give a more detailed counseling and education to the patients with OAB symptoms before prescription. And explorations about newer agent and non-pharmacologic treatment with good efficacy and lower side-effects are needed. PMID:26623416

  2. Factors Affecting Mortality in Endosulfan Ingestion With Suicidal Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Orak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Most pesticides containing Endosulfan have either been restricted or prohibited due to the fact that they remain active longer in nature, and have a long half-life and mid-level toxicity in the body. Acute or chronic exposure to Endosulfan, which may be life-threatening or at times fatal, has rarely been reported. Our aim was to analyze the affective factors of endosulfan toxicity on clinical findings and mortality cases.Materials and Methods: In the study, all patients who called upon the emergency service due to suicidal endosulfan ingestion were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-seven patients over the age of 15 years with definite proof that they used medicine containing an endosulfan substance were included into the study. Results: The average age of our patients was 26.56±13.6 years (15-68. The number of male patients was 10 (37.1%, while that of female patients was 17 (62.9%. There were 17 patients (62.9% who presented with nausea and vomiting complaints, 12 (44.4% patients with seizure, and 15 (55.5% with loss of consciousness. The 5 patients who died had loss of consciousness and seizure, and required mechanical ventilation support during seizure and follow-up. In the surviving group, however, loss of consciousness was detected in 10 patients, seizure during follow-up in 5, and ventilation support was required in 5 patients. Conclusion: Loss of consciousness following suicidal endosulfan ingestion, seizure on arrival and/or during follow-up and need for mechanical ventilation support were the factors which affected mortality.

  3. A sociological Analysis of the Factors Affecting social Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasul Rabbani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractInequality is originally based on the differences that the society considers in treating individuals, and thereasons for making such differences lie in factors such as social class, race, ethnicity, sex and religion whichare socially defined. The abstract and mental feelings of the members of the society and their perception ofinequality are more important than the concrete and objective inequality and the important condition for itsemergence is social comparison which brings relative deprivation and the feeling of inequality. This researchaims to analyze the amount of social inequality and the feeling of inequality as well as the factors affectingthem. The present paper is a survey (with regard to controlling the conditions of the research and also is anexplanatory study. The research population includes all citizens of Isfahan who are 15 years old or above atthe time of the research and the sample includes 696 cases. The data was collected using a questionnaire. Fordata analysis, multi- variable regression and structural equations modeling were used. The results indicatethat the coefficient of determination for social inequalities is R=.61.In addition, based on ? value, luxurity,need satisfaction, age, religion, rationality, propaganda and generalized trust affected social inequalityrespectively. Also, the coefficient of determination for the feeling of inequality was R=.69 and based on ?value, materialistic values, individualism, formal trust, religion, rationality, need satisfaction, social closure,feeling of belonging, luxurity affected the feeling of inequality respectively. In sum, the results indicated thatthe actual level of social inequality is average (2.7 and the feeling of inequality is high (3.2 among theparticipants.*

  4. The Study of Internal Factors Affecting Ethnic and National

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolali Lahsaeizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present paper aims at studying the internal factors affecting ethnic and national identityamong Arab people of Ahwaz using quantitative method and survey technique. The sample of thisstudy was 384 male and female Arabs aging 18 to 65 years old. In order to have a more precisestudy, a pretest questionnaire was given to 52 Arab people of Ahwaz. The final questionnaire wasgiven to the sample during autumn and winter of 2006. The theoretical framework of this study isbased on modernization, relative deprivation and internal exploitation theories. In this study, theeffect of age, sex, marital status, employment, family income, the rate of family ownership, relativedeprivation feeling in economic dimension, urban residence, neighborhood (Arab dominant ormixed,the rate of ethnic trust, abiding by ethnic norms, education, using media, satisfaction withpolitical system, participation in political issues and relative deprivation feeling in politicaldimension were measured by ethnic identity variable. Finally, the relationship between ethnicidentity variable and national identity variable was tested among samples. The result of bivariateanalysis (T test, variance analysis and simple regression revealed that above mentioned variable -except 3 variables including sex, marital status and urban residence record - were significant. Ethnicidentity and national identity are significant negative relationship. The results of multivariateregression analysis revealed that 11 out of 16 independent variables affected ethnic identity whichfinaly explained 67 percent of ethnic identity variance.

  5. Factors affecting sorption of radiocobalt by river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the principal factors affecting the interaction of radio cobalt with fresh water sediments and their importance for migration of radio cobalt in surface water streams. The uptake percent (U%) of radio cobalt by Ismailia Cannal bottom sediments (ICUBS) have been studied as a function of contact time, ph, competing ion, carrier concentration and natural ligands such as humic acid using batch technique. Mineralogical analyses of the sediment samples were carried out. The amount sorbed per gram sediment, (X/m), increased as the carrier concentration increased from 10-8 mol. Following a Freundlich type isotherm. The uptake of radio cobalt was found to be affected by changing in the ph of the aqueous phase. Presence of Mg24 ions as competing cation decreases the sorption of 60Co. Presence of humic acid shows a slight effect on the sorption of 60Co. Desorption of the investigated metal ion from the loaded sediment samples was also studied. A mathematical model for the migration of the investigated radioisotope in Ismailia canal water stream was developed to predict the concentrations of cobalt ion at different distances in X-direction

  6. Factors Affecting on Military Medical Job Satisfaction Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Job satisfaction (JS in the workplace affects absenteeism, turnover and performance. Objectives Considering the importance of JS, this study conducted with aim studying the factors affecting JS in a military hospital. Patients and Methods This descriptive analytical cross sectional study was carried out on 301 workers who worked in a military hospital in year 2009 using of stratified random sampling. In this study JSS questioner was used for measuring JS, ANOVA and Dunnett post hoc and SPSS and Excel software were used for statistical analysis and data analysis respectively. Results In this study, age, work experience, type of job and work position shown relationship with JS but gender, marriage status and education were not shown any statistical significant relationship with JS. In this study technician operating room and anesthesia (TORA had less, physicians and specialist and par clinical jobs had more and handy jobs and administrative jobs had same JS compare with nurses. Conclusions According to results of this study, we propose actions like modified and increased salaries and benefits of employees, making effective communication, improved working conditions, reform official promotion and more attention to TORA and nurses can be useful way for improving JS.

  7. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GU?U

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.

  8. Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Ho; Jeong, Won Mee [Inha Hospital, Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seung Hum; Lee Sun Hee [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Tae Yong [Yuhan College, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future.

  9. Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future

  10. Factors Affecting Detection Probability of Acoustic Tags in Coral Reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Bermudez, Edgar F.

    2012-05-01

    Acoustic telemetry is an important tool for studying the movement patterns, behaviour, and site fidelity of marine organisms; however, its application is challenged in coral reef environments where complex topography and intense environmental noise interferes with acoustic signals, and there has been less study. Therefore, it is particularly critical in coral reef telemetry studies to first conduct a long-term range test, a tool that provides informa- tion on the variability and periodicity of the transmitter detection range and the detection probability. A one-month range test of a coded telemetric system was conducted prior to a large-scale tagging project investigating the movement of approximately 400 fishes from 30 species on offshore coral reefs in the central Red Sea. During this range test we determined the effect of the following factors on transmitter detection efficiency: distance from receiver, time of day, depth, wind, current, moon-phase and temperature. The experiment showed that biological noise is likely to be responsible for a diel pattern of -on average- twice as many detections during the day as during the night. Biological noise appears to be the most important noise source in coral reefs overwhelming the effect of wind-driven noise, which is important in other studies. Detection probability is also heavily influenced by the location of the acoustic sensor within the reef structure. Understanding the effect of environmental factors on transmitter detection probability allowed us to design a more effective receiver array for the large-scale tagging study.

  11. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku are definedtogether withshowing the optimal ways of development.

  12. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),work, 4 h/week (5 h men, 4 h women) during leisure time and 1 h/week (1 h men, 1.5 h women) while commuting to work. Factors associated with increased occupational cold exposure among men were: being employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  13. Geographical factors affecting variability of precipitation regime in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabziparvar, A. A.; Movahedi, S.; Asakereh, H.; Maryanaji, Z.; Masoodian, S. A.

    2015-04-01

    This study compares the precipitation regimes by using harmonic analysis during the last four decades (1965-2004). We used the measured precipitation data from 428 rain-gauge sites and weather stations distributed across Iran by applying 15 × 15 km spatial grids to generate the interpolated data. Data validations were carried out by statistical tests. In this study, first three harmonics of precipitation variances were evaluated. Variability of precipitation regime was explored by using three harmonic analysis methods. In addition, the effect of geographical factors (GF) (site elevation, latitude, and longitude) affecting the precipitation regime (P) was verified by multivariate regression method. The resulted regression equation between P and GF for spring showed the highest correlation coefficient ( r = 0.79). For other seasons, r was lower than for spring and varied between 0.26 (summer) to 0.58 (autumn). Analysis of the first harmonic proved that the main precipitation regime in Iran tends to concentrate in one specific season (winter) as a result of large-scale Mediterranean systems passing over the country. In other words, the first harmonic is able to explain most of the precipitation variations which are caused by large-scale atmospheric circulation. For all the three harmonics, variances of precipitation were mainly a function of the geographical factors. This effect was more evident in the third harmonic; in such a way that increasing the latitudes caused higher precipitation variance. This means that the precipitation regime in northern sites is more sensitive to the local factors than those of southern sites. The results of this research can be used for reliable estimation of precipitation in ungauged sites.

  14. Factors affecting regional per-capita carbon emissions in China based on an LMDI factor decomposition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model-panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity. PMID:24353753

  15. Factors Affecting Survival in Kidney Recipients at Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaei

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Purpose: To evaluate patient and graft survivals in kidney recipients and factors impacting on survival rates at Kermanshah.

    Materials and Methods: This study was done on 712 kidney transplants from 1989 through 2001 in Kermanshah. One of the most important applications of survival analysis is assessing the role of explanatory factors in the studied event. In this study Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate patient and graft survivals and in order to determine the factors affecting survival, Cox proportional hazard model was used. The iterations in Cox model was four times and the inclusion and exclusion criteria, calculated by forward conditional method were less than 5% and 10%, respectively.

    Results: Of the recipients, 47.6% were female and most of them (94.4% had received kidneys from living unrelated donors. One-year patient survivals in recipients from living unrelated donors (LURD and living related donors (LRD were 89.4% and 100%, 3-year survivals were 82% and 97.4%, and 10-year survivals were 61.4% and 72%, respectively. In addition, graft survival rates in one year were 85.6% and 97.4%, in three years were 77.2% and 92.3%, and in 10 years were 33.3% and 60.6% in LURD and LRD, respectively. In Cox model, four factors, including the presence of surgical or other complications, known primary disease, and donor-recipient relationship had significant association with patient survival and seven factors, including the presence of surgical complications, known primary disease, donor-recipient relationship, gender, weight, same side transplanted kidney, and donor's age had significant relationship with graft survival.

    Conclusion: In summary, it can be concluded that patient and donor demographic characteristics and transplantation conditions may affect patient and graft survival. With the use of multivariate regression analysis methods, the characteristics that have high probability for survival can be determined. Controlling these situations, where they have high survival probability, effectively help better treatment and high survival rate.

  16. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  17. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.

  18. Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

  19. Analysis of Factors Affecting Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) Image Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image reconstruction for positron emission mammography (PEM) with the breast positioned between two parallel, planar detectors is usually performed by backprojection to image planes. Three important factors affecting PEM image reconstruction by backprojection are investigated: (1) image uniformity (flood) corrections, (2) image sampling (pixel size) and (3) count allocation methods. An analytic expression for uniformity correction is developed that incorporates factors for spatial-dependent detector sensitivity and geometric effects from acceptance angle limits on coincidence events. There is good agreement between experimental floods from a PEM system with a pixellated detector and numerical simulations. The analytic uniformity corrections are successfully applied to image reconstruction of compressed breast phantoms and reduce the necessity for flood scans at different image planes. Experimental and simulated compressed breast phantom studies show that lesion contrast is improved when the image pixel size is half of, rather than equal to, the detector pixel size, though this occurs at the expense of some additional image noise. In PEM reconstruction counts usually are allocated to the pixel in the image plane intersected by the line of response (LOR) between the centers of the detection pixels. An alternate count allocation method is investigated that distributes counts to image pixels in proportion to the area of the tube of response (TOR) connecting the detection pixels that they overlay in the image plane. This TOR method eliminates some image artifacts that occur with the LOR method and increases tumor signal-to-noise ratios at the expense of a slight decrease in tumor contrast. Analysis of image uniformity, image sampling and count allocation methods in PEM image reconstruction points to ways of improving image formation. Further work is required to optimize image reconstruction parameters for particular detection or quantitation tasks

  20. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Quality of an E-commerce Website Using Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Mishra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors which affect the quality and effectiveness of an e commerce website which also majorly affect customer satisfaction and ultimately customer retention and loyalty. This research paper examines a set of 23 variables and integrates them into 4 factors which affect the quality of a website. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to generate statistics regarding the preferences of the e-commerce website users.The 23 variables taken from customer survey are generalized into 4 major factors using exploratory factor analysis which are content, navigation, services and interface design. The research majorly consists of the responses of students between the age group of 18-25 years and considers different B2C commercial websites. Identified variables are important with respect to the current competition in the market as service of an e-commerce website also play a major role in ensuring customer satisfaction. Further research in this domain can be done for websites’ version for mobile devices.

  1. Potential factors affecting accumulation of unsupported 210Pb in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne 210Pb, daughter of 222Rn, is frequently used as a tracer in different studies concerning atmospheric transport, sedimentation, soil erosion, dating, etc. Concentration of 210Pb was measured in 40 soil samples collected in urban and industrial areas in order to get evidence of possible influence of some factors on accumulation of airborne 210Pb in soil. Different soil properties such as the content of organic matter, free CaCO3, and available phosphorus (P2O5) were measured to explore their possible correlation with the amount of 210Pb. Special attention was given to the correlation between 210Pb and stable lead accumulated in the soil. Several samples were taken near a battery manufacturer to check if extremely high concentrations of lead can affect the uptake of the airborne 210Pb in soil. Soil samples were also taken at different depths to investigate the penetration of lead through the soil. - Highlights: • 210Pb and 137Cs were measured in samples of urban soil. • Organic matter, free CaCO3 content, available phosphorus, and lead were measured in soil samples. • There is no statistically significant correlation between 210Pb and lead, CaCO3 and phosphorus. • A strong positive correlation between 210Pb and organic matter was observed

  2. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

  3. Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, K M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

  4. Factors Affecting the Disposition Effect in Tehran Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tehrani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the significance and perceived inevitability of disposition effect and its impact on investment decisions, we investigate factors affecting the disposition effect in the Tehran Stock Exchange. Four hypotheses were developed and the data used in the study were collected through availability sampling. One-sample t-test, two-sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were run to analyze the data while Pearson correlation test and multiple regressions were used to assess relationships among variables in question. The results of the analyses indicate that overconfidence and mental accounting were not significantly correlated with disposition effect. Regret aversion had a positive relationship with disposition effect while self control was negatively associated. It was also observed that there was a negative relationship between participants’ level of education and their disposition effect indicating that the higher the level of education, the less the rate of disposition effect. Furthermore, the results of the study show that males enjoy a higher level of overconfidence than females, and 20 to 30 year-old age groups displayed much overconfidence than other age groups.

  5. Statistical factors affecting the success of nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the authors present a statistical analysis to determine the operational, financial, technical, and managerial factors that most significantly affect the success of nuclear operations. The study analyzes data for over 70 nuclear plants and 40 operating companies over a period of five years in order to draw conclusions that they hope will be of interest to utility companies and public utility commissions as they seek ways to improve rates of success in nuclear operations. Some of these conclusions will not be surprising--for example, that older plants have heavier maintenance requirements--but others are less intuitive. For instance, the observation that operators of fewer plants have lower costs suggests that any experience curve benefits associated with managing multiple nuclear facilities is overshadowed by the logistic problems of multiple facilities. After presenting a brief history of nuclear power in America, the authors outline the motivations of the study and the methodology of their analysis. They end the article with the results of the study and discuss some of the managerial implications of these findings

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING ANXIETY IN ELITE SPORTSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal GÜNDO?DU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the anxiety the triathlon sportsmen of national teams experience before competitions and the factors that affect this kind of anxiety. This descriptive study was carried out with the voluntary participation of 104 sportsmen who participated in the Istanbul European Cup, Elaz?g Balkan Grand Prix and Alanya World Cup in 2014. The data collection instrument was an interview questionnaire developed by the researchers, and the Cronbach alpha of the questions was 0.77. T he data were analyzed with a statistical program, and independent samples t - test and ANOVA were used. According to the data, the following findings were identified: the sportsmen of the Turkish national team felt pre - competition anxiety more than the sport smen of foreign national teams. The female sportsmen experienced the physical symptoms of anxiety more. The younger sportsmen felt more anxious about the fact that they were not going to perform well in the competition. The anxiety of making mistakes decre ased with age. Those whose sporting age was lower felt more anxious for not performing well and for making mistakes.

  7. Some factors affecting accuracy of Canadian Home Fitness Test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R J; Cox, M; Corey, P; Smyth, R

    1979-09-01

    Factors affecting the accuracy of Canadian Home Fitness Test scores have been evaluated in male and female office workers. At a first attempt, the typical subject underestimates his 10 sec post-exercise pulse count by 1 beat, with a superimposed probable error of 2 beats. However, the modest experience of pulse counting gained in an employee fitness programme corrects the systematic error, while the probable random error is reduced to approximately 8 beats/min. Taking account also of variations in the fficiency of stepping, the probable error of an Astrand prediction of V O2(max) is approximately 10.3%. Comparison with directly measured values in a subsample of 22 men shows an actual random discrepancy of 9.5%, plus a systematic error of approximately 19% due to an increase of heart rate with anticipation of the maximum test. The Jetté prediction formula has a random discrepancy of approximately 8%, plus a systematic error of approximately 10.6%. Assuming the latter can be corrected by evaluation of a larger population, the fitness scores should give most people an indication of both their initial fitness and responses to a training regimen. PMID:540414

  8. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of starch in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, P; O'Dea, K

    1981-12-01

    After accurate determination of the content of available carbohydrate in a wide variety of cereals, as in vitro method was used to study factors that influence hydrolysis rates of starch in foods. Fiber, physical form, cooking, and the possible presence of a natural amylase inhibitor were all shown to affect hydrolysis rates of starch. Fiber only exerted an inhibiting effect on the rate of hydrolysis when it formed a physical barrier to limit access of the hydrolytic enzymes to the starch (as in whole brown rice, for example). Particle size played an important role in determining the rate of hydrolysis. Cooking made the starch much more readily available for enzymic hydrolysis presumably by gelatinizing it. Stoneground wholemeal flour was hydrolyzed more slowly than white flour. This is consistent with the presence of a natural amylase inhibitor that has been isolated from wheat germ in the whole grain. Our results suggest that such amylase inhibitor activity is destroyed by passage through the roller mill, since the starch in wheat germ and standard wholemeal flour (i.e., not stoneground but reconstituted after passage through the roller mill) was hydrolyzed at a rate identical to white flour. PMID:6172034

  9. Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab National Bank and State Bank of India and Canara Bank. The sample size of 450 has been taken from among the urban population of above 18 years of age. The result indicates that the educated respondents use the service of internet banking. Based on occupation we can say that the service class and the business class is the one who use internet banking service to nearly 2 times as other occupation. The high income respondents having more than 1 lack income prefer to use this service. The private sector bank account holders use this service as compared to public sector banks. The banking attributes i.e. convenience and security do have very attentive influence on the use of Internet banking.

  10. Midterm Outcome of Femoral Artery Stenting and Factors Affecting Patency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jae Seoung; Park, Keun-Myoung; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu; Hong, Kee Chun; Shin, Woo Young; Choe, Yun-Mee; Shin, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Kyung Rae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early and midterm results of superficial femoral artery (SFA) stenting with self-expanding nitinol stents and to identify the factors affecting patency. Materials and Methods: SFA stenting was performed in 165 limbs of 117 patients from January 2009 to December 2013. Patients were followed-up for the first occurrence of occlusion or stenosis based on computed tomography and duplex scan results and a decrease in ankle brachial index of >15%. Results: During the follow-up period (mean, 15.3±3.2 months), no early thrombotic reocclusions occurred within 30 days, but in-stent restenosis developed in 78 limbs. The primary patency rates at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months were 78%, 66%, 42%, and 22%, respectively, and the secondary patency rates were 85%, 72%, 58%, and 58%, respectively. TASC II C or D lesions, stent length >8 cm, number of patent tibial arteries and diabetes were significantly associated with reintervention. Conclusion: The midterm results of stenting for SFA occlusive disease were disappointing because the primary and secondary patency rates at two years were 22% and 58%, respectively. Reintervention after SFA stenting remains a major problem, particularly in patients with diabetes mellitus or long TASC II C or D lesions. PMID:26719837

  11. Factors Affecting the Habitability of Earth-like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria; NAI-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team

    2014-03-01

    Habitability is a measure of an environment's potential to support life. For exoplanets, the concept of habitability can be used broadly - to inform our calculations of the possibility and distribution of life elsewhere - or as a practical tool to inform mission designs and to prioritize specific targets in the search for extrasolar life. Although a planet's habitability does depend critically on the effect of stellar type and planetary semi-major axis on climate balance, work in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology has identified many additional factors that can affect a planet's environment and its potential ability to support life. Life requires material for metabolism and structures, a liquid medium for chemical transport, and an energy source to drive metabolism and other life processes. Whether a planet's surface or sub-surface can provide these requirements is the result of numerous planetary and astrophysical processes that affect the planet's formation and evolution. Many of these factors are interdependent, and fall into three main categories: stellar effects, planetary effects and planetary system effects. Key abiotic processes affecting the resultant planetary environment include photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2003; 2005), stellar effects on climate balance (e.g. Joshii et al., 2012; Shields et al., 2013), atmospheric loss (e.g. Lopez and Fortney, 2013), and gravitational interactions with the star (e.g. Barnes et al., 2013). In many cases, the effect of these processes is strongly dependent on a specific planet's existing environmental properties. Examples include the resultant UV flux at a planetary surface as a product of stellar activity and the strength of a planet's atmospheric UV shield (Segura et al., 2010); and the amount of tidal energy available to a planet to drive plate tectonics and heat the surface (Barnes et al., 2009), which is in turn due to a combination of stellar mass, planetary mass and composition, planetary orbital parameters and the gravitational influence of other planets in the system. A thorough assessment of a planet's environment and its potential habitability is a necessary first step in the search for biosignatures. Targeted environmental characteristics include surface temperature and pressure (e.g. Misra et al., 2013), a census of bulk and trace atmospheric gases, and whether there are signs of liquid water on the planetary surface (e.g. Robinson et al., 2010). The robustness of a planetary biosignature is dependent on being able to characterize the environment sufficiently well, and to understand likely star-planet interactions, to preclude formation of a biosignature gas via abiotic processes such as photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2007; Domagal-Goldman et al., 2011; Grenfell et al., 2012). Here we also discuss potential false positives for O2 and O3, which, in large quantities, are often considered robust biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. There is clearly significant future work required to better identify and understand the key environmental processes and interactions that allow a planet to support life, and to distinguish life's global impact on an environment from the environment itself.

  12. Factores grupales que inciden en la productividad / Group factors affecting productivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cequea, Mirza Marvel; Miguel, Núñez Bottini; Carlos, Rodríguez-Monroy.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las organizaciones en la actualidad están sometidas permanentemente a cambios acelerados, obligándolas a incrementar su flexibilidad y adaptabilidad para mantener su posición competitiva, sobrevivir a estas presiones lograr sus objetivos y ser más productivas. Por estas razones, la productividad del [...] factor humano es fundamental, ya que son las personas las que realizan los procesos creativos que generan resultados en las organizaciones. Cuando las personas interactúan en la organización se generan unos procesos de carácter psicosocial que incide en el desempeño de individuos, grupos y organización y se denominan Factores grupales, porque son producto de la actuación de las personas en grupos de trabajo. Dichos factores tienen impacto en la productividad, por lo que resulta de interés el estudio de estas relaciones. Con el fin de analizar este impacto, se presenta relaciones Factores Grupales-Productividad, mediante un Modelo de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM), donde los Factores Grupales y la Productividad son constructos o variables latentes explicadas por variables observables o indicadores. El modelo planteado, es aceptado de acuerdo con los índices globales de ajuste y a las cargas factoriales de las variables del modelo resultante. Se corroboró que los factores grupales, tales como Cohesión, Conflicto, Consenso y Moral, inciden en la productividad. Abstract in english Organizations today are undergoing rapid change permanently, forcing them to increase their flexibility and adaptability to stay competitive, to survive these pressures, achieve their goals and be more productive. For these reasons, the productivity of the human factor is critical because it is the [...] people doing the creative processes those results in organizations. When people interact in the organization are a generated psychosocial process that affects the performance of individuals, groups and organization and are called group factors, because they are the product of individual behavior in work groups. These factors have an impact on productivity, so it is interesting to study these relationships. To analyze this impact is presented group factors-productivity relationships through a Structural Equation Model (SEM), where the group factors and productivity are constructs or latent variables explained by observable variables or indicators. The proposed model is accepted in accordance with the global fit indices and factor loadings of the variables of the resulting model. It was confirmed that the group factors, such as Cohesion, Conflict, Consensus and Moral affect productivity.

  13. China's total factor energy efficiency of provincial industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The index of TFEE (total-factor energy efficiency) is used to assess the level of energy consumption to produce economic output (GDP (gross domestic product)) based on multi factors input, which is superior to conventional energy efficiency evaluation regarded as a partial-factor energy efficiency index. The objective of this study is to provide the changes of TFEE at sector and provincial level and to illustrate the drivers behind such various changes in China. The results show that the TFEE of most industrial sectors in the eastern provinces is higher than that in other provinces. The most important finding is that the gap of TFEE across sectors was narrowed in the eastern provinces and expanded comparatively in the central and western provinces. Such result implies that the gap reduction of TFEE across sectors would be one of the important drivers behind the increase of overall TFEE. Meanwhile, the Tobit regression results indicate that technology progress, energy price and economic development have positive influence on TFEE. And the impact of technology progress is found to be of the most significance. - Highlights: • TFEE (Total-factor energy efficiency) at sector and provincial level is presented. • Drivers behind the various changes of TFEE in China are illustrated. • Most industrial sectors in Eastern provinces have higher TFEE than in other provinces. • The energy intensive sectors have higher improvement in energy efficiency. • After 2002, TFEE in most energy/pollution intensive sectors are improved significantly

  14. 34 CFR 682.513 - Factors affecting coverage of a loan under the loan guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    34 Education 3 2010-07-01...2010-07-01 false Factors affecting coverage of a...Section 682.513 Education Regulations...FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL... § 682.513 Factors affecting coverage of...

  15. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649

  16. Factors affecting the pullout strength of cancellous bone screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J R; Harrington, R M; Lee, K M; Anderson, P A; Tencer, A F; Kowalski, D

    1996-08-01

    Screws placed into cancellous bone in orthopedic surgical applications, such as fixation of fractures of the femoral neck or the lumbar spine, can be subjected to high loads. Screw pullout is a possibility, especially if low density osteoporotic bone is encountered. The overall goal of this study was to determine how screw thread geometry, tapping, and cannulation affect the holding power of screws in cancellous bone and determine whether current designs achieve maximum purchase strength. Twelve types of commercially available cannulated and noncannulated cancellous bone screws were tested for pullout strength in rigid unicellular polyurethane foams of apparent densities and shear strengths within the range reported for human cancellous bone. The experimentally derived pullout strength was compared to a predicted shear failure force of the internal threads formed in the polyurethane foam. Screws embedded in porous materials pullout by shearing the internal threads in the porous material. Experimental pullout force was highly correlated to the predicted shear failure force (slope = 1.05, R2 = 0.947) demonstrating that it is controlled by the major diameter of the screw, the length of engagement of the thread, the shear strength of the material into which the screw is embedded, and a thread shape factor (TSF) which accounts for screw thread depth and pitch. The average TSF for cannulated screws was 17 percent lower than that of noncannulated cancellous screws, and the pullout force was correspondingly less. Increasing the TSF, a result of decreasing thread pitch or increasing thread depth, increases screw purchase strength in porous materials. Tapping was found to reduce pullout force by an average of 8 percent compared with nontapped holes (p = 0.0001). Tapping in porous materials decreases screw pullout strength because the removal of material by the tap enlarges hole volume by an average of 27 percent, in effect decreasing the depth and shear area of the internal threads in the porous material. PMID:8872262

  17. Factors affecting the next generation of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For both financial, environmental and health reasons, and because of external and internal factors affecting this nation's energy supply, nuclear power will likely play a part in supplying this nation's energy in the coming decades. I believe this to be true for some other parts of the world as well. Even some severe critics of the nuclear power industry and the NRC might agree with me on this point. Increasing concern with the environmental consequences of the burning of fossil fuels has led some former opponents of the use of nuclear power to balance anew the risks and benefits of nuclear power and to modify to some degree their former opposition. A related concern with the adequacy of the energy supply is leading others to modify their positions. According to analyses done by the U.S. Department of Energy, after 1994 the United States will no longer be able to assure all its citizens a reliable supply of electricity. Already, many areas of the country are in need of additional electric capacity. In both Sweden and Switzerland, similar concerns have led to the adoption by many of more compromising positions. Some critics of nuclear power may in the end still reject it as an alternative, but, with the increased pressures on the environment and on our energy supply, nuclear power is an alternative which cannot be rejected without the most serious consideration. This should be, I believe, a point of consensus among us. In sum, there is a future for nuclear power in the sense that there is a use for it

  18. Factors affecting visibility of a target tissue in histologic sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGavin, M D

    2014-01-01

    The objective of histologic techniques is to stain the subject with high specificity and high visibility. Visibility depends on the microscope's resolution and contrast and on the microscopist's skill at optimizing the microscope's image. It also depends on histotechnological factors, which include specificity and differentiation of the stain, density of background staining (particularly in silver stains), innate color, and grayscale contrasts of the dyes in the stains and color and density of the counterstain. If contrast is not optimal, the image should be evaluated on the basis of 2 types of contrast-color and grayscale. Complementary colors have maximum color contrast, and the color triangle is useful in the selection of a suitable counterstain. Grayscale contrast is a function of the density of a stain. If dyes capable of staining the target and backgrounds tissue do not have optimal color contrast, the only method of increasing contrast is to change the grayscale value of one of the stains, usually the counterstain. Colors can have a subconscious effect on a viewer. Depending on whether they are aesthetically pleasing, they may influence the rigor of and time spent on the histopathologic examination. Maximizing the specificity of stains such as hematoxylin, eosin, trichrome, and Luxol fast blue (LFB) depends on optimal differentiation. In differentiation of counterstains such as methylene blue in the Ziehl-Neelsen stain, its recommended density is conveniently expressed as a grayscale value. Independent evaluation of color and grayscale contrasts is very helpful in determining the cause of low contrast in an image. This review discusses aspects of the histotechnique affecting the visibility of tissue components. PMID:24395975

  19. Rabbit milk: A review of quantity, quality and non-dietary affecting factors

    OpenAIRE

    Maertens, L.; Lebas, F.; Szendro, Zs.

    2006-01-01

    This literature review focuses on the milk yield and milk composition of rabbits and the non-nutritional factors affecting both quantity and quality. Actual highly efficient hybrid does have an average daily milk yield of 250 g or 60 g/kg of live weight during the 4-weeks lactation period. However, compared with cow and sow milk, rabbit's milk is much more concentrated in fat (12.9 g/100 g), protein (12.3 g/100 g) and energy (8.4 MJ/kg) which explains the extremely rapid growth of the young (...

  20. How output diversification affects bnak efficiency and risk: an intra-EU comparison study

    OpenAIRE

    Papanikolaou, Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how banks have been diversifying away from traditional financial intermediation activity into noninterest income business and how this shift has affected their efficiency and risk-taking behaviour. To this end, we construct a global best-practice efficiency frontier following the Stochastic Frontier Approach and relying on the technique of Battese and Coelli (1995), which permits the estimation of the frontier and of the coefficients of efficiency variables in a single-sta...

  1. Does environmental regulation affect energy efficiency in China's thermal power generation? Empirical evidence from a slacks-based DEA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has gained much popularity in performance measurement of power industry. This paper presents a slack-based measure approach to investigating the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and the environmental regulation of China's thermal power generation. We first calculate the total-factor energy efficiency without considering environmental constraints. An environmental performance indicator is proposed through decomposing the total-factor energy efficiency. The proposed approach is then employed to examine whether environmental regulation affects the energy efficiency of China's thermal power generation. We find that the environmental efficiency plays a significant role in affecting energy performance of China's thermal generation sector. Decreasing the discharge of major pollutants can improve both energy performance and environmental efficiency. Besides, we also have three main findings: (1) The energy efficiency and environmental efficiency were relatively low. (2) The energy and environmental efficiency scores show great variations among provinces. (3) Both energy efficiency and environmental efficiency are of obvious geographical characteristics. According to our findings, we suggest some policy implications. - Highlights: • We assess the energy efficiency and the environmental efficiency of China's thermal power generation simultaneously. • The energy efficiency and the environmental efficiency were relatively low during 2007–2009. • The energy efficiency and environmental efficiency show obvious geographic characters. • The environmental performance of a DMU plays a decisive role in the energy performance

  2. Energy-efficiency and proliferation-resistance assessment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment factors suggested with regard to energy efficiency are: preservation of natural non-renewable resources: the degree of security of supply which can be achieved; the availability of necessary raw materials and technology; economic feasibility; and acceptability of a fuel cycle from environmental and safety views. In the area of proliferation resistance, it is suggested that the basic element is the political commitment by a Government not to use imported nuclear materials and equipment to manufacture nuclear explosives. 100% proliferation resistance is considered unattainable in practice. The role of international safeguards in detering possible diversion through the risk of early detection is described, and it is argued that efficient safeguards will force a Government willing to go nuclear to withdraw from its safeguards agreements. The second assessment factor, accordingly, is to consider different fuel cycles with regard to the efficient and rapid building up of a nuclear weapons capacity once the country has withdrawn from its safeguards commitments

  3. To Invest Or Not Invest? : Factors affecting IT investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Tarabay, Raymond; Eigbire, Raphael

    2009-01-01

      Introduction Many studies indicate that there are numerous factors that promote or hamper the adoption of IT applications and are a prime concern for many researchers and practitioners (Abrahamson, 1991). Two main factors which need to be examined closely when making decisions about IT investments are the internal and external factors. Since these factors play a great role in decision making of IT investments, it is imperative to study their impact on the strategic planning because this for...

  4. AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING CREDIT MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTIAN-FLORIN DANANAU

    2012-01-01

    We investigate through an econometric approach the credit market and the factors that interact with it. The current research is beyond the minor aspects of the behavior and determinants of credit market in Romania and our concerns go to macroeconomic factors, consumption, investments and capital market. Results demonstrate a relationship between complex factors such as monetary policy and the credit market.

  5. Emission of Methane From Enteric Fermentation: National Contribution and Factors Affecting it in Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Changing in atmosphere condition is affected by the quantity of gases produced from all activities on the earth. Gases that have effects on global warming are CO2, N2O, H2O, and CH4 (methane. Among other sources of methane are enteric fermentation of organic material from ruminants and feces decomposition. Methane production from ruminants is affected by several factors such as breed/type of animal, feed quality, environmental temperature and physiological status of the animal. Energy as methane in ruminants may reach 2 to 15% of the total energy consumption. To reduce the emission of methane from ruminants, it is necessary to apply a strategic feeding system for more efficient utilization of feed.

  6. Some factors that will affect the next generation of forest growth models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses several types of factors that affect the form and referents of future growth models. These include philosophical, scientific, technological, educational, and organizational factors. Each factor is presented individually

  7. Coupling factor B affects the morphology of mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Belogrudov, Grigory I.

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic expression of coupling factor B in animal cells resulted in altered mitochondrial morphology. Cells expressing factor B fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) contained fragmented, balloon-shaped or thinned, filamentous mitochondria, terminating at one end with balloon-like structures. Ultrastructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy revealed changes in the organization of mitochondrial cristae in cells expressing factor B-GFP fusion protein.

  8. FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHERS’ USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Mojgan Afshari; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Wong Su Luan; Bahaman Abu Samah; Foo Say Fooi

    2009-01-01

    Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers’ decisions to use ICT in the classroom: non-manipulative and manipulative school and teacher factors. These factors are interrelated. The success of the implementation of ICT is not ...

  9. Factors Affecting Students’ Satisfaction towards Bus Services in University

    OpenAIRE

    Zahayu Md Yusof; Masnita Misiran; Lee Pei Pei; Ho Tian Tian

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a statistical study of students’ satisfaction towards bus services in university. The objective of this study is to explore factors that influence student satisfaction on bus services in Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM). Primary data were collected by distributing direct questionnaire to four hundred students in UUM. A factor analysis yielded three factors which are attitude of bus driver, reliability of the buses and facilities of buses.

  10. Ecological total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most existing energy efficiency indices are computed without taking into account undesirable outputs such as CO2 and SO2 emissions. This paper computes the ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) of 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009 through the slack-based model (SBM) with undesirable outputs. We calculate the ETFEE index by comparing the target energy input obtained from SBM with undesirable outputs to the actual energy input. Findings show that China's regional ETFEE still remains a low level of around 0.600 and regional energy efficiency is overestimated by more than 0.100 when not looking at environmental impacts. China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced: the east area ranks first with the highest ETFEE of above 0.700, the northeast and central areas follow, and the west area has the lowest ETFEE of less than 0.500. A monotone increasing relation exists between the area's ETFEE and China's per capita GDP. The truncated regression model shows that the ratio of R and D expenditure to GDP and the degree of foreign dependence have positive impacts, whereas the ratio of the secondary industry to GDP and the ratio of government subsidies for industrial pollution treatment to GDP have negative effects, on the ETFEE. - Highlights: ? Most energy efficiency indices ignore undesirable outputs such as CO2 and SO2 emissions. ? The ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) is computed by slack-based model (SBM). ? The datasets contains 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009. ? China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced. ? A monotone increasing relation exists between ETFEE and per capita GDP.

  11. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  12. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…

  13. Factors Affecting Teachers' Student-Centered Classroom Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Helmut Felix; Hron, Aemilian

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating which factors are relevant to induce teachers' student-centered classroom computer use. Survey data were collected from 361 teachers at comprehensive schools. Based on a systemic view of technology use in schools, different individual teacher characteristics and school contextual factors were examined.…

  14. Factors Affecting Survival of Bacteriophage on Tomato Leaf Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of bacteriophage to persist in the phyllosphere for extended periods is limited by many factors, including sunlight irradiation, especially in the UV zone, temperature, desiccation, and exposure to copper bactericides. The effects of these factors on persistence of phage and formulated p...

  15. A new factor affecting free-radical of wood surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors took Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb.) as sample wood and studied the change of free-radical concentration of the sample wood surface by means of these factors: electromagnetic radiation, water, heat, oxygen, and ozone. The results showed that among above factors, the most important one which degraded the lignin and produced the free-radicals mainly is ultraviolet radiation

  16. Factors affecting high resting pulse rate in military pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pilot terpajan pada keadaan yang memerlukan kewaspadaan yang meningkatkan kegiatan sistem saraf simpatis. Hal ini dapat berdampak pada sistem kardiovaskular manusia, yang antara lain tercermin pada peningkatan frekuensi denyut jantung. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh beberapa faktor yang meningkatkan frekuensi denyut jantung pada pilot. Metode:Penelitian nested case-control yang dilakukan pada pilot militer yang melakukan pemeriksaan fisik tahunan di Lembaga Kesehatan Penerbangan dan Ruang Angkasa (LAKESPRA Saryanto dari tahun 2003 sampai 2008. Data yang diperoleh dari rekam medik berupa umur, pangkat, jumlah jam terbang, rata-rata jam terbang per tahun, dan jenis pesawat. Hasil: Dari 539 pilot, terdapat 155 pilot dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi. Dibandingkan dengan pilot berumur 23-29 tahun, pilot berumur 30-39 tahun mempunyai risiko 66% lebih banyak untuk frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi [rasio odds suaian (ORa = 1,66; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 1,17-2,35, P = 0,004], sedangkan yang berumur 40-49 tahun berisiko 2,4 kali (ORa = 2,40; P = 0,000]. Dibandingkan pilot pesawat transport, pilot pesawat tempur berisiko 59% lebih banyak dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi (ORa = 1,59; P = 0,002. Kesimpulan:Umur pilot yang semakin tua dan jenis pesawat tempur meningkatkan risiko frekuensi nadi istirahat pada pilot. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:51-4Kata kunci:umur, jenis pesawat terbang, frekuensi nadi istirahat, pilotAbstractBackground:Pilots are almost constantly exposed to emergency situations which increase sympathetic activity. This will affect the cardiovascular system, which among others will be reflected by increased resting pulse rate. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that increase resting pulse rate in pilots. Methods:A nested case-control study was conducted on Indonesian Air Force military pilots doing annual medical check-ups at the Saryanto Institute for Medical and Health Aviation and Aerospace (LAKESPRA from 2003 to 2008. The data extracted from medical records were age, rank, total flight hours, average yearly flight hours, and type of aircraft. Results: Out of 539 pilots, there were 155 with high resting pulse rate. Compared to pilots aged 23-29 years, pilots aged 30-39 years had 66% more risk for high resting pulse rate [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.17-2.35, P = 0.004], and those aged 40-49 years had a 2.4 risk (ORa = 2.40; P = 0.000]. Compared to pilots of transport planes, jet fighter pilots had a 59% more risk for high resting pulse rate (ORa = 1.59; P = 0.002. Conclusion: Older  age  and  fighter  jets  increased  the  risk  of  high  resting  pulse  rate  in  pilots. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:51-4Key words: age, type of aircraft, resting pulse rate, pilots

  17. Insulin-like growth factor- I and factors affecting it in thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvement of blood transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis still occur in good number of thalassemic patients. Decreased IGF-1 secretion occurs in the majority of the thalassemic patients particularly those with growth and pubertal delay. Many factors contribute to this decreased synthesis of IGF-I including disturbed growth hormone (GH - insulin-like growth factor - I (IGF-I axis. The possible factors contributing to low IGF-I synthesis in thalassemia and the possible interaction between low IGF-I secretion and the occurrence of these complications is discussed in this mini-review. Improvement of IGF-I secretion in thalassemic patients should be intended to improve linear growth and bone mineral accretion in thalassemic patients. This can be attained through adequate correction of anemia and proper chelation, nutritional supplementation (increasing caloric intake, correction of vitamin D and zinc deficiencies, induction of puberty and correction of hypogonadism at the proper time and treating GH deficiency. This review paper provides a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding IGF-I and factors affecting it in patients with thalassaemia major (TM. Search on PubMed and reference lists of articles with the term ?IGF-I, GH, growth, thalassemia, thyroxine, anemia, vitamin D, and zinc? was carried out. A hundred and forty-eight articles were found and used in the write up and the data analyzed was included in this report.

  18. Studies of Some Parameters Affecting The Efficiency and Accuracy of The Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present studies deal with the optimum physical conditions which seriously affect the neutron activation analysis technique efficiency. An experimental work for the efficiency calibration of hyper pure germanium detectors especially for environmental studies is presented. This work showed that the tested parameters, under consideration, distance, mass and measured time, reveal a significant effect on the obtained data. These results, intern, affect the accuracy of the measurements. Further work on the test of other parameters is planned in our laboratory using special treatments and applying special computer programs

  19. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  20. Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John; Mollerup, Jørgen; Thomas, Owen R. T.; Kaasgaard, S. G.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could be...

  1. Factors and pharmaceuticals that affect the radiopharmaceuticals bio distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals may be affected by various agents and therapeutical procedures, chemotherapy agents, thyroid hormones, metals, radiotherapy, surgery, anesthetic agents, dialysis other radiopharmaceutical interactions. Recommendations for the detection of altered biodistribution in patients by causes not directly related with the pathology itself was given. pathology itself was given

  2. Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

    2011-01-01

    Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

  3. Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Omid; Molavi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated…

  4. Factors affecting healing after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair

    OpenAIRE

    Abtahi, Amir M; Granger, Erin K; Tashjian, Robert Z.

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff repair has been shown to have good long-term results. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of repairs still fail to heal. Many factors, both patient and surgeon related, can influence healing after repair. Older age, larger tear size, worse muscle quality, greater muscle-tendon unit retraction, smoking, osteoporosis, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have all shown to negatively influence tendon healing. Surgeon related factors that can influence healing include repair constru...

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING THE OUTCOME OF OOCYTE DONATION CYCLES

    OpenAIRE

    L Safdarian; S. Peyvandi

    2005-01-01

    The success of oocyte donation is influenced by multiple factors. We performed a retrospective analysis to evaluate prognostic factors in oocyte donation cycles. The main outcome measurements including recipient age, donor age, estradiol level in midcycle, the day of transfer and number of transferred embryos were not different in pregnant and non pregnant groups. Endometrial pattern but not endometrial thickness was useful in predicting pregnancy outcome. Clinical pregnancy rates were not di...

  6. Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine; Jakubcionyte, Rita; Kuliesyte, Esmeralda; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2006-01-01

    Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.......Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal....

  7. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention among UniSZA Students

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharah Ghazali; Nor Asmahani Ibrahim; Fakhrul Anwar Zainol

    2012-01-01

    Graduates contributions to entrepreneurship would stimulate the country’s economic growth. The aim of this study is to determine and investigate factors influence on students’ perception of the entrepreneurial intention, in order to present the most contemporary future generation of entrepreneurs that can shape the future of the economy and the country. The area of this study covers demographic profiles, attitudinal and behavioral factors, and how these influence the intentions of students to...

  8. Dietary factors that affect the bioavailability of carotenoids

    OpenAIRE

    Hof, K.H., van het; West, C.E.; Weststrate, J.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. Various dietary factors have an effect on the bioavailability of carotenoids. The type of food matrix in which carotenoids are located is a major factor. The bioavailability of ß-carotene from vegetables in particular has been shown to be low (14?rom mixed vegetables) compared with that of purified ß-carotene added to a simple matrix (e.g., salad dressing), whereas for lutein, the difference is...

  9. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan-how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan

  10. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, Satoshi [Faculty of Economics, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8503 (Japan); Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)

    2008-02-15

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan - how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan. (author)

  11. Fast reactor system factors affecting reprocessing plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of a commercial fast reactor electricity generating system is very dependent on the availability of an efficient nuclear fuel cycle. Selection of fuel element constructional materials, the fuel element design approach and the reactor operation have a significant influence on the technical feasibility and efficiency of the reprocessing and waste management plants. Therefore the fast reactor processing plant requires liaison between many design teams -reactor, fuel design, reprocessing and waste management -often with different disciplines and conflicting objectives if taken in isolation and an optimised approach to determining several key parameters. A number of these parameters are identified and the design approach discussed in the context of the reprocessing plant. Radiological safety and its impact on design is also briefly discussed. (author)

  12. Factors affecting the reproductive traits of Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas; Elisa Junqueira Oliveira; Diego Augusto Campos da Cruz; Suelen Corrêa da Silva; Tássia Sant'Ana Samóra; Patrícia Seixas Pires; Lenira El Faro

    2012-01-01

    For dairy cattle breeds, mainly the taurine ones, the selection emphasized for many years the increase in milk yields and, as a consequence, the adaptive and reproductive traits were negatively affected. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of genetic and environmental effects on the reproductive traits in a dairy herd selected for high milk production levels. The data set comprised 1,737 first lactations Holsteins cows of Agrindus Farm, located at Southeastern region of Brazil. ...

  13. Factors Affecting Knowledge Transfer in Public Organization Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Md Zahidul Islam; Ikramul Hasan; Mohammad Habibur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Managing knowledge is considered an essential resource for both public and private sector organizations. Effective transfer of knowledge (KT) among the employees could give a better platform in public entities to serve its clients in a more innovative and efficient way. In the context of Southeast Asia, studies on KT in public offices in Brunei compared to that in Singapore and Malaysia is relatively low. This study has made an attempt to investigation the relationship between cultural elemen...

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING THE OUTCOME OF OOCYTE DONATION CYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Safdarian

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The success of oocyte donation is influenced by multiple factors. We performed a retrospective analysis to evaluate prognostic factors in oocyte donation cycles. The main outcome measurements including recipient age, donor age, estradiol level in midcycle, the day of transfer and number of transferred embryos were not different in pregnant and non pregnant groups. Endometrial pattern but not endometrial thickness was useful in predicting pregnancy outcome. Clinical pregnancy rates were not different relative to etiology of infertility. Clinical pregnancy rates in poor responders and patients with ovarian failure were 23.8% and 26.7%, respectively. Clinical pregnancy rate for zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT and rapid ZIFT was 31% vs 11.1% for uterine embryo transfer.Predictive factors for pregnancy in oocyte donation cycle were endometrial pattern and route of transfer (ZIFT and rapid ZIFT.

  15. Optimization of factors affecting hexavalent chromium removal from simulated electroplating wastewater by synthesized magnetite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataabadi, Mitra; Hoodaji, Mehran; Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Kalbasi, Mahmoud; Abdouss, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a mutagen and carcinogen that is of significant concern in water and wastewater. In the present study, magnetite nanoparticles (n-Mag) were investigated as a potential remediation technology for the decontamination of Cr (VI)-contaminated wastewater. Synthesized n-Mag was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and BET-N2 technology. To screen and optimize the factors affecting Cr (VI) removal efficiency by synthesized nanoparticles, Plackett-Burman (PB) and Taguchi experimental designs were used respectively. The crystalline produced n-Mag was in the size range of 60-70 nm and had a specific surface area (SSA) of 31.55 m(2) g(-1). Results of PB design showed that the most significant factors affecting Cr (VI) removal efficiency were initial Cr (VI) concentration, pH, n-Mag dosage, and temperature. In a pH of 2, 20 mg L(-1) of Cr (VI) concentration, 4 g L(-1)of n-Mag, temperature of 40 °C, 220 rpm of shaking speed, and 60 min of contact time, the complete removal efficiency of Cr (VI) was achieved. Batch experiments revealed that the removal of Cr (VI) by n-Mag was consistent with pseudo-second order reaction kinetics. The competition from common coexisting ions such as NO?(-), SO?(2-), and Cl(-) were not considerable, unless in the higher concentration of SO?(2-). These results indicated that the readily synthesized magnetite nanoparticles have promising applications for the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution. PMID:25471623

  16. Control and manipulation of factors affecting small ruminant reproductive performance in tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tropical areas, reproductive efficiency in small ruminants is affected by various factors, including season, rainfall, male effect, nutritional state or corporal condition (CC) and physiological factors such as post-partum interval, milk production, lactational stages and suckling. Animals with good CC show early puberty, shorter anoestrous periods and better response to male effect and synchronized treatment than animals with low CC; reproductive efficiency is increased by 33% in sheep with CC over 2 (on a scale of 0 to 5) and lambing is 20% lower in the dry than in the rainy season. These data suggest that seasonal sexual inhibition is not too deep in a tropical environment. The response to male effect is good in the different seasons but in animals with low CC this effect is not enough to compensate for the negative influence of undernutrition. Hormonal treatments are effective if animals have adequate CC but the cost is too high. In animals with low CC these treatments must be combined with nutritional flushing. Male introduction at the beginning or 48 h before the end of treatment improves efficiency. Oestrus-ovulation dissociation is observed in tropical sheep after hormonal synchronization and male introduction (9.3%); this is higher in animals with low CC (11.9 vs. 6.8%). Embryo mortality in synchronized goats was affected by nutritional state, being twice as frequent in goats with low CC (26.3 vs. 11.5%). In tropical conditions, appropriate use of male effect and CC can improve reproductive performance by strategic programming of breeding and parturition during the season with better conditions and pasture availability. (author). 35 refs, 8 tabs

  17. Looking under the Bonnet: Factors Affecting Student Adoption of E-Learning Systems in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbad, Muneer Mahmood; Morris, David; de Nahlik, Carmel

    2009-01-01

    The primary questions addressed in this paper are the following: what are the factors that affect students' adoption of an e-learning system and what are the relationships among these factors? This paper investigates and identifies some of the major factors affecting students' adoption of an e-learning system in a university in Jordan. E-learning…

  18. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged. PMID:25039397

  19. Factors affecting functional prognosis of patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M T

    2011-01-01

    Having a hip fracture is considered one of the most fatal fractures for elderly people, resulting in impaired function, and increased morbidity and mortality. This challenges clinicians in identifying patients at risk of worse outcome, in order to optimise and intensify treatment in these patients....... A variety of factors such as age, prefracture function and health status, fracture type, pain, anaemia, muscle strength, and the early mobility level have been shown to influence patient outcome. Thus, the outcome of patients with hip fracture is considered multi-factorial, and can therefore not be....... Especially, older age and having a low prefracture functional level are considered strong factors....

  20. Factors affecting the spontaneous mutational spectra in somatic mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ?????????

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  In our survey of references we are discussed the influence of factors biological origin on the spontaneous mutation specters in mammalian. Seasonal and age components influence on the frequence of cytogenetic anomalies. The immune and endocrinous systems are take part in control of the alteration of the spontaneous mutation specters. Genetical difference of sensibility in animal and human at the alteration of factors enviroment as and  genetical differences of repair systems activity are may influence on individual variation of spontaneous destabilization characters of chromosomal apparatus.

  1. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Atilgan-Inan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of management in the related periods. The results indicated that organizational factors have always been important for new product development process, which is in line with the nature of the innovation process. But the emphasis on internal factors has increased in the 21st century which is congruent with the change in management perspective foregrounding resource based view. The study differs from the similar literature review studies on the point that it deals with the topic from international marketing perspective. Therefore, R&D and other marketing studies are not included in the review and the study proposes the important factors from international firms’ point of view.

  2. Restraining factors affecting setting expansion of phosphate-bonded investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörgensen, K D; Okamoto, A

    1986-04-01

    The effects of several factors on the setting expansion of a phosphate-bonded investment used in a steel casting ring were studied. The results show that the setting expansion under the conditions analyzed can be characterized only as a most unreliable means to partly compensate for the solid thermal contraction of casting alloys in a precision-requiring technique. PMID:3518038

  3. Students' Perceptions of Factors that Affect College Funding Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Julia Y.; Fossey, W. Richard; Davis, William E.; Burnett, Michael F.; Stuhlmann, Janice; Suchy, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the factors that college students perceive are important in helping them make good financial decisions about paying for a college education. The study categorizes and summarizes students' self-reported responses to an open-ended survey question about recommendations for changes in financial aid counseling practices.…

  4. Factors affecting sleep/vigilance behaviour in incubating mallards.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jav?rková, V.; Ho?ák, D.; Kreisinger, J.; Klva?a, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 117, ?. 4 (2011), s. 345-355. ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KJB601110803; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mallard * vigilance * antipredation behaviour * incubation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2011

  5. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

  6. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  7. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

  8. School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

  9. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors…

  10. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  11. Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine; Jakubcionyte, Rita; Kuliesyte, Esmeralda; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2006-01-01

    Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.

  12. Factors that affect social workers' job satisfaction, stress and burnout

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Taetske, Calitz; Adrie, Roux; Herman, Strydom.

    Full Text Available Social work was classified as a scare skill and the retention of social workers is an important aspect that needs urgent attention. The research goal of this study was to determine what degree of work engagement and job satisfaction South African social workers experience in their current positions [...] and how this influences job turnover, burnout and the intention to leave the profession. The purpose was to determine the needs social workers experience that will affect turnover in the profession. The needs/problems social workers experienced were stress, burnout, lower job satisfaction and work engagement.

  13. Chemical and biological factors affecting bioavailability of contaminants in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the influence that salinity has on the bioavailability of the two largest classes of contaminants, trace metals and organic compounds will be discussed. Although data on contaminant toxicity will be used to draw inferences about chemical availability, this discussion will focus on the properties that contaminants are likely to exhibit in waters of varying salinities. In addition, information on physiological changes that are affected by salinity will be used to illustrate how biological effects can alter the apparent availability of contaminants

  14. Factors Affecting Perceived Stigma in Leprosy Affected Persons in Western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bipin; Kaehler, Nils; Chapman, Robert S; Raut, Shristi; Roche, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A total of 135 leprosy affected persons were interviewed with a questionnaire containing EMIC questions designed to assess the level of perceived stigma and the questionnaire containing variables for socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about leprosy and the clinical presentations of the participants. Clinical presentation as disability was graded according to WHO guidelines, where grade 0 means no disability found, grade I means loss of sensation has been noted in the hand or foot wh...

  15. Pareto analysis of critical factors affecting technical institution evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gambhir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With the change of education policy in 1991, more and more technical institutions are being set up in India. Some of these institutions provide quality education, but others are merely concentrating on quantity. These stakeholders are in a state of confusion about decision to select the best institute for their higher educational studies. Although various agencies including print media provide ranking of these institutions every year, but their results are controversial and biased. In this paper, the authors have made an endeavor to find the critical factors for technical institution evaluation from literature survey. A Pareto analysis has also been performed to find the intensity of these critical factors in evaluation. This will not only help the stake holders in taking right decisions but will also help the management of institutions in benchmarking for identifying the most important critical areas to improve the existing system. This will in turn help Indian economy.

  16. Factors Affecting the Real Estate Prices in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmood khan kakar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the effect of factors influencing the prices of real estate inQuetta city. Hypothetically, this study is based upon five observed factors(urbanization, refugees’ influx, monetary, lack of investment alternatives and inflow offoreign remittances in relation to the prices of real estate. Questionnaire developed onthe basis of above variables were administered to a heterogeneous sample of 50property dealers and Quetta Development Authority. Descriptive statistics (percentage,percentile and frequency distribution were used to identify the level of influence andthe relation of above mentioned attributes towards the prices of real estate. The resultsrevealed that the prices of real estate in the region have been on an increasing trendand strong influence of all variables especially of government’s monetary and fiscalpolices and urbanization was found significant on the prices of real estate in Quetta.

  17. CRITICAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE UTILIZATION OF CLOUD COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Daniel Salinas Montemayor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research presets the critical factors that influence the use of cloud computing, in case studies of large and medium-sized enterprises in the metropolitan area of Monterrey.  The critical factors are found, according to literature: dependency provider; ignorance of the location, where the information, service knowledge, knowledge of laws, service offered by suppliers, is stored; cost; and information security, describing the research and development, which are significant and demonstrative in its impact.We used Cronbach's alpha to check the validity of the measurement instrument and used a linear regression method to measure the significance of the variables.  We also relied on some measuring instruments, such as Beta, R-squared, Standard Deviation, Anova, Tolerance, and Collinearity index to propose a model.

  18. Factors affecting visualization of posterior rib fractures in abused infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rib fractures in abused infants commonly occur in the posterior rib arcs. Fractures occurring near the costovertebral articulations are usually identified radiographically only once callus has formed. To assess the factors influencing the visibility of fractures near the costovertical articulations, the authors studied 103 posterior rib fractures occurring in 16 abused infants. Radiologic findings were correlated with CT findings and pathologic material from nine ribs in four patients. The limited visibility of fractures relates to (1) the frequent superimposition of the transverse process over the rib fracture site, (2) a fracture line that crosses at an obliquity to the x-ray beam, and (3) nondisplacement of rib fragments due to preservation of the posterior periosteum. Fresh rib fractures invisible on a frontal projection may be clearly defined on axial CT scans, or on postmortem radiographs. A knowledge of the factors influencing the visibility of these important injuries is useful in planning an appropriate diagnostic evaluation of suspected infant abuse

  19. Somatic cell and factors which affect their count in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka ?a?i?

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is determined by chemical composition, physical characteristics and hygienic parameters. The main indicators of hygienic quality of milk are total number of microorganisms and somatic cell count (SCC. Environmental factors have the greatest influence on increasing SCC. The most important environmental parameters are status of udder infection, age of cow, stage of lactation, number of lactation, breed, housing, geographicalarea and seasons, herd size, stress, heavy physical activity and, milking. A farmer (milk producer himself can control a great number of environmental factors using good management practise and permanent education. Since SCC participate in creating the price of milk, it is necessary to inform milk producers how to organise their production so that they would produce maximum quantity of good hygienic quality milk.

  20. Factors Affecting Bank Switching Intentions in E-Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla ÖZER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify and examine the factors that contribute to bank switching intentions of e-banking customers and whether these intentions differ according to demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, marital status and income levels of customers. Regression results suggested that customer dissatisfaction, low service quality, high price, unfavorable bank reputation, limited product variety and involuntary switching factors were positively related to customers’ bank switching intentions in e-banking. On the other hand, promotion efforts were negatively related to customers’ switching intentions. In addition to this, bank switching intentions were revealed to be differing according to education levels. Bank switching intentions of well-educated customers were tend to be higher, while age, gender, marital status and income level didn’t make a difference on intentions. Based on the empirical results of current study, we will provide several theoretical and managerial implications in the area of service industry.

  1. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.

    1991-12-31

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  2. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  3. Socioeconomic, cultural, and behavioral factors affecting Hispanic health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Leo S; Lara, Marielena; Kington, Raynard S; Valdez, Robert O; Escarce, José J

    2002-11-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher porverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of the epidemiological paradox. They find substantial support for the existence of the epidemiological paradox, particularly among Mexican Americans. Census undercounts of Hispanics, misclassification of Hispanic deaths, and emigration of Hispanics do not fully account for the epidemiological paradox. Identifying protective factors underlying the epidemiological paradox, while improving access to care and the economic conditions among Hispanics, are important research and policy implications of this review. PMID:12407964

  4. Efficient MATLAB computations with sparse and factored tensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Lab, Livermore, CA)

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, the term tensor refers simply to a multidimensional or N-way array, and we consider how specially structured tensors allow for efficient storage and computation. First, we study sparse tensors, which have the property that the vast majority of the elements are zero. We propose storing sparse tensors using coordinate format and describe the computational efficiency of this scheme for various mathematical operations, including those typical to tensor decomposition algorithms. Second, we study factored tensors, which have the property that they can be assembled from more basic components. We consider two specific types: a Tucker tensor can be expressed as the product of a core tensor (which itself may be dense, sparse, or factored) and a matrix along each mode, and a Kruskal tensor can be expressed as the sum of rank-1 tensors. We are interested in the case where the storage of the components is less than the storage of the full tensor, and we demonstrate that many elementary operations can be computed using only the components. All of the efficiencies described in this paper are implemented in the Tensor Toolbox for MATLAB.

  5. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    OpenAIRE

    Eda Atilgan-Inan; Aslihan Buyukkupcu; Serkan Akinci

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of...

  6. Factors affecting the species composition of arable field boundary vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Kleijn, D.; Verbeek, M

    2000-01-01

    1. In recent decades the botanical diversity of arable field boundaries has declined drastically. To determine the most important factors related to the species composition of arable field boundaries, the vegetation composition of 105 herbaceous boundaries, 1-m wide, in the central and eastern Netherlands was surveyed. Biomass samples of the boundary were taken at 0-33, 34-66 and 67-100 cm from the adjacent arable field. 2. Farmers were interviewed with respect to boundary management and lan...

  7. Affecting the Choice Factors of Fishery Products Consumption in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Hekimoglu Muge Aliye; Saygi Hulya

    2011-01-01

    This study examines fish consumption behavior patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of choosing factors in determining food pattern of Turkish people. A total of 666 surveys in all around Turkey responded to a self-administered questionnaire about seafood consumption habits, past frequency of seafood consumption, attitude towards and intention to eat seafood. In this research some prompts were used such as health, taste, availability, versatility, the components of a ...

  8. Social factors affecting women's susceptibility to HIV in India

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, Priya

    2014-01-01

    India is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Asia. Previous research indicates that the majority of HIV-positive women in India were infected by their husbands, their only sexual partner, which makes them difficult identify as a high-risk population. This paper seeks to assess social factors associated with the transmission of HIV based on demographic determinants, such as age; sexual behavior; and gendered discrimination, such as domestic violence. Research for this paper consists of s...

  9. Factors affecting the growth of bifidobacteria in human milk.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ro?ková, Š.; Nevoral, J.; Rada, V.; Maršík, Petr; Sklená?, Jan; Hlinková, A.; Vlková, E.; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 7 (2011), s. 504-508. ISSN 0958-6946 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA523/07/0572; GA ?R GD525/08/H060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : OLIGOSACCHARIDES * INFANTS * PREBIOTICS Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.401, year: 2011

  10. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  11. Factors affecting the retention of nurses. A survival analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Noufa A. Alonazi; Omar, Maye A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and explore factors that mostly influence nurses’ turnover and retention, and to estimate the length of employment for nurses in the hospital. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study examining the standard Exit Questionnaires completed by all the female pediatric nurses who joined and left the hospital during the period between January 2006 and October 2010. The Developed Questionnaires where completed by nurses who were still employees in October 2010. The nurse...

  12. Trends Analyses for Several Factors Affected by Tropical Cyclones

    OpenAIRE

    Md. T. Islam; Md. Z. Hossain; Masaaki Ishida

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study presents an analytical investigation for the trends of several factors such as number of death of peoples, damages of wealth, flood surge heights, wind speed and radius of the severe storm due to tropical cyclones in Bangladesh. Approach: The study is performed by conducting the field visits to cyclone site, collected data and information on damages and deaths of peoples during field visits, necessary data related to tropical cyclones obtained...

  13. Factors Affecting Investment Decision Making of Equity Fund Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Salman Ali; Rehman, Kashif ur; Hunjra, Ahmed Imran

    2012-01-01

    Traditional theories of finance assume that investors use all available information and make rational investment decision but in reality the scenario is different. Based upon the growing importance of behavioral finance the present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of behavioral factors such as heuristics, risk aversion, use of financial tools and firm level corporate governance on the decision making of equity fund managers of Pakistan. The study collected response from 327 eq...

  14. Environmental Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Mycobacteria in Brook Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Iivanainen, E. K.; Martikainen, P.J.; Väänänen, P. K.; Katila, M.-L.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of environmental mycobacteria, viable counts of mycobacteria were measured in samples of brook water collected from 53 drainage areas located in a linear belt crossing Finland at 63° north latitude. The numbers of mycobacteria were correlated with characteristics of the drainage area, climatic parameters, chemical and physical characteristics of the water, and counts of other heterotrophic bacteria in the water. The numbers of ...

  15. Factors affecting early unplanned readmission of elderly patients to hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, E I; Fitton, F.

    1988-01-01

    A random sample of 133 elderly patients who had an unplanned readmission to a district general hospital within 28 days of discharge from hospital was studied and compared with a matched control sample of patients who were not readmitted. The total group was drawn from all specialties in the hospital, and by interviewing the patients, their carers, the ward sisters, and the patients' general practitioners the factors causing early unplanned readmission for each patient were identified. Seven p...

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin; M M Nurul Kabir

    2011-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that sal...

  17. Review of factors affecting sustainability in the universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajilian, Hosna

    Understanding the factors which influence adopting sustainability practices in IHE is an important issue to develop more effective sustainability's methods and policies. The focus of this research is to find out a meaningful relationship between adopting sustainability practices and some of the characteristics of institutions of higher education (IHE). IHE can be considered as the best place to promote sustainability and develop the culture of sustainability in society. Thus, this research is conducted to help developing sustainability in IHE which have significant direct and indirect impact on society and the environment. First, the sustainability letter grades were derived from "Greenreportcard.org" which have been produced based on an evaluation of each school in nine main categories including: Administration, Climate Change & Energy, Food & Recycling, etc. In the next step, the characteristics of IHE as explanatory variables were chosen from "The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System" (IPEDS) and respective database was implemented in STATA Software. Finally, the "ordered-Probit Model" is used through STATA to analyze the impact of some IHE's factor on adopting sustainability practices on campus. The results of this analysis indicate that variables related to "Financial support" category are the most influential factors in determining the sustainability status of the university. "The university features" with two significant variables for "Selectivity" and "Top 50 LA" can be classified as the second influential category in this table, although the "Student influence" is also eligible to be ranked as the second important factor. Finally, the "Location feature" of university was determined with the least influential impact on the sustainability of campuses.

  18. Factors affecting low temperature performance of zirconia gas sensors.

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Julian

    2001-01-01

    A reduction in the operation temperature of zirconia ceramic gas sensors is highly desirable for a number of practical reasons. This work seeks to investigate the factors that prevent a reduction in operation temperature and propose methods by which these may be resolved. A novel approach to sensor fabrication has been developed and employed with the advantage of reduced device complexity that should lead to subsequent cost and reliability benefits. Leakage rates in these devices have bee...

  19. SOCIOECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC HEALTH OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    MORALES, LEO S.; Lara, Marielena; Raynard S. Kington; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; José J. Escarce

    2002-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of t...

  20. Confounding factors affect the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoram Elitsur

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a newly diagnosed esophageal disease in adult and children. The clinical and pathological characteristics of this disease have been established and were recently summarized in the expert clinical guideline published in 2011. In spite of the wide knowledge accumulated on this disease, there are many areas where scientific data are missing, especially in regard to the disease’s pathophysiology. Recent publications have suggested that other confounding factors ...

  1. Factors That Affect Body Mass Index of Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Esma Asil; Metin Saip Surucuoglu; Funda Pinar Cakiroglu; Asli Ucar; Ayse Ozfer Ozcelik; Mustafa Volkan Yilmaz; Lale Sariye Akan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the factors that contribute to the body mass index (BMI) of adults and evaluate the eating habits of the individuals. The study was conducted on 498 adults whose ages were ranging from 20 to 85 (39.1±14.9 year). The data were collected using a questionnaire form that consisted of questions concerning general characteristics of individuals, frequency of food consumption and eating habits. Food types in the food consumption ...

  2. Some Factors Affecting on Determination and Measurement of Tomato Firmness

    OpenAIRE

    BATU, Ali

    1998-01-01

    Firmness is one of the most important factor for determination of tomatoes quality. Distructive measurement of tomato firmness is one of the evaluation methods of fruit firmness. The Universal Instron is most common used machine for measurement of most adeqequate fruit firmness. During destructive measurement of firmness considedation of force or deformation values as a firmness of fruits could give incorrect result and taking epicarp strength over deformation values is more accurate to co...

  3. Factors affecting the adoption of healthcare information technology

    OpenAIRE

    Naenna, Thanakorn; Phichitchaisopa, Nisakorn

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and performance of healthcare services, healthcare information technology is among the most important technology in healthcare supply chain management. This study sets out to apply and test the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), to examine the factors influencing healthcare Information Technology (IT) services. A structured questionnaire was developed and distributed to healthcare representatives in each province surveyed in Thailand...

  4. Somatic cell and factors which affect their count in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Zrinka ?a?i?; Samir Kalit; Neven Antunac; Mato ?a?i?

    2003-01-01

    Milk quality is determined by chemical composition, physical characteristics and hygienic parameters. The main indicators of hygienic quality of milk are total number of microorganisms and somatic cell count (SCC.) Environmental factors have the greatest influence on increasing SCC. The most important environmental parameters are status of udder infection, age of cow, stage of lactation, number of lactation, breed, housing, geographicalarea and seasons, herd size, stress, heavy physical activ...

  5. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Martino Cassandro; Mauro Penasa; Mara Battagin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS) on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data we...

  6. A sociological Analysis of the Factors Affecting social Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Rasul Rabbani; Seyed Ali Hashemianfar; Nafiseh Chini

    2010-01-01

    AbstractInequality is originally based on the differences that the society considers in treating individuals, and thereasons for making such differences lie in factors such as social class, race, ethnicity, sex and religion whichare socially defined. The abstract and mental feelings of the members of the society and their perception ofinequality are more important than the concrete and objective inequality and the important condition for itsemergence is social comparison which brings relative...

  7. International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigurdson, A.J.; Ha, M.; Hauptmann, M.; Bhatti, P.; Šrám, Radim; Beskid, Olena; Tawn, E.J.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Lindholm, C.; Nakano, M.; Kodama, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Vorobtsova, I.; Oestreicher, U.; Stephan, G.; Yong, L.C.; Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Chung, H.W.; Darroudi, F.; Roy, L.; Voisin, P.; Barquinero, J.F.; Livingston, G.; Blakey, D.; Hayata, I.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Ch.; Benett, L.M.; Littlefield, L.G.; Edwards, A.A.; Kleinerman, R.A.; Tucker, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 652, ?. 2 (2008), s. 112-121. ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SI/340/2/00; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Chromosome translocations * FISH * Background frequency Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.363, year: 2008

  8. Factors Affecting The Intensity of Solar Energetic Particle Events

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2011-01-01

    This paper updates the influence of environmental and source factors of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are likely to influence the solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The intensity variation due to CME interaction reported in [1] is confirmed by expanding the investigation to all the large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The large SEP events are separated into two groups, one associated with CMEs running into other CMEs, and the other with CMEs running ...

  9. Factors affecting the occurrence of canine parvovirus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carla; Carvalheira, Júlio; Parrish, Colin R; Thompson, Gertrude

    2015-10-22

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important enteric virus infecting canids worldwide. The purpose of this study was to detect CPV in naturally infected dogs from several veterinary clinics distributed throughout Portugal between 2012 and 2014 and to identify risk factors associated with CPV infection. From 209 dogs suspected of being infected with CPV, historical data and clinical signs were collected. Fecal samples were screened for CPV by PCR assay and those positive were confirmed by sequencing. The data was analyzed using logistic regression to investigate associations between each of the predisposing factors and CPV status. Of the samples collected, 77.5% tested CPV-positive. Statistical analysis showed that animals in the three age categories (pdogs be infected with CPV. On the other hand, clinical signs such as depression [OR=4.4, p=0.02] and dehydration status [OR=2.38, p=0.001] made dogs more likely to be CPV-infected. The results indicate that although having a high morbidity, only 18% of the Portuguese dog population died in the study. Some of the risk factors identified in this study have not been commonly reported, yet they are easy to obtain and can be used as prognostic indicators in the veterinary practice. PMID:26294318

  10. Factors affecting the adoption of healthcare information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phichitchaisopa, Nisakorn; Naenna, Thanakorn

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and performance of healthcare services, healthcare information technology is among the most important technology in healthcare supply chain management. This study sets out to apply and test the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), to examine the factors influencing healthcare Information Technology (IT) services. A structured questionnaire was developed and distributed to healthcare representatives in each province surveyed in Thailand. Data collected from 400 employees including physicians, nurses, and hospital staff members were tested the model using structural equation modeling technique. The results found that the factors with a significant effect are performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating conditions. They were also found to have a significant impact on behavioral intention to use the acceptance healthcare technology. In addition, in Thai provincial areas, positive significance was found with two factors: social influence on behavioral intention and facilitating conditions to direct using behavior. Based on research findings, in order for healthcare information technology to be widely adopted and used by healthcare staffs in healthcare supply chain management, the healthcare organizational management should improve healthcare staffs' behavioral intention and facilitating conditions. PMID:26417235

  11. Efficiency factor of a chemical nuclear reactor with gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemonuclear reactor is simulated in order to calculate the efficiency factor of molecular species in chemical reactions induced by gamma radiation, with the purpose to obtain information for its design and consider the electromagnetic energy as a possible solution to the present problem of energy. The research is based on a mathematical model of succesive Compton processes applied to spherical and cylindrical geometry and corroborated through the absorbed dose and the experimental date of the increase factor, for the radioisotopic sources Co-60 and Cs-137 relating the quantity of energy deposited into various cylinders with the G value, the relation radius/height of the reactor is optimized according to the molecular production. This is illustrated with the radiolysis of a solution of CH3OH/H2O which forms H2 and with the obtainment of C2H5Br that represents and industrial process induced radioactively. The results show a greater energy deposition with Cs-137 but a larger production of H2/hr with Co-60, and besides we can find high production values of C2H5Br. The cylinder with more advantages is that whose relation R/H is of 0.5. It can be concluded that the final selection of the reactor should be made after a more intense study of the used isotope and the source activity. The efficiency factor of H2 can be increased selecting the appropriate type and concentration of solute of the irradiated aqueous solutions

  12. Statistical Study on Principal Factors Affecting Employment of Chinese Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Meng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heavy employment pressure in china, the employment of the undergraduates attracts much attention in recent years. Accordingly, this study proposes a SPSS-based statistical method to study the employment issue, where thirteen parameters are carefully chosen to construct the employment database. The proposed method first performs the quantitative and the standardized operations and then calculates the correlated matrix of parameters. Moreover, after proving that the correlated matrix satisfies Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO condition, we perform eigenvalue decomposition and compute the variance contribution rate through Principal Component Analysis (PCA techniques. Both the eigenvalue and the variance contribution rate are used to study the importance of each parameter and finally lead to an importance sort. Therefore, we can quantificationally study the influence of each parameter thrown on the undergraduate employment and find three most important parameters affecting undergraduate employment: university, major and family location.

  13. Evaluation of factors affecting diffusion in compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information available from the open literature and studies on exclusion, sorption and diffusion mechanisms of ionic and neutral species in bentonite has been compiled and re-examined in relation to the microstructure of bentonite. The emphasis is placed on a more thorough understanding of the diffusion processes taking place in compacted bentonite. Despite the scarcity of experiments performed with neutral diffusants, these imply that virtually all the pores in compacted bentonite are accessible to neutral species. Anion exclusion, induced by the overlap of electrical double layers, may render the accessible porosity for anions considerably less than the porosity obtained from the water content of the clay. On the basis of the compiled data, it is highly probable that surface diffusion plays a significant role in the transport of cations in bentonite clays. Moreover, easily soluble compounds in bentonite can affect the ionic strength of porewater and, consequently, exclusion, equilibrium between cations, and surface diffusion

  14. Feasibility Analysis of Critical Factors Affecting Cloud Computing in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustace Manayi Dogo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an evolving and new way of delivering computing services and resources over the internet which are managed by third parties at remote sites. Cloud computing is based on existing technologies like web services, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA, web3.0, grid computing and virtualization, etc. Computing services includes data storage, processing and software. Cloud computing is enjoying a lot of buzz in Nigeria due to its perceived economic and operational benefits and stakeholders believe that it will transform the IT industry in Nigeria. Despite all its promises there still exist so many challenges before Cloud computing see the light of the day in Nigeria. This paper delivers an overview of Cloud computing together with its advantages and disadvantages. Thereafter, the challenges and drivers affecting the adoption of Cloud computing in Nigeria are outlined. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of Cloud computing is discussed with Nigeria as a case study.

  15. Genetic Factors Affecting Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Maryam; Khorrami, Aziz; Yeghaneh, Tarlan; Talebi, Mahnaz; Kiani, Seyed Jalal; Heshmati, Yaser; Gharesouran, Jalal

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease is considered a progressive brain disease in the older population. Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) as a multifactorial dementia has a polygenic inheritance. Age, environment, and lifestyle along with a growing number of genetic factors have been reported as risk factors for LOAD. Our aim was to present results of LOAD association studies that have been done in northwestern Iran, and we also explored possible interactions with apolipoprotein E (APOE) status. We re-evaluated the association of these markers in dominant, recessive, and additive models. In all, 160 LOAD and 163 healthy control subjects of Azeri Turkish ethnicity were studied. The Chi-square test with Yates' correction and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. A Bonferroni-corrected p value, based on the number of statistical tests, was considered significant. Our results confirmed that chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF ?), APOE, bridging integrator 1 (BIN1), and phosphatidylinositol-binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM) are LOAD susceptibility loci in Azeri Turk ancestry populations. Among them, variants of CCR2, ESR1, TNF ?, and APOE revealed associations in three different genetic models. After adjusting for APOE, the association (both allelic and genotypic) with CCR2, BIN1, and ESR? (PvuII) was evident only among subjects without the APOE ?4, whereas the association with CCR5, without Bonferroni correction, was significant only among subjects carrying the APOE ?4 allele. This result is an evidence of a synergistic and antagonistic effect of APOE on variant associations with LOAD. PMID:26553058

  16. An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Huck’s Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Yanxia Sang

    2010-01-01

    Huckleberry Finn is one of Mark Twain’s outstanding masterpieces. Superficially, it tells a story about a 13 or 14 year old boy’s adventures with Negro Jim on the Mississippi river. In fact, it reflects the growth process of Huck through adventures. His growth is embodied by his choice on independence, his change of attitude towards Jim, his moral growth, and the different social roles he plays. Huck’s growth is influenced by the inner and outer factors. On the one hand, friendship, nature an...

  17. Investigation of factors affecting crystallization of cyclopentane clathrate hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Catherine A; Mysyk, Roman; White, Mary Anne

    2008-11-01

    We report the results of systematic investigations of the influence of thermal history and other factors on crystallization of a model clathrate hydrate (cyclopentane hydrate) studied as water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions to remove the nucleation influence of substrates other than ice and hydrates. Hydrate and ice seem to form simultaneously under the conditions of these experiments, with ice forming preferentially. Thermal treatment, melting the ice, and leaving only the hydrate, promotes further hydrate formation. Not all the hydrate formed can be accounted for by the recrystallization of water freed by melting ice. PMID:19045353

  18. Analysis of Factors Affecting Log Band Saw Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Rajka Karan; Ružica Beljo Lu?i?; Matija Jug; Josip Ištvani?

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this research was to measure the capacity of the log band saw by monitoring the sawing process per operation for each log and to determine what the influencing factors were and their effect on the technological capacity of the log band saw, based on recorded and processed data. The analysis of the recorded data shows that the processed log volume, whose increase also increases the saw capacity, has the most important effect on log band saw capacity. It is imperative to take into a...

  19. Factors affecting potential market penetration of laser fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mini-model has been constructed to estimate the optimal size of laser fusion power plants and to estimate the allowable cost of the first such plant in relation to the next best alternative. In estimating the costs of laser fusion, the mini-model incorporates such factors as market penetration, learning, economies of scale, system size, transmission costs, reserve requirements, development and licensing costs and site costs. The results of the mini-model simulations indicate that the optimal laser fusion plant size is approximately 3 GWe; risk considerations unincorporated in the mini-model suggest an optimal size closer to 2.5 GWe

  20. Factors affecting M&A failures in the Czech republic

    OpenAIRE

    Putna, Radomír

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate merger failure rate and critical success factors that lie behind outcome of mergers. Based on many influential papers and studies it has been identified that mergers and M&A in general have high failure rate. After the literature research in M&A definition, history and studies already conducted in this field the own research is employed in order to achieve the main objective of this thesis. The quantitative research is conducted on mergers con-duct...

  1. Investigating factors affecting students’ performance to PISA Science items

    OpenAIRE

    V. Hatzinikita; C. Apostolopoulos; Psalidas, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate, on the one hand, the extent to which PISA Science items validly assess the knowledge and skills of 15 year-old Greek students, while, on the other hand, to examine the effect of the following factors: student’s gender, scientific processes and contexts (situations) on the students’ performance in these PISA items. The research used paper-and-pencil test with published PISA Science items, conducted individual semi-structured interviews with 15 year-old st...

  2. Factors affecting feeding activity of grey herons in a reservoir during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Seong Choi*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To examine factors affecting feeding efficiency of grey herons (Ardea cinerea, the foraging behavior was studied at areservoir in Asan city, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea during the breeding seasons (from April to July of 2006 and2007. Four factors (age of foraging birds, time of day, breeding stage, and microhabitat type were analyzed. Adults weremore efficient foragers than recently fledged juveniles, and they had a higher success rate than juveniles. About half ofthe adults caught large prey, whereas most juveniles caught only small prey. Adult grey herons had different feeding efficiencyaccording to the breeding stage. Pecking and capture rates were high during the late period (fledging stage, andbiomass intake rates were high during the early (incubating stage and late periods. However, time of day had no significanteffect on foraging activity of adult grey herons. Feeding activities of adult grey herons also showed significant variationamong microhabitat types. Pecking and capture rates were higher in the submerged plants area, but capture successrate and biomass intake rate were not different according to microhabitat type.

  3. Assessment of factors affecting industrial electricity demand. Final report (revision version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-07-01

    In Chapter 2, we identify those factors affecting the industrial product mix - taste, relative output prices, and relative input prices - and isolate several determinants which have not been adequately accounted for to date in industrial electricity demand forecasts. We discuss how the lower energy prices of foreign producers affect domestic producers and how the growth in the number of substitutes for intermediate products such as steel and aluminum with plastics and composites affects the composition of production and, hence, the demand for electricity. We also investigate how the changing age structure of the population brought on by the baby boom could change the mix of outputs produced by the industrial sector. In Chapter 3, we review the history of the 1970s with regard to changes in output mix and the manufacturing demand for electricity, and with regard to changes in the use of electricity vis-a-vis the other inputs in the production process. In Chapter 4, we generate forecasts using two models which control for efficiency changes, but in different ways. In this chapter we present the sensitivity of these projections using three sets of assumptions about product mix. The last chapter summarizes our results and draw from those results implications regarding public policy and industrial electricity demand. Two appendices present ISTUM2 results from selected electricity intensive industries, describes the ISTUM and ORIM models.

  4. Factors Affecting Business Success of Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chuthamas Chittithaworn; Md Aminul Islam; Thiyada Keawchana; Dayang Hasliza Muhd Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to identify factors that are affecting business success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. The intention of this study is to provide the understanding on how people should start their business by looking at all the factors affecting business success hence help to reduce the risk of failure and increase chances of success. The study examined eight factors that influence the SMEs business success. These factors are: SMEs characteristic, management and know-...

  5. Comparative study of thermoluminescent efficiencies before variation of experimental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation for quantifying the influence of varying distinct experimental factors in the measurements of relative thermoluminescent efficiency of 3 MeV protons was realized with respect to gamma radiation in LiF: Mg, Ti. Variations in a dosemeters batch were considered, as presentation, applied thermal treatments and reader equipment. The main conclusion of this work is to emphasize the importance for measuring entire series of experiments in the same laboratory following a protocol defined carefully and using dosemeters of the same batch for obtaining response before charging particle and the response before gamma radiation with identical procedures of baking and reading. (Author)

  6. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy after vitrectomy early factors affect IOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bo Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore possible causes of early postoperative elevated intraocular pressure caused by proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDRvitrectomy. METHODS:Totally 72 cases(100 eyeswhich have performed vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy were retrospectively analyzed to observe the incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension, and the relevant factors that caused postoperative high intraocular pressure were statistically analyzed. Early postoperative ocular hypertension diagnostic criteria: any time after 2 weeks of non-contact tonometer measured IOP> 25mmHg(1mmHg=0.133kPa. RESULTS:High intraocular pressure after vitrectomy occurred in 27 eyes(27%, the incidence of male and female were 27.27%, 26.79%, the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. Eyes filled with balanced liquid filling incidence rate of 30.95%, 6.25%, and the difference was statistically significant(P0.05. Incidences of intraoperative panretinal photocoagulation and additional retinal photocoagulation group were 41%, 20%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Preoperative retinopathy of four, five, six groups of incidence were 9.52%, 23.81%, 40.56%, and the groups were statistically significant(P<0.05. Unconsolidated preoperative retinal detachment and retinal detachment incidence rate of 19%, 41%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Surgery in the united lens resection with intraoperative unfederated lens the resection group's incidence rate of 34%, 15%, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that retinal detachment preoperative and intraoperative intraocular filling were independent risk factors that caused early postoperative ocular hypertension after vitrectomy. CONCLUSION:Post-operative ocular hypertension after PDR vitrectomy is related to preoperative retinal detachment, intraoperative lensectomy, intraoperative intraocular filling, and intraoperative panretinal photocoagulation. Retinal detachment preoperative and intraoperative intraocular filling are independent risk factors that caused early postoperative ocular hypertension after vitrectomy. Incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension after PDR vitrectomy is high, harmful. Early detection and individualized treatment can improve the success rate of vitrectomy and the patient's vision.

  7. Factors Affecting M-commerce Adoption in Oman using Technology Acceptance Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jafar Naqvi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in mobile technologies has influenced many countries to adopt mobile services in their private and public organizations including Oman. M-commerce services are growing rapidly with the exponential growth of mobile devices, technologies and networks. Hence, many business organizations private or public use them to improve revenue, reduce costs, maintain their competitive edge and achieve a level of high efficiency. Although there were many M-commerce services introduced, it was hard to find evidence of any study conducted to determine their successes or failures. This study is an attempt to explore the factors affecting the adoption of M-commerce services in Oman using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM approach.

  8. Culinary and nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds as affected by environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kigel J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient selection for specific culinary and nutritional quality traits needs a better understanding of the genetic and environmental control of quality traits at the structural, physiological and biochemical levels. Field experiments indicate great variability in the Phaseolus gene pool regarding the content of antinutritional compounds, as well as in cooking characteristics of the seeds. These seed attributes are strongly affected by geographic location, edaphic and climatic conditions at site of cultivation. However, information on the influence of specific environmental factors (such as temperature, water availability, edaphic conditions, etc. on seed quality traits, as well as on their stability is very scarce. This lack of knowledge impairs a faster progress in the improvement of Phaseolus seed quality.

  9. COMPARISONOF FACTORS AFFECTING THE DETECTION OF SMALL IMPURITIES IN BREAST CANCER USING EIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIDYA SARODE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer among women. It is very essential to detect breast cancer at an early stage so as to cure it efficiently. This paper mainly focuses on detecting impurities of small dimensions in circular plastic phantom which relate small tumors in breast. Benign cancertumor is analogous to non conducting impurity while malignant tumor is analogous to conducting impurity. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT based conductivity images are obtained for both conducting as well as non conducting impurities using Electrical Impedance and Diffused Optical Reconstruction Software (EIDORS. Different factors affecting the shape and size of reconstructed impurity like frequency of current source, type of forward model, material of electrodes, are discussed and compared.

  10. Analyzing the factors affecting network lifetime cluster-based wireless sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluster-based wireless sensor networks enable the efficient utilization of the limited energy resources of the deployed sensor nodes and hence prolong the node as well as network lifetime. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (Leach) is one of the most promising clustering protocol proposed for wireless sensor networks. This paper provides the energy utilization and lifetime analysis for cluster-based wireless sensor networks based upon LEACH protocol. Simulation results identify some important factors that induce unbalanced energy utilization between the sensor nodes and hence affect the network lifetime in these types of networks. These results highlight the need for a standardized, adaptive and distributed clustering technique that can increase the network lifetime by further balancing the energy utilization among sensor nodes. (author)

  11. Determine the Factors that Affect the Enrichment Process of High Bioactive Substance from Pangasius Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Tien Luc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to isolate the fatty acid from pangasius fish oil by hydrolysis method and determine the factors that affect the enrichment of the high bioactive chemical elements such as Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA which are two polyunsaturated fatty acids in Omega-3 group by urea complexation process. At the same time, the optimization determined the relationship between mathematics and technology to choose the best technological solution. The recovery efficiency of fish oil reached maximum value at the urea-to-fatty acid ratio of 3.2, complexation time of 16 hours and complexation temperature of -10.6°C. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment ratio of DHA and EPA also reached maximum value of 75.5 and 78.9% in order to enhance the value of pangasius oil raw material and significantly improve the quality of final product.

  12. Analysis of Factors Affecting Log Band Saw Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Karan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to measure the capacity of the log band saw by monitoring the sawing process per operation for each log and to determine what the influencing factors were and their effect on the technological capacity of the log band saw, based on recorded and processed data. The analysis of the recorded data shows that the processed log volume, whose increase also increases the saw capacity, has the most important effect on log band saw capacity. It is imperative to take into account the volume of logs being processed when calculating the capacity of the log band saw. When monitoring the work of the operator, the use of fixed norms is not recommended and it is imperative that norms are connected to the volume of logs being processed.

  13. Factors affecting the rheology and processability of highly filled suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyon, Dilhan M; Akta?, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Suspensions filled with rigid particles at volume-loading levels that approach their maximum packing fraction are widely encountered, especially in the energetics, ceramics, pharmaceutical, magnetics, composites, food, and personal care industries. Highly filled suspensions, regardless of industrial application, exhibit a number of common rheological and processability traits, including viscoplasticity and wall slip, that necessitate special rheometers and appropriate characterization and numerical simulation methods. Furthermore, various factors, including the dispersion and distribution of the particles and their agglomerates, the entrainment of air, the filtration-based migration of the binder phase, and the shear-induced migration of particles, play important roles and must be considered in the design and optimization of manufacturing operations for processing of highly filled suspensions. PMID:24910916

  14. Factors Affecting Junior High School Students' Interest in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-03-01

    We report the results of a study on students' interest in physics at the end of their compulsory schooling in Israel carried out in the framework of the ROSE Project. Factors studied were their opinions about science classes, their out-of-school experiences in physics, and their attitudes toward science and technology. Students' overall interest in physics was "neutral" (neither positive nor negative), with boys showing a higher interest than girls. We found a strong correlation between students' "neutral" interest in physics and their negative opinions about science classes. These findings raise serious questions about the implementation of changes made in the Israeli science curriculum in primary and junior high school, especially if the goal is to prepare the young generation for life in a scientific-technological era. A more in-depth analysis of the results led us to formulate curricular, behavioral, and organizational changes needed to reach this goal.

  15. Factors affecting pregnancy rates in infertile women performed abdominal myomectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali irfan Guzel

    2014-08-01

    Patients and Methods:This retrospective study included 76 infertile women underwent abdominal myomectomy. The cases were divided into two groups according to postoperative pregnancy (Group 1, n=22, and cases with no postoperative pregnancy (Group 2, n=54. Risk factors recorded were; age, parity, size of the fibroids, body mass index (BMI, tumor markers and serum blood values. Results:A total of 76 infertile women underwent abdominal myomectomy during the study period. Of all cases 22 (28.94 % became pregnant. There was statically significant difference between the groups in terms of age, BMI, diameter of the fibroids (p5 cm the treatment modality should be abdominal myomectomy to increase the chance of postoperative pregnancy. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 801-806

  16. Factors Affecting the Performance of Undergraduate Medical Students: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Ananya; Ghosh, Arijit; Sengupta, Gairik; Bera, Tapas; Das, Nina; Mukherjee, Subir

    2012-01-01

    Context: Performance of medical students in developing nations like India is perceived to have largely declined. Aims: We attempted to assess the reasons behind such trends. Settings and Design: Students in their third year of medical study were given a predesigned, pretested structured and validated questionnaire that they filled in anonymously. The key areas assessed were concentration, interest and understanding of the subject and other perceived causes of poor performance. Tests for descriptive statistics were applied for evaluation. Results and Conclusions: One hundred and fifty students participated in the study. Fifty-five (36.66%) students performed poorly. Male gender, inability to clear the previous professional examination at the first attempt, difficulty in understanding medium of instruction, self-assessed depression, sleep disorders and perceived parental and peer pressure and dissatisfaction with career choice were significantly linked with poor performance (P<0.05 for each factor). Socioeconomic status and regularity in class were not linked to academic performance. PMID:22654287

  17. Factors affecting the performance of undergraduate medical students: A perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Performance of medical students in developing nations like India is perceived to have largely declined. Aims: We attempted to assess the reasons behind such trends. Settings and Design: Students in their third year of medical study were given a predesigned, pretested structured and validated questionnaire that they filled in anonymously. The key areas assessed were concentration, interest and understanding of the subject and other perceived causes of poor performance. Tests for descriptive statistics were applied for evaluation. Results and Conclusions: One hundred and fifty students participated in the study. Fifty-five (36.66% students performed poorly. Male gender, inability to clear the previous professional examination at the first attempt, difficulty in understanding medium of instruction, self-assessed depression, sleep disorders and perceived parental and peer pressure and dissatisfaction with career choice were significantly linked with poor performance (P<0.05 for each factor. Socioeconomic status and regularity in class were not linked to academic performance.

  18. Factors affecting mechanical properties of biomass pellet from compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafari, A; Kianmehr, M H

    2014-01-01

    Effectiveness of a densification process to create strong and durable bonding in pellets can be determined by testing the mechanical properties such as compressive strength (CS) and durability. Mechanical properties of pellet from composted municipal solid waste were determined at different raw material and densification conditions. Ground compost samples were compressed with three levels of moisture content (35%, 40% and 45% (wb)), piston compaction speed (2, 6 and 10 mm/s), die length (8, 10 and 12mm) and raw material particle size (0.3, 0.9 and 1.5mm) into cylindrical pellets utilizing opened-end dies under axial stress from a vertical piston applied by a hydraulic press. The effects of independent variables on mechanical properties were determined using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design (BBD). All independent variables affected the durability significantly. However, different piston speed and die length not produce any significant difference on CS of pellets. Also in this research the electron photography method was used to identify the binding mechanism of compost particles. PMID:24600888

  19. A Psychological Factor Affecting a Cardiac Condition in a Psychotherapist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Waxman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that intense emotions can affect the development and course of cardiac arrhythmias. This study sought to convey that a lack of expression of emotion can also have an effect on arrhythmias. A psychotherapist with Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation and an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator measured his rate of Premature Ventricular Contractions using a Holter monitor during three separate six-week periods and in three domains: A work days vs. off days, B a 27 hour work week vs. 22 hour work week, and C in 5 different modalities including 1 Meeting with department head 2 Individual psychotherapy with patients 3 Group therapy with patients 4 Supervision of residents 5 Personal psychoanalysis. The results showed more than a 3-fold increase of arrhythmogenic activity during the 27-hour work week vs. 22 and a 5-fold increase in arrhythmogenic activity on work days compared to days off. Department Head meetings were found to be most arrhythmogenic and personal psychoanalysis was least. The data suggest that the psychiatrist’s lack of emotional expression in his clinical work has been demonstrated to markedly worsen his arrhythmia. The results also point to the potential ameliorating effects of the therapist’s own psychotherapy.

  20. Key factors affecting urban runoff pollution under cold climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtanen, Marjo; Sillanpää, Nora; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    Urban runoff contains various pollutants and has the potential of deteriorating the quality of aquatic ecosystems. In this study our objective is to shed light on the factors that control the runoff water quality in urbanized catchments. The effects of runoff event characteristics, land use type and catchment imperviousness on event mass loads (EML) and event mean concentrations (EMC) were studied during warm and cold periods in three study catchments (6.1, 6.5 and 12.6 ha in size) in the city of Lahti, Finland. Runoff and rainfall were measured continuously for two years at each catchment. Runoff samples were taken for total nutrients (tot-P and tot-N), total suspended solids (TSS), heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn) and total organic carbon (TOC). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis (SMLR) was used to identify general relationships between the following variables: event water quality, runoff event characteristics and catchment characteristics. In general, the studied variables explained 50-90% of the EMLs but only 30-60% of the EMCs, with runoff duration having an important role in most of the SMLR models. Mean runoff intensity or peak flow was also often included in the runoff quality models. Yet, the importance (being the first, second or third best) and role (negative or positive impact) of the explanatory variables varied between the cold and warm period. Land use type often explained cold period concentrations, but imperviousness alone explained EMCs weakly. As for EMLs, the influence of imperviousness and/or land use was season and pollutant dependent. The study suggests that pollutant loads can be - throughout the year - adequately predicted by runoff characteristics given that seasonal differences are taken into account. Although pollutant concentrations were sensitive to variation in seasonal and catchment conditions as well, the accurate estimation of EMCs would require a more complete set of explanatory factors than used in this study.

  1. Elucidating key factors affecting radionuclide aging in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanistic studies allow at present to describe the processes governing the short-term interaction of radiostrontium and radiocaesium in soils. The initial sorption step can be described through the estimation of the soil-soil solution distribution coefficient from soil parameters, as cationic exchange capacity, radiocaesium interception potential and concentration of competing ions in the soil solution. After the initial soil-radionuclide interaction, a fraction of radionuclide is no longer available for exchange with the solution, and it remains fixed in the solid fraction. At present, the initial fixed fraction of a radionuclide in a given soil cannot be predicted from soil properties. Besides, little is known about soil and environmental factors (e.g., temperature; hydric regime) provoking the increase in the fixed fraction with time, the so-called aging process. This process is considered to control the reduction of food contamination with time at contaminated scenarios. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to predict the radionuclide aging in the medium and long term for a better risk assessment, especially when a decision has to be made between relying on natural attenuation versus implementing intervention actions. Here we study radiostrontium and radiocaesium aging in a set of soils, covering a wide range of soil types of contrasting properties (e.g., loamy calcareous; podzol; chernozem, organic). Three factors are separately and simultaneously tested: time elapsed since contamination, temperature and hydric regime. Changes in the radionuclide fixed fraction are estimated with a leaching test based on the use of a mild extractant solution. In addition to this, secondary effects on the radiocaesium interception potential in various soils are also considered. (author)

  2. Non-parametric analysis of technical efficiency: factors affecting efficiency of West Java rice farms.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdik, František

    -, ?. 286 (2006), s. 1-45. ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rice farms * data envelopment analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp286.pdf

  3. Factors affecting injuries to amateur volleyball players volleyball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Cunha dos Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this diagnostic study was to evaluate the number of impacts per training session undergone by two amateur volleyball teams while performing spikes and blocks, and to relate the number of impacts to the number of injuries they suffered over the previous two years. The study recruited 24 athletes from the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina first teams, 12 from the men’s and 12 from the women’s volleyball teams, sampled intentionally. Data were collected using a questionnaire, a video camera and assessment sheets fi lled out by a talent scout. Data were collected at the practice ground and presented in the form of descriptive statistics in means, standard deviations and simple frequencies and inferential statistics were applied in the form of Pearson’s correlation and Student’s t test, both to p?0.05. The results allowed for the conclusions that both teams exhibited similar duration of practice and that their training characteristics were similar in terms of duration and frequency. The ankles were most often affected by injuries and blocks were the most common causative mechanisms of injuries in both teams. The majority of athletes use protective equipment and the great majority underwent physiotherapy once injured. The number of impacts per training session, including spike and block jumps, was low when compared with high level teams. It appears that the number of impacts did not affect the number of injuries in either team. The two teams did not differ either in terms of the number of injuries or the number of impacts per training session. RESUMO Este estudo diagnóstico teve como objetivo avaliar o número de repetições de impacto por treino, em atletas de duas equipes amadoras de voleibol, realizando cortadas e bloqueios, bem como relacionar o número de impactos com o número de lesões sofridas pelos mesmos nos últimos dois anos. Participaram do estudo 24 atletas titulares, sendo 12 da equipe feminina e 12 da equipe masculina de voleibol da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, escolhidas de forma intencional. Como instrumento de medida, foi utilizado um questionário, uma filmadora e fi chas de avaliação de escalte técnico. Os dados foram coletados no local de prática e tratados mediante a estatística descritiva em termos de média, desvio padrão e freqüência simples e com a estatística inferencial, por meio da correlação de Pearson e teste “t” de Student, ambos a p?0,05. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que as equipes apresentam tempo de prática e características de treino similares em termos de duração e freqüência; o tornozelo foi o local mais afetado por lesões e os bloqueios foram os mecanismos mais causadores de lesões para ambas as equipes; a maioria dos atletas usa equipamentos de proteção e a grande maioria, após lesionada, fez fi sioterapia; o número de impactos por treino, incluindo saltos de cortadas e bloqueios, é pouco quando comparado com equipes de alto nível; parece que o número de impactos não interferiu no número de lesões nas duas equipes; as duas equipes não diferem tanto no número de lesões quanto no número de impactos por treino.

  4. Factors affecting the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis following intense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Shaun; Jenkins, David

    2002-01-01

    Within the skeletal muscle cell at the onset of muscular contraction, phosphocreatine (PCr) represents the most immediate reserve for the rephosphorylation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). As a result, its concentration can be reduced to less than 30% of resting levels during intense exercise. As a fall in the level of PCr appears to adversely affect muscle contraction, and therefore power output in a subsequent bout, maximising the rate of PCr resynthesis during a brief recovery period will be of benefit to an athlete involved in activities which demand intermittent exercise. Although this resynthesis process simply involves the rephosphorylation of creatine by aerobically produced ATP (with the release of protons), it has both a fast and slow component, each proceeding at a rate that is controlled by different components of the creatine kinase equilibrium. The initial fast phase appears to proceed at a rate independent of muscle pH. Instead, its rate appears to be controlled by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) levels; either directly through its free cytosolic concentration, or indirectly, through its effect on the free energy of ATP hydrolysis. Once this fast phase of recovery is complete, there is a secondary slower phase that appears almost certainly rate-dependent on the return of the muscle cell to homeostatic intracellular pH. Given the importance of oxidative phosphorylation in this resynthesis process, those individuals with an elevated aerobic power should be able to resynthesise PCr at a more rapid rate than their sedentary counterparts. However, results from studies that have used phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P-NMR) spectroscopy, have been somewhat inconsistent with respect to the relationship between aerobic power and PCr recovery following intense exercise. Because of the methodological constraints that appear to have limited a number of these studies, further research in this area is warranted. PMID:12238940

  5. Factors affecting survivability of local Rohilkhand goats under organized farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Upadhyay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the pattern of mortality as affected by age, season and various diseases in local goats of Rohilkhand region maintained at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly. Materials and Methods: Post-mortem records of 12 years (2000-01 to 2011-12 were used, and total 243 mortality data were collected and analyzed. The causes of mortality were classified into seven major classes viz. digestive disorders, respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disorders, musculoskeletal disorder, parasitic disorders, mixed disorders (combination of digestive, respiratory, parasitic, and cardiovascular disorders and miscellaneous disorders (cold, hypoglycemia, emaciation, endometritis, traumatic injury, etc.. Results: The average mortality was 10.93%. The overall mortality was more during rainy season followed by winter and summer season. The mortality in 4-6 months of age was high (2.52% followed by 0-1 month (2.34% and 2-3 months (1.35%. The average mortality among adult age groups (>12 months was 3.42%. The mortality showed declining trend with the advancement of age up to 3 months and then again increased in 4-6 months age group. The digestive diseases (3.51% followed by respiratory diseases (1.89% and parasitic diseases (1.48% contributed major share to the total mortality occurred and the remaining disorders were of lesser significance in causing death in goats. There is significant (p<0.01; ?2=55.62 association between year with season and age with the season (p<0.05, ?2=16.083 found in the present study. Conclusion: This study confirms that overall mortality rate averaged 10.93% (ranged between 1.10% and 25.56% over 12 years under semi-intensive farm condition. It was generally higher in rainy season. The mortality remains higher in kids particularly under 1 month of age. The digestive diseases contributed major share to overall mortality.

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING GERMINATION AND PREGERMINATIVE TREATMENTS OF Lupinus montanus SEEDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeanette, Acosta-Percástegui; Dante Arturo, Rodríguez-Trejo.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a germinação da semente de Lupinus montanus, tomando em conta os seguintes fatores: regime de temperaturas dia/noite, luz e tratamento pré-germinativo. Para a germinação, resultou significativa a interação entre os fatores temperatura, luz e tratamento pré-germinativo. Os maiores valores [...] de germinação se acharam no regime de temperatura 20/15ºC, com escarificação química (ácido sulfúrico) durante 15 minutos, tanto com luz (100% de germinação) como sem luz (98% de germinação). A interação entre temperatura e luz também foi significativa. Neste último caso, a maior germinação se alcançou no regime de temperatura 20/15ºC, tanto com luz como sem luz (72,5% e 73,8%, respectivamente). A maiores temperaturas sem luz, a germinação foi maior (41,2% a 25/20ºC, e 33,4% a 30/25ºC), que com luz (17,4% a 25/20ºC e 12,8% a 30/25ºC); o qual indica que os microsítios com sombra podem beneficiar a germinação da semente da espécie a temperaturas altas. Abstract in spanish Se estudió la germinación de la semilla de Lupinus montanus, tomando en cuenta los siguientes factores: régimen de temperaturas día/noche, luz y tratamiento pregerminativo. Para la germinación, resultó significativa la interacción entre los factores temperatura, luz y tratamiento pregerminativo. Los [...] mayores valores de germinación se hallaron en el régimen de temperatura 20/15ºC, con escarificación química (ácido sulfúrico) durante 15 minutos, tanto con luz (100% de germinación) como sin luz (98% de germinación). La interacción entre temperatura y luz también fue significativa. En este último caso, la mayor germinación se alcanzó en el régimen de temperatura 20/15ºC, tanto con luz como sin luz (72,5 y 73,8%, respectivamente). A mayores temperaturas sin luz, la germinación fue mayor (41,2% a 25/20ºC, y 33,4% a 30/25ºC), que con luz (17,4% a 25/20ºC y 12,8% a 30/25ºC); lo cual indica que los micrositios con sombra pudieran beneficiar la germinación de la semilla de la especie a temperaturas altas. Abstract in english The germinative characteristics of Lupinus montanus seeds were studied, taking into account the following factors: day/night temperature regime, light, and pregerminative treatment. The interaction between temperature, light and pregerminative treatment was significant for germination. The best germ [...] inations were found in the 20/15ºC temperature regime, with chemical scarification (sulfuric acid) during 15min, both under light (100% germination) and in darkness (98%). The interaction between temperature and light was also significant, with the best germination results in the 20/15ºC temperature regime, both with and without light (72.5 and 73.8%, respectively). At higher temperatures, the germination in absence of light was greater (41.2 and 33.4% at 25/20ºC and 30/25ºC, respectively) than under light (17.4 and 12.8% at 25/20ºC and 30/25ºC, respectively). This indicates that shady microsites can benefit germination of the species at higher temperatures.

  7. Case Study of Factors Affecting Chinese Students’ English Communication Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping LIU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available For ESL teaching in China’s universities, not enough emphasis is put on verbal communication as a yardstick of language mastery and methodological success. Developing student’s communication competence is not only concerned with the nature of language learning from linguistic perspectives, but also could be influenced by such exogenous factors as learning environment, learning psychology, and learning strategies. It is necessary to investigate whether these factors have an impact on Chinese university students’ English communication performance. This paper tries to examine the relationships among social needs, system inefficiencies, learning objectives, learning strategies, and effort, according to a constructed model. The model’s hypotheses are drawn from theories as diverse as person-environment (PE fit (Caplan, 1987, intrinsic motivation (Ryan and Deci, 2000, conceptions about learning approach (Entwistle, 1990, and “learning strategy” (Biggs, Kember, & Leung, 2001. The sample was collected from one of the Chinese universities in Southeast for a case study to shed light on how to improve English teaching and learning in TESL of China. The quantitative research method is used with SPSS system in this essay to report the statistical analyses of the model. Among the eight hypotheses tested, six were confirmed to be true, and two could not be validated.
    Key words: communication performance; 5-factor model; person-environment (PE fit; intrinsic motivation; learning strategies

    Résumé: Dans les universités chinoises où l’anglais est enseigné comme la deuxième langue, l'accent n'est pas suffisamment mis sur la communication verbale en tant qu’un critère de maîtrise de la langue et du succès méthodologique. Le développement de la compétence communicative des élèves n'est pas seulement concerné par la nature de l'apprentissage des langues du point de vue linguistique, mais pourrait aussi être influencé par des facteurs exogènes comme l'environnement d'apprentissage, la psychologie de l'apprentissage et les stratégies d'apprentissage. Il est nécessaire d'examiner si ces facteurs ont une influence sur la performance de communication en anglais des étudiants chinois. Le présent document tente d'étudier les relations entre les besoins sociaux, l'inefficacité du système, les objectifs d'apprentissage, les stratégies d'apprentissage et des efforts, selon un modèle construit. L’hypothèse du modèle vient de diverses théories, telles que la théorie de l’adaptation peronne-environnement-(PE (Caplan, 1987, la motivation intrinsèque (Ryan et Deci, 2000, les conceptions sur l''approche de l’apprentissage ( Entwistle, 1990, et les stratégies d'apprentissage (Biggs, Kember, & Leung, 2001. Les sujets d’études viennent de l'une des universités chinoises situées dans le Sud-est pour montrer la façon d'améliorer l'enseignement et l'apprentissage de l'anglais en tant que la deuxième langue en Chine. La méthode de recherche quantitative est utilisée avec le système de SPSS dans cet essai pour montrer des analyses statistiques du modèle. Parmi les huit hypothèses testées, six ont été confirmées d’être vraies et deux n'ont pas pu être validées.
    Mots-Clés: performance de communication; modèle de 5-facteurs; le modèle de l’adaptation personne-environment(PE; motivation intrinsèque; stratégies d’apprentissage

  8. Factors affecting nuclear research reactor utilization across countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the worldwide declining trend of research reactor utilization and the fact that many reactors in developing countries are under-utilised, a question naturally arises as to whether the investment in a research reactor is justifiable. Statistical analyses were applied to reveal relationships between the status of reactor utilization and socio-economic conditions among countries, that may provide a guidance for reactor planning and cost benefit assessment. The reactor power has significant regression relationships with size indicators such as GNP, electricity consumption and R and D expenditure. Concerning the effectiveness of investment in research reactors, the number of reactor operation days per year only weakly correlates with electricity consumption and R and D expenditure, implying that there are controlling factors specific of each group of countries. In the case of less developed countries, the low customer demands on reactor operation may be associated with the failure in achieving quality assurance for the reactor products and services, inadequate investment in the infrastructure for reactor exploitation, the shortage of R and D funding and well trained manpower and the lack of measures to get the scientific community involved in the application of nuclear techniques. (author)

  9. Factors affecting methionine toxicity and its alleviation in the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, J M; Baker, D H

    1978-07-01

    Young male crossbred chicks were fed crystalline amino acid diets containing excess L-methionine or DL-homocysteine to evaluate factors causing methionine toxicity. Chicks were fed diets containing graded levels of excess methionine from 0% to 2.0%. Rate of gain was reduced at all levels of excess methionine, but the magnitude of depression was greater between 1% and 2% than between 0% and 1% excess methionine. Methionine accumulated in plasma of birds fed excess methionine, but plasma levels of homocysteine, cystathionine and cystine remained essentially unchanged. Spleen iron levels increased linearly and blood hemoglobin decreased linearly when chicks were fed diets containing greater than 1% excess methionine, a level equivalent to about 3 times the chicks' requirement. Chicks fed 1.36% homocysteine had reduced gain and gain:feed values, but spleen iron and hemoglobin levels were unchanged. 3-Methylthiopropionate, a possible metabolite in a proposed alternate pathway, caused a precipitous increase in spleen iron levels. Various methyl sources (betaine, choline, methyl acetate) when fed in excess failed to increase spleen iron levels. Methyl mercaptan and methyl mercaptoacetate likewise did not result in an increase in spleen iron deposition. Both the hemosiderosis condition and the reduced food utilization caused by excess methionine were reversed by supplemental glycine plus threonine. PMID:660299

  10. Factors affecting decomposition rates of chironomid (Diptera pupal exuviae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi G. Kavanaugh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Collections of floating chironomid pupal exuviae are used to monitor water quality and assess ecological conditions. Factors controlling exuviae sinking rates are not well known, although they should have an effect on conclusions that can be drawn from collections. The current study was conducted to determine the rate of sinking under controlled laboratory conditions using water from three streams with different nutrient levels. Sinking rates ranged from less than a day to seven days, depending on microbial activity, nutrient concentrations, temperature and turbulence. Results also varied by genus, with pupal exuviae of Chironomus riparius, Diamesa nivoriunda, Orthocladius (Euorthocladius thienemanni and Eukiefferiella sp. used in experiments. Four species of bacteria and eight genera of fungi colonized and metabolized exuviae, with bacteria dominant early and fungi dominant later in the decomposition process. Decomposition was faster in lightly chitinized abdominal conjunctive areas, which resulted in exuviae breaking apart and sinking. Examination of untreated, dewaxed and dewaxed-deproteinized exuviae indicated that untreated exuviae sank faster. Waxes appeared important for colonization and initial microbial metabolization was delayed when waxes were removed. Results confirm the importance of biological degradation of exuviae in determining floatation times. We predict that streams and other waterbodies with high dissolved nutrients will result in rapidly sinking exuviae, while exuviae in low nutrient waterbodies will float longer.Article submitted 1. October 2014, accepted 18. November 2014, published 22. December 2014.

  11. Factors affecting the retention and fit of gold castings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, V A; Miller, A W; Miller, B H; Swepston, J H

    1987-04-01

    A study was designed to simulate clinical conditions. Several factors were evaluated for effect on retention and fit (margin adaptation) of gold castings. Twenty-six castings (13 pairs) were made by different investigators using a standard preparation but with varying fabrication techniques. One of each pair of castings was made on a spaced die and one on an unspaced die. A significant difference in the postcementation retention was observed in the varying techniques of each investigator. Retentive values varied from 29 to 129 lbs. Complete seating of the castings during cementation was improved by the use of die spacer. Castings made on the spaced dies had more retention than corresponding unspaced castings. Die spacing has positive benefit when properly used. Moderate roughness of axial surfaces improves retention when zinc phosphate cement is used. Physical properties of restorative materials are important, but the individual technique and care of each investigator has a major effect on the ultimate fit and retention of the cast restoration. PMID:3553565

  12. Trends Analyses for Several Factors Affected by Tropical Cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. T. Islam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents an analytical investigation for the trends of several factors such as number of death of peoples, damages of wealth, flood surge heights, wind speed and radius of the severe storm due to tropical cyclones in Bangladesh. Approach: The study is performed by conducting the field visits to cyclone site, collected data and information on damages and deaths of peoples during field visits, necessary data related to tropical cyclones obtained from available publications and news-study. The data since the period of the independence of Bangladesh (nearly 40 years are analyzed. Results: The analyses showed that the 17 major cyclones have been occurred since 1970. Among these 17 major cyclones, the 5 cyclones were tragically severe that killed over 400 thousand peoples. It is observed that the coast of the Bay of Bengal is particularly vulnerable to tropical cyclones. It is revealed that Bangladesh is more vulnerable to devastating cyclones in the recent years because the frequency of the severe cyclones has increased remarkably. Conclusion/Recommendation: The return period of the major cyclones was decreased drastically in recent years and the country, especially, the Bengal Bay is predominantly helpless during the cyclone seasons.

  13. Factors affecting the cost and competitiveness of nuclear electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general context in which are carried out the investment choices of the electric sector has evolved in a significant way during these last years and the changes are to a certain extent irreversible. Economic globalization, deregulation of the electricity market, privatisation of electricity producers, and increasing awareness of environmental issues are modifying the policy-making landscape and the criteria and priorities of decision-makers in the power sector. Competitiveness remains a cornerstone for evaluating and choosing alternative technologies in the process of planning and decision-making for electricity system expansion or power plant replacement. Nevertheless, the production costs analysis inserts factors which were not taking before into account as for instance social impacts, health and environmental effects. These new approaches better reveal the total costs of the different production means. They will certainly lead to different choices than those based on the whole comparison of direct costs supported by producers. The economic studies carried out by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (NEA) cover all the preceding aspects and give objective information on the competitiveness of nuclear electricity. The nuclear industry has today the necessary means to take up the challenges of the electricity new markets. (O.M.)

  14. Environmental factors affecting starch encapsulated herbicide rates of release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch-encapsulation (SE) is an experimental control release technology designed to extend the period of time over which a herbicide is released into the soil environment. The objectives of controlled release are to improve efficacy and reduce negative environmental impacts. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to evaluate how environmental factors influence the release rate of SE-atrazine and SE-alachlor. Decreasing water availability, significantly reduced swelling and subsequent rates-of-release for both herbicides. As starch granules imbibe water they swell, allowing the herbicide to diffuse more readily out of the granule. Decreasing temperature also resulted in decreased rates of herbicide release. Soil microbial activity increased rates-of-release for both herbicides, likely the result of enzymatic breakdown of the starch matrix. The enhanced release of alachlor relative to atrazine under varied environmental conditions was attributed to alachlor's greater solubility in water. Although the SE-formulations are experimental, modification of herbicide behavior was observed that could reduce negative environmental impacts. 20 refs, 9 figs

  15. Factors Affecting the Outcome of Bronchiectasis in Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Bilan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bronchiectasis is a common problem in children and early diagnosis can lead to early treatment and prevent of its complications. This study was aimed to evaluate factors effective on outcome of bronchiectasis in children. Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 347 children with bronchiectasis Underwent the study. the patients were diagnosed based on chronic suppurative cough and CT scan findings. . Results: Disease etiology was asthma in 55.6%, Gastroesophagial reflux (GERD in 7.8%, Cystic fibrosis (CF in 4.8%, other causes in 11.2% and idiopathic in 20.6%. All cases complained of chronic cough. The most common sign was daily sputum production (79.1% and common symptoms were ral/crackle in 47.1% and wheezing in 25.4%. Mean treatment period was 32.82±11.56 months. At the end of follow-up, complete improvement occurred in 35.6%, partial improvement in 40.9% and no improvement in 23.5%. Conclusion: In children with chronic cough and crackle in physical examination, consideration of bronchiectasis could be helpful in early diagnosis and complementary evaluations and treatment initiation. Treating the underlying disease could prevent the occurrence and increase the response to treatment of bronchiectasis.

  16. Factors affecting the regulation of pacing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauger AR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexis R Mauger Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Kent, Chatham, UK Abstract: During prolonged dynamic and rhythmic exercise, muscular pain and discomfort arises as a result of an increased concentration of deleterious metabolites. Sensed by peripheral nociceptors and transmitted via afferent feedback to the brain, this provides important information regarding the physiological state of the muscle. These sensations ultimately contribute to what is termed "exercise-induced pain". Despite being well recognized by athletes and coaches, and suggested to be integral to exercise performance, this construct has largely escaped attention in experimental work. This perspective article highlights the current understanding of pacing in endurance performance, and the causes of exercise-induced pain. A new perspective is described, which proposes how exercise-induced pain may be a contributing factor in helping individuals to regulate their work rate during exercise and thus provides an important construct in pacing. Keywords: pain, exercise-induced pain, discomfort, exercise performance, self-paced

  17. Factors Affecting the Intensity of Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    This paper updates the influence of environmental and source factors of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are likely to influence the solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The intensity variation due to CME interaction reported that is confirmed by expanding the investigation to all the large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The large SEP events are separated into two groups, one associated with CMEs running into other CMEs, and the other with CMEs running into the ambient solar wind. SEP events with CME interaction generally have a higher intensity. New possibilities such as the influence of coronal holes on the SEP intensity are also discussed. For example, the presence of a large coronal hole between a well-connected eruption and the solar disk center may render the shock poorly connected because of the interaction between the CME and the coronal hole. This point is illustrated using the 2004 December 3 SEP event delayed by about 12 hours from the onset of the associated CME. There is no other event at the Sun that can be associated with the SEP onset. This event is consistent with the possibility that the coronal hole interaction influences the connectivity of the CMEs that produce SEPs, and hence the intensity of the SEP event.

  18. An Analysis of Factors That Affect the Educational Performance of Agricultural Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to student achievement. This study focuses on three areas: how students learn, how student personality type affects performance, and how course format affects performance outcomes. The analysis sought to improve understanding of the direction and magnitude with which each of these factors impacts student success. Improved…

  19. Comparing Faculty and Student Perceptions Regarding Factors That Affect Student Retention in Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytan, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study compared faculty and student perceptions regarding factors that affect student retention in online courses in an attempt to more effectively address the problem of attrition. A grounded study method was used to interview students taking online courses, analyze their responses related to the critical factors that affect…

  20. Factors affecting e-Commerce adoption in Danish and Australian SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    main organizational factors affecting e-commerce adoption in the two countries are the CEO and employees' knowledge and attitude. Finally a number of technology related factors affect e-commerce adoption in the two countries as for example the ability to stream information out to the clients or the...

  1. Some factors affecting the cost of irradiation services in thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future of food irradiation in developing countries depends to a large extent on cost considerations. Although food irradiation technology itself is widely known and appears to offer many advantages, concrete evidence on the economic viability of a multi-product irradiation plant is presently not readily available to the private sector in developing countries. It is doubtful whether such evidence exists in a form which is comprehensible to industrialists outside the radiation technology circle. With respect to the economic aspects of food irradiation, information available from the literature appears to be based largely on a summing-up of studies of single products on a case-by-case basis. In an agricultural country, the main inputs to an irradiation service facility are likely to be agricultural produce which vary in kind and quantity with cropping seasons. Moreover, in most developing countries, uncontrollable factors play an important role in the production of annual crops and their transportation. Thus, it is hardly possible to make a credible long term forecast on the throughput required for the multi-product service plant, let alone determine with confidence the return on investment. Accordingly, as far as the private sector is concerned, investment decisions regarding the establishment of a commercial food irradiation service plant have to be considered as 'decision making under risk'. This paper attempts to raise questions to which the author cannot yet find clear and practical answers from the available literature. It is intended to stimulate a more thorough and objective discussion on the subject of economic viability of a multi-product food irradiation plant under the prevailing environment in ASEAN

  2. The Financial Impact of Risk Factors Affecting Project Cost Contingency: Evidential Reasoning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Abeere-Inga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of cost modeling using risk analysis for construction projects is very crucial for the achievement of project success. The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the financial impact of risk factors affecting key construction work sections; using a systematic risk methodology based on empirical judgment. The failure mode effect analysis (FMEA and the evidential reasoning methods are presented as qualitative and quantitative risk tools respectively. Data analysis from structured questionnaires revealed that four work sections are prone to high scope changes contemporaneous with seven risk factors. Contrary to the usual 10% contingency estimate allowed for construction projects in Ghana, an approximate overall physical contingency range of between 13.36% and 17.88% was determined using evidential reasoning methods. The likely impact of the integrated work sections and risk factors provide a clue to estimators on how to estimate and account for project cost contingency. The research concludes by recommending a framework for improving the estimation process of cost contingency through the integration of efficient risk management strategies, cost estimation and design management process.

  3. Factors affecting the reproductive traits of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For dairy cattle breeds, mainly the taurine ones, the selection emphasized for many years the increase in milk yields and, as a consequence, the adaptive and reproductive traits were negatively affected. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of genetic and environmental effects on the reproductive traits in a dairy herd selected for high milk production levels. The data set comprised 1,737 first lactations Holsteins cows of Agrindus Farm, located at Southeastern region of Brazil. The records of the following reproductive traits: calving to first heat interval (CFHI, calving to conception interval (CCI and first to second calving interval (FCI were analyzed as dependent variables by least squares method using GLM procedure (SAS. Linear models were considered including two production levels (1= less than 9,500 kg and 2= more than 9,501 kg of total milk yield, contemporary group (year and months calving, management group, sire of cow, and the sire used to breeding cows, as classificatory variables. As covariates were included for all traits the peak milk yield in lactation (linear effect, age at calving only for CFHI (linear and quadratic effects since this effect was not significant for other traits, and CFHI (linear effect only for FCI. The coefficients of determination represented 24%, 74% and 75%, respectively for CFHI, FCI and CCI models. Production level, peak milk yield and sire effects were significant (P<0.05 for all traits. The average estimated for high and low milk production level were 73 and 79 days, 500 and 601 days, 227 and 330 days for CFHI, FCI and CCI, respectively, suggesting that cows with higher genetic potential for milk had worse reproductive performance. Similarly, lactation peak showed significant effect (P<0.05 for all traits, suggesting higher peaks cows showed also poorer reproductive rates. Sire effect also was a variable that showed significant effect (P<0.01 for all traits, which means that there was additive genetic variability transmitted from one to the other generation. The bull used to mate cows by artificial insemination or by controlled mating and the contemporary group had a significant effect (P<0.01 for FCI and CCI. Bull effect can be explained by semen quality and this effect showed an important variation source in the model and may help the farm to identify causes of reproductive problems. The important genetic association between production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle justifies to include reproductive traits in the breeding goals of dairy cattle breeding programs. There was an important effect of genetic potential of cows to produce milk for IPPC, causing the higher intervals, represented by sire and production level effects on this trait. Although the cow had shown estrus, the conception occurred late.

  4. Breastfeeding Self-efficacy of Mothers and the Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinar Nursan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: el objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la autoeficacia de las madres en cuanto a la lactancia durante el período de 0-3 meses y los factores que la afectan. Materiales y métodos: el estudio se realizó entre enero y abril de 2011. El universo del estu - dio estuvo compuesto por todas las madres que vivían en el centro de la provincia de Sakarya y tenían niños lactantes de 0-3 meses. La muestra utilizada en el estudio estuvo conformada por 152 madres que aceptaron participar. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas cara a cara con las madres, utilizando el "Formulario de Información Personal" desarrollado por los investigadores y el "Formulario de Escala de Autoeficacia en Lactancia – versión abreviada/ BSES-SF" desarrollado por Dennis. La validez y confiabilidad de la escala usada en Turquía fueron medidas por Tokat et al. (2010. Los datos fueron evaluados a través del programa SPSS, utilizando los porcentajes, los promedios, la prueba t, el chi-cuadrado y ANOVA. Resultados: el puntaje total promedio de la "BSES-SF tomada" se determinó como 58,61 ± 8,93, min. = 16, máx. = 70. No se hallaron diferencias significativas entre el puntaje de la escala y la edad materna (F = 0,437, p = 0,781, la educación materna (F = 0,625, p = 0,645, la situación económica (F = 0,253, p = 0,777 y el tipo de parto (t = 0,922, p = 0,358. Los puntajes promedio fueron mayores para las madres que indicaron haber recibido capacitación para la lactancia materna en comparación con otras que indicaron no haber recibido dicha formación, y la diferencia entre el puntaje de la escala fue estadísticamente significativa (X2 = 50,848, p = 0,010. Conclusiones: los requisitos para el desarrollo de un nivel adecuado de lactancia materna entre las madres fueron identificados. Las enfermeras pueden dar el apoyo necesario a las madres con bajo nivel de lactancia mediante la evaluación y la identificación de los requisitos con la ayuda de esta escala.

  5. Factors affecting home delivery in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, A; Manandhar, D S; Shrestha, P; Ellis, M; Malla, K; Costello, A M

    1998-06-01

    This nested case-control study compares the characteristics of mothers having home or institutional deliveries in Kathmandu, Nepal, and explores the reasons given by mothers for a home delivery. The delivery patterns of mothers were identified in a cross-sectional survey of two communities: an urban area of central Kathmandu (Kalimati) and a peri-urban area (Kirtipur and Panga) five kilometres from the city centre. 357 pregnant women were identified from a survey of 6130 households: 183 from 3663 households in Kirtipur and Panga, 174 from 2467 households in Kalimati. Methods involved a structured baseline household questionnaire and detailed follow-up of identified pregnant women with structured and semi-structured interviews in hospital and the community. The main outcome measures were social and economic household details of pregnant women; pregnancy and obstetric details; place of delivery; delivery attendant; and reasons given for home delivery. The delivery place of 334/357 (94%) of the pregnant women identified at the survey was determined. 272 (81%) had an institutional delivery and 62 (19%) delivered at home. In univariate analysis comparing home and institutional deliverers, maternal education, parity, and poverty indicators (income, size of house, ownership of house) were associated with place of delivery. After multivariate analysis, low maternal educational level (no education, OR 5.04 [95% CI 1.61-15.8], class 1-10, OR 3.36 [1.04-10.8] compared to those with higher education) and multiparity (OR 3.1 [1.63-5.74] compared to primiparity) were significant risk factors for a home delivery. Of home deliverers, only 24% used a traditional birth attendant, and over half were unplanned due to precipitate labour or lack of transport. We conclude that poor education and multiparity rather than poverty per se increase the risk of a home delivery in Kathmandu. Training TBAs in this setting would probably not be cost-effective. Community-based midwife-run delivery units could reduce the incidence of unplanned home deliveries. PMID:10180403

  6. Case Factors Affecting Hearing Aid Recommendations by Hearing Care Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gioia, Carmine; Ben-Akiva, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Professional recommendations to patients concerning hearing instrument (HI) technology levels are not currently evidence-based. Pre-fitting parameters have not been proven to be the primary indicators for optimal patient outcome with different HI technology levels. This results in subjective decision-making as regards the technology level recommendation made by professionals. Purpose: The objective of this study is to gain insight into the decision-making criteria utilized by professionals when recommending HI technology levels to hearing-impaired patients. Research design: A set of patient variables (and their respective levels) was identified by professionals as determinant for their recommendation of HIs. An experimental design was developed and 21 representative patient cases were generated. The design was based on a contrastive vignette technique according to which different types of vignettes (patient cases) were randomly presented to respondents in an online survey. Based on these patientcases, professionals were asked in the survey to make a treatment recommendation. Study sample: The online survey was sent to approximately 3,500 professionals from the US, Germany, France, and Italy. The professionals were randomly selected from the databases of Oticon sales companies. The manufacturer sponsoring the survey remained anonymous and was only revealed after completing the survey, if requested by the respondent. The response rate was 20.5%. Data collection and analysis: Data comprised of respondent descriptions and patient case recommendations that were collected from the online survey. A binary logit modeling approach was used to identify the variables that discriminate between the respondents' recommendations of HI technology levels. RESULTS: The results show that HI technology levels are recommended by professionals based on their perception of the patient's activity level in life, the level of HI usage for experienced users, their age, and their speech discrimination score. Surprisingly, the patient's lifestyle as perceived by the hearing care professional, followed by speech discrimination, were the strongest factors in explaining treatment recommendation. An active patient with poor speech discrimination had a 17% chance of being recommended the highest technology level HI. For a very active patient with good speech discrimination, the probability increases to 68%. Conclusions: The discrepancies in HI technology level recommendations are not justified by academic research or evidence of optimal patient outcome with a different HI technology level. The paradigm of lifestyle as the significant variable identified in this study is apparently deeply anchored in the mindset of the professional despite the lack of supporting evidence. These results call for a shift in the professional's technology level recommendation practice, from nonevidence-based to a proven practice that can maximize patient outcome.

  7. Alpha radiolysis and other factors affecting hydrolysis of tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify the principal degradation products produced by Pu(IV) loading in 30% tributyl phosphate/dodecane (TBP-DD) solutions and to determine the formation rates of these species as a function of temperature. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate HNO3 hydrolysis of TBP as a function of temperature and to compare the effects resulting from plutonium solvent loading with effects due to loading with uranium and zirconium. The results indicate that four factors are of particular significance: (1) dibutyl phosphate (DBP) is the principal plutonium-complexing species formed at temperatures of 500C or lower, while significant concentrations of monobutyl phosphate (MBP) are also formed at higher temperatures; (2) the TBP degradation rate due to alpha radiolysis or chemical hydrolysis is strongly dependent on temperature; (3) plutonium promotes TBP hydrolysis by two mechanisms, alpha radiolysis and metal-ion-induced hydrolysis, and, of these, metal-ion-induced hydrolysis can be the major effect; and (4) small amounts of an unidentified plutonium-complexing species are formed in experiments using plutonium of high specific activity [about 4 x 108 counts per minute per milligram (c/min dot mg)]. This species cannot be removed from 30% TBP-DD by Na2CO3 washing or other solvent cleanup procedures. The TBP degradation rates (determined as grams of plutonium complexed by degradation products) increased from 0.125 mg Pu/L dot h at 250C to 47.9 mg Pu/L dot h at 800C in 30% TBP-DD solutions that contained only 0.68 M HNO3. In solutions that additionally contained approx.20 g/L of plutonium (specific activity = 9 x 107 c/min dot mg) TBP degradation rates increased from 2.46 mg Pu/L dot h at 250C to 127.1 mg Pu/L dot h at 800C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic analysis. In both cases, the profitable price point is decreased, making more markets open to profitable entry. Overall, the economic attractiveness of a nuclear power construction project is not only a function of its own costs, but a function of the market into which it is deployed. Many of the market characteristics are out of the control of the potential nuclear power plant operators. The decision-making process for the power industry in general is complicated by the short-term market volatility in both the wholesale electricity market and the commodity (natural gas) market. Decisions based on market conditions today may be rendered null and void in six months. With a multiple-year lead time, nuclear power plants are acutely vulnerable to market corrections.

  9. Decentralization and Local Governments’ Performance: How Does Fiscal Autonomy Affect Spending Efficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    PIACENZA, Massimiliano; Turati, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, recent legislative reforms share the goal of increasing fiscal autonomy of lower tiers of governments. The aim of this policy is to reduce Vertical Fiscal Imbalance (VFI) and enhance the efficiency in the provision of public services, via increased accountability of local politicians. The purpose of this paper is to assess whether inefficiency of local governments is really affected by the degree of VFI, relying on a sample of Italian municipalities to study the determinan...

  10. AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING UNDERSTANDING AND APPLICATIONS OF BRANDED HOUSING PROJECT MARKETING AROUND THE ISTANBUL METROPOLITAN AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Polat, Selcuk; FERMAN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Marketing is a quite crucial topic for success in the current competitive environment. Efficient and effective marketing practices will allow the companies to grow and to be more successful. Companies can gain competitive advantage by developing various marketing strategies. The objective of this study is to research the factors affecting the understanding and applications of ‘branded housing project marketing’ around the Istanbul metropolitan area. Branding and market positioning depend on f...

  11. Adding adaptable toe stiffness affects energetic efficiency and dynamic behaviors of bipedal walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiqi; Huang, Yan; Wang, Qining

    2016-01-01

    In human walking, toes play an important role in supporting the body and controlling the forward motion. These functions are achieved by muscles and tendons around toe joints. To further understand the importance of toe and how toe muscle functions affect the locomotion, we employ a simple bipedal walking model with compliant joints. The ankle joints and toe joints are modeled as torsional springs and the actuation patterns are similar to that of normal human walking. Experimental results show that adding adaptable compliant toe joints could benefit the stability and energy efficiency. By generating plantar flexion moment after heel-off, the toes contribute to stabilize the body and control the forward motion. In addition, multi-joint foot structure could improve the energy efficiency by reducing the energy consumption of ankle joints. A proper toe actuation pattern could result in a proper toe dorsiflexion and reduce the maximal ankle plantar flexion, leading to a smoother and more efficient locomotion. PMID:26519906

  12. Factors affecting Succession Planning in Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Mutunga; Hazel Gachunga

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya. Specific objects of the study included establishing how nurturing and development is a factor influencing Succession Planning in Small and Medium EnterprisesThe study will be significant to the Small and Medium-scale Enterprises, and the government who will appreciate and understand the factors affecting Succession Planning of Small and Medium Enterprises. This will enable policy make...

  13. A Study on Students’ Affective Factors in Junior High School English Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Biyi Zhu; Yaping Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Affect is considered as aspects of emotion, feeling, mood or attitude which condition behaviors in second language acquisition. Positive affect is good for studying while negative affect will inevitably hinder learners’ learning process. As we know, students in junior high school are special groups as they are experiencing great changes both in physiology and psychology. Their affect can be easily influenced by external and internal factors. Therefore, it is of vital importance to pay close a...

  14. Intangible Factors Affecting the Success of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Hee Song Ng

    2012-01-01

    Since SMEs play a vital role in the development of a nation, it is important to gain a better understanding of the success factors involved. Authors have categorized the factors that influence enterprises success into tangible and intangible factors. Quite a number of studies have therefore investigated the tangible factors and how they affect enterprises success. However, intangible factors have not been given considerable attention despite their importance in determining enterprise success....

  15. Efficiency of Production Factors and Financial Performance of Agricultural Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Novotna?

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the relationship between efficiency of use of the production factors in agricultural enterprises in Czech Republic and their financial performance. The aim of the article is to define common economic features of agricultural enterprises which labour productivity has been growing for a long time and, at the same time; they have been increasing value of their fixed assets (investing. The analysis was focused on 1098 agricultural enterprises classified according to the European Commission as micro, small and medium enterprises. The analysis showed that above-average agricultural enterprises (high growth of labour productivity and fixed assets, regardless of their size, have higher profitability indicators, higher indebtedness and lower quick ratio. Summarizing the results of the analysis of individual size classes, it can be said that the smaller size class, the bigger difference.

  16. Importance Degree Evaluation of the Affecting Factors on Exhibition Security Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of exhibition security accidents is the result of the mutual coupling factors of "man-machine-environment-management". This study is going to elaborate 11 influencing factors of exhibition security accidents from four aspects, i.e., man, mechanical equipment, environment and management. With the help of grey relational analysis, this study evaluates the importance degree of the affecting factors in exhibitions. The result shows that affecting factors of facilities and equipments failure is of the greatest importance degree and site maintenance personnel, site design, building material quality are the secondary important factors; another important factors are safety management body, social environment, activity organization management, safety management system, natural environment and event participant behavior which are considered as the third important ones. Evaluation of the importance degree of affecting factors on exhibition security incidents will provide a theoretical basis for exhibition security control.

  17. Improved Dynamic Modeling of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem and Analysis of Factors Affecting Its Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bruce A.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2015-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) is a rotary multistage distiller being developed to serve as the primary processor for wastewater recovery during long-duration space missions. The CDS could be integrated with a system similar to the International Space Station Water Processor Assembly to form a complete water recovery system for future missions. A preliminary chemical process simulation was previously developed using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM), but it could not simulate thermal startup and lacked detailed analysis of several key internal processes, including heat transfer between stages. This paper describes modifications to the ACM simulation of the CDS that improve its capabilities and the accuracy of its predictions. Notably, the modified version can be used to model thermal startup and predicts the total energy consumption of the CDS. The simulation has been validated for both NaC1 solution and pretreated urine feeds and no longer requires retuning when operating parameters change. The simulation was also used to predict how internal processes and operating conditions of the CDS affect its performance. In particular, it is shown that the coefficient of performance of the thermoelectric heat pump used to provide heating and cooling for the CDS is the largest factor in determining CDS efficiency. Intrastage heat transfer affects CDS performance indirectly through effects on the coefficient of performance.

  18. A study of factors affecting multiple target tracking with a pixelized sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelande, Mark R.; Kreucher, Christopher M.; Kastella, Keith

    2005-09-01

    Factors affecting the performance of an algorithm for tracking multiple targets observed using a pixelized sensor are studied. A pixelized sensor divides the surveillance region into a grid of cells with targets generating returns on the grid according to some known probabilistic model. In previous work an efficient particle filtering algorithm was developed for multiple target tracking using such a sensor. This algorithm is the focus of the study. The performance of the algorithm is affected by several considerations. The pixelized sensor model can be used with either thresholded or non-thresholded measurements. While it is known that information is lost when measurements are thresholded, quantitative results have not been established. The development of a tractable algorithm requires that closely-spaced targets are processed jointly while targets which are far apart are processed separately. Selection of the clustering distance involves a trade-off between performance and computational expense. A final issue concerns the computation of the proposal density used in the particle filter. Variations in a certain parameter enable a trade-off between performance and computational expense. The various issues are studied using a mixture of theoretical results and Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. Highly Efficient Small Form Factor LED Retrofit Lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Allen; Fred Palmer; Ming Li

    2011-09-11

    This report summarizes work to develop a high efficiency LED-based MR16 lamp downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-EE0000611. A new multichip LED package, electronic driver, and reflector optic were developed for these lamps. At steady-state, the lamp luminous flux was 409 lumens (lm), luminous efficacy of 87 lumens per watt (LPW), CRI (Ra) of 87, and R9 of 85 at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3285K. The LED alone achieved 120 lumens per watt efficacy and 600 lumen flux output at 25 C. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.90 at a power of only 5 watts. Compared to similar existing MR16 lamps using LED sources, these lamps had much higher efficacy and color quality. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a LED-based MR16 retrofit lamp for replacement of 35W halogen MR16 lamps having (1) luminous flux of 500 lumens, (2) luminous efficacy of 100 lumens per watt, (3) beam angle less than 40{sup o} and center beam candlepower of at least 1000 candelas, and (4) excellent color quality.

  20. Research on Application of Matlab Uniform Design in Psychological Experiment of Factors Affecting Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Cong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental psychology is an essential primary discipline for psychological teaching and research, with the continuous development of science and technology, measurement techniques and computer data simulating techniques have a great power to implement the experimental design and the design method of experiment is also very important. In this study, the uniform design experiment is adopted to study the factors affecting reading comprehension in psychology, this study first gives four factors affecting reading comprehension, the level of the four factors is technically divided into five grades, the uniform design of psychological experiments is then analyzed, finally carry out regression analysis on the factors affecting reading comprehension by using the uniform design’s experimental data of five testers, thus the effect of factors affecting reading comprehension is obtained, which provides a theoretical basis for the experimental design and data analysis of psychology, expecting a more distant development of experimental psychology.

  1. A cross-sectional study of factors affecting seasonality in bipolar disorder

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P K, Mittal; S, Mehta; R K, Solanki; M K, Swami; P S, Meena.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Researchers have evinced interest in the effect of seasonal variations on mood and behavioural patterns in affective disorders. OBJECTIVE: To study seasonality in bipolar disorder (BD) patients and also the factors affecting this seasonality. METHOD: Forty-nine patients with BD in euthym [...] ic phase were recruited and analysed using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire and Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. RESULTS: Most of the patients were morning types but chronotype had no influence on seasonality. Age of patient and number of episodes were the most important factors affecting seasonality in BD. CONCLUSION: Seasonality and its influencing factors must be considered while managing bipolar disorder.

  2. A spectroscopic study of factors affecting charge transfer at organo-metallic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of organic films produced by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique have become more widely known in the last few decades, as the variety of organic molecules suitable for this method of production has increased. One class of LB molecule receiving particular attention has been that of conjugated polymers. These organic materials exhibit an anisotropic semi-conductor like behavior along the polymer chain, making them suitable candidate materials for use in molecular electronic devices. However, the exact nature of multiple charge transport mechanisms is still an area worthy of investigation. Through the development in this work of a dosimetric device, suitable for the study of a number of different radiation types, several difficulties associated with the charge extraction from organic materials, by means of metallic electrodes, were clearly illustrated. Some of these problems were likely to have been caused by charge trapping within the film itself. However, it is the trapping at the boundary between the LB film and metallic electrode, where there is a mismatch in electronic energy levels, which has been the main investigation of this work. To that end a number of different spectroscopic investigations were undertaken in order to pinpoint various factors affecting the efficiency in the transport of charge across the interface region. Extensive low energy Positron Doppler Broadened Annihilation Spectroscopy (DBARS) measurements were made on 12-8 polydiacetylene and ?-tricosenoic acid LB films. The resulting analyses have allowed comparison of charge trapping within the different bulk films and also at the film to substrate interface. In addition to DBARS, Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopies have been used to investigate the factors affecting the carboxylic acid group at the head of the LB molecule and the role this plays in charge transport across the organo-metallic boundary. (author)

  3. The effect of economic factors and energy efficiency programs on residential electricity consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Mihoko

    Many countries have implemented policies to correct market and behavioral failures that lead to inefficient energy use. It is important to know what factors and policies can effectively overcome such failures and improve energy efficiency; however, a comprehensive analysis has been difficult because of data limitations. Using state scores compiled by American organizations recently, and adopting fixed-effects regression models, I analyze the joint impacts of relevant factors and policy programs on residential electricity consumption in each U.S. state. The empirical results reveal that increases in electricity price have small and negative effects, and increases in personal income have positive effects on residential electricity sales per capita (a measure of energy efficiency). The results suggest that it may take time for economic factors to affect electricity sales. The effects of personal income suggest the difficulty of controlling residential electricity consumption; however, they also imply that there is some room in households to reduce electricity use. The study also finds that programs and budgets of several policies seem to be associated with electricity sales. The estimates from a model including interaction terms suggest the importance of including multiple policies when analyzing and designing policies to address electricity efficiency. The results also imply the possibility of rebound effects of some policies, whereby improvements in energy efficiency lead to increases in energy consumption due to the associated lower per unit cost. Future studies should analyze both short-term and long-term effects of economic factors and policies, based on improved and accumulated time series and panel data, in order to design more effective policies for improving residential electricity efficiency.

  4. Personal Factors that Affect the Satisfaction of Female Patients Undergoing Esthetic Suture after Typical Thyroidectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hyo Young Kim; Jung Won Kim; Jin Hyung Park; Jung Hun Kim; Yea Sik Han

    2013-01-01

    Background In esthetic surgery, understanding the factors that influence patient satisfaction is important for successful practice. We hypothesize that the factors that influence patient satisfaction include not only aesthetic and functional outcomes, but also personal factors such as the level of familiarity with factors affecting wound healing and expectations regarding aesthetic outcome.Methods One hundred patients who underwent esthetic closure after thyroidectomy were included in this st...

  5. What is Impulse Buying? An analytical network processing framework for prioritizing factors affecting impulse buying

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Siahkali Moradi; Sahel Ehsani Masouleh; Marzieh Pazhang

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important issues affecting profitability is to determine the impact of different factors influencing purchasing activities. In this paper, we perform an extensive literature survey to detect different purchasing factors influencing customers' behavior. The factors are categorized in three different groups and they are ranked using analytical network process. The results of our survey indicate that three factors of personal, product and situational play important roles in purch...

  6. Factors affecting consumers' buying decision in the selection of a coffee brand

    OpenAIRE

    Lautiainen, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study how different factors of consumer behavior effect on decision-making during coffee brand selection. Consumer behavior consists of four factors: cultural, social, personal and psychological. In this study the focus was limited only to social, personal and psychological factors. The thesis was divided into a theory part and empirical part. The theoretical part discusses the basics of factors affecting purchase decision, decision-making process and ...

  7. A study of the factors affecting customer satisfaction of shoppers in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Lai-Man; ???

    2014-01-01

    With the increasingly fierce competition in the business environment of Hong Kong, customer satisfaction is a critical success factor for servicing industries. This factor is especially important in the rapidly growth of shopping centres. However, there is a lack of in-depth research on the factor structure of customer satisfaction. Furthermore, the shopping behavior of customers and the critical factor affecting their overall satisfaction are still unclear. Without these kinds of information...

  8. Personal Factors that Affect the Satisfaction of Female Patients Undergoing Esthetic Suture after Typical Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Young Kim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In esthetic surgery, understanding the factors that influence patient satisfaction is important for successful practice. We hypothesize that the factors that influence patient satisfaction include not only aesthetic and functional outcomes, but also personal factors such as the level of familiarity with factors affecting wound healing and expectations regarding aesthetic outcome.Methods One hundred patients who underwent esthetic closure after thyroidectomy were included in this study. In order to evaluate the individual characteristics of the patients, a preoperative survey was administered to the patients. We estimated the patient satisfaction six months postoperatively and assessed the aesthetic and functional outcomes using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale.Results According to the results of correlation analysis, level of familiarity with wound healing factors had a positive correlation with satisfaction. High expectations, pain, itching, and high observer scale score had negative correlations with satisfaction. The factors that were correlated with satisfaction were included in the multiple regression analysis. Level of familiarity with wound healing factors was found to have a positive relationship with satisfaction, while itching and observer scale were found to have a negative relationship with satisfaction. After excluding 10 patients who had hypertrophic scars, only level of familiarity with wound healing factors and expectations affected satisfaction. Conclusions The level of familiarity with factors affecting wound healing and expectations were found to independently affect satisfaction. Improving patients’ level of familiarity with wound healing factors and reducing their expectations by providing suitable preoperative education has the potential to improve patient satisfaction.

  9. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plan National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR Gene risk factors for age-related brain disorders may ... system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene variants that affect the function of immune cells ...

  10. Affecting Factors and Security System of Food Production - A Case Study of Mingshan County

    OpenAIRE

    Lin zheng; Wenxiu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The Grey Relational Analysis of food production has been established based on the data of grain production in Mingshan County, Sichuan province, collected from 2003 to 2008. According to the Relational Grade, factors that affect the County’s input on grain production and the degree of their influence have been analyzed. The conclusion is that unit grain yield, sown area of grain, and rural labor force is important factors affecting the county’s food production. Thus many advices were proposed...

  11. Determining Factors that Affect Satisfaction of Students in Undergraduate Tourism Education

    OpenAIRE

    Atay, Lütfi; Yildirim, Hac? Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Students’ satisfaction with their department is of importance in their attitudes towards school. When it is considered that the students, who receive tourism education at universities, are also consumers of the education service provided at the departments, it is necessary to determine the factors that affect student satisfaction. The aim of this study is to determine the factors that affect the satisfaction of the students, who receive undergraduate tourism education, with the tourism underg...

  12. Factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon, with emphasis on human impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Aarestrup, Kim; Heggberget, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    We review factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon. With populations declining across the entire distribution range, it is important that spawners survive in the last phase of the spawning migration. Knowledge on the factors affecting migration is essential for the protection of populations, and to increase the success of reintroduction programmes. A number of studies have documented that the upstream migration may be delayed for many weeks at man-made obstacles s...

  13. ASSESMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF AMBER CHARKHA AND ERGONOMIC EVALUATION OF WORKERS

    OpenAIRE

    G. V. THAKRE; Patil, S.G.; D. N. AGRAWAL

    2011-01-01

    Increasing demands of the cotton fabrics, now a day has made it necessary to increase the production of cotton fabrics. To increase the production it is necessary to study the factors affecting the performance of the women workers working on Amber charkha. Most of the Amber charkha in rural areas are hand operated (i.e. they runwith the help of human energy input). There are various medical, technical and environmental factors which affect the productivity of women workers working on Amber ch...

  14. Identifying the Principal Factors Affecting the Selection of Higher Education Economical Studies in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Odysseas Moschidis; Vassilis Kostoglou; Jason Papathanasiou

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the factors affecting the selections of university departments for undergraduate studies made by high school graduates in Greece; crucial decisions affecting both the vocational career of the individuals as well as the labor market at national level. It is therefore important for the economic development of a country to understand how people come early to decisions that have a significant effect in their career. The factors under consideration have been identifi...

  15. Factors affecting service delivery within community pharmacy in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Thornley, Tracey

    2006-01-01

    Aims of study The overall aim of this study was to investigate factors affecting service delivery within a national pharmacy chain, from the perspective of pharmacists and consumers, using asthma services as an example. Data were collected to explore the current environment and opportunities available to pharmacy, the factors affecting service delivery, and to identify recommendations for future service models. The impact of the design and route of service implementation were studied th...

  16. Key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in energy technology scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoss, F.; Turton, H.; Hirschberg, S.

    2009-12-15

    This report presents the findings of a survey of key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in selected energy scenarios. The assumptions and results of scenarios, and the different models used in their construction, are compared. Particular attention is given to technology assumptions, such as investment cost or capacity factors, and their impact on technology deployment. We conclude that the deployment of available technologies, i.e. their market shares, can only be explained from a holistic perspective, and that there are strong interactions between driving forces and competing technology options within a certain scenario. Already the design of a scenario analysis has important impacts on the deployment of technologies: the choice of the set of available technologies, the modeling approach and the definition of the storylines determine the outcome. Furthermore, the quantification of these storylines into input parameters and cost assumptions drives technology deployment, even though differences across the scenarios in cost assumptions are not observed to account for many of the observed differences in electricity technology deployment. The deployment can only be understood after a consideration of the interplay of technology options and the scale of technology deployment, which is determined by economic growth, end-use efficiency, and electrification. Some input parameters are of particular importance for certain technologies: CO{sub 2} prices, fuel prices and the availability of carbon capture and storage appear to be crucial for the deployment of fossil-fueled power plants; maximum construction rates and safety concerns determine the market share of nuclear power; the availability of suitable sites represents the most important factor for electricity generation from hydro and wind power plants; and technology breakthroughs are needed for solar photovoltaics to become cost-competitive. Finally, this analysis concludes with a review on how energy systems in the selected scenario studies deal with risks related to energy security and greenhouse gas emissions, and recommendations for improving the usefulness of scenario development for decision-makers. (authors)

  17. Key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in energy technology scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings of a survey of key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in selected energy scenarios. The assumptions and results of scenarios, and the different models used in their construction, are compared. Particular attention is given to technology assumptions, such as investment cost or capacity factors, and their impact on technology deployment. We conclude that the deployment of available technologies, i.e. their market shares, can only be explained from a holistic perspective, and that there are strong interactions between driving forces and competing technology options within a certain scenario. Already the design of a scenario analysis has important impacts on the deployment of technologies: the choice of the set of available technologies, the modeling approach and the definition of the storylines determine the outcome. Furthermore, the quantification of these storylines into input parameters and cost assumptions drives technology deployment, even though differences across the scenarios in cost assumptions are not observed to account for many of the observed differences in electricity technology deployment. The deployment can only be understood after a consideration of the interplay of technology options and the scale of technology deployment, which is determined by economic growth, end-use efficiency, and electrification. Some input parameters are of particular importance for certain technologies: CO2 prices, fuel prices and the availability of carbon capture and storage appear to be crucial for the deployment of fossil-fueled power plants; maximum construction rates and safety concerns determine the market share of nuclear power; the availability of suitable sites represents the most important factor for electricity generation from hydro and wind power plants; and technology breakthroughs are needed for solar photovoltaics to become cost-competitive. Finally, this analysis concludes with a review on how energy systems in the selected scenario studies deal with risks related to energy security and greenhouse gas emissions, and recommendations for improving the usefulness of scenario development for decision-makers. (authors)

  18. Factors affecting long-term integrity of transmission pipelines; Facteurs affectant l'integrite a long terme des gazoducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, N.; Masuda, T.; Oguchi, N. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    For upgrading long-term integrity of transmission pipelines, two types of delayed fracture in regions of mechanical damage in pipelines were investigated. Experimental and numerical studies clarified factors affecting the fatigue behavior of line pipes containing an idealized flaw under fluctuating internal pressure. To investigate fatigue cracking at mechanical damage in pipelines, degradation of fracture toughness and fatigue properties due to plastic pre-strain was also evaluated. A fracture mechanics-based study revealed conditions necessarily for initiation of hydrogen stress cracking (HSC) at a surface defect in line pipes under cathodic protection. (authors)

  19. Research on China's aquaculture efficiency evaluation and influencing factors with undesirable outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianyue; Wang, Pingping

    2015-06-01

    Taking the aquaculture area, the number of farming boats and that of aquaculturist as input variables, the aquaculture production as desirable output variable and polluted economic loss as undesirable output variable, this paper conducts SBM model to evaluate the aquaculture efficiency based on the data of 16 aquaculture-developed provinces in China from 2004 to 2011. The results show the efficiency in China has not changed much in recent years with the efficiency values mainly between 0.39 and 0.53, and the efficiency of marine-aquaculture-dominated provinces is generally higher than that of freshwater-aquaculture-dominated ones. To analyze the difference under the efficiency, the panel Tobit model is used with education level factor, training factor, technology extension factor, technical level factor, scale factor and species factor as the efficiency influencing factors. The results show that technology extension factor and technical level factor have significant positive influence.

  20. Quantitative measurement of energy utilization efficiency and study of influence factors in typical microwave heating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave heating technology has been used in many fields as a means of selective, volumetric, and instantaneous heating. In the process, input electrical energy is first converted to microwave energy, which is then absorbed by a dielectric medium and changed into thermal energy (effective heat). The energy utilization efficiency of this process is of particular concern because it provides an important index of economic performance. A good understanding of these efficiencies via quantitative measurements is necessary to optimize the microwave heating process and to use it more effectively. The research reported here divided the microwave heating process into two stages, measured their energy utilization efficiencies in detail, and studied the effects of various factors. It was found that the heating body position in microwave cavity, the heating medium type, the microwave output power and the geometry parameters of heating medium like volume can all significantly influence the energy efficiencies. But even for the best optimized microwave heating process, the total energy efficiency can only amount to about 0.8. This work built up a general idea for understanding the issue of energy utilization efficiency in microwave heating processes through a quantitative method, and provided a feasible way to assess energy utilization characteristics of any microwave heating process or to test microwave absorption abilities of different media. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency issues of microwave heating were quantitatively addressed. • Microwave heating process was divided into two physical stages to study. • Medium type, position, geometry and output power all affect the energy efficiency. • We provide a feasible way to assess general microwave heating processes