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Sample records for factors affecting efficiency

  1. Factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tadeu Silva de, Oliveira; Fernando de Paula, Leonel; Cássio José da, Silva; Danielle Ferreira, Baffa; José Carlos, Pereira; Joanis Tilemahos, Zervoudakis.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry [...] matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistical analyses involved the application of descriptive and dispersion measures besides Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. The analyzed variables were highly correlated with feed efficiency. The feed efficiency of lactating goats was affected by the milk fat correction, dry matter digestibility, dietary fiber content, proportion of roughage in the diet and body weight. Among these factors, standardization of the milk fat appeared to be the most efficient in correcting the feed efficiency in lactating goats. Correction of some of these factors implies greater precision in the measurement of feed efficiency.

  2. Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furkan Dincer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most important factors that affecting efficiency of solar cells. These effects are cell temperature, MPPT (maximum power point tracking and energy conversion efficiency. The changing of these factors improves solar cell efficiency for more reliable applications.

  3. Critical Factors that Affecting Efficiency of Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Furkan Dincer; Mehmet Emin Meral

    2010-01-01

    A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device which generates electricity directly from visible light. However, their efficiency is fairly low. So, the solar cell costs expensive according to other energy resources products. Several factors affect solar cell efficiency. This paper presents the most important factors that affecting efficiency of solar cells. These effects are cell temperature, MPPT (maximum power point tracking) and energy conversion efficiency. The changing of these factors i...

  4. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Liutvinavi?ius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  5. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Sakalauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  6. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  7. The exogenous factors affecting the cost efficiency of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper employs a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to examine cost efficiency and scale economies in Taiwan Power Company (TPC) by using the panel data covering the period of 1995-2006. In most previous studies, the efficiency estimated by the Panel Data without testing the endogeneity may bring about a biased estimator resulting from the correlation between input and individual effect. A Hausman test is conducted in this paper to examine the endogeneity of input variables and thus an appropriate model is selected based on the test result. This study finds that the power generation executes an increasing return to scale across all the power plants based on the pooled data. We also use installed capacity, service years of the power plant, and type of fuel as explanatory variable for accounting for the estimated cost efficiency of each plant by a logistic regression model to examine the factor affecting the individual efficiency estimates. The results demonstrate that the variable of installed capacity keeps a positive relationship with cost efficiency while the factor of working years has a negative relationship.

  8. Rice Farms Efficiency and Factors Affecting the Efficiency in MADA Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lira Mailena; Mad Nasir Shamsudin; Alias Radam; Ismail Latief

    2014-01-01

    Malaysian rice farming is still constrained by the low productivity despite many supports and subsidies that have been enacted to this sector. The difficulties in improving the yield is potentially caused by the unintensive use of inputs due to the inefficient management on the rice farm. Thus this study aims to measure the rice farm efficiency and factors affecting that efficiency. Two stage analysis was adopted whereas in the first stage data envelopment analysis was used and corrected by t...

  9. Rice Farms Efficiency and Factors Affecting the Efficiency in MADA Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lira Mailena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian rice farming is still constrained by the low productivity despite many supports and subsidies that have been enacted to this sector. The difficulties in improving the yield is potentially caused by the unintensive use of inputs due to the inefficient management on the rice farm. Thus this study aims to measure the rice farm efficiency and factors affecting that efficiency. Two stage analysis was adopted whereas in the first stage data envelopment analysis was used and corrected by the bootstrap method. Then in the second stage a Tobit model was employed to estimate factors affecting the efficiency. On average, the technical efficiency score estimated by DEA was about 0.6375 and implied with a given amount of inputs, the rice farms could increase its output by 57.31%. However, after correcting for the bias, the technical efficiency score was about 0.5366 and indicated that rice farms in MADA could increase its output at 86.35%. Further, by considering the lower and the higher bounds of efficiency scores, on the average, the rice farms could increase its output in the range from 20.13-99.12 with 95% confidence interval. Three factors that significantly affect the rice farm efficiency were the household size, land ownership and secondary level of education of sampled farmers. The positive significant effect of household size implied that farms with more household member was appeared to be more efficiently manage their production. Then, the negative effect of land ownership to the efficiency implied farmers who had the own land were tend to be more inefficient than those who rent the land. It was related to their motivation on the production whereas tenant farmers were more motivated to improve their production and get higher income so that they strived to manage the production in a professional manner and receptive to new technology as well. Further, farmers with secondary education level more efficiently managed the rice farm than others because of their passion for managing their production.

  10. Factors affecting the Collection Efficiency of Secondary Electrons in SEM.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvalina, Ivo; Müllerová, Ilona

    Villigen : Paul Scherrer Institute, 2005, s. 48. ISBN N. ISSN 1019-6447. [Dreiländertagung Microscopy Conference (MC 2005). Davos (CH), 28.08.2005-02.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA1065304 Keywords : ET detector * secondary electrons * collection efficiency Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  11. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Eller, Fred J.; Palmquist, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-?-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about...

  12. Main factors that affect the economic efficiency of broiler breeder production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EH, Carvalho; JB, Zilli; AS, Mendes; GM, Morello; DV, Bonamigo.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the factors that affect the economic efficiency of broiler breeder production using the analysis of stochastic profit frontier function. Data were collected in 48 broiler breeder farms contracted by a commercial company located in southwestern Paraná, Brazil. The coll [...] ected data refer to the last batch of fertile eggs that was delivered to the company, between January, 2008, and July, 2009. The following parameters were evaluated: production of hatching eggs per hen (number of eggs/hen), hatchability (hatch %), feed intake per hatching egg (g feed/ egg), production scale (number of birds/batch), farmer's experience in production activities, and labor type. Factors, such as area of occupied land, electricity costs, and invested capital were also evaluated. Results showed that the cost of electricity, as well as area of occupied land, production scale, and feed intake per hatching egg significantly affect the economic efficiency of the broiler breeder farms in Southwestern Paraná, Brazil.

  13. Study of Core Competency Elements and Factors Affecting Performance Efficiency of Government Teachers in Northeastern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pacharawit Chansirisira

    2012-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the core competency elements and the factors affecting the performance efficiency of the civil service teachers in the northeastern region, Thailand. The research procedure consisted of two steps. In the first step, the data were collected using a questionnaire with the reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of .90. The sample size was specified based on Krejcie and Morgan’s table and 352 samples were selected using the simple random sampling technique. The second...

  14. An Evaluation of the Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Some Sorting Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabiyisi S.O.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sorting allows information or data to be put into a meaningful order. As efficiency is a major concern of computing, data are sorted in order to gain the efficiency in retrieving or searching tasks. The factors affecting the efficiency of shell, Heap, Bubble, Quick and Merge sorting techniques in terms of running time, memory usage and the number of exchanges were investigated. Experiment was conducted for the decision variables generated from algorithms implemented in Java programming and factor analysis by principal components of the obtained experimental data was carried out in order to estimate the contribution of each factor to the success of the sorting algorithms. Further statistical analysis was carried out to generate eigenvalue of the extracted factor and hence, a system of linear equations which was used to estimate the assessment of each factor of the sorting techniques was proposed. The study revealed that the main factor affecting these sorting techniques was time taken to sort. It contributed 97.842%, 97.693%, 89.351%, 98.336% and 90.480% for Bubble sort, Heap sort, Merge sort, Quick sort and Shell sort respectively. The number of swap came second contributing 1.587% for Bubble sort, 2.305% for Heap sort, 10.63% for Merge sort, 1.643% for Quick sort and 9.514% for Shell sort. The memory used was the least of the factors contributing negligible percentage for the five sorting techniques. It contributed 0.571% for Bubble sort, 0.002% for Heap sort, 0.011% for Merge sort, 0.021% for Quick sort and 0.006% for Shell sort.

  15. Factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide(AS-ODNs) transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles. Methods: Lipid microbubbles filled with two types of gases-air and C3F8, were prepared respectively. An AS-ODNs sequence HA824 and a breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 were used to define the various operating variables determining the transfection efficiency of insonated microbubbles. Two mixing methods, three levels of mixing speed, different mixing durations and various ultrasound initiation time after mixing were examined respectively. Transfection efficiency was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Results: C3F8 microbubbles gave higher levels of AS-ODNs transfection efficiency than air microbubbles in all test conditions. Transfection efficiency resulted from mixing method A (incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells) did not show significant difference with that of mixing method B (without incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells). Mixing speed, duration of mixing and ultrasound initiation time after mixing were central to determining HA824 transfection efficiency in vitro. The optimum parameters for SK-BR-3 cells were found at a mixing speed of 40-50 rpm for 30-60 s with less than 60 s delay before ultrasound. Conclusion: Ultrasound-mediated AS-ODNs transfection enhanced by C3F8-filled lipid microbubbl/sub>F8-filled lipid microbubbles represents an effective avenue for AS-ODNs transfer

  16. Decision factors affecting transmission and distribution efficiency improvements by Northwest electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Darwin, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The principal objective of this report was to assess and document the attitude of Northwest electric utilities toward possible BPA conservation acquisition programs that may provide incentive(s) to reduce losses on T and D lines. Secondary objectives were to examine existing incentives for making such improvements, to categorize prior T and D efficiency improvements, and to examine factors affecting the decision-making process for system improvements. Much of the information presented in the report is derived from a survey administered during personal interviews at 29 Northwest electric utilities between November 1984 and January 1985.

  17. Factors affecting energy and nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, H N; Friggens, N C; de Boer, I J M; Schmidely, P

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to explore the correlation between energy and nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows, and to study nutritional and animal factors that influence these efficiencies, as well as their relationship. Treatment mean values were extracted from 68 peer-reviewed studies, including 306 feeding trials. The main criterion for inclusion of a study in the meta-analysis was that it reported, or permitted calculation of, energy efficiency (Eeff; energy in milk/digestible energy intake) and nitrogen efficiency (Neff; nitrogen in milk/digestible nitrogen intake) at the digestible level (digestible energy or digestible protein). The effect of nutritional and animal variables, including neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber (ADF), digestible energy, digestible protein, proportion of concentrate (PCO), dry matter intake, milk yield, days in milk, and body weight, on Eeff, Neff, and the Neff:Eeff ratio was analyzed using mixed models. The interstudy correlation between Eeff and Neff was 0.62, whereas the intrastudy correlation was 0.30. The higher interstudy correlation was partly due to milk yield and dry matter intake being present in both Eeff and Neff. We, therefore, also explored the Neff:Eeff ratio. Energy efficiency was negatively associated with ADF and PCO, whereas Neff was negatively associated with ADF and digestible energy. The Neff:Eeff ratio was affected by ADF and PCO only. In conclusion, the results indicate a possibility to maximize feed efficiency in terms of both energy and nitrogen at the same time. In other words, an improvement in Eeff would also mean an improvement in Neff. The current study also shows that these types of transverse data are not sufficient to study the effect of animal factors, such as days in milk, on feed efficiency. Longitudinal measurements per animal would probably be more appropriate. PMID:24035016

  18. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Collection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred J. Eller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q, male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-?-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on” and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h. Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

  19. Factors affecting the efficiency of the BRICSs' national innovation systems: A comparative study based on DEA and Panel Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Yuezhou

    2011-01-01

    Efficiency scores of the National Innovation System (NIS) for 22 countries, including the BRICS, G7, are calculated with the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Relevant factors that may affect the innovation system efficiency are summarized based on the NIS Approach and the New Growth Theory. Empirical study is further made with the Panel Data Analysis (PDA) and the Principal Component Analysis. The results of efficiency calculation and empirical test show that: (1) The BRICS differ greatly in ...

  20. Factors Affecting the Technical Efficiency Level of Inshore Fisheries in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Latiff; Mohd. Ariff Hussein; Nalini Arumugam; Nurul Aisyah

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine factors affectingthe technical efficiency of the inshore fisheries in KualaTerengganu. Data for the study was collected from a surveyconducted between June and August 2007 where 100 fishermenin 14 villages were chosen by stratified sampling. Data envelopmentanalysis (DEA) and Tobit analysis were employed to determinethe technical efficiency level and factors influencing technicalefficiency among the fishermen. Results of the study show that,most fis...

  1. Study of Core Competency Elements and Factors Affecting Performance Efficiency of Government Teachers in Northeastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacharawit Chansirisira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to investigate the core competency elements and the factors affecting the performance efficiency of the civil service teachers in the northeastern region, Thailand. The research procedure consisted of two steps. In the first step, the data were collected using a questionnaire with the reliability (Cronbach's Alpha of .90. The sample size was specified based on Krejcie and Morgan’s table and 352 samples were selected using the simple random sampling technique. The second step involved an in-depth interview of 10 specialists to gain the ways to develop effective performance competency and the statistics used for data analysis included percentage, standard deviation, and descriptive analysis. The questionnaire results revealed that there were 11 elements of 4 core competencies. There were 2 elements for the achievement motivation competency, 3 elements for the service mind competency, 3 elements for the team work competency, and 3 elements for the self-development competency. For appropriate ways to develop core competencies for effective performance of civil service teachers, there were 13 ways which included understanding of related environment, supporting of working resources, having effective management system, reducing losses at work, creating good working atmosphere, promoting participation in decision making, supporting staff for professional development, communicating openly within the organizations, listening to the opinions of others, developing of quality system in work, creating good human relations among staff, building morale in the workplace, and specifying appropriate working patterns.

  2. Statistical evaluation of some environmental factors affecting the gross efficiency of crude protein in high producing dairy

    OpenAIRE

    ZAMANI, Pouya; MIRAEI-ASHTIANI, Seyed Reza; ALIPOUR, Daryoush; ALIARABI, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Some environmental factors affecting the gross efficiency of crude protein (GECP) were studied using 2824 records of 501 lactating Holstein cows. The effects of some independent variables on the GECP were tested using a general linear model analysis. The GECP was significantly affected by parity and pregnancy stage and linearly related to dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat, protein and lactose percentages, protein and lactose yields, dietary levels of net energy for lactation (NEL), crud...

  3. Factors affecting pheromone production by the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and collection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several factors which might affect pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were investigated. Included were a comparison of porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), the effect of male age, the effect of time of day, the effect of mal...

  4. Factors affecting the low achievement of utilization efficiency of wave energy for electric power plant with tapered channel technology

    OpenAIRE

    Thaha, M. A.; Nizam; Triatmadja, R.; Dwipuspita, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean waves is one of the alternative sources of renewable energy that widely available on earth. Attempt on conversion of wave energy into electric power has a lot to do, but it is still constrained by the low achievement of utilization efficiency. This paper presents the results of physical model research regarding the factors affecting the efficiency achievement of the design of Baron Wave Power Plant with Tapered Channel (Tapchan) technology. The model investigation was conduc...

  5. Factors Affecting the Technical Efficiency Level of Inshore Fisheries in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Latiff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine factors affectingthe technical efficiency of the inshore fisheries in KualaTerengganu. Data for the study was collected from a surveyconducted between June and August 2007 where 100 fishermenin 14 villages were chosen by stratified sampling. Data envelopmentanalysis (DEA and Tobit analysis were employed to determinethe technical efficiency level and factors influencing technicalefficiency among the fishermen. Results of the study show that,most fishing units exhibit a low degree of technical efficiency.This implies that either fishing inputs were used inefficiently orinsufficient inputs were used in fishing activities. The meantechnical efficiency for the sample was estimated to be 55% forthe peak season and 40% for the non peak season. About 37%and 62% of the fishermen had less than 40% level of technicalefficiency in peak season and non peak season respectively.Management variables (planning, staffing and controlling anddemographic variables (size of horsepower, size of family andformal education exert positive effects on technical efficiencyof inshore fisheries in Kuala Terengganu. These findings suggestthat there is much room for improvement in efficiency among alarge segment of the inshore fishermen. With appropriate trainingand using more advanced technologies, fishermen’ level oftechnical efficiency can be raised.

  6. Factors Affecting Efficient Supply Chain Operational Performance of High and Low Technology Companies in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Enkawa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper was about comparison between two groups of companies with different characteristics of technology intensity on their supply chain operational performance and potential factors that constitute efficient supply chain operational performance. Data collection was conducted for the manufacturing sector in Thailand where 407 participants evaluated themselves using an SCM Logistics Scorecard (LSC. The LSC focused on four decisive areas, namely, (i corporate and inter-organization alignment, (ii planning and execution capability (iii logistics performance and (iv IT implementation and management. The LSC score was compared between high and low technology groups to identify their strengths and weaknesses. Attempt was made to identify the potential factors leading to improvement of supply chain management for both groups of companies.Keywords: Technology intensity; High technology industries; SCM, Supply chain operational performance; Factor analysis

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sorghum: factors that affect transformation efficiency

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Henrique S., Carvalho; Usha B., Zehr; Nilupa, Gunaratna; Joseph, Anderson; Halina H., Kononowicz; Thomas K., Hodges; John D., Axtell.

    Full Text Available The results presented in this work support the hypothesis that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sorghum is feasible, analogous to what has been demonstrated for other cereals such as rice, maize, barley and wheat. The four factors that we found most influenced transformation were: the sensit [...] ivity of immature sorghum embryos to Agrobacterium infection, the growth conditions of the donor plant, type of explant and co-cultivation medium. A major problem during the development of our protocol was a necrotic response which developed in explants after co-cultivation. Immature sorghum embryos proved to be very sensitive to Agrobacterium infection and we found that the level of embryo death after co-cultivation was the limiting step in improving transformation efficiency. The addition of coconut water to the co-cultivation medium, the use of vigorous and actively growing immature embryos and the removal of excess bacteria significantly improved the survival rate of sorghum embryos and was critical for successful transformation. Hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) proved to be a good selectable marker for sorghum. We also found that b-glucuronidase (GUS) activity was low in most of the transgenic plant tissues tested, although it was very high in immature inflorescences. Although promising, the overall transformation efficiency of the protocol is still low and further optimization will require particular attention to be given to the number of Agrobacterium in the inoculum and the selection of sorghum genotypes and explants less sensitive to Agrobacterium infection.

  8. Meta-analysis of factors that affect the utilization efficiency of phosphorus in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, G; Ellis, J L; Bannink, A; Kebreab, E; France, J; Dijkstra, J

    2013-06-01

    A meta-analysis investigation based on literature data was conducted to estimate the effect size of nutritional and animal factors on phosphorus (P) excretion in feces and concentrations of P in milk. Two data sets were created for statistical analysis: One to derive prediction equations for P in feces (25 studies; 130 treatments) and another for P in milk (19 studies; 94 treatments). Prediction equations were derived using mixed model regression analysis with a random effect for study, and equations were evaluated based on values for Bayesian information criterion (BIC), root mean square prediction error (RMSPE), and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) statistics. In terms of RMSPE and CCC values, fecal P excretion was best predicted by P intake, where P in feces (g/d)=-3.8(±3.45) + 0.64(±0.038) × P intake (g/d) (RMSPE: 18.3%, CCC: 0.869). However, significant effects of crude protein [g/kg of dry matter (DM)], neutral detergent fiber (g/kg of DM), and milk yield (kg/d) on fecal P excretion were also found. Despite a lack of improvement in terms of RMSPE and CCC values, these parameters may still explain part of the variation in fecal P excretion. For milk P, expressed as a fraction of P intake, the following equation had the highest CCC and the lowest RMSPE value: P in milk as a fraction of P intake (g/g)=0.42(±0.065) + 0.23(±0.018) × feed efficiency (i.e., fat- and protein-corrected milk yield/dry matter intake) - 0.11(±0.0199) × P in feed (g/kg of DM) (RMSPE: 19.7%; CCC: 0.761). Equations derived to predict fecal P as a fraction of P intake (g/g) or milk P content (g/kg) could not adequately explain the observed variation and did not perform well in terms of RMSPE and CCC values. Examination of the residuals showed that P balance was a seemingly confounding factor in some of the models. The results presented here can be used to estimate P in feces and milk based on commonly measured dietary and milk variables, but could also be used to guide development of mechanistic models on P metabolism in lactating dairy cattle. Factors to consider in future research and modeling efforts regarding efficiency of P use include the effects of dietary neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, starch, variation in P content of milk, and effects of P resorption from bone and body tissues during early lactation. PMID:23567051

  9. FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENCY OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CATTLE AND BUFFALO IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anzar*, U. Farooq**, M.A. Mirza*, M. Shahab** and N. Ahmad*

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect the success of artificial insemination (A.I services under field conditions. The data from a total of 459 inseminations were analyzed. The effects of farm, animal, semen/bull and A.I. technician on conception rate were studied. Milk progesterone concentration was used as an indicator of conception. Milk samples were collected from animals at day 0, 11 and 22 post-insemination and analysed for progesterone (P4 concentrations using radioimmunoassay (RIA kits. Results indicated that the overall conception rate through A.I. under field condition was 29%. Among the farm-related factors, only region had a significant effect on conception rate (P0.05. Animals inseminated within 24 hours after the onset of estrus had a higher, though statistically insignificant, conception rate than those inseminated after 24 hours. Among the animal-related factors, species, milk production, body condition score (BCS, lactation state, heat signs and uterine tone had a significant effect on conception rate. The conception rate in buffaloes was higher than in cattle (P<0.05. Animals with the higher BCS had a better conception rate than those having lower condition. Conception rate in the milking animals was more than the dry ones (P<0.05. Animals showing the passage of mucus from external genitalia (P<0.05 and marked uterine tone (P<0.01 showed better conception rate. Among the semen/bull related factors, bull breed, semen type, quality and source had a marked effect on conception rate. The conception rate was higher with the semen of cross bred and buffalo bulls (P<0.05. The conception rate with liquid semen was high and low with frozen semen (P<0.01. Good quality semen yielded higher conception rate than poor quality semen (P<0.01. The conception rate varied significantly due to A.I. technician (P<0.01. In conclusion, there is a tremendous scope to improve the existing A.I. technology in field through improved management of both animal and farm, supply of high quality frozen semen and enhancement in insemination skill of A.I. technicians.

  10. Factors affecting efficient in vitro micropropagation of Muscari muscarimi Medikus using twin bulb scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Unal, Fatma

    2015-03-01

    Endemic Muscari muscarimi Medikus is the most fragrant plant among Muscari species and has a high ornamental potential. The natural populations of M. muscarimi, are severely affected by increased environmental pollution and urbanization. There is a need to develop a micropropagation method that should serve effectively for commercial propagation and conservation. Therefore, the study targeted to set up a strategy for efficient in vitro bulblet regeneration system of M. muscarimi using twin scale bulb explants on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.44, 8.88, 17.76 ?M BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) plus 2.685, 5.37, 10.74 ?M NAA (?-Naphthalene acetic acid). Maximum number of 19 daughter axillary bulblets and 16 daughter adventitious bulblets per twin bulb scale explant was regenerated on 1.0 × MS medium containing 17.76 ?M BAP plus 10.74 ?M NAA and 17.76 ?M BAP plus 2.685 ?M NAA respectively. The daughter bulblets regenerated on twin bulb scales on 8 out of 9 regeneration treatment could be easily rooted on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.9 ?M IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid). The daughter bulblets regenerated on 9th treatment (1.0 × MS medium containing 17.76 ?M BAP plus 10.74 ?M NAA) were transferred to 1.0 × MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose to break negative carry over effect of this dose of BAP-NAA, where they grew 2-3 roots of variable length. Daughter bulblet diameter was increased by culturing them on 1.0 × MS medium containing 4.44 ?M BAP plus 5.37 ?M NAA. The results verified that both age and the source of explants had significant effect on regeneration. In another set of experiments, twin scales were obtained from in vitro regenerated daughter bulblets, although they induced bulblets, yet their bulblet regeneration percentage, mean number of bulblets per explant and their diameter were significantly reduced. In vitro regenerated bulblets were acclimatized in growth chamber under ambient conditions of temperature and humidity on peat moss, where they flowered. The study provides important information about selection of suitable micropropagation medium, strategies to improve bulblet diameter and rooting of M. muscarimi which offers a scope for commercial propagation. PMID:25737643

  11. Oxidative enzymes, the ultimate regulator: implications for factors affecting their efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2013-11-01

    Soil enzymes influence the distribution of organic matter (OM) and play a decisive role in the retention of OM in soil ecosystems. The present study was conducted to assess the role of oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes in OM decomposition under dry and submerged moisture conditions and to examine factors affecting their activity in Red and Brown soils. An incubation experiment of 6 mo duration was performed in a randomized complete block design with 10 treatments in triplicates. Rice straw (RS) and green manure (GM) were used at three rates (0, 5, and 25 mg g soil, expressed as control [CK], RS1, RS2, GM1, and GM2, respectively). The soils were maintained at two water levels: 25% (W1) and 200% (W2). All soil chemical properties and enzymatic activities were measured by standard methods. We found that the activities of soil phenol oxidase and catalase in the Brown soil were 2- and 1.5-fold higher than in the Red soil, respectively. This led to high OM decomposition, resulting in 1.23- and 1.2-fold higher carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization and 1.23- and 1.21-fold more dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in the Brown soil. In contrast, low oxidative enzyme activities in the Red soil decreased C and N mineralization, DOC, DON, reducing sugars (2.58-fold), and amino acids (2.22-fold) but increased the phenolic compounds (1.36-fold). The hydrolytic enzymes (i.e., urease and neutral phosphatase) showed significant correlation ( < 0.01) to amino acids and reducing sugars but showed no correlation to phenolic compounds and soil organic matter (SOM). Conversely, oxidative enzymes (i.e., phenol oxidase and catalase) showed significant correlation ( < 0.01) to phenolic compounds, amino acids, reducing sugars, and SOM. Our results suggest that oxidative enzymes are key components of the pathways involved in the breakdown of organic compounds and OM in soils and consequently act as an "enzymatic latch." We observed that soil water and pH have significant ( < 0.01) effects on soil enzyme activity. PMID:25602418

  12. Factors affecting the technical efficiency of health systems: A case study of Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) countries (2004–10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravangard, Ramin; Hatam, Nahid; Teimourizad, Abedin; Jafari, Abdosaleh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Improving efficiency of health sector is of particular importance in all countries. To reach this end, it is paramount to measure the efficiency. On the other hand, there are many factors that affect the efficiency of health systems. This study aimed to measure the Technical Efficiency (TE) of health systems in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) countries during 2004–10 and to determine the factors affecting their TE. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical and panel study. The required data were gathered using library and field studies, available statistics and international websites through completing data collection forms. In this study, the TE of health systems in 10 ECO countries was measured using their available data and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) through two approaches. The first approach used GDP per capita, education and smoking as its inputs and life expectancy and infant mortality rates as the outputs. The second approach, also, used the health expenditures per capita, the number of physicians per thousand people, and the number of hospital beds per thousand people as its inputs and life expectancy and under-5 mortality rates as the outputs. Then, the factors affecting the TE of health systems were determined using the panel data logit model. Excel 2010, Win4Deap 1.1.2 and Stata 11.0 were used to analyze the collected data. Results: According to the first approach, the mean TE of health systems was 0.497 and based on the second one it was 0.563. Turkey and Turkmenistan had, respectively, the highest and lowest mean of efficiency. Also, the results of panel data logit model showed that only GDP per capita and health expenditures per capita had significant relationships with the TE of health systems. Conclusion: In order to maximize the TE of health systems, health policy-makers should pay special attention to the proper use of healthcare resources according to the people’s needs, the appropriate management of the health system resources, allocating adequate budgets to the health sector, establishing an appropriate referral system to provide better public access to health services according to their income and needs, among many others. PMID:25114944

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTOR THAT AFFECT TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimjel Zalkuwi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 250 farmers using purposive and simple random sampling with aid of structured schedule .The result of the stochastic frontier production 2 function analysis shows that the variance parameters, that is the sigma squared (? and the gamma (? were statistically significant at 1 % level for cowpea production. The coefficient of farm size, labour, seed and chemical were positive and significant at 1% level while family and hired labor was negative and insignificant. Profit level can be increased by increasing the amount of farm size, labour, quantity of seed and chemical, and decreasing the use of fertilizer. Mean efficiency were 0.73, Farmers operate at 27% below frontier level due to variation in technical efficiency. The inefficiency model shows that the coefficient of Age, family size and farming experience have negative apriori sign and in consonance with the apriori expectation

  14. Factors that affect the quality and efficiency of artificial insemination in oestrus synchronization programmes in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed during a three-year period in order to identify the factors affecting quality and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) when it is used in cattle subjected to oestrus induction and synchronization (OIS) programmes. The study took place in the Western part of the country and 3 herds with a total of 6357 animals were used. The first study was a survey to evaluate the factors affecting the efficiency of AI in OIS. The second study examined the effects of body condition score (BCS) and three different regimes of OIS on the results of AI. Progesterone levels were measured in blood and milk using radioimmunoassay to determine the incidence of acyclic animals in the herds. Data were recorded and analysed using the artificial insemination database application (AIDA) and further statistical analyses were done using Systat. The results found in the survey showed a low conception rate (18%) and a great variability in the period from calving to conception (154 ± 98.11 days). The latter parameter was significantly different between herds (P<0.001). A high percentage of animals selected for OIS programmes (37%) showed a poor BCS (<2.5 on a scale of 1-5). Motility of semen used for AI was low (<30%) in 47% of the samples evaluated. The results from progesterone measurements demonstrated that the reasons for poor fertility were low accuracy in oestrus detection, poor response to treatment for OIS, non-fertilization, embryo mortality and functional disturbances present after treatment. Under our field conditions during the dry season, acyclicity (anoestrus) is a frequent problem in primiparous cows and in those with poor BCS. The BCS in heifers and the quality of different treatments had a significant effect on the conception rate. These results confirm that the use of progesterone measurement together with data management using AIDA is a very appropriate way to evaluate and improve the quality and efficiency of AI in OIS programmes. (author)

  15. An Attempt at Quantifying Factors that Affect Efficiency in the Management of Solid Waste Produced by Commercial Businesses in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Yohannes Worku; Mammo Muchie

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The objective was to investigate factors that affect the efficient management of solid waste produced by commercial businesses operating in the city of Pretoria, South Africa. Methods. Data was gathered from 1,034 businesses. Efficiency in solid waste management was assessed by using a structural time-based model designed for evaluating efficiency as a function of the length of time required to manage waste. Data analysis was performed using statistical procedures such as frequency...

  16. Griseofulvin/Carrier Blends: Application of Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression Analysis for Estimating the Factors Affecting the Dissolution Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Trapani, Adriana; Lopedota, Angela; Franco, Massimo; Mandracchia, Delia; Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Trapani, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to estimate the carrier characteristics affecting the dissolution efficiency of Griseofulvin (Gris) containing blends (BLs) using partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis. These systems were prepared at three different drug/carrier weight ratios (1/5, 1/10, and 1/20) by the solvent evaporation method, a well-established method for preparing solid dispersions (SDs). The carriers used were structurally different including polymers, a polyol, acids, b...

  17. Factors Affecting Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    M.Mathiyazhagan; A.Ganapathi

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable alternate fuel to diesel engines that could be partially orfully replace or reduce the use of petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be produced fromplant and animal fats through transesterification reaction. The transesterification reaction isaffected by molar ratio of alcohol, presence of water and Free Fatty Acid content, reactiontemperature, catalyst concentration and agitation speed. This review paper discuss aboutthe factors involved in transesterification reaction.

  18. Factors affecting dystocia in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborski, D; Grzesiak, W; Szatkowska, I; Dybus, A; Muszynska, M; Jedrzejczak, M

    2009-06-01

    The paper reviews the various factors affecting dystocia in cattle. It is based mainly on the recent studies found in the literature of the subject but refers occasionally to some older papers as well. The factors are grouped into four main categories: direct factors, phenotypic factors related to calf and cow, non-genetic and genetic factors. The first group includes malpresentations and uterine torsion. The second one includes: calf birth weight, multiple calvings, perinatal mortality, cow pelvic area, cow body weight and body condition at calving, gestation length. The non-genetic factors are: cow age and parity, year and season of calving, place of calving, maintenance practises, disorders, calf sex and nutrition. Other non-genetic factors are the level of hormones in the periparturient period, in vitro production of embryos and embryo cloning. Finally, the genotypes of cow, bull and calf, inbreeding, muscular hypertrophy, selection and quantitative trait loci form the fourth group of genetic factors. PMID:19055561

  19. Factors affecting study efficiency and item non-response in health surveys in developing countries: the Jamaica national healthy lifestyle survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Franklyn

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health surveys provide important information on the burden and secular trends of risk factors and disease. Several factors including survey and item non-response can affect data quality. There are few reports on efficiency, validity and the impact of item non-response, from developing countries. This report examines factors associated with item non-response and study efficiency in a national health survey in a developing Caribbean island. Methods A national sample of participants aged 15–74 years was selected in a multi-stage sampling design accounting for 4 health regions and 14 parishes using enumeration districts as primary sampling units. Means and proportions of the variables of interest were compared between various categories. Non-response was defined as failure to provide an analyzable response. Linear and logistic regression models accounting for sample design and post-stratification weighting were used to identify independent correlates of recruitment efficiency and item non-response. Results We recruited 2012 15–74 year-olds (66.2% females at a response rate of 87.6% with significant variation between regions (80.9% to 97.6%; p Conclusion Informative health surveys are possible in developing countries. While survey response rates may be satisfactory, item non-response was high in respect of income and sexual practice. In contrast to developed countries, non-response to questions on income is higher and has different correlates. These findings can inform future surveys.

  20. The factors affecting the recarburization process indicators

    OpenAIRE

    K. Janerka; J. Szajnar; J. Jezierski; D. Bartocha

    2011-01-01

    The article presents the factors affecting the carburizing rates obtained (rate and efficiency) during the process of melting cast iron. The analysis includes the recarburizer type (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke) and particle size. Further factors considered in work are the methods of recarburization (recarburizer introduction to a solid charge and on the surface of the metal bath) and the parameters of the melt (temperature and chemical composition). The analysis...

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  2. Investigations into factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of dairy cattle in peri-urban areas of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the productivity, feeding and fertility of 63 cows from 6 farms and a second survey of 49 cows from 5 farms, including in both surveys one with pure bred Holstein Friesians and the rest with cross breeds, showed that those calving in thinner body condition had significantly poorer subsequent fertility. This implied that nutrition in late pregnancy may be an important determining factor in fertility in dairy cows in the peri-urban areas of Khartoum. Cows calving during the dry season were more at risk. No clear advantages or disadvantages were identified for pure-bred cows. Laboratory analysis of feeds, some assessment of intakes and some blood metabolite measurements suggested that neither dietary protein nor phosphate were constraints. The number of days to first progesterone rise on all farms was not extended and many cows conceived in less than 83 days after calving. Many others did not conceive at all but the number showing no evidence of oestrous cycles was small. Failure to conceive seemed to have been a greater problem than failure to cycle. With 27% of blood samples showing evidence of chronic inflammation through high globulin values, investigations into possible disease causes of poor fertility are needed. (author)

  3. Identifying the factors affecting the willingness to pay for fuel-efficient vehicles in Turkey: A case of hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to determine the factors that have an impact on the consumers' willingness to pay a premium for hybrid automobiles in Turkey. A web-based random survey was conducted in different regions of Turkey. A questionnaire was administered to 1983 participants in January-March of 2009. The questionnaire was prepared by taking the issues raised in various sources into account. An ordered Probit model was used to meet the objective. Results show that variables such as income, gender, education, concerns about global warming, number of automobiles, importance of automobile performance, risk preference, attitude toward the alternative energy sources have an impact on the consumers' willingness to pay a premium for hybrids. Findings suggest that consumers who have high income, higher educational level, and concerns about the global warming are more likely to pay a premium for hybrids. This study is expected to make important contributions to the current literature related to the consumers' willingness to pay for hybrids by providing a research study from a developing country's perspective. Results of this study also make important contributions to the policy and decision makers, environmental groups and automotive industry.

  4. Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar Sarkut; Sadik Kilicturgay; Ali Ozer; Ersin Ozturk; Tuncay Yilmazlar

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG) in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP). METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age ...

  5. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  6. The factors affecting the recarburization process indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janerka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the factors affecting the carburizing rates obtained (rate and efficiency during the process of melting cast iron. The analysis includes the recarburizer type (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke and particle size. Further factors considered in work are the methods of recarburization (recarburizer introduction to a solid charge and on the surface of the metal bath and the parameters of the melt (temperature and chemical composition. The analysis was based on experiments performed, the calculation results of computer simulations and literature data.

  7. Use of a standardized protocol to identify factors affecting the efficiency of artificial insemination services for cattle through progesterone measurement in fourteen countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this co-ordinated research project (CRP) was to quantify the main factors limiting the efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) services in cattle under the prevailing conditions of developing countries, in order to recommend suitable strategies for improving conception rates (CR) and the level of usage of AI by cattle farmers. A standardized approach was used in 14 countries over a five-year period (1995-1999). The countries were: Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam in Asia; and Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela in Latin America. A minimum of 500 cows undergoing first insemination after calving were expected to be monitored in each country. Data regarding farms, AI technicians, semen used, cow inseminated, characteristics of the heat expression and factors related to the insemination were recorded. Three milk samples (or blood samples for dairy heifers and beef cows) were collected for each service to measure progesterone by radioimmunoassay. These were collected on the day of service (day 0) and on days 10-12 and 22-24 after service. Field and laboratory data were recorded in the computer package AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) which was developed for this CRP. The study established the current status of AI services at selected locations in participating countries and showed important differences between Asian and Latin American farming systems. The mean (±s.d.) of the interval from calving to first service for 7992 observations was 120.0 ± 82.1 days (median 95 days) with large differences between countries (P<0.05). The overall CR to first service was 40.9% (n=8196), the most efficient AI services being the ones in Vietnam (62.1%), Chile (61.9%) and Myanmar (58.9%). The interval between the first and second service was 44.6 ± 44.4 days (n=1959). Progesterone data in combination with clinical findings showed that 17.3% of the services were performed in non-cyclic cows; within this group 10.4% of cows were anoestrous or anovulatory, 2.2% were non-pregnant but bearing an active corpus luteum, and 4.7% were already pregnant. The highest incidence of problems was observed in farms of Cuba, Costa Rica, Indonesia and Venezuela. Progesterone data also showed that 27.4% of inseminated cows did not conceive but subsequent heats were unobserved, resulting in their non-pregnancy status being identified only at manual pregnancy diagnosis, usually 80-120 days after service. A further 10.1% of inseminated cows most probably conceived but lost their embryos between 16 and 50-60 days after service. These results show that nearly half of the inseminations were associated with factors of management deficiency or human error in the farms or in the AI service, thus adversely affecting the reproductive performance of the herds and leading to low efficiency of AI services. (author)

  8. Factors affecting calculation of L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotola, Mark P.

    2001-08-01

    A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient, radio signals from billions of stars. SETI could succeed tomorrow, or it may be an endeavor for multiple generations. We are a very young technology in a very old galaxy. While our own leakage radiation continues to outshine the Sun at many frequencies, we remain detectable to others. When our use of the spectrum becomes more efficient, it will be time to consider deliberate transmissions and the really tough questions: Who will speak for Earth? What will they say?

  9. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    OpenAIRE

    Fethi Ahmet INAN; Erman YUKSELTURK

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention ...

  10. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  11. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Bagher Kamali; Farideh Azimi

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural developmentin Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have abetter insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as alearning forum for bringing about changes for all participants,they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciativeinquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting thefacilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors andpr...

  12. Factors Affecting Calves Suckling Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Ionel Neamt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of paper was to assess effects of environmental and physiological related factors on suckling behavior patterns. The study was carried out on 120 Romanian Spotted calves. Two behavioral traits were considered: total daily required interval and required interval for each meal. Traits were studied according to: calves viability, calving season, type of calving, calving ease and meal sequence. Significant differences were recorded for calves viability (viable vs morbid, p?0.001, type of calving (single vs twinning, p?0.001, and calving ease (eutocya vs dystocia, p?0.001, being a proof of welfare, conferred by adaptability to new environment. No significant effect was recorded for season of calving (summer vs winter, p?0.05. Significant differences concerning required suckling interval, were recorded between meals, both seasons. for viable (p?0.001, morbid (p?0.05, singles (p?0.05 and calves born from eutocya births (p?0.001. No significant differences (p?0.05 recorded for twins and calves born from dystocia. Multifactorial regression model used, reveals that main effects on studied traits had viability (p?0.001, type of calving (p?0.01 and calving ease (p?0.05. It is reasonable to assume that the knowledge of suckling behavior contributes to optimal management of calves. Knowledge of these factors helps to develop adequately systems to improve calves suckling response.

  13. Factors affecting road crash modeling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Malaya, Mohanty; Ankit, Gupta.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Road accident fatalities have been on an increasing trend for the last decade or so in India. Hence traffic safety management has emerged as a topic of discussion for researchers all over the world. Hence accident modelling on different factors causing them has to be conducted. Accident mod [...] elling helps us to know the real causative agents behind an accident to occur. The effect of one cause can be greater than the other. And those causes can only be known from accident modelling. In this paper we have tried to divide this accident modelling techniques into two different categories based on the location of road i.e. accidents on urban roads and on rural roads. In both urban and rural road accident studies it was seen that mainly regression techniques like linear, multi-linear, logit and poisons regression have been used for modelling the road crashes. It was also marked that mostly authors have tried to research on one cause and go deep into it rather considering all factors at a time. From the studies it was found that speed and age along with gender has been the area of study for accident causes in urban areas whereas in rural roads mostly all authors have limited their studies to speed on roads and has been noted as the major cause of accidents in rural areas. This paper has tried to review as much papers as possible and various gaps in research along with future scope of study in this area has been indicated. Starting from the basic models like negative binomial/Poisson's model to the logistic and linear regressions to the new modeling techniques involving genetic mining and fuzzy logics have been discussed explicitly in the paper.

  14. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Ahmet INAN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students who had dropped the program. Twenty-six students returned the survey. The findings show that the most important factor affecting student retention is finding sufficient time to study. Having personal problems and affordability of the program took second and third place.

  15. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  16. Factors Affecting Employment of Welfare Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrissinger, Marlene Sonju

    1980-01-01

    Examined the relationship between the length of time worked by mothers receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children and three categories of variables. Only economic factors appeared to significantly affect the mothers' decision whether to work. (Author)

  17. The factors affecting women's contraceptive choices

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtog?lu, Emel; Arpaci, Haldun

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting women’s contraceptive choices. In this study, we included 507 subjects, of whom 108 were nulliparous and 399 of whom were multiparous. All were married women who were between 15-49 years old and had applied to the Ministry of Health Konya Eregli Hospital Obstetric and Gynaecology Polyclinic. An inquiry form was filled in during a face-to-face conversation which included their contraceptive choices, the factors affecting them,...

  18. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  19. Factors Affecting Swedish Forest Property Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Carlsson; Lars Lönnstedt; Torbjörn Sundelin

    2014-01-01

    Historically the price of a forest estate has, at least in Sweden, been closely related to the financial return from the estate, but this connection no longer seems to be that strong, other factors that previously had limited influence on prices now add to the price. Factors like site productivity and age distribution affect the financial return of a forest estate but is it obvious that these factors still influence prices as they once did? Over the last 20 years, the p...

  20. Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkut, Pinar; Kilicturgay, Sadik; Ozer, Ali; Ozturk, Ersin; Yilmazlar, Tuncay

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG) in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP). METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age of the patients (older or younger than 50 years old) and polyp size (bigger or smaller than 10 mm) and characteristics of the polyps (pseudopolyp or real polyps). ?2 tests were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. RESULTS: The median age was 50 (26-85) years and 91 of patients were female. Of 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy with GP diagnosis, only 99 had a histopathologically defined polyp; 77 of them had pseudopolyps and 22 had true polyps. Twenty-one patients had adenocarcinoma. Of these 21 patients, 11 were male, their median age was 61 (40-85) years and all malignant polyps had diameters > 10 mm (P 10 mm, 22 had true polyps. The sensitivity of USG was 84.6% for polyps with diameters > 10 mm (P 10 mm. PMID:23901228

  1. Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Sarkut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP. METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age of the patients (older or younger than 50 years old and polyp size (bigger or smaller than 10 mm and characteristics of the polyps (pseudopolyp or real polyps. ?2 tests were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. RESULTS: The median age was 50 (26-85 years and 91 of patients were female. Of 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy with GP diagnosis, only 99 had a histopathologically defined polyp; 77 of them had pseudopolyps and 22 had true polyps. Twenty-one patients had adenocarcinoma. Of these 21 patients, 11 were male, their median age was 61 (40-85 years and all malignant polyps had diameters > 10 mm (P 10 mm, 22 had true polyps. The sensitivity of USG was 84.6% for polyps with diameters > 10 mm (P 10 mm.

  2. Fluorescein. Physiochemical factors affecting its fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, K G

    1982-01-01

    Fluorescein's property of fluorescence is reviewed. Of the many factors which affect its fluorescence, concentration is probably the most important and it best explains why leaking aqueous turns fluorescein bright green during Seidel's test. The intensity and pattern of fluorescein staining of corneal lesions is probably due to the concentration and distribution of fluorescein in the cornea. The concentration of fluorescein achieved in the retinal blood vessels during fluorescein angiography affects its fluorescence. PMID:7046118

  3. Physiological factors affecting intrinsic water use efficiency of potato clones within a dihaploid mapping population under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topbjerg, Henrik Bak; Kaminski, Kacper Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing crops water use is essential for ensuring food production under future climate scenarios. Therefore, new cultivars that are capable of maintaining production under limited water resource are needed. This study screened for clonal differences in intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) within a dihaploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) mapping population under well-watered (WW) and drought-stress (DS) conditions. The factorial dependency of WUEi on several plant bio-physiological traits was analyzed, and clonal difference of WUEi was compared. Significant differences in WUEi were found among the clones within the population. Under WW the two clones showing the highest WUEi were significantly different from the two lowest WUEi performing clones. This could only be seen as a trend under DS. Under WW, WUEi differences were closely associated to net photosynthetic rate (An) and nitrogen isotope composition (?15N) in the leaf biomass, but did not relate to stomatal conductance (gs) and carbon isotope composition (?13C) in the leaf biomass. An was found to correlate significantly with leaf nitrogen concentration ([N]leaf) and chlorophyll content index (CCI) under WW. Leaf abscisic acid concentration did not correspond to the changes in gs, indicating that other factors might have been involved in controlling gs among the different clones. Collectively, the clonal differences in WUEi were attributed mainly to the variation in An, which in turn was influenced by plant N metabolism. Clones with high WUEi could be potentially used as material in future breeding programs. Furthermore CCI seemed to be a reliable tool in estimating the clonal An and thereby WUEi.

  4. Efficiency factors in Mie scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymptotic approximation to the Mie efficiency factors for extinction, absorption and radiation pressure, derived from complex angular momentum theory and averaged over ?? approximately ? (? = size parameter), are given and compared with the exact results. For complex refractive indices N = n + i kappa with 1.1 -2 - 10-3% between ? = 10 and ? = 1000, and computing time is reduced by a factor of order ?, so that the Mie formulae can advantageously by replaced by the asymptotic ones in most applications. (Author)

  5. Factors affecting Internet development: An Asian survey

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoming, Hao; Kay, Chow

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the Internet development and various social, economic and political factors that are hypothesized to affect the Internet growth. Using secondary data for 28 sampled Asian countries, this study tested seven hypotheses about the impact of various factors on Internet growth. The findings show that the Internet penetration is related to a country’s wealth, telecommunication infrastructure, urbanization and stability of the government, but not related...

  6. Factors Affecting Decisions on Practice Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, June E.; Miller, Deborah A.

    1986-01-01

    Questionnaires to determine the factors affecting the choice of practice were mailed to graduates of the University of Oklahoma Tulsa Medical College and their spouses. The results showed that graduates reared in large communities chose similar-sized communities as practice sites and placed high priority on their spouses' desires (Author/MLW)

  7. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  8. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING LABOR PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Prashant Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many problems arises in the construction based projects. The complex factors like cost, time duration, quality, safety and satisfaction may affect the quality of the building construction projects. In this paper, we will study the factors that affect the labor productivity in the field of building construction projects. The survey was distributed to Project Manager, Project Engineer, Architecture, and Others (Scheduler, and Estimator. It was concluded, final cost of the projects were higher than estimated cost. It’s recommended to develop human resources through proper and continuous training programs frame a well-built jobs, vision and a planned approach to overcome the disturbances on the performance of the construction projects. The conversed factors are estimated to support in carrying out construction projects productively.

  9. Factors that affect toilet training in children

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar Önen; ?lknur Aksoy; Ays?in Tas?ar, M.; Y?ld?z Dallar Bilge

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify age of initiation of toilet training and affecting factors for children. Material and Methods: 861 children were included in this study. "Chi square test", "Mann-Whitney U Test" and "Kruskall-Wallis Variance Analysis" statistical analysis methods have been applied. Ethical permission has been provided by local ethical committee. Results: 861 children under age of five were evaluated in this study (average age was 4±0.9); 433 children were boy (50.3%), 428 children were...

  10. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having th...

  11. Factors Affecting Informal Economy of Rural Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sertac Gonenc; Harun Tanrivermis

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the informal economy in the rural areas of Turkey has been measured and factors affecting the informal economy have been analyzed. The informal economy has been discussed with regards to three main issues, namely unpaid household labor force usage, own consumption of crop and animal products and informal sales. Although the household labor force is mainly used in farms for agricultural and off-farm activities, the rate of idle labor has been found to be highly significant. It h...

  12. Which Factors Affect Adolescent Food Preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main There are various factors that affect food preferences. Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main factors affecting food preferences. Additionally, general nutritional habits, family, friends, commercials, and availability of the food are also important for food preferences. Also, past experiences with foods are related to preferring or rejecting some foods. Socializing more with increasing age causes change in the food preferences of adolescents. Unhealthy nutrition habits form as a result of the adolescents consuming fast foods, spending time with their friends outside the house, and consuming more ready-made foods. Current developments in the food industry result in an increase in variety and consumption of snacks such as cookies, chocolate, chips, and crackers in adolescents. Considering all these, in this rewiev article, environmental and personal factors affecting food preferences have been investigated. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2013; 11: 121-7

  13. Factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F Y; Tsao, P H; Wang, D C; Lin, S; Wu, J S; Cheng, Y K

    2006-06-01

    Growth factors that are present in goat milk may be responsible for its beneficial effects on the digestive system as described in ancient Chinese medical texts. To develop a nutraceutical product rich in growth factors for promoting gastrointestinal health, it is essential to collect milk with consistently high growth factor activity. Therefore, we investigated the factors affecting growth factor activity in goat milk. Among the 5 breeds of dairy goats tested, milk from Nubian goats had the highest growth factor activity. Tight-junction leakage induced by a 24-h milking interval did not increase growth factor activity in the milk. Milk collected from pregnant does had a significantly higher growth factor activity than milk collected postpartum. Growth factor activity decreased during the first 8 wk of lactation, fluctuated thereafter, and then increased dramatically after natural mating. During wk 1 to 8, growth factor activity was inversely correlated with milk yield and week of lactation. No correlation was observed during wk 9 to 29. After natural mating of the goats, the growth factor activity in the milk correlated significantly with somatic cell count and conductivity (a measure of membrane permeability), and correlated inversely with milk yield. Based on the above data, goat milk with higher growth factor activity could be selectively collected from Nubian pregnant does. PMID:16702258

  14. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Kamali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural developmentin Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have abetter insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as alearning forum for bringing about changes for all participants,they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciativeinquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting thefacilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors andpreventing factors. The former are: two-way communication,election of rural eligible facilitators, participation, sense ofresponsibility, and the latter are: cultural and tribal fanaticism,lack of permanent female extension workers and frequentmanagement changes. Appreciative inquiry as a positive modeof action research could facilitate the process of education andcommunication for all stakeholders. We suggested that thereshould be a shift from the extension as a knowledge transfer tofacilitation as people’s own knowledge creation. This studyshowed that appreciative inquiry could facilitate the process ofchange and gender-awareness. This research method couldalso facilitate mutual communication between the rural facilitatorsand extension workers.

  15. Factores que afectan la eficiencia técnica y asignativa en el sector cafetero colombiano: una aplicación con análisis envolvente de datos / Factors that affect the technical and allocative efficiency in the colombian coffee sector: An application with data envelopment analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Andrés, Perdomo; Juan Carlos, Mendieta.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available La eficiencia técnica y asignativa son análisis relativos, empleados en procesos productivos para conocer el máximo nivel producido y cantidad óptima utilizada de insumos acorde con sus precios. El presente estudio maneja datos microeconómicos de caficultores pequeños, medianos y grandes en los depa [...] rtamentos de Caldas, Quindío y Risaralda, para determinar la eficiencia técnica y asignativa mediante el método no parámetrico Análisis Envolvente de Datos - DEA (Data Envolpment Analysis, siglas en inglés). La eficiencia técnica promedio encontrada para pequeños fue de 3,76%, medianos de 51,71%, grandes de 60,15% y todo el sector¹ de 42,38%. Mientras en eficiencia asignativa la media estadística obtenida, sobre las mismas unidades cafeteras, se ubicó así: 36,13%, 42,98%, 18,86% y 36,50%, respectivamente. Estas cifras, en el plano general, posiblemente presumen un sector cafetero y por tamaño de caficultor, en la muestra, ineficiente técnica y asignativamente. Resaltando a los grandes productores como más eficientes técnicamente e ineficientes asignativamente de todos los grupos involucrados. Esto significa que las unidades empresariales emplean muy bien la cantidad de insumos para maximizar su producción pero no logran producir al mínimo costo, dada la ineficiencia asignativa. Mientras los minifundistas, los campesinos y el sector general no explotan sus factores óptimamente y tampoco llegan al menor costo en producción por tener ineficiencia técnica y asignativa. Abstract in english Technical and Allocative efficiency are relative concepts, first it is used conventionally, to know if a producer obtain the maximum level of production, according to the amount of inputs used in the process. The second looks for to know if the producer uses the optimal amounts of inputs in the prod [...] uction process, according to the prices of these production factors. This study use microeconomic data on coffee producers of the Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda to determinate the levels of technical and allocative efficiency using "Data Envelopment Analysis - DEA". Technical efficiency for small producers it is 3.76%, for middle producer it is 51.71% and big producers it is 60.15%, for the all coffee sector the technical efficiency it is 42.38%. Whereas for the allocative efficiency, the results are 36.13%, 42.98%, 18.86% and 36.50%, respectively. This results show that the coffee Colombian sector it is inefficient technical and allocatively. This means that the big producers uses the correct amount of inputs for maximize the coffee production but they do not produce following the schedule of minimum cost. On the other hand, small and middle producers and for all coffee sector they do not use efficiently the inputs, they do not maximize your coffee production and they do not produce following the minimum cost schedule, this because they are technical and allocatively inefficient.

  16. AN OVERVIEW ON FACTORS AFFECTING GLOBAL HRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Gondane

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mounting economic interdependence of countries globally through rising volume and multiplicity of cross border transactions in goods and services and international capital flows, and also through the more rapid and prevalent diffusion of technology had influences organizations that compete for customers with high expectations for performance, quality, and cost. The globe trade and industry order is changing speedily. Evolutionary transformations are taking place at revolutionary speed, principally pressed by strong external forces, arising out of a desire to rising competitiveness and competence. The organizations of world are no longer defined by national boundaries. Globalization also put forth stress on the Human Resource Management (HRM function to adjust to changing organizational needs, add greater value and hence, HRM is especially involved with those employees who are working across national boundaries in multinational or global enterprises. Functioning on an international level entails that the assumption of a universality of HR policies and practices and the faith in to administer in one best way has become indefensible. Aglobal organization wishes a worldwide HRM system that features decision making from a global point of view, managers from across national boundaries, and thoughts contributed by people from a diversity of cultures. The participants from different countries and cultures contribute ideas from a position of equality, rather than the home country's culture dominating. Organizations that function in more than one country must be acquainted with the countries that are not identical and differ in terms of many factors. This present research paper is an attempt to reviews major factors affecting HRM. The intention of this study is to examine the challenges/factors affecting the role of HRM.

  17. Market conditions affecting energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global energy efficiency market is growing, due in part to energy sector and macroeconomic reforms and increased awareness of the environmental benefits of energy efficiency. Many countries have promoted open, competitive markets, thereby stimulating economic growth. They have reduced or removed subsidies on energy prices, and governments have initiated energy conservation programs that have spurred the wider adoption of energy efficiency technologies. The market outlook for energy efficiency is quite positive. The global market for end-use energy efficiency in the industrial, residential and commercial sectors is now estimated to total more than $34 billion per year. There is still enormous technical potential to implement energy conservation measures and to upgrade to the best available technologies for new investments. For many technologies, energy-efficient designs now represent less than 10--20% of new product sales. Thus, creating favorable market conditions should be a priority. There are a number of actions that can be taken to create favorable market conditions for investing in energy efficiency. Fostering a market-oriented energy sector will lead to energy prices that reflect the true cost of supply. Policy initiatives should address known market failures and should support energy efficiency initiatives. And market transformation for energy efficiency products and services can be facilitated by creating an institutional and legal structure that favors coutional and legal structure that favors commercially-oriented entities

  18. Factors Affecting Electricity Demand in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Awad Momani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 1 The paper examines the relationship between electricity demand and climate/non-climate related factors using statistical regression analysis. 2 It focuses on the environmental, demographic, policy (energy pricing and technological factors as the main factors affecting the consumption pattern in Jordan. 3 The paper also presents the variations occurred in the electricity demand over the period 1994-2008. The variations that are observed during the period of study are: Shifting of the peak load occurrence from evening to morning period, Modification in the annual daily load curve especially in winter season, Variation in relationship between space temperature and demand especially in winter, and dramatic increase in electric generation after year 2003. The shift in peak load from evening to morning period is mainly due to technological factor as a result of wide use of the air conditions in houses, services and government offices for cooling in summer instead of ordinary air fans. The variations in consumption pattern between 2000 and 2007 are mainly associated with economic, social and demographic factors. The high demand at lower space temperature is governed by introducing new appliances for heating in winter as a result of low electricity pricing comparing with gasoline price. The dramatic increase in electric generation after 2003 is probably due to demographic factors as a result of high growth of population after the Gulf war II. 4 The correlation between the daily maximum loads in morning and evening periods with the differential temperature (?T above 20?C threshold in summer and below 15?C threshold in winter, shows pronounced changes in 2007 compared with year 2000. The regression tests show that a decrease of 1?C below 15?C threshold in winter 1 increases the morning demand by only 2 MW/?C in 2000 and 16.7 MW/?C in 2007, 2 decreases the evening peak by ?2.6 MW/1?C in 2000 and increases the evening peak by 22.9 MW/1?C in 2007. Results show that the demographic, technological, environmental and national energy pricing factors play a vital rule in consumption pattern in Jordan. Moreover, the paper reveals that planners and decision makers should be careful when applying new tariff in the developing countries such as Jordan.

  19. Factors Affecting Profitability of Layer Hens Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebraheem Altahat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Layer hen enterprises suffer from low profitability or losses in many of developing countries all over the world. Jordan is not an acceptance. Approach: This study aimed at investigating the influence of ten main factors affecting the profitability of layer hen producers. The investigated factors include price of purchased pullet, feed price, cost of labor, cost of veterinary service and medicine, building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, length of production cycle, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate, egg sale price and laying percentage. Results: The study used a multiple regression profit model to estimate the effect of the above mentioned factors on profit per kg egg produced. The direction and quantity of relationship between profit per kg egg and variables affecting profit were investigated. Data from 40 operating and randomly selected egg production enterprises in the country was collected. Data was obtained directly from the producers during April to mid August 2010. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a pre-tested questionnaire. The data obtained via interview surveys were processed to calculate profit per kg egg and other relevant information for inclusion in a profit function model. Fifteen eggs are registered to be 1 kg in the study. Cost and income items used to calculate profit in the study. The results of the study revealed that the feed price was found to be the factor which has the highest negative impact on the profitability showing the coefficient-3.01. The egg sale price was with high positive impact on profitability showing the coefficient 2.633. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results of the study it could be concluded that higher prices of purchased or breeding pullet, higher feed price, higher cost of labor, higher cost of veterinary service and medicine, higher other costs including building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, higher feed quantity to be converted to eggs and higher mortality rate are associated with lower profitability of laying hen enterprises, while higher length of production cycle, higher egg sale price and higher laying percentage are associated with higher profitability. Critical limits indicated for various cost components should be used as a guideline to adjust budget in commercial egg operation thereby, ensuring higher net profit per bird.

  20. Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

  1. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. PMID:20696504

  2. Factors affecting success of agricultural producers groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chlebicka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor organisation of agricultural markets in Poland remains one of the biggest problems for agricultural sector. There are about 510 agricultural producer groups, but only 2% of Polish farmers selling for market are members. Knowledge on cooperation determinants and different aspects of producer groups performance is crucial to build references for policy makers and producer groups’ managers. The aim of the article was to discuss factors affecting success of producers groups understood as a level of members’ satisfaction. Data for 2006 and 2011 from 30 producers groups in fruit and vegetable sector were analysed using logit model. Three determinants occurred to be statistically important: scope of a group functions, informal cooperation with farmers before starting a formal cooperation and homogeneity of farms.

  3. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

  4. Factors Affecting E-Service Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mufaddy Al-Kasasbeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available User satisfaction is an important predictor of online consumer behavior and the success of a web-based system. If customers are satisfied with the services received through the online system, it is likely they will keep using the system. To examine factors affecting user satisfaction with e-services, a questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of (615 students out of (5918 at Petra University in Jordan to explore their perceptions. Regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results indicated that website design, navigation, and personalization were found to be predictors of e-service satisfaction. The results of this study provide a comprehensive set of implications for practitioners and researchers. This study shows how the website design, navigation, and personalization play a crucial role in the overall evaluation of e-service satisfaction. Management of universities need to be aware that a bad experience with website design, navigation, and personalization can affect satisfaction, if a student has a bad experience regarding interactivity, customization, or website design, then a student might make an overall e-service judgment even before a transaction can take place. If customers believe that an organization’s website is hard to use, poorly designed, and doesn’t take into consideration distinguished services for each user, then customers are likely to move to other organizations’ websites.

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING PHARMACOKINETIC DISPOSITION OF DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Hiren R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is a complex process the variability of which is influenced by many physicochemical and physiologic factors. The two most important physicochemical factors that affect both the extent and the rate of absorption are lipophilicity and solubility. The rate and extent of absorption are governed by the solubility, permeability and stability of the drug, with solubility being a pH-dependent parameter for weak acids and bases. The gastrointestinal tract can be viewed as discrete sections with a variety of differential local pH environments ranging from the acidic stomach to the more basic small intestine. The multiple peaking, double peaking or secondary peaking phenomena can occur in the disposition of a variety of xenobiotics during drug development (the pre-clinical phase and in subsequent clinical studies and use. The physicochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence of this phenomenon are often multi factorial and include but are not limited to solubility-limited absorption, modified-release formulations, complexation, enterohepatic recirculation, gastric emptying and the intestinal transit time, site-specific absorption, gastric secretion-enteral reabsorption. Double peak absorption has been described with several orally administered drugs such as cimetidine furosemide, piroxicam, ranitidine, talinolol, alprazolam and phenazopyridine.

  6. Site-specific O-glucosylation of the epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats of notch: efficiency of glycosylation is affected by proper folding and amino acid sequence of individual EGF repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Kantharia, Joshua; Sethi, Maya K; Bakker, Hans; Haltiwanger, Robert S

    2012-10-01

    O-Glucosylation of epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats in the extracellular domain of Notch is essential for Notch function. O-Glucose can be elongated by xylose to the trisaccharide, Xyl?1-3Xyl?1-3Glc?1-O-Ser, whose synthesis is catalyzed by the consecutive action of three glycosyltransferases. A UDP-glucose:protein O-glucosyltransferase (Poglut/Rumi) transfers O-glucose to serine within the O-glucose consensus. Subsequently, either of two UDP-xylose:glucoside xylosyltransferases (Gxylt1 or Gxylt2) transfers xylose to O-glucose. Finally, a UDP-xylose:xyloside xylosyltransferase (Xxylt1) transfers xylose to Xyl?1-3Glc?1-O-EGF. Our prior site-mapping studies demonstrated that O-glucose consensus sites are modified at high but variable stoichiometries in mouse Notch1 and identified a novel glycosylation site with alanine in place of proline, suggesting a revised, broader consensus sequence (CXSX(P/A)C). Here we examined the molecular basis for this site specificity. A panel of EGF repeats from human coagulation factor 9 (FA9), mouse Notch1, and Notch2 were bacterially expressed and purified by reverse phase HPLC for use in in vitro enzyme assays. We demonstrate that proper folding of EGF repeats is essential for glycosylation by Poglut/Rumi, that alanine can substitute for proline in the context of coagulation factor 9 EGF repeat for O-glucose transfer, confirming the new consensus sequence, and that positively charged residues within the O-glucose consensus sequence reduce efficiency of glycosylation by Poglut/Rumi. Moreover, proper folding of EGF repeats is also important for the activities of Gxylt1, Gxylt2, and Xxylt1. These results indicate that protein folding and amino acid sequences of individual EGF repeats fundamentally affect both attachment and elongation of O-glucose glycans. PMID:22872643

  7. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül P?nar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Ba?kent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  8. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  9. Analysis and Measurement of Buildability Factors Affecting Edge Formwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Jarkas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Labour productivity is affected by several factors, but buildability is among the most important. Nevertheless, a thoroughexamination of the literature revealed a dearth of research into the influence of buildability factors on labour productivityof in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Although edge formwork is an importantlabour intensive activity, most often, its labour cost is either crudely estimated or lumped within the formwork cost of otheractivities. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate and quantify the effects and relative influence of the followingbuildability factors on its labour productivity: (a depth of slab being edge-formed; (b slab geometric factor; and (ctype of formwork material used. To achieve this objective, a sufficiently large volume of productivity data was collected andanalyzed using the multiple categorical-regression method. As a result, the effects and relative influence of the buildabilityfactors investigated are determined. The findings show significant effects of these factors on edge formwork labour productivity,which can be used to provide designers feedback on how well their designs consider the requirements of buildabilityprinciples, and the consequences of their decisions on labour efficiency. On the other hand, the depicted patterns of resultsmay provide guidance to construction managers for effective activity planning and efficient labour utilization.

  10. Factors affecting liver uptake of gallium-67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From our clinical experience, we have suggested that the absence of liver uptake during Ga-67 scintigraphy was mainly due to markedly decreased unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC). We have succeeded in producing a rat model of absent liver uptake by administration of iron and vincristine to markedly decrease UIBC. However, the possibility of decreased liver uptake of Ga-67 due to liver dysfunction caused by these drugs can not be denied, so we performed further experiments. The changes of uptake by liver and other tissues, and UIBC induced by administration of apotransferrin (ATF) and deferoxamine (DEF) before the second scan were determined. The abscess uptake of Ga-67 during the absence of liver uptake was also determined. The administration of ATF one day before the second scan made liver uptake recover to almost normal levels and UIBC recover considerably. No recovery was produced by administration of DEF. The mechanism of Ga-67 uptake in various tissues is not completely clear. The theory that the amount of strage iron in the liver affects liver uptake has been proposed. The possibility is also suggested that antineoplastic agents may damage the synthesis of transferrin (TF) and intracellular Ga-67 carrier molecules, and/or block TF receptors in the hepatocyte to decrease liver uptake. The fact that liver uptake recovered rapidly after administration of ATF refutes these hypotheses, at least in vivo, and serum UIBC level is the decisive factor in liver uptakevel is the decisive factor in liver uptake of Ga-67. The lack of significant decrease in abscess uptake of Ga-67 during the absence of liver uptake may suggest that the pathway to the abscesses is different from that to the liver. (author)

  11. Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Te-chato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. were investigated. Types of explants, strains and densities of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and co-culture methods were examined to optimize gene transformation. The results showed that among strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tested, LBA 4404 containing pBI 121 gave the calli with the highest resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin at the concentration of 50-100 mg/l was the best range for selection of transformants. Higher density of agrobacteria tended to promote higher frequency of transformation. The best co-culture method was dipping the explant in a solution of agrobacteria for 10 minutes, followed by culturing onto co-culture medium without antibiotic for 48 hours. Among the explants used to co- culture with bacteria, half leaf treatment gave the best result for transformation; however, callus proliferation and plantlet regeneration were inferior to whole leaf treatment. Activity of ?-Glucuronidase (GUS could not be detected, thus resistance to kanamycin was used for detecting transformability. Shoot primordia could be induced from kanamycin-resistant calli grown in regeneration medium. After maintenance by subculturing to the same medium 2 to 3 times in 2-3 months, the developed shoots turned brown and finally died. Hence, the transformed plant of mangosteen was not obtained from this experiment.

  12. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien T. Supangco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality of position does not augur well for women. This result implies that despite the fact that the women in the sample were intelligent (that is, they passed the stringent MBA screening, motivated and obviously were able to manage their time well-being able to balance work, school and in some cases, family responsibilities-they were still far removed from the top. These women still faced some hostile environment that prevented them from fully contributing to making decisions that matter.

  13. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    Poland joined the EU in 2004 and still has one of the Europe’s least developed information societies. Broadband penetration in Poland is still amongst the lowest in the EU and significantly below the EU average. Considering the present state of information technology, the key challenge for Poland is to reduce the gap between Poland and other EU Member Countries in the area of the development and implementation of information and communication technologies. However, Poland’s accession to the European Union and the implementation of EU regulation mechanisms accelerate the integration of Poland’s telecommunications market with the European market. The market reflects all the global trends, a gradually growing significance of mobile telecommunications services, broadband Internet access, construction of offers directed towards clients’ needs, and a strong trend towards market consolidation, which will gradually change the previous balance of power. The specific problem of the Polish market is its very poor infrastructure development and the lack of competitors on the fixed market. This translates into limited access to services for end users particularly in the rural areas. A much lower level of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level/distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined – with the ‘lightest’forms of intervention first and the ‘strongest’at the end. Furthermore, empirical evidence on the developments in access technologies and the policy initiatives taken by the Polish government are presented. Finally, there is a conclusion regarding the importance of the different types of public policy initiatives for broadband take-up in Poland.

  14. Factors affecting chromatin stability of bovine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, T A A; Rekkas, C A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Sioga, A; Dimitriadis, I; Papanikolaou, Th

    2008-03-01

    The structural stability of transcriptionally inert paternal chromatin is of vital importance for the fertilization process and early embryonic development. Accordingly, a series of eight experiments were conducted during a 7-month period to investigate: (1) effects of bull breed, individuality, successive ejaculations, semen quality characteristics (SQC), semen dilution rates and hypothermic storage of semen in a Tris-egg yolk extender on incidence of sperm nuclear chromatin instability (NCI), and (2) effects of the interaction between variation of NCI within a frozen ejaculate and variation of oocytes quality due to maturation time and/or season on the efficiency of in vitro embryo production (IVEP). Semen samples were collected once a week from six bulls using an AV and only ejaculates (n=220) of >0.30x10(9) sperm/ml and >or=60% motility were used. NCI was measured by: (1) detection of lysine-rich histones in sperm chromatin using aniline blue staining, (2) sperm susceptibility to acid-induced nuclear DNA denaturation in situ using acridine orange test, and (3) sperm susceptibility to nuclear chromatin decondensation (NCD). Bovine oocytes (n=695) were matured in vitro for 18 or 24 h, fertilized after sperm selection through a swim-up procedure and cultured for 72 h. The results showed that the 2nd ejaculates were superior to the 1st ones with respect to chromatin stability. Dilution of semen to 49.67+/-8.56x10(6) sperm/ml (1:19) decreased resistance of sperm to NCD. Cooling of semen had no significant effect on chromatin stability. Cryopreservation of semen augmented sperm vulnerability to DNA denaturation. Improvement of SQC (semen volume, sperm motility, velocity, viability and morphological normalcy) was generally concomitant with increase of sperm resistance to NCI. While Blonde d'Aquitaine bulls had a resistance to NCD higher than Limousine bulls in fresh semen, the former showed a greater susceptibility to DNA denaturation than the latter in cooled semen. Individuality significantly influenced NCI. The variability of NCI within a frozen ejaculate affected efficiency of IVEP. Significant negative correlations were observed between incidence of NCI and both fertilization rate and developmental capacity of embryos after maturation of oocytes for 18 h. The significant variation in IVEP traits due to season was independent of the effect of sperm chromatin instability. PMID:17398042

  15. Factors affecting newborn care practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Md; Ahmed, M Ranzu; Rahman, M Mokhlesur; Afroz, Afsana

    2012-01-01

    Newborn care is of immense importance for the proper development and healthy life of a baby. Although child and infant mortality in South Asia has reduced substantially, the rate of neonatal mortality is still high, although these deaths can be prevented by adopting simple interventions at the community level. The aim of the study was to identify the associated factors which affect newborn care practices. Data for the study were drawn from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007, in which 6150 mothers were considered. The mean age of the mothers was 18 (±3.2) years. A little over 62% of the pregnant women received at least one antenatal check-up during the entire period of their pregnancy. About 70% of deliveries were conducted at home either by unskilled family members or by relatives. A clean instrument was used for cutting the cord of 87% of the newborn babies, while about 34% of them were reported to have had their first bath immediately after delivery. Initiation of breast feeding immediately after birth was practised in only about 19% of the cases. Compared with mothers with no education, those with secondary or higher levels were associated with clean cord care [odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 1.9] and early breast feeding [OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2, 2.2]. The study revealed an urgent need to educate mothers, and train traditional birth attendants and health workers on clean delivery practices and early neonatal care. Increasing the number of skilled birth attendants can be an effective strategy to increase safe delivery practices, and to reduce delivery complications. PMID:22150703

  16. External factors affecting investment decisions of companies

    OpenAIRE

    Bialowolski, Piotr; Weziak-bialowolska, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to investigate the importance of certain external factors on the investment decisions made by Polish companies. With the use of data from the tailor-made Survey on Receivables, we (1) examine factors influencing investment decisions of companies in Poland; (2) assess the relation between branch, company size and investment factors; (3) evaluate the importance of the investment factors; and (4) determine the relative influence of these factors on the company-level inv...

  17. Factors affecting laboratory test use and prices

    OpenAIRE

    Danzon, Patricia Munch; Manning, Willard G.; Marquis, M. Susan

    1984-01-01

    The use of clinical laboratory tests has more than doubled during the past decade. Some observers of the health system feel that this growth is excessive and is a result of current payment systems. This article examines the effects of current reimbursement policies with regard to the use of laboratory tests and prices charged for tests. The results suggest the following: The method of financing medical care, including cost sharing and prepaid group practice arrangements, affects the volume...

  18. Examining Factors Affecting Classroom Attendance and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tze-Ming Chou; Ya-Hui Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This study examined the relationship between four class attitudinal variables and how it affects class attendance and performance. A questionnaire was administered to 134 undergraduate students at medium sized college in Taiwan. The data included questions about the participant’s rating of the level of difficulty of the course (Difficulty), the topics covered in the course (Topics), their motivation towards attending the course (Motivation), and whether or not t...

  19. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating positio...

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction & suggestions to improve them.

  1. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  2. Econometrics Analysis on Factors Affecting Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyi Sun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to identify school-level variables that influence academic outcomes, and to determine the extent of their influence. Using state-level panel data, this study estimates a simple achievement function to explore the nexus between three identified factors (percentage of students eligible for reduced/free lunch program, school enrolment and per-pupil expenditure and student achievement (percentage of satisfactory of 4th grade math and read in the United States. Method: Based on literature reference and rational hypotheses, the effects of the percentage of student eligible for reduced or free lunch, school enrolment and per-pupil expenditure on the percentage of 4th grade student satisfactory in math and read were tested for a certain group of students separately. Ordinary Least Squares regression model was used to determine the validity and strength of each relationship. Result: The data set consisted of 1823 observations located in different districts. Final test result shows that: 1       Significant negative effect on student achievement is found under the factor of percentage of students eligible for reduced or free lunch. 2       Slight negative effect on student achievement is found under the factor of school enrollment. 3       Slight positive effect on student achievement is found under the factor of per-pupil expenditure. Students in school with lower percentage of students eligible for reduced or free lunch program, lower enrolment record, and more per-pupil expenditure will have better academic performance.

  3. Factors affecting the maintenance dose of warfarin.

    OpenAIRE

    James, A. H.; Britt, R. P.; Raskino, C. L.; Thompson, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    AIM: To identify the possible factors determining the dose of warfarin prescribed in patients receiving anticoagulant treatment. METHODS: The computerised records of 2305 patients maintained on the drug in seven hospitals were amalgamated and classified into one of seven diagnostic groups. The associations with the dose of warfarin prescribed were investigated by univariate and multiple regression analysis. Differences between hospitals were studied with regard to the coagulometric method and...

  4. Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm Jordaan; Margie Sutherland

    2004-01-01

    One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do n...

  5. Risk factors that affect recurrence in strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Bayba?

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent stroke is defined as a new cerebrovascular event which occurs after the stabilization of the previous stroke. Recurrence of stroke increases likelihood of disability-mortality associated with stroke. Systematic evaluation of stroke cases can help to reduce the risk of recurrence. Objective: In order to predict strokes which carry the risk of recurrence, we aimed to compare data related to risk factors, stroke type, etiology and disability-mortality rates associated with stroke. Material And Method: Patients with stroke who referred to Bak?rkoy Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases Training and Research State Hospital between June 1, 2002 and February 28, 2003 were recorded into the stroke database in a consecutive and prospective manner. Strokes were classified as ischemic/hemorrhagic and first/recurrent. For recurrent strokes, information about previous strokes was also recorded. Risk factors were classified as hypertension (HT, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation (AF, coronary artery disease (CAD, migraine, transient ischemic accident (TIA, family history of cerebrovascular accident (CVA, oral contraceptive use, PAD, congestive heart failure (CHF, other heart diseases, smoking cigarette and alcohol consumption. Disability-mortality rates associated with stroke were evaluated. All data were compared for first and recurrent strokes. Results: In our study, 631 patients were evaluated, 52.3% of whom were female and 47.7% male. Frequency of stroke was statistically high (p<0.001 in females over 70 years old. Recurrent strokes were of the same type. For the first and recurrent strokes, HT was the highest risk factor. AF frequency increased with age (p<0.001. The rate of disability-mortality was found high in strokes of undetermined and cardioembolic origin. Conclusion: Knowledge of etiologic group can help to predict recurrence of stroke and prevent death. We think that effective treatment of modifiable risk factors identified in stroke groups where recurrence is the highest, and prioritising the investigation of cardioembolic risk factors in elderly women are significant in terms of primary and secondary stroke prevention.

  6. Factors affecting the microstructure of porous ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSAN TRIPKOVIC

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, porous ceramics were produced by using two methods: the polymeric sponge and foam method. Astudy of the effect of viscosity on the characteristics of the final product produced using the polymeric sponge method revealed that the microstructure of porous ceramics is highly affected by the viscosity of the slurry. The optimal ratio between porosity and the strength of the porous material was achieved by subsequently repeating the immersing and drying processes. Astudy of the porous material obtained using the foam method revealed that the pore size and foam volume can be controlled by varying the amounts of anhydride and thermal blowing agent. The problem related to foam collapsing was solved by using a thermal blowing agent. The microstructure of the samples was characterized by SEM.

  7. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in highith retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  8. Electronic invoicing in SMEs: Assessing the factors affecting the adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Seppa?, Marja

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to find out what factors affect the adoption of electronic invoicing. In addition, the opportunities and drawbacks of adopting e-invoicing are examined. The framework for the study is based on earlier research and literature covering the topic of electronic invoicing and different factors affecting the decision to adopt. The factors presented in the framework are perceived benefits, organizational readiness, and external pressure. Especially external pressure will be under car...

  9. Examining Factors Affecting Classroom Attendance and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tze-Ming Chou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This study examined the relationship between four class attitudinal variables and how it affects class attendance and performance. A questionnaire was administered to 134 undergraduate students at medium sized college in Taiwan. The data included questions about the participant’s rating of the level of difficulty of the course (Difficulty, the topics covered in the course (Topics, their motivation towards attending the course (Motivation, and whether or not the participants felt that the course is practical and useful to their future (Practicality. The results of the Pearson correlation coefficients showed that 4 out of the 15 correlations were statistically significant. The negative correlation found between motivation and topics; and practicality and topics suggest the attitude that when choosing courses, students tend to choose courses that they think would easy to pass. The finding that none of the variables were significantly correlated to course attendance and course performance suggests that the strongest predictor of success of a course is based on the student’s level of attendance. This lead to the discussion in the conclusion about pedagogical implications for what teachers can do in their classrooms.

  10. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S

    2004-01-01

    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed. PMID:15222095

  11. Factors affecting virus plaque confirmation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahling, D R; Sullivan, G; Freyberg, R W; Safferman, R S

    1989-01-01

    Direct plaque counts obtained by using the monolayer cell culture assay technique reliably confirmed the number of viruses isolated. Analysis revealed some significant differences in the false-positive rate, depending on the test method used or virus samples evaluated. Plaques from laboratory stock viruses showed a higher confirmation rate than sewage plaque isolates. Test results with laboratory stock viruses suggested that confirmation rates may be affected by virus types present in the sample. Plaques picked by the stab and scrape method and immediately passed into cell culture tubes produced the most reliable counts as compared to those picked by the stab only method or those stored at -70 degrees C in Earle's balanced salt solution with or without fetal calf serum. Plaque confirmation using this method was 90% or better. Although the term 'false positive plaque' has been applied to a particular plaque that was not confirmed, five of ten plaques picked by the stab and scrape method in one series of experiments were confirmed when repicked by the same method from original plaque bottles, indicating that a substantial number of unconfirmed plaques may be caused by plaque transfer techniques. PMID:2547809

  12. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdun Kuyucu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  13. Treatment Compliance Affecting Factors in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Hacihasanoglu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is to be responsible for death which accounts for 6% of adult deaths all over the world. It is the third ranks among causes of death. These ranks are similar both in developed and developing countries. Hypertension has important role causes of death. But, hypertension can be prevented to great extent. On the other hand, a lot of countries in the world hypertension control rates are reported to be inadequate in sample communities representing the general society and in patients treated under health service conditions. Patient no adherence to treatment is one of the significant factors in failing to raise blood pressure (BP control over 25% around the world and in our country. No adherence reason of hypertension treatment was examined in this review article. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(2.000: 167-172

  14. Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Jordaan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. Opsomming
    Een van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

  15. Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Bowman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1 public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2 support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3 the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1 and 2, as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

  16. Factors Affecting Penetrating Captive Bolt Gun Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session. PMID:25415241

  17. Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; HaugbØlle, Kim

    2013-01-01

    With all the advances in professionalism, methods, technology, and human resource training, we should have seen an increase in productivity. However, this has not happened and the construction industry is losing the battle to be competitive and has instead become a high-cost, low-productivity sector. By applying the theory that insufficient cooperation is the result of low trust the aim was to investigate how conditions for formation of positive and lasting trustful relationships can be created. A questionnaire survey including clients, contractors, architects, engineers and client design advisor was carried out. The analysis showed that the ability to be trustful can be developed through the experience of different factors (e.g. control mechanisms, mutual respect, repeated cooperation, shared understanding and communication). Furthermore, the ability to trust other parties depends on knowledge of others' skillsets. Interdisciplinary collaboration through education would limit the formation of negative stereotypes and the overall trust level increases, due to more and better knowledge of other disciplines.

  18. Factors affecting proximal tubular reabsorption during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies performed in several animal species have demonstrated that glomerulotubular balance is maintained throughout development despite the many changes that occur in the factors known to control it. In an attempt to understand the nature of this phenomenon the authors quantified the magnitude and described the profile of these changes in guinea pigs. The changes in physical forces were assessed from measurements of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, whereas those in the permeability characteristics of the proximal tubule epithelium were estimated from permanence to radioactivity-labelled macromolecules of graded radii, histologic measurements of the intercellular channels, and measurements of end-proximal ratio of tubular fluid-to-plasma osmolality (TF/P/sub osm/). Between 1 and 50 days of age the net pressure for reabsorption increased from 15.0 to 30.9 mmHg with the major change occurring during the first 2-3 wk of postnatal life. The urinary recovery of [3H]inulin, [14C]sucrose, and [14C]creatinine, injected in the early segment of proximal tubules did not vary with age. The urinary recovery of [14C]mannitol increased from 92% at birth to 100% at 49 days of age. The length of the zonulae occludens and the width of the intercellular channels did not change during this period. The findings support the hypothesis that during early postnatal life glomerulotubular balance is made possible by a high permeability of the proximsible by a high permeability of the proximal tubule, which compensates for the low net reabsorptive pressure. As the animal matures and the proximal tubule epithelium becomes tighter, for glomerulotubular balance to be maintained, an increase in the number of intercellular channels and in the active transport of sodium need to be postulated

  19. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript ...

  20. Factors affecting the prognosis of meniscectomy in soccer players.

    OpenAIRE

    Muckle, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    Meniscectomy is a frequent surgical procedure in young soccer players but the results are unpredictable. A long-term survey was carried out to assess certain fundamental features and to establish the predictive factors which affect the prognosis after meniscectomy.

  1. Political ideology affects energy-efficiency attitudes and choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M.; Kunreuther, Howard; Larrick, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    This research demonstrates how promoting the environment can negatively affect adoption of energy efficiency in the United States because of the political polarization surrounding environmental issues. Study 1 demonstrated that more politically conservative individuals were less in favor of investment in energy-efficient technology than were those who were more politically liberal. This finding was driven primarily by the lessened psychological value that more conservative individuals placed on reducing carbon emissions. Study 2 showed that this difference has consequences: In a real-choice context, more conservative individuals were less likely to purchase a more expensive energy-efficient light bulb when it was labeled with an environmental message than when it was unlabeled. These results highlight the importance of taking into account psychological value-based considerations in the individual adoption of energy-efficient technology in the United States and beyond. PMID:23630266

  2. Factors Affecting Brand Identification and Loyalty in Online Community

    OpenAIRE

    Chieh-Min Chou

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the factors of online community characteristics which affect customer loyalty through the mediate effects of brand identification. By employing online questionnaire survey, hundreds of observations were collected from online brand communities in Taiwan for hypothetical model test. Research results show that brand loyalty is positively affected by stronger online brand identification which is enhanced by online community interactivity, satisfied custo...

  3. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Zizi GOSCHIN; Zaman, Gheorghe

    2006-01-01

    Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use), renewable combustible and waste (% of total), energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  4. Preslaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality chapter 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry meat quality is affected by numerous antemortem factors, in particular those occurring during the last 24 hours that the bird is alive. These short term factors influence carcass yield (live shrink), carcass defects (bruising, broken/dislocated bones), carcass microbiological contamination, ...

  5. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  6. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, rchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  7. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  8. Factors Affecting Acceptance of Smartphone Application for Management of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The factors affecting the acceptance of mobile obesity-management applications (apps) by the public were analyzed using a mobile healthcare system (MHS) technology acceptance model (TAM). Methods The subjects who participated in this study were Android smartphone users who had an intent to manage their weight. They used the obesity-management app for two weeks, and then completed an 18-item survey designed to determine the factors influencing the acceptance of the app. Three questions were asked pertaining to each of the following six factors: compatibility, self-efficacy, technical support and training, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavior regarding intention to use. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the reliability of the scales. Pathway analysis was also performed to evaluate the MHS acceptance model. Results A total of 94 subjects participated in this study. The results indicate that compatibility, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected the behavioral intention to use the mobile obesity-management app. Technical support and training also significantly affected the perceived ease of use; however, the hypotheses that self-efficacy affects perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use were not supported in this study. Conclusions This is the first attempt to analyze the factors influencing mobile obesity-management app acceptance using a TAM. Further studies should cover not only obesity but also other chronic diseases and should analyze the factors affecting the acceptance of apps among healthcare consumers in general. PMID:25995959

  9. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3 (-)) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3 (-) addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3 (-) and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

  10. Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzke Susan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions, physical activity (eight dimensions, and stress management (eight dimensions. Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American and white mothers in community settings.

  11. Efficiency wages, unemployment and international factor movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, B

    1998-09-01

    "This paper examines the implications of unemployment resulting from efficiency wages for international factor movements in a standard Heckscher-Ohlin model where the relative size of the endowments of skilled and unskilled workers and the efficiency wage induced unemployment level in the unskilled labour market are simultaneously determined given the population, supply of capital and its distribution in the economy.... It is shown that the optimum labour inflow in the market with domestic distortion and the optimum capital inflow are always positive because they reduce the severity of distortion by raising employment and income for the residents. The income and employment of foreigners also increase. Under this situation the optimum labour or capital outflow on the other hand is always zero. These conclusions directly contradict the result obtained for international factor movements in the presence of exogenously determined unemployment." PMID:12322436

  12. Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kashif Ud Din Khan; Shazia Gulzar; Farzan Yahya

    2013-01-01

    Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods. Re...

  13. Variability in wheat: factors affecting its nutritional value

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.; Verstegen, M W A; Hartog, L.A.; Villamide, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Wheat is a common raw material used to provide energy in broiler diets. Its apparent metabolisable energy and its influence on broiler performance varies between wheat samples. Reasons for that variability can be classified as intrinsic (variety, chemical composition) and extrinsic factors (growing conditions, storage, etc.), both of which affect nutrient digestibility and availability. However, these factors are not always considered when formulating the diets for broiler chickens. Moreover,...

  14. Factors Affecting Milk Production in Buffaloes: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maqsood Hussain, Abdul Ghafoor And Abdul Saboor

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified the effect of major factors affecting the milk production in buffaloes. The important factors considered for the estimation of milk production included the value of dry fodder, the value of green fodder, the value of concentrate, number of lactations and the value of labour hours. A production function for milk was estimated by employing Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression. In the estimated model among all the relevant variables, green fodder, lactation number and lab...

  15. Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.

    OpenAIRE

    Ash, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. METHODS: A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at th...

  16. Factors Affecting The Profitability Rate of Leading Firms in Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhman, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to investigate the factors which affecting firms’ profitability in Makassar. The factors are amount of capital, growth of sales, net working capital, leverage ratio, and current ratio. The sample involved in the survey 45 companies which identified as leading companies in Makassar. The result outlined that the leading businesses tended to consider financial ratio in implementing financial policy. The findings indicated that growth of sales, current ratio a...

  17. Analysis and Measurement of Buildability Factors Affecting Edge Formwork

    OpenAIRE

    Jarkas, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Labour productivity is affected by several factors, but buildability is among the most important. Nevertheless, a thoroughexamination of the literature revealed a dearth of research into the influence of buildability factors on labour productivityof in situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the formwork trade level. Although edge formwork is an importantlabour intensive activity, most often, its labour cost is either crudely estimated or lumped within the formwork cost of othera...

  18. Factors Affecting Employment and Job Satisfaction of Vietnamese Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Nguyen T.; Healy, Charles C.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 210 Vietnamese refugees to determine factors affecting employment and job satisfaction. Results showed Vietnamese subjects reporting job satisfaction had been in the U.S. longer. They were more proficient in speaking English than dissatisfied refugees but not more positive about job-seeking resources. (Author/BH)

  19. Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüközer, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A).…

  20. Institutional and Managerial Factors Affecting International Student Recruitment Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Mitchell; Heaney, Joo-Gim; Cooper, Maxine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate international student recruitment from an institutional perspective and to consider institutional factors that may affect recruitment. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study is undertaken in which education marketing practitioners are interviewed regarding aspects of international…

  1. Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergis, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

  2. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  3. Motivational Factors Affecting Online Learning by Japanese MBA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hisayo

    2006-01-01

    In Japan, Internet based learning is still at an early stage. However, adult learners in Japanese society expect the development of flexible e-learning programs. This case study examines motivational factors affecting online learning in a Japanese and Australian MBA program, using observations, interviews and a questionnaire survey. The data were…

  4. Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

  5. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  6. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  7. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  8. Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

  9. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magdalene H., Awases; Marthie C., Bezuidenhout; Janetta H., Roos.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors inf [...] luencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. METHOD: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia. RESULTS: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  10. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  11. Relationship between Factors of Construction Resources Affecting Project Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Abdul Rahman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of any construction project highly depends on how proper and effective the management of construction resources flow. Studies show that various resources factors affected cost management and have resulted to significant amount of cost overrun worldwide. However, a few investigations had been carried out in Malaysia regarding the effect of resources in construction industry. Hence, this study focuses on identifying significant resource factors causing construction cost overrun and also assessing the relationship between these factors. Data collection was carried out through a structured questionnaire survey consisting of 20 factors identified through a comprehensive literature review. Data was analyzed using statistical software package SPSS. The Cronbach’s alpha of the data was 0.910 which means that the collected data was highly reliable. The factors were ranked through mean rank approach and it was found that 3 most significant factors are “fluctuation of prices of materials”, “cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors” and “shortages of materials”. While the least significant factors in causing cost overrun are “insufficient numbers of equipment”, “relationship between management and labour”, and “labour absenteeism”. The result of Spearman test indicates that “cash flow and financial difficulties faced by contractors” with “financial difficulties of owner” correlate strongly at a significant level of 0.752. This identification of factors and relationships will help construction community in controlling resopurce factors for achieving project completion within the budget.

  12. Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahieh Moradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

  13. Factors Affecting Hoteliers’ Decision to Advertise in Travel Magazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Faiz Hilmi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a paid, mass-mediated attempt to persuade. That mean Advertising is paid communication by a company or organization that wants its information disseminated through a communication medium designed to reach more than one person, typically a large number or mass of people and advertising includes an attempt to persuade consumer to like the brand and because of that liking to eventually buy the brand. Advertising in travel magazine is one of the promotional methods to promote hoteliers products or services to the market place. By advertising in travel magazine, it can reach the target audience, educate them about the products or services, and move them closer to make a purchase. The purpose of the research is to recognize and rank the factors affecting hotelier’s decision to advertise in travel magazine. The respondents for the research are those hoteliers operating in Malaysia. The factors for this research are reached target readers, cost of advertising, contents of the magazine, frequency of advertising and media of advertising. The result of the research shows two of the factors significantly affecting hoteliers advertising decision. Furthermore, cost of advertising ranks the first follow by reach target readers, contents of magazine, media of advertising and frequency of advertising ranks the last. This research will help the publisher of travel magazine to understand and recognize the ranking of factors affecting hoteliers’ decision to advertise in travel magazine.

  14. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  15. The impact of regional and demographic factors on the efficiency of German savings banks

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Alexander; Neuberger, Doris; Trigo Gamarra, Lucinda

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of environmental factors on technical, cost, scale and revenue efficiency of German savings banks in 2001-2005. Taking into account growing regional disparities in economic wealth and population size, it differentiates between declining and growing regions. Regional and demographic factors explain part of the variation in efficiency levels. Population density and branch penetration positively affect efficiency in growing regions. A negative impact of economic...

  16. Factors Affecting the Ethical Judgment of Business Ethics’ Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine the factors that affect the ethical judgment of Business Ethics students. The factors are year of study, gender, academic major, overall academic performance and Business Ethics result. A questionnaire survey was administered to 209 students taking Business Ethics course in a higher learning institution in Malaysia. Ethical vignettes obtained from Emerson and Conroy (2004 were used to capture how students evaluate the ethical behavior depicted in the vignettes. A multiple regression analysis revealed that Business Ethics result and year of study are factors that have a significant effect on the ethical judgment of students. The study reveals that Business Ethics result and year of study are significant factors that affect the ethical judgment of the students. The findings of this study may assist accounting practitioners and future employers in recruiting prospective employees. Employers may want to emphasis the significant factors in the hiring process future employees to ensure that the employees they employ have an appropriate level of ethical behavior.

  17. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

  18. 48 CFR 215.404-71-5 - Cost efficiency factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Cost efficiency factor. 215.404-71-5...Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT...404-71-5 Cost efficiency factor. (a) This...advocacy programs, technical insertion programs...obsolete parts control...

  19. Factors affecting the noise from small propeller driven aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    The factors affecting noise from small propeller driven airplanes are reviewed to quantify their affects where possible, and to indicate the potential for noise reduction. The main sources of external noise are noted to be the propellers and engines; the airframe being of less importance for both aural detection and community annoyance. Propeller noise is a strong function of tip speed and is affected adversely by nonuniform inflows. Reciprocating engine exhausts are noisier than those of comparably rated turboshaft engines, but their noise can be reduced by the use of flight certified exhaust mufflers. Presently, there are no generally accepted engineering methods for development of optimized propellers and exhaust muffler designs from weight and performance penalty standpoints. Flight demonstration results, however, suggest that required noise reductions for future certification should be possible with potentially small penalties.

  20. Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

  1. Factors affecting uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.; Taylor, B.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study factors affecting uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation. DESIGN--Cohort study using data from computerised child health systems. SETTING--10 health districts in North East Thames and North West Thames regions. SUBJECTS--7841 children born in January to March 1990 and resident in the districts up till the end of October 1991. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Overall uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella immunisation, variation of uptake among groups of children, and odds...

  2. Factors Affecting Internet Banking Usage in India: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shariq Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the customers demand for Internet banking usage by analyzing sample of 450 consumers’ responses who have been interviewed personally through structured survey in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh India. The study was conducted on the private, public and foreign banks which included ICICI Bank Ltd., HDFC Bank Ltd. and AXIS Bank, Standard Chartered Bank and Yes Bank. Among public sector banks the respondents were from Bank of Baroda, Punjab Nati...

  3. Factors affecting adolescents’ choice of branded vs. fashionable clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Mo?nica Sofia Ramos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project is to analyse the importance of branded and fashionable clothing, and which of them is the most important for adolescents when choosing their clothes, according with gender and age. The research analysed how three factors (peers’ influence, materialistic behaviour and self-esteem) affected adolescents’ clothing choices in the Portuguese market. 148 adolescents (12 and 16 years old) participated in the research, by answering a questionnaire. Results show th...

  4. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Rawan Al-Fouzan; Sarah Al-Ajlan; Yousef Marwan; Mervat Al-Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression wer...

  5. Statistical Analysis of the Different Factors Affecting the Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, Qamruz; Khan, Imtiaz

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhea is a worldwide problem facing both developing countries and developed countries, especially in pediatric population. Because of shortage of health facilities and lack of good food in developing countries, it is known fact that developing countries are facing this death taking problem more. The main purpose of this study was to examine the various factors which affect the recovery time of diarrhea. A multiple linear regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a model. The...

  6. Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    K. Abu-Alruz; I.A. Afaneh; J.M. Quasem; M.A. Hmidat; J. Abbady; A.S. Mazahreh

    2011-01-01

    The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol) contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ...

  7. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and maintenance; existence of fund for operation and maintenance; willingness to contribute money; existence of a user’s committee; participation in the initial planning and design of the water scheme; and coordination between the local leaders and user’s committee. The main factors which made the schemes unsustainable were: long fetching time; non-involvement in decision making; lack of willingness to contribute funds; absence of users committee; and lack of cooperation between local leaders and the users committee. Water service providers should address the technical, social, financial and institutional factors identified affecting sustainability in their planning and implementation of rural water schemes.

  8. Identifying the Factors That Affect the Success of Self-Efficiency and Self-Employment Plans among the Clients of Imam Khomeini's Relief Committee through the Lens of Social Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Mobaraki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to examine the relationship between the structural, environmental, and behavioral factorswith the success rate of Imam Khomeini Relief Committee's self-sufficiency and self-employment plans throughtaking a social entrepreneurship approach. Our sample comprised of 152 clients and 12 social workers who wereaffiliated to the abovementioned committee. As the methodology of our study, mixed method was adopted, inthat we studied the clients quantitatively through correlation regression and path analysis. On the other hand, thesocial workers were treated qualitatively and though underlying theory. After analyzing the quantitative data, thestructural, environmental, and behavioral factors were found to be the predicators of success rate of theseoccupational plans. In the examined structural, environmental, and behavioral factor, therefore, capital andemployment, regulations and incentives, innovation and identifying the opportunities were meaningful,respectively. There also happened to be a correlation between our structural and behavioral factors. In analyzingthe research's qualitative data, then, these three factors were of considerable significance. In sum, the highestrates of significance in these factors were as following: capital, employment, and communication system in thestructural factors; regulations and incentives in the environmental factors; and training, innovation, andrisk-taking in the behavioral factors.

  9. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were used to divide the metabolites into the following three groups: 1) correlated to growth, 2) correlated to color formation, and 3) formed at high pH. Subsequently, a full factorial experiment with factors P, Mg and Cu, showed that low P concentrations (2000 mg/kg) induced yellow color formation. Among the factors contributing to yellow color formation, pH and salt concentration are easy to control for the cheesemaker, while the third factor, P-concentration, is not. Naturally occurring variations in the P-concentration in milk delivered to Blue Cheese plants, could be responsible for the yellow discoloration phenomenon observed in the dairy industry.

  10. Review of Factors Affecting Organogenesis, Somatic Embryogenesis and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation of Strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Husaini, A.M.; Mercado, J.A. (Juan Andrés); Abdin, M. Z.; Teixeira da Silva, J.A.; Schaart, J.

    2011-01-01

    Invited Review: Standardization of an efficient regeneration system for each strawberry genotype is generally an indispensible pre-requisite for the successful development of transgenic plants. In this paper, we review some key factors affecting the regeneration of strawberry plants via adventitious organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis, such as type of explant, growth regulators or dark/light treatments. Since Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is the method of choice for ...

  11. Political factors and the efficiency of municipal expenditure in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronaldo Seroa da, Motta; Ajax, Moreira.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa como fatores políticos e institucionais afetama eficiência do gasto municipal no provimento do bem estar para a população ao longo da década dos noventa. O modelo adota a abordagem da fronteira de produção estocástica, condicionada por variáveis relacionadas ao custo da provisão [...] dos serviços e os incentivos que afetam a eficiência municipal. O resultado indica que não podemos rejeitar: 1) economias de escala; 2) o efeito da margem de voto no município e do tipo de mandato (primeiro ou segundo) do governador eleito, indicando uma forma de clientelismo; e que 3) a política local e a existência de comitê setoriais não afetam o nível da eficiência do gasto, o que sugere assimetria de informação entre os políticos e os eleitores. Abstract in english This study analyses how political and institutional factors affected the performance of municipalities in improving social welfare in Brazil in the period from1990 to 2000. Themodel adopts a stochastic production frontier, conditioned by variables related to the provision costs of services and those [...] that can affect municipal efficiency. The results indicated that we can not reject:1) economies of scale; 2) the effect of vote margin in the municipality and the type (first or second) of mandate of elected governor, which indicates a form of patronage; and 3) that local politics and the existence of sectorial boards did not affect the level of efficiency for municipal spending, suggesting an asymmetry of information between politics and voters.

  12. A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study of possible reduction in irradiation dose to patients during medical treatments, the following two methods can be considered: (1) To obtain absorbed doses for each part of a body in diagnostic X-ray examinations. (2) To obtain data on factors such as the tube voltage which may affect patient dose. There are a number of reports both at home and abroad concerning the above (1), but very few reports are available concerning the above (2). Moreover, most of them are on fragmentary aspects of each factor and no systematic reports have been made. For this reason, we have taken up, as factors affecting the patient dose, the field size, the tube voltage, and by checking them again, we wanted to obtain some systematic data. Our aim has been fully attained by conducting an experiment. In the ICRP's Publ. 26 issued last year, the idea of the critical organ which had not been fully elucidated in the Publ. 9 was abandoned. As a result, assessment of the irradiation doses has become more rational and the total risk for an individual was obtained. In Japan, the idea proposed in the Publ. 9 is adopted. Therefore, in this paper, we will raise some questions regarding the assessment of the irradiation doses, pointing out at the same time the rationality of the idea put forward in Publ. 26. (author)

  13. Factors Affecting D-7-Stigmastenol in Palestinian Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abu-Alruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of delta-7-stigmastenol (D-7-stigmastenol contained in olive oil is a new criterion for oil quality, particularly its purity from adulteration with other seed oils. In this study, 79 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas of Palestine to study the factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil. These areas included the provinces of Jericho, Hebron, Bethlehem, Ramallah, Salfeet, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarem and Qalqilyah. The study began in October 2007 and ended in July 2008. The following 11 factors were taken into consideration during sample collection: olive fly infection, topography, olive storage before pressing, geographical area, effect of olive seeds during oil extraction, effect of pressing temperature, presence of olive leaves during oil extraction, soil type, maturity index of the olive fruit, olive variety and oil preservation and storage in terms of storage container types. The results show that soil type, region, maturity index and olive fly infection are the main factors affecting D-7-stigmastenol. Pressing temperature, olive storage before pressing, olive variety and oil storage showed a moderate effect. Olive seeds, topography and presence of olive leaves had a negligible effect on D-7-stigmastenol levels in the oil.

  14. Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Avis J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

  15. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  16. Factors Affecting The Entrepreneurial Behavior Of TUMS Research Centers Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Khayatan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Aim: Entrepreneurial roles can be performed by managers at different levels. In fact, entrepreneurship can be interpreted as a tendency adopted by managers towards their environment in which they should have the ability to discover new opportunities for their innovative activities. This study aims to identify factors affecting entrepreneurial behavior of research centers managers at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS.  Materials and Methods: Considering the sample size determined through Cochran’s formula, 90 questionnaires were distributed among TUMS research centers managers. The data were analyzed based on structural equation modeling applying partial least squares approach through Smartpls.2 software.  Results: Of the 90 questionnaires distributed, 67 were acceptable for study. The model created for effective factors enjoyed an acceptable goodness of fit index (GOF=0.49. Factors loading for the observed variables were above 0.4 and the constructs had an acceptable level of reliability and validity.  Conclusion : The results show that contextual and behavioral factors have a positive effect on entrepreneurial behavior and that structural factors have a negative effect on it. 

  17. Factors affecting surface and release properties of thin PDMS films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Junker, Michael Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are commonly used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP). DEAP films are used in making actuators, generators and sensors. In the large scale manufacture of DEAP films, release of films from the substrate (carrier web) induces some defects and pre-strain in the films which affect the overall performance of the films. The current research is directed towards investigating factors affecting the peel force and release of thin, corrugated polydimethylsiloxane films used in DEAP films. It has been shown that doping the PDMS films with small quantities of perfluoroether allylamide (PFE) lowered the surface energy which could ease the release. This is further investigated together with an evaluation of the resulting change in actuator performance. The relationship between the adhesive energy, surface energy, Young’s modulus and peel force of the films is analyzed.

  18. Chinese multinationals: how do institutional factors affect their location patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Quer Ramón

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of various host country institutional factors on the location patterns of 29 large Chinese multinationals. From a sample of 127 outward foreign direct investment (FDI decisions made in 52 countries, our findings suggest that a greater difficulty in doing business and a high political risk in the host country do not discourage Chinese multinationals. However, the presence of overseas Chinese in the host country, a larger absolute host market size and a higher volume of Chinese exports to that country affect positively.

  19. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  20. SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek FOUDA; Assad DERBALA; Mohamed GHONAME

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850....

  1. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis

  2. Some factors affecting the abundance of mycorrhizas in grassland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly one quarter of the world's land surface is occupied by permanent grassland, and possible ways of increasing the productivity of grassland deserve attention. Since permanent grasslands rarely receive phosphorus fertilizer, mycorrhizas could be important. Research in Britain has shown that mycorrhizal abundance is related to grazing intensity and to the percentage of ground area covered by vegetation. Infection levels in a plant are also influenced by what other species are growing nearby. Knowledge of factors affecting mycorrhizal abundance could allow grasslands to be managed for greater abundance of indigenous mycorrhizas. (author)

  3. Common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes: some implications for teaching psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert; Heiman, Noa; Yager, Joel

    2015-05-01

    The number of psychotherapies classified as "empirically supported treatments" has increased significantly. As the number and scope of empirically supported treatments multiply, it has become impossible to train therapists in all of these specific modalities. Although the current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements for psychiatric residents follow an approach based on specific schools of psychotherapy (emphasizing competency in cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and supportive treatments), evidence suggests that we are failing even in these efforts. In developing a specialized Psychotherapy Scholars Track in the residency program at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, we opted to focus initially on teaching the common factors in psychotherapy that positively affect psychotherapy outcomes. This article reviews 6 such broad common factors. PMID:25955260

  4. Factors affecting individual injury experience among petroleum drilling workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, B A; Mohr, D L; Rice, J C; Clemmer, D I

    1987-02-01

    To identify factors affecting the number of injuries experienced by petroleum drilling workers, we carried out a 44-month incidence density study on a cohort employed in January 1979 on mobile drilling units in the Gulf of Mexico. To control for job-related hazards, we computed a standardized ratio of observed to expected injuries for each worker based on his job history. The effect of personal and work history factors was then examined using analysis of variance. Age, rate of job changes, and rate of rig transfers had independent effects on injury rates. Length of service had little effect when age was controlled. The findings suggest that younger workers under stress such as job change may be more susceptible to injury than older workers, regardless of job. If so, targeted changes in procedures and environment which protect workers of all ages are important alternatives to reliance on supervision and experience in injury reduction. PMID:3819892

  5. A Study on Factors Affecting Turnover Intention of Hotel Empolyees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chang Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available his study used linear structural modeling to explore the factors affecting the turnover intention of hotel employees in Taiwan. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed to hotel employees. Among these, 350 were valid samples, a valid return rate of 87.50%. The empirical results showed that (1 more harmonious coworker relationships between hotel employees and a higher level of satisfaction regarding their work environment have a significantly positive effect on job satisfaction; (2 a higher level of organizational commitment among hotel employees has a significantly negative effect on turnover intention; (3 the direct effect of employee job satisfaction and salary level on turnover intention has not reached a significant level. Nevertheless, the two factors have indirect negative effects on turnover intention.

  6. Factors affecting the prevalence of obesity among primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kürtüncü

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the risk factors affecting obesity in students in the 6-15 years old age group. There were 868 students registered at Bahçelievler Elementary School in Zonguldak and were present for face-to-face meetings on the days the research data was collected. Data was collected using demographic questionary forms and weight-length measurements from March to April in 2010. Results: Difference is found to be statistically meaningful with respect to the relationship between obesity of children and their age, gender, number of siblings, fathers’ jobs, education level of their mothers, fast food consumption and family history of obesity (p<0.05. Conclusions: The study concludes that there are certain ciriteria related to the development of obesity during a specific period of childhood and that taking certain precautions are effective in preventing the development of obesity. Keywords: Body Mass Index; Children; Obesity; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Turkey.

  7. Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Youngmo, Kang; Mingook, Lee; Sungjoo, Lee.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service syste [...] m such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT) and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - 'wireless internet' and 'mobile applications' - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

  8. Service-Oriented Factors Affecting the Adoption of Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmo Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the adoption factors of smartphones focusing on the differences of smartphone and feature phone users. We used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM which incorporates service-oriented and device-oriented functional attributes as exogenous variables for a product-service system such as smartphones. In addition, Decision Tree (DT and customer surveys were conducted. As a study results, we found that the service-oriented functional attributes - ‘wireless internet’ and ‘mobile applications’ - affect the adoption of smartphones regardless of users. However, the DT results revealed that the more important factor is 'mobile applications' to smartphone users but 'wireless internet' for feature phone users. In conclusion, we discovered that a strategy emphasis on the service-oriented attributes is needed for the adoption of smartphones.

  9. Factors affecting aromatic VOC removal by electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been conducted to investigate the effects of dose, humidity, and temperature on the decomposition of representative volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by electron beam irradiation. For this study, toluene--a commonly used VOC in the various industrial coating processes, was selected as a representative VOC. The degradation characteristics under different concentrations and irradiation doses were extensively investigated to determine and improve VOC removal efficiencies. In general, this study illustrates that the removal efficiencies of aromatic VOCs increase as their concentrations decrease and the irradiation doses increase. Addition of water vapor and/or aerosol moisture into the reactor of a flow system results in 10-20% increase in VOC removal efficiencies compared to the experiments run without moisture added, presumably due to OH radical formation leading to additional degradation pathways. The level of decomposition was higher with the addition of water vapor compared to those observed with added aerosol moisture. The temperature variations from 30 deg. C to 130 deg. C did not significantly affect the decomposition rates of the toluene compound at 160 ppm C. However, there was a significant decrease in toluene decomposition rate at a higher temperature of 170 deg. C

  10. Factors affecting fin damage of farmed rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Cvetkovikj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the influence of the factors affecting fin damage under different rainbow trout production systems and to compare the findings with the known experimental reports. The study was based on a questionnaire that included information about the main factors i.e. oxygen level in exit water, water temperature, stocking density, daily feed ration, number of meals and grading frequency on seven rainbow trout farms. Standard multiple regression analysis, based on a previously published fi n damage dataset, was used to assess the relationship between the level of fin damage per fin and the factors. Daily feed ration received the strongest weight in the model for the caudal, anal and both pectoral fins, whereas number of meals received the strongest weight in the model for both pelvic fins. Grading frequency received the strongest weight only in the dorsal fin model. Lower levels of daily feed ration and number of meals combined with higher water temperature increased the level of fin damage, whereas stocking density had no effect. The results conform to the experimental research on fin damage in rainbow trout. The research model contributes to the overall assessment of fish welfare and the regression analysis used in this study could be used on rainbow trout farms to evaluate the effect of the main factors on the level of fin damage.

  11. Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

  12. A review of factors affecting vaccine preventable disease in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Ching, Michael S L

    2014-12-01

    Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided into government-funded "routine" (eg, polio, pertussis) and self-pay "voluntary" groups (eg, hepatitis A and B). Routine vaccines have higher rates of administration than voluntary vaccines. Administration factors include differences in well child care schedules, the approach to simultaneous vaccination, vaccination contraindication due to fever, and vaccination spacing. Parental factors include low intention to fully vaccinate their children and misperceptions about side effects and efficacy. There are also provider knowledge gaps regarding indications, adverse effects, interval, and simultaneous vaccination. These multifactorial issues combine to produce lower population immunization rates and a higher incidence of VPD than other developed countries. This article will provide insight into the current situation of Japanese vaccinations, the issues to be addressed and suggestions for public health promotion. PMID:25628969

  13. Factors Affecting Success and Complication of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

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    Soner Yalç?nkaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL is the first choice renal stones especially larger than 2 cm, and high success rates can be achieved after PNL. But several severe complications may be occurred. In this study, factors which affect the success rate and complications were investigated. Material and Method: Between July 2004 and August 2007, 176 patients (102 men/74 women underwent PNL operation. Because of the bilateral renal stones PNL was performed in two separate sessions of 9 patients. Percutaneous access was doing in prone position. Factors affecting the success and complication data were collected. Results: Mean age was 47.610,7 (17%uFFFD76 year, median=47. Complete success rate was detected 77.8% with the direct X-rays taken in the first postoperative day. The success rate was up to 87% after the additional post-treatment therapy. Success rates were 83.1% for complex stones and 89.4% for simple stones (p

  14. 11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Erdo?an

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality.Methods: Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively.Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery,operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN related complications.The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined.Findings: Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but notmortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section.Conclusion: In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

  15. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail. PMID:22530712

  16. Factors Affecting Longevity of Tunneled Central Venous Cathe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate factors which affect the longevity of tunneled central venous catheters (T-CVCs). A retrospective study was conducted on 363 T-CVCs. We evaluated the relevant factors affecting the longevity of the T-CVCs, such as age, gender, indication for catheterization, site of entry vessel, diameter and type of T-CVC, catheter tip position, and underlying diseases. Of the 363 T-CVCs which had been inserted, 331 (91%) were placed through the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The catheter tip position was the strongest predictor for the longevity of the T-CVC. The short limb of the catheter tip placed either at the cavoatrial junction (CA junction) or below the lower margin of the right main bronchus had a good prognosis. The vessel through which the T-CVC was placed significantly influenced the longevity of the T-CVC; the RIJV was associated with better results than the left internal jugular vein. Also, a split-type catheter was significantly associated with a better result. A two distinct and separate type T-CVC placed through the RIJV in which the short limb catheter tip position was at the level of the CA junction, significantly increased the longevity of T-CVCs.

  17. Factors Affecting Longevity of Tunneled Central Venous Cathe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate factors which affect the longevity of tunneled central venous catheters (T-CVCs). A retrospective study was conducted on 363 T-CVCs. We evaluated the relevant factors affecting the longevity of the T-CVCs, such as age, gender, indication for catheterization, site of entry vessel, diameter and type of T-CVC, catheter tip position, and underlying diseases. Of the 363 T-CVCs which had been inserted, 331 (91%) were placed through the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The catheter tip position was the strongest predictor for the longevity of the T-CVC. The short limb of the catheter tip placed either at the cavoatrial junction (CA junction) or below the lower margin of the right main bronchus had a good prognosis. The vessel through which the T-CVC was placed significantly influenced the longevity of the T-CVC; the RIJV was associated with better results than the left internal jugular vein. Also, a split-type catheter was significantly associated with a better result. A two distinct and separate type T-CVC placed through the RIJV in which the short limb catheter tip position was at the level of the CA junction, significantly increased the longevity of T-CVCs.

  18. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  19. Factors affecting the reproductive potential of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various factors that affect fertility were examined in high yielding dairy cows. In cows treated for the synchronization of oestrous cycles, manifestation of oestrus following synchronization treatment was affected by the body condition score in the winter; 74% of the cows had a low score. Primiparous cows that were thin or fat had a low conception rate. The conception rate of multiparous cows with different body condition scores did not differ in the winter. However, in the summer, thin, medium-low, medium-high and fat cows had a conception rate of 15, 36, 48 and 27%, respectively (P4) levels five days before the first post-partum AI affected conception rates. Primiparous cows with low (?2 ng/mL), medium (2.1-4.0 ng/mL) and high (?4.1 ng/mL) P4 levels had a conception rate of 28, 17 and 61%, respectively (P4 had a conception rate of 25, 46 and 52%, respectively (P<0.02). Cows in their fifth or later lactation that were fed straw as their sole roughage had a conception rate of 23% and a 120 day pregnancy rate of 23%. Cows of the same parities that were fed hay had a conception rate of 50% (P<0.05) and a pregnancy rate of 80% (P<0.005). (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

  20. Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diff therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the material. After exposure, the detectors were subjected to a chemical etching process. The detectors were washed, dried and after that, the tracks caused by alpha particle were counted using an optical Olympus microscope at magnification 600X. Using the track density produced the parameters like radon diffusion coefficients and diffusion lengths through these building construction materials have been calculated in each case under study. The results of present investigations provide better insight into the selection of building construction materials capable of controlling the indoor radon levels. (author)

  1. Systematic factors that affect ostrich egg incubation traits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Z., Brand; S.W.P., Cloete; C.R., Brown; I.A., Malecki.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock maintained at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate environmental and genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), water loss of incubated eggs up to 21 days (WL21), water loss up to 35 days (WL35), pipping time (PT) and weight of day-old chicks (C [...] WT). Between 13806 and 19913 artificially incubated ostrich eggs during the 2003 to 2006 production years were used. Systematic factors affecting these traits such as production year, breeding season, female age, incubator type, storage time and ostrich breed, were initially assessed in single-trait-analyses, using ASREML. Eggs and chicks produced by Zimbabwean Blue (ZB) females were 5 and 7% heavier, respectively, than those produced by South African Black (SAB) females. WL21 and WL35 were not significantly different between ZB and SAB birds. There were trends for within-season effects on EWT and CWT, but no general, robust trend applicable to all years could be discerned. Season had a significant effect on WL21, WL35 and PT. An increase was apparent in EWT, CWT and PT with an increase in female age. There was a linear increase in pipping time as egg storage time prior to incubation increased. Incubator type had an effect on WL21 and WL35. Systematic factors affect traits such as WL21, WL35 and PT and should be accounted for before the estimation of genetic parameters. These factors should be considered when planning commercial ostrich husbandry and artificial incubation operations.

  2. Geolocation by light: accuracy and precision affected by environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisovski, Simeon; Hewson, Chris M.

    2012-01-01

    1. Geolocation by light allows for tracking animal movements, based on measurements of light intensity over time by a data-logging device (‘geolocator’). Recent developments of ultra-light devices (<2 g) broadened the range of target species and boosted the number of studies using geolocators. However, an inherent problem of geolocators is that any factor or process that changes the natural light intensity pattern also affects the positions calculated from these light patterns. Although the most important factors have been identified, estimation of their effect on the accuracy and precision of positions estimated has been lacking but is very important for the analyses and interpretation of geolocator data. 2. The ‘threshold method’ is mainly used to derive positions by defining sunrise and sunset times from the light intensity pattern for each recorded day. This method requires calibration: a predefined sun elevation angle for estimating latitude by fitting the recorded day / night lengthsto theoretical values across latitudes. Therewith, almost constant shading can be corrected for by finding the appropriate sun elevation angle. 3. Weather, topography and vegetation are the most important factors that influence light intensities. We demonstrated their effect on the measurement of day /night length, time of solar midnight /noon and the resulting position estimates using light measurements from stationary geolocators at known places and from geolocators mounted on birds. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of different calibration methods on the accuracy of the latitudinal positions. 4. All three environmental factors can influence the light intensity pattern significantly. Weather and an animal’s behaviour result in increased noise in positioning, whereas topography and vegetation result in systematic shading and biased positions. Calibration can significantly shift the estimated latitudes and potentially increase the accuracy, but detailed knowledge about the particular confounding factors and the behaviour of the studied animal is crucial for the choice of the most appropriate calibration method.

  3. Crucial Factors Affecting Stress: A Study among Undergraduates in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Ud Din Khan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress is normally unavoidable part of everyone’s life living in this world. It portrays a negative notion that can have an impact on one’s mental and physical well-being. The core intention of this study was to detect the most influencing factors of stress affecting undergraduates. The four factors that had taken under consideration were Family stress, Emotional stress, Financial Stress and Social Stress. To accomplish this research stress inventory has developed using scientific methods. Respondents were undergraduate students of university with different demographics. Results has presented graphically, descriptively and inferentially using SPSS and Excel. Pearson’s chi-square and correlation has applied to verify the relationship between stress factors and demographics. Results show that living persuasively under strict rules and regulations can be a family stressor. Unavailability of best choices and paramount match to live with as a partner can be an emotional stress. Less income students find difficulty to spend money on buying and enjoying which is a predictor of financial stress. Pressurized life and squat admiration from people has lied under Social stress. Other verdicts are also deemed according to Pakistani cultural context.

  4. Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Tabatabaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated questionnaires. First a modified version of The Attitude/Motivation Test Battery Questionnaire (AMTB originally developed by Gardner (2004 was used to determine the degree of learners’ motivation. Second a modified version of Warrington's (2005 questionnaire was administered to determine the demotivating factors from the students' point of view. Then, the IOPT (Interchange Objective Placement Test was administered to measure the general proficiency of the subjects under study. The comparison of the IOPT score means of the two groups revealed a significant difference in the results of IOPT of students with higher scores in the AMTB and those with lower scores. That is, the more motivated the students were, the higher their IOPT scores were. Furthermore, factors such as the improper method of English teaching, frequency of classes in a week, problems in understanding listening materials and lack of use of English in students’ real life were found to be the essential demotivating factors among Iranian seminary students. Having known the barriers of learning, the teachers and Islamic Propagation Office materials developers can organize their activities so that they would lead to better understanding of the lessons and improvement of teaching programs.

  5. Factors Affecting Software Cost Estimation in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Javed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cost is the main driving factor for all projects. When it is done correctly, it helps in the successful completion of the project. In this research we have discussed various factors that affect the estimation procedure. These include team structure, team culture, managerial style, project type (Core application or integrated application, client’s working environment. Accurate estimation is far difficult in developing countries where most of the organizations follow local standards. These inaccurate estimations lead to late delivery, less profit or in worst case complete failure. Software requirement gathering, development, maintenance, quality assurance and cost of poor quality are major groups responsible for overall cost in software production process. The exact proportion among them varies significantly in consecutive software releases, which is caused by many factors. The ever increasing need for the reliability of the software systems, especially mission critical applications in the public safety domain, raises the bar for the accuracy of prediction and estimation techniques. The accuracy of estimations in many areas brings about more concerns regarding techniques already used in the software industry. Widely deployed techniques, such as Wideband Delphi method, stress the engineering and technical aspects of the process of how estimates are prepared.

  6. Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could be reduced approximately 200-fold at pH 6 as compared to pH 10, leaving only 0.1 mg/mL in solution. Solubility could also be dramatically manipulated using salts. The choice of anions was found to be more important than of the cations, and the lowest solubility was found using sodium sulphate. For the anions, solubility followed the order expected from the Hofmeister series, however, a more complex behaviour was seen for the cations. With the exception of lithium, their efficiency to influence the solubility was reversed to what was expected. The polydispersity of the solution was reduced by salt addition and zeta potential measurements indicated a shift in pI caused by lithium. Possible explanations for the observations are discussed, extending our present understanding of how salts affect the solubility of proteins, one that to date is primarily based on experiments with lysozyme. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors affecting regional per-capita carbon emissions in China based on an LMDI factor decomposition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model-panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity. PMID:24353753

  8. Factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Al-Fouzan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing a medical specialty can be either a daunting and confusing experience for some medical students and junior doctors or a foregone conclusion to others. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors affecting future specialty choice among medical students in Kuwait University. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from medical students registered in Kuwait University during the academic year 2011/2012. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between deciding a future specialty and students’ sociodemographic and academic factors. Results: Of the 422 students approached, 387 (91.7% decided to participate. A total of 144 (37.2% students made a decision regarding their choice of future medical specialty. Pediatrics, general surgery, and cardiology were the most desired specialties – 18 (12.5%, 17 (11.8%, and 16 (11.1% students requested these specialties, respectively. Only 61 (42.4% of those who selected a future specialty received advice regarding their choice. Looking for a good treatment outcome for patients (66; 45.8% and a challenging specialty (58; 40.3% were the most influencing incentives when selecting a future specialty. Students in the clinical phase of their study were 3.014 (95% CI: 1.498–6.065 more likely to report on their decision regarding a future specialty compared to students in the basic medical sciences phase (p=0.002. Conclusion : A variety of factors appeared to inspire medical students in Kuwait to choose a future medical specialty. When identified, these factors can be used by mentors of medical students and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are limited in Kuwait.

  9. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  10. SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively

  11. Investigation of factors affecting RNA-seq gene expression calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, Sahar; Phan, John H; Wang, May D

    2014-08-01

    RNA-seq enables quantification of the human transcriptome. Estimation of gene expression is a fundamental issue in the analysis of RNA-seq data. However, there is an inherent ambiguity in distinguishing between genes with very low expression and experimental or transcriptional noise. We conducted an exploratory investigation of some factors that may affect gene expression calls. We observed that the distribution of reads that map to exonic, intronic, and intergenic regions are distinct. These distributions may provide useful insights into the behavior of gene expression noise. Moreover, we observed that these distributions are qualitatively similar between two sequence mapping algorithms. Finally, we examined the relationship between gene length and gene expression calls, and observed that they are correlated. This preliminary investigation is important for RNA-seq gene expression analysis because it may lead to more effective algorithms for distinguishing between true gene expression and experimental or transcriptional noise. PMID:25571173

  12. Five Factors Affecting Stability and Security in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Alshammari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are five factors that affect security and stability in the Middle East. The first of these is the ticking bomb of sectarianism between the Sunni and Shiite strands of Islam, which have become more widespread in recent years due to the politisation of sectarian tensions and their transformation among some actors to a means to achieve political demands. Secondly, the impact of the Arab revolutions and the accompanying rise of Islamist groups through the new democratic tendencies encouraged by those revolutions. Thirdly, Iran’s behaviour through the use of both direct and indirect threats to several countries in the region. Fourthly, the existence of a fertile environment for terrorist groups in Yemen. Finally, the struggle between Arabs and Israelis over the existence of the State of Israel and the plight of the Palestinians. This article provides a clear set of linkages between these and investigates them with the intention of enhancing understanding and encouraging debate.

  13. Developing worksheet based on science process skills: Factors affecting solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye KARSLI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS. The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at Giresun University, Turkey. Action research methodology was used in this study. Thoughts from experts were received during the development of the worksheet. The study had some limitations in providing concrete evidence as to how the WS based on SPS effects the PST SPS, since the paper is a suggestion. For this reason, to investigate its effectiveness in a comparative manner, further research should be undertaken.

  14. Factors affecting CFC end-user conversion to substitute products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the issues facing CFC end-users as they convert to non-CFC systems. The various end use applications for CFCs are quite diverse (e.g., refrigerants, blowing agents foam plastics, aerosol propellant, solvent cleaning); each of the applications will likely have different substitute solutions. For most applications there appears to be both a short-term and long-term solution to the problem, whereas in other applications no suitable replacement for CFCs are apparent. Other fluorocarbons, (i.e., HCFCs and HCFs) are under consideration for many applications. Some of the factors to be addressed that affect the conversion time include: substitute performance in end use application, equipment conversions required to use the substitutes, as well as commercial availability of substitutes

  15. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    Sohail, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

  16. Major factors affecting severity of obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Boo-Young; Han, Jung Ju; Hwang, Jae Hyung; Jung, Kihwan; Kim, Min; Kim, Soo Whan

    2015-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become a common method for evaluating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between CT parameters and clinical parameters in OSA patients to determine major factors affecting the severity of OSA. The records of 128 consecutive snoring patients (98 males, 30 females) diagnosed with OSA were retrospectively reviewed. Polysomnography was performed for each patient. On CT scans, airway areas were measured at the level of the hard palate, the soft palate, and the base of the tongue. Polysomnographic parameters were compared by gender and age using the Mann-Whitney U test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to analyze relationships between variables and the AHI in each age group. The women were significantly older than the men (p epidemiological characteristics and anatomical structures. PMID:25621265

  17. Factors Affecting Treatment Seeking Behaviour of Individuals with Locomotor Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhyegurjar Mansi S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among the different types of disabilities, the prevalence of locomotor disability is highest in the country. Quality of life and disability limitation is affected by the availability and utility of rehabilitative services. Thus knowledge of the treatment seeking behaviour will help in implementing successful intervention programmes. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional observation study was conducted in an urban slum of Mumbai. Total sample of 3665 individuals were screened. 205 were identified with loco motor disabilities who were subjected to a structured questionnaire. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months. The data was analysed using SPSS software (Version 17. 95 % confidence limits for prevalence was calculated to estimate the prevalence in the general population and Chi-square test was applied to identify the association between two variables. Results: The prevalence of loco motor disabilities is found to be 5.59 %. Females were more affected than the males.75% of the sample was unemployed and 49.3 % was illiterate. Utility of rehabilitative services was found to be poor (35.6%. 50.7 % of these were treated by General practitioners. Very few approached speciality rehabilitative services. Low literacy levels and poor awareness of rehabilitation facilities were the major factors affecting treatment seeking pattern of individuals with locomotor disability (p<0.001 Conclusion: Improving literacy rates, developing community based rehabilitation services and training medical under-graduates, creating awareness regarding the available facilities, will lead to greater utilization of rehabilitative services and thus early diagnosis and disability limitation. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 145-148

  18. Factors affecting job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the futuors involving job satisfaction in the future

  19. Evaluation of hydraulic factors affecting flow accelerated corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is known as a complex phenomena of hydraulics and electro-chemicals. Essential mechanism of the hydraulic factors affecting FAC is the mass transfer of ferrous ions dissolved from the pipe surface. To predict the FAC rate in susceptible pipe elements, evaluation of the mass transfer in those geometry with eccentric flow is required. For this purpose, new model of mass transfer coefficient was proposed by combining knowledges of previous studies and consideration of local turbulent velocity. In this process, Chilton-Colburn analogy of heat and mass transfer and Blasius' friction factor were referred to. To validate the model, FAC experiment and flow numerical calculation were conducted. In the experiment, carbon steel test specimens were set in the downstream of a flow contraction in small rectangular flow ducts, and FAC rate profiles on the specimens were observed in PWR condensate condition. In the calculation, flow field for the experiment was calculated with the in-house code 'MATIS-I' utilizing LES turbulence model, and mean and turbulent velocity profiles on the specimen's surface were evaluated. By comparing these results, the new mass transfer coefficient showed good correlation with the local FAC rate, and the effect of introducing the turbulent velocity to the model was confirmed. (author)

  20. Total-factor energy efficiency in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses a total-factor framework to investigate energy efficiency in 23 developing countries during the period of 1980-2005. We explore the total-factor energy efficiency and change trends by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) window, which is capable of measuring efficiency in cross-sectional and time-varying data. The empirical results indicate that Botswana, Mexico and Panama perform the best in terms of energy efficiency, whereas Kenya, Sri Lanka, Syria and the Philippines perform the worst during the entire research period. Seven countries show little change in energy efficiency over time. Eleven countries experienced continuous decreases in energy efficiency. Among five countries witnessing continuous increase in total-factor energy efficiency, China experienced the most rapid rise. Practice in China indicates that effective energy policies play a crucial role in improving energy efficiency. Tobit regression analysis indicates that a U-shaped relationship exists between total-factor energy efficiency and income per capita. - Research Highlights: ? To measure the total-factor energy efficiency using DEA window analysis. ? Focus on an application area of developing countries in the period of 1980-2005. ? A U-shaped relationship was found between total-factor energy efficiency and income.

  1. Studies and Research on Friction, Friction Factor and Affecting Factors : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil J. Kulkarni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The friction and friction factors are very significant factors in flow through pipes, channels, heat exchangers . From the pumping cost point of view, minimum friction is desirable as it will decrease the energy loss. In the rotating components like axle-shaft arrangements, the friction and slip are important factors. In case of heat exchanger, the friction factor is important as the heat transfer depends on it. The research was also reported on effect of submerged vegetation on friction for river. The friction coefficient was a function of flow depth and velocity. Also various models were suggested by investigators to predict friction coefficient based on their research related to factors affecting the friction coefficient and the nature and gravity of their effect on friction.

  2. Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposiate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

  3. Clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chae Min; Yang, Sun Hye; Lee, Sun Pyo; Hwang, Byung Chul

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical factors affecting the timing of delivery in twin pregnancies in order to minimize perinatal complications. Methods A retrospective study involved 163 twin pregnancies delivered from January 2006 to September 2011 at Gachon University Gil Medical Center. These cases were divided into three groups based on the delivery timing: less than 32 weeks' gestation (group A), between 32 and 35+6 weeks' gestation (group B), and over 36 weeks' gestation (group C). Clinical factors including maternal age, parity, presence of premature uterine contraction, presence of premature rupture of membrane, white blood cell, high sensitive C-reactive protein level, cervical dilatation, maternal complication, chorionicity, twin specific complication, and perinatal complication were analyzed for each group. Results In group B, the timing of delivery was postponed for 14 days or more from the time of admission, and there were fewer numbers of babies with low Apgar score at birth compared with other groups. The frequency of uterine contraction (P<0.001), presence of premature rupture of membranes (P=0.017), dilatation of cervix (P<0.001), increased white blood cell and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels (P=0.002, P<0.001) were important clinical factors during decision making process of delivery timing in twin pregnancies. Twin specific fetal conditions, such as twin-twin transfusion syndrome and discordant growth (over 25% or more) were shown more frequently in group A. However, there were no significant statistical differences among three groups (P=0.06, P=0.14). Conclusion Proper management for preventing premature contraction and inflammation can be essential in twin pregnancies until 32 weeks' gestation, and may decrease maternal and perinatal complications. PMID:25469330

  4. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku are definedtogether withshowing the optimal ways of development.

  5. Geographical factors affecting variability of precipitation regime in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabziparvar, A. A.; Movahedi, S.; Asakereh, H.; Maryanaji, Z.; Masoodian, S. A.

    2015-04-01

    This study compares the precipitation regimes by using harmonic analysis during the last four decades (1965-2004). We used the measured precipitation data from 428 rain-gauge sites and weather stations distributed across Iran by applying 15 × 15 km spatial grids to generate the interpolated data. Data validations were carried out by statistical tests. In this study, first three harmonics of precipitation variances were evaluated. Variability of precipitation regime was explored by using three harmonic analysis methods. In addition, the effect of geographical factors (GF) (site elevation, latitude, and longitude) affecting the precipitation regime (P) was verified by multivariate regression method. The resulted regression equation between P and GF for spring showed the highest correlation coefficient ( r = 0.79). For other seasons, r was lower than for spring and varied between 0.26 (summer) to 0.58 (autumn). Analysis of the first harmonic proved that the main precipitation regime in Iran tends to concentrate in one specific season (winter) as a result of large-scale Mediterranean systems passing over the country. In other words, the first harmonic is able to explain most of the precipitation variations which are caused by large-scale atmospheric circulation. For all the three harmonics, variances of precipitation were mainly a function of the geographical factors. This effect was more evident in the third harmonic; in such a way that increasing the latitudes caused higher precipitation variance. This means that the precipitation regime in northern sites is more sensitive to the local factors than those of southern sites. The results of this research can be used for reliable estimation of precipitation in ungauged sites.

  6. Factors affecting the selection of tour destination in Bangladesh:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shah Azam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Although multifaceted problems are causing the frustrating scenario of the country’s tourism sector, Bangladesh has the potentials to develop its tourism sector and earn huge foreign currency and generate employment opportunities like the neighboring countries, such as India, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Nepal who attract substantial number of tourists every year and thus generates huge amount of foreign currencies. The paper looks at different preferences of the tourist and examines the tour intention in selecting different tour destination. The study utilizes both exploratory and empirical research approach. The study collects data through interview with a structured self-administered questionnaire from 146 tourists, in utilizing convenient sampling technique. A multiple regression model was estimated to examine the effects of different factors on the tourists tour intention where nine factors related to different aspects of tourism such as service quality, natural beauty, known destination, convenient lodging, adventure, security, effective and efficient transportation, safe and quality food and shopping facility were used as indigenous variables where tour intention was used as exogenous variable of the model.  The regression result shows that Service quality, Natural Beauty, Security and Shopping Facility are statistically significant indicating 24.6% of the variation in explaining the intention to select a tour destination in Bangladesh. The study outlines some policy implications.

  7. Factors Affecting Detection Probability of Acoustic Tags in Coral Reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Bermudez, Edgar F.

    2012-05-01

    Acoustic telemetry is an important tool for studying the movement patterns, behaviour, and site fidelity of marine organisms; however, its application is challenged in coral reef environments where complex topography and intense environmental noise interferes with acoustic signals, and there has been less study. Therefore, it is particularly critical in coral reef telemetry studies to first conduct a long-term range test, a tool that provides informa- tion on the variability and periodicity of the transmitter detection range and the detection probability. A one-month range test of a coded telemetric system was conducted prior to a large-scale tagging project investigating the movement of approximately 400 fishes from 30 species on offshore coral reefs in the central Red Sea. During this range test we determined the effect of the following factors on transmitter detection efficiency: distance from receiver, time of day, depth, wind, current, moon-phase and temperature. The experiment showed that biological noise is likely to be responsible for a diel pattern of -on average- twice as many detections during the day as during the night. Biological noise appears to be the most important noise source in coral reefs overwhelming the effect of wind-driven noise, which is important in other studies. Detection probability is also heavily influenced by the location of the acoustic sensor within the reef structure. Understanding the effect of environmental factors on transmitter detection probability allowed us to design a more effective receiver array for the large-scale tagging study.

  8. 29 CFR 784.118 - The exemption is intended for work affected by natural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...work affected by natural factors. 784.118 Section...INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS PROVISIONS...OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions...Fishing and Aquatic Products General Character...affected by natural factors. As...

  9. Analysis of Factors Affecting the Quality of an E-commerce Website Using Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Mishra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors which affect the quality and effectiveness of an e commerce website which also majorly affect customer satisfaction and ultimately customer retention and loyalty. This research paper examines a set of 23 variables and integrates them into 4 factors which affect the quality of a website. An online questionnaire survey was conducted to generate statistics regarding the preferences of the e-commerce website users.The 23 variables taken from customer survey are generalized into 4 major factors using exploratory factor analysis which are content, navigation, services and interface design. The research majorly consists of the responses of students between the age group of 18-25 years and considers different B2C commercial websites. Identified variables are important with respect to the current competition in the market as service of an e-commerce website also play a major role in ensuring customer satisfaction. Further research in this domain can be done for websites’ version for mobile devices.

  10. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  11. Total-factor energy productivity growth, technical progress, and efficiency change: An empirical study of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article introduces total-factor energy productivity change index (TFEPI) based on the concept of total-factor energy efficiency and the Luenberger productivity index to evaluate the energy productivity change of regions in China with a total-factor framework. Moreover, the TFEPI can be decomposed into change in energy efficiency and shift in the energy use technology. According to the computation results, China's energy productivity was decreasing by 1.4% per year during 2000-2004. The average total-factor energy efficiency improves about 0.6% per year, while total-factor energy technical change declines progressively 2% annually. The factors affecting TFEPI are also examined: (1) The east area has a higher TFEPI than the central and west area; (2) increasing the development status and electricity share of energy consumption will improve the region's TFEPI performance, while increasing the proportion of GDP generated by the secondary industry deteriorates TFEPI of a region.

  12. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols.

  13. Rabbit milk: A review of quantity, quality and non-dietary affecting factors

    OpenAIRE

    Maertens, L; Lebas, F.; Szendro, Zs.

    2006-01-01

    This literature review focuses on the milk yield and milk composition of rabbits and the non-nutritional factors affecting both quantity and quality. Actual highly efficient hybrid does have an average daily milk yield of 250 g or 60 g/kg of live weight during the 4-weeks lactation period. However, compared with cow and sow milk, rabbit's milk is much more concentrated in fat (12.9 g/100 g), protein (12.3 g/100 g) and energy (8.4 MJ/kg) which explains the extremely rapid growth of the young (...

  14. Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct identification from the surface measurements.

  15. Assess the Main Factors Affecting the International Marina of Taba Heights at the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hamza Hasan

    2014-01-01

    The increase in maritime traffic means that ports have to continuously improve their efficiency. This involves reducing the inactivity caused by adverse conditions that affect its operation and maintenance which includes the sedimentation rate, the shallow depth, water current regimes and tidal cycle. This study examines the hypothesis that these factors could affect Taba Heights international marina. The results showed that the harbor offered very good protection against sed...

  16. Factores grupales que inciden en la productividad / Group factors affecting productivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cequea, Mirza Marvel; Miguel, Núñez Bottini; Carlos, Rodríguez-Monroy.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las organizaciones en la actualidad están sometidas permanentemente a cambios acelerados, obligándolas a incrementar su flexibilidad y adaptabilidad para mantener su posición competitiva, sobrevivir a estas presiones lograr sus objetivos y ser más productivas. Por estas razones, la productividad del [...] factor humano es fundamental, ya que son las personas las que realizan los procesos creativos que generan resultados en las organizaciones. Cuando las personas interactúan en la organización se generan unos procesos de carácter psicosocial que incide en el desempeño de individuos, grupos y organización y se denominan Factores grupales, porque son producto de la actuación de las personas en grupos de trabajo. Dichos factores tienen impacto en la productividad, por lo que resulta de interés el estudio de estas relaciones. Con el fin de analizar este impacto, se presenta relaciones Factores Grupales-Productividad, mediante un Modelo de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM), donde los Factores Grupales y la Productividad son constructos o variables latentes explicadas por variables observables o indicadores. El modelo planteado, es aceptado de acuerdo con los índices globales de ajuste y a las cargas factoriales de las variables del modelo resultante. Se corroboró que los factores grupales, tales como Cohesión, Conflicto, Consenso y Moral, inciden en la productividad. Abstract in english Organizations today are undergoing rapid change permanently, forcing them to increase their flexibility and adaptability to stay competitive, to survive these pressures, achieve their goals and be more productive. For these reasons, the productivity of the human factor is critical because it is the [...] people doing the creative processes those results in organizations. When people interact in the organization are a generated psychosocial process that affects the performance of individuals, groups and organization and are called group factors, because they are the product of individual behavior in work groups. These factors have an impact on productivity, so it is interesting to study these relationships. To analyze this impact is presented group factors-productivity relationships through a Structural Equation Model (SEM), where the group factors and productivity are constructs or latent variables explained by observable variables or indicators. The proposed model is accepted in accordance with the global fit indices and factor loadings of the variables of the resulting model. It was confirmed that the group factors, such as Cohesion, Conflict, Consensus and Moral affect productivity.

  17. Factors affecting hospital mortality in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mohammed

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective analysis studied the records of 564 consecutive patients admitted to Gastrointestinal Bleeding Unit of Riyadh Medical Complex with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding over a 2-year period (May 1996-April 1998. The purpose of the study was to analyze the mortality with an aim to identify the risk factors affecting mortality in these patients. Majority of patients were men (82% and Saudis (54%. Their mean age was 52.46 + 17.8 years. Esophageal varices (45% were the main causes of bleeding followed by duodenal ulcers (24%. Overall mortality in this series was 15.8% (89 patients. Comorbid diseases were responsible for death in 68 (76% patients, whereas, bleeding was considered to be directly responsible for death in 21 (24% patients. On analysis of data from this study, old age (>60 years, systolic pressure < 90 mm Hg on admission, comorbid disease, variceal bleeding and Child?s grade C in patients with chronic liver disease were associated with adverse outcome.

  18. Potential factors affecting accumulation of unsupported 210Pb in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne 210Pb, daughter of 222Rn, is frequently used as a tracer in different studies concerning atmospheric transport, sedimentation, soil erosion, dating, etc. Concentration of 210Pb was measured in 40 soil samples collected in urban and industrial areas in order to get evidence of possible influence of some factors on accumulation of airborne 210Pb in soil. Different soil properties such as the content of organic matter, free CaCO3, and available phosphorus (P2O5) were measured to explore their possible correlation with the amount of 210Pb. Special attention was given to the correlation between 210Pb and stable lead accumulated in the soil. Several samples were taken near a battery manufacturer to check if extremely high concentrations of lead can affect the uptake of the airborne 210Pb in soil. Soil samples were also taken at different depths to investigate the penetration of lead through the soil. - Highlights: • 210Pb and 137Cs were measured in samples of urban soil. • Organic matter, free CaCO3 content, available phosphorus, and lead were measured in soil samples. • There is no statistically significant correlation between 210Pb and lead, CaCO3 and phosphorus. • A strong positive correlation between 210Pb and organic matter was observed

  19. Hydrologic and geologic factors affecting land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    At an extensometer site near Eloy, Arizona, 1.09 m of land subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal were measured by leveling in 1965-83. The extensometer, which partially penetrates the compressible sediments, recorded 0.82 m of compaction during the same period. By use of a one-dimensional model, cumulative daily compaction values were simulated to within an average of 0.0038 m of the actual values. Land subsidence was simulated to within an average of 0.011 m using the same model in conjunction with geohydrologic data of the sediments below the extensometer. A highly compressible clay layer that is 24.38 m thick was partially penetrated by the extensometer. The simulation indicated that the layer was driving compaction and land subsidence linearly with respect to time, despite the presence of other compacting layers. Because of its thickness and compressibility, this layer can be expected to continue to compact after applied vertical stresses have stopped increasing and other layers have stopped compacting. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the compressibility of fine-grained sediments (expressed as specific storage) is one of the factors to which compact is most sensitive. Preconsolidation stress and hydraulic conductivity also affect land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Factors Affecting Mandatory Audit Rotation: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munther Al-Nimer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to examine the effect of specific contingency variables upon mandatory audit rotation represented by external auditor rotation, namely; audit independence, financial interests, audit Fees, and litigation from the perception of external auditors. The study contribution based on tackling debatable subject and its importance as most the studies examined the external auditor rotation as independent variable and attempted to find out its effect on audit quality through audit independence. In addition, by examine the effect from the external auditor’s perception. In order to attain the study objectives the study utilized a questionnaire. The study population consists from the Jordanian audit firms including big four audit firms and the sample will be selected randomly with taking into account comprising the big four. The study distributed 80 questionnaires, the returned and accepted for analyzing questionnaires were 52 questionnaires which gives 65% respond rate. The study indicated that the following variables audit independence, financial interests, litigation have a significant impact on the external auditor rotation in the Jordanian audit firms. In addition, the study indicated that there is insignificant impact of audit fees variable upon external auditor rotation. As accumulated impact of all the examined variables the study revealed that there is significant impact between on factors influence of the audit and external auditor rotation. Finally, the study suggested carrying out more studies on this subject by tackling more variables which might affect audit rotation.

  1. Non-auditory factors affecting urban soundscape evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Hong, Joo Young; Cabrera, Densil

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception. PMID:22225033

  2. Factors affecting the motivation of smokers to quit smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis K.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available smoking. Success of smoking cessation depends mainly on the balance between motivation and the degree of nicotine dependence. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting the motivation of smokers to stop smoking. Method: Data were collected from 139 smokers, aged 18-69 divided in two groups. Questionnaires were completed about the demographic data, smoking history, anthropometric characteristics, degree of nicotine dependence, motivation degree and alcohol consumption. Results: Body Mass Index was positively correlated with the dependence degree and heavy smoking, while those who were overweight in adolescence showed a lower degree of motivation for smoking cessation. Individuals with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption, those who smoked in their working environment and were heavier smokers needed greater motivation. The low degree of dependence was associated with a lower degree of motivation, while those who showed medium dependence were moderately motivated. Conclusions: Health care professionals should take into account all the above components with the aim of motivating smokers to stop smoking.

  3. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of starch in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, P; O'Dea, K

    1981-12-01

    After accurate determination of the content of available carbohydrate in a wide variety of cereals, as in vitro method was used to study factors that influence hydrolysis rates of starch in foods. Fiber, physical form, cooking, and the possible presence of a natural amylase inhibitor were all shown to affect hydrolysis rates of starch. Fiber only exerted an inhibiting effect on the rate of hydrolysis when it formed a physical barrier to limit access of the hydrolytic enzymes to the starch (as in whole brown rice, for example). Particle size played an important role in determining the rate of hydrolysis. Cooking made the starch much more readily available for enzymic hydrolysis presumably by gelatinizing it. Stoneground wholemeal flour was hydrolyzed more slowly than white flour. This is consistent with the presence of a natural amylase inhibitor that has been isolated from wheat germ in the whole grain. Our results suggest that such amylase inhibitor activity is destroyed by passage through the roller mill, since the starch in wheat germ and standard wholemeal flour (i.e., not stoneground but reconstituted after passage through the roller mill) was hydrolyzed at a rate identical to white flour. PMID:6172034

  4. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  5. Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, K M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

  6. [Aerodynamic parameters and their affecting factors over Panjin reed wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qi-Jin; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yun-Long

    2008-03-01

    Based on the observation data from eddy covariance tower and meteorological gradient tower in Panjin reed wetland observation plot, and by the method combined eddy covariance with microclimate gradient observation, two fundamental aerodynamic parameters, i. e., zero-plane displacement (d) and roughness length (z0), were evaluated, with their affecting factors analyzed. The results showed that the method adopted was suitable for estimating the aerodynamic parameters. There existed obvious seasonal variations in d and z0, with the maximum (1.85 and 0.24 m) in September and the minimum (0.02 and 0.03 m) in December, respectively. The seasonal variations were closely related to vegetation characteristics, plant height (h) and leaf area index (LAI). There was a close linear relationship between d and h, and a conic relationship between z0 and h. Both d/h and d/z0 had power relationships with LAI, and the R2 values were 0.99 and 0.78, respectively. PMID:18533513

  7. Factors affecting development of a motion imagery quality metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, John M.; Fenimore, Charles; Cannon, David; Roberts, John; Israel, Steven A.; Simon, Larry; Watts, Charles; Miller, James D.; Aviles, Ana I.; Tighe, Paul F.; Behrens, Richard J.; Haverkamp, Donna

    2005-05-01

    The motion imagery community would benefit from the availability of standard measures for assessing image interpretability. The National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) has served as a community standard for still imagery, but no comparable scale exists for motion imagery. Several considerations unique to motion imagery indicate that the standard methodology employed in the past for NIIRS development may not be applicable or, at a minimum, require modifications. Traditional methods for NIIRS development rely on a close linkage between perceived image quality, as captured by specific image interpretation tasks, and the sensor parameters associated with image acquisition. The dynamic nature of motion imagery suggests that this type of linkage may not exist or may be modulated by other factors. An initial study was conducted to understand the effects target motion, camera motion, and scene complexity have on perceived image interpretability for motion imagery. This paper summarizes the findings from this evaluation. In addition, several issues emerged that require further investigation: - The effect of frame rate on the perceived interpretability of motion imagery - Interactions between color and target motion which could affect perceived interpretability - The relationships among resolution, viewing geometry, and image interpretability - The ability of an analyst to satisfy specific image exploitation tasks relative to different types of motion imagery clips Plans are being developed to address each of these issues through direct evaluations. This paper discusses each of these concerns, presents the plans for evaluations, and explores the implications for development of a motion imagery quality metric.

  8. Factors Affecting the Habitability of Earth-like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria; NAI-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team

    2014-03-01

    Habitability is a measure of an environment's potential to support life. For exoplanets, the concept of habitability can be used broadly - to inform our calculations of the possibility and distribution of life elsewhere - or as a practical tool to inform mission designs and to prioritize specific targets in the search for extrasolar life. Although a planet's habitability does depend critically on the effect of stellar type and planetary semi-major axis on climate balance, work in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology has identified many additional factors that can affect a planet's environment and its potential ability to support life. Life requires material for metabolism and structures, a liquid medium for chemical transport, and an energy source to drive metabolism and other life processes. Whether a planet's surface or sub-surface can provide these requirements is the result of numerous planetary and astrophysical processes that affect the planet's formation and evolution. Many of these factors are interdependent, and fall into three main categories: stellar effects, planetary effects and planetary system effects. Key abiotic processes affecting the resultant planetary environment include photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2003; 2005), stellar effects on climate balance (e.g. Joshii et al., 2012; Shields et al., 2013), atmospheric loss (e.g. Lopez and Fortney, 2013), and gravitational interactions with the star (e.g. Barnes et al., 2013). In many cases, the effect of these processes is strongly dependent on a specific planet's existing environmental properties. Examples include the resultant UV flux at a planetary surface as a product of stellar activity and the strength of a planet's atmospheric UV shield (Segura et al., 2010); and the amount of tidal energy available to a planet to drive plate tectonics and heat the surface (Barnes et al., 2009), which is in turn due to a combination of stellar mass, planetary mass and composition, planetary orbital parameters and the gravitational influence of other planets in the system. A thorough assessment of a planet's environment and its potential habitability is a necessary first step in the search for biosignatures. Targeted environmental characteristics include surface temperature and pressure (e.g. Misra et al., 2013), a census of bulk and trace atmospheric gases, and whether there are signs of liquid water on the planetary surface (e.g. Robinson et al., 2010). The robustness of a planetary biosignature is dependent on being able to characterize the environment sufficiently well, and to understand likely star-planet interactions, to preclude formation of a biosignature gas via abiotic processes such as photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2007; Domagal-Goldman et al., 2011; Grenfell et al., 2012). Here we also discuss potential false positives for O2 and O3, which, in large quantities, are often considered robust biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. There is clearly significant future work required to better identify and understand the key environmental processes and interactions that allow a planet to support life, and to distinguish life's global impact on an environment from the environment itself.

  9. An Exploration of Viral Transfer Efficiency Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, F. J.; Julian, T.; Boehm, A.

    2008-12-01

    Viruses exist on common household surfaces and persist on them (Abad 1994, Rusin 2002). In addition to this, they are able to transfer from surface to surface, and when in contact with humans, can cause illness. In a previous study, we were able to test out the transfer efficiencies of three different phages. Transfer efficiency is defined as follows: Transfer Efficiency: Phage recovered from surface 2 / (Phage recovered from surface 2 + Phage recovered from surface 1) The phages tested have similar size and shape, but vary in isoelectric points and route of infection (Maier 2000). Preliminary studies have suggested that the transfer efficiencies for each phage may be different. Because of this, we are investigating what is the cause of this difference in phage transfer. Two possibilities for these differences are the phage's properties and the cotton tip swab elution from each surface. Using the statistical method known as the student t-test and the experimental methods for phage elution and a double agar overlay phage enumeration, we examined whether the cotton tip swab elution was responsible for phage transfer differences.

  10. Factors affecting the moisture permeability of lipid-based edible films: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillon, Valérie; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Blond, Geneviève; Capelle, Martine; Voilley, Andrée

    2002-01-01

    Moisture transfers inside food products could be controlled or limited by the use of edible films. These are usually based on hydrophobic substances such as lipids to improve barrier efficiency. Water permeability of films is affected by many factors, depending on both the nature of barrier components, the film structure (homogeneous, emulsion, multilayer, etc.), crystal type, shape, size and distribution of lipids, and thermodynamics such as temperature, vapor pressure, or the physical state of water in contact to the films. After a brief presentation of lipids and hydrophobic substances used as moisture barrier, cited in the scientific literature, this article reviews all of the parameters affecting barrier performances of edible films and coatings. PMID:11833637

  11. Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2013-01-01

    In this review, our aim was to examine the influence of geographic variations on asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults, which is important for improving our understanding, identifying the burden, and for developing and implementing interventions aimed at reducing asthma morbidity. Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease of multifactorial origin, and is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The disparities in asthma prevalence and morbidity among the world's geographic locations are more likely to be associated with environmental exposures than genetic differences. In writing this article, we found that the indoor factors most consistently associated with asthma and asthma-related symptoms in adults included fuel combustion, mold growth, and environmental tobacco smoke in both urban and rural areas. Asthma and asthma-related symptoms occurred more frequently in urban than in rural areas, and that difference correlated with environmental risk exposures, SES, and healthcare access. Environmental risk factors to which urban adults were more frequently exposed than rural adults were dust mites,high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle.Exposure to indoor biological contaminants in the urban environment is common.The main risk factors for developing asthma in urban areas are atopy and allergy to house dust mites, followed by allergens from animal dander. House dust mite exposure may potentially explain differences in diagnosis of asthma prevalence and morbidity among adults in urban vs. rural areas. In addition, the prevalence of asthma morbidity increases with urbanization. High levels of vehicle emissions,Western lifestyles and degree of urbanization itself, may affect outdoor and thereby indoor air quality. In urban areas, biomass fuels have been widely replaced by cleaner energy sources at home, such as gas and electricity, but in most developing countries, coal is still a major source of fuel for cooking and heating, particularly in winter. Moreover, exposure to ETS is common at home or at work in urban areas.There is evidence that asthma prevalence and morbidity is less common in rural than in urban areas. The possible reasons are that rural residents are exposed early in life to stables and to farm milk production, and such exposures are protective against developing asthma morbidity. Even so, asthma morbidity is disproportionately high among poor inner-city residents and in rural populations. A higher proportion of adult residents of nonmetropolitan areas were characterized as follows:aged 55 years or older, no previous college admission, low household income, no health insurance coverage, and could not see a doctor due to healthcare service availability, etc. In rural areas, biomass fuels meet more than 70% of the rural energy needs. Progress in adopting modern energy sources in rural areas has been slow. The most direct health impact comes from household energy use among the poor, who depend almost entirely on burning biomass fuels in simple cooking devices that are placed in inadequately ventilated spaces. Prospective studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biomass smoke on lung health among adults in rural areas.Geographic differences in asthma susceptibility exist around the world. The reason for the differences in asthma prevalence in rural and urban areas may be due to the fact that populations have different lifestyles and cultures, as well as different environmental exposures and different genetic backgrounds. Identifying geographic disparities in asthma hospitalizations is critical to implementing prevention strategies,reducing morbidity, and improving healthcare financing for clinical asthma treatment. Although evidence shows that differences in the prevalence of asthma do exist between urban and rural dwellers in many parts of the world, including in developed countries, data are inadequate to evaluate the extent to which different pollutant exposures contribute to asthma morbidity and severity of asthma between urban and rural areas. PMID:23625129

  12. Factors affecting the next generation of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For both financial, environmental and health reasons, and because of external and internal factors affecting this nation's energy supply, nuclear power will likely play a part in supplying this nation's energy in the coming decades. I believe this to be true for some other parts of the world as well. Even some severe critics of the nuclear power industry and the NRC might agree with me on this point. Increasing concern with the environmental consequences of the burning of fossil fuels has led some former opponents of the use of nuclear power to balance anew the risks and benefits of nuclear power and to modify to some degree their former opposition. A related concern with the adequacy of the energy supply is leading others to modify their positions. According to analyses done by the U.S. Department of Energy, after 1994 the United States will no longer be able to assure all its citizens a reliable supply of electricity. Already, many areas of the country are in need of additional electric capacity. In both Sweden and Switzerland, similar concerns have led to the adoption by many of more compromising positions. Some critics of nuclear power may in the end still reject it as an alternative, but, with the increased pressures on the environment and on our energy supply, nuclear power is an alternative which cannot be rejected without the most serious consideration. This should be, I believe, a point of consensus among us. In sum, there is a future for nuclear power in the sense that there is a use for it

  13. Factors potentially affecting fertility of lactating dairy cow recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, J L M; Demétrio, D G B; Santos, R M; Chiari, J R; Rodrigues, C A; Sá Filho, O G

    2006-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to evaluate factors that could affect pregnancy rate after embryo transfer (ET) in lactating dairy cow recipients. The trial was conducted at a dairy farm located in Descalvado, SP, Brazil from October 2003 to September 2004. From 1037 cows with CL that were treated with an injection of PGF2alpha, 43.3% were detected in heat; 263 were previously assigned at day of PGF2alpha injection for AI and 186 for ET. Ovulation rate was 85.7% (385/449). Pregnancy rate for cows with CL for AI and embryo transfer recipients were 36.5% (84/230) and 58.7% (91/155) at day 25 and 33.0% (76/230) and 45.8% (71/155) at day 46, respectively. Embryonic loss were 9.5% (8/84) for the AI group and 21.9% (20/91) for the ET group. Average milk production was 31.4 L/day/cow. Average daily milk production from 7 days before PGF2alpha injection to 7 days after ET tended (P milk production from the day of embryo transfer to 7 days after influenced embryonic loss (P milk production had lower probability of pregnancy and higher probability of embryonic loss. Cows with higher days in milk had higher probability of pregnancy. Cows with higher rectal body temperature had lower probability of pregnancy and higher probability of embryonic loss. The influence of high milk yield and body temperature on fertility in lactating dairy cow recipients suggests that these effects can occur also after embryo reaches the blastocyst stage. PMID:16290259

  14. Environmental Factors Affecting Performance Traits of Sahiwal Cattle in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rehman*§ and M. S. Khan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on 23925 lactations of 5897 Sahiwal cows in five Government herds of Punjab (Pakistan viz. Livestock Experiment Station (LES Allahdad, LES Bahadurnagar, LES Fazalpur, LES Jahangirabad and LES Khizerabad (1964-2004 were collected to document the behavior of various productive and reproductive traits of Sahiwal cows with respect to herd, year and season of calving and parity. A linear model was used to determine the effects of various environmental factors on performance traits. The 305-day milk yield, total milk yield, lactation length, dry period, calving interval and service period averaged 1530.5±12.36 kg, 1552.1±12.15 kg, 235±1.4 days, 218±2.1 days, 438±2.7 days and 151±2.8 days, respectively. All the productive and reproductive traits were affected (P<0.01 by herd, year, season of calving and parity. Lactation length was important covariable for yield traits while yield was important for dry period, service period and calving interval. Maximum yield was recorded for 5th parity cows. Calving interval differed by two months among herds. Cows calving in most frequent calving season (winter produced more milk than summer calvers (1608.6±12.91 kg vs 1474.1±13.63 kg. The phenotypic trends for 305-day milk yield, total milk yield, lactation length, dry period, calving interval and service period were -1.33 kg, -0.21 kg, -1.27 days, +1.52 days, +0.32 days and +0.59 days, respectively. Lactation length (244.5 days was used as covariable. Improvement in feeding and breeding management and culling on productivity may improve the performance of Sahiwal cows.

  15. Factors affecting lactate and malate utilization by Selenomonas ruminantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J D; Martin, S A

    1997-12-01

    Lactate utilization by Selenomonas ruminantium is stimulated in the presence of malate. Because little information is available describing lactate-plus-malate utilization by this organism, the objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting utilization of these two organic acids by two strains of S. ruminantium. When S. ruminantium HD4 and H18 were grown in batch culture on DL-lactate and DL-malate, both strains coutilized both organic acids for the initial 20 to 24 h of incubation and acetate, propionate, and succinate accumulated. However, when malate and succinate concentrations reached 7 mM, malate utilization ceased, and with strain H18, there was a complete cessation of DL-lactate utilization. Malate utilization by both strains was also inhibited in the presence of glucose. S. ruminantium HD4 was unable to grow on 6 mM DL-lactate at extracellular pH 5.5 in continuous culture (dilution rate, 0.05 h-1) and washed out of the culture vessel. Addition of 8 mM DL-malate to the medium prevented washout on 6 mM DL-lactate at pH 5.5 and resulted in succinate accumulation. Addition of malate also increased bacterial protein, acetate, and propionate concentrations in continuous culture. These results suggest that 8 mM DL-malate enhances the ability of strain HD4 to grow on 6 mM DL-lactate at extracellular pH 5.5. PMID:9471965

  16. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers. PMID:16425649

  17. An Efficient Watermarking Algorithm to Improve Payload and Robustness without Affecting Image Perceptual Quality

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Er Deepak; Anantdeep, Er

    2010-01-01

    Capacity, Robustness, & Perceptual quality of watermark data are very important issues to be considered. A lot of research is going on to increase these parameters for watermarking of the digital images, as there is always a tradeoff among them. . In this paper an efficient watermarking algorithm to improve payload and robustness without affecting perceptual quality of image data based on DWT is discussed. The aim of the paper is to employ the nested watermarks in wavelet domain which increases the capacity and ultimately the robustness against attacks and selection of different scaling factor values for LL & HH bands and during embedding not to create the visible artifacts in the original image and therefore the original and watermarked image is similar.

  18. The Affectional Component of Sexual Permissiveness: A Factor-Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kathleen M.; Houlihan, John

    1978-01-01

    The Reiss Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Scale was administered to 51 male and 54 female undergraduates. Factor analysis revealed three major factors: intercourse with affection, kissing with affection, and nonaffectional sexual activity. It is suggested that permissiveness be defined as lack of affection. (Author)

  19. Factors affecting the absorption of hydrogen by zircaloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proton model has been employed to calculate how the elements Sn, Fe, Cr and Ni in Zircaloy affect the absorption of hydrogen compared with in zirconium. It is found that Fe, Cr and Ni reduce the absorption of hydrogen by almost equal amounts per atom added, whereas Sn has little or no affect on the absorption. (orig.)

  20. Does environmental regulation affect energy efficiency in China's thermal power generation? Empirical evidence from a slacks-based DEA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has gained much popularity in performance measurement of power industry. This paper presents a slack-based measure approach to investigating the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and the environmental regulation of China's thermal power generation. We first calculate the total-factor energy efficiency without considering environmental constraints. An environmental performance indicator is proposed through decomposing the total-factor energy efficiency. The proposed approach is then employed to examine whether environmental regulation affects the energy efficiency of China's thermal power generation. We find that the environmental efficiency plays a significant role in affecting energy performance of China's thermal generation sector. Decreasing the discharge of major pollutants can improve both energy performance and environmental efficiency. Besides, we also have three main findings: (1) The energy efficiency and environmental efficiency were relatively low. (2) The energy and environmental efficiency scores show great variations among provinces. (3) Both energy efficiency and environmental efficiency are of obvious geographical characteristics. According to our findings, we suggest some policy implications. - Highlights: • We assess the energy efficiency and the environmental efficiency of China's thermal power generation simultaneously. • The energy efficiency and the environmental efficiency were relatively low during 2007–2009. • The energy efficiency and environmental efficiency show obvious geographic characters. • The environmental performance of a DMU plays a decisive role in the energy performance

  1. Factors affecting remote handling productivity during installation of the ITER-like wall at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The paper describes the challenges to achieve the installation of the ILW beryllium sliced wall. ? Examines the factual difference between estimated remote handling in-vessel durations and those achieved, with a view to quantifying the typical disparity between the two. ? The paper will elaborate and highlight the contributing factors. This offers an opportunity to provide provenance for availability estimates of devices such as ITER and DEMO. ? The paper will identify and describe the factors influencing the ratio between estimated versus the actual durations for remote handling operations. -- Abstract: Remote handling operations at JET have encountered many challenges to achieve the installation of the ILW beryllium sliced wall during the Enhanced Performance stage 2 (EP2) shutdown of JET. This was a demanding and challenging activity which was based on the experience gained from a period of over 15 years (20,000 h operations) of JET In-Vessel remote handling operations. This paper describes the difference between estimated remote handling in-vessel durations and those actually achieved with a view to quantifying the typical disparity between them. There are many factors that affect productivity of the remote handling operations and it is important to accommodate these either in the design of the component or within the production of the operational procedures with a view to minimise all impact on the final task duration. Some factors that affect the efficiency are outside the control of the design and operational procedures. These are unforeseen anomalies that were encountered during the removal, naked wall survey and installation of the components. Recoveries from these anomalies are extremely challenging and need to be addressed efficiently in order to minimise the impact on the shutdown duration and prevent optimised panned activities from becoming inefficient by fragmentation

  2. To Invest Or Not Invest? : Factors affecting IT investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Tarabay, Raymond; Eigbire, Raphael

    2009-01-01

      Introduction Many studies indicate that there are numerous factors that promote or hamper the adoption of IT applications and are a prime concern for many researchers and practitioners (Abrahamson, 1991). Two main factors which need to be examined closely when making decisions about IT investments are the internal and external factors. Since these factors play a great role in decision making of IT investments, it is imperative to study their impact on the strategic planning because this fo...

  3. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2002-02-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving customer satisfaction of the clod steak. Flavor Like was the sensory trait most highly correlated to Overall Like, followed by Tenderness, Flavor Amount, and Juiciness. Flavor Like was the first variable to enter into the stepwise regression equation for predicting Overall Like, followed by Tenderness and Flavor Amount. For the clod steak, it is likely that preparation techniques that improve flavor without reducing tenderness positively affect customer satisfaction. PMID:11881929

  4. Rad52 SUMOylation affects the efficiency of the DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmannova, Veronika; Eckert-Boulet, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) plays a vital role in DNA metabolic processes including meiosis, DNA repair, DNA replication and rDNA homeostasis. HR defects can lead to pathological outcomes, including genetic diseases and cancer. Recent studies suggest that the post-translational modification by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein plays an important role in mitotic and meiotic recombination. However, the precise role of SUMOylation during recombination is still unclear. Here, we characterize the effect of SUMOylation on the biochemical properties of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae recombination mediator protein Rad52. Interestingly, Rad52 SUMOylation is enhanced by single-stranded DNA, and we show that SUMOylation of Rad52 also inhibits its DNA binding and annealing activities. The biochemical effects of SUMO modification in vitro are accompanied by a shorter duration of spontaneous Rad52 foci in vivo and a shift in spontaneous mitotic recombination from single-strand annealing to gene conversion events in the SUMO-deficient Rad52 mutants. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of Rad52 SUMOylation as part of a 'quality control' mechanism regulating the efficiency of recombination and DNA repair.

  5. Prioritization of the Factors Affecting Sport Tourism Development

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjadi, S. N.; Arefeh Jamshidi; Akbar Heidary

    2012-01-01

    Today, tourism and sport enjoy a complementary interrelationship directly affecting the nations` economy. Also sport tourism is, nowadays, considered as the most lucrative industry worldwide. In addition, it may affect all the social strata economically and politically. Thus, needless to say that much more attention should be directed to the industry through clear-cut policies, visions and constructive plans in this regard. To this end, in this paper, the authors investigated and offered the ...

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHERS’ USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Mojgan Afshari; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Wong Su Luan; Bahaman Abu Samah; Foo Say Fooi

    2009-01-01

    Research studies in the past decade have shown that computer technology is an effective means for widening educational opportunities, but most teachers neither use technology as an instructional delivery system nor integrate technology into their curriculum. Studies reveal a number of factors influencing teachers’ decisions to use ICT in the classroom: non-manipulative and manipulative school and teacher factors. These factors are interrelated. The success of the implementation of ICT is no...

  7. Factors Affecting Malaysian Mobile Banking Adoption: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Boon In Tan; Kam Hoe Oon; Aik Chuan Teo; Jia Jia Sim; Ching Mun Cheah

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study aims to investigate the factors that influence Malaysians’ intention to adopt mobile banking by extending the renowned framework of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A self-administrated questionnaire had been developed and distributed in Malaysia. Out of the 400 questionnaires, only 175 usable questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 43.75 percent. Results were subsequently analyzed by using multiple regression and factor analysis. Factors such as per...

  8. Control and manipulation of factors affecting small ruminant reproductive performance in tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tropical areas, reproductive efficiency in small ruminants is affected by various factors, including season, rainfall, male effect, nutritional state or corporal condition (CC) and physiological factors such as post-partum interval, milk production, lactational stages and suckling. Animals with good CC show early puberty, shorter anoestrous periods and better response to male effect and synchronized treatment than animals with low CC; reproductive efficiency is increased by 33% in sheep with CC over 2 (on a scale of 0 to 5) and lambing is 20% lower in the dry than in the rainy season. These data suggest that seasonal sexual inhibition is not too deep in a tropical environment. The response to male effect is good in the different seasons but in animals with low CC this effect is not enough to compensate for the negative influence of undernutrition. Hormonal treatments are effective if animals have adequate CC but the cost is too high. In animals with low CC these treatments must be combined with nutritional flushing. Male introduction at the beginning or 48 h before the end of treatment improves efficiency. Oestrus-ovulation dissociation is observed in tropical sheep after hormonal synchronization and male introduction (9.3%); this is higher in animals with low CC (11.9 vs. 6.8%). Embryo mortality in synchronized goats was affected by nutritional state, being twice as frequent in goats with low CC (26.3 vs. 11.5%). In tropical conditions, appropriate use of male effal conditions, appropriate use of male effect and CC can improve reproductive performance by strategic programming of breeding and parturition during the season with better conditions and pasture availability. (author). 35 refs, 8 tabs

  9. Factors affecting the flowability of fertilizers through orifices

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstee J.W.; Kara M.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of some significant factors on the flow of fertilizers through orifices, such as orifice diameter, orifice shape, particle diameter, fertilizer type, air temperature, and air relative humidity were investigated. The effect of air temperature on the flow rate was small as the effects of the other factors were significant.

  10. A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the grid is employed in radiography, the exposure and the patient dose naturally increase. The rate of increase of the exposure resulting from the use of the grid is usually expressed by the Bucky factor. The Bucky factor is commonly known to change depending on the grid ratio and the tube voltage, but its change due to other factor has been hardly reported. Therefore, authors have measured changes in the Bucky factor due to the thickness of a patient and the irradiation field size, and added a few comments on the patient dose. (Conclusion) (1) The Bucky factor is not constant because it is greatly influenced by the tube voltage, grid ratio, thickness of the patient and the field size. (2) The Bucky factor increases if the tube voltage is low and the grid ratio is high, and also if the patient thickness is great and the field size is large. (3) If the field size is enlarged, the Bucky factor increases, but the surface dose usually decreases, resulting in a conflicting phenomenon. This fact must be born in mind in using the Bucky factor as an indicator of the exposure or the patient dose. (author)

  11. Factors Affecting the Use of Instructional Television in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, E. Joseph

    A study of 36 factors which could possibly limit the use of instructional television (ITV) in elementary schools consisted of an analysis of the responses to a questionnaire administered to 318 teachers who taught in kindergarten through grade six. Chi-square tests were computed for each factor in relationship to the average frequency of classroom…

  12. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…

  13. Factors affecting absorption, transport, and form of plutonium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption of Pu by plants was related primarily to differences in soil properties and to the presence of natural and synthetic organic ligands that partially stabilized Pu against hydrolysis in soil. Plant/soil concentration ratios (CR) were also affected by a series of secondary processes related to plant growth rate and production of biomass. The valence state of Pu added to soil did not affect CR values due to reduction of Pu(VI) to Pu(IV). The Pu was transported in plant xylem fluid to aerial leaf tissue as Pu(IV) organic acid complexes. Variables affecting the chemical form of Pu in plants after uptake included plant age, plant species, and the presence of nutrient elements (especially Fe, Zn, and Cu) that competed for reaction sites on plant organic ligands. Test plants used were alfalfa, peas, soybeans, squash, and bushbeans

  14. Charging-discharging system with high power factor, high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Soo; Joe, Kee Yeon; Byun, Young Bok; Koo, Heun Hoi [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents equipment for charging and discharging with high power factor and high efficiency. This equipment is consisted of 3{Phi} SPWM AC/DC converter for improving input current waveform and input power factor, and bidirectional DC/DC converter for electric isolation in the DC link Part. Therefore, Input power factor and the total efficiency in the proposed system can be increased more than in the conventional phase-controlled thyristor charging-discharging System. (author). 7 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  15. On the efficiency factor for Jicamarca incoherent scatter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, F. S.; Nicolls, M. J.; Hysell, D. L.; Chau, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    Sulzer and Gonzalez (1999) found that electron coulomb collisions have an important effect on the incoherent scattering of radio waves by a plasma at small aspect angles. The primary effect of electron coulomb collisions on incoherent scattering at small aspect angles is the narrowing of the spectrum. Another interesting effect of the collisions is the control of the efficiency factor (Milla and Kudeki, 2006), which is defined as a proportionality factor between the plasma electron density and the normalized total scattering cross section. For unmagnetized plasmas or the case of large aspect angles, the efficiency factor is approximately 1/(1+Te/Ti). Milla and Kudeki (2006), however, pointed out that the efficiency factor is far more complicated for small aspect angles. An analytical expression of the efficiency factor for small aspect angles does not exist yet. In this work, proper efficiency factor for Jicamarca measurements were obtained using numerical integration of the incoherent scatter spectrum including magnetic field and coulomb effects. The results were used to correct backscattered power profiles measured at Jicamarca. Corrected power profiles were compared with electron density profiles measured simultaneously using Faraday rotation. A good agreement between corrected power profiles and electron density profiles has been found. This result not only improves electron density measurements at Jicamarca, but also validates the formulation of Woodman (2006) and Kudeki and Milla (2006) based on the coulomb effects discovered by Sulzer and Gonzalez (1999).

  16. Analysis on the Main Factors Affecting the Reliability of Test Papers

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Zhu; Lemeng Han

    2011-01-01

    Reliability is an important factor to evaluate test papers. This paper analyzes the factors which affect the reliability of test papers and discusses the methods to increase the reliability of test papers.

  17. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene risk factors for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... many of these same gene variants are known risk factors for diseases that occur later in life, including ...

  18. Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

    2011-01-01

    Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

  19. Cognitive and Affective Factors of TV Advertising's Influence on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the research on children's understanding of the intent of advertising, the persuasive impact of television commercials, and children's cognitive defenses and resistance to such persuasion. Concludes that any model which tries to account for advertising's influence on children must incorporate affective as well as cognitive components. (PD)

  20. Factors and pharmaceuticals that affect the radiopharmaceuticals bio distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals may be affected by various agents and therapeutical procedures, chemotherapy agents, thyroid hormones, metals, radiotherapy, surgery, anesthetic agents, dialysis other radiopharmaceutical interactions. Recommendations for the detection of altered biodistribution in patients by causes not directly related with the pathology itself was given. pathology itself was given

  1. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  2. Organizational factors affecting safety implementation in food companies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinda, Thanwadee

    2014-01-01

    Thai food industry employs a massive number of skilled and unskilled workers. This may result in an industry with high incidences and accident rates. To improve safety and reduce the accident figures, this paper investigates factors influencing safety implementation in small, medium, and large food companies in Thailand. Five factors, i.e., management commitment, stakeholders' role, safety information and communication, supportive environment, and risk, are found important in helping to improve safety implementation. The statistical analyses also reveal that small, medium, and large food companies hold similar opinions on the risk factor, but bear different perceptions on the other 4 factors. It is also found that to improve safety implementation, the perceptions of safety goals, communication, feedback, safety resources, and supervision should be aligned in small, medium, and large companies. PMID:24934418

  3. Turn on the Lights: Macroeconomic Factors Affecting Renewable in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Ihtisham Abdul; Siyal, Ghamz-e-ali; Abdullah, Alias Bin; Alam, Arif; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Baloch, Siraj Ullah; Shams, Tauqeer

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between macroeconomic factors (i.e., population growth; urbanization, industrialization, exchange rate, price level, food production index and live stock production index) and renewable energy in Pakistan over a period of 1975-2012. In addition, this study uses oil rent as an intervening variable to overcome the biasness of the single equation model. The results indicate that macroeconomic factors positively contributed to renewable en...

  4. Factors Affecting Business Success of Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chuthamas Chittithaworn; Md Aminul Islam; Thiyada Keawchana; Dayang Hasliza Muhd Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to identify factors that are affecting business success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. The intention of this study is to provide the understanding on how people should start their business by looking at all the factors affecting business success hence help to reduce the risk of failure and increase chances of success. The study examined eight factors that influence the SMEs business success. These factors are: SMEs characteristic, management and know-...

  5. Assessment of factors affecting industrial electricity demand. Final report (revision version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-07-01

    In Chapter 2, we identify those factors affecting the industrial product mix - taste, relative output prices, and relative input prices - and isolate several determinants which have not been adequately accounted for to date in industrial electricity demand forecasts. We discuss how the lower energy prices of foreign producers affect domestic producers and how the growth in the number of substitutes for intermediate products such as steel and aluminum with plastics and composites affects the composition of production and, hence, the demand for electricity. We also investigate how the changing age structure of the population brought on by the baby boom could change the mix of outputs produced by the industrial sector. In Chapter 3, we review the history of the 1970s with regard to changes in output mix and the manufacturing demand for electricity, and with regard to changes in the use of electricity vis-a-vis the other inputs in the production process. In Chapter 4, we generate forecasts using two models which control for efficiency changes, but in different ways. In this chapter we present the sensitivity of these projections using three sets of assumptions about product mix. The last chapter summarizes our results and draw from those results implications regarding public policy and industrial electricity demand. Two appendices present ISTUM2 results from selected electricity intensive industries, describes the ISTUM and ORIM models.

  6. Factors affecting interstate use of inpatient care by Medicare beneficiaries.

    OpenAIRE

    Buczko, W.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which interstate inflow and outflow of patients affects their observed use of Medicare Part A inpatient care. Interstate patient flow can bias utilization rates and may be due to seasonal migration, interstate inpatient care market areas, or purposive seeking of specialized/high-quality care. Examination of state level patient flow data drawn from 1987 Medicare discharge indicate that most interstate patient flow occurs between adjacent states probably as a...

  7. Factors affecting the cerebral network in brain tumor patients

    OpenAIRE

    Heimans, J. J.; Reijneveld, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Brain functions, including cognitive functions, are frequently disturbed in brain tumor patients. These disturbances may result from the tumor itself, but also from the treatment directed against the tumor. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy all may affect cerebral functioning, both in a positive as well as in a negative way. Apart from the anti-tumor treatment, glioma patients often receive glucocorticoids and anti-epileptic drugs, which both also have influence on brain functioning. The...

  8. Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Tabatabaei; Ahmad Molavi

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated questionnaires. First a modified version of The Attitude/Motivation Test Battery Questionnaire (AMTB) originally developed by Gardner (2004) was used to dete...

  9. Discriminant Analysis of Factors Affecting Telecoms Customer Churn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Oghojafor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge facing telecoms business providers in Nigeria today is the continuous growing competition and customers’ expectation of service quality and as such customers are able to choose among multiple service providers based on the level of satisfaction, affordability, and service quality of service providers. Customer demand and competition are forcing firms to cut loose from the traditional customer satisfaction paradigm, to adopt proactive strategies which will assist them to take the lead in the market-place. This study aims at identifying factors that discriminate among subscribers exhibiting willingness to drop their current service provider and those willing to stay. The study also examines the effect of socio-economic and demographic factors associated with the identified discriminants. The major factors identified are high call rate, poor service facilities, off-beam advertisement medium, availability of superior service provider and unattractive service plan.

  10. COMPARISONOF FACTORS AFFECTING THE DETECTION OF SMALL IMPURITIES IN BREAST CANCER USING EIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIDYA SARODE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer among women. It is very essential to detect breast cancer at an early stage so as to cure it efficiently. This paper mainly focuses on detecting impurities of small dimensions in circular plastic phantom which relate small tumors in breast. Benign cancertumor is analogous to non conducting impurity while malignant tumor is analogous to conducting impurity. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT based conductivity images are obtained for both conducting as well as non conducting impurities using Electrical Impedance and Diffused Optical Reconstruction Software (EIDORS. Different factors affecting the shape and size of reconstructed impurity like frequency of current source, type of forward model, material of electrodes, are discussed and compared.

  11. Factors affecting the effectiveness of head-only electrical stunning in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, A; Ruiz-de-la-Torre, J L; Stub, C; Diestre, A; Manteca, X

    2000-07-01

    The effects of factors such as the position of the tongs, the presence of wool, and the wetness of the skin on the efficiency of the head-only stunning procedure, and the duration of the periods of unconsciousness and analgesia were studied in lambs. The degree of insensibility was determined from the evaluation of physiological responses and electroencephalograms. The proportion of successfully stunned animals was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the animals stunned with the tongs in a frontal position than in those stunned with them in a caudal position, in the animals stunned with wet electrodes than in those stunned with dry electrodes and also in the animals without wool than in those with wool. The interval between stunning and sensibility to pain was affected significantly (P<0.01) only by the position of the tongs, being longer in animals with them in a frontal position than in those with them in a caudal position. PMID:10955892

  12. Determine the Factors that Affect the Enrichment Process of High Bioactive Substance from Pangasius Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Tien Luc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to isolate the fatty acid from pangasius fish oil by hydrolysis method and determine the factors that affect the enrichment of the high bioactive chemical elements such as Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA which are two polyunsaturated fatty acids in Omega-3 group by urea complexation process. At the same time, the optimization determined the relationship between mathematics and technology to choose the best technological solution. The recovery efficiency of fish oil reached maximum value at the urea-to-fatty acid ratio of 3.2, complexation time of 16 hours and complexation temperature of -10.6°C. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment ratio of DHA and EPA also reached maximum value of 75.5 and 78.9% in order to enhance the value of pangasius oil raw material and significantly improve the quality of final product.

  13. Analyzing the factors affecting network lifetime cluster-based wireless sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluster-based wireless sensor networks enable the efficient utilization of the limited energy resources of the deployed sensor nodes and hence prolong the node as well as network lifetime. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (Leach) is one of the most promising clustering protocol proposed for wireless sensor networks. This paper provides the energy utilization and lifetime analysis for cluster-based wireless sensor networks based upon LEACH protocol. Simulation results identify some important factors that induce unbalanced energy utilization between the sensor nodes and hence affect the network lifetime in these types of networks. These results highlight the need for a standardized, adaptive and distributed clustering technique that can increase the network lifetime by further balancing the energy utilization among sensor nodes. (author)

  14. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged. PMID:25039397

  15. Fast reactor system factors affecting reprocessing plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of a commercial fast reactor electricity generating system is very dependent on the availability of an efficient nuclear fuel cycle. Selection of fuel element constructional materials, the fuel element design approach and the reactor operation have a significant influence on the technical feasibility and efficiency of the reprocessing and waste management plants. Therefore the fast reactor processing plant requires liaison between many design teams -reactor, fuel design, reprocessing and waste management -often with different disciplines and conflicting objectives if taken in isolation and an optimised approach to determining several key parameters. A number of these parameters are identified and the design approach discussed in the context of the reprocessing plant. Radiological safety and its impact on design is also briefly discussed. (author)

  16. Factors affecting the spontaneous mutational spectra in somatic mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ?????????

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  In our survey of references we are discussed the influence of factors biological origin on the spontaneous mutation specters in mammalian. Seasonal and age components influence on the frequence of cytogenetic anomalies. The immune and endocrinous systems are take part in control of the alteration of the spontaneous mutation specters. Genetical difference of sensibility in animal and human at the alteration of factors enviroment as and  genetical differences of repair systems activity are may influence on individual variation of spontaneous destabilization characters of chromosomal apparatus.

  17. Factors affecting outcome in proximal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, P V; Shepard, A D; Pipinos, I I; Nypaver, T J; Cho, J S; Reddy, D J

    2001-09-01

    Sixty-five consecutive patients undergoing nonemergent repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) originating above the visceral and/or renal arteries were studied to determine operative results and identify factors influencing outcome of proximal AAA repair. Factors associated with postoperative morbidity were analyzed using multivariate analysis. There were no postoperative deaths, paraplegia/paraparesis, or symptomatic visceral ischemia. Proximal AAA repair can be accomplished with acceptable mortality. If renal artery bypass or reimplantation is anticipated, cold renal perfusion may protect against renal dysfunction. Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction can be reduced by avoiding radial division of the diaphragm. PMID:11665433

  18. Nutritional Factors Affecting Abdominal Fat Deposition in Poultry: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Fouad; El-Senousey, H. K.

    2014-01-01

    The major goals of the poultry industry are to increase the carcass yield and to reduce carcass fatness, mainly the abdominal fat pad. The increase in poultry meat consumption has guided the selection process toward fast-growing broilers with a reduced feed conversion ratio. Intensive selection has led to great improvements in economic traits such as body weight gain, feed efficiency, and breast yield to meet the demands of consumers, but modern commercial chickens exhibit excessive fat accum...

  19. Factors Affecting the Misperception of Friendliness Cues in Initial Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, Richard J.; And Others

    Some researchers have found men to attribute more sexual meaning to heterosexual interactions than do women. This study was conducted to examine factors which may enhance or diminish this gender difference on perceptions of sexual intent by considering the three variables of physical attractiveness of target, similarity of target's personality to…

  20. Factors affecting sleep/vigilance behaviour in incubating mallards.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jav?rková, V.; Ho?ák, D.; Kreisinger, J.; Klva?a, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 117, ?. 4 (2011), s. 345-355. ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KJB601110803; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mallard * vigilance * antipredation behaviour * incubation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2011

  1. Factors Affecting Location Decisions of Food Processing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Sule; Canan Ozbag, Basak; Cetin, Bahattin

    The main aim of this study is to examine the determinants of location choices for food processing plants using the results of 59 personal surveys. The 61.3% of the food processing plants that were interviewed are small scale plants, 9.1% are large scale plants and 29.6% are medium scale plants. Sixteen of the firms process vegetables, 12 process poultry, 12 process dairy and 9 process seafood products. Business climate factors are divided into six categories (market, infrastructure, raw material, labor, personal and environmental) and 17 specific location factors are considered. The survey responses are analyzed by types of raw materials processed and by plant size. 43.7, 55.3 and 42.2% of the respondents cited categories of Market, Raw Material and Infrastructure respectively as important, while 44.3, 50.7 and 74.4% of the respondents cited, labor, personal and environmental regulation categories of as not important. Thus survey findings indicate that plant location choices are mainly driven by market, raw material and infra structural factors. Environmental factors such as environmental regulations and permissions are relatively insignificant.

  2. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

  3. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Atilgan-Inan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of management in the related periods. The results indicated that organizational factors have always been important for new product development process, which is in line with the nature of the innovation process. But the emphasis on internal factors has increased in the 21st century which is congruent with the change in management perspective foregrounding resource based view. The study differs from the similar literature review studies on the point that it deals with the topic from international marketing perspective. Therefore, R&D and other marketing studies are not included in the review and the study proposes the important factors from international firms’ point of view.

  4. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  5. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors

  6. Factors affecting attitudes towards medical abortion in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, Stine

    2006-01-01

    Surgical abortion in Lithuania is governed by a 1994 ministerial decree that made it legal for any woman 16 or older. This article seeks to determine the key demographic factors in Lithuanian attitudes towards medical abortion, which is currently not legal.

  7. An Analysis of Factors That Affect the Educational Performance of Agricultural Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to student achievement. This study focuses on three areas: how students learn, how student personality type affects performance, and how course format affects performance outcomes. The analysis sought to improve understanding of the direction and magnitude with which each of these factors impacts student success. Improved…

  8. Examining the Factors Affecting Student Dropout in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukselturk, Erman; Inan, Fethi Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors affecting student dropouts in an online certificate program. In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Online Course Dropout Survey was developed and used to determine which factors affect student attrition from the program. The dropout survey was sent by e-mail to 98 students…

  9. Affecting factors analysis of major equipment erection key path in PWR NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The affecting factors of major equipment erection in PWR NPP exist impersonally, especially the design and equipment supply has produced some effects on major equipment erection of PWR nuclear power plant. Through the analysis of key path and affecting factors on major equipment erection of PWR NPP, the paper puts forward some countermeasures. (authors)

  10. Attitudes to and Factors Affecting Unauthorized Copying of Computer Software in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siponen, M.T.; Vartiainen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Several quantitative studies have sought to determine the factors affecting the unauthorized copying of software, particularly in North America. However, we find no statistically reliable studies on the situation in Europe. In order to address this gap in the literature, we explored the attitudes to and factors affecting the unauthorized copying…

  11. Factors Affecting Perceived Stigma in Leprosy Affected Persons in Western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bipin; Kaehler, Nils; Robert S. Chapman; Raut, Shristi; Roche, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A total of 135 leprosy affected persons were interviewed with a questionnaire containing EMIC questions designed to assess the level of perceived stigma and the questionnaire containing variables for socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about leprosy and the clinical presentations of the participants. Clinical presentation as disability was graded according to WHO guidelines, where grade 0 means no disability found, grade I means loss of sensation has been noted in the hand or foot wh...

  12. Contextual Factors Affecting E-Government Strategy Implementation and Its Impact on Public Sector Performance in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. James Gathungu; Alfred N. Mungai

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the contextual factors affecting the implementation of e-government strategy and its impact on the performance of the public sector in Kenya using the Wing Lam, (2005) E-government Integration Model. Electronic government (E-government) is viewed in this study as the utilization of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of exchanges within government, between government and citizens and busi...

  13. Factors that affect social workers' job satisfaction, stress and burnout

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Taetske, Calitz; Adrie, Roux; Herman, Strydom.

    Full Text Available Social work was classified as a scare skill and the retention of social workers is an important aspect that needs urgent attention. The research goal of this study was to determine what degree of work engagement and job satisfaction South African social workers experience in their current positions [...] and how this influences job turnover, burnout and the intention to leave the profession. The purpose was to determine the needs social workers experience that will affect turnover in the profession. The needs/problems social workers experienced were stress, burnout, lower job satisfaction and work engagement.

  14. Environmental factors that can affect sleep and breathing: allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David T; Soose, Ryan J

    2014-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis and associated symptomatic nasal obstruction negatively affect sleep through a variety of mechanisms and may contribute to persistent symptoms and poor adherence with medical device therapy for sleep apnea. A history of sinonasal symptoms, particularly those that occur at night or in the supine position, is the cornerstone of the medical evaluation. Further research into the relationship between allergic rhinitis and sleep disturbance would benefit from improved anatomic and pathophysiologic phenotyping as well as more advanced outcome measures such as spectral electroencephalogram analysis or other polysomnography variables beyond the apnea-hypopnea index. PMID:25156773

  15. Chemical and biological factors affecting bioavailability of contaminants in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the influence that salinity has on the bioavailability of the two largest classes of contaminants, trace metals and organic compounds will be discussed. Although data on contaminant toxicity will be used to draw inferences about chemical availability, this discussion will focus on the properties that contaminants are likely to exhibit in waters of varying salinities. In addition, information on physiological changes that are affected by salinity will be used to illustrate how biological effects can alter the apparent availability of contaminants

  16. HPGe detector efficiency curve and coincidence factor calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using multi-gamma ray sources of 152Eu and 133Ba placed 20 cm from the HPGe detector, its detection efficiency was obtained. Combined with the distance recurrence relation, which was derived by single-gamma ray sources of 241Am and 137Cs, the detector efficiency calibration curve at 2 cm could be deduced. Finally, by comparing the experiment results with the simulation results by the MCNP code, the coincidence factor could be determined. (authors)

  17. Factores que pueden afectar la seguridad del paciente / Factors that may affect patient's safety

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José A, Betancourt Betancourt; Raúl J, Cepero Morales; Clara Mirella, Gallo Borrero.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la seguridad del paciente es la garantía de las personas de estar libres de sufrir cualquier tipo de daño cuando interactúan con alguno de los servicios de salud. Objetivo: determinar factores que podrían afectar la seguridad del paciente a través de una investigación realizada en el Hos [...] pital Provincial y en el Hospital Pediátrico. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, mediante la búsqueda de información bibliográfica sobre la temática de la seguridad del paciente, en las bases de datos disponibles en INFOMED. Para la primera etapa se diseña e implementa una encuesta de 49 preguntas que se les realiza en el año 2009 a trabajadores vinculados a la atención de salud. Para la segunda etapa se implementa una encuesta de 23 preguntas derivadas de las preguntas más relevantes de la primera etapa que se implementó en el Hospital Pediátrico y se va a realizar en el Hospital Provincial Univerrsitario Manuel Ascunce Domenech. El método analítico utilizado para ambas encuestas fue la técnica de componentes principales que permitió valorar la coincidencia de cada pregunta en relación a las posibles afectaciones a la seguridad del paciente. Resultados: la encuesta aplicada, para evaluar factores que afectan la seguridad del paciente fue adecuada. La técnica de componentes principales permitió valorar la importancia de cada pregunta en relación a las posibles afectaciones a la seguridad del paciente, las variables de respuesta se agruparon en seis constructos con un 62,1 % de varianza explicada. Las encuestas arrojaron que las afectaciones del ambiente laboral, el nivel general de interconexión y comunicación, el nivel de gestión del conocimiento, la capacidad de enfrentar imprevistos, la capacidad técnica, el cansancio y la pérdida de concentración podrían afectar la seguridad del paciente. Conclusiones: es posible obtener información in situ a partir del instrumento final obtenido en la última etapa que permita corregir de forma precoz algunas fallas que pudieran afectar la seguridad del paciente y corregirlas. La técnica de componentes principales resultó adecuada para evaluar estas respuestas en conjunto. Abstract in english ABSTRACT Background: patient's safety is the guarantee of people to be free of suffering any kind of damage when interacting any of the health services. Objective: to determine factors that may affect patient's safety. Method: a descriptive study through a bibliographic review on patient's safety wa [...] s conducted. The study was divided into two stages, in which surveys according to the technique of main components were implemented; this allowed value the coincidence of each question in relation to the possible impact to the patient´s safety. Results: the applied survey was appraised of adequate; response variables were grouped into six, with a 62.1 % of explained variance. The survey showed that affectations on labor atmosphere, general level of interconnection and communication, level on knowledge management, the capacity to face accidental facts, technical capacity, fatigue and loss of concentration could affect patient's safety. Conclusions: the information was obtained from the final instrument in the last stage. Some failures that could affect patient´s safety may be corrected early. The technique of main components was adequate to evaluate the answers as a whole.

  18. China's total factor energy efficiency of provincial industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The index of TFEE (total-factor energy efficiency) is used to assess the level of energy consumption to produce economic output (GDP (gross domestic product)) based on multi factors input, which is superior to conventional energy efficiency evaluation regarded as a partial-factor energy efficiency index. The objective of this study is to provide the changes of TFEE at sector and provincial level and to illustrate the drivers behind such various changes in China. The results show that the TFEE of most industrial sectors in the eastern provinces is higher than that in other provinces. The most important finding is that the gap of TFEE across sectors was narrowed in the eastern provinces and expanded comparatively in the central and western provinces. Such result implies that the gap reduction of TFEE across sectors would be one of the important drivers behind the increase of overall TFEE. Meanwhile, the Tobit regression results indicate that technology progress, energy price and economic development have positive influence on TFEE. And the impact of technology progress is found to be of the most significance. - Highlights: • TFEE (Total-factor energy efficiency) at sector and provincial level is presented. • Drivers behind the various changes of TFEE in China are illustrated. • Most industrial sectors in Eastern provinces have higher TFEE than in other provinces. • The energy intensive sectors have higher improvement in energy efficiency. • After 2002, TFEE in most energy/pollution intensive sectors are improved significantly

  19. Factors affecting the minimum capital cost of a tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mk IIA Culham conceptual tokamak reactor design is a 2500 MWe steady-state reactor developed on the basis of a cost optimisation. A revised 1200 MWe conceptual design, the Mk IIB, used a lower wall loading and lower thermodynamic efficiency. A detailed costing of the Mk IIB design, however, showed it to have an unacceptably high capital cost. Since this high cost is a common characteristic of many fusion reactor designs, the cost optimisation of the Mk II design has been reconsidered. (author)

  20. Prioritization of the Factors Affecting Sport Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Sajjadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, tourism and sport enjoy a complementary interrelationship directly affecting the nations` economy. Also sport tourism is, nowadays, considered as the most lucrative industry worldwide. In addition, it may affect all the social strata economically and politically. Thus, needless to say that much more attention should be directed to the industry through clear-cut policies, visions and constructive plans in this regard. To this end, in this paper, the authors investigated and offered the guidelines for sport tourism development in Zanjan from economic, social and cultural perspectives. This was an applied research carried out as a field study. The statistical sample was divided into 2 groups: 1 Experts including physical education teachers, cultural heritage and physical education department employees and, 2 Customers including different sportsmen and sportswomen traveling to Zanjan. The research tool was a 43 item researcher-made questionnaire in Likert scale whose reliability and validity were confirmed by the board of university professors. We applied descriptive to describe the demography and T-test and Friedman to determine the differences and prioritize both groups` viewpoints regarding sport tourism development in Zanjan.

  1. The Importance of Affective Factors in Self-Access Language Learning courses

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Valdivia; David McLoughlin; Jo Mynard

    2011-01-01

    In this short summary, we investigate the importance of learners’ emotional involvement in self-directed learning. We begin by briefly examining the literature related to affective factors in self-access language learning. We then describe two examples of institutions with self-access centres that place particular importance on affective factors in courses of self-directed study. The first example is in a university in Japan, where affective strategies are introduced through self-directed l...

  2. Factors affecting visualization of posterior rib fractures in abused infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rib fractures in abused infants commonly occur in the posterior rib arcs. Fractures occurring near the costovertebral articulations are usually identified radiographically only once callus has formed. To assess the factors influencing the visibility of fractures near the costovertical articulations, the authors studied 103 posterior rib fractures occurring in 16 abused infants. Radiologic findings were correlated with CT findings and pathologic material from nine ribs in four patients. The limited visibility of fractures relates to (1) the frequent superimposition of the transverse process over the rib fracture site, (2) a fracture line that crosses at an obliquity to the x-ray beam, and (3) nondisplacement of rib fragments due to preservation of the posterior periosteum. Fresh rib fractures invisible on a frontal projection may be clearly defined on axial CT scans, or on postmortem radiographs. A knowledge of the factors influencing the visibility of these important injuries is useful in planning an appropriate diagnostic evaluation of suspected infant abuse

  3. Pareto analysis of critical factors affecting technical institution evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gambhir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With the change of education policy in 1991, more and more technical institutions are being set up in India. Some of these institutions provide quality education, but others are merely concentrating on quantity. These stakeholders are in a state of confusion about decision to select the best institute for their higher educational studies. Although various agencies including print media provide ranking of these institutions every year, but their results are controversial and biased. In this paper, the authors have made an endeavor to find the critical factors for technical institution evaluation from literature survey. A Pareto analysis has also been performed to find the intensity of these critical factors in evaluation. This will not only help the stake holders in taking right decisions but will also help the management of institutions in benchmarking for identifying the most important critical areas to improve the existing system. This will in turn help Indian economy.

  4. Tautomerism in porphycenes: analysis of rate-affecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci??ka, Piotr; Fita, Piotr; Listkowski, Arkadiusz; Kijak, Micha?; Nonell, Santi; Kuzuhara, Daiki; Yamada, Hiroko; Radzewicz, Czes?aw; Waluk, Jacek

    2015-02-12

    Double hydrogen transfer occurring in both ground and the lowest electronically excited singlet states was studied for a series of 19 differently substituted porphycenes. The rates of tautomerization have been determined using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy with polarized light. The values vary by over 3 orders of magnitude, suggesting the importance of tunneling. Good correlation exists between the values of the rates and the parameters characterizing the strength of two intramolecular hydrogen bonds: proton NMR shift, distance between the hydrogen-bonded nitrogen atoms, and the NH stretching frequency. While hydrogen-bond strength is the main factor determining the rate of double hydrogen transfer, other factors, such as static and dynamic symmetry breaking and the population of low-frequency vibrations also have to be taken into account. PMID:25105931

  5. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.

    1991-12-31

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students ``dropouts`` whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  6. Factors affecting retention in science-based curriculums at HBCUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelham, J.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive study of the retention of minority students enrolled in college-level engineering was conducted. The majority of prior work in this area focused on institutional retention factors for students in non-specified majors and considered students dropouts'' whenever there was a break in enrollment. This study looked only at students whose beginning major was engineering, enrolled primarily at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), including a comparison sample from a predominantly white institution (PWI). Science persisters were defined as those students who continuously enrolled in post-secondary institutions full- and part-time -- whether or not they transferred between institutions. The critical factor was their continued enrollment in engineering. Study participants provided four types of information: (1) a measure of academic motivation, (2) an objective measure of science interest, (3) a measure of nine aspects of normal personality functioning, and (4) an assessment of selected demographic variables. 64 refs.

  7. Factors Affecting the Real Estate Prices in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmood khan kakar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the effect of factors influencing the prices of real estate inQuetta city. Hypothetically, this study is based upon five observed factors(urbanization, refugees’ influx, monetary, lack of investment alternatives and inflow offoreign remittances in relation to the prices of real estate. Questionnaire developed onthe basis of above variables were administered to a heterogeneous sample of 50property dealers and Quetta Development Authority. Descriptive statistics (percentage,percentile and frequency distribution were used to identify the level of influence andthe relation of above mentioned attributes towards the prices of real estate. The resultsrevealed that the prices of real estate in the region have been on an increasing trendand strong influence of all variables especially of government’s monetary and fiscalpolices and urbanization was found significant on the prices of real estate in Quetta.

  8. Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Abdel Aziem A; Okud Amira

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012....

  9. Factors affecting the growth of bifidobacteria in human milk.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ro?ková, Š.; Nevoral, J.; Rada, V.; Maršík, Petr; Sklená?, Jan; Hlinková, A.; Vlková, E.; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 7 (2011), s. 504-508. ISSN 0958-6946 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA523/07/0572; GA ?R GD525/08/H060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : OLIGOSACCHARIDES * INFANTS * PREBIOTICS Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.401, year: 2011

  10. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  11. Factors Affecting Hemodialysis Patients' Satisfaction with Their Dialysis Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Al Eissa, M.; Al Sulaiman, M.; Jondeby, M.; Karkar, A.; Barahmein, M.; F. A. M. Shaheen; Al Sayyari, A

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To assess the degree of satisfaction among hemodialysis patients and the factors influencing this satisfaction. Methods. Patients were recruited from 3 Saudi dialysis centers. Demographic data was collected. Using 1 to 10 Likert scale, the patients were asked to rate the overall satisfaction with, and the overall impact of, their dialysis therapy on their lives and to rate the effect of the dialysis therapy on 15 qualities of life domains. Results. 322 patients were recruited (72...

  12. A human soluble suppressor factor affecting lymphocyte responses in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Shou, L; Schwartz, S.A.; Good, R A; PENG, R; C. L. Chen

    1980-01-01

    A soluble suppressor factor (SSF) has been demonstrated in the supernatant of normal human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures that exhibits suppressive activity toward the proliferative response of normal lymphocytes to concanavalin A or alloantigens in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) or toward pokeweed mitogen-stimulated immunoglobulin synthesis and secretion in vitro. Suppression of the proliferative response in MLC reached maximal levels when added SSF-containing supernatant approximated ...

  13. Factors affecting statistical power in the detection of genetic association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Derek; Finch, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    The mapping of disease genes to specific loci has received a great deal of attention in the last decade, and many advances in therapeutics have resulted. Here we review family-based and population-based methods for association analysis. We define the factors that determine statistical power and show how study design and analysis should be designed to maximize the probability of localizing disease genes. PMID:15931375

  14. Factors Affecting Blood Glucose Monitoring: Sources of Errors in Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, Barry H

    2009-01-01

    Glucose monitoring has become an integral part of diabetes care but has some limitations in accuracy. Accuracy may be limited due to strip manufacturing variances, strip storage, and aging. They may also be due to limitations on the environment such as temperature or altitude or to patient factors such as improper coding, incorrect hand washing, altered hematocrit, or naturally occurring interfering substances. Finally, exogenous interfering substances may contribute errors to the system eval...

  15. Spatial and Temporal Factors Affecting Human Visual Recognition Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The current thesis investigated the effects of a variety of spatial and temporal factors on visual recognition memory in human adults. Continuous recognition experiments investigated the effect of lag (the number of items intervening between study and test) on recognition of a variety of stimulus sets (common objects, face-like stimuli, fractals, trigrams), and determined that recognition of common objects was superior to that of other stimulus types. This advantage was largely eradicated whe...

  16. Environmental Factors Affecting Performance Traits of Sahiwal Cattle in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Rehman*§ and M. S. Khan

    2012-01-01

    Data on 23925 lactations of 5897 Sahiwal cows in five Government herds of Punjab (Pakistan) viz. Livestock Experiment Station (LES) Allahdad, LES Bahadurnagar, LES Fazalpur, LES Jahangirabad and LES Khizerabad (1964-2004) were collected to document the behavior of various productive and reproductive traits of Sahiwal cows with respect to herd, year and season of calving and parity. A linear model was used to determine the effects of various environmental factors on performance traits. The 305...

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN NILI RAVI BUFFALOES

    OpenAIRE

    IMTIAZ A. KHAN, A. KHAN1, A. MUBARAK AND S. ALI

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to find out the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Nili Ravi buffaloes at a livestock experimental station in the Punjab, Pakistan. On the basis of the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT), prevalence of BTB was found to be 10.06%. Epidemiological factors including old age, high milk production and parity played a significant role in the prevalence of the disease. Significantly (P

  18. Factors affecting mothers' choice of infant feeding method / S. Schoonwinkel.

    OpenAIRE

    Schoonwinkel, Susanna

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding are well known. It has been shown that HIV is transmitted through breast milk. The HIV epidemic is threatening exclusive breastfeeding in South Africa. It is important that mothers make the right infant feeding choice. There are three basic infant feeding methods available for HIV infected mothers namely; breastfeeding, replacement feeding or formula feeding and heat treatment of breast milk. There are many risk factors for the transmission of HIV through breast ...

  19. Factors Affecting Consumers for Purchasing Electricity inSweden

    OpenAIRE

    Anis, Waqas; Kalair, Akmal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose As Sweden is one of the countries who pays a lot of attention towards the sustainability ofthe society, eco green businesses and also promotes environmental friendly products. So thepurpose of this study is to analyze the factors which influence consumers before choosingany electricity supplier, whether it is low price, better services, environmental friendly oravailability. And in this way we can check finally that how much people concern aboutenvironment and environmental friendly p...

  20. Specialty Preference Among Medical Students and Factors Affecting It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gour

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical education is one of the core part of educational system of any country. Medical education requires undergraduate students to study a wide range of medical specialties. It is often assumed that students do not make their career preferences until after they have graduated from medical school. So the reasons and factors responsible for preferences need to be found out among medical students. Material and Methods: It was a Cross sectional study on 180 medical students to assess preference for specialty and factors responsible. Results: Out of total 190 medical students more or less everyone (97.89% wanted to pursue specialization and majority of them (96.84% wanted to pursue the same in Medical Field(p>0.05. majority of male students were interested to pursue their specialization in the field of medicine (37.63%, surgery (23.65% and pediatrics (13.97%. On the other hand female students were more interested in medicine (24.17%, pediatrics (32.96% and obstetrics & gynecology (24.17%(p<0.05. Interest, by far was found to be most common factor (76.63% responsible for the preference of particular medical specialty among all four groups of students (1st professional-25.27%, 2nd professional-75.92%, final professional-89.47%, interns-68.42%.Conclusion: It is thus concluded there are many factors playing role in the specialty selection and preference among the medical students and should be equally justified and addressed.

  1. Factors affecting early unplanned readmission of elderly patients to hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, E. I.; Fitton, F.

    1988-01-01

    A random sample of 133 elderly patients who had an unplanned readmission to a district general hospital within 28 days of discharge from hospital was studied and compared with a matched control sample of patients who were not readmitted. The total group was drawn from all specialties in the hospital, and by interviewing the patients, their carers, the ward sisters, and the patients' general practitioners the factors causing early unplanned readmission for each patient were identified. Seven p...

  2. Examination of Factors Affecting Success of Singapore Education System

    OpenAIRE

    Levent, Faruk; Yazici, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Singapore is a country which attracts attention with the success it gains at the internationalstudent assessment tests like PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS in recent years. Success of Singaporeeducation system at the international student assessment tests which give information about theresults of educational policy and implementation, has aroused curiosity all over the world. Thesuccess factors of Singapore education system are important for many countries like Turkey whichimplements reform initiative...

  3. International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigurdson, A.J.; Ha, M.; Hauptmann, M.; Bhatti, P.; Šrám, Radim; Beskid, Olena; Tawn, E.J.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Lindholm, C.; Nakano, M.; Kodama, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Vorobtsova, I.; Oestreicher, U.; Stephan, G.; Yong, L.C.; Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Chung, H.W.; Darroudi, F.; Roy, L.; Voisin, P.; Barquinero, J.F.; Livingston, G.; Blakey, D.; Hayata, I.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Ch.; Benett, L.M.; Littlefield, L.G.; Edwards, A.A.; Kleinerman, R.A.; Tucker, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 652, ?. 2 (2008), s. 112-121. ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SI/340/2/00; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Chromosome translocations * FISH * Background frequency Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.363, year: 2008

  4. SOCIOECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC HEALTH OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    MORALES, LEO S.; Lara, Marielena; KINGTON, RAYNARD S.; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; Escarce, José J.

    2002-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of t...

  5. Factors affecting haematological indices in free-living fish populations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, V?ra

    1998-01-01

    Ro?. 67, ?. 4 (1998), s. 249-255. ISSN 0001-7213. [International ichthyohaematology conference /5./. Protivín, 30.11.1998-03.12.1998] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA514/95/0203; GA AV ?R IAA6087704 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.288, year: 1998 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol67/249-98.htm

  6. Factors That Affect Body Mass Index of Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Esma Asil; Metin Saip Surucuoglu; Funda Pinar Cakiroglu; Asli Ucar; Ayse Ozfer Ozcelik; Mustafa Volkan Yilmaz; Lale Sariye Akan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the factors that contribute to the body mass index (BMI) of adults and evaluate the eating habits of the individuals. The study was conducted on 498 adults whose ages were ranging from 20 to 85 (39.1±14.9 year). The data were collected using a questionnaire form that consisted of questions concerning general characteristics of individuals, frequency of food consumption and eating habits. Food types in the food consumption ...

  7. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin; Nurul Kabir, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that sal...

  8. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    OpenAIRE

    Eda Atilgan-Inan; Aslihan Buyukkupcu; Serkan Akinci

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspec...

  9. Trends Analyses for Several Factors Affected by Tropical Cyclones

    OpenAIRE

    Md. T. Islam; Md. Z. Hossain; Masaaki Ishida

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study presents an analytical investigation for the trends of several factors such as number of death of peoples, damages of wealth, flood surge heights, wind speed and radius of the severe storm due to tropical cyclones in Bangladesh. Approach: The study is performed by conducting the field visits to cyclone site, collected data and information on damages and deaths of peoples during field visits, necessary data related to tropical cyclones obtained...

  10. Factors affecting the retention of nurses. A survival analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alonazi, Noufa A.; Omar, Maye A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and explore factors that mostly influence nurses’ turnover and retention, and to estimate the length of employment for nurses in the hospital. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study examining the standard Exit Questionnaires completed by all the female pediatric nurses who joined and left the hospital during the period between January 2006 and October 2010. The Developed Questionnaires where completed by nurses who were still employees in October 2010. The nur...

  11. Factors Affecting Investment Decision Making of Equity Fund Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Salman Ali; Rehman, Kashif Ur; Hunjra, Ahmed Imran

    2012-01-01

    Traditional theories of finance assume that investors use all available information and make rational investment decision but in reality the scenario is different. Based upon the growing importance of behavioral finance the present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of behavioral factors such as heuristics, risk aversion, use of financial tools and firm level corporate governance on the decision making of equity fund managers of Pakistan. The study collected response from 327 eq...

  12. The Financial Impact of Risk Factors Affecting Project Cost Contingency: Evidential Reasoning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Abeere-Inga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of cost modeling using risk analysis for construction projects is very crucial for the achievement of project success. The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the financial impact of risk factors affecting key construction work sections; using a systematic risk methodology based on empirical judgment. The failure mode effect analysis (FMEA and the evidential reasoning methods are presented as qualitative and quantitative risk tools respectively. Data analysis from structured questionnaires revealed that four work sections are prone to high scope changes contemporaneous with seven risk factors. Contrary to the usual 10% contingency estimate allowed for construction projects in Ghana, an approximate overall physical contingency range of between 13.36% and 17.88% was determined using evidential reasoning methods. The likely impact of the integrated work sections and risk factors provide a clue to estimators on how to estimate and account for project cost contingency. The research concludes by recommending a framework for improving the estimation process of cost contingency through the integration of efficient risk management strategies, cost estimation and design management process.

  13. Cassava sector development in Cameroon: Production and marketing factors affecting price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Stephanie Meyo Mvodo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Regular and available supply is the prerequisite of an effective and efficient commercialization process. Using multivariate regression analysis on field data, this research appraises the production and marketing factors that influence cassava market price. The production factors include cultivated area, planting material, yield, and farmers’ field schools; while farmers access to a paved road, having a telephone, the transportation costs of fresh roots, the level of root perishability, and the prices of rice and maize stand as marketing factors. The results show that farmers who attended farmers’ field school adopted improved planting materials, propagated them in their localities and the yields in these communities increased significantly. The farm size also has a significant influence on the availability of fresh roots. On the marketing side, transportation costs, access to a paved road, the prices of rice and maize significantly affect cassava’s market price and tighten the relationship between producers and marketers. We conclude that to increase fresh roots supply, roads leading to cultivating areas should be paved, better transportation provided, communication costs reduced, even distribution of planting materials and appropriate warehouses.

  14. Hydrostatic factors affect the gravity responses of algae and roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staves, Mark P.; Wayne, Randy; Leopold, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis of Wayne et al. (1990) that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing a pressure differential between the top and the bottom of the cell was tested by subjecting rice roots and cells of Caracean algae to external solutions of various densities. It was found that increasing the density of the external medium had a profound effect on the polar ratio (PR, the ratio between velocities of the downwardly and upwardly streaming cytoplasm) of the Caracean algae cells. When these cells were placed in solutions of denser compound, the PR decreased to less than 1, as the density of the external medium became higher than that of the cell; thus, the normal gravity-induced polarity was reversed, indicating that the osmotic pressure of the medium affects the cell's ability to respond to gravity. In rice roots, an increase of the density of the solution inhibited the rate of gravitropism. These results agree with predictions of a hydrostatic model for graviperception.

  15. Statistical Study on Principal Factors Affecting Employment of Chinese Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Meng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heavy employment pressure in china, the employment of the undergraduates attracts much attention in recent years. Accordingly, this study proposes a SPSS-based statistical method to study the employment issue, where thirteen parameters are carefully chosen to construct the employment database. The proposed method first performs the quantitative and the standardized operations and then calculates the correlated matrix of parameters. Moreover, after proving that the correlated matrix satisfies Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO condition, we perform eigenvalue decomposition and compute the variance contribution rate through Principal Component Analysis (PCA techniques. Both the eigenvalue and the variance contribution rate are used to study the importance of each parameter and finally lead to an importance sort. Therefore, we can quantificationally study the influence of each parameter thrown on the undergraduate employment and find three most important parameters affecting undergraduate employment: university, major and family location.

  16. Feasibility Analysis of Critical Factors Affecting Cloud Computing in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustace Manayi Dogo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an evolving and new way of delivering computing services and resources over the internet which are managed by third parties at remote sites. Cloud computing is based on existing technologies like web services, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA, web3.0, grid computing and virtualization, etc. Computing services includes data storage, processing and software. Cloud computing is enjoying a lot of buzz in Nigeria due to its perceived economic and operational benefits and stakeholders believe that it will transform the IT industry in Nigeria. Despite all its promises there still exist so many challenges before Cloud computing see the light of the day in Nigeria. This paper delivers an overview of Cloud computing together with its advantages and disadvantages. Thereafter, the challenges and drivers affecting the adoption of Cloud computing in Nigeria are outlined. Finally, recommendations for the adoption of Cloud computing is discussed with Nigeria as a case study.

  17. Factors affecting the morphology of benzoyl peroxide microsponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhodchi, Ali; Jelvehgari, Mitra; Siahi, M Reza; Mozafari, M Reza

    2007-01-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is primarily used in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. However, its application is associated with skin irritation. It has been shown that encapsulation and controlled release of BPO could reduce the side effect while also reducing percutaneous absorption when administered to the skin. The aim of the present investigation was to design and formulate an appropriate encapsulated form of BPO, using microsponge technology, and explore the parameters affecting the morphology and other characteristics of the resultant products employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Benzoyl peroxide particles were prepared using an emulsion solvent diffusion method by adding an organic internal phase containing benzoyl peroxide, ethyl cellulose and dichloromethane into a stirred aqueous phase containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Different concentrations of BPO microsponges were incorporated in lotion formulations and the drug release from these formulations were studied. The SEM micrographs of the BPO microsponges enabled measurement of their size and showed that they were spherical and porous. Results showed that the morphology and particle size of microsponges were affected by drug:polymer ratio, stirring rate and the amount of emulsifier used. The results obtained also showed that an increase in the ratio of drug:polymer resulted in a reduction in the release rate of BPO from the microsponges. The release data showed that the highest and the lowest release rates were obtained from lotions containing plain BPO particles and BPO microsponges with the drug:polymer ratio of 13:1, respectively. The kinetics of release study showed that the release data followed Peppas model and the main mechanism of drug release from BPO microsponges was diffusion. PMID:17692528

  18. Factors affecting potential market penetration of laser fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mini-model has been constructed to estimate the optimal size of laser fusion power plants and to estimate the allowable cost of the first such plant in relation to the next best alternative. In estimating the costs of laser fusion, the mini-model incorporates such factors as market penetration, learning, economies of scale, system size, transmission costs, reserve requirements, development and licensing costs and site costs. The results of the mini-model simulations indicate that the optimal laser fusion plant size is approximately 3 GWe; risk considerations unincorporated in the mini-model suggest an optimal size closer to 2.5 GWe

  19. Factors affecting recombinant frequency in protoplast fusion of Streptomyces coelicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimum concentration of polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG) for the production of recombinants through protoplast fusion in Streptomyces coelicolor was about 50% (w/v). The addition of 14% (v/v) dimethyl sulphoxide to the fusion mixture enhanced recombination frequencies, but only a sub-optimal PEG concentrations. After treatment of protoplasts with 50% PEG for 1 min, the frequency of recombinants in a multi-factor 'cross' sometimes exceeded 20% of the total progeny. The frequency of recombinants in the progeny could be significantly enhanced by ultraviolet irradiation of the parental protoplast suspensions immediately before fusion. (author)

  20. Factors Affecting Location Decisions of Food Processing Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sule Turhan; Basak Canan Ozbag; Bahattin Cetin

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to examine the determinants of location choices for food processing plants using the results of 59 personal surveys. The 61.3% of the food processing plants that were interviewed are small scale plants, 9.1% are large scale plants and 29.6% are medium scale plants. Sixteen of the firms process vegetables, 12 process poultry, 12 process dairy and 9 process seafood products. Business climate factors are divided into six categories (market, infrastructure, raw mater...

  1. GENDER DIFFERENTIALS IN FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN LAGOS STATE – NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuff Olabisi Sherifat

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of empirical data segregation on factors affecting gender as the variable of interest. However, previous research had indicated several factors that affect business performances among small-scale enterprise owners. Using feminist theory and a descriptive survey research design, data were collected from fifty (50) small-scale enterprise owners that were purposively chosen across the study area. The findings show that the factors that were significant for female were significant...

  2. Factors affecting Succession Planning in Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Mutunga; Hazel Gachunga

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya. Specific objects of the study included establishing how nurturing and development is a factor influencing Succession Planning in Small and Medium EnterprisesThe study will be significant to the Small and Medium-scale Enterprises, and the government who will appreciate and understand the factors affecting Succession Planning of Small and Medium Enterprises. This will enable policy make...

  3. Chromatin factors affecting DNA repair in mammalian cell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are investigating chromatin factors that participate in the incision step of DNA repair in eukaryotic cells. Localization of repair activity within nuclei, the stability and extractability of activity, the specificity for recognizing damage in chromatin or purified DNA as substrates are of interest in this investigation of human cells, CHO cells, and their radiation sensitive mutants. We have developed procedures that provide nuclei in which their DNA behaves as a collection of circular molecules. The integrity of the DNA in human nuclei can be maintained during incubation in appropriate buffers for as long as 60 minutes. When cells or nuclei are exposed to uv light prior to incubation, incisions presumably associated with DNA repair can be demonstrated. Incision activity is stable to prior extraction of nuclei with 0.6 M NaCl, which removes many nonhistone proteins. Our studies are consistent with an hypothesis that factors responsible for initiating DNA repair are localized in the nuclear matrix. 18 references, 3 figures

  4. The factors affecting mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Demirci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH occurs usually from the rupture of vessels into the brain parenchyma and accounts for approximately 10% of all strokes. ICH occurs more commonly in Turkey than in other western countries and carries a significantly high mortality than ischemic strokeMaterials and methods: We evaluated 86 consecutive patients with ICH who were admitted to Neurology Clinics of SDU University Medical Faculty. The factors studied were age, gender, risk factors, electrocardiography results, blood pressure, fever, blood cells, biochemistry, hematoma volume and localization, clinical findings, and demographic characteristics.Results: ICH is a 30-day mortality rate between approximately 50%, with half of the deaths occurring within 48 hour from the onset.Conclusion: It was found that age, site and volume of hematoma, initial level of consciousness and drainage of hematoma into the ventricular cavity have significant effects on the prognosis. The prognosis of ICH remains frequently poor despite the best medical management, control of vital functions and infections. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 404-407

  5. Risk factors affecting somatosensory function after sagittal split osteotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Torben Henrik; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate potential individual and intraoperative risk factors associated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) and to correlate the findings with postoperative changes in somatosensory function. Patients and Methods A total of 18 men and 29 women (mean age, 31 ± 10 years) scheduled for BSSO participated in 1 session before BSSO and 5 sessions after BSSO (at 2 and 14 days and 3, 6, and 12 months). At each session, subjective oral sensation was scored and quantitative sensory tests were performed. Results The results showed that complete exposure and free dissection of the inferior alveolar nerve during BSSO increased self-reported changes in lower lip sensation and lower lip tactile threshold after BSSO (P < .01). Long surgical movements reduced self-perceived jaw-opening function and impaired 2-point discrimination (P < .05). Significant correlations were noted between preoperative values for somatosensory function and changes in these variables after BSSO. Patients with low sensory thresholds before BSSO experienced more impairment than those patients with higher preoperative sensory thresholds. Conclusion These findings imply that somatosensory function after BSSO is dependent on both intraoperative risk factors and preoperative sensation levels.

  6. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention among UniSZA Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharah Ghazali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Graduates contributions to entrepreneurship would stimulate the country’s economic growth. The aim of this study is to determine and investigate factors influence on students’ perception of the entrepreneurial intention, in order to present the most contemporary future generation of entrepreneurs that can shape the future of the economy and the country. The area of this study covers demographic profiles, attitudinal and behavioral factors, and how these influence the intentions of students to become entrepreneurs. The finding suggests that the female students had significantly higher attitude and social skill and desire to succeed as compared to the male students. There was no significant difference with regards to race, age, parental working background, family and relative engaged in business, and heard about entrepreneurship ensuring that entrepreneurs are not clustered in any of these variables. Another major finding indicates that those who attended entrepreneurship course/training had significantly higher attitude and social skill. Most importantly, marketing skill, desire to success, leadership skill, and innovation and creativity inspire graduates in choosing entrepreneurship. Thus, examining the selected key unemployment of graduates’ issues from an entrepreneurship perspective can help to establish harmony and meaningful cooperation between entrepreneurs and learning institutions.

  7. Intangible Factors Affecting the Success of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Hee Song Ng

    2012-01-01

    Since SMEs play a vital role in the development of a nation, it is important to gain a better understanding of the success factors involved. Authors have categorized the factors that influence enterprises success into tangible and intangible factors. Quite a number of studies have therefore investigated the tangible factors and how they affect enterprises success. However, intangible factors have not been given considerable attention despite their importance in determining enterprise success....

  8. Factors Affecting the Adoption of the Organic Dried Fig Agriculture System in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ferruh Isin; Tayfun Cukur; Goksel Armagan

    2007-01-01

    In this study the factors affecting the adoption of organic dried fig agriculture in Turkey were investigated. These factors were divided into three groups, these being social, structural and intellectual factors. The effect of these factors was established using the probit analysis method. It was found that, of the social factors, the education status, age and fig-growing experience of producers were important parameters in the adoption of organic dried fig agriculture. Meanwhile, amon...

  9. Factors influencing efficiency of laser wireless power transmission system for micro unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Hua, Wenshen; Liu, Xun

    2014-12-01

    Micro unmanned aerial vehicle, mostly powered by electricity, plays an important role in many military and civil applications, e.g. military detection, communication relay et al. But restricted endurance ability severely limits its applications. To solve the problem, laser wireless power transmission system is proposed. However, overall efficiency of the system is quite low. This paper describes basic structure of laser wireless power transmission system and its working process. The system consists of two major modules: a high power laser source transmitting energy and a photovoltaic receiver converting optical energy into electricity. Then factors influencing efficiency of the system are analyzed. It suggests that electro-optical efficiency of laser, atmospheric impact on laser beam and photo-electric efficiency of photovoltaic receiver play significant role in overall efficiency of the system. Atmospheric impact on laser beam mostly derived from refraction, absorption, scattering and turbulence effects, leads to drop in energy and quality of laser beam. Efficiency of photovoltaic receiver is affected by photovoltaic materials. In addition, matching degree between intensity distribution of laser beam and layout of photovoltaic receiver also obviously influence efficiency of photovoltaic receiver. Experiment results suggest that under non-uniform laser beam illumination, efficiency of photovoltaic receiver mostly depends on layout of photovoltaic receiver. Through optimizing the layout of photovoltaic receiver based on intensity distribution of laser beam, output power is significantly improved. The analysis may help to take corresponding measures to alleviate negative effects of these factors and improve performance of laser wireless power transmission system.

  10. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy after vitrectomy early factors affect IOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bo Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore possible causes of early postoperative elevated intraocular pressure caused by proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDRvitrectomy. METHODS:Totally 72 cases(100 eyeswhich have performed vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy were retrospectively analyzed to observe the incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension, and the relevant factors that caused postoperative high intraocular pressure were statistically analyzed. Early postoperative ocular hypertension diagnostic criteria: any time after 2 weeks of non-contact tonometer measured IOP> 25mmHg(1mmHg=0.133kPa. RESULTS:High intraocular pressure after vitrectomy occurred in 27 eyes(27%, the incidence of male and female were 27.27%, 26.79%, the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. Eyes filled with balanced liquid filling incidence rate of 30.95%, 6.25%, and the difference was statistically significant(P0.05. Incidences of intraoperative panretinal photocoagulation and additional retinal photocoagulation group were 41%, 20%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Preoperative retinopathy of four, five, six groups of incidence were 9.52%, 23.81%, 40.56%, and the groups were statistically significant(P<0.05. Unconsolidated preoperative retinal detachment and retinal detachment incidence rate of 19%, 41%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Surgery in the united lens resection with intraoperative unfederated lens the resection group's incidence rate of 34%, 15%, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that retinal detachment preoperative and intraoperative intraocular filling were independent risk factors that caused early postoperative ocular hypertension after vitrectomy. CONCLUSION:Post-operative ocular hypertension after PDR vitrectomy is related to preoperative retinal detachment, intraoperative lensectomy, intraoperative intraocular filling, and intraoperative panretinal photocoagulation. Retinal detachment preoperative and intraoperative intraocular filling are independent risk factors that caused early postoperative ocular hypertension after vitrectomy. Incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension after PDR vitrectomy is high, harmful. Early detection and individualized treatment can improve the success rate of vitrectomy and the patient's vision.

  11. A Psychological Factor Affecting a Cardiac Condition in a Psychotherapist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Waxman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that intense emotions can affect the development and course of cardiac arrhythmias. This study sought to convey that a lack of expression of emotion can also have an effect on arrhythmias. A psychotherapist with Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation and an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator measured his rate of Premature Ventricular Contractions using a Holter monitor during three separate six-week periods and in three domains: A work days vs. off days, B a 27 hour work week vs. 22 hour work week, and C in 5 different modalities including 1 Meeting with department head 2 Individual psychotherapy with patients 3 Group therapy with patients 4 Supervision of residents 5 Personal psychoanalysis. The results showed more than a 3-fold increase of arrhythmogenic activity during the 27-hour work week vs. 22 and a 5-fold increase in arrhythmogenic activity on work days compared to days off. Department Head meetings were found to be most arrhythmogenic and personal psychoanalysis was least. The data suggest that the psychiatrist’s lack of emotional expression in his clinical work has been demonstrated to markedly worsen his arrhythmia. The results also point to the potential ameliorating effects of the therapist’s own psychotherapy.

  12. Importance Degree Evaluation of the Affecting Factors on Exhibition Security Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of exhibition security accidents is the result of the mutual coupling factors of "man-machine-environment-management". This study is going to elaborate 11 influencing factors of exhibition security accidents from four aspects, i.e., man, mechanical equipment, environment and management. With the help of grey relational analysis, this study evaluates the importance degree of the affecting factors in exhibitions. The result shows that affecting factors of facilities and equipments failure is of the greatest importance degree and site maintenance personnel, site design, building material quality are the secondary important factors; another important factors are safety management body, social environment, activity organization management, safety management system, natural environment and event participant behavior which are considered as the third important ones. Evaluation of the importance degree of affecting factors on exhibition security incidents will provide a theoretical basis for exhibition security control.

  13. Factors affecting pregnancy rates in infertile women performed abdominal myomectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali irfan Guzel

    2014-08-01

    Patients and Methods:This retrospective study included 76 infertile women underwent abdominal myomectomy. The cases were divided into two groups according to postoperative pregnancy (Group 1, n=22, and cases with no postoperative pregnancy (Group 2, n=54. Risk factors recorded were; age, parity, size of the fibroids, body mass index (BMI, tumor markers and serum blood values. Results:A total of 76 infertile women underwent abdominal myomectomy during the study period. Of all cases 22 (28.94 % became pregnant. There was statically significant difference between the groups in terms of age, BMI, diameter of the fibroids (p5 cm the treatment modality should be abdominal myomectomy to increase the chance of postoperative pregnancy. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 801-806

  14. ??????????????? The Research of Factors Affecting Consumer Channel Migration Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????PPM???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The advent of network economy, make the consumer formed a trend of movement from offline to online channels. This paper uses PPM model in the theory of migration and analyzes the factors influencing consumers from offline to online from the characteristic of consumers and channel characteristics, the study found that there are the positive correlation between the push effects of offline, pull effects of online and the migration intention and effect of pulling more obvious, there are the negative relationship between mooring effects of channels and migration intentions, indicating that the mooring effects will impede movement be-tween the consumer channel. Accordingly, the paper brings up multi-channel enterprise’s marketing enlighten-ment and limitations of the study and the future research direction.

  15. A systematic study on factors affecting patient dose, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the preceding report, we dealt with the field size and the tube voltage. This paper covers the differences in patient dose due to the focus to film distance (FFD), the patient thickness and whether the grid is used or not. Regarding the FFD, 100 cm is most commonly employed except in X-ray examinations of the chest, but from the viewpoint of the patient dose, this requires special consideration as to whether there is any theoretical basis for it. The patient thickness has a great bearing on the patient dose, but there is an individual difference, and it is almost impossible to change it artificially. However, there has been no detailed report on the relation between the patient thickness and the patient dose, therefore, this report treats of such relationship as well. Concerning the grid, consideration is given to the exposure times (Bucky factor). (author)

  16. Factors that affect voluntary vaccination of children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide

    2015-03-10

    Some important vaccinations are not included in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Japan. Voluntary vaccinations are usually paid as an out-of-pocket expense. Low voluntary vaccination coverage rates and high target disease incidence are assumed to be a consequence of voluntary vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with voluntary vaccination patterns in children. We conducted an online survey of 1243 mothers from a registered survey panel who had at least one child 2 months to Financial support, especially for low income households and households with more than one child, may motivate parents to vaccinate their children. Communication is also an important issue. More opportunities for education and information about voluntary vaccinations should be provided to mothers without distinguishing between voluntary and routine vaccination. PMID:25529291

  17. Factors Affecting Learning of Mexican Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan B. Anderson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los factores que afectan la tasa de repetición del año escolar en escuelas primarias en México, y sus resultados en la educación, medidos a través de las calificaciones de un examen estandarizado de gramática y matemáticas. Estimamos una función de producción econométrica para la educación primaria, donde las variables endógenas son los logros en gramática y matemáticas de un niño, y la probabilidad de que repitiera el año. Los resultados indican que el sexo del niño, su nivel socio-económico, el grado de educación de los padres, y reiteradas repeticiones de un año escolar, son determinantes significativas de las variables endógenas. Este trabajo también muestra que un aumento en el número de horas de enseñanza, y en la interacción entre maestra y alumno, junto con mejores bibliotecas e infraestructura elevan las calificaciones en gramática y matemáticas de los niños. Se discuten brevemente las implicaciones de este trabajo para la política educativa

  18. An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Huck’s Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Sang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Huckleberry Finn is one of Mark Twain’s outstanding masterpieces. Superficially, it tells a story about a 13 or 14 year old boy’s adventures with Negro Jim on the Mississippi river. In fact, it reflects the growth process of Huck through adventures. His growth is embodied by his choice on independence, his change of attitude towards Jim, his moral growth, and the different social roles he plays. Huck’s growth is influenced by the inner and outer factors. On the one hand, friendship, nature and society make up the outer environment for Huck’s growth. They have great effect on the development of his growth. On the other hand, his own instinct and his sound heart finally decide the direction of his growth.

  19. Factors affecting the academic progression of associate degree graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkvold, Julia; Tanner, Christine A; Herinckx, Heidi

    2012-04-01

    The Oregon Consortium for Nursing Education (OCNE) is a coalition of community colleges and the campuses of the Oregon Health & Sciences University (OHSU), created to share a competency-based curriculum by which associate degree graduates from an OCNE campus are eligible to complete requirements for the bachelor's degree after 1 year of additional full-time study. Since 2006, three graduating classes from consortium community college programs have graduated 760 students eligible for direct transfer to OHSU; however, only 228 (30%) have actually transferred. This study aimed to explore the factors that influenced the 208 graduates in the class of 2010 not to transfer. The primary reasons for discontinuing their nursing education, in ranked order, were financial concerns, conflict with time and energy for work, and conflict with time and energy for family. This study has implications for achieving the academic progression goals recommended in the Institute of Medicine's The Future of Nursing report. PMID:22356360

  20. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

    2014-01-15

    Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

  1. Airframe technology for aircraft energy efficiency. [economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R. L., Jr.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1984-01-01

    The economic factors that resulted in the implementation of the aircraft energy efficiency program (ACEE) are reviewed and airframe technology elements including content, progress, applications, and future direction are discussed. The program includes the development of laminar flow systems, advanced aerodynamics, active controls, and composite structures.

  2. How has politico-economic liberalization affected financial allocation efficiency? Fresh African evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how financial, trade, institutional and political liberalization policies have affected financial efficiency in Africa. It uses updated data to appraise second generation reforms in order to gather fresh evidence and derive more updated policy implications. The ‘freedom to trade’ and ‘economic freedom’ indices are also employed. The following findings are established. (1) Financial liberalization mitigates financial allocation efficiency, with the magnitude of ...

  3. Factors Affecting Knowledge Transfer in Public Organization Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zahidul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing knowledge is considered an essential resource for both public and private sector organizations. Effective transfer of knowledge (KT among the employees could give a better platform in public entities to serve its clients in a more innovative and efficient way. In the context of Southeast Asia, studies on KT in public offices in Brunei compared to that in Singapore and Malaysia is relatively low. This study has made an attempt to investigation the relationship between cultural elements (trust, communication between employees, rewards and learning & development and Knowledge Transfer with organizational socialization as a moderating variable. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted to collect responses from a range of public sector employees. In results the findings reveal that there is a significant relationship between learning & development and KT, but the hypotheses related to the other three variables: trust, communication and reward remain insignificant. On the other hand with the moderating effect trust shows significant influence over KT in building relationship with help of socialization.

  4. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed. (author)

  5. Improved Dynamic Modeling of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem and Analysis of Factors Affecting Its Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bruce A.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2015-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) is a rotary multistage distiller being developed to serve as the primary processor for wastewater recovery during long-duration space missions. The CDS could be integrated with a system similar to the International Space Station Water Processor Assembly to form a complete water recovery system for future missions. A preliminary chemical process simulation was previously developed using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM), but it could not simulate thermal startup and lacked detailed analysis of several key internal processes, including heat transfer between stages. This paper describes modifications to the ACM simulation of the CDS that improve its capabilities and the accuracy of its predictions. Notably, the modified version can be used to model thermal startup and predicts the total energy consumption of the CDS. The simulation has been validated for both NaC1 solution and pretreated urine feeds and no longer requires retuning when operating parameters change. The simulation was also used to predict how internal processes and operating conditions of the CDS affect its performance. In particular, it is shown that the coefficient of performance of the thermoelectric heat pump used to provide heating and cooling for the CDS is the largest factor in determining CDS efficiency. Intrastage heat transfer affects CDS performance indirectly through effects on the coefficient of performance.

  6. Case Study of Factors Affecting Chinese Students’ English Communication Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping LIU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available For ESL teaching in China’s universities, not enough emphasis is put on verbal communication as a yardstick of language mastery and methodological success. Developing student’s communication competence is not only concerned with the nature of language learning from linguistic perspectives, but also could be influenced by such exogenous factors as learning environment, learning psychology, and learning strategies. It is necessary to investigate whether these factors have an impact on Chinese university students’ English communication performance. This paper tries to examine the relationships among social needs, system inefficiencies, learning objectives, learning strategies, and effort, according to a constructed model. The model’s hypotheses are drawn from theories as diverse as person-environment (PE fit (Caplan, 1987, intrinsic motivation (Ryan and Deci, 2000, conceptions about learning approach (Entwistle, 1990, and “learning strategy” (Biggs, Kember, & Leung, 2001. The sample was collected from one of the Chinese universities in Southeast for a case study to shed light on how to improve English teaching and learning in TESL of China. The quantitative research method is used with SPSS system in this essay to report the statistical analyses of the model. Among the eight hypotheses tested, six were confirmed to be true, and two could not be validated.
    Key words: communication performance; 5-factor model; person-environment (PE fit; intrinsic motivation; learning strategies

    Résumé: Dans les universités chinoises où l’anglais est enseigné comme la deuxième langue, l'accent n'est pas suffisamment mis sur la communication verbale en tant qu’un critère de maîtrise de la langue et du succès méthodologique. Le développement de la compétence communicative des élèves n'est pas seulement concerné par la nature de l'apprentissage des langues du point de vue linguistique, mais pourrait aussi être influencé par des facteurs exogènes comme l'environnement d'apprentissage, la psychologie de l'apprentissage et les stratégies d'apprentissage. Il est nécessaire d'examiner si ces facteurs ont une influence sur la performance de communication en anglais des étudiants chinois. Le présent document tente d'étudier les relations entre les besoins sociaux, l'inefficacité du système, les objectifs d'apprentissage, les stratégies d'apprentissage et des efforts, selon un modèle construit. L’hypothèse du modèle vient de diverses théories, telles que la théorie de l’adaptation peronne-environnement-(PE (Caplan, 1987, la motivation intrinsèque (Ryan et Deci, 2000, les conceptions sur l''approche de l’apprentissage ( Entwistle, 1990, et les stratégies d'apprentissage (Biggs, Kember, & Leung, 2001. Les sujets d’études viennent de l'une des universités chinoises situées dans le Sud-est pour montrer la façon d'améliorer l'enseignement et l'apprentissage de l'anglais en tant que la deuxième langue en Chine. La méthode de recherche quantitative est utilisée avec le système de SPSS dans cet essai pour montrer des analyses statistiques du modèle. Parmi les huit hypothèses testées, six ont été confirmées d’être vraies et deux n'ont pas pu être validées.
    Mots-Clés: performance de communication; modèle de 5-facteurs; le modèle de l’adaptation personne-environment(PE; motivation intrinsèque; stratégies d’apprentissage

  7. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Campanula carpatica: factors affecting transformation and regeneration of transgenic shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriskandarajah, Sridevy; Frello, Stefan; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Serek, Margrethe

    2004-08-01

    An efficient transformation system for Campanula carpatica was developed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains LBA4404 (harbouring the plasmid pBI121), and AGL0 (harbouring the plasmid pBEO210). This is the first report on the transformation of C. carpatica. Various factors affecting the transformation efficiency and subsequent regeneration were identified. The age of seedlings from which the explants for transformation studies were taken, and the growth conditions under which the seedlings were grown had a significant influence on the production of transformed shoots. Hypocotyls taken from 12-day-old seedlings grown in the dark were the most productive, with up to 25% of hypocotyls producing transformed shoots. Explants taken from 5-week-old seedlings produced only transformed callus. The medium used for co-cultivation and incubation also had a significant influence on transformation frequency and shoot regeneration. The cultivar "Blue Uniform" was more responsive than "White Uniform". Both bacterial strains and plasmids were equally effective in producing transformed tissue. Transformed shoots were selected on kanamycin medium, and the presence of the uidA and nptII genes in those selected shoots was confirmed by beta-glucuronidase and ELISA analyses, respectively. PMID:15114492

  8. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  9. Environmental factors affecting starch encapsulated herbicide rates of release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch-encapsulation (SE) is an experimental control release technology designed to extend the period of time over which a herbicide is released into the soil environment. The objectives of controlled release are to improve efficacy and reduce negative environmental impacts. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to evaluate how environmental factors influence the release rate of SE-atrazine and SE-alachlor. Decreasing water availability, significantly reduced swelling and subsequent rates-of-release for both herbicides. As starch granules imbibe water they swell, allowing the herbicide to diffuse more readily out of the granule. Decreasing temperature also resulted in decreased rates of herbicide release. Soil microbial activity increased rates-of-release for both herbicides, likely the result of enzymatic breakdown of the starch matrix. The enhanced release of alachlor relative to atrazine under varied environmental conditions was attributed to alachlor's greater solubility in water. Although the SE-formulations are experimental, modification of herbicide behavior was observed that could reduce negative environmental impacts. 20 refs, 9 figs

  10. Substrate stiffness together with soluble factors affects chondrocyte mechanoresponses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Xie, Jing; Deng, Linhong; Yang, Liu

    2014-09-24

    Tissue cells sense and respond to differences in substrate stiffness. In chondrocytes, it has been shown that substrate stiffness regulates cell spreading, proliferation, chondrogenic gene expression, and TGF-? signaling. But how the substrate stiffness together with soluble factors influences the mechanical properties of chondrocyte is still unclear. In this study, we cultured goat articular chondrocytes on polyacrylamide gels of 1, 11, and 90 kPa (Young's modulus), and measured cellular stiffness, traction force, and response to stretch in the presence of TGF-?1 or IL-1?. We found that TGF-?1 increased cellular stiffness and traction force and enhanced the response to stretch, while IL-1? increased cellular stiffness, but lowered traction force and weakened the response to stretch. Importantly, the effects of TGF-?1 on chondrocyte mechanics were potent in cells cultured on 90 kPa substrates, while the effects of IL-1? were potent on 1 kPa substrates. We also demonstrated that such changes of chondrocyte mechanoresponse were due to not only the changes of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion, but also the alteration of chondrocyte extracellular matrix synthesis. Taken together, these results provide insights into how chondrocytes integrate physical and biochemical cues to regulate their biomechanical behavior, and thus have implications for the design of optimized mechanical and biochemical microenvironments for engineered cartilage. PMID:25162787

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN NILI RAVI BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMTIAZ A. KHAN, A. KHAN1, A. MUBARAK AND S. ALI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to find out the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB in Nili Ravi buffaloes at a livestock experimental station in the Punjab, Pakistan. On the basis of the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT, prevalence of BTB was found to be 10.06%. Epidemiological factors including old age, high milk production and parity played a significant role in the prevalence of the disease. Significantly (P7 litres per day (75.00%. A total of nine out of 16 (56.25% animals were found positive by mycobacteriological studies. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from four (44.44% milk samples, M. tuberculosis from one faecal and two milk samples (33.33%, while atypical mycobacteria were isolated from two (22.22% milk samples. It can be concluded from the present study that BTB is present in indigenous buffaloes; old age and high milk yield greatly influence its prevalence. M. bovis was the principal cause of tuberculosis in buffaloes. Furthermore, atypical mycobacteria also contribute to BTB to a considerable proportion.

  12. Factors Affecting the Outcome of Bronchiectasis in Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Bilan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bronchiectasis is a common problem in children and early diagnosis can lead to early treatment and prevent of its complications. This study was aimed to evaluate factors effective on outcome of bronchiectasis in children. Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 347 children with bronchiectasis Underwent the study. the patients were diagnosed based on chronic suppurative cough and CT scan findings. . Results: Disease etiology was asthma in 55.6%, Gastroesophagial reflux (GERD in 7.8%, Cystic fibrosis (CF in 4.8%, other causes in 11.2% and idiopathic in 20.6%. All cases complained of chronic cough. The most common sign was daily sputum production (79.1% and common symptoms were ral/crackle in 47.1% and wheezing in 25.4%. Mean treatment period was 32.82±11.56 months. At the end of follow-up, complete improvement occurred in 35.6%, partial improvement in 40.9% and no improvement in 23.5%. Conclusion: In children with chronic cough and crackle in physical examination, consideration of bronchiectasis could be helpful in early diagnosis and complementary evaluations and treatment initiation. Treating the underlying disease could prevent the occurrence and increase the response to treatment of bronchiectasis.

  13. Factors affecting urinary calculi treatment by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarawneh Emad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL is still the treatment of choice for most renal and upper ureteric stones; however the outcome depends on multiple factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stone density, as measured by Hounsfield Units (H.U by non-contrast Computerized Tomography (CT, stone size and stone location on ESWL treatment outcome of urinary calculi in Jordanian patients. 65 patients underwent clinical, biochemical and radiological assessments followed by ESWL treatment. Statistical analyses including chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, correlation, regression were performed for statistical significance between ESWL treatment, stone fragmentation and stone density, size and location in the renal pelvis. ESWL success rate was high (94% for low density stones (< 500 Hounsfield units. In general CT densities of 750 Hounsfield units or less were almost always successfully treated by ESWL. An inverse association between ESWL treatment outcome and stone size was also documented. CT stone density and stone size combined account for nearly 73% of the variation in the number of shock waves required to attain fragmentation. Stones located in lower calyceal area had less success rates. In conclusion, stones with higher density, large size and lower location may better be managed by percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  14. Factors affecting the cost and competitiveness of nuclear electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general context in which are carried out the investment choices of the electric sector has evolved in a significant way during these last years and the changes are to a certain extent irreversible. Economic globalization, deregulation of the electricity market, privatisation of electricity producers, and increasing awareness of environmental issues are modifying the policy-making landscape and the criteria and priorities of decision-makers in the power sector. Competitiveness remains a cornerstone for evaluating and choosing alternative technologies in the process of planning and decision-making for electricity system expansion or power plant replacement. Nevertheless, the production costs analysis inserts factors which were not taking before into account as for instance social impacts, health and environmental effects. These new approaches better reveal the total costs of the different production means. They will certainly lead to different choices than those based on the whole comparison of direct costs supported by producers. The economic studies carried out by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (NEA) cover all the preceding aspects and give objective information on the competitiveness of nuclear electricity. The nuclear industry has today the necessary means to take up the challenges of the electricity new markets. (O.M.)

  15. Factors affecting nuclear research reactor utilization across countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the worldwide declining trend of research reactor utilization and the fact that many reactors in developing countries are under-utilised, a question naturally arises as to whether the investment in a research reactor is justifiable. Statistical analyses were applied to reveal relationships between the status of reactor utilization and socio-economic conditions among countries, that may provide a guidance for reactor planning and cost benefit assessment. The reactor power has significant regression relationships with size indicators such as GNP, electricity consumption and R and D expenditure. Concerning the effectiveness of investment in research reactors, the number of reactor operation days per year only weakly correlates with electricity consumption and R and D expenditure, implying that there are controlling factors specific of each group of countries. In the case of less developed countries, the low customer demands on reactor operation may be associated with the failure in achieving quality assurance for the reactor products and services, inadequate investment in the infrastructure for reactor exploitation, the shortage of R and D funding and well trained manpower and the lack of measures to get the scientific community involved in the application of nuclear techniques. (author)

  16. Risk factors affecting the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-neoplasia sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig S; Ujiki, Michael B

    2015-05-16

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma has the fastest growing incidence rate of any cancer in the United States, and currently carries a very poor prognosis with 5 years relative survival rates of less than 15%. Current curative treatment options are limited to esophagectomy, a procedure that suffers from high complication rates and high mortality rates. Metaplasia of the esophageal epithelium, a condition known as Barrett's esophagus (BE), is widely accepted as the precursor lesion for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Recently, radio-frequency ablation has been shown to be an effective method to treat BE, although there is disagreement as to whether radio-frequency ablation should be used to treat all patients with BE or whether treatment should be reserved for those at high risk for progressing to esophageal adenocarcinoma while continuing to endoscopically survey those with low risk. Recent research has been targeted towards identifying those at greater risk for progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma so that radio-frequency ablation therapy can be used in a more targeted manner, decreasing the total health care cost as well as improving patient outcomes. This review discusses the current state of the literature regarding risk factors for progression from BE through dysplasia to esophageal adenocarcinoma, as well as the current need for an integrated scoring tool or risk stratification system capable of differentiating those patients at highest risk of progression in order to target these endoluminal therapies. PMID:25992184

  17. Trends Analyses for Several Factors Affected by Tropical Cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. T. Islam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents an analytical investigation for the trends of several factors such as number of death of peoples, damages of wealth, flood surge heights, wind speed and radius of the severe storm due to tropical cyclones in Bangladesh. Approach: The study is performed by conducting the field visits to cyclone site, collected data and information on damages and deaths of peoples during field visits, necessary data related to tropical cyclones obtained from available publications and news-study. The data since the period of the independence of Bangladesh (nearly 40 years are analyzed. Results: The analyses showed that the 17 major cyclones have been occurred since 1970. Among these 17 major cyclones, the 5 cyclones were tragically severe that killed over 400 thousand peoples. It is observed that the coast of the Bay of Bengal is particularly vulnerable to tropical cyclones. It is revealed that Bangladesh is more vulnerable to devastating cyclones in the recent years because the frequency of the severe cyclones has increased remarkably. Conclusion/Recommendation: The return period of the major cyclones was decreased drastically in recent years and the country, especially, the Bengal Bay is predominantly helpless during the cyclone seasons.

  18. Factors affecting the regulation of pacing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauger AR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexis R Mauger Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Kent, Chatham, UK Abstract: During prolonged dynamic and rhythmic exercise, muscular pain and discomfort arises as a result of an increased concentration of deleterious metabolites. Sensed by peripheral nociceptors and transmitted via afferent feedback to the brain, this provides important information regarding the physiological state of the muscle. These sensations ultimately contribute to what is termed "exercise-induced pain". Despite being well recognized by athletes and coaches, and suggested to be integral to exercise performance, this construct has largely escaped attention in experimental work. This perspective article highlights the current understanding of pacing in endurance performance, and the causes of exercise-induced pain. A new perspective is described, which proposes how exercise-induced pain may be a contributing factor in helping individuals to regulate their work rate during exercise and thus provides an important construct in pacing. Keywords: pain, exercise-induced pain, discomfort, exercise performance, self-paced

  19. Phenotypic factors affecting coagulation properties of milk from Sarda ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzola, M; Dettori, M L; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G; Vacca, G M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, milk-coagulation properties (MCP) were characterized in the Sarda sheep breed. Milk composition and MCP [rennet-coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time [time to reach a curd firmness of 20mm (k20)], and curd firmness (a30), (a45), and (a60)] were obtained extending the lactodynamographic analysis from 30 to 60 min from a population of 1,121 ewes from 23 different farms. Managerial characteristics of farms and parity, individual daily milk yields and stage of lactation of ewes were recorded. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model procedure with fixed effects of days in milk, parity, daily milk yield, and flock size and the random effect of the flock/test day nested within flock size. Sampled farms were classified as small (600 ewes), often operated through hired workers. Daily milk yield was, on average, 1.58 ± 0.79 L/d and variability for this trait was very high. The average content of fat, protein, and casein was respectively 6.41, 5.39, and 4.20%. The class of flock size had a significant effect only on curd firmness, whereas days in milk affected RCT and k20. The flock test day, parity, and daily milk yield were important sources of variation for all MCP. The mean value of RCT (8.6 min) and the low occurrence of noncoagulating samples (0.44%) confirmed the excellent coagulation ability of sheep milk compared with cattle milk. A more rapid coagulation was observed in mid-lactating, primiparous, and high-yielding ewes. The k20 was usually reached in less than 2 min after gelation, with the most favorable values at mid lactation. The mean value of curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition (a30) was, on average, 50mm and decreased to 46 and 42 mm respectively after 45 (a45) and 60 min (a60). The decreasing value of curd-firmness traits was likely to be caused by curd syneresis and whey expulsion. The correlation between RCT and a30 was much lower than in dairy cows and about null for a45 and a60. This means that curd firmness in dairy ewes is almost independent of gelation time and this can provide specific information for this species. In conclusion, this study showed that milk from Sarda sheep is characterized by an earlier gelation, a faster increase in curd firmness with time, and greater curd firmness after 30 min compared with dairy cows. Furthermore, correlations between MCP in sheep are much lower than in bovines and some of the assumptions and interpretations related to cows cannot be applied to sheep. PMID:25151884

  20. A cross-sectional study of factors affecting seasonality in bipolar disorder

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P K, Mittal; S, Mehta; R K, Solanki; M K, Swami; P S, Meena.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Researchers have evinced interest in the effect of seasonal variations on mood and behavioural patterns in affective disorders. OBJECTIVE: To study seasonality in bipolar disorder (BD) patients and also the factors affecting this seasonality. METHOD: Forty-nine patients with BD in euthym [...] ic phase were recruited and analysed using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire and Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. RESULTS: Most of the patients were morning types but chronotype had no influence on seasonality. Age of patient and number of episodes were the most important factors affecting seasonality in BD. CONCLUSION: Seasonality and its influencing factors must be considered while managing bipolar disorder.

  1. Factors affecting the levels of hydrogen peroxide in rainwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and several meteorological and chemical parameters were made for 34 rain events which occurred in Miami, Florida between April, 1995 and October, 1996. The measured H2O2 concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 38.6 ?M with an average concentration of 6.9 ?M. A strong seasonal dependence for H2O2 concentrations was observed during this period, with highest concentrations in the summer and lower levels in the winter, which corresponds to the stronger solar radiation and higher vaporization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the summer and fall, and the weaker sunlight and lower vaporization in the winter and spring. Measurements also showed a significant increase trend of H2O2 with increasing ambient rainwater temperature. Rains that were out from lower latitude were exposed to higher solar irradiation and contained relatively higher levels of H2O2 than those from the north. All these observations indicate that photochemical reactions that involved volatile organic compounds are the predominant source of H2O2 observed in rainwater. During several individual rainstorms, H2O2 concentration was found to increase as a function of time due to electrical storm activities. This finding suggests that lightning could be an important factor that determines the level of H2 during thunderstorms. Statistical data showed that the highest concentrations of H2O2 were observed only in rains containing low levels of nonsea-salt sulfate (NSS), nitrate and hydrogen ion. H2O2 concentrations in continental originated rains were much lower than marine originated ones, indicating that air pollutants in continental rains could significantly deplete the H2O2 concentration in atmospheric gas-phase, clouds and rainwater. (author)

  2. Factors affecting insulin adherence to type I glass bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some physicochemical factors that could account for insulin adherence to type I glass bottles from admixtures of insulin with 5% dextrose (D5W) and 0.9% sodium chloride (NS) injections were studied. Samples of three volumes of NS or D5W containing insulin 125I were mixed in three sizes of bottles to test the effect of surface area and volume. Appropriate volumes of insulin were combined with insulin 125I and D5W or NS to yield solutions containing nine concentrations of insulin to test the effect of insulin concentration. Appropriate volumes of KCl injection to yield six concentrations were combined with insulin 125I and NS or D5W to test the effect of KCl concentration. All samples were assayed by gamma scintillation. In general, there was a direct relationship between the percentage of insulin adhering and the container surface area. In D5W admixtures, as the fill volume at constant insulin 125I concentration was doubled and quadrupled, the adherence of insulin decreased in all three bottle sizes (200, 250, and 500 ml). In NS admixtures, however, this effect was seen only with the 250-ml bottle. Increasing insulin concentrations over the range of 50-300 units/liter in D5W and 0-50 units/liter in NS resulted in decreased adherence. The addition of 1-60 meq/liter of KCl resulted in a significant decrease of insulin adhering from D5W and an insignificant decrease from NS admixtures. The percentage of insulin adhering to type he percentage of insulin adhering to type I glass surfaces may be reduced to 25% or less by preparing i.v. admixtures in full bottles of D5W or NS at insulin concentrations of 25 to 300 units/liter. The addition of KCl, when therapeutically appropriate, will further decrease the extent of insulin adherence

  3. Some factors affecting the cost of irradiation services in thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future of food irradiation in developing countries depends to a large extent on cost considerations. Although food irradiation technology itself is widely known and appears to offer many advantages, concrete evidence on the economic viability of a multi-product irradiation plant is presently not readily available to the private sector in developing countries. It is doubtful whether such evidence exists in a form which is comprehensible to industrialists outside the radiation technology circle. With respect to the economic aspects of food irradiation, information available from the literature appears to be based largely on a summing-up of studies of single products on a case-by-case basis. In an agricultural country, the main inputs to an irradiation service facility are likely to be agricultural produce which vary in kind and quantity with cropping seasons. Moreover, in most developing countries, uncontrollable factors play an important role in the production of annual crops and their transportation. Thus, it is hardly possible to make a credible long term forecast on the throughput required for the multi-product service plant, let alone determine with confidence the return on investment. Accordingly, as far as the private sector is concerned, investment decisions regarding the establishment of a commercial food irradiation service plant have to be considered as 'decision making under risk'. This paper attempts to raise questions to which the author cannot yet finestions to which the author cannot yet find clear and practical answers from the available literature. It is intended to stimulate a more thorough and objective discussion on the subject of economic viability of a multi-product food irradiation plant under the prevailing environment in ASEAN

  4. Ecological total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most existing energy efficiency indices are computed without taking into account undesirable outputs such as CO2 and SO2 emissions. This paper computes the ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) of 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009 through the slack-based model (SBM) with undesirable outputs. We calculate the ETFEE index by comparing the target energy input obtained from SBM with undesirable outputs to the actual energy input. Findings show that China's regional ETFEE still remains a low level of around 0.600 and regional energy efficiency is overestimated by more than 0.100 when not looking at environmental impacts. China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced: the east area ranks first with the highest ETFEE of above 0.700, the northeast and central areas follow, and the west area has the lowest ETFEE of less than 0.500. A monotone increasing relation exists between the area's ETFEE and China's per capita GDP. The truncated regression model shows that the ratio of R and D expenditure to GDP and the degree of foreign dependence have positive impacts, whereas the ratio of the secondary industry to GDP and the ratio of government subsidies for industrial pollution treatment to GDP have negative effects, on the ETFEE. - Highlights: ? Most energy efficiency indices ignore undesirable outputs such as CO2 and SO2 emissions. ? The ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) is comput energy efficiency (ETFEE) is computed by slack-based model (SBM). ? The datasets contains 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009. ? China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced. ? A monotone increasing relation exists between ETFEE and per capita GDP.

  5. Some factors affecting the number of days open in Argentinean dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, M; Funes, A Capitaine; Balzarini, M; Bó, G A

    2013-03-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative contribution of factors affecting how quickly cattle become pregnant in Argentine dairy herds. Data from 76,401 cows from 249 dairy herds were analyzed. A hazard model was used to explore days open (DO). The factors considered were milk yield, lactation number, calving season, and breeding technique (i.e., type of service: artificial insemination [AI], or combined service). Cows with lower milk yield had 1.09 to 1.38 higher likelihood to become pregnant than those with higher milk yield (P milk yield was smaller when dairies used AI as the main breeding technique than when they used combined service. Furthermore, dairies using mainly combined service had lower milk yield (5693.7 L) than those using mainly AI (7684.4 L). Although lactation number and calving season contributed to explain the number of DO, the influence of production level, the type of service, and the interaction between them was also associated with reproductive efficiency in Argentine dairy herds. PMID:23290433

  6. Alpha radiolysis and other factors affecting hydrolysis of tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify the principal degradation products produced by Pu(IV) loading in 30% tributyl phosphate/dodecane (TBP-DD) solutions and to determine the formation rates of these species as a function of temperature. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate HNO3 hydrolysis of TBP as a function of temperature and to compare the effects resulting from plutonium solvent loading with effects due to loading with uranium and zirconium. The results indicate that four factors are of particular significance: (1) dibutyl phosphate (DBP) is the principal plutonium-complexing species formed at temperatures of 500C or lower, while significant concentrations of monobutyl phosphate (MBP) are also formed at higher temperatures; (2) the TBP degradation rate due to alpha radiolysis or chemical hydrolysis is strongly dependent on temperature; (3) plutonium promotes TBP hydrolysis by two mechanisms, alpha radiolysis and metal-ion-induced hydrolysis, and, of these, metal-ion-induced hydrolysis can be the major effect; and (4) small amounts of an unidentified plutonium-complexing species are formed in experiments using plutonium of high specific activity [about 4 x 108 counts per minute per milligram (c/min dot mg)]. This species cannot be removed from 30% TBP-DD by Na2CO3 washing or other solvent cleanup procedures. The TBP degradation rates (determined as grams of plutonium complexed by degradation products) increased from 0.125 mg Pu/L dot h at 250C to 47.9 mg Pu/L dot h at 800C in 30% TBP-DD solutions that contained only 0.68 M HNO3. In solutions that additionally contained approx.20 g/L of plutonium (specific activity = 9 x 107 c/min dot mg) TBP degradation rates increased from 2.46 mg Pu/L dot h at 250C to 127.1 mg Pu/L dot h at 800C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Case Factors Affecting Hearing Aid Recommendations by Hearing Care Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gioia, Carmine; Ben-Akiva, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Professional recommendations to patients concerning hearing instrument (HI) technology levels are not currently evidence-based. Pre-fitting parameters have not been proven to be the primary indicators for optimal patient outcome with different HI technology levels. This results in subjective decision-making as regards the technology level recommendation made by professionals. Purpose: The objective of this study is to gain insight into the decision-making criteria utilized by professionals when recommending HI technology levels to hearing-impaired patients. Research design: A set of patient variables (and their respective levels) was identified by professionals as determinant for their recommendation of HIs. An experimental design was developed and 21 representative patient cases were generated. The design was based on a contrastive vignette technique according to which different types of vignettes (patient cases) were randomly presented to respondents in an online survey. Based on these patientcases, professionals were asked in the survey to make a treatment recommendation. Study sample: The online survey was sent to approximately 3,500 professionals from the US, Germany, France, and Italy. The professionals were randomly selected from the databases of Oticon sales companies. The manufacturer sponsoring the survey remained anonymous and was only revealed after completing the survey, if requested by the respondent. The response rate was 20.5%. Data collection and analysis: Data comprised of respondent descriptions and patient case recommendations that were collected from the online survey. A binary logit modeling approach was used to identify the variables that discriminate between the respondents' recommendations of HI technology levels. RESULTS: The results show that HI technology levels are recommended by professionals based on their perception of the patient's activity level in life, the level of HI usage for experienced users, their age, and their speech discrimination score. Surprisingly, the patient's lifestyle as perceived by the hearing care professional, followed by speech discrimination, were the strongest factors in explaining treatment recommendation. An active patient with poor speech discrimination had a 17% chance of being recommended the highest technology level HI. For a very active patient with good speech discrimination, the probability increases to 68%. Conclusions: The discrepancies in HI technology level recommendations are not justified by academic research or evidence of optimal patient outcome with a different HI technology level. The paradigm of lifestyle as the significant variable identified in this study is apparently deeply anchored in the mindset of the professional despite the lack of supporting evidence. These results call for a shift in the professional's technology level recommendation practice, from nonevidence-based to a proven practice that can maximize patient outcome.

  8. Factors affecting calcium oxalate dihydrate fragmented calculi regrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchis P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL to treat calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD renal calculi gives excellent fragmentation results. However, the retention of post-ESWL fragments within the kidney remains an important health problem. This study examined the effect of various urinary conditions and crystallization inhibitors on the regrowth of spontaneously-passed post-ESWL COD calculi fragments. Methods Post-ESWL COD calculi fragments were incubated in chambers containing synthetic urine varying in pH and calcium concentration: pH = 5.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM, pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM, pH = 6.5 normocalciuria (3.75 mM or pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria (6.25 mM. Fragment growth was evaluated by measuring increases in weight. Fragment growth was standardized by calculating the relative mass increase. Results Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals formed on COD renal calculi fragments under all conditions. Under pH = 5.5 normocalciuria conditions, only COM crystals formed (growth rate = 0.22 ± 0.04 ?g/mg·h. Under pH = 5.5 hypercalciuria and under pH = 6.5 normocalciuria conditions, COM crystals and a small number of new COD crystals formed (growth rate = 0.32 ± 0.03 ?g/mg·h and 0.35 ± 0.05 ?g/mg·h, respectively. Under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions, large amounts of COD, COM, hydroxyapatite and brushite crystals formed (growth rate = 3.87 ± 0. 34 ?g/mg·h. A study of three crystallization inhibitors demonstrated that phytate completely inhibited fragment growth (2.27 ?M at pH = 5.5 and 4.55 ?M at pH = 6.5, both under hypercalciuria conditions, while 69.0 ?M pyrophosphate caused an 87% reduction in mass under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. In contrast, 5.29 mM citrate did not inhibit fragment mass increase under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions. Conclusion The growth rate of COD calculi fragments under pH = 6.5 hypercalciuria conditions was approximately ten times that observed under the other three conditions. This observation suggests COD calculi residual fragments in the kidneys together with hypercalciuria and high urinary pH values may be a risk factor for stone growth. The study also showed the effectiveness of specific crystallization inhibitors in slowing calculi fragment growth.

  9. Affecting Factors and Security System of Food Production - A Case Study of Mingshan County

    OpenAIRE

    Lin zheng; Wenxiu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The Grey Relational Analysis of food production has been established based on the data of grain production in Mingshan County, Sichuan province, collected from 2003 to 2008. According to the Relational Grade, factors that affect the County’s input on grain production and the degree of their influence have been analyzed. The conclusion is that unit grain yield, sown area of grain, and rural labor force is important factors affecting the county’s food production. Thus many advices were prop...

  10. Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Njeri Gathura

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text...

  11. Key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in energy technology scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings of a survey of key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in selected energy scenarios. The assumptions and results of scenarios, and the different models used in their construction, are compared. Particular attention is given to technology assumptions, such as investment cost or capacity factors, and their impact on technology deployment. We conclude that the deployment of available technologies, i.e. their market shares, can only be explained from a holistic perspective, and that there are strong interactions between driving forces and competing technology options within a certain scenario. Already the design of a scenario analysis has important impacts on the deployment of technologies: the choice of the set of available technologies, the modeling approach and the definition of the storylines determine the outcome. Furthermore, the quantification of these storylines into input parameters and cost assumptions drives technology deployment, even though differences across the scenarios in cost assumptions are not observed to account for many of the observed differences in electricity technology deployment. The deployment can only be understood after a consideration of the interplay of technology options and the scale of technology deployment, which is determined by economic growth, end-use efficiency, and electrification. Some input parameters are of particular importance for certain technologies: CO2 prices, fuel prices and the availability of carbon capture and storage appear to be crucial for the deployment of fossil-fueled power plants; maximum construction rates and safety concerns determine the market share of nuclear power; the availability of suitable sites represents the most important factor for electricity generation from hydro and wind power plants; and technology breakthroughs are needed for solar photovoltaics to become cost-competitive. Finally, this analysis concludes with a review on how energy systems in the selected scenario studies deal with risks related to energy security and greenhouse gas emissions, and recommendations for improving the usefulness of scenario development for decision-makers. (authors)

  12. Key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in energy technology scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoss, F.; Turton, H.; Hirschberg, S.

    2009-12-15

    This report presents the findings of a survey of key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in selected energy scenarios. The assumptions and results of scenarios, and the different models used in their construction, are compared. Particular attention is given to technology assumptions, such as investment cost or capacity factors, and their impact on technology deployment. We conclude that the deployment of available technologies, i.e. their market shares, can only be explained from a holistic perspective, and that there are strong interactions between driving forces and competing technology options within a certain scenario. Already the design of a scenario analysis has important impacts on the deployment of technologies: the choice of the set of available technologies, the modeling approach and the definition of the storylines determine the outcome. Furthermore, the quantification of these storylines into input parameters and cost assumptions drives technology deployment, even though differences across the scenarios in cost assumptions are not observed to account for many of the observed differences in electricity technology deployment. The deployment can only be understood after a consideration of the interplay of technology options and the scale of technology deployment, which is determined by economic growth, end-use efficiency, and electrification. Some input parameters are of particular importance for certain technologies: CO{sub 2} prices, fuel prices and the availability of carbon capture and storage appear to be crucial for the deployment of fossil-fueled power plants; maximum construction rates and safety concerns determine the market share of nuclear power; the availability of suitable sites represents the most important factor for electricity generation from hydro and wind power plants; and technology breakthroughs are needed for solar photovoltaics to become cost-competitive. Finally, this analysis concludes with a review on how energy systems in the selected scenario studies deal with risks related to energy security and greenhouse gas emissions, and recommendations for improving the usefulness of scenario development for decision-makers. (authors)

  13. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan-how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japana income for the regions in Japan

  14. Studies and Research on Friction, Friction Factor and Affecting Factors : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil J. Kulkarni; Ajaygiri K. Goswami

    2014-01-01

    The friction and friction factors are very significant factors in flow through pipes, channels, heat exchangers . From the pumping cost point of view, minimum friction is desirable as it will decrease the energy loss. In the rotating components like axle-shaft arrangements, the friction and slip are important factors. In case of heat exchanger, the friction factor is important as the heat transfer depends on it. The research was also reported on effect of submerged vegetation ...

  15. Biomass Yield Efficiency of the Marine Anammox Bacterium, “Candidatus Scalindua sp.,” is Affected by Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awata, Takanori; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ozaki, Noriatsu; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The growth rate and biomass yield efficiency of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria are markedly lower than those of most other autotrophic bacteria. Among the anammox bacterial genera, the growth rate and biomass yield of the marine anammox bacterium “Candidatus Scalindua sp.” is still lower than those of other anammox bacteria enriched from freshwater environments. The activity and growth of marine anammox bacteria are generally considered to be affected by the presence of salinity and organic compounds. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of salinity and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on the anammox activity, inorganic carbon uptake, and biomass yield efficiency of “Ca. Scalindua sp.” enriched from the marine sediments of Hiroshima Bay, Japan, were investigated in batch experiments. Differences in VFA concentrations (0–10 mM) were observed under varying salinities (0.5%–4%). Anammox activity was high at 0.5%–3.5% salinity, but was 30% lower at 4% salinity. In addition, carbon uptake was higher at 1.5%–3.5% salinity. The results of the present study clearly demonstrated that the biomass yield efficiency of the marine anammox bacterium “Ca. Scalindua sp.” was significantly affected by salinity. On the other hand, the presence of VFAs up to 10 mM did not affect anammox activity, carbon uptake, or biomass yield efficiency. PMID:25740428

  16. Biomass yield efficiency of the marine anammox bacterium, "Candidatus Scalindua sp.," is affected by salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awata, Takanori; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ozaki, Noriatsu; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The growth rate and biomass yield efficiency of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria are markedly lower than those of most other autotrophic bacteria. Among the anammox bacterial genera, the growth rate and biomass yield of the marine anammox bacterium "Candidatus Scalindua sp." is still lower than those of other anammox bacteria enriched from freshwater environments. The activity and growth of marine anammox bacteria are generally considered to be affected by the presence of salinity and organic compounds. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of salinity and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on the anammox activity, inorganic carbon uptake, and biomass yield efficiency of "Ca. Scalindua sp." enriched from the marine sediments of Hiroshima Bay, Japan, were investigated in batch experiments. Differences in VFA concentrations (0-10 mM) were observed under varying salinities (0.5%-4%). Anammox activity was high at 0.5%-3.5% salinity, but was 30% lower at 4% salinity. In addition, carbon uptake was higher at 1.5%-3.5% salinity. The results of the present study clearly demonstrated that the biomass yield efficiency of the marine anammox bacterium "Ca. Scalindua sp." was significantly affected by salinity. On the other hand, the presence of VFAs up to 10 mM did not affect anammox activity, carbon uptake, or biomass yield efficiency. PMID:25740428

  17. Fuel-mix, fuel efficiency, and transport demand affect prospects for biofuels in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Ryan M; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2010-04-01

    Rising greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the road transport sector represents a difficult mitigation challenge due to a multitude of intricate factors, namely the dependency on liquid energy carriers and infrastructure lock-in. For this reason, low-carbon renewable energy carriers, particularly second generation biofuels, are often seen as a prominent candidate for realizing reduced emissions and lowered oil dependency over the medium- and long-term horizons. However, the overarching question is whether advanced biofuels can be an environmentally effective mitigation strategy in the face of increasing consumption and resource constraints. Here we develop both biofuel production and road transport consumption scenarios for northern Europe-a region with a vast surplus of forest bioenergy resources-to assess the potential role that forest-based biofuels may play over the medium- and long-term time horizons using an environmentally extended, multiregion input-output model. Through scenarios, we explore how evolving vehicle technologies and consumption patterns will affect the mitigation opportunities afforded by any future supply of forest biofuels. We find that in a scenario involving ambitious biofuel targets, the size of the GHG mitigation wedge attributed to the market supply of biofuels is severely reduced under business-as-usual growth in consumption in the road transport sector. Our results indicate that climate policies targeting the road transport sector which give high emphases to reducing demand (volume), accelerating the deployment of more fuel-efficient vehicles, and promoting altered consumption patterns (structure) can be significantly more effective than those with single emphasis on expanded biofuel supply. PMID:20163088

  18. Rural-Urban Differences in Factors Affecting Fertility: A Case Study of Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-O W.

    The study examined whether significant rural-urban differences still persisted in selected factors affecting a community's fertility level. The factors selected were education, occupational class, income, and the participation of women in the labor force. Tested was the hypothesis that the educational development, occupational class, economic…

  19. Factors Affecting Service Provision to Parents with Intellectual Disability: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Brigden, Diane

    1995-01-01

    This article examines factors affecting the provision of mainstream family support services to parents with intellectual disability in Australia. Qualitative procedures resulted in identification of common issues and a conceptual matrix. The three key factors were: client characteristics, resources available, and the involvement of other agencies.…

  20. Factors Affecting the Full Use of Library and Information Management Systems by Library Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skretas, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a general list of factors that affects and determines the full use of library information management systems (LIMS) by library staff. Design/methodology/approach: The factors, which were identified mainly during participation in the implementation of automation projects in Greece, are listed and briefly analysed in categories…

  1. 77 FR 18862 - Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ...TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-524] Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian...the Committee in investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors In Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural...

  2. Factors Affecting the Flow of Knowledge-based Talents: an Empirical Analysis on Chinese Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based talents with advanced knowledge, experience and skills are major creators of enterprise value. A study on the various factors affecting the flow of knowledge-based talents is of great theoretical and practical significance. The article begins with a review of research literature and then analysis on behavioral characteristics and influencing factors of knowledge-based talents’ flow; through empirical study found that organizational factors and environmental factors, including salary satisfaction, fairness in organizations, leadership support and harmony between colleagues, working conditions and employment opportunities are the critical factors of the flow in Chinese enterprise.

  3. Factors Affecting the Flow of Knowledge-based Talents: an Empirical Analysis on Chinese Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Lin; Xiangqian Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge-based talents with advanced knowledge, experience and skills are major creators of enterprise value. A study on the various factors affecting the flow of knowledge-based talents is of great theoretical and practical significance. The article begins with a review of research literature and then analysis on behavioral characteristics and influencing factors of knowledge-based talents’ flow; through empirical study found that organizational factors...

  4. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  5. Factors affecting the decision making of out-sourcing in textile in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms Amber

    2010-01-01

    This research provided the study of importance of factors affecting the decision making of out-sourcing & supplier performance in Textiles domain. The textile market of USA is the scope of this research. The basis of this study allowed comprehending the importance / weight of factors of out-sourcing (including Delivery, Flexibility, Cost, Quality & Reliability) varied according to the buyers needs. Buyer’s needs some factors were high weight / importance for one buyer and at the same time t...

  6. Identifying the Factors that Affect the Financial Sustainability in Balochistan Province of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    This study defines the factors affecting the financial sustainability in province of Balochistan. This research also describes that the financial sustainability in Balochistan is influenced by multiple diverse macro and micro level factors those create barriers and obstacles for development of province. These factors include political instability, poor infrastructure, poor quality of education, poor governance practices, law & order situation and corruption. This research was conducted to fin...

  7. Applying total interpretive structural modeling to study factors affecting construction labour productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Sayali Shrikrishna Sandbhor; Rohan P. Botre

    2014-01-01

    Construction sector has always been dependent on manpower. Most of the activities carried out on any construction site are labour intensive. Since productivity of any project depends directly on productivity of labour, it is a prime responsibility of the employer to enhance labour productivity. Measures to improve the same depend on analysis of positive and negative factors affecting productivity. Major attention should be given to factors that decrease the productivity of labour. Factor anal...

  8. Factors Affecting the Provision of Quality Service in Real Estate Agency in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Funmilayo Moyinola Araloyin; OJO Olatoye

    2011-01-01

    Real estate firms attempting to increase and retain their customers need to know the factors contributing to customers’ satisfaction and retention. This study investigate into real estate agency market with the purposes of identifying factors that affect quality in service provision and possible factors contributing to customers’ satisfaction and retention in real estate agency. This study uses survey questionnaires to obtain information from real estate consumers. This sample siz...

  9. An Analysis of Factors Affecting on Online Shopping Behavior of Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hossein Moshrefjavadi; Hossein Rezaie Dolatabadi; Mojtaba Nourbakhsh; Amir Poursaeedi; Ahmadreza Asadollahi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze factors affecting on online shopping behavior of consumers that might be one of the most important issues of e-commerce and marketing field. However, there is very limited knowledge about online consumer behavior because it is a complicated socio-technical phenomenon and involves too many factors. One of the objectives of this study is covering the shortcomings of previous studies that didn't examine main factors that influence on online shopping behavi...

  10. A proposed instrument to measure organisational-based factors affecting corporate entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Oosthuizen, J. H.; Merwe, Stephanus Petrus

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an instrument to measure the organisational-based factors affecting corporate entrepreneurship. Structured questionnaires were administered to managers and 561 fully completed questionnaires were gathered at 20 large organisations. Construct validity of the measuring instrument was assessed by means of a principal component exploratory factor analysis and by calculating Cronbach alpha coefficients. In this study six factors describing the theoretica...

  11. Altering SARS Coronavirus Frameshift Efficiency Affects Genomic and Subgenomic RNA Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Ewan P.; Sims, Amy C.; Baric, Ralph S.; Dinman, Jonathan D.; Taylor, Deborah R.

    2013-01-01

    In previous studies, differences in the amount of genomic and subgenomic RNA produced by coronaviruses with mutations in the programmed ribosomal frameshift signal of ORF1a/b were observed. It was not clear if these differences were due to changes in genomic sequence, the protein sequence or the frequency of frameshifting. Here, viruses with synonymous codon changes are shown to produce different ratios of genomic and subgenomic RNA. These findings demonstrate that the protein sequence is not the primary cause of altered genomic and subgenomic RNA production. The synonymous codon changes affect both the structure of the frameshift signal and frameshifting efficiency. Small differences in frameshifting efficiency result in dramatic differences in genomic RNA production and TCID50 suggesting that the frameshifting frequency must stay above a certain threshold for optimal virus production. The data suggest that either the RNA sequence or the ratio of viral proteins resulting from different levels of frameshifting affects viral replication. PMID:23334702

  12. Climatic and internal factors affecting future UK office heating and cooling energy consumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, D.; Liu, Y.; Peacock, A.D. [Energy Academy, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    There is a large consensus concerning the expected trend, if not the magnitude of change, of the UK climate in the coming decades [Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, April 2007]. This study aims to quantify how such changes will have a direct effect on heating and cooling energy use in future office environments (i.e. by the year 2030). When considering future offices, it is also necessary to account for a change in the small power and lighting equipment being used, in this case by assuming an improved efficiency in both categories. This will also have a significant effect on the balance of heating and cooling an office. Furthermore, the subtle effect of a change in location within the UK can affect results further, with northern cities having substantially higher heating loads (and lower cooling loads) than southern locations. Such factors can influence approaches towards reducing future office energy demands and, in some cases, be the difference between a heating-dominated or cooling-dominated building. This study should also inform future choices for supplying energy to office buildings, in particular microgeneration options. It confirms the importance of dealing with demand-side changes before assessing the supply-side opportunities, with buildings having very different heating and cooling needs post-refurbishment. The study also highlights the importance, and possibilities, of adapting to future climates, and the benefits of promoting heating-dominated buildings instead of cooling-dominated. (author)

  13. Factors Affecting Business Success of Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuthamas Chittithaworn

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to identify factors that are affecting business success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in Thailand. The intention of this study is to provide the understanding on how people should start their business by looking at all the factors affecting business success hence help to reduce the risk of failure and increase chances of success. The study examined eight factors that influence the SMEs business success. These factors are: SMEs characteristic, management and know-how, products and services, Customer and Market, the way of doing business and cooperation, resources and finance, Strategy, and external environment. The theoretical framework has been drawn out and questionnaire was designed based on the factors chosen. Eight hypotheses were developed to find out factors that are affecting Business Success of SMEs in Thailand. The entire hypotheses were successfully tested with SPSS and five hypotheses were accepted. The regression analysis result shown that the most significant factors affecting business success of SMEs in Thailand were SMEs characteristics, customer and market, the way of doing business, resources and finance, and external environment.

  14. Efficient MATLAB computations with sparse and factored tensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Lab, Livermore, CA)

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, the term tensor refers simply to a multidimensional or N-way array, and we consider how specially structured tensors allow for efficient storage and computation. First, we study sparse tensors, which have the property that the vast majority of the elements are zero. We propose storing sparse tensors using coordinate format and describe the computational efficiency of this scheme for various mathematical operations, including those typical to tensor decomposition algorithms. Second, we study factored tensors, which have the property that they can be assembled from more basic components. We consider two specific types: a Tucker tensor can be expressed as the product of a core tensor (which itself may be dense, sparse, or factored) and a matrix along each mode, and a Kruskal tensor can be expressed as the sum of rank-1 tensors. We are interested in the case where the storage of the components is less than the storage of the full tensor, and we demonstrate that many elementary operations can be computed using only the components. All of the efficiencies described in this paper are implemented in the Tensor Toolbox for MATLAB.

  15. A conceptual model for factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Ghafari Ashtiani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain is a widely used concept around the world. Nowadays, companies need to integrate their production processes, from the raw materials to the end-user. Supply chain management is a phenomenon that achieves this in a way that ensures customers get reliable and fast service and high quality products at the lowest possible cost. There is very limited and sporadic research on supply chain integration and how it affects supply chain performance. Therefore there is no real understanding of the concept of supply chain integration and how it affects supply chain performance nor is there a holistic model. This paper thus aims to present a model that identifies factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. After analyzing the collected data on supply chain integration and customer delivery performance, the preliminary model was proposed and completed, and using expert opinion in the Imam Khomeini Oil Refinery the final model and for factors affecting the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance were presented. To determine how these factors interrelate with each other, the DEMATEL method was then used. The statistical population included the staff at Imam Khomeini Oil Refinery in Shazand. The data, collected through the standard DEMATEL questionnaire, were analyzed using the DEMATEL method and a MATLAB program. The DEMATEL results indicate that intra-organizational factors, institutional norms, technological certainties are causal factors which influence other factors that affect the relationship between supply chain integration and customer delivery performance. Intra-organizational factor have a greater influence also among effect factors, substructures have the greatest influence.

  16. Comparative study of thermoluminescent efficiencies before variation of experimental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation for quantifying the influence of varying distinct experimental factors in the measurements of relative thermoluminescent efficiency of 3 MeV protons was realized with respect to gamma radiation in LiF: Mg, Ti. Variations in a dosemeters batch were considered, as presentation, applied thermal treatments and reader equipment. The main conclusion of this work is to emphasize the importance for measuring entire series of experiments in the same laboratory following a protocol defined carefully and using dosemeters of the same batch for obtaining response before charging particle and the response before gamma radiation with identical procedures of baking and reading. (Author)

  17. Prevalence and Factors Affecting Employee Satisfaction: The Case of King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Khalaf Alafi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To discover some factors and their prevalence affecting employee satisfaction in a large modernhospital using Maslow’s five-level hierarchy of human needs, to help with the aim of improving both professionalproductivity and employee satisfaction.Methodology: A case study questionnaire was administered to 150 participants in a large modern regionalhospital over a month in 2013, with results from Likert scales analysed using descriptive analysis, means and SDsand One way ANOVA to tabulate and analyse satisfaction measures. Employee satisfaction, or how employeesrespond emotionally to work, is a significant factor for organizational success and profit in improving employeeperformance and motivation. Satisfaction was measured on 18 Likert subscales of items based on responses toMaslow’s hierarchy of need fulfillment concerning working environment, payment and promotion, fairness andrelations with supervisors.Results: Analysis of 121 suitable responses among roughly two thirds males and one third females showed40.5% males of the total with bachelor degrees and 24% had master degrees; 22.3% females had bachelor with13.2% masters’ degrees. Overall employee dissatisfaction was 88.4% (satisfaction 11.6% with the highest itemscore for “Hospital’s influence on raising the Jordanian standard of living” and lowest for “priorities andperformance reporting system”.Conclusions: Quality work environment was significant for achieving Maslow’s Safety and Belongingness,contributing to Esteem needs and fairness in working hours. Improved salaries and treatment could satisfyEsteem needs and help some achieve Self-actualization. Supervisor- employee relationships were a significantfactor with Belongingness and Esteem needs requiring significant improvement. For increased motivation andproductivity personal growth and fulfillment possibilities must be improved to encourage and release theprofitable potential of Self actualization.Recommendations: (1 Improve psychological and interpersonal work environment by efficient communicationamong employees and change to a more collaborative managerial style.(2 Improved remuneration to recognize performance and service quality.(3 Fairness requires an efficient, collaboratively developed means to reward employee quality performance, toanswer needs for Esteem and Self-actualization. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  18. Non-parametric analysis of technical efficiency: factors affecting efficiency of West Java rice farms.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdik, František

    -, ?. 286 (2006), s. 1-45. ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rice farms * data envelopment analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp286.pdf

  19. Dispositional factors affecting motivation during learning in adult basic and secondary education programs

    OpenAIRE

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Krieshok, Thomas; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that about a quarter of adult students separate from formal adult basic and secondary education (ABE/ASE) programs before completing one educational level. This retrospective study explores individual dispositional factors that affect motivation during learning, particularly students’ goals, goal-directed thinking and action based on hope theory and attendance behaviors, and self-perceptions of competency based on affective domain attributions about external and internal ...

  20. Factors Affecting Business Students’ Performance in Arab Open University: The Case of Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah AL-Mutairi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate factors affecting student performance in Arab Open University- Kuwaitbranch. To achieve this objective, all graduate students during the academic year 2009-2010 were examined. Thegraduates were 566 students, consisting of 353 female and 213 male students. The data were analyzed by usingOrdinary Least Square (OLS) multiple regressions. The outcome of the analysis revealed that the Grade PointAverage (GPA) of the student is affected by age, score of t...

  1. Assessing Factors Affecting M&As versus Greenfield FDI in Emerging Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Hyung-Suk; Lee, Hyun-Hoon; Park, Cyn-Young

    2012-01-01

    A host of external (global and regional) and internal (country-specific) factors affect Multinational Enterprises' Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) decisions. Differentiating the two entry modes of FDI (mergers and acquisitions [M&A] and Greenfield investment), this paper aims to empirically assess whether or not being a part of global emerging market economies or any specific emerging regions affects investors' decisions of FDI flows to an emerging country in addition to various country-speci...

  2. Environmental and Individual Factors Affecting Menu Labeling Utilization: A Qualitative Research Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Jennifer; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Islam, Nadia; Elbel, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health concern that disproportionally affects low-income and minority populations. Recent policies mandating the posting of calories on menus in fast food chain restaurants have not proven to uniformly influence food choice. This qualitative research study uses focus groups to study individual and environmental factors affecting the usage of these menu labels among low-income, minority populations. Ten focus groups targeting low-income residents (n=105) were co...

  3. Factors affecting the choice of a cosmetic brand : a case study of Skinfood Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingxuan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are becoming more and more careful in selecting the cosmetic brands they use today. Women are fond of a cosmetic brand and trust it, because they believe in its superiority. How a brand is perceived affects customers’ choices and the success of the brand. Companies attempting to enter cosmetic markets should be aware of what the key factors affecting the consumer’s choice of a cosmetic brand are, and then develop a corresponding brand strategy, which can create brand equity for ...

  4. Calculation of Operations Efficiency Factors for Mars Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layback, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    For planning of Mars surface missions, to be operated on a sol-by-sol basis by a team on Earth (where a "sol" is a Martian day), activities are described in terms of "sol types" that are strung together to build a surface mission scenario. Some sol types require ground decisions based on a previous sol's results to feed into the activity planning ("ground in the loop"), while others do not. Due to the differences in duration between Earth days and Mars sols, for a given Mars local solar time, the corresponding Earth time "walks" relative to the corresponding times on the prior sol/day. In particular, even if a communication window has a fixed Mars local solar time, the Earth time for that window will be approximately 40 minutes later each succeeding day. Further complexity is added for non-Mars synchronous communication relay assets, and when there are multiple control centers in different Earth time zones. The solution is the development of "ops efficiency factors" that reflect the efficiency of a given operations configuration (how many and location of control centers, types of communication windows, synchronous or non-synchronous nature of relay assets, sol types, more-or-less sustainable operations schedule choices) against a theoretical "optimal" operations configuration for the mission being studied. These factors are then incorporated into scenario models in order to determine the surface duration (and therefore minimum spacecraft surface lifetime) required to fulfill scenario objectives. The resulting model is used to perform "what-if" analyses for variations in scenario objectives. The ops efficiency factor is the ratio of the figure of merit for a given operations factor to the figure of merit for the theoretical optimal configuration. The current implementation is a pair of models in Excel. The first represents a ground operations schedule for 500 sols in each operations configuration for the mission being studied (500 sols was chosen as being a long enough time to capture variations in relay asset interactions, Earth/Mars time phasing, and seasonal variations in holidays). This model is used to estimate the ops efficiency factor for each operations configuration. The second model in a separate Excel spreadsheet is a scenario model, which uses the sol types to rack up the total number of "scenario sols" for that scenario (in other words, the ideal number of sols it would take to perform the scenario objectives). Then, the number of sols requiring ground in the loop is calculated based on the soil types contained in the given scenario. Next, the scenario contains a description of what sequence of operations configurations is used, for how many days each, and this is used with the corresponding ops efficiency factors for each configuration to calculate the "ops duration" corresponding to that scenario. Finally, a margin is applied to determine the minimum surface lifetime required for that scenario. Typically, this level of analysis has not been performed until much later in the mission, and has not been able to influence mission design. Further, the notion of moving to sustainable operations during Prime Mission - and the effect that that move would have on surface mission productivity and mission objective choices - has not been encountered until the most recent rover missions (MSL and Mars 2018).

  5. Factors affecting industrial wood, material production yield in Turkey’s natural beech forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Atik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to determine the most important factors affecting industrial wood material production yield in natural oriental beech forests in Turkey using a multifaceted approach and to help entrepreneurs consider these factors to develop more sensitive and realistic production plans. In Günye Forest Management in Bart?n province of the West Black Sea Region of Turkey, 41 production units were chosen as the study area. The 1277 ha study area was included in the 2007 and 2010 production management plan. The general state of the stand, natural stand structure, and production methods and tools are the factors thought most strongly affect industrial wood material production yield; 26 variables representing these factors were evaluated in the study. Through multidimensional statistical analyses, including main components, factor and regression  analysis, we found that the most important factors affecting production yield were fertility, aspect of land, skidding method, stand structure, skidding distance, growing stock, transportation and harmful abiotic factors. Production units were divided into three groups based on yield rates and the 26 variables, using discriminate analysis. From the results of the study, a sample model can be developed to help forest managers predict and plan annual industrial wood production more sensitively and realistically.

  6. Factors affecting satisfaction of Thai senior citizens living with their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanakitsakul, M

    1999-07-01

    Globalization has greatly affected both socioeconomic and cultural changes. It has affected family structures, faiths, values, and living arrangements of the people in Thailand, especially senior citizens that are familiar with the old ways. In this article, a study analyzing living arrangements, living satisfaction, and factors affecting satisfaction for senior citizens living with their children is presented. Using descriptive and inferential statistics, data from the 1994 Survey of the Elderly in Thailand were analyzed. Findings of the analysis showed that a large majority of Thai senior citizens lived with their children (73%), indicating that co-residence between senior citizens and their children is a prominent phenomenon in Thai society. Indicators of high living satisfaction included obedience of the children and happiness, while neglect and child complaints were negative indicators. In addition, presence of a spouse could affect the satisfaction of senior citizens. Factors affecting living satisfaction included support from children, income sufficiency, marital status of senior citizen, health status, need to be cared for by children, and education. Sustained filial duty of children, social participation of senior citizens, and further studies on the factors affecting satisfaction are recommended. PMID:12349406

  7. Psychological factors affecting medical condition: a new proposal for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Giovanni A; Fabbri, Stefania; Sirri, Laura; Wise, Thomas N

    2007-01-01

    The DSM category of "psychological factors affecting medical condition" had virtually no impact on clinical practice. However, several clinically relevant psychosomatic syndromes have been described in the literature: disease phobia, persistent somatization, conversion symptoms, illness denial, demoralization, and irritable mood. These syndromes, in addition to the DSM definition of hypochondriasis, can yield clinical specification in the category of "psychological factors affecting medical condition" and eliminate the need for the highly criticized DSM classification of somatoform disorders. This new classification is supported by a growing body of research evidence and is in line with psychosomatic medicine as a recognized subspecialty. PMID:17329602

  8. Factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, S. J.; Baaklini, G. Y.; Roth, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The factors that affect reliability of nondestructive detection of flaws in structural ceramics by microfocus radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) were investigated. Reliability of void detection in silicon nitride and silicon carbide by microfocus X-rays was affected by photon energy level, material chemistry in the immediate vicinity of the void, and the presence of loose powder aggregates inside the void cavity. The sensitivity of SLAM to voids was affected by material microstructure, the level of porosity, and the condition of the specimen surfaces. Statistical results are presented in the form of probability of detection as a function of void diameter for green compacts and sintered materials.

  9. The effect of economic factors and energy efficiency programs on residential electricity consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Mihoko

    Many countries have implemented policies to correct market and behavioral failures that lead to inefficient energy use. It is important to know what factors and policies can effectively overcome such failures and improve energy efficiency; however, a comprehensive analysis has been difficult because of data limitations. Using state scores compiled by American organizations recently, and adopting fixed-effects regression models, I analyze the joint impacts of relevant factors and policy programs on residential electricity consumption in each U.S. state. The empirical results reveal that increases in electricity price have small and negative effects, and increases in personal income have positive effects on residential electricity sales per capita (a measure of energy efficiency). The results suggest that it may take time for economic factors to affect electricity sales. The effects of personal income suggest the difficulty of controlling residential electricity consumption; however, they also imply that there is some room in households to reduce electricity use. The study also finds that programs and budgets of several policies seem to be associated with electricity sales. The estimates from a model including interaction terms suggest the importance of including multiple policies when analyzing and designing policies to address electricity efficiency. The results also imply the possibility of rebound effects of some policies, whereby improvements in energy efficiency lead to increases in energy consumption due to the associated lower per unit cost. Future studies should analyze both short-term and long-term effects of economic factors and policies, based on improved and accumulated time series and panel data, in order to design more effective policies for improving residential electricity efficiency.

  10. Factors Affecting the Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Akagi, Satoshi; MATSUKAWA, Kazutsugu; TAKAHASHI, Seiya

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear transfer is a complex multistep procedure that includes oocyte maturation, cell cycle synchronization of donor cells, enucleation, cell fusion, oocyte activation and embryo culture. Therefore, many factors are believed to contribute to the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer. Numerous attempts to improve cloning efficiency have been conducted since the birth of the first sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, the efficiency of somatic cell cl...

  11. Analyzing the Factors Affecting the Success in University Entrance Examination through the use of Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdelen, Zafer; Haydar, Ali; Kanani, Andisheh

    2007-01-01

    There are many factors that affect the success of students in university entrance examination. These factors can be mainly categorized as follows; social factors, environmental factors, economical factors etc. The main aim of this study is to find whether there is a relation between these factors and the success in the university entrance…

  12. Ten Factors that Affect the Severity of Environmental Impacts of Visitors in Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas represent the major method for conserving biodiversity. However, visitor use can threaten their conservation value. Based on a review of recent research, I have categorized factors that affect the severity of environmental impacts of visitor use. These factors need to be considered or evaluated when assessing visitor use of sites in protected areas. They are: (i) the conservation value of the site, (ii) its resistance to use, (iii) its recovery from use, (iv) its susceptibilit...

  13. Organizational Factors that Affect the University-Industry Technology Transfer Processes of a Private University

    OpenAIRE

    Lisiane Closs; Gabriela Ferreira; Alessandra Soria; Claudio Sampaio; Marcelo Perin

    2012-01-01

    This case study researched organizational factors that affect the university-industry technology transfer (UITT) processes of a private university, chosen by its success and uniqueness in the Brazilian context. Stood out as factors: innovation among pillars of management; valuing of research and intellectual property; qualified students, teachers and managers; multidisciplinary research groups; stability of governing body; performance of the TTO, Technology Management Agency and Technology Pa...

  14. Study on Factors Affecting Performance of Non-profit Organizations in the Participatory Working Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Haixia Zhang; Tianhui Zhuang

    2010-01-01

    Under the background of many non-profit organizations to investigate a study via participatory working methohd,and taking anti-poverty practice of Sichuan rural development organization, a non-profit organization with nearly15-year-old history, as an example, main factors affecting the performance of their participatory workingmethods were analyzed by factor analysis method. The results showed that the participation of projectbeneficiary groups and types of projects as well as effective parti...

  15. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in After-Sales Service of Malaysian Electronic Business Market

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsul Jamel Elias; Suhardi Wan Mansor; Mohd Rizaimy Shaharudin; Khaizir Muzani Md. Yusof

    2009-01-01

    This study is about the discoveries on the factors affecting customer satisfaction in after-sales service. It helps to extend the understanding on the factors that may exist and its influence towards customers’ satisfaction, an important element in retaining a profitable business relationship with the customer. After-sales service which is a part of customer relationship management (CRM) helps to enhance a customer’s loyalty. To date, there have been very minimum studies t...

  16. Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas C. Soteriou; George C. Hadjinicola

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM) groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as ...

  17. Environmental and State-Level Regulatory Factors Affect the Incidence of Autism and Intellectual Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Rzhetsky, Andrey; Bagley, Steven C.; Wang, Kanix; Lyttle, Christopher S.; Cook, Edwin H.; Altman, Russ B.; Gibbons, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Many factors affect the risks for neurodevelopmental maladies such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). To compare environmental, phenotypic, socioeconomic and state-policy factors in a unified geospatial framework, we analyzed the spatial incidence patterns of ASD and ID using an insurance claims dataset covering nearly one third of the US population. Following epidemiologic evidence, we used the rate of congenital malformations of the reproductive system as a...

  18. Factors Affecting Employees’ Job Satisfaction in Telecommunication Industry: a case study of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aamir; Muhammad Salman; Mohammad Asif; Gul Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Employees’ satisfaction is crucial to any organization. There are numerous factors affecting the employees’ job satisfaction but 5 factors, namely working conditions, pay & promotion, job security, fairness and relations with co-workers. Organizations have to invest on its employees to satisfy its employees. Target audience is in Telecommunication sector Zong and Mobilink in Pakistan and took data through ques-tionnaire and analyzes data through SPSS. The research included 5 independent v...

  19. Factors Affecting the Online Shopping Behavior: An Empirical Investigation in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Tan Vu Khanh; Gwangyong Gim

    2014-01-01

    Online shopping has become new type of retail shopping. It has now been adopted all over the world including Vietnam. This shopping method is still not as well known or accepted as in many other countries, and though the knowledge of online shopping in Vietnam is now beginning to increase rapidly, to know the factors influencing online shopping behavior of Vietnam consumers there are several articles written. The main objective of this study is to analyze factors affecting on ...

  20. Animal factors affecting fatty acid composition of cow milk fat: a review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Samková; J., Spicka; M., Pesek; T., Pelikánová; O., Hanus.

    Full Text Available The review summarizes literature dealing with the effects of animal factors (breed, cow individuality, parity and stage of lactation) on fatty acid (FA) composition of milk fat. Genetic parameters affecting the composition of the FAs in milk are reviewed and the possibilities for altering milk fat c [...] omposition are discussed. Cow individuality and the stage of lactation appear to be the main animal factors affecting milk fat composition. Breed and parity affect the variability in FA composition to a limited extent. Some of these factors can be used effectively to alter milk fat composition. Polymorphism of the enzymes, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and acyl-CoA-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) can explain to some extent the variability among cows. The great individual differences, probably given by varying SCD activities, may be used in breeding programmes, supported by the heritability estimates determined for individual FAs. Effective results can also be achieved through the combined effect of several factors. For instance, the level of conjugated linoleic acid could be increased not only by feed factors, but also through thorough knowledge of rumen biohydrogenation or by cow selection using information on SCD and DGAT polymorphism. The animal factors that are discussed are closely related to milk yield, particularly fat content. Both parameters can change FA composition. Thus, it is necessary in breeding programmes to take these relationships into consideration, along with known genetic correlations.

  1. Important factors affecting fault detection coverage in probabilistic safety assessment of digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems are gradually introduced into nuclear power plants (NPPs), concerns about the I and C systems’ reliability and safety are growing. Fault detection coverage is one of the most critical factors in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of digital I and C systems. To correctly estimate the fault detection coverage, it is first necessary to identify important factors affecting it. From experimental results found in the literature and the authors’ experience in fault injection experiments on digital systems, four system-related factors and four fault-related factors are identified as important factors affecting the fault detection coverage. A fault injection experiment is performed to demonstrate the dependency of fault detection coverage on some of the identified important factors. The implications of the experimental results on the estimation of fault detection coverage for the PSA of digital I and C systems are also explained. The set of four system-related factors and four fault-related factors is expected to provide a framework for systematically comparing and analyzing various fault injection experiments and the resultant estimations on fault detection coverage of digital I and C systems in NPPs. (author)

  2. Factors Affecting the Participation of Social Studies Teacher Candidates in Discussions on Controversial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Figen ERSOY

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Social studies teachers employ discussions about controversial issues in their classrooms as an effective instructional tool in order to improve citizenship education. Therefore, teaching about controversial issues in preservice social studies programs is important for improving pre-service teachers’ understanding of their own abilities to teach about citizenship issues and their skills to teach about controversial issues in their classrooms as well. Preservice teachers ought to be encouraged to participate more in classroom discussions about controversial issues. Therefore, this study aim to understand and explain factors that affect social studies teacher candidates’ participation in classroom discussions about controversial issues and suggest how this process might be more efficient and effective in Turkey. 1957 pre-service social studies teachers from 12 different universities in Turkey participated in this study. A questionaire was used to collect data for this research. The questionaire included likert type 16 items regarding students’ personal information and factors that affect the level of participation in classroom discussions about controversial issues and one open-ended question regarding implications on how discussions can be improved in a way that help the discussions more effective and efficient. Chi-Square, frequency, and percentange tests were used to analyze the quantitative data. Inductive content analysis method was employed to analyze and code the qualitative data. The findings of the study showed that while 92.2 % pre-service social studies teachers stated that they participate in the dicussions on controversial issues when they only find it interested, 79.4 % participant pointed out that they do not participate in the discussions, if they believe they do not have enough knowledge about the topic of the dicussion. In addition, 47.5% of the participants stated that they do not want to participate in the discussions about culturally and socially sensitive issues. 40.5% pre-service teachers in the study shared that they do not have discussions with their peers who are not tolerant to different ideas and perspectives. On the other hand, 48.7% participants argued that if the discussions become a personal battles between peers, they are not comfortable sharing their ideas. 54.8% of the participants stated that even if they feel like the teacher supports one of group against other groups, they still are comfortable expressing themselves during classroom discussions; however, 32.8% participants pointed out that they do not participate in the discussions if they believe the teacher is not objective about the sensitive issue.The findings of the study show that participants’ gender, income, their parents’ education, residency, the university they attend, grade level, and high school they graduated from are contributed to their level of participation in the classroom discussions about controversial issues. Female participants stated that if they feel like they do not have enough knowledge about the discussion topic or the topic is a culturally and socially sensitve issue, they either do not participate at all or their participation is limited. However, male pre-service teachers shared that they are more concerned about peer interaction and having good relationships with their peers after the discussion is ended as well. Another finding of the study indicate that pre-service teachers from low socio-economic status shared that if they feel like the teacher’s judgement might be compromised based on students’ contradicted ideas, they rarely participate in the discussions. In addition, students whose parents have limited education (i.e., elementary level said that they have difficulty expressing themselves during classroom discussions. Furthermore, another finding show that teacher candidates who come from big cities feel more comfortable participating in the classroom discussions about controversial issues compared to teacher candidates who come from in rural areas. In addition, re

  3. Identification of the Most Affecting Factor and the Most Income Range of the Affected Middle Class Family by Using Fuzzy Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ramkumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays so many middle class families are affected by many different factors like misunderstanding between husband and wife, poor economic status, mental stress, cost of living index, property sharing, unequal educational status between husband and wife, more number of family members, inadequate of family number, joint family, poor health, immoral social relationship, unnecessary expenditure, relations interfere and so on. Here we identify the factor which affecting the middle class family mostly, also we identify the most income range to which the factor is most affected. To study the passenger transportation problem, the matrix theory was developed in the year 1998 by Dr. W.B. Vasantha and V. Indira. Now we use this model to identify the factor which most affected the middle class family and also we identify the income range of the affected families.

  4. Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

  5. Predictive factors for pregnancy after intrauterine insemination: A prospective study of factors affecting outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Kamath Mohan; Bhave Priya; Aleyamma T; Nair Raju; Chandy A; Mangalaraj Ann; Muthukumar K; George Korula

    2010-01-01

    Objective : To determine the predictive factors for pregnancy after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH)/intrauterine insemination (IUI). Design : Prospective observational study. Setting : University-level tertiary care center. Patients and Methods : 366 patients undergoing 480 stimulated IUI cycles between November 2007 and December 2008. Interventions : Ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophins was initiated and a single IUI was performed 36 h after triggering ovulation. Main Outcome Me...

  6. Factors affecting computer mouse use for young children: implications for AAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, F Aileen; Light, Janice C; Newell, Karl M

    2012-06-01

    More than 12% of preschoolers receiving special education services have complex communication needs, including increasing numbers of children who do not have significant motor impairments (e.g., children with autism spectrum disorders, Down syndrome, etc.). In order to meet their diverse communication needs (e.g., face-to-face, written, Internet, telecommunication), these children may use mainstream technologies accessed via the mouse, yet little is known about factors that affect the mouse performance of young children. This study used a mixed factorial design to investigate the effects of age, target size, and angle of approach on accuracy and time required for accurate target selection with a mouse for 20 3-year-old and 20 4-year-old children. The 4-year-olds were generally more accurate and faster than the 3-year-olds. Target size and angle mediated differences in performance within age groups. The 3-year-olds were more accurate and faster in selecting the medium and large targets relative to the small target, were faster in selecting the large relative to the medium target, and were faster in selecting targets along the vertical relative to the diagonal angle. The 4-year-olds were faster in selecting the medium and large targets relative to the small target. Implications for improving access to AAC include the preliminary suggestion of age-related threshold target sizes that support sufficient accuracy, the possibility of efficiency benefits when target size is increased up to an age-related threshold, and identification of the potential utility of the vertical angle as a context for training navigational input device use. PMID:22670726

  7. Factors Affecting Regional Per-Capita Carbon Emissions in China Based on an LMDI Factor Decomposition Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model–panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissio...

  8. LED light sources: a survey of quality-affecting factors and methods for their assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, after nearly half a century of rapid and sustained development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), conventional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps are beginning to be replaced by LEDs. Therefore, understanding and assessing all the relevant factors that affect the quality of LEDs is becoming increasingly important for design, production and maintenance of various LED products. The most adverse quality-affecting factors are the initial variability of the optical and electrical properties in a batch of LEDs, temperature and electrical dependence and temporal degradation with corresponding variability. In this paper, we survey the most important quality-affecting factors and corresponding methods for their assessment. First, initial variability of the optical and electrical properties in a new batch of LEDs and the corresponding assessment methods are outlined. Next, the temperature stability of optical and electrical properties of LEDs is discussed. Moreover, the most frequently studied methods for spectral degradation and corresponding degradation variability prediction are reviewed according to the accuracy, applicability and specificity. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the established models of part stress analysis are pointed out. In this way, all the major factors affecting the quality of LED products are summarized and the corresponding methods for their assessment are outlined. (topical review)opical review)

  9. Factors Affecting the Link between Physical Discipline and Child Externalizing Problems in Black and White Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna S.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Newton, Rae R.; Black, Maureen M.; Everson, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined contextual factors that may affect the impact of physical discipline on later child behavior problems among high-risk Black and White families. We examined race, parental warmth, and early child problems as potential moderators of the discipline-behavior problem link. The sample included 442 White and Black children and their…

  10. Factors Affecting the Happiness of Urban Elementary School Students: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Jodiann K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this transformative mixed methods study was to examine the school happiness of upper elementary students in three Connecticut urban demonstration schools. The study examined the differences in students' happiness based on ethnicity, gender, and their interaction. It also investigated the factors that affect students' happiness in…

  11. Exploring Factors Affecting Students' Continued Wiki Use for Individual and Collaborative Learning: An Extended UTAUT Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Hsiu-Ping; Huang, Jo-Yi; Chang, Chueh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what factors affect students' adaptation and continued use of a Wiki system for collaborative writing tasks through an extension of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). This study was conducted in a general education course in a university in northern Taiwan. Data were…

  12. CLASSIFICATION MANAGEMENT ASPECTS OF REGIONAL SECTORAL MARKETS AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THEIR EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchepakin M. B.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of regulation of regional sectoral markets, which are a form of market relations in the organization of territorial entities. We have also defined classification aspects of regulation and provided the analysis of factors affecting the functioning of industrial markets

  13. Factors which affect operation of a plasma focus in various gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the axial transit time ta and ?, the ratio of specific heats, are the main factors which affect the operation of a plasma focus in various gases. An energy balance theory is used to explore this dependence. The results are consistent with previous calculations and with experiment. (author). 12 refs

  14. Personal Informatics and Context: Using Context to Reveal Factors That Affect Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ian Anthony Rosas

    2011-01-01

    Personal informatics systems help people collect and reflect on behavioral information to better understand their own behavior. Because most systems only show one type of behavioral information, finding factors that affect one's behavior is difficult. Supporting exploration of multiple types of contextual and behavioral information in a…

  15. Factors Affecting Teachers' Adoption of Educational Computer Games: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebritchi, Mansureh

    2010-01-01

    Even though computer games hold considerable potential for engaging and facilitating learning among today's children, the adoption of modern educational computer games is still meeting significant resistance in K-12 education. The purpose of this paper is to inform educators and instructional designers on factors affecting teachers' adoption of…

  16. Refresher training as an important factor affecting safety of atomic energy utilization facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refresher training appears to be one of the most important factors, affecting safety of atomic energy utilization facilities. To provide up-to-date refresher training programs and courses TC NRS implements best training practice based on the actual and perspective Russian national and international norms, regulations, standards and recommendations. (author)

  17. Factors Affecting the Age of Admission of Postmenopausal Women to an Osteoporosis Outpatient Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necdet Süt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, the factors that may potentially affect the age of admission of postmenopausal women to an osteoporosis (OP outpatient clinic were evaluated.Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty-six postmenopausal women admitted to our OP outpatient clinic were studied retrospectively. The level of education, occupation, age at menopause, duration of menopause, history of hormone replacement therapy (HRT, exercise routine, history of medication use that may cause secondary OP, and family history of OP were questioned. Lumbar spine and femur bone mineral density (BMD measurements were performed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. The data were analyzed by linear regression.Results: The mean age of the patients was 58.8±8.7 years (range, 37-82 years and the mean age at menopause was 45.2±5.8 years. Multiple backward stepwise linear regression was performed. When factors which could potentially affect the age of admission to OP outpatient clinic were included in the model, only 2 factors (age at menopause and duration of menopause were shown to affect the age of admission. These two variables explained 98.9% of the variation (adjusted R2 in admission age (p < 0.001.Conclusion: The most important factors affecting the age of admission of postmenopausal women to the OP outpatient clinic were determined to be the age at menopause and the duration of menopause.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING MILK YIELD AND LACTATION LENGTH IN SAHIWAL CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    I. R. Bajwa, M. S. Khan, M. A. Khan1 and K. Z. Gondal2

    2004-01-01

    Weekly milk yield records on 661 Sahiwal cows calving during 1990-2000 at the Livestock Experiment Station Bahadurnagar, Okara were used to study how milk yield and lactation length were affected by different environmental factors. Lactation milk yield averaged 1475 ? 651 kg for an average lactation length of 248 ? 67 days (n=2039). Year of calving and season of calving both significantly (P

  19. Statistical Analysis of Different Socio Economic Factors Affecting Education of N-W.F.P (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atta Ur; Uddin, Salah

    2009-01-01

    A data of students in the urban and rural area institutions of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group was collected to examine the different socio-economic factor which affects our education system. The logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate)…

  20. An Evaluation of Factors Affecting Document Ranking by Information Retrieval Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Michael

    This study of ranking algorithms used in a Boolean environment is based on an evaluation of factors affecting document ranking by information retrieval systems. The algorithms were decomposed into term weighting schemes and similarity measures, representatively selected from those known to exist in information retrieval environments, before being…

  1. Approaching the Affective Factors of Information Seeking: The Viewpoint of the Information Search Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The article contributes to the conceptual studies of affective factors in information seeking by examining Kuhlthau's information search process model. Method: This random-digit dial telephone survey of 253 people (75% female) living in a rural, medically under-serviced area of Ontario, Canada, follows-up a previous interview study…

  2. Factors That Affect Students' Capacity to Fulfill the Role of Online Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Debra R.; Lenaghan, Janet A.; Sengupta, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Because most undergraduate students are digital natives, it is widely believed that they will succeed in online courses. But factors other than technology also affect students' ability to fulfill the role of online learner. Self-reported data from a sample of more than 200 undergraduates across multiple online courses indicate that students…

  3. Factors Affecting Business Students' Performance: The Case of Students in United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Nasri; El-Shaarawi, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors found that the most important factor that affected student performance was their competence in speaking English. The sample was a group of 864 business and economics students in United Arab Emirates. The authors used regression analysis for the study. The results of the study showed that students who participated in…

  4. Social-Cognitive Factors Affecting Clients' Career and Life Satisfaction after Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Marijke; Sels, Luc

    2010-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting clients' career and life satisfaction in the first 6 months after having participated in career counseling. In particular, we tested a large subset of the recent social-cognitive model of work satisfaction of Lent and Brown using a longitudinal data set of 195 former counseling clients. Our results showed that…

  5. Factors Affecting the Management of Women Groups' Micro and Small Enterprises in Kakamega District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawire, Nelson H. W.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the main factors that affect the management of the WGs' Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kakamega District and Africa in general. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopted a descriptive research design. This is because the study was concerned about a univariate question in which the…

  6. Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

  7. Factors Affecting Literacy Achievement of Eighth Grade Middle School Instrumental Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Johnny T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pretest-posttest comparative efficacy study was to analyze factors affecting literacy achievement of eighth grade middle school instrumental music students (n = 38) including (a) socioeconomic status (SES), (b) gender, (c) grade point average (GPA), (d) music motivation, (e) music involvement, and (f) instrument section. The…

  8. Up, Up and Away: Testing Factors that Affect Helium Balloon Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine Hutchings

    2009-10-21

    What factors affect the amount of weight a helium balloon is able to lift? Was there enough helium in the balloon that drifted over Colorado last week to lift a 6-year-old boy? In this lesson, students conduct experiments to test the relationship between volume of helium balloons and their “lifting power.” They then apply their learning to the Heene case.

  9. Factors Affecting Intention to Use in Social Networking Sites: An Empirical Study on Thai Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairak, Rath; Sahakhunchai, Napath; Jairak, Kallaya; Praneetpolgrang, Prasong

    This research aims to explore the factors that affect the intention to use in Social Networking Sites (SNS). We apply the theory of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), intrinsic motivation, and trust properties to develop the theoretical framework for SNS users' intention. The results show that the important factors influencing SNS users' intention for general purpose and collaborative learning are task-oriented, pleasure-oriented, and familiarity-based trust. In marketing usage, dispositional trust and pleasure-oriented are two main factors that reflect intention to use in SNS.

  10. Factors Affecting Customer Attachment in the Marketing Communication and its Implementation on Tourism Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHMET SERDAR ERC??

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the efficiency of the variables that positively or negatively affect customer attachment, which constitutes a significant place among the goals regarding marketing communications practices. The hypotheses regarding the research were tested through a questionnaire given to the executives of the 141 Group A travel agencies active in the distribution sector in Turkey. The research has shown that trust felt for the seller, positive and satisfying seller-customer relations, cooperation, mutual benefits, and empathizing have positive effects on creating customer attachment; while opportunist attitudes, potential conflicts between the seller and the customer, and risks regarding the future may affect customer attachment negatively.

  11. Factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon, with emphasis on human impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.

    2008-01-01

    We review factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon. With populations declining across the entire distribution range, it is important that spawners survive in the last phase of the spawning migration. Knowledge on the factors affecting migration is essential for the protection of populations, and to increase the success of reintroduction programmes. A number of studies have documented that the upstream migration may be delayed for many weeks at man-made obstacles such as power station outlets, residual flow stretches, dams, weirs and fishways. The fish may also be delayed at natural migration barriers. Often, the magnitude of delay is not predictable; fish may be considerably delayed at barriers that appear to humans to be easily passable, or they may quickly pass barriers that appear difficult. Stressful events like catch-and-release angling may affect upstream migration. Impacts of human activities may also cause altered migration patterns, affect the within-river distributionof the spawning population, and severe barriers may result in displacement of the spawning population to other rivers. Factors documented to affect within-river migration include previous experience, water discharge, water temperature, water velocity, required jump heights, fish size, fish acclimatisation, light, water quality/pollution, time of the season, and catch and handling stress. How each of these factors affects the upstream migration is to a varying extent understood; however, the effects may differ among different river sections and sites. There are likely a number of additional important factors, and the relationship between different factors is complex. The understanding of general mechanisms stimulating fish within-river migration are still lacking, and it cannot be reliably predicted under which conditions a fish will pass a given migration barrier or which conditions are needed to stimulate migration at different sites. The strong focus on the effects of water discharge in past work may have hampered consideration of other factors. Exploration of the influence of these other factors in future studies could improve our understanding of what controls the upstream migration.

  12. Applying total interpretive structural modeling to study factors affecting construction labour productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayali Shrikrishna Sandbhor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Construction sector has always been dependent on manpower. Most of the activities carried out on any construction site are labour intensive. Since productivity of any project depends directly on productivity of labour, it is a prime responsibility of the employer to enhance labour productivity. Measures to improve the same depend on analysis of positive and negative factors affecting productivity. Major attention should be given to factors that decrease the productivity of labour. Factor analysis thus is an integral part of any study aiming to improve productivity.  Interpretive structural modeling is a methodology for identifying and summarizing relationships among factors which define an issue or problem. It provides a means to arrange the factors in an order as per their complexity. This study attempts to use the latest version of interpretive structural modeling i.e. total interpretive structural modeling to analyze factors negatively affecting construction labour productivity. It establishes interpretive relationship among these factors facilitating improvement in the overall productivity of construction site.

  13. Factors Affecting 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration in Response to Vitamin D Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mazahery

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Due to many lifestyle risk factors vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is becoming a worldwide health problem. Low 25(OHD concentration is associated with adverse musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal health outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is currently the best approach to treat deficiency and to maintain adequacy. In response to a given dose of vitamin D, the effect on 25(OHD concentration differs between individuals, and it is imperative that factors affecting this response be identified. For this review, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify those factors and to explore their significance in relation to circulating 25(OHD response to vitamin D supplementation. The effect of several demographic/biological factors such as baseline 25(OHD, aging, body mass index(BMI/body fat percentage, ethnicity, calcium intake, genetics, oestrogen use, dietary fat content and composition, and some diseases and medications has been addressed. Furthermore, strategies employed by researchers or health care providers (type, dose and duration of vitamin D supplementation and environment (season are other contributing factors. With the exception of baseline 25(OHD, BMI/body fat percentage, dose and type of vitamin D, the relative importance of other factors and the mechanisms by which these factors may affect the response remains to be determined.

  14. Factors affecting e-Commerce adoption in Danish and Australian SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating environmental, organizational and technological factors influencing adoption of electronic commerce in small and medium size enterprises in Denmark and Australia. A total of eight companies have been interviewd, four located in the area of Copenhagen, Denamrk and four in Brisbane area, Australia. The results show many interesting similarities and few differences between the two countries. For example, in both countries the external environment has an influence mainly through customer pressure and availability of ICT consulting services. The main organizational factors affecting e-commerce adoption in the two countries are the CEO and employees' knowledge and attitude. Finally a number of technology related factors affect e-commerce adoption in the two countries as for example the ability to stream information out to the clients or the possibility to offer online training.

  15. Factors That Affect Consumers’ Trust and Continuous Adoption of Online Financial Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ming Pi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trust is relatively influential factor of customer behavior in online financial services. The purpose of this studyis to propose a framework of intention to continuously adopt online financial services. To test the model, partialleast squares is employed to analyze data collected from 126 respondents in Taiwan. The research findingsshowed that: 1. website trust influences on the intention to continuous adoption of online financial services; 2.cognitive trust of online customers influences on affective trust; 3. factors of transaction security, website andcompany awareness, prior Internet experience, and navigation functions directly influence on cognitive trust ofonline customers, and; 4. transaction security is the only factor that influences on affective trust of onlinecustomers. This research provides a theoretical foundation for academics and also practical guidelines forservice providers in dealing with the trust aspects of online financial service.

  16. Factors Affect Mobile Phone Brand Choices – Studying the Case of Jordan Universities Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alshurideh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the main factors affect mobile phone brand choice from a behavioral perspective, through analyzing a set of pre-behavior and post-behavior factors from a Jordanian customer’s perspective, the research adds value to the behavior analysis literature by expanding the scope of the Behavior Perspective Model (BPM applications within a real behavior setting. Using a structured questionnaire consisted of a pre-tested set of questions, which were distributed to a hundreds of respondents in three main Jordanian universities. A Multinomial Logistic Regression analysis is used to investigate the predetermined factors that affect mobile phone brand choice as proposed by the BPM. Research results, conclusions, recommendations and future researches are also discussed.

  17. Perceptions and management of psychosocial factors affecting type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Juliana; Halperin, Lucila; Ritholz, Marilyn D; Hsu, William C

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes has become a global pandemic and Chinese Americans are at least 60% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than White Americans, despite having lower body weight, due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Because of the increased risk, it is vitally important to address the issues of treatment adherence and diabetes self-management in the Chinese American population. Many factors affect an individual's ability to manage diabetes, including cultural beliefs, immigration experience, language abilities/health literacy, educational background, employment, and accessibility of healthcare services. In treating Chinese American patients, these factors must be considered to determine appropriate treatment. Eastern cultural and individual beliefs differ greatly from Western beliefs and, therefore, may affect the presentation of the patients. If left unacknowledged, these differences might be misinterpreted by healthcare providers as merely treatment non-adherence or unwillingness to change. Suggestions for providing culturally competent healthcare are discussed. PMID:23545465

  18. New strategies in the assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, Laura; Fabbri, Stefania; Fava, Giovanni A; Sonino, Nicoletta

    2007-12-01

    In this article, we examine research that may lead to a better assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions. We performed a review of the psychosomatic literature using both Medline and manual searches. We selected papers that were judged to be relevant to new strategies of assessment, with particular reference to the use of the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research. We assessed 8 areas concerned with the assessment of psychological factors in the setting of medical disease: hypochondriasis, disease phobia, persistent somatization, conversion symptoms, illness denial, demoralization, irritable mood, and Type A behavior. A new subclassification of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-V]; not yet published) category of psychological factors affecting physical conditions appears to be feasible and may provide the clinician with better tools for identifying psychological distress. PMID:18001223

  19. Assessment of economic factors affecting the satellite power system. Volume 1: System cost factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The factors relevant to SPS costing and selection of preferred SPS satellite configurations were studied. The issues discussed are: (1) consideration of economic factors in the SPS system that relate to selection of SPS satellite configuration; (2) analysis of the proper rate of interest for use in SPS system definition studies; and (3) the impacts of differential inflation on SPS system definition costing procedures. A cost-risk comparison of the SPS satellite configurations showed a significant difference in the levelized cost of power from them. It is concluded, that this difference is the result more of differences in the procedures for assessing costs rather than in the satellite technologies required or of any advantages of one satellite configuration over the other. Analysis of the proper rate of interest for use in SPS system is 4 percent. The major item of differential inflation to be expected over this period of time is the real cost of labor. This cost is likely to double between today and the period of SPS construction.

  20. Factors Affecting the Sustainability of Information Technology Applications in Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Madani, Sina; Aronsky, Dominik

    2003-01-01

    Biomedical informatics is a relatively new field; sustainability of information technology applications has not been studied in detail. We examined what factors contribute to sustainability in other fields (ecology, construction materials, business, primary health care, and environment and development). We describe some aspects of sustainability that can be applied to biomedical informatics: effectiveness, efficiency, financial viability, reproducibility, and portability.