WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived.

Wang YF; Faghih Roohi S; Hu XM; Xie M

2011-07-01

2

Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived. PMID:21571433

Wang, Yan Fu; Faghih Roohi, Shahrzad; Hu, Xiu Ming; Xie, Min

2011-04-16

3

Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

1980-10-16

4

Accident investigation reporting deficiencies related to organizational factors in machinery space fires and explosions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Careful accident investigation provides opportunities to review safety arrangements in socio-technical systems. There is consensus that human intervention is involved in the majority of accidents. Ever cautious of the consequences attributed to such a claim vis-à-vis the apportionment of blame, several authors have highlighted the importance of investigating organizational factors in this respect. Specific regulations to limit what were perceived as unsuitable organizational influences in shipping operations were adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Guidance is provided for the investigation of human and organizational factors involved in maritime accidents. This paper presents a review of 41 accident investigation reports related to machinery space fires and explosions. The objective was to find out if organizational factors are identified during maritime accident investigations. An adapted version of the Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) with minor modifications related to machinery space features was used for this review. The results of the review show that organizational factors were not identified by maritime accident investigators to the extent expected had the IMO guidelines been observed. Instead, contributing factors at the lower end of organizational echelons are over-represented. PMID:21376918

Schröder-Hinrichs, Jens U; Baldauf, Michael; Ghirxi, Kevin T

2011-01-26

5

Accident investigation reporting deficiencies related to organizational factors in machinery space fires and explosions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Careful accident investigation provides opportunities to review safety arrangements in socio-technical systems. There is consensus that human intervention is involved in the majority of accidents. Ever cautious of the consequences attributed to such a claim vis-à-vis the apportionment of blame, several authors have highlighted the importance of investigating organizational factors in this respect. Specific regulations to limit what were perceived as unsuitable organizational influences in shipping operations were adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Guidance is provided for the investigation of human and organizational factors involved in maritime accidents. This paper presents a review of 41 accident investigation reports related to machinery space fires and explosions. The objective was to find out if organizational factors are identified during maritime accident investigations. An adapted version of the Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) with minor modifications related to machinery space features was used for this review. The results of the review show that organizational factors were not identified by maritime accident investigators to the extent expected had the IMO guidelines been observed. Instead, contributing factors at the lower end of organizational echelons are over-represented.

Schröder-Hinrichs JU; Baldauf M; Ghirxi KT

2011-05-01

6

Investigation of Key Factors for Accident Severity at Railroad Grade Crossings by Using a Logit Model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although several studies have used logit or probit models and their variants to fit data of accident severity on roadway segments, few have investigated accident severity at a railroad grade crossing (RGC). Compared to accident risk analysis in terms of accident frequency and severity of a highway system, investigation of the factors contributing to traffic accidents at an RGC may be more complicated because of additional highway-railway interactions. Because the proportional odds assumption was violated while fitting cumulative logit modeled by the proportional odds models with stepwise variable selection to ordinal accident severity data collected at 592 RGCs in Taiwan, as suggested by Strokes et al. (2000, p. 249) a generalized logit model with stepwise variable selection was used instead to identify explanatory variables (factors or covariates) that were significantly associated with the severity of collisions. Hence, the fitted model was used to predict the level of accident severity, given a set of values in the explanatory variables. Number of daily trains, highway separation, number of daily trucks, obstacle detection device, and approaching crossing markings significantly affected levels of accident severity at an RGC (p-value = 0.0009, 0.0008, 0.0112, 0.0017, and 0.0003, respectively). Finally, marginal effect analysis on the number of daily trains and law enforcement camera was conducted to evaluate the effect of the number of daily trains and presence of a law enforcement camera on the potential accident severity.

Hu SR; Li CS; Lee CK

2010-02-01

7

Supervisor's accident investigation handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

1980-01-01

8

Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

Klinestiver, L.R.

1980-01-01

9

Civil aircraft accident investigation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training.

Haines D

2013-01-01

10

Contributive factors to aviation accidents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA) with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accidents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS identified 370 factors. It was concluded that CENIPA reports did not contemplate the organizational factors associated with aviation accidents.

Fajer M; Almeida IM; Fischer FM

2011-04-01

11

Contributive factors to aviation accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA) with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accidents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS identified 370 factors. It was concluded that CENIPA reports did not contemplate the organizational factors associated with aviation accidents. PMID:21344127

Fajer, Marcia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Fischer, Frida Marina

2011-02-11

12

An analysis on human factor issues in criticality accident at a uranium processing plant. Investigation on human behavior contributing to the criticality accident. Interim report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] At 10:30 am, September 30th, 1999, a criticality accident occurred in a conversion building of a uranium processing plant in Tokai, Ibaraki prefecture. 69 people including 3 workers who then worked at the building, 3 fire fighters who dispatched to rescue them were exposed to the radiation. People with a 350 m-radius of the site were recommended to evacuate themselves from the region to a temporarily prepared evacuation center. And about one hundred thousand people within a 10 km-radius were also advised to stay inside of their home. Nuclear Safety Commission's Accident Investigation Committee is investigating causes of this accident and have been revealing that deviation from government-authorized processing method and negligence of its illegal procedure had contributed to the accident. The influence of this accident is expanding not only to the plant operating company, local people but also to Japanese nuclear power policy, the whole nuclear industry in Japan. Especially pervasion of 'Safety Culture' is strongly being required. This report analyses latent factors of some human behavior directly contributing to the criticality accident. It also mentions that 4 critical points on the poor climate for safety in the work place, the inadequate safety management, the unsuitable equipment and the production-biased company's policy are the latent factors of this accident. It also finds that the poor climate and the production-biased policy are the most important factors. It can be said that some people directly or indirectly having caused the accident are the victims of them. (author)

1999-01-01

13

Lessons learned from accidents investigations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

Zuniga-Bello, P. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT), Mexico City (Mexico); Croft, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Glenn, J

1997-12-31

14

Lessons learned from accidents investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

1997-01-01

15

Lessons learned from accident investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

1998-01-01

16

Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately from any investigation conducted by other companies involved in the accident, and it did not review its analyses, conclusions or recommendations with any other company or investigation team. Also, at the time this report was written, other investigations, such as the U.S. Coast Guard and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Joint Investigation and the President's National Commission were ongoing. While the understanding of this accident will continue to develop with time, the information in this report can support learning and the prevention of a recurrence. The accident on April 20, 2010, involved a well integrity failure, followed by a loss of hydrostatic control of the well. This was followed by a failure to control the flow from the well with the BOP equipment, which allowed the release and subsequent ignition of hydrocarbons. Ultimately, the BOP emergency functions failed to seal the well after the initial explosions. During the course of the investigation, the team used fault tree analysis to define and consider various scenarios, failure modes and possible contributing factors. Eight key findings related to the causes of the accident emerged: (1) The annulus cement barrier did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (2) The shoe track barriers did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (3) The negative-pressure test was accepted although well integrity had not been established; (4) Influx was not recognized until hydrocarbons were in the riser; (5) Well control response actions failed to regain control of the well; (6) Diversion to the mud gas separator resulted in gas venting onto the rig; (7) The fire and gas system did not prevent hydrocarbon ignition; (8) The BOP emergency mode did not seal the well.

2010-01-01

17

Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately from any investigation conducted by other companies involved in the accident, and it did not review its analyses, conclusions or recommendations with any other company or investigation team. Also, at the time this report was written, other investigations, such as the U.S. Coast Guard and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Joint Investigation and the President's National Commission were ongoing. While the understanding of this accident will continue to develop with time, the information in this report can support learning and the prevention of a recurrence. The accident on April 20, 2010, involved a well integrity failure, followed by a loss of hydrostatic control of the well. This was followed by a failure to control the flow from the well with the BOP equipment, which allowed the release and subsequent ignition of hydrocarbons. Ultimately, the BOP emergency functions failed to seal the well after the initial explosions. During the course of the investigation, the team used fault tree analysis to define and consider various scenarios, failure modes and possible contributing factors. Eight key findings related to the causes of the accident emerged: (1) The annulus cement barrier did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (2) The shoe track barriers did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (3) The negative-pressure test was accepted although well integrity had not been established; (4) Influx was not recognized until hydrocarbons were in the riser; (5) Well control response actions failed to regain control of the well; (6) Diversion to the mud gas separator resulted in gas venting onto the rig; (7) The fire and gas system did not prevent hydrocarbon ignition; (8) The BOP emergency mode did not seal the well.

NONE

2010-09-15

18

[Heliogeophysical factors and aviation accidents  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It was shown by two independent methods that there is a certain correlation between the number of aviation accidents and heliogeophysical factors. The statistical and spectral analyses of time series of heliogeomagnetic factors and the number of aviation accidents in 1989-1995 showed that, of 216 accidents, 58% are related to sudden geomagnetic storms. A similar relation was revealed for aviation catastrophes (64% out of 86 accidents) and emergencies (54% out of 130 accidents) that coincided in time with heliogeomagnetic storms. General periodicities of the series were revealed by the method of spectral analysis, namely, cycles of 30, 42, 46, 64, 74, 83, 99, 115, 143, 169, 339 days, which confirms the causative relation between the number of aviation accidents and heliogeomagnetic factors. It is assumed that some aviation accidents that coincided in time with geomagnetic storms, are due to changes in professional abilities of pilots that were in the zone of storms.

Komarov FI; Oraevski? VN; Sizov IuP; Tsirul'nik LB; Kanonidi KhD; Ushakov IB; Shalimov PM; Kimlyk MV; Glukhov DV

1998-07-01

19

[Human factors of drivers and traffic accidents].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To find out the relationship of traffic accidents with life events, driving stress, aggressive driving, etc. METHODS: A total of 905 automobile drivers were investigated with life events scale (LES), general driver stress questionnaire, driver behavior inventory and accidents experience, etc. RESULTS: The scores of life events, driving stress, and aggressive driving in accident drivers (21.79 +/- 14.10, 23.81 +/- 11.86, 9.42 +/- 8.25 respectively) were higher than those in nonaccident drivers (16.82 +/- 8.45, 20.09 +/- 10.63, 5.66 +/- 7.54) (P < 0.01). The number of vehicle accidents was significantly correlated with the scores of LES, driving stress, driver's aggressive behavior, drowsy driving, weekly time of driving, drinking index (P < 0.05). A logistic analysis (Forward:LR) showed that the driving hour, drowsy driving, aggressive driving, and drinking index were closely related with traffic accidents (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Life events, driving stress and aggressive driving of the drivers are important factors related to traffic accidents.

Li FZ; Li CJ; Zhan CL; Long YF; Wang HM; Su BJ

2004-04-01

20

Research investigation report on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report was issued in February 2012 by Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation's Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, which consisted of six members from the private sector in independent positions and with no direct interest in the business of promoting nuclear power. Commission aimed to determine the truth behind the accident by clarifying the various problems and reveal systematic problems behind these issues so as to create a new starting point by identifying clear lessons learned. Report composed of four chapters; (1) progression of Fukushima accident and resulting damage (accident management after Fukushima accident, and effects and countermeasure of radioactive materials discharged into the environment), (2) response against Fukushima accident (emergency response of cabinet office against nuclear disaster, risk communication and on-site response against nuclear disaster), (3) analysis of historical and structural factors (technical philosophy of nuclear safety, problems of nuclear safety regulation of Fukushima accident, safety regulatory governance and social background of 'Safety Myth'), (4) Global Context (implication in nuclear security, Japan in nuclear safety regime, U.S.-Japan relations for response against Fukushima accident, lessons learned from Fukushima accident - aiming at creation of resilience). Report could identify causes of Fukushima accident and factors related to resulting damages, show the realities behind failure to prevent the spread of damage, and analyze the overall structural and historical background behind the accidents. (T. Tanaka)

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Estimating the Influence of Accident Related Factors on Motorcycle Fatal Accidents using Logistic Regression (Case Study: Denpasar-Bali)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Denpasar the capital of Bali Province, motorcycle accident contributes to about 80% of total road accidents. Out of those motorcycle accidents, 32% are fatal accidents. This study investigates the influence of accident related factors on motorcycle fatal accidents in the city of Denpasar during period 2006-2008 using a logistic regression model. The study found that the fatality of collision with pedestrians and right angle accidents were respectively about 0.44 and 0.40 times lower than collision with other vehicles and accidents due to other factors. In contrast, the odds that a motorcycle accident will be fatal due to collision with heavy and light vehicles were 1.67 times more likely than with other motorcycles. Collision with pedestrians, right angle accidents, and heavy and light vehicles were respectively accounted for 31%, 29%, and 63% of motorcycle fatal accidents.

Wedagama D.M.P.

2010-01-01

22

Analytical HFACS for investigating human errors in shipping accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the innovative trends in marine technology and the implementation of safety-related regulations, shipping accidents are still a leading concern for global maritime interests. Ensuring the consistency of shipping accident investigation reports is recognized as a significant goal in order to clearly identify the root causes of these accidents. Hence, the goal of this paper is to generate an analytical Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), based on a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP), in order to identify the role of human errors in shipping accidents. Integration of FAHP improves the HFACS framework by providing an analytical foundation and group decision-making ability in order to ensure quantitative assessment of shipping accidents. PMID:19114139

Celik, Metin; Cebi, Selcuk

2008-10-10

23

Analytical HFACS for investigating human errors in shipping accidents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the innovative trends in marine technology and the implementation of safety-related regulations, shipping accidents are still a leading concern for global maritime interests. Ensuring the consistency of shipping accident investigation reports is recognized as a significant goal in order to clearly identify the root causes of these accidents. Hence, the goal of this paper is to generate an analytical Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), based on a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP), in order to identify the role of human errors in shipping accidents. Integration of FAHP improves the HFACS framework by providing an analytical foundation and group decision-making ability in order to ensure quantitative assessment of shipping accidents.

Celik M; Cebi S

2009-01-01

24

A report of the investigating committee for JCO criticality accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aiming to make through investigation of the causal factors for the criticality accident in JCO uranium processing factory, an investigating committee was set up in Nuclear Safety Commission under the decision of countermeasure head office in the government authorities on Oct.4. This report contains the outline of the criticality accident, its cause and actual situations, general measures devised to deal with the disaster, on-the-spot measures and consideration of the background of accident as well as countermeasure in future. The committee concluded that the accident occurred because of human error and serious violation against the safety principle and standard. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the radiation continued for more than 20 hours after the beginning of criticality in the conversion building, but merely trace amount of rare gases and gaseous iodine were released from the building. The radioactivity outside the building rapidly returned to the basal level after the termination of the criticality. It was thus concluded as an irradiation accident but not pollution one. Since the accident was caused by operations under the conditions extremely deviated from the defined working standard, the disaster was not caused by unavoidable force due to an accumulation of unpredictable accident. Therefore, not only direct factors but also indirect ones leading to the violation against the working standard were discussed to prevent recurrence. (M.N.)

2000-01-01

25

Psychological factors of radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

1995-01-01

26

CURRENT FACTORS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN ISFAHAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Car accident mortality is the third order causes of death in the USA, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Given present survival and outcome Iranian data, more than 14,000 patients die annually in road accidents. Having a valid and reliable data could be useful in reduce mortality and morbidity reduction.Methods. Twenty five percent of total traumatic patients in Isfahan were selected (N=2809) at the time of study (1997-1998). Forty five percent of them with car accident were asked about causes of accidents and risk factors for the severity and type of injuries were recorded based on International Classification of Disease 10.Results. Most of the victims were young (10-20 years old), students and industrial workers. Statistically unreasonable numbers of cars without extension of roads and high ways, using old and unsafe cars will affects on accidents.Discussion. In comparison with European and some Asian countries, Iran has unacceptable road accidents and it seems necessary to pay more attention to stop the current increasing data.  

B AMINMAN SOUR

2000-01-01

27

Management factors in accident and incident prevention (including management self-evaluation checklists). Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Serious accidents and incidents occurring within the Department of Energy (DOE) will be investigated by committees including DOE trained investigators. A part of the investigation includes evaluation of management systems as they relate to the accident. The purpose of this guide is to outline, for general management, those management factors which have been found to be of importance in accident prevention. These factors will, of course, will be studied by investigating teams. The management factors have been selected, through a ten-year, world-wide consensus process, as those which individually and collectively may represent accident/incident causal factors. It is the task of the investigating board or committee to determine which of these factors are, indeed, involved in a given accident or incident. Objectives of the guide are twofold: To provide a means for accident/incident prevention by familiarizing managers with the management-related accident/incident causal factors that have been revealed in accident investigation research. To help prepare line and project managers for the investigative process by making them aware of the factors that will be investigated.

Nertney, R.J.

1993-02-01

28

An Analysis of Construction Accident Factors Based on Bayesian Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we have an analysis of construction accident factors based on bayesian network. Firstly, accidents cases are analyzed to build Fault Tree method, which is available to find all the factors causing the accidents, then qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes the factors with Bayesian network method, finally determines the safety management program to guide the safety operations. The results of this study show that bad condition of geological environment has the largest posterior probability; therefore, it is the sensitive factor that might cause the objects striking accidents, so we should pay more attention to the geological environment when preventing accidents.

Yunsheng Zhao; Jinyong Pei

2013-01-01

29

Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. T...

Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik; Rankin, Amy

30

Do claim factors predict health care utilization after transport accidents?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Injured people who are involved in compensation processes have less recovery and less well-being compared to those not involved in claims settlement procedures. This study investigated whether claim factors, such as no-fault versus common law claims, the number of independent medical assessments, and legal disputes, predict health care utilization after transport accidents. METHOD: The sample consisted of 68,911 claimants who lodged a compensation claim at the Transport Accident Commission (TAC) in Victoria, Australia, between 2000 and 2005. The main outcome measure was health care utilization, which was defined as the number of visits to health care providers (e.g. general practitioners, physiotherapists, psychologists) during the 5 year period post-accident. RESULTS: After correction for gender, age, role in accident, injury type, and severity of injury, it was found that independent medical assessments were associated with greater health care utilization (?=.36, p<.001). Involvement in common law claims and legal disputes were both significantly related to health care utilization (respectively ?=.05, p<.001 and ?=-.02, p<.001), however, the standardized betas were negligible, therefore the effect is not clinically relevant. A model including claim factors predicted the number of health care visits significantly better (?R(2)=.08, p<.001) than a model including only gender, age, role in accident, injury type, and severity of injury. CONCLUSION: The positive association between the number of independent medical assessments and health care utilization after transport accidents may imply that numerous medical assessments have a negative effect on claimants' health. However, further research is needed to determine a causal relationship.

Elbers NA; Cuijpers P; Akkermans AJ; Collie A; Ruseckaite R; Bruinvels DJ

2013-04-01

31

Application of a human error framework to conduct train accident/incident investigations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accident/incident investigations are an important qualitative approach to understanding and managing transportation safety. To better understand potential safety implications of recently introduced remote control locomotive (RCL) operations in railroad yard switching, researchers investigated six railroad accidents/incidents. To conduct the investigations, researchers first modified the human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS) to optimize its applicability to the railroad industry (HFACS-RR) and then developed accident/incident data collection and analysis tools based on HFACS-RR. A total of 36 probable contributing factors were identified among the six accidents/incidents investigated. Each accident/incident was associated with multiple contributing factors, and, for each accident/incident, active failures and latent conditions were identified. The application of HFACS-RR and a theoretically driven approach to investigating accidents/incidents involving human error ensured that all levels of the system were considered during data collection and analysis phases of the investigation and that investigations were systematic and thorough. Future work is underway to develop a handheld software tool that incorporates these data collection and analysis tools. PMID:16310153

Reinach, Stephen; Viale, Alex

2005-11-28

32

Application of a human error framework to conduct train accident/incident investigations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accident/incident investigations are an important qualitative approach to understanding and managing transportation safety. To better understand potential safety implications of recently introduced remote control locomotive (RCL) operations in railroad yard switching, researchers investigated six railroad accidents/incidents. To conduct the investigations, researchers first modified the human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS) to optimize its applicability to the railroad industry (HFACS-RR) and then developed accident/incident data collection and analysis tools based on HFACS-RR. A total of 36 probable contributing factors were identified among the six accidents/incidents investigated. Each accident/incident was associated with multiple contributing factors, and, for each accident/incident, active failures and latent conditions were identified. The application of HFACS-RR and a theoretically driven approach to investigating accidents/incidents involving human error ensured that all levels of the system were considered during data collection and analysis phases of the investigation and that investigations were systematic and thorough. Future work is underway to develop a handheld software tool that incorporates these data collection and analysis tools.

Reinach S; Viale A

2006-03-01

33

Safety investigation of team performance in accidents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper presents the capacities of the performance evaluation of teamwork (PET) method. Its practicability and efficiency are illustrated by retrospective human reliability analyse of the famous nuclear and maritime accidents. A quantitative assessment of operators' performance on the base of thermo-hydraulic (T/H) calculations and full-scope simulator data for set of NPP design basic accidents with WWER is demonstrated. The last data are obtained on the 'WWER-1000' full-scope simulator of Kozloduy NPP during the regular practical training of the operators' teams. An outlook on the "evaluation system of main control room (MCR) operators' reliability" project, based on simulator data of operators' training is given.

Petkov G; Todorov V; Takov T; Petrov V; Stoychev K; Vladimirov V; Chukov I

2004-07-01

34

The investigation of pipeline accidents, Canada`s approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB/C) is the short name, or applied title, for the federal agency mandated to carry out independent safety investigations of accidents and incidents of the marine, pipeline, rail and air modes of transportation. Their official name is the Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board reflecting the legislation under which Canada operates. The CTAISB Act was passed by Parliament in June 1989 and promulgated in March 1990. The TSB is not a regulator; its only noteworthy regulatory power is its power to make regulations for the reporting of transportation occurrences to the Board. The TSB`s independence from the transportation regulators helps to ensure that regulatory factors that may have contributed to an occurrence are treated objectively. Its independence from the courts helps to ensure that safety investigations are separate from the litigation processes that determine blame and liability. This, in turn, is to foster an atmosphere of openness and cooperation for the conduct of safety investigations.

Tucker, W.T.

1996-12-31

35

A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most workplace accidents that happen in enterprises are simple and seldom result in serious injuries. Very often these kinds of workplace accidents are not investigated, and if they are, then the investigation is very brief, with comments such as that it was the victim’s own fault or just an unfortunate situation which could not be helped. Most prevention analysis and investigation methods focus on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, etc. In the industrial world, such risks do give rise to disasters, albeit very seldom. Nevertheless, the fact is that simpler accidents normally caused by apparent banalities occur much more frequently and with a higher rate of fatalities, disablements and other serious injuries than the ostensibly most dangerous kinds of accidents. In 1999 a practical tool for use by safety officers was developed; this tool is based on the investigation methods applied in major accidents, but comprises a simpler and more user-friendly presentation. The tool involves three steps: Mapping the facts, analysing the events, and developing preventive solutions. Practical application of the tool has shown that it affords managers and workers a heightened insight into the cause of accidents, including those that seemed to be unavoidable, and that simple workplace accidents always have root causes on which preventive action can be focused. The problem is however that making a proper analysis is difficult and requires appropriate training, even in cases where the accidents seem to be very simple.

JØrgensen, Kirsten

2010-01-01

36

Investigation on the role of traffic volume in accidents on urban highways.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Roadway safety is a major concern for the general public and public agencies, as roadway crashes claim many lives and cause substantial economic loss each year. In Iran, a large number of vehicles are involved in road accidents each year, which cause many deaths and extensive property damage; such accidents are among the major causes of death and disability in the country. Method: To reduce roadway accidents, the factors that affect the occurrence and severity of accidents should be scrutinized to prevent or reduce their effect. The method that many researchers have adopted to determine the effective parameters surrounding road accidents in recent years is through statistical modeling of accidents. In this article, the role of different kinds of vehicles in traffic flow are investigated separately in terms of the likelihood of crashes on urban highways, and the vehicles are divided into three groups: passenger cars, heavy vehicles, and light non-passenger car vehicles. Poisson and negative binomial (NB) regression models were applied to model the accidents in this research, which were categorized into two groups: no injury (property damage only) accidents and more severe (injury and fatal) accidents. Results: Ultimately, we conclude that light non-passenger car vehicles (i.e., taxis and motorcycles) play the largest role in the occurrence of crashes on urban highways for both types of accidents.

Ayati E; Abbasi E

2011-06-01

37

Safety investigation of team performance in accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents the capacities of the performance evaluation of teamwork (PET) method. Its practicability and efficiency are illustrated by retrospective human reliability analyse of the famous nuclear and maritime accidents. A quantitative assessment of operators' performance on the base of thermo-hydraulic (T/H) calculations and full-scope simulator data for set of NPP design basic accidents with WWER is demonstrated. The last data are obtained on the 'WWER-1000' full-scope simulator of Kozloduy NPP during the regular practical training of the operators' teams. An outlook on the "evaluation system of main control room (MCR) operators' reliability" project, based on simulator data of operators' training is given. PMID:15231353

Petkov, G; Todorov, V; Takov, T; Petrov, V; Stoychev, K; Vladimirov, V; Chukov, I

2004-07-26

38

Human factors analysis and classification system applied to civil aircraft accidents in India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) has gained wide acceptance as a tool to classify human factors in aircraft accidents and incidents. This study on application of HFACS to civil aircraft accident reports at Directorate General Civil of Aviation (DGCA), India, was conducted to ascertain the practicability of applying HFACS to existing investigation reports and to analyze the trends of human factor causes of civil aircraft accidents. METHOD: Accident investigation reports held at DGCA, New Delhi, for the period 1990--99 were scrutinized. In all, 83 accidents occurred during this period, of which 48 accident reports were evaluated in this study. RESULTS: One or more human factors contributed to 37 of the 48 (77.1%) accidents. The commonest unsafe act was 'skill based errors' followed by 'decision errors.' Violations of laid down rules were contributory in 16 cases (33.3%). 'Preconditions for unsafe acts' were seen in 23 of the 48 cases (47.9%). A fairly large number (52.1%) had 'organizational influences' contributing to the accident. DISCUSSION: These results are in consonance with larger studies of accidents in the U.S. Navy and general aviation. Such a high percentage of 'organizational influences' has not been reported in other studies. This is a healthy sign for Indian civil aviation, provided effective remedial action for the same is undertaken.

Gaur D

2005-05-01

39

Human Error Analysis of Commercial Aviation Accidents Using the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is a general human error framework originally developed and tested within the U.S. military as a tool for investigating and analyzing the human causes of aviation accidents. Based upon Reason's ...

D. A. Wiegmann S. A. Shappell

2001-01-01

40

[Ischemic cerebrovascular accident and climatologic factors  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors have studied the influence of certain meteorological factors (air temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity) on the onset of acute cerebrovascular disorders. The investigations related to 232 persons of both sexes affected by stroke. The case material was subjected to detailed statistical analysis. On the basis of their investigations the authors conclude that there is some parallelism between the particular meteorological factors examined and development of strokes.

Palao Sánchez A; Gracia Fleta F; Leiva Santana C

1989-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

Cookson, Simon

2009-01-01

42

Human error and commercial aviation accidents: an analysis using the human factors analysis and classification system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to extend previous examinations of aviation accidents to include specific aircrew, environmental, supervisory, and organizational factors associated with two types of commercial aviation (air carrier and commuter/ on-demand) accidents using the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). BACKGROUND: HFACS is a theoretically based tool for investigating and analyzing human error associated with accidents and incidents. Previous research has shown that HFACS can be reliably used to identify human factors trends associated with military and general aviation accidents. METHOD: Using data obtained from both the National Transportation Safety Board and the Federal Aviation Administration, 6 pilot-raters classified aircrew, supervisory, organizational, and environmental causal factors associated with 1020 commercial aviation accidents that occurred over a 13-year period. RESULTS: The majority of accident causal factors were attributed to aircrew and the environment, with decidedly fewer associated with supervisory and organizational causes. Comparisons were made between HFACS causal categories and traditional situational variables such as visual conditions, injury severity, and regional differences. CONCLUSION: These data will provide support for the continuation, modification, and/or development of interventions aimed at commercial aviation safety. APPLICATION: HFACS provides a tool for assessing human factors associated with accidents and incidents.

Shappell S; Detwiler C; Holcomb K; Hackworth C; Boquet A; Wiegmann DA

2007-04-01

43

Human factors review for severe accident sequence analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes a human factors research project performed to: (1) support the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) program and (2) develop a descriptive model of operator response in accident management. The first goal was accomplished by working with SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) accident sequence to systematically assess critical operator actions and thereby demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. The second goal was accomplished by developing a model called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which provides both a conceptual structure linking off-normal safety functions with potential unconventional emergency responses and a method for developing technical guidance for those responses based on operations, engineering, and human factors data and expertise. The four components comprising the model are described and their use is shown through a table-top demonstration. 48 refs., 30 figs., 9 tabs.

1985-01-01

44

Fatores contribuintes aos acidentes aeronáuticos Factores contribuyentes de accidentes aeronáuticos Contributive factors to aviation accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi comparar os resultados de investigações de acidentes aeronáuticos brasileiros do Centro de Investigação e Prevenção de Acidentes Aeronáuticos (Cenipa) com os do sistema de análise e classificação de fatores humanos (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - HFACS). Foram analisados e comparados os relatórios finais de 36 investigações de acidentes aeronáuticos ocorridos entre 2000 e 2005, no estado de São Paulo. Foram mencionados 163 fatores contribuintes dos acidentes aeronáuticos nos relatórios do Cenipa, enquanto 370 foram identificados por meio do HFACS. Conclui-se que as análises do Cenipa não contemplaram fatores organizacionais associados aos acidentes aéreos.El objetivo del estudio fue comparar los resultados de investigaciones de accidentes aeronáuticos brasileños del Centro de Investigación y Prevención de Accidentes Aeronáuticos (CENIPA) con los del sistema de análisis y clasificación de factores humanos (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - HFACS). Se analizaron y compararon los informes finales de 36 investigaciones de accidentes aeronáuticos ocurridos entre 2000 y 2005, en el estado de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil. Se mencionaron 163 factores contribuyentes de accidentes aeronáuticos en los informes del CENIPA, mientras que 370 fueron identificados por medio del HFACS. Se concluye que los análisis del CENIPA no contemplaron factores organizacionales asociados con los accidentes aéreos.The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA) with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accidents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS identified 370 factors. It was concluded that CENIPA reports did not contemplate the organizational factors associated with aviation accidents.

Marcia Fajer; Ildeberto Muniz de Almeida; Frida Marina Fischer

2011-01-01

45

Fatores contribuintes aos acidentes aeronáuticos/ Contributive factors to aviation accidents/ Factores contribuyentes de accidentes aeronáuticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do estudo foi comparar os resultados de investigações de acidentes aeronáuticos brasileiros do Centro de Investigação e Prevenção de Acidentes Aeronáuticos (Cenipa) com os do sistema de análise e classificação de fatores humanos (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - HFACS). Foram analisados e comparados os relatórios finais de 36 investigações de acidentes aeronáuticos ocorridos entre 2000 e 2005, no estado de São Paulo. Foram menc (more) ionados 163 fatores contribuintes dos acidentes aeronáuticos nos relatórios do Cenipa, enquanto 370 foram identificados por meio do HFACS. Conclui-se que as análises do Cenipa não contemplaram fatores organizacionais associados aos acidentes aéreos. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue comparar los resultados de investigaciones de accidentes aeronáuticos brasileños del Centro de Investigación y Prevención de Accidentes Aeronáuticos (CENIPA) con los del sistema de análisis y clasificación de factores humanos (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - HFACS). Se analizaron y compararon los informes finales de 36 investigaciones de accidentes aeronáuticos ocurridos entre 2000 y 2005, en el estado de Sao Paulo, S (more) ureste de Brasil. Se mencionaron 163 factores contribuyentes de accidentes aeronáuticos en los informes del CENIPA, mientras que 370 fueron identificados por medio del HFACS. Se concluye que los análisis del CENIPA no contemplaron factores organizacionales asociados con los accidentes aéreos. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA) with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accidents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS (more) identified 370 factors. It was concluded that CENIPA reports did not contemplate the organizational factors associated with aviation accidents.

Fajer, Marcia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Fischer, Frida Marina

2011-04-01

46

Risk factors for injury accidents among moped and motorcycle riders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study and quantify the effect of factors related to the riders of powered two-wheelers on the risk of injury accident involvement. METHODOLOGY: Based on national data held by the police from 1996 to 2005, we conducted a case-control study with responsibility for the accident as the event of interest. We estimated the odds ratios for accident responsibility. Making the hypothesis that the non-responsible riders in the study are representative of all the riders on the road, we thus identified risk factors for being responsible for injury accidents. The studied factors are age, gender, helmet wearing, alcohol consumption, validity of the subject's driving licence and for how long it has been held, the trip purpose and the presence of a passenger on the vehicle. Moped and motorcycle riders are analyzed separately, adjusting for the main characteristics of the accident. RESULTS: For both moped and motorcycle riders, being male, not wearing a helmet, exceeding the legal limit for alcohol and travelling for leisure purposes increased the risk of accident involvement. The youngest and oldest users had a greater risk of accident involvement. The largest risk factor was alcohol, and we identified a dose-effect relationship between alcohol consumption and accident risk, with an estimated odds ratio of over 10 for motorcycle and moped riders with a BAC of 2 g/l or over. Among motorcycle users, riders without a licence had twice the risk of being involved in an accident than those holding a valid licence. However, the number of years the rider had held a licence reduced the risk of accident involvement. One difference between moped and motorcycle riders involved the presence of a passenger on the vehicle: while carrying a passenger increased the risk of being responsible for the accident among moped riders, it protected against this risk among motorcycle riders. CONCLUSION: This analysis of responsibility has identified the major factors contributing to excess risk of injury accidents, some of which could be targeted by prevention programmes.

Moskal A; Martin JL; Laumon B

2012-11-01

47

Investigation on accident management measures for VVER-1000 reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A consequence of a total loss of AC power supply (station blackout) leading to unavailability of major active safety systems which could not perform their safety functions is that the safety criteria ensuring a secure operation of the nuclear power plant would be violated and a consequent core heat-up with possible core degradation would occur. Currently, a study which examines the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the plant during the early phase of the scenario is being performed. This paper focuses on the possibilities for delay or mitigation of the accident sequence to progress into a severe one by applying Accident Management Measures (AMM). The strategy 'Primary circuit depressurization' as a basic strategy, which is realized in the management of severe accidents is being investigated. By reducing the load over the vessel under severe accident conditions, prerequisites for maintaining the integrity of the primary circuit are being created. The time-margins for operators' intervention as key issues are being also assessed. The task is accomplished by applying the GRS thermal-hydraulic system code ATHLET. In addition, a comparative analysis of the accident progression for a station blackout event for both a reference German PWR and a reference VVER-1000, taking into account the plant specifics, is being performed. (authors)

2009-01-01

48

Role of separate factors in the development of the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Immediately after the accident in the fourth power unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant many computational and analytical investigations of the development of the accident and the values of separate factors in this situation were performed at the NIKIET and other research centers. Foreign research centers, where, in particular, the modern general-loop programs of the type Relap 5, Retran 02, and others were employed for modeling the thermohydraulic processes in the circulation loop of the reactor where the accident occurred, also participated in this process.

Adamov, E.O.; Domoradov, A.E.; Mironov, Y.V.; Nikitin, Y.M.; Cherkashov, Y.M.

1994-05-01

49

Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure

1984-01-01

50

An investigation on body displacement after two drowning accidents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The finding of human remains in aquatic environments is usually attributed to causes such as work-related or recreational accidents, suicides, discarded homicide victims, and natural disasters. When the point and date of entry in the water is unknown, these findings pose serious challenges to forensic analysis given the difficulty to estimate the drift of the body. In this context, the information retrieved from cases where the point of entry and body recovery sites are known, as well as the timing, is significant. Two drowning accidents in marine coastal waters were analyzed. In both cases the post-mortem submersion interval (PMSI) is known, as well as the accident (point of entry) and body recovery sites. Accumulated degree days (ADD) was estimated in both cases using satellite sea surface temperature data. In both cases the bodies were recovered in the vicinity of the accident site (~2 km in case 1 and less than 1 km in case 2). Results were interpreted in terms of oceanographic conditions, physical settings and ADD. The results provide some relevant clues on the fate of human cadavers in coastal marine environments that can be used by officials and agencies involved in the recovery of bodies, as well as by forensic investigators when dealing with these findings.

Mateus M; de Pablo H; Vaz N

2013-06-01

51

Understanding the human factors contribution to railway accidents and incidents in Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forty rail safety investigation reports were reviewed and a theoretical framework (the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System; HFACS) adopted as a means of identifying errors associated with rail accidents/incidents in Australia. Overall, HFACS proved useful in categorising errors from existing investigation reports and in capturing the full range of relevant rail human factors data. It was revealed that nearly half the incidents resulted from an equipment failure, most of these the product of inadequate maintenance or monitoring programs. In the remaining cases, slips of attention (i.e. skilled-based errors), associated with decreased alertness and physical fatigue, were the most common unsafe acts leading to accidents and incidents. Inadequate equipment design (e.g. driver safety systems) was frequently identified as an organisational influence and possibly contributed to the relatively large number of incidents/accidents resulting from attention failures. Nearly all incidents were associated with at least one organisational influence, suggesting that improvements to resource management, organisational climate and organisational processes are critical for Australian accident and incident reduction. Future work will aim to modify HFACS to generate a rail-specific framework for future error identification, accident analysis and accident investigation.

Baysari MT; McIntosh AS; Wilson JR

2008-09-01

52

Understanding the human factors contribution to railway accidents and incidents in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty rail safety investigation reports were reviewed and a theoretical framework (the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System; HFACS) adopted as a means of identifying errors associated with rail accidents/incidents in Australia. Overall, HFACS proved useful in categorising errors from existing investigation reports and in capturing the full range of relevant rail human factors data. It was revealed that nearly half the incidents resulted from an equipment failure, most of these the product of inadequate maintenance or monitoring programs. In the remaining cases, slips of attention (i.e. skilled-based errors), associated with decreased alertness and physical fatigue, were the most common unsafe acts leading to accidents and incidents. Inadequate equipment design (e.g. driver safety systems) was frequently identified as an organisational influence and possibly contributed to the relatively large number of incidents/accidents resulting from attention failures. Nearly all incidents were associated with at least one organisational influence, suggesting that improvements to resource management, organisational climate and organisational processes are critical for Australian accident and incident reduction. Future work will aim to modify HFACS to generate a rail-specific framework for future error identification, accident analysis and accident investigation. PMID:18760104

Baysari, Melissa T; McIntosh, Andrew S; Wilson, John R

2008-07-09

53

Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Influence of the critical accident seen to consciousness investigation of the public  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Here was introduced a consciousness investigation result carried out at Fukui prefecture and Osaka city after about two months of the JCO criticality accident. Peoples were disturbed by the accident, and not a little changed their individual estimations on items relating to energy. However, peoples lived in Fukui prefecture did not increase rate of opposition against nuclear energy promotion and nuclear power plant construction to their living area on comparison with a year before the accident. This reason might be understood by that the accident was not an accident of a nuclear power plant directly, and that their living area was much distant from place of the accident and was not suffered any danger. On the other hand, public opinion in Osaka city made worse on comparison with that before a year, and if such worse public opinion was thought to be due to the accident, its effect could be said to be different in each area even with no direct relation to the accident to shown a result dependent upon its various conditions. As a rough tendency on psychological disturbance due to the accident, it could be said that peoples became to have feelings of avoiding hard nuclear energy technology at a chance of the accident and to direct thoughts of soft natural energy and environment respect. (G.K.)

2000-01-01

54

Human Error and Commercial Aviation Accidents: A Comprehensive, Fine-Grained Analysis Using HFACS (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is a theoretically based tool for investigating and analyzing human error associated with accidents and incidents. Previous research has shown that HFACS can be reliably used to identify general...

A. Boquet C. Detwiler C. Hackworth K. Holcomb S. Shappell

2006-01-01

55

Human Error and General Aviation Accidents: A Comprehensive, Fine-Grained Analysis Using HFACS (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is a theoretically based tool for investigating and analyzing human error associated with accidents and incidents. Previous research performed at both the University of Illinois and the Civil Ae...

A. Boquet C. Detwiler D. Wiegmann K. Holcomb T. Faaborg

2005-01-01

56

Implementing recommendations from accident investigations: a case study of inter-organisational challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In many industries, a national accident investigation board conducts investigations following major accidents. For safety improvements to be achieved, however, it is essential that the recommendations presented in these investigations are followed by necessary actions. In this paper, challenges related to implementation of recommendations from accident investigations are studied. The theoretical framework providing the foundation for the study lies at the intersection between systems safety, risk governance, and implementation research. Empirical data for the case study was collected from the Swedish railway sector. The first part of the paper presents an analysis of the extent of recommendations that have not resulted in implemented actions. The second part consists of an interview study aiming at providing a deeper understanding of the difficulties related to transforming these recommendations into actual changes. Two key factors that give rise to challenges to implementation of recommendations are identified. The first factor is related to the different actors' views on their own and other stakeholders' roles in the implementation process, and can be described as a trade-off between being insider and outsider to the industry. The second factor is related to the scope of the accident investigations and their recommendations, and can be described as a trade-off between micro-level and macro-level factors. The opportunities for implementing recommendations, and achieving safety improvements at the industry level, are affected by the ways in which the different stakeholders manage these trade-offs at the local level. This study thus mainly contributes by highlighting the importance of co-ordinating the various actors involved in the implementation process, and the results show that challenges to implementation to a large extent arise in the interactions between these actors.

Cedergren A

2013-04-01

57

Implementing recommendations from accident investigations: a case study of inter-organisational challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many industries, a national accident investigation board conducts investigations following major accidents. For safety improvements to be achieved, however, it is essential that the recommendations presented in these investigations are followed by necessary actions. In this paper, challenges related to implementation of recommendations from accident investigations are studied. The theoretical framework providing the foundation for the study lies at the intersection between systems safety, risk governance, and implementation research. Empirical data for the case study was collected from the Swedish railway sector. The first part of the paper presents an analysis of the extent of recommendations that have not resulted in implemented actions. The second part consists of an interview study aiming at providing a deeper understanding of the difficulties related to transforming these recommendations into actual changes. Two key factors that give rise to challenges to implementation of recommendations are identified. The first factor is related to the different actors' views on their own and other stakeholders' roles in the implementation process, and can be described as a trade-off between being insider and outsider to the industry. The second factor is related to the scope of the accident investigations and their recommendations, and can be described as a trade-off between micro-level and macro-level factors. The opportunities for implementing recommendations, and achieving safety improvements at the industry level, are affected by the ways in which the different stakeholders manage these trade-offs at the local level. This study thus mainly contributes by highlighting the importance of co-ordinating the various actors involved in the implementation process, and the results show that challenges to implementation to a large extent arise in the interactions between these actors. PMID:23416681

Cedergren, Alexander

2013-01-25

58

Risk management: Role of societal factors in major industrial accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper discusses factors influencing the occurrence of major accidents in complex technological systems. Societal factors are identified as most significant in this context. Important types of societal factors are pin-pointed and discussed. The safety situation in the former Soviet Union and in today's Russian is described. The calamities at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and partly also Bhopal are discussed, and the role of societal factors identified. A main point of view is that it is not surprising that these catastrophes happened in the then existing conditions. What is surprising is that they did not happen earlier exclamation point

1995-01-01

59

Indonesian railway accidents--utilizing Human Factors Analysis and Classification System in determining potential contributing factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of Indonesian railway accidents has not been declining, with hundreds of fatalities reported in the past decade. As an effort to help the National Transportation Safety Committee (NTSC), this study was conducted that aimed at understanding factors that might have contributed to the accidents. Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was utilized for this purpose. A total of nine accident reports (provided by the Indonesian NTSC) involving fatalities were studied using the technique. Results of this study indicated 72 factors that were closely related to the accidents. Of these, roughly 22% were considered as operator acts while about 39% were related to preconditions for operator acts. Supervisory represented 14% of the factors, and the remaining (about 25%) were associated with organizational factors. It was concluded that, while train drivers indeed played an important role in the accidents, interventions solely directed toward train drivers may not be adequate. A more comprehensive approach in minimizing the accidents should be conducted that addresses all the four aspects of HFACS. PMID:22317372

Iridiastadi, Hardianto; Ikatrinasari, Zulfa Fitri

2012-01-01

60

Indonesian railway accidents--utilizing Human Factors Analysis and Classification System in determining potential contributing factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of Indonesian railway accidents has not been declining, with hundreds of fatalities reported in the past decade. As an effort to help the National Transportation Safety Committee (NTSC), this study was conducted that aimed at understanding factors that might have contributed to the accidents. Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was utilized for this purpose. A total of nine accident reports (provided by the Indonesian NTSC) involving fatalities were studied using the technique. Results of this study indicated 72 factors that were closely related to the accidents. Of these, roughly 22% were considered as operator acts while about 39% were related to preconditions for operator acts. Supervisory represented 14% of the factors, and the remaining (about 25%) were associated with organizational factors. It was concluded that, while train drivers indeed played an important role in the accidents, interventions solely directed toward train drivers may not be adequate. A more comprehensive approach in minimizing the accidents should be conducted that addresses all the four aspects of HFACS.

Iridiastadi H; Ikatrinasari ZF

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Management factors in accident and incident prevention (including management self-evaluation checklists). [Contains a list of System Safety Development Center (SSDC) publications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Serious accidents and incidents occurring within the Department of Energy (DOE) will be investigated by committees including DOE trained investigators. A part of the investigation includes evaluation of management systems as they relate to the accident. The purpose of this guide is to outline, for general management, those management factors which have been found to be of importance in accident prevention. These factors will, of course, will be studied by investigating teams. The management factors have been selected, through a ten-year, world-wide consensus process, as those which individually and collectively may represent accident/incident causal factors. It is the task of the investigating board or committee to determine which of these factors are, indeed, involved in a given accident or incident. Objectives of the guide are twofold: To provide a means for accident/incident prevention by familiarizing managers with the management-related accident/incident causal factors that have been revealed in accident investigation research. To help prepare line and project managers for the investigative process by making them aware of the factors that will be investigated.

Nertney, R.J.

1993-02-01

62

Investigation into information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report was prepared in response to a request from NRC Chairman Ahearne that directed the Office of Inspection and Enforcement to resume its investigation of information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) that occurred on March 28, 1979. This investigation was resumed on March 21, 1980. The transfer of information among individuals, agencies, and personnel from Metropolitan Edison was analyzed to ascertain what knowledge was held by various individuals of the specific events, parameters, and systems during the accident at TMI. Maximum use was made of existing records, and additional interviews were conducted to clarify areas that had not been pursued during earlier investigations. Although the passage of time between the accident and post-accident interviews hampered precise recollections of events and circumstances, the investigation revealed that information was not intentionally withheld during the accident and that the system for effective transfer of information was inadequate during the accident

1981-01-01

63

Investigations on in-vessel severe accident phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The in-vessel evolution of a severe accident in nuclear reactors is characterised by core uncovery and heat-up, core material oxidation and melting, molten material relocation, and debris behaviour in the lower plenum up to vessel failure. The report summarises recent results of FZK research on mitigation of severe accidents with emphasis on the reflood of an overheated reactor core for the purpose of early termination of the accident and fuel coolant interactions in the lower plenum of the pressure vessel and its consequences. (orig.)

2004-01-01

64

Proposal for computer investigation of LMFBR core meltdown accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental consequences of an LMFBR accident involving breach of containment are so severe that such accidents must not be allowed to happen. Present methods for analyzing hypothetical core disruptive accidents like a loss of flow with failure to scram cannot show conclusively that such accidents do not lead to a rupture of the pressure vessel. A major deficiency of present methods is their inability to follow large motions of a molten LMFBR core. Such motions may lead to a secondary supercritical configuration with a subsequent energy release that is sufficient to rupture the pressure vessel. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory proposes to develop a computer program for describing the dynamics of hypothetical accidents. This computer program will utilize implicit Eulerian fluid dynamics methods coupled with a time-dependent transport theory description of the neutronic behavior. This program will be capable of following core motions until a stable coolable configuration is reached. Survey calculations of reactor accidents with a variety of initiating events will be performed for reactors under current design to assess the safety of such reactors

1974-01-01

65

Facial trauma in motor vehicle accidents: etiological factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of seat belts and the use of alcohol and drugs have been studied as etiological factors in facial trauma to occupants of motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). During a 15-month period, 461 patients were admitted to a regional trauma center as a result of injuries sustained in MVAs. Two hundred thirty-seven (51%) of these patients had facial trauma. Facial trauma was the single most common injury in these patients. One hundred eighty-five patients (78%) had major soft tissue injury, and 52 patients (22%) had facial bone fractures. Forty-two of 237 patients (18%) with facial trauma were wearing seat belts compared with 74 of 224 patients (33%) without facial trauma who were wearing seat belts at the time of the accident. Large numbers of patients who were wearing seat belts at the time of the accident had minor injuries and were never admitted to the hospital. Sixty-five of 224 patients (24%) without facial trauma and 121 of 237 patients (51%) with facial trauma tested positive for alcohol or drugs. The majority of the patients who tested positive for alcohol had blood alcohol levels of more than 100 mg/dL. Head injuries and blunt chest trauma were most commonly associated injuries in these patients. This study suggests that use of alcohol and drugs in occupants of the motor vehicle had a major effect on the etiology of facial trauma. Also it supports the data that suggests that the use of seat belts prevents a wide range of injuries including facial trauma in MVAs.

Nakhgevany KB; LiBassi M; Esposito B

1994-03-01

66

Human and organisational factors in maritime accidents: Analysis of collisions at sea using the HFACS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the last decade, the shipping industry has implemented a number of measures aimed at improving its safety level (such as new regulations or new forms of team training). Despite this evolution, shipping accidents, and particularly collisions, remain a major concern. This paper presents a modified version of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System, which has been adapted to the maritime context and used to analyse human and organisational factors in collisions reported by the Marine Accident and Investigation Branch (UK) and the Transportation Safety Board (Canada). The analysis shows that most collisions are due to decision errors. At the precondition level, it highlights the importance of the following factors: poor visibility and misuse of instruments (environmental factors), loss of situation awareness or deficit of attention (conditions of operators), deficits in inter-ship communications or Bridge Resource Management (personnel factors). At the leadership level, the analysis reveals the frequent planning of inappropriate operations and non-compliance with the Safety Management System (SMS). The Multiple Accident Analysis provides an important finding concerning three classes of accidents. Inter-ship communications problems and Bridge Resource Management deficiencies are closely linked to collisions occurring in restricted waters and involving pilot-carrying vessels. Another class of collisions is associated with situations of poor visibility, in open sea, and shows deficiencies at every level of the socio-technical system (technical environment, condition of operators, leadership level, and organisational level). The third class is characterised by non-compliance with the SMS. This study shows the importance of Bridge Resource Management for situations of navigation with a pilot on board in restricted waters. It also points out the necessity to investigate, for situations of navigation in open sea, the masters' decisions in critical conditions as well as the causes of non-compliance with SMS.

Chauvin C; Lardjane S; Morel G; Clostermann JP; Langard B

2013-10-01

67

Human and organisational factors in maritime accidents: analysis of collisions at sea using the HFACS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade, the shipping industry has implemented a number of measures aimed at improving its safety level (such as new regulations or new forms of team training). Despite this evolution, shipping accidents, and particularly collisions, remain a major concern. This paper presents a modified version of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System, which has been adapted to the maritime context and used to analyse human and organisational factors in collisions reported by the Marine Accident and Investigation Branch (UK) and the Transportation Safety Board (Canada). The analysis shows that most collisions are due to decision errors. At the precondition level, it highlights the importance of the following factors: poor visibility and misuse of instruments (environmental factors), loss of situation awareness or deficit of attention (conditions of operators), deficits in inter-ship communications or Bridge Resource Management (personnel factors). At the leadership level, the analysis reveals the frequent planning of inappropriate operations and non-compliance with the Safety Management System (SMS). The Multiple Accident Analysis provides an important finding concerning three classes of accidents. Inter-ship communications problems and Bridge Resource Management deficiencies are closely linked to collisions occurring in restricted waters and involving pilot-carrying vessels. Another class of collisions is associated with situations of poor visibility, in open sea, and shows deficiencies at every level of the socio-technical system (technical environment, condition of operators, leadership level, and organisational level). The third class is characterised by non-compliance with the SMS. This study shows the importance of Bridge Resource Management for situations of navigation with a pilot on board in restricted waters. It also points out the necessity to investigate, for situations of navigation in open sea, the masters' decisions in critical conditions as well as the causes of non-compliance with SMS. PMID:23764875

Chauvin, Christine; Lardjane, Salim; Morel, Gaël; Clostermann, Jean-Pierre; Langard, Benoît

2013-05-18

68

Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation Case No. 22. High Speed Rollover.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rollover accident occurred on Wake County Road 2000 at the intersection of Wake County Road 1829. The vehicle involved was a southbound 1969 Dodge Dart Swinger occupied by an unrestrained 22 year old Caucasian male driver (off duty city policeman) and...

1970-01-01

69

Investigation report on criticality accident at the Uranium Processing Plant of the JCO, Ltd  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a summarized one of investigation results on a criticality accident at the Uranium Processing Plant of the JCO, Ltd., carried out by the Nuclear Safety Investigation Special Group (SISG) of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). AESJ published a statement of the president on this accident on October 8, 1999, and decided to perform its investigation under SISG. SISG carried out some questionnaires for new trials together with conventional lectures of the well-informed. This report contains six chapters on critical safety and accident, process of the accident and elucidation of its facts, cause analysis and picking-out on problems, questionnaires on improvement proposal', questionnaires on 'duty of AESJ7, and future efforts on nuclear safety culture. At the last chapter, SISG discussed about some items on re-occurrence protection of the nuclear accident. (G.K.)

2000-01-01

70

Investigation and Site Restoration Following a Major Accident Involving Hazard Classification 1.2 Ammunition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of the scientific studies into why an accident occurred at a Finnish ammunition depot are reported along with details of the position and type of the debris produced during the event. The Official Accident Investigation Board concluded that th...

I. Tuukkanen K. Makinen

2010-01-01

71

Determination of influence factors and accident rates for the Armored Tractor/Safe Secure Trailer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Operating environments, such as road type, road location, and time of day, play an important role in the observed accident rates of heavy trucks used in general commerce. These same factors influence the accident rate of the Armored Tractor/Safe Secure Trailer (AT/SST) used by the Department of Energy to transport hazardous cargos within the continental United States. This report discusses the development of accident rate influence factors. These factors, based on heavy trucks used in general commerce, are used to modify the observed overall AT/SST accident rate to account for the different operating environments.

Phillips, J.S.; Clauss, D.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blower, D.F. [Univ. of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Center for National Truck Statistics

1994-04-01

72

Investigation on the characteristics of criticality accident detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In nuclear fuel manufacturing and spent fuel reprocessing, a variety of safety devices must be prepared to prevent criticality accidents because it is very important for security. In order to examine the detection limits and the response time of criticality alarm systems, the tests have been carried out for simulating criticality accidents in unsteady state operation (prompt subcritical) and reactivity injection pulse operation (prompt critical) of the nuclear engineering research facility ''Yayoi'', in the Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo. The criticality accident detectors installed presently in the Tokai reprocessing facility of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel. Development Corp. are two types of ?-ray and neutron beam detectors. The ?-ray detector uses a plastic scintillator, and the neutron beam detector is an enriched uranium target coupled with a junction diode both wrapped with aluminum and inserted into the center of plexiglas (moderator). The ?-ray detector fully follows the reactor output change, and generates alarm in a complex radiation field of ?-ray and neutrons. In the tests of reactivity pulse operation mode, it generates alarm signal in the time lag of within 400 ?s after passing the alarm threshold, even for a spike as high as completely saturating it. This time lag causes no problem because it is sufficiently small as compared with the actual audio or visual alarm lag of 30 ms. The neutron detector causes counting loss in high count-rate, and thus it is found difficult to confirm the exact threshold point or time lag. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

1976-01-01

73

Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress

1996-01-01

74

Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress.

NONE

1996-04-01

75

Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly.

1984-01-01

76

Factors contributing to anxious driving behavior: the role of stress history and accident severity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although fear and travel avoidance among anxious drivers are well documented, relatively little is known about the behavior of anxious individuals who continue to drive. Previous research has identified three broad domains of anxious driving behavior: exaggerated safety/caution behaviors, anxiety-based performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive driving behaviors. In an effort to explicate factors associated with the development of anxious driving behavior, associations with objective accident severity, accident-related distress, and life stress history were explored among individuals reporting accident involvement (N=317). Interactive effects of accident distress and self-reported stress history were noted across all three domains of anxious driving behavior. Examination of these effects indicates unique associations between accident distress and anxious behavior only in those reporting more severe life stress. Consistent with contemporary models of anxiety, these data suggest stress history may serve as a general vulnerability factor for development of anxious driving behavior following accident involvement.

Clapp JD; Olsen SA; Danoff-Burg S; Hagewood JH; Hickling EJ; Hwang VS; Beck JG

2011-05-01

77

Factors contributing to anxious driving behavior: the role of stress history and accident severity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although fear and travel avoidance among anxious drivers are well documented, relatively little is known about the behavior of anxious individuals who continue to drive. Previous research has identified three broad domains of anxious driving behavior: exaggerated safety/caution behaviors, anxiety-based performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive driving behaviors. In an effort to explicate factors associated with the development of anxious driving behavior, associations with objective accident severity, accident-related distress, and life stress history were explored among individuals reporting accident involvement (N=317). Interactive effects of accident distress and self-reported stress history were noted across all three domains of anxious driving behavior. Examination of these effects indicates unique associations between accident distress and anxious behavior only in those reporting more severe life stress. Consistent with contemporary models of anxiety, these data suggest stress history may serve as a general vulnerability factor for development of anxious driving behavior following accident involvement. PMID:21377829

Clapp, Joshua D; Olsen, Shira A; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Hagewood, J Houston; Hickling, Edward J; Hwang, Vivian S; Beck, J Gayle

2011-02-02

78

The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads.

Lucidi F; Mallia L; Violani C; Giustiniani G; Persia L

2013-03-01

79

Retention factors for fission products from sodium tests to simulate a severe LMFBR accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In case of an LMFBR whole-core accident, fuel and fission products may be released instantaneously from the HCDA bubble through vessel head leaks or delayed from hot or boiling sodium pools after vessel melt-through. It is necessary to investigate the radiological source terms for both scenarios. In the paper we present and discuss retention factors for simulated fission products and fuel from FAUST under-sodium rupture disk tests on the instantaneous source term and from NALA tests with hot and boiling sodium pools on the delayed source term. (orig.).

1992-01-01

80

A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Accidents Caused by the Motorcycle Aspect in Urban Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traffic safety should be given the highest priority in order to reduce accidents. It seems that motorcycles give the most contribution to accidents than other vehicles, especially in urban area. The accidents are caused by poor condition factors of the motorcycles. Therefore, it is important to know the motorcycle aspect as a base to implement an action program to reduce accident risks. The objectives of this research were to analyze motorcycle aspect on accident risks including tires, brakes, lamps, engines, chassis, mirrors, conspicuity, and equipments for riding. This was a perceptional research where the victims are as respondents, and questionnaire forms were given to 50 respondents. The method of analysis used in this research was Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results of this research indicate that tires, brakes and equipments, did not give significant influence on factors causing the accidents. However, the other variables namely lamps, engines, chassis, mirrors and conspicuity gave significant influence on traffic accident risks. Final modeling results that were obtained showed that the factors that cause motorcycle accidents are the following: lamps, engine, chassis, mirrors, and conspicuity.

Aji Suraji; Ngudi Tjahjono

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The crisis of investigative Journalism in Spain. The journalism practice in the Spanair accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The crash of the McDonnell Douglas plane operated by the Spanish airline Spanair, on 20 August 2008 at Barajas Airport, and the journalistic treatment it received undoubtedly represent a unique opportunity to address the current state of journalism in Spain. In particular, this article studies the use of information sources in a crisis situation, which requires a major effort to find the maximum number of primary and specialised sources to provide, in a short period of time, the audience with the key facts to understand the event. This accident also represents an excellent opportunity to study some practices within investigative journalism and the different factors that condition the media agenda. Finally, as in any other air tragedy, where millionaire compensations can be paid to the victims, it is important to examine the application of a series of ethical frameworks, which have been captured in deontological codes designed to assure fair journalistic practices.

José Vicente García-Santamaría, Ph.D.

2010-01-01

82

Meteorological Investigation of an Accident on December 2001 with a Britten Norman / BN-2B-26  

Science.gov (United States)

In Germany the BFU (German Federal Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Investigation) is authorized to investigate accidents and serious incidents to civil aircraft in Germany, to determine the causes of the occurrences. The German National Meteorological Service (DWD) is responsible for the meteorological part of the investigation. The results of these determinations form the basis for safety recommendations and advisory notices, statistical analyses, research, safety studies and ultimately accident prevention programs. In this work the authors would like to present the meteorological investigation of an accident on 26 December 2001. The accident took place just a few seconds after take-off from the regional airport Bremerhaven near the German North Sea coast. This day the temperature was arround 0^o C, the wind was weak and several snow, snow/rain and rain showers were observed. Approximate half an hour before take-off a snow shower results in 1-4 cm snow at the airport area of Bremerhaven. The pilot attemped to brush some of the snow from the top of the aircraft wings, but was unable to get all of it. He decided to go. Once airborne, the aircraft stalled and crashed into a river approximate 1 km behind the runway. The question of the meteorological investigation was, could a snow or ice cover adhere on top of the wings of the aircraft after take-off.

Busch, U.; Sturm, K.; Leykauf, H.; Lorenzen, E.

2003-04-01

83

Organizational factors and reoccurrence protection on the JCO nuclear critical accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A nuclear critical accident formed at a nuclear fuel conversion factory in Tokai-mura on September, 1999 became gradually clear not to be a simple human error formed at a level of workmen but to be an organizational error or accident relating to various organizational factors. As a nuclear power facility adopts a depth protection system fundamentally, a large accident with serious danger would not form only by a single trouble and a human error and unless some factors overlaps. By reviewing recent serious accidents and troubles, all of them seem to have a keyword of ''organizational factor''. In the JCO accident, there are some organizational factors such as a climate deviating from a manual, insufficient and loose check against change of procedure, reduction of operators from a reason of profit priority, attitude on priority of working efficiency, and so forth, which are partially common to the Chernobyl accident. Recently, accidents and troubles impossible to make them a cause of simple human error by a person but to have to say an organizational error, have increased. This trend seems to depend upon not only complication and scale-up of technology system but also graduate change of social and management systems operating them. Therefore, it seems to be necessary to introduce a concept of depth protection (multiple protection) in order to keep its reliability and safety when complicating and scaling-up of system. (G.K.)

Takano, Kenichi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

2000-04-01

84

Review of the TMI-2 accident evaluation and vessel investigation projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Programme and the Vessel Investigation Project have been reviewed as part of a literature study on core meltdown and in-vessel coolability. The emphasis is placed on the late phase melt progression, which is of special relevance to the NKS-sponsored RAK-2.1 project on Severe Accident Phenomenology. The body of the report comprises three main sections, The TMI-2 Accident Scenario, Core Region and Relocation Path Investigations, and Lower Head Investigations. In the final discussion, the lower head gap formation mechanism is explained in terms of thermal contraction and fracturing of the debris crust. This model seems more plausible than the MAAP model based on creep expansion of the lower head. (au) 1 tab., 33 ills., 31 refs.

Ladekarl Thomsen, Knud

1998-03-01

85

Review of the TMI-2 accident evaluation and vessel investigation projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Programme and the Vessel Investigation Project have been reviewed as part of a literature study on core meltdown and in-vessel coolability. The emphasis is placed on the late phase melt progression, which is of special relevance to the NKS-sponsored RAK-2.1 project on Severe Accident Phenomenology. The body of the report comprises three main sections, The TMI-2 Accident Scenario, Core Region and Relocation Path Investigations, and Lower Head Investigations. In the final discussion, the lower head gap formation mechanism is explained in terms of thermal contraction and fracturing of the debris crust. This model seems more plausible than the MAAP model based on creep expansion of the lower head. (au)

1998-01-01

86

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Results from cytogenetic investigations into 63 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1978 are reviewed. This report is the eighth in an annual series which together contain data on 390 studies. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given, in an appendix, of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. One case is described in more detail. It concerns a young man who deliberately irradiated himself with several sources of iridium-192 and received a dose of about 1.5 Gy as a fairly uniform whole body exposure. (author)

1979-01-01

87

Mine accident investigations: Does the press have a right to be present?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fundamental goal of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Amendments Act of 1977 (Mine Act) is {open_quotes}to promote safety and health in the mining industry, [and] to prevent recurring disasters in the mining industry.{close_quotes} To that end, the Mine Act authorized the creation of the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) as part of the Department of Labor. One of MSHA`s primary responsibilities, as an authorized representative of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, is to conduct mine accident investigations {open_quotes}for the purpose of . . . obtaining, utilizing, and disseminating information relating to health and safety conditions, the causes of accidents, and the causes of diseases and physical impairments originating in such mines.{close_quotes} First, this Note discusses the general right of access granted by the Freedom of the Press Clause in the First Amendment. The historical case law interpreting the press` right of access begins in a series of cases dealing with the right to conduct interviews with prison inmates. Second, this Note discusses the courts expansion of the Freedom of the Press Clause to include access to trial proceedings. Third, this Note examines both the historical and current right of access granted to the press at the scenes of accidents or disasters. Fourth, the Note discusses the leading case on the press` right of access to mine accident investigations. Finally, a suggestion is offered as to the role the press should be allowed to play in mine accident investigations.

NONE

1996-10-01

88

Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and intractable, and methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. The number of methods in each group were four, three, zero, and two, respectively. Faced with the need to investigate an accident it is essential that the chosen method is appropriate for the system and the situation. Nuclear power plants considered as systems are tightly coupled and more or less intractable and therefore require accident models and accident investigation methods that are capable of accounting for these features. If an accident concerns the NPP operation as a whole, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. If an accident only concerns the operation of a subsystem or a component, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, or possible loosely coupled and tractable. The report provides a proposal for how these characteristics can be determined. The conclusion is that no specific method is the overall best in the sense that it can be used for all conditions. While it may be convenient, or even necessary, for an organisation to adopt a specific method as its standard, this should always be done knowingly and with a willingness to reconsider the choice when the conditions so demand it. In five or ten years we must expect that the methods developed today will have been partly obsolete, not because the methods change but because the nature of socio-technical systems, and therefore the nature of accidents, do

2008-01-01

89

Analysing factors related to slipping, stumbling, and falling accidents at work: Application of data mining methods to Finnish occupational accidents and diseases statistics database.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utilisation of data mining methods has become common in many fields. In occupational accident analysis, however, these methods are still rarely exploited. This study applies methods of data mining (decision tree and association rules) to the Finnish national occupational accidents and diseases statistics database to analyse factors related to slipping, stumbling, and falling (SSF) accidents at work from 2006 to 2007. SSF accidents at work constitute a large proportion (22%) of all accidents at work in Finland. In addition, they are more likely to result in longer periods of incapacity for work than other workplace accidents. The most important factor influencing whether or not an accident at work is related to SSF is the specific physical activity of movement. In addition, the risk of SSF accidents at work seems to depend on the occupation and the age of the worker. The results were in line with previous research. Hence the application of data mining methods was considered successful. The results did not reveal anything unexpected though. Nevertheless, because of the capability to illustrate a large dataset and relationships between variables easily, data mining methods were seen as a useful supplementary method in analysing occupational accident data.

Nenonen N

2013-03-01

90

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Results from cytogenetic investigations into 66 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1976 are reviewed. This report is the sixth in an annual series which together contain data on 272 studies. Previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35 and R41. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. A short review is given of the laboratory's recently published dose response data for several energies of neutron radiation. A description is also given of the group's collaboration in an international experiment in which comparisons were made between a variety of dosemeters exposed to a controlled criticality pulse. In a second appendix two experiments are described in which inter- and intra-donor effects on chromosome aberration yields were examined. It was found that differences in dicentric yields were small whereas acentric aberrations were more variable. (author)

1977-01-01

91

Psychological and social factors influencing the choice of strategy after a nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of the post-accident situation in Chernobyl provides information that focuses on social and psychological factors in the management of nuclear accidents. This paper concentrates on the short term countermeasures. It presents the main conclusions of a field survey carried out in Ukraine. The issues talked are the concern about extend of post-response in Chernobyl, the worries over health, contamination, the concern over the future and the complexity of post-accident situation. In a second part, the paper analyses and models the factors that caused the 1993 post-accident situation. Finally, several advices are given concerning the public information and behaviour focusing on the social and psychological aspect of short-term decisions (a constant effort should always be, for example, limiting the element of surprise in order to reduce the stress of population). (TEC). 3 figs

1995-01-01

92

Investigation of safety for accelerator driven system. Investigation for abnormal event and safety analysis for accident event  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is supposed that the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) is safer than other critical systems such as Fast Reactors since the ADS is driven by the external neutron source in the subcritical state. In this study, the investigation to confirm the possibility of Core Disruptive Accident (CDA) for the ADS was performed by Level 1 PSA and detailed safety analyses. Abnormal events for the ADS were sorted by Level 1 PSA and calculation cases for the safety analysis were discussed. Based on these results, safety analyses for Unprotected Transient Over Power (UTOP) and Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) were carried out. These results showed that there were hardly possibilities of CDA for the ADS. Following points were also found by both Level 1 PSA and the safety analysis results. 1. It is not required to suppose the beam window breakage event as the accident sequence in Level 1 PSA. 2. The design of the accelerator (range of beam intensity) and the target region size is appropriate from the viewpoint of the safety analysis. In the beyond design basis accidents (UTOP and ULOF), it was considered that the creep rupture of the clad tube would happen. However, the frequency of the accidents was exceedingly small. It was concluded that the ADS had very little possibility of CDA or the re-criticality accident. (author)

2009-01-01

93

Office of Inspector General report on inspection of selected issues regarding the Department of Energy accident investigation program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One method used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to promote worker safety is through the Department`s accident investigation program. The objectives of the program are, among other things, to enhance safety and health of employees, to prevent the recurrence of accidents, and to reduce accident fatality rates and promote a downward trend in the number and severity of accidents. The Assistant Secretary, Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH), through the EH Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oversight, is responsible for implementation of the Department`s accident investigation program. As part of the inspection, the authors reviewed an April 1997 EH accident investigation report regarding an accident involving a Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) welder, who suffered fatal burns when his clothing caught fire while he was using a cutting torch at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. They also reviewed reports of other accident investigations conducted by EH and DOE field organizations. Based on the review of these reports, the authors identified issues concerning the adequacy of the examination and reporting by accident investigation boards of specific management systems and organizations as a possible accident root cause. The inspection also identified issues concerning worker safety that they determined required immediate management attention, such as whether occurrences were being reported in the appropriate management systems and whether prompt consideration was being given to implementing revisions of national standards when the revisions increased worker safety.

NONE

1999-04-01

94

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The results are reviewed from investigations during 1980 into 68 cases of suspected overexposure to radiation. Of these, 37 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations and 20 with an institution of research, education or health. 55 of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0 - 0.09 Gy (0 - 9 rad) 5 in the range 0.1 - 0.29 Gy (10 - 29 rad) and for various reasons in 8 cases no biological assessment of dose was possible. The dose estimate for the case with the highest confirmed overexposure was 0.22 Gy (22 rads). The chromosome data are compared with information obtained from physical dosimetry and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each case. (author)

1981-01-01

95

'Hot particles' investigated 7 years after the Chernobylsk NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problems of nuclear pollution with products of the nuclear fuel division are analyzed. The particles are divided to following types: the first type includes the particles appearing nuclear fuel dispersion; the second one is presented by explosion gas clouds. The most unstudied domain is the interaction of the human being with the latter type of particles. The question about the estimation of the internal radiation is pointed. For true estimation of internal radiation doses it is necessary to evaluate the belonging of each radionuclide to specific class. That models were confirmed by results of the damage witnesses investigation. The necessity of the building of theory of the tumor development under influence of the 'hot particles' to obtain vital risk estimations of inhalation radionuclides entrance was emphasized.

1993-01-01

96

Experimental investigations on vessel-hole ablation during severe accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents experimental results, and subsequent analyses, of scaled reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure site ablation tests conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Power Safety (RIT/NPS). The goal of the test program is to reduce the uncertainty level associated with the phase-change-ablation process, and, thus, improve the characterization of the melt discharge loading on the containment. In a series of moderate temperature experiments, the corium melt is simulated by the binary oxide CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} or the binary eutectic and non-eutectic salts NaNO{sub 3}-KNO{sub 3}, while the RPV head steel is represented by a Pb, Sn or metal alloys plate. A complementary set of experiments was conducted at lower temperatures, using water as melt and salted ice as plate material. These experiments scale well to the postulated prototypical conditions. The multidimensional code HAMISA, developed at RIT/NPS, is employed to analyze the experiments with good pre- and post-test predictions. The effects of melt viscosity and crust surface roughness, along with failure site entrance and exit frictional losses on the ablation characteristics are investigated. Theoretical concept was proposed to describe physical mechanisms which govern the vessel-hole ablation process during core melt discharge from RPV. Experimental data obtained from hole ablation tests and separate-effect tests performed at RIT/NPS were used to validate component physical models of the HAMISA code. It is believed that the hole ablation phenomenology is quite well understood. Detailed description of experiments and experimental data, as well as results of analyses are provided in the appendixes. 40 refs, 51 figs, 13 tabs.

Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Green, J.A.; Paladino, D. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

1997-12-01

97

Risk factors associated with traffic violations and accident severity in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the recent economic boom in China, vehicle volume and the number of traffic accident fatalities have become the highest in the world. Meanwhile, traffic accidents have become the leading cause of death in China. Systematically analyzing road safety data from different perspectives and applying empirical methods/implementing proper measures to reduce the fatality rate will be an urgent and challenging task for China in the coming years. In this study, we analyze the traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. These data, extracted from the Traffic Management Sector-Specific Incident Case Data Report, are the only officially available and reliable source of traffic accident data (with a sample size>7000 per year). In particular, we focus on two outcome measures: traffic violations and accident severity. Human, vehicle, road and environmental risk factors are considered. First, the results establish the role of traffic violations as one of the major risks threatening road safety. An immediate implication is: if the traffic violation rate could be reduced or controlled successfully, then the rate of serious injuries and fatalities would be reduced accordingly. Second, specific risk factors associated with traffic violations and accident severity are determined. Accordingly, to reduce traffic accident incidence and fatality rates, measures such as traffic regulations and legislation-targeting different vehicle types/driver groups with respect to the various human, vehicle and environment risk factors-are needed. Such measures could include road safety programs for targeted driver groups, focused enforcement of traffic regulations and road/transport facility improvements. Data analysis results arising from this study will shed lights on the development of similar (adjusted) measures to reduce traffic violations and/or accident fatalities and injuries, and to promote road safety in other regions.

Zhang G; Yau KK; Chen G

2013-10-01

98

Factors affecting accident severity inside and outside urban areas in Greece.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This research aims to identify and analyze the factors affecting accident severity through a macroscopic analysis, with a focus on the comparison between inside and outside urban areas. Disaggregate road accident data for Greece for the year 2008 were used. METHODS: Two models were developed, one for inside and one for outside urban areas. Because the dependent variable had 2 categories, killed/severely injured (KSI) and slightly injured (SI), the binary logistic regression analysis was selected. Furthermore, this research aims to estimate the probability of fatality/severe injury versus slight injury as well as to calculate the odds ratios (relative probabilities) for various road accident configurations. The Hosmer and Lemeshow statistic and other diagnostic tests were conducted in order to assess the goodness-of-fit of the model. RESULTS: From the application of the models, it appears that inside urban areas 3 types of collisions (sideswipe, rear-end, with fixed object/parked car), as well as involvement of motorcycles, bicycles, buses, 2 age groups (18-30 and older than 60 years old), time of accident, and location of the accident, seem to affect accident severity. Outside urban areas, 4 types of collisions (head-on, rear-end, side, sideswipe), weather conditions, time of accident, one age group (older than 60 years old), and involvement of motorcycles and buses were found to be significant. CONCLUSIONS: Factors affecting road accident severity only inside urban areas include young driver age, bicycles, intersections, and collision with fixed objects, whereas factors affecting severity only outside urban areas are weather conditions and head-on and side collisions, demonstrating the particular road users and traffic situations that should be focused on for road safety interventions for the 2 different types of networks (inside and outside urban areas). The methodology and the results of this research may provide a promising tool to prioritize programs and measures to improve road safety in Greece and worldwide.

Theofilatos A; Graham D; Yannis G

2012-09-01

99

A study of factors affecting highway accident rates using the random-parameters tobit model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A large body of previous literature has used a variety of count-data modeling techniques to study factors that affect the frequency of highway accidents over some time period on roadway segments of a specified length. An alternative approach to this problem views vehicle accident rates (accidents per mile driven) directly instead of their frequencies. Viewing the problem as continuous data instead of count data creates a problem in that roadway segments that do not have any observed accidents over the identified time period create continuous data that are left-censored at zero. Past research has appropriately applied a tobit regression model to address this censoring problem, but this research has been limited in accounting for unobserved heterogeneity because it has been assumed that the parameter estimates are fixed over roadway-segment observations. Using 9-year data from urban interstates in Indiana, this paper employs a random-parameters tobit regression to account for unobserved heterogeneity in the study of motor-vehicle accident rates. The empirical results show that the random-parameters tobit model outperforms its fixed-parameters counterpart and has the potential to provide a fuller understanding of the factors determining accident rates on specific roadway segments.

Anastasopoulos PCh; Mannering FL; Shankar VN; Haddock JE

2012-03-01

100

Research into and remedial action on psychological and organisational factors liable to cause accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief report is given of a research programme (under contract No. 7262-10/240/04) carried out during the period January 1991 to December 1992 in an Italian colliery, Carbosulcis, in the south of Sardinia where there had been a high incidence of accidents. The project identified specific attitudes or organisational factors which might be conducive to accidents and then developed and tested remedial measures which might help reduce the number of accidents. Dissatisfaction was identified as influencing the ways of working and as being conductive to errors. Levels of satisfaction where linked to relationship with supervisors and with work content (in terms of variety or nature of tasks). Changes of task was identified as a critical phase from the point of view of safety and risk of accidents.

NONE

1994-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

An investigation of core liquid level depression in small break loss-of-coolant accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Core liquid level depression can result in partial core dryout and heatup early in a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) transient. Such behavior occurs when steam, trapped in the upper regions of the reactor primary system (between the loop seal and the core inventory), moves coolant out of the core region and uncovers the rod upper elevations. The net result is core liquid level depression. Core liquid level depression and subsequent core heatups are investigated using subscale data from the ROSA-IV Program's 1/48-scale Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and the 1/1705-scale Semiscale facility. Both facilities are Westinghouse-type, four-loop, pressurized water reactor simulators. The depression phenomena and factors which influence the minimum core level are described and illustrated using examples from the data. Analyses of the subject experiments, conducted using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 (Version 12.7) thermal-hydraulic code, are also described and summarized. Finally, the response of a typical Westinghouse four-loop plant (RESAR-3S) was calculated to qualitatively study coal liquid level depression in a full-scale system. 31 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs

1991-01-01

102

Human error analysis of commercial aviation accidents: application of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification system (HFACS).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is a general human error framework originally developed and tested within the U.S. military as a tool for investigating and analyzing the human causes of aviation accidents. Based on Reason's (1990) model of latent and active failures, HFACS addresses human error at all levels of the system, including the condition of aircrew and organizational factors. The purpose of the present study was to assess the utility of the HFACS framework as an error analysis and classification tool outside the military. METHODS: The HFACS framework was used to analyze human error data associated with aircrew-related commercial aviation accidents that occurred between January 1990 and December 1996 using database records maintained by the NTSB and the FAA. RESULTS: Investigators were able to reliably accommodate all the human causal factors associated with the commercial aviation accidents examined in this study using the HFACS system. In addition, the classification of data using HFACS highlighted several critical safety issues in need of intervention research. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that the HFACS framework can be a viable tool for use within the civil aviation arena. However, additional research is needed to examine its applicability to areas outside the flight deck, such as aircraft maintenance and air traffic control domains.

Wiegmann DA; Shappell SA

2001-11-01

103

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident's causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62)

1997-01-01

104

[Risk factors associated with road accidents among young people in Tuscany (Italy): a cross sectional study].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In most countries, national statistics institutes either do not measure or underestimate the impact of behavioral aspects as causes of road accidents. To bridge this gap, the Regional Health Agency of Tuscany (Italy) created the EDIT project, which evaluates driving behaviors and other lifestyle risk factors in a sample of secondary school students. Study results show that driving while under the influence of alcohol or drugs or while being distracted by cigarette smoking or the use of mobile phones are the risk factors most frequently associated with traffic accidents.

Innocenti F; Voller F; Berti A; Silvestri C

2013-05-01

105

Human factors in incident investigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River Site (SRS), located in South Carolina, is a key Department of Energy production and research facility for nuclear materials. Incident investigations performed at the Savannah River Site showed the cause of approximately 75% of all operating incidents in non-reactor facilities to be human error. The technical incident reporting system in place required the investigator to list the cause of an incident in broad terms (i.e., Personnel Error, Equipment Error) and to categorize it according to subclassifications (i.e., operator Error, Supervisor Error, Mechanic Error). The reporting system, using these classifications, tended to emphasize what happened'' during an incident and who was involved'', instead of getting to the details of why'' an incident occurred. The high rate of human error as the cause of incidents indicated that further analysis was in order. This presentation will discuss the development and implementation of the root cause analysis system at SRS by FSES (Facility Safety Evaluation Section) human factors professionals. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Armstrong, M E [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)

1989-01-01

106

Autopsy investigation and Bayesian approach to coronary artery disease in victims of motor-vehicle accidents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Each year, 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of motor-vehicle accidents (MVA), representing a tremendous burden to healthcare. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of coronary disease and its possible role in motor-vehicle accidents. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined consecutive cases of non-hospital sudden death autopsies in the area of West Quebec during the period of 2002-2006, and we focused on those victims of MVA. Severe coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as a narrowing of ? 75% of a cross-sectional area or the presence of acute plaque events in major epicardial coronary arteries. From a total cohort of 1260 autopsies, MVA were responsible for 123 deaths, 100 of whom were men and 23 were women. Significant CAD was documented in approximately 37% of these cases. In individuals older than 60 years, the prevalence of significant CAD and ischemia were 86.2% and 19.8%, respectively. A percentage of 40% of the coronary patients showed erratic driving before the accident, as observed by witnesses. Statistical analysis showed that an individual affected by CAD has 9% probability of suffering a motor-vehicle accident. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of severe CAD and acute myocardial ischemia is very high among individuals who have suffered a MVA. Our data suggest the hypothesis that acute CAD could be the cause of accidents in a large group of the drivers affected by coronary disease. For these reasons CAD could be investigated in drivers above 50 years old, as a possible preventive measure and determinant of individual risk stratification.

Oliva A; Flores J; Merigioli S; LeDuc L; Benito B; Partemi S; Arzamendi D; Campuzano O; Leung TL; Iglesias A; Talajic M; Pascali VL; Brugada R

2011-09-01

107

The role of the forensic pathologist in the investigation of fatal traffic accidents--the Finnish system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Finland about one-half of the fatal traffic accidents are investigated by special Boards of Inquiry. The cumulating data serves multidisciplinary sciences, juridical and insurance purposes and legislation. The participating physicians benefit from the systematic work of the Boards in many ways. As an example of the results a list of causes of accidents is shown.

Karkola K

1978-11-01

108

Development of a bespoke human factors taxonomy for gliding accident analysis and its revelations about highly inexperienced UK glider pilots.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low-hours solo glider pilots have a high risk of accidents compared to more experienced pilots. Numerous taxonomies for causal accident analysis have been produced for powered aviation but none of these is suitable for gliding, so a new taxonomy was required. A human factors taxonomy specifically for glider operations was developed and used to analyse all UK gliding accidents from 2002 to 2006 for their overall causes as well as factors specific to low hours pilots. Fifty-nine categories of pilot-related accident causation emerged, which were formed into progressively larger categories until four overall human factors groups were arrived at: 'judgement'; 'handling'; 'strategy'; 'attention'. 'Handling' accounted for a significantly higher proportion of injuries than other categories. Inexperienced pilots had considerably more accidents in all categories except 'strategy'. Approach control (path judgement, airbrake and speed handling) as well as landing flare misjudgement were chiefly responsible for the high accident rate in early solo glider pilots.

Jarvis S; Harris D

2009-08-01

109

Factores de riesgo de accidentes en la edad geriátrica Risk factors for accidents in geriatric age  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, longitudinal y descriptivo con elementos analíticos, para evaluar los factores de riesgo de accidentes en los ancianos, durante el período de julio 2000 a junio 2001. La muestra quedó conformada por un universo de 101 gerontes, de los consultorios médicos 13 y 32, del municipio Mantua. Se aplicó el cálculo porcentual y X2 con nivel de ajuste ed a = 0,01 y a = 0,05. Dentro de los factores ambientales, en el área urbana predominaron: piso del baño deslizante (pA prospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted with analytical elements to evaluate the risk factors for accidents in the elderly from July 2000 to June 2001.The sample was composed of 101 aged individuals from the family physicians' offices 13 and 32, in Mantua municipality. The percentage calculation and X2 with a level of adjustment of a = 0.01 and a = 0.05 were applied. The following environmental factors predominated in the urban area: slipping bathroom floor (p 0.01), cooker of an inadequate height (p 0.05), polished floors, changing furniture, propping, filtrations and inadequate shoes (p 0.01). Lamp or switch away from the bed, bathroom away from the bedroom and absence of shower curtains, unlevel/irregular floor, furniture in bad state, deficient lighting, poorly protected electrical sources and circulation of pets (p 0.01) prevailed in the rural area. The most common physiological risks were: pluripathology/polypharmacy and degenerative arthropathy as a cause of balance alterations and walking, respectively. They prevailed in females (p 0.05). Congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease and cervical osteoarthritits predominated among the most frequent diseases in the females (p 0.05). 43.5 % of the males took only one drug. Sedatives (50-59 %) were the most used drugs. 59.40 % of the elderly were evaluated as low risk for accidentality.

Manolo Gómez Juanola; Jorge Luis Conill Godoy; Juan César Pulido Ramos; Alexis Pérez Carvajal; Idalmis Cantún

2004-01-01

110

Links between accidents and lifestyle factors among Lithuanian schoolchildren.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the study was to evaluate associations of some lifestyle factors with injuries among schoolchildren. Analysis was performed using data from the survey conducted in 2002 according to the methods of World Health Organization Cross-National Study on Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC). Using stratified random sampling, the representative sample of 5645 schoolchildren aged 11, 13, and 15 years from 104 schools of Lithuania was drawn and surveyed. Associations between potential risk factors and injuries among schoolchildren were evaluated calculating odds ratio and its 95% confidence intervals. For the evaluation of the impact of explanatory variables on analyzed event, logistic regression analysis was performed. Behavioral, psychological, and social integration factors were associated with the risk to sustain injuries among school-aged children. The impact of these factors varied within subgroups of schoolchildren by grade and sex. The most significant factors were: risk-taking behavior (smoking, alcohol and drug consumption, premature sexual activity), frequent participation in sport activities, involvement in physical fight, longer time spent away from home with friends, experienced bullying, poor self-assessed health and academic achievement, unhappiness, feeling unsafe at school, and high suicidal risk. Analysis failed to identify an expected association between lower socio-economic status and risk for injury. Integrated approach to injury etiology is essential in planning injury prevention and safety promotion activities among schoolchildren, paying particular attention to lifestyle factors, which can have the potential influence on risk to sustain injuries.

Starkuviene S; Zaborskis A

2005-01-01

111

Use of recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor in the Brazil radiation accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] 8 patients with bone marrow failure after a caesium-137 radiation accident were treated with recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (rHuGM-CSF). The 7 who were evaluable had prompt increases in granulocytes and bone marrow cellularity. 2 patients died of radiation toxicity and haemorrhage and 2 of bacterial sepsis acquired before the start of rHuGM-CSF treatment. 4 patients survive, including 2 who were treated early and never became infected. This therapeutic approach to radiation-induced granulocytopenia may therefore be useful after radiation and nuclear accidents. (author)

1988-08-27

112

Analytical and experimental investigations of the passive heat transport in HTRs under severe accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Thermodynamic accident analyses have been performed with computer simulation models to investigate core heatup sequences, sensitivity analyses, power variations, anticipated transients without scram, and core displacement considerations for probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) of small gas-cooled high-temperature reactors (e.g. HTR-Module). In worst case considerations where not only a loss of the active heat removal system is assumed but also a loss of the vessel cooling system, the heat would be transported into the surrounding concrete structure. In such a case the concrete would act as a natural long-term intermediate heat storage dissipating the heat through the concrete surface. Large scale and reactor safety experiments have been performed to investigate passive heat transport mechanisms -- which can cooldown a HIR core during severe accident conditions -- for validation basis of computer simulation codes used for accident analyses. In general, the comparisons of experimental and analytical results with computer calculations of the heat transport codes are in good agreement

1992-01-01

113

Investigations of postulated accident sequences for the Fort St. Vrain HTGR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The systems analysis capability of the ORNL HTGR Safety analysis research program includes a family of computer codes: an overall plant NSSS simulation (ORTAP), and detailed component codes for investigating core neutronic accidents (CORTAP), shutdown emergency-cooling accidents via a 3-dimensional core model (ORECA), and once-through steam generator transients (BLAST). The component codes can either be run independently or in the overall NSSS code. Verification efforts have consisted primarily of using existing Fort St. Vrain reactor dynamics data to compare against code predictions. Comparisons of core thermal conditions made for reactor scrams from power levels between 30 and 50% showed good agreement. An optimization program was used to rationalize the difference between the predicted and measured refueling region outlet temperatures, and, in general, excellent agreement was attained by adjustment of models and parameters within their uncertainty ranges. However, more work is required to establish a unique and valid set of models

1978-11-25

114

PSB-VVER experimental and analytical investigation of station blackout accident in VVER-1000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In November 2003, an experiment simulating station blackout accident was carried out in the PSB-VVER integral test facility at the Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre (Russia). The purpose of the experiment was to provide missing data for code validation as well as to investigate the VVER thermohydraulics in the blackout conditions. The experiment covers a wide range of phenomena relating not only to transients but also to small break loss-of-coolant accidents. The data gained in the test has been used to assess the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. In this paper, a special attention has been paid to the code assessment regarding the mixture level and entrainment in steam generator secondary side. The analysis of the recorded transient has shown that the calculation of the heat transfer on the secondary side of steam generators is very sensitive to the steam generator nodalization. (authors)

2007-01-01

115

Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1?) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author).

1997-01-01

116

Investigations of soil-plant transfer of radiocesium after deposition from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the low deposition of radiocaesium in NRW after the Chernobyl accident of about 2500 Bq 137Cs/m2 and 720 Bq 134Cs/m2, radiocaesium was not detectable in cereals from NRW. A deposition of about 44,100 Bq 137Cs/m2 and 13,500 Bq 134Cs/m2 was calculated for the vicinity of Tannheim, a village in Upper Swabia. Nevertheless, the content of radiocaesium in grain from Upper Swabia was found to be more than one hundred times lower than that of natural 40K. Transferfactors (TF/SP) for radiocaesium were determined for cereals from the three investigated soil types: Kalkvega (FAO classification: Calcaric Fluvisol), Braunerde (Cambisol) and Parabraunerde-Pseudogley (Luvisol-Planosol). The total variation in TF(SP) from 54 sampling sites was a factor of 43 (grain) and 18 (straw). However, the values did not reach the calculation basis of the German Regulatory Guide of 0.05 (Allgemeine Berechnungsgrundlage). The maximum TF(SP) for 134/137Cs in grain of 0.026 is clearly below that limit. A drastic increase of radioactivity in sewage sludge was observed in Upper Swabia. In the Tannheim sewage plant a radiocaesium content of about 12,500 Bq/kg dry matter was measured. In order to obtain further information on the possible radioecological consequences of using this sewage sludge as fertilizer a lysimeter study was carried out with application of the contaminated sewage sludge. Radioactivity in soil and several crops was measured for the growing periods 1989 and 1990. Although the soil type ('worst-case model') could have led one to expect high TF(SP) the increase of radiocaesium in plants was quite small. A higher uptake of radiocaesium by plants is caused by varying the potassium contents of the soil rather than by the application of the contaminated sewage sludge. (orig./HP).

1991-01-01

117

Examinations on high burnup fuels to investigate fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) investigates high burnup fuel behavior in reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) using the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF). RIA simulating pulse irradiation tests at the NSRR provide information on the fuel failure limit, fuel failure mode, post failure events which are required for the safety evaluation. Detailed examinations at the RFEF on the test fuel rods before and after the pulse irradiation tests provide knowledge on fuel cladding deformation, fission gas release, hydride precipitation states in the cladding and so on, which compliment the NSRR transient data and deduce the failure mechanism during an RIA.

Sasajima, Hideo; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Nagase, Fumihisa; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Kaminaga, Norihisa; Honda, Junichi; Nishino, Yasuharu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Gun (Japan)

2008-10-15

118

Investigation of primary-to-secondary leakage accident on the PSB-VVER integral test facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The full text follows. The paper presents the main results from the test on primary-to-secondary leakage of 100 mm in equivalent diameter. The test was performed on the PSB-VVER integral test facility. PSB-VVER is a 4-loops scaled down model of primary system of NPP with VVER-1000 Russian type reactor. Volume - power scale is about 1/300 while elevation scale is 1/1. All components of the primary system of the reference NPP are modeled on PSB-VVER. Both passive (accumulators) and active (high and low pressure) ECCSs, pressurizer spray and relief circuits, feed water system and atmospheric dumping system (ADS) as well as the primary circuit gas remove emergency system are also simulated. The primary-to-secondary leakage was simulated using an external break line which connects the upper part of the hot header to SG water volume. The break line included a break nozzle (a cylindrical channel d = 5.8 mm, l/d = 10 with sharp inlet edge), quick-acting valve and two-phase mass flow rate measurement system. In addition loss of off-site power at the moment when a scram-signal is generated was assumed in the experiment. Thus the accident is to be considered as a beyond-design-basic one. The loss of off-site power results in the following: -main circulation pump shutdown; -pressurizer heaters switching off; -HPIS water cooling flow rate and number of points of water injection are reduced The study focuses on the adequacy of the associated accident management (AM) procedure developed by EDO ''GIDROPRESS'' as a General Designer of VVER-type reactors. The AM-procedure was adopted to the PSB-VVER test facility conditions using CATHARE (France) and DINAMIKA (Russia) codes analysis. The AM-procedure in PSB-VVER is as follows: after about 30 min of the onset of the accident, when the accident type and the localization of the SG affected become evident for the operator, he closes all the main steam isolation valves, inhibits the ADS actuation in the affected SG and begins to remove the core residual heat by opening the ADS in one of the intact loop. The results show that AM-procedure related to the accident investigated is adequate to prevent core overheating. (authors)

Lipatov, I.A.; Dremin, G.I.; Galtchanskaya, S.A.; Chmal, I.I.; Moloshnikov, A.S.; Gorbunov, Y.S.; Antonova, A.I. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center, EREC, Moscow (Russian Federation); Elkin, I.V. [RRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2001-07-01

119

Investigation of primary-to-secondary leakage accident on the PSB-VVER integral test facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The full text follows. The paper presents the main results from the test on primary-to-secondary leakage of 100 mm in equivalent diameter. The test was performed on the PSB-VVER integral test facility. PSB-VVER is a 4-loops scaled down model of primary system of NPP with VVER-1000 Russian type reactor. Volume - power scale is about 1/300 while elevation scale is 1/1. All components of the primary system of the reference NPP are modeled on PSB-VVER. Both passive (accumulators) and active (high and low pressure) ECCSs, pressurizer spray and relief circuits, feed water system and atmospheric dumping system (ADS) as well as the primary circuit gas remove emergency system are also simulated. The primary-to-secondary leakage was simulated using an external break line which connects the upper part of the hot header to SG water volume. The break line included a break nozzle (a cylindrical channel d = 5.8 mm, l/d = 10 with sharp inlet edge), quick-acting valve and two-phase mass flow rate measurement system. In addition loss of off-site power at the moment when a scram-signal is generated was assumed in the experiment. Thus the accident is to be considered as a beyond-design-basic one. The loss of off-site power results in the following: -main circulation pump shutdown; -pressurizer heaters switching off; -HPIS water cooling flow rate and number of points of water injection are reduced The study focuses on the adequacy of the associated accident management (AM) procedure developed by EDO ''GIDROPRESS'' as a General Designer of VVER-type reactors. The AM-procedure was adopted to the PSB-VVER test facility conditions using CATHARE (France) and DINAMIKA (Russia) codes analysis. The AM-procedure in PSB-VVER is as follows: after about 30 min of the onset of the accident, when the accident type and the localization of the SG affected become evident for the operator, he closes all the main steam isolation valves, inhibits the ADS actuation in the affected SG and begins to remove the core residual heat by opening the ADS in one of the intact loop. The results show that AM-procedure related to the accident investigated is adequate to prevent core overheating. (authors)

2001-01-01

120

Traffic Accidents in Finland and the U.S.A.: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Associated Factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report presents the results of a cross-cultural analysis of factors associated with traffic accidents in Finland and the U.S.A. The analysis was based on U.S. data from 1988 and Finnish data from 1987-89 and, whenever possible, on fatal accidents. The...

J. Luoma M. Sivak

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Risk and preventive factors for fatalities in All-terrain Vehicle Accidents in New Zealand.  

Science.gov (United States)

All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) have been used in agriculture for a few decades now. Yet despite their invaluable contribution to the productivity of the agricultural industry they are associated with a large number of accidents, many of which result in a severe or fatal outcome. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for ATV-related fatal injuries in order to support the design of effective interventions. Using data held by the Department of Labour, the current study analysed 355 cases of serious harm accidents associated with ATVs including 45 fatalities. The findings suggest that injuries are more likely to occur when accidents involve any of the following: children under the age of 10; four-wheel drive ATVs; driving downhill; driving on a sealed road; driving backwards; or if the ATV rolls sideways. A fatal outcome is more likely to occur when ATV accidents end up with the vehicle rolling over and pinning the driver underneath. Fatalities were also associated with injuries to the head, neck and chest. Being employed; and/or having formal training; and/or having brakes and tyres well maintained on the ATV; and/or having no fluid load on the ATV reduced the risk for fatality. Since the likelihood of a fatal outcome was found to be related to human behaviour and ATV rollover, it is suggested that interventions should mainly address these two issues. PMID:20159086

Shulruf, Boaz; Balemi, Andrew

2009-11-11

122

Risk and preventive factors for fatalities in All-terrain Vehicle Accidents in New Zealand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) have been used in agriculture for a few decades now. Yet despite their invaluable contribution to the productivity of the agricultural industry they are associated with a large number of accidents, many of which result in a severe or fatal outcome. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for ATV-related fatal injuries in order to support the design of effective interventions. Using data held by the Department of Labour, the current study analysed 355 cases of serious harm accidents associated with ATVs including 45 fatalities. The findings suggest that injuries are more likely to occur when accidents involve any of the following: children under the age of 10; four-wheel drive ATVs; driving downhill; driving on a sealed road; driving backwards; or if the ATV rolls sideways. A fatal outcome is more likely to occur when ATV accidents end up with the vehicle rolling over and pinning the driver underneath. Fatalities were also associated with injuries to the head, neck and chest. Being employed; and/or having formal training; and/or having brakes and tyres well maintained on the ATV; and/or having no fluid load on the ATV reduced the risk for fatality. Since the likelihood of a fatal outcome was found to be related to human behaviour and ATV rollover, it is suggested that interventions should mainly address these two issues.

Shulruf B; Balemi A

2010-03-01

123

Ergonomic (human factors) problems in design of NPPs. A review of TMI and Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs.

1994-01-01

124

Reliability investigation of the reactor safety system used to control a loss-of-coolant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A fault tree analysis investigation of the safety system for control of a loss-of-coolant accident in a PWR is considered and preliminary results are given in terms of unavailability, i.e. the probability that the system or component does not function on demand. The analysis comprises not only the mechanical systems required for reflooding of the reactor pressure vessel and subsequent heat removal, but also the reactor protection system and the electrical power supply. Problems concerning the separate investigations of the subsystems are discussed. Failure rates are also discussed: they constitute a special problem owing to lack of adequate data on failure modes and repair of components in plant systems. (U.K.)

1974-04-08

125

Quantifying human and organizational factors in accident management using decision trees: the HORAAM method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the level 2 Probabilistic Safety Study (PSA 2) project, the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) has developed a method for taking into account Human and Organizational Reliability Aspects during accident management. Actions are taken during very degraded installation operations by teams of experts in the French framework of Crisis Organization (ONC). After describing the background of the framework of the Level 2 PSA, the French specific Crisis Organization and the characteristics of human actions in the Accident Progression Event Tree, this paper describes the method developed to introduce in PSA the Human and Organizational Reliability Analysis in Accident Management (HORAAM). This method is based on the Decision Tree method and has gone through a number of steps in its development. The first one was the observation of crisis center exercises, in order to identify the main influence factors (IFs) which affect human and organizational reliability. These IFs were used as headings in the Decision Tree method. Expert judgment was used in order to verify the IFs, to rank them, and to estimate the value of the aggregated factors to simplify the quantification of the tree. A tool based on Mathematica was developed to increase the flexibility and the efficiency of the study.

2000-01-01

126

The role of social and psychological factors in radiation protection after accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inclusion of social and psychological factors in the justification and optimisation of intervention after an accident requires identification of the relevant factors and their appropriate quantification. Recent studies suggest a possible approach. Some social and psychological factors either influence the consequences of radiation protection countermeasures, or are direct consequences of those measures. Such factors can be grouped into those that alter the dose-effectiveness of a countermeasure, those that extend the need for countermeasures in time or space, and those that fall into neither of the first two categories. Factors of the first two types can be quantified in terms of changes to the anticipated averted dose and monetary cost of a countermeasure. Quantification of the third type is currently difficult, but the existence of structural models for applications in social psychology suggests that such models could be developed for radiation protection in the future. (author).

Morrey, M. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom); Allen, P. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Robens Inst.

1996-12-31

127

Investigation of the radiological impact of reactor accidents under probabilistic aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis and conceptional investigation have been performed for the accident consequence model of the German reactor risk study. A dynamic atmospheric diffusion model is developed, which is applied in the first stage of the study to all distance ranges, and will be restricted finally to the long distance range. The wind direction and its variations are not taken into account in this model. The program set UFO-BAS calculates the time integrated nuclide concentration in air at any location downwind of the source. A further model which takes into account wind direction variations is being developed. On the basis of the proposals for the calculation of the health effects in the German risk study considerations on the storage requirements were accomplished. By means of these assessments a revised grid of parameters was evaluated. Furthermore, considerations were made for the implementation of an evaluation model, which will be developed by the Institut fuer Unfallforschung. (orig./RW).

1977-01-01

128

An investigation of specific phenomena of the accident behaviour for VVER-440/213 type reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This intermediate report describes the first phase of a project investigating several phenomena during a hypothetical accident in a VVER-440/213 type reactor. For this work the European code package ESTER (European Source Term Evaluation Research) has been acquired and implemented on the RISC-6000 of the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf. To connect the new results with the results obtained in the last studies using the Source Term Code Package (STCP) it was necessary to perform several test calculations. Furthermore an compilation of the input data for the relevant computer codes was performed. Using the known references for VVER-440/213 reactors a data base for this reactor type was generated. (author)

1997-01-01

129

A case-control study on risk factors of domestic accidents in an elderly population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined influence of several lifestyle, health and housing factors in the occurrence of home injuries (HIs) among the elderly. The subjects were recruited from 10 hospitals in Rome, Italy. This study is a paired case-control study. Cases included subjects, aged 65-85 years, who visited the Emergency Department for an HI and were subsequently hospitalised (15 September 2004-30 June 2005). Controls were the subjects of the same gender, age (±3 years) and area of residence of cases. A conditional logistic regression model was used for analysing the variables obtained. In this study, we enrolled 107 hospitalised cases. It was found that the living room was the place where 33% of the accidents occurred. Eighty-seven per cent of the accidents were falls, and 33% of the accidents were the immediate consequence of sudden malaise. One-half of the cases reported one or more leg fractures. The variables that were independently associated with HI were poor household illumination, poor emotional status, regular physical activities and housekeeping activities. We conclude that this study shows the areas of intervention to target HI prevention activities.

Camilloni L; Farchi S; Rossi PG; Chini F; Di Giorgio M; Molino N; Iannone A; Borgia P; Guasticchi G

2011-12-01

130

A case-control study on risk factors of domestic accidents in an elderly population.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined influence of several lifestyle, health and housing factors in the occurrence of home injuries (HIs) among the elderly. The subjects were recruited from 10 hospitals in Rome, Italy. This study is a paired case-control study. Cases included subjects, aged 65-85 years, who visited the Emergency Department for an HI and were subsequently hospitalised (15 September 2004-30 June 2005). Controls were the subjects of the same gender, age (±3 years) and area of residence of cases. A conditional logistic regression model was used for analysing the variables obtained. In this study, we enrolled 107 hospitalised cases. It was found that the living room was the place where 33% of the accidents occurred. Eighty-seven per cent of the accidents were falls, and 33% of the accidents were the immediate consequence of sudden malaise. One-half of the cases reported one or more leg fractures. The variables that were independently associated with HI were poor household illumination, poor emotional status, regular physical activities and housekeeping activities. We conclude that this study shows the areas of intervention to target HI prevention activities. PMID:21557126

Camilloni, Laura; Farchi, Sara; Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Chini, Francesco; Di Giorgio, Maurizio; Molino, Nunzio; Iannone, Amalia; Borgia, Piero; Guasticchi, Gabriella

2011-05-24

131

Routes to failure: analysis of 41 civil aviation accidents from the Republic of China using the human factors analysis and classification system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS) is based upon Reason's organizational model of human error. HFACS was developed as an analytical framework for the investigation of the role of human error in aviation accidents, however, there is little empirical work formally describing the relationship between the components in the model. This research analyses 41 civil aviation accidents occurring to aircraft registered in the Republic of China (ROC) between 1999 and 2006 using the HFACS framework. The results show statistically significant relationships between errors at the operational level and organizational inadequacies at both the immediately adjacent level (preconditions for unsafe acts) and higher levels in the organization (unsafe supervision and organizational influences). The pattern of the 'routes to failure' observed in the data from this analysis of civil aircraft accidents show great similarities to that observed in the analysis of military accidents. This research lends further support to Reason's model that suggests that active failures are promoted by latent conditions in the organization. Statistical relationships linking fallible decisions in upper management levels were found to directly affect supervisory practices, thereby creating the psychological preconditions for unsafe acts and hence indirectly impairing the performance of pilots, ultimately leading to accidents. PMID:18329391

Li, Wen-Chin; Harris, Don; Yu, Chung-San

2007-08-08

132

Routes to failure: analysis of 41 civil aviation accidents from the Republic of China using the human factors analysis and classification system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS) is based upon Reason's organizational model of human error. HFACS was developed as an analytical framework for the investigation of the role of human error in aviation accidents, however, there is little empirical work formally describing the relationship between the components in the model. This research analyses 41 civil aviation accidents occurring to aircraft registered in the Republic of China (ROC) between 1999 and 2006 using the HFACS framework. The results show statistically significant relationships between errors at the operational level and organizational inadequacies at both the immediately adjacent level (preconditions for unsafe acts) and higher levels in the organization (unsafe supervision and organizational influences). The pattern of the 'routes to failure' observed in the data from this analysis of civil aircraft accidents show great similarities to that observed in the analysis of military accidents. This research lends further support to Reason's model that suggests that active failures are promoted by latent conditions in the organization. Statistical relationships linking fallible decisions in upper management levels were found to directly affect supervisory practices, thereby creating the psychological preconditions for unsafe acts and hence indirectly impairing the performance of pilots, ultimately leading to accidents.

Li WC; Harris D; Yu CS

2008-03-01

133

Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and intractable, and methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. The number of methods in each group were four, three, zero, and two, respectively. Faced with the need to investigate an accident it is essential that the chosen method is appropriate for the system and the situation. Nuclear power plants considered as systems are tightly coupled and more or less intractable and therefore require accident models and accident investigation methods that are capable of accounting for these features. If an accident concerns the NPP operation as a whole, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. If an accident only concerns the operation of a subsystem or a component, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, or possible loosely coupled and tractable. The report provides a proposal for how these characteristics can be determined. The conclusion is that no specific method is the overall best in the sense that it can be used for all conditions. While it may be convenient, or even necessary, for an organisation to adopt a specific method as its standard, this should always be done knowingly and with a willingness to reconsider the choice when the conditions so demand it. In five or ten years we must expect that the methods developed today will have been partly obsolete, not because the methods change but because the nature of socio-technical systems, and therefore the nature of accidents, do

Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine (Ecole des Mines de Paris, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France))

2008-01-15

134

Time dependence of the 137Cs resuspension factor on the Romanian territory after the Chernobyl accident.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On the basis of the radioactivity levels in aerosol and atmospherical deposition samples due to the Chernobyl accident, the resuspension factor of 137Cs as a four-parameter function has been inferred. The standard procedure to derive the dependence of resuspension on time assumes that the initial deposit is instantaneous. A simple method assuming a constant deposition rate over a fixed period has been proposed. Also, based on existing experimental data, an attempt was made to consider a realistic time dependence of the deposition rate to cope with the particular case of the Chernobyl accident. The differences between the two models are outlined. The Chernobyl direct deposit has been assumed to be the deposit measured between 30 April and 30 June 1986. The calculated values of the resuspension factor are consistent with the IAEA's recommended model and depend on the rainfall that occurred in June 1986 and the site-specific disturbance conditions during the first 100 d following 1 July 1986 and only on artificial disturbance by humans and vehicles after that.

Mih?il? B; Cuculeanu V

1994-08-01

135

Time dependence of the 137Cs resuspension factor on the Romanian territory after the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of the radioactivity levels in aerosol and atmospherical deposition samples due to the Chernobyl accident, the resuspension factor of 137Cs as a four-parameter function has been inferred. The standard procedure to derive the dependence of resuspension on time assumes that the initial deposit is instantaneous. A simple method assuming a constant deposition rate over a fixed period has been proposed. Also, based on existing experimental data, an attempt was made to consider a realistic time dependence of the deposition rate to cope with the particular case of the Chernobyl accident. The differences between the two models are outlined. The Chernobyl direct deposit has been assumed to be the deposit measured between 30 April and 30 June 1986. The calculated values of the resuspension factor are consistent with the IAEA's recommended model and depend on the rainfall that occurred in June 1986 and the site-specific disturbance conditions during the first 100 d following 1 July 1986 and only on artificial disturbance by humans and vehicles after that. PMID:8026971

Mih?il?, B; Cuculeanu, V

1994-08-01

136

Time dependence of the 137Cs resuspension factor on the Romanian territory after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the radioactivity levels in aerosol and atmospheric deposition samples due to the Chernobyl accident, the resuspension factor of 137Cs as a four-parameter function has been inferred. The standard procedure to derive the dependence of resuspension on time assumes that the initial deposit is instantaneous. A simple method assuming a constant deposition rate over a fixed period has been proposed. Also, based on existing experimental data, an attempt was made to consider a realistic time dependence of the deposition rate to cope with the particular case of the Chernobyl accident. The differences between the two models are outlined. The Chernobyl direct deposit has been assumed to be the deposit measured between 30 April and 30 June 1986. The calculated values of the resuspension factor are consistent with the IAEA's recommended model and depend on the rainfall that occurred in June 1986 and the site-specific disturbance conditions during the first 100 d following 1 July 1986 and only on artificial disturbance by humans and vehicles after that. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

1986-06-30

137

[Genetic effects of bystander factors from the blood sera of people irradiated as the result of the Chernobyl accident].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this work was the analysis of the effects of bystander factors from blood sera of people affected by the Chernobyl accident on human keratinocyte cell culture (HPV-G cells). A new method was developed for evaluation of the bystander factor presence in vivo in blood of the people irradiated by the Chernobyl accident. Affected population groups included liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and people living and working in areas of the Gomel region contaminated by radionuclides. The analysis has shown that bystander factors persist in Chernobyl liquidator blood samples for more than 20 years since irradiation. The data suggest that blood sera contain bystander factors, which are able to induce micronuclei and decrease the metabolic activity of HPV-G cells.

Morozik PM; Mosse IB; Mel'nov SB; Morozik MS; Seymour KB; Mothersill CE

2011-01-01

138

Investigation of high temperature irradiated fuel-liquefied Zircaloy interactions in support of severe accident safety studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of irradiated fuel (both UO2 & Mixed Oxide Fuels) interactions with liquefied Zircaloy at high temperatures is central to the understanding of bundle degradation mechanisms during reactor power transients or severe accidents. These initial interactions of the cladding and the irradiated fuel result in a melt (corium) and then to a loss of bundle geometry and the corium accumulation in a pool. ITU investigated the interaction of irradiated fuel and compared it with non-irradiated fuel with its Zircaloy cladding at 2000 °C for various short times. This was its contribution to the COLOSS (Core Loss of Geometry) project carried out under an EC framework programme. The tests were investigated by optical microscopy with image analysis and then by SEM-EDS analysis. The dissolution of the irradiated fuel by the Zircaloy melt was very variable and heterogeneous, but for non-irradiated fuel was reasonably uniform and constant. The kinetics of the non-irradiated UO2-liquefied Zircaloy interactions was shown in another work package of the project to follow diffusion-limited mechanisms that could be modelled. The large variation in the results with the irradiated fuel rods made it difficult to model these interactions, nevertheless, they appear to have similar parabolic kinetics seen in non-irradiated fuel. The cracked condition of the fuel and the fission gas release during these interactions are major factors for fuel break-up, dispersion and dissolution in the melt under temperature transients.

Bottomley, D.; Papaioannou, D.; Pellottiero, D.; Knoche, D.; Rondinella, V. V.

2010-02-01

139

Risk factors related to systemic arterial hypertension in victims of cerebral vascular accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Cerebrovascular accident (AVC)is the third cause of death in the world.Apart systemic arterial hypertension (HAS),many other preventable factors are related to its appearance and evolution.This study aimed at identifying the risk factors for AVC in interned hypertensive patients.It was a descriptive study held at a philanthropic hospital in Sobral-Ceará,with fourteen patients taken ill with AVC.Among those,85.7%(n=12)were above 65 years old and the same quantitative were retired;71,4%(n=10)were female;64.3%(n=9) were undertaking treatment for HAS for approximately 1 to 3 years;57.2%(n=8)consumed low-sodium diet and this same amount manifested the occurrence of another episode of AVC;78.6%(n=11)did not practice any physical activity;the same amount were or had been smokers;and the same quantitative had been taken ill by ischemic cerebral vascular accident;42.6%(n=6)did not follow the medicine therapy.We conclude that,the main risk factors for AVC in the referred hypertensive patients were:the age,the not adherence to the treatment,the lack of precocious hypertension detection,the sedentary lifestyle,theprecariousness of diet habits changes and the existence of other associated diseases.This remits to the importance of implementing health education actions,in order to get the users to be aware about the need of a greater adherence to the treatment and to abolish risk factors,diminishing the acute and chronic complications of HAS.

Verineida Lima; Joselany Áfio Caetano; Enedina Soares; Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo Santos

2006-01-01

140

A case-control study on alcohol as a risk factor in pedestrian accident. A preliminary report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alcohol as a risk factor in pedestrian accidents was studied so that the BACs were measured by gas chromatography in 341 accident patients and by ASD-breathalyzers in 682 sex-, site-, and time-matched pedestrians not involved in accidents. Alcohol was found in the blood in 53% of the accident cases and in 15% of the controls. The RR, if 1.0 at zero BAC, was 0.59 at BAC 0.3-0.5, 2.2 at 0.6-1.0, 6.8 at 1.1-1.5, 13 at 1.6-2.0, and 29 at BACs of over 2.0 g/l.

Honkanen R; Ertama L; Kuosmanen P; Linnoila M; Visuri T

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

A case-control study on alcohol as a risk factor in pedestrian accident. A preliminary report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcohol as a risk factor in pedestrian accidents was studied so that the BACs were measured by gas chromatography in 341 accident patients and by ASD-breathalyzers in 682 sex-, site-, and time-matched pedestrians not involved in accidents. Alcohol was found in the blood in 53% of the accident cases and in 15% of the controls. The RR, if 1.0 at zero BAC, was 0.59 at BAC 0.3-0.5, 2.2 at 0.6-1.0, 6.8 at 1.1-1.5, 13 at 1.6-2.0, and 29 at BACs of over 2.0 g/l. PMID:967167

Honkanen, R; Ertama, L; Kuosmanen, P; Linnoila, M; Visuri, T

1976-01-01

142

Study of Factors Related to Accidents Occuring during the Construction Phase of Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Construction phase in industries is a dynamic process that is naturally and intrinsically dangerous and as it becomes more complicated, the accidents rate also increases. One should note that without considering a model, one could not obtain useful and reliable information and method to prevent accidents. Therefore, to achieve useful methods for preventing accidents, it is desirable to consider a model. The general goal of this study was presentation of a model. A model is the reflection of a fact. In other words, it should be said that the model represents a system or process whose behavior can be predicted. Models are therefore used for understanding the behavior of actual terminals and show a theory in the way that covers important variables for describing phenomena and instead, ignore factors of low importance in the expression of those phenomena. Methods: This study was a research article conducted in 2004-2005 in the Assaluyeh region. Data was gathered from accident reports present in security and health records of the projects and also statistics present at the treatment centers. In this study, an analytical model (multi-regression) was presented to describe the impact of effective and deep factors on the possibility of an increase in accidents leading to death, through measurement of the effects of independent variables on the dependent variables. For this purpose, the structure of 50 accidents that led to death were studied along with another 2700 accidents, and after studying the accident reports and related documents, observing operations and equipment, counseling with accident observers and an expert team of managers, supervisors and engineers, and simulation of some accidents, unsafe conditions and functions, mismanagement and use of worn out and defective tools, equipment, devices and machinery were considered as the four independent variables and the job accidents leading to death were considered as dependent variables. The relationship between independent and dependent variables, evaluation of regression coefficients and the test of different models were based on multi-regression analytical model and analyzed using Eviews software program. Results: The final findings of this study, while specifying the possibility of occurrence of accidents leading to death with the existence of any of the independent variables showed that among the independent variables, unsafe conditions and mismanagement have relatively more important roles to play in the occurrence of accidents leading to death such that in conclusion, these factors have been defined as root causes in the model. Conclusion: Since the adjusted coefficient determined for the model in this research was 0.99; that is, the specified model could describe 99 percent of changes related to the number of job accidents leading to death and it is only for one percent of other accidents that there was no justified answer. In another words, those causes were not seen in the model. Therefore, it could be concluded that this research as compared to similar researches gained more useful results. Thus, by omitting or lowering unsafe conditions and mismanagement factors, accidents resulting in deaths can be reduced.

B Mortazavi; A Zaraenejad; A Khavanin; H Asilian Mahabadi

2008-01-01

143

Investigation of the different scenarios occurring in a PWR in case of a TMLB accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Severe accidents in light water reactors fall into one of two main categories, depending on whether or not core meltdown is accompanied by a pressure buildup in the primary system. The way in which the accident develops is, in fact, largely conditioned by this pressure aspect: temperature distribution in the core and primary system resulting from natural convection gas streams; fuel clad failure mode, etc... One major effect of pressure buildup on the accident scenario is primary system failure under the combined actions of pressure and temperature. The purpose of the present paper is to present, after a detailed thermalhydraulic study, an analysis of the timing and location of the system failures in case of a TMLB accident on CPY french type reactor

1988-01-01

144

Investigation of Liner Tearing Near Penetrations in a Reinforced Concrete Containment under Severe Accident Loads.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inner surfaces of reinforced concrete containment buildings in the United States are lined with steel plate. During a severe accident, the liner plate served as the main seal for preventing the leakage of radionuclides to the outside environment, whil...

J. R. Weatherby D. B. Clauss

1989-01-01

145

Investigations related to the chemical behaviour of methyl iodide at severe PWR-accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decomposition velocity of methyl iodide in aqueous solutions of boric acid has been measured at temperatures up to 423 K and at chemical conditions which are expected to exist in the sumpwater pool during a severe reactor accident. The decomposition was due only to hydrolysis which increased by the expected amount at high temperature. No influence of the cooling water additives was observed. Treatment of the available kinetic data indicated that the influence of polluting material expectedly present in the sump is likely to be negligible too. A possible exception may be the enhancement of the decomposition rate by particulate and dissolved silver. The resistance of methyl iodide to gas phase decomposition by steam and oxygen at 423 K was investigated and only slow decomposition in the order of 10-7/s observed which is explained by reaction with steel surfaces. Neither gas phase oxidation nor hydrolysis occur at this temperature. The resistance to oxidation is of kinetic nature. Gas phase hydrolysis is not possible due to thermodynamics. This was confirmed by the observed gas phase formation of methyl iodide from hydrogen iodide and methanol at 423 K. The kinetics of this reaction are best explained by two parallel reactions, one of second order with a kinetic constant of 1.25 x 10-5/kPa s, and one of third order under action of steam with a constant of 2 x 10-6/kPa2 s. (orig./HP).

1985-01-01

146

Experimental investigation of symmetric and asymmetric heating of pressure tube under accident conditions for Indian PHWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Circumferential temperature gradient for asymmetric heat-up was 400 °C. ? At same pressure ballooning initiates at lower temperature in asymmetrical heat-up. ? At 1 MPa ballooning initiated at 408 °C and with expansion rate of 0.005 mm/s. ? At 2 MPa ballooning initiation at 330 °C and with expansion rate of 0.0056 mm/s. ? For symmetrical heat-up strain rate was 10 times faster than asymmetric heat-up. - Abstract: In pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), under postulated scenario of small break Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) coincident with the failure of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), a situation may arise under which reduction in mass flow rate of coolant through individual reactor channel can lead to stratified flow. Such stratified flow condition creates partial uncover of fuel bundle, which creates a circumferential temperature gradient over PT. The present investigation has been carried out to study thermo-mechanical behaviour of PT under asymmetric heating conditions for a 220 MWe PHWR. A 19-pin fuel simulator has been developed in which preferential heating of elements could be done by supplying power to the selected pins. The asymmetric heating of PT has been carried out at pressure 2 MPa and 1 MPa, respectively, by supplying power to upper region heating elements thus creating an half filled stratified flow conditions. The temperature difference up to 425 °C has been observed along top to bottom periphery of PT. A comparison is made between thermo-mechanical behaviour of PT under asymmetrical and symmetrical heat-up, expected from a large break LOCA condition. The radial expansion rate during symmetrical heating is found to be much faster as compared to that for asymmetric ballooning of PT at the same internal pressure. Integrity of PT is found to be maintained under both loading conditions. Heat sink around of test section, simulating moderator is found to be helpful in arresting the rise in temperature for both fuel pins and PT, thus establishing moderator as an effective heat sink under accident conditions.

2013-01-01

147

Learning lessons from accidents with a human and organisational factors perspective: deficiencies and failures of operating experience feedback systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper aims at reminding the failures of operating experience feedback (OEF) systems through the lessons of accidents and provides a framework for improving the efficiency of OEF processes. The risk is for example to miss lessons from other companies and industrial sectors, or to miss the implementation of adequate corrective actions with the risk to repeat accidents. Most of major accidents have been caused by a learning failure or other organisational factors as a contributing cause among several root causes. Some of the recurring organisational factors are: -) poor recognition of critical components, of critical activities or deficiency in anticipation and detection of errors, -) excessive production pressure, -) deficiency of communication or lack of quality of dialogue, -) Excessive formalism, -) organisational complexity, -) learning deficiencies (OEF, closing feedback loops, lack of listening of whistle-blowers). Some major accidents occurred in the nuclear industry. Although the Three Mile Island accident has multiple causes, in particular, an inappropriate design of the man-machine interface, it is a striking example of the loss of external lessons from incidents. As for Fukushima it is too early to have established evidence on learning failures. The systematic study and organisational analysis of OEF failures in industrial accidents whatever their sector has enabled us to provide a framework for OEF improvements. Five key OEF issues to improve in priority: 1) human and organisational factors analysis of the root causes of the events, 2) listening to the field staff, dissenting voices and whistle-blowers, 3) monitoring of the external events that provide generic lessons, 4) building an alive memory through a culture of accidents with people who become experiences pillars, and 5) the setting of external audit or organisational analysis of the OEF system by independent experts. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

2012-01-01

148

Investigation of accident management procedures related to loss of feedwater and station blackout in PSB-VVER integral test facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Four integral test facility experiments related to VVER-1000 reactor. ? TH response of the VVER-1000 primary system following total loss of feedwater and station blackout scenarios. ? Accident management procedures in case of total loss of feedwater and station blackout. ? Experimental data represent an improvement of existing database for TH code validation. - Abstract: VVER 1000 reactors have some unique and specific features (e.g. large primary and secondary side fluid inventory, horizontal steam generators, core design) that require dedicated experimental and analytical analyses in order to assess the performance of safety systems and the effectiveness of possible accident management strategies. The European Commission funded project “TACIS 2.03/97”, Part A, provided valuable experimental data from the large-scale (1:300) PSB-VVER test facility, investigating accident management procedures in VVER-1000 reactor. A test matrix was developed at University of Pisa (responsible of the project) with the objective of obtaining the experimental data not covered by the OECD VVER validation matrix and with main focus on accident management procedures. Scenarios related to total loss of feed water and station blackout are investigated by means of four experiments accounting for different countermeasures, based on secondary cooling strategies and primary feed and bleed procedures. The transients are analyzed thoroughly focusing on the identification of phenomena that will challenge the code models during the simulations.

2012-01-01

149

Investigation into the March 28, 1979 Three Mile Island accident by Office of Inspection and Enforcement (Investigative Report No. 50-320/79-10)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant experienced the most severe accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant operating history. This report sets forth the facts concerning the events of the accident determined as a result of an investigation by the NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement. The IE investigation is limited to two aspects of the accident: (1) Those related operational actions by the licensee during the period from before the initiating event until approximately 8:00 p.m., March 28, when primary coolant flow was re-established by starting a reactor coolant pump, and (2) Those steps taken by the licensee to control the release of radioactive material to the off-site environs, and to implement his emergency plan during the period from the initiation of the event to midnight, March 30. These investigation periods were selected because they include the licensee actions which most significantly affected the accident sequence and its results

1979-01-01

150

Report from investigation committee on the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Government's Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company published its final report on July 23, 2012. Results of investigation combined final report and interim report published on December 26, 2011. The author was head of accident accuse investigation team mostly in charge of site response, prior measure and plant behavior. This article reported author related technical investigation results focusing on site response and prior measures against tsunamis of units 1-3 of Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations. Misunderstanding of working state of isolation condenser of unit 1, unsuitability of alternative water injection at manual stop of high-pressure coolant injection (HPCI) system of unit 3 and improper prior measure against tsunami and severe accident were pointed out in interim report. Improper monitoring of suppression chamber of unit 2 and again unsuitable work for HPCI system of unit 3 were reported in final report. Thorough technical investigation was more encouraged to update safety measures of nuclear power stations. (T. Tanaka)

2012-01-01

151

Multi-dimensional flow investigations in the transients and accident management program of the upper plenum test facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantification of uncertainty margins for accident scenarios which are classified as beyond design basis accidents requires thermal hydraulic codes and related code models with an enhanced level of sophistication. In order to reach this level of sophistication tests have been conducted and evaluated within the Transients and Accident Management program of the experimental Upper Plenum Test Facility. The program is carried out at the Upper Plenum Test Facility which simulates the multi-dimensional thermal hydraulics of a primary circuit of a KWU-type reactor in full-scale. Firstly, the paper shows the water entrainment phenomenon at surgeline which largely influences the race between the intentional primary pressure decrease and the loss of water inventory in the core. Secondly, the investigation of the primary circuit under severe accident conditions is shown. The goal of the investigation is to quantify the degree of reduction in the core heat up in order to determine time span for the realisation of ultimate measures. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Quantifizierung von Unsicherheitsmargen fuer Stoerfallszenarien, die den auslegungsueberschreitenden Stoerfaellen zuzuordnen sind, erfordern sowohl Thermohydraulik-Rechenprogramme als auch Thermodhydraulik-Modelle mit einer profunderen Wissensbasis. Um diese Wissensbasis zu schaffen, wurden im Rahmen des Transients und Accident Management Programs der Upper Plenum Test Facility entsprechende Versuche durchgefuehrt und ausgewertet. Diese Versuche fanden in der Upper Plenum Test Facility-Versuchsanlage statt. Diese Versuchsanlage simuliert den Primaerkreis eines Druckwasserreaktors vom KWU-Typ im Originalmassstab. Zunaechst wird der Vorgang des Wassermitrisses zur Volumenausgleichsleitung betrachtet, der groesstenteils den Wettlauf zwischen einer beabsichtigten Druckentlastung im Primaerkreis und dem Wasserverlust im Kern bestimmt. Weiterhin wird eine Untersuchung zu den schweren Stoerfaellen vorgestellt. Das Ziel dieser Untersuchung ist, das Ausmass der Kernaufheizung zu bestimmen, um daraus auf eine noch verbleibende Karenzzeit schliessen zu koennen, bis zu der rettende Massnahmen erfolgt sein muessen. (orig.)

Scheuerer, M.; Sonnenburg, H.G. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (Greece)

1998-02-01

152

Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monograph contains the catastrophe's events chronology, the efficiency assessed of those measures assumed for their localization as well as their environmental and socio-economic impact. Among materials of the monograph the results are presented of research on the radioactive contamination field forming as well as those concerning the investigation of biogeochemical properties of Chernobyl radionuclides and their migration process in the environment of the Ukraine. The data dealing with biological effects of the continued combined internal and external radioactive influence on plants, animals and human health under the circumstances of Chernobyl accident are of the special interest. In order to provide the scientific generalizing information on the medical aspects of Chernobyl catastrophe, the great part of the monograph is allotted to appraise those factors affecting the health of different population groups as well as to depict clinic aspects of Chernobyl events and medico-sanitarian help system. The National Programme of Ukraine for the accident consequences elimination and population social protection assuring for the years 1986-1993 and this Programme concept for the period up to the year 2000 with a special regard of the world community participation there.

1995-01-01

153

Investigation of fuel and clad relocation during LMFBR initiation phase accidents. The STAR experiment program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactivity effects of fuel and clad motion during unprotected loss of flow accidents stronglyu influence the accident progression in LMFBRs. To study these phenomena, a series of in-pile experiments (the STAR experiments) are being performed in which clad motion and fuel dispersal are observed in small pin bundles with high-speed cinematography. The major parameters varied in the series are power level, fuel type (fresh versus preirradiation), and number of pins. The results of the first four experiments are presented in the report. The irradiated fuel tests show early fuel disruption caused by fission products followed by rapid fuel sweep out and axial clad relocation.

1985-01-01

154

Human factors review for nuclear power plant severe accident sequence analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper discusses work conducted to: (1) support the severe accident sequence analysis of a nuclear power plant transient based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) develop a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Operator actions during the transient are assessed using qualitative and quantitative methods. A function-oriented accident management model provides a structure for developing technical operator guidance on mitigating core damage preventing radiological release.

Krois, P.A.; Haas, P.M.

1985-01-01

155

Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

NONE

2004-07-01

156

Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, sedentariness, metabolic syndrome

Rodrigues AN; Abreu GR; Resende RS; Goncalves WL; Gouvea SA

2013-01-01

157

Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 ?R h-1 [1 ?Sv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

1986-04-26

158

Prevalência e fatores associados a acidentes de trabalho em zona rural/ Prevalence and associated factors to rural occupational accidents, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar a ocorrência de acidentes do trabalho, na zona rural, e sua associação com alguns fatores de risco. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado na zona rural do município de Pelotas, RS. O delineamento do estudo foi transversal de base populacional. Uma amostra representativa dos trabalhadores rurais foi obtida por meio de amostragem, em estágios múltiplos, utilizando-se os setores censitários da Fundação IBGE. As entrevistas foram realizadas em um per? (more) ?odo de quatro meses, utilizando-se questionários padronizados e pré-codificados. Os 580 trabalhadores entrevistados pertenciam a 258 famílias da zona rural. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de acidentes encontrada foi de 11%. Os fatores de risco associados à maior ocorrência de acidentes, na análise multivariada, foram a classe social mais baixa (OR=1,81), a cor não-branca (OR=3,50) e a insatisfação com o trabalho realizado (OR=2,77). Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of rural occupational accidents and its association with potential risk factors. METHODS: The study was carried out in a urban area of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A representative sample of rural workers was selected using a multi-stage sampling. From January to April 1996, a total of 258 rural families were visited and all the 580 rural workers identified in those households answered a standardized q (more) uestionnaire. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of rural occupational accidents was 11%. After allowing for potential confounders, the main occupational hazards, as shown by logistic regression, were lower socioeconomic status (OR=1.81), non-white skin color (OR=3.50), and poor work satisfaction (OR=2.77).

Fehlberg, Marta Fernanda; Santos, Iná dos; Tomasi, Elaine

2001-06-01

159

Investigation report on criticality accident at the Uranium Processing Plant of the JCO, Ltd.; JCO uran kakoukoujou ni okeru rinkaijiko no chousa houkoku  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a summarized one of investigation results on a criticality accident at the Uranium Processing Plant of the JCO, Ltd., carried out by the Nuclear Safety Investigation Special Group (SISG) of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). AESJ published a statement of the president on this accident on October 8, 1999, and decided to perform its investigation under SISG. SISG carried out some questionnaires for new trials together with conventional lectures of the well-informed. This report contains six chapters on critical safety and accident, process of the accident and elucidation of its facts, cause analysis and picking-out on problems, questionnaires on improvement proposal', questionnaires on 'duty of AESJ7, and future efforts on nuclear safety culture. At the last chapter, SISG discussed about some items on re-occurrence protection of the nuclear accident. (G.K.)

NONE

2000-07-01

160

Prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales y factores relacionados en estudiantes de odontología/ Prevalence of occupational accidents and related factors in students of dentistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo Describir la prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales en estudiantes de Odontología y asociarla con factores propios de su práctica clínica. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal, desarrollado en una universidad pública de la ciudad de Cartagena en 2010. Participaron 213 estudiantes que se encontraban en prácticas pre-clínicas y clínicas de odontología, que corresponden al 96,8 % de la población de referencia. Se aplicó un cuestionario auto-administrado (more) para evaluar la ocurrencia de accidentes al igual que factores asociados. Los datos fueron analizados mediante prevalencias con intervalos de confianza al 95 %, usando la prueba chi², con nivel de significancia (p Abstract in english Objective Describe the prevalence of occupational accidents students of dentistry and associate it with factors of their clinical practice. Methods Cross-sectional study, developed in a public university in the city of Cartagena in 2010. Participants included 213 students in l pre-clinics and clinics practice of dentistry, selected by simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to evaluate the occurrence of accidents as well as the associated fac (more) tors. The data were analyzed by prevalence rates with confidence intervals of 95 %, using the chi² test, with significance levels of 0.05. The Association Strength was estimated by OR and the multivariate analysis through nominal logistic regression. Results The prevalence of occupational accidents is 46 %, the type of accident most often is prick (48.7 %), caused mainly by the Explorer (28.9 %). 58.1 % of the accidents are reported and continue care protocol. 87.7 % of the students enfold the needle after use. At bivariate level, only statistically significant association between occupational accidents and semester was presented, being more frequent for the more advanced semesters (p=0.004). Conclusions because of high prevalence of occupational accidents, it is necessary to insist on the implementation of strategies for safe and appropriate environments for the development of educational practices for students.

Arrieta-Vergara, Katherine M; Díaz-Cárdenas, Shyrley; González-Martínez, Farith D.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Análise e classificação dos fatores humanos nos acidentes industriais Analysis and classification of the human factors in industrial accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente texto apresenta a evolução do conhecimento do fenômeno "acidente", mostrando a mudança do conceito do acidente como obra do destino para um componente do processo produtivo de qualquer segmento - industrial, aeronáutico, serviços, transporte dentre outros. O método de análise e classificação dos fatores humanos nos acidentes é apresentado e discutido quanto à viabilidade de implementação. Finalmente, conclui-se que a forma atual e moderna para prevenção de acidentes está baseada na identificação antecipada das falhas latentes da organização e do sistema, e que a ferramenta apresentada contribui para a gestão proativa e conseqüentemente para a diminuição do impacto dos acidentes do trabalho no processo produtivo.The present text presents the evolution of the knowledge of the phenomenon "accident", showing the change of the concept of the accident as workmanship of the destination for one component of the productive process of any segment - industrial, aeronautical, services, transports amongst others. The method of analysis and classification of the human factors in the accidents is presented and argued how much to the implementation viability. Finally one concludes that the current and modern form for prevention of accidents is based on the anticipated identification of the latent failures of the organization and the system, and that the presented tool contributes consequently for the pro-active management and in the reduction of the impact of the employment-related accidents in the productive process.

Cármen Regina Pereira Correa; Moacyr Machado Cardoso Junior

2007-01-01

162

Risk factors associated with visiting or not visiting the accident & emergency department after a fall.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of modifiable risk factors of falling in elderly persons with a fall-history who do not visit the Accident and Emergency (A&E) Department after one or more falls. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of modifiable risk factors in a population that visited the A&E Department after a fall (A&E group) and in a community-dwelling population of elderly individuals with a fall history who did not visit the A&E Department after a fall (non-A&E group). METHODS: Two cohorts were included in this study. The first cohort included 547 individuals 65 years and older who were visited at home by a mobile fall prevention team. The participants in this cohort had fall histories but did not visit the A&E Department after a previous fall. These participants were age- and gender-matched to persons who visited the A&E Department for care after a fall. All participants were asked to complete the CAREFALL Triage Instrument. RESULTS: The mean number of modifiable risk factors in patients who did not visit the A&E Department was 2.9, compared to 3.8 in the group that visited the A&E Department (p<0.01). All risk factors were present in both groups but were more prevalent in the A&E group, except for the risk factors of balance and mobility (equally prevalent in both groups) and orthostatic hypotension (less prevalent in the A&E group). The risk factors of polypharmacy, absence of orthostatic hypotension, fear of falling, impaired vision, mood and high risk of osteoporosis were all independently associated with visiting the A&E Department. CONCLUSION: All modifiable risk factors for falling were found to be shared between community-dwelling elderly individuals with a fall history who visited the A&E Department and those who did not visit the Department, although the prevalence of these factors was somewhat lower in the A&E group. Preventive strategies aimed both at patients presenting to the A&E Department after a fall and those not presenting after a fall could perhaps reduce the number of recurrent falls, the occurrence of injury and the frequency of visits to the A&E Department.

Scheffer AC; van Hensbroek PB; van Dijk N; Luitse JS; Goslings JC; Luigies RH; de Rooij SE

2013-01-01

163

Accumulation factors and biogeochemical aspects of migration of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems in the areas impacted by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accumulation factors of radionuclides, such as 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr, 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 140Ru, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce and 144Ce, in fish, mollusks and aquatic plants of the water bodies in the near and distant areas of the Chernobyl accident ''footprint'' were estimated. The dynamics of changes in the factors of accumulation by the organisms of radioisotopes of iodine, cesium and strontium was analyzed. (orig.)

1994-01-01

164

Utilisation of accident data to improve safety in the human factors aspects of system design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project examined the British Coal accident reporting system (which was first introduced over 20 years ago as a manual system but which now incorporates computer database and retrieval systems) to identify how well it covered behavioural components, how any shortfall could be improved and the extent to which existing information could be used to identify avenues for accident prevention measures.

Graveling, R.A.; Mason, S.; Rushworth, A.M.; Simpson, G.C.; Sims, M.T.

1987-12-01

165

Investigate sequence of Fukushima accident without prediction. Why isolation condenser of unit 1 was manually stopped promptly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author insisted on investigating sequence of Fukushima Daiichi accident Unit 1 without prediction to confirm whether pipe failures occurred or not due to ground motion, which could be checked by later inspection of containment inside. At 2:52 pm in March 11, pressure drop 2.4 MPa from 7 MPa to 4.6 MPa within about 10 minutes was abnormal compared to 1.4 MPa obtained by simulation without pipe rapture assumed. At 3.3 pm, isolation condensers(ICs) were manually stopped and that of system B was not operated again, which was told to follow operating manual requesting cooling rate less than 55degC/hr. Pressure was thought to be adjusted by steam relief valve (SRV), but was told by operation of system A of IC. SRV operation was recorded as not usable. Flow sheet of IC used for accident explanation was different from that submitted for application. (T. Tanaka)

2011-01-01

166

Results and conclusions from the investigation of an accident with a display shell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tests to establish correct safety distances were carried out following a serious accident which occurred during a private fireworks display. Analysis carried out after the accident provided evidence of a manufacturing deficiency as well as evidence that the safety distances recommended by German explosive handling regulations were inadequate to protect either the operator or the spectators. It was shown that the Magnus force, produced by the rotation of the shell and its interaction with the boundary layer of air which rotates with the shell, was responsible for the lateral drift that caused the shell to land among the spectators. A computer program for estimating the correct distances was developed and tested successfully. Additional tests with live shells are planned to verify the results and to provide an opportunity for further measurements of the rotation of the shells using a directional microphone. 23 refs., 14 figs.

Eckhardt, D.; Andre, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -prufung (Germany)

2000-04-01

167

Evaluation of total loss of feedwater accident/recovery phase and investigation of the associated EOP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the sequence of event and the thermohydraulic behavior during total loss of feedwater accident and recovery procedure, a RELAP5/MOD3 calculation is performed and compared with the LOFT L9-1/L3-3 experiment. Also, the predictability of the code for the major thermohydraulic phenomena following the accident is assessed. As a result, it is found that a pressure control using the spray until the time the water level reaches the top of the pressurizer, an overpressure protection by pressurizer PORV, a recovery of the secondary heat removal capability by refilling steam generator, and an effective cooldown by the continued natural circulation can be perfomed without core uncovery. It is also found that the plantspecific evaluation is necessary to confirm the effectiveness of the current symptom-oriented emergency operating procedure, especially in an overpressure protection performance and steam generator recovery performance. (Author)

1993-01-01

168

Reliability investigation of the reactor safety system used to control a loss-of-coolant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Fault tree analyses are mostly carried out in Germany (Federal Republic) by separately considering the systems demanded in case of an accident (the mechanical system, the electric power supply and the reactor protection system). According to experience, however, such separate analyses remain often problematic, since neither interconnections are taken into account nor possibilities are provided to compare the interacting systems as to their reliability. This is illustrated by presenting a comprehensive analysis of the safety systems for the design basis accident 'Circumferential Primary Coolant Line Rupture' of a nuclear power with PWR. The analysis does not only consider the necessary mechanical systems required for the reflooding of the reactor pressure vessel and the subsequent residual heat removal, it also comprises the reactor protection system and the electrical power supply

1975-01-01

169

Variations in road accident counts: an explanatory time-series model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monthly traffic accident counts show a yearly recurring pattern. The number of accidents for some months always seems to be higher or lower than average. We investigate a range of factors that can explain this variation in monthly accident counts. Apart from legal, economic and climatologic factors,...

VAN DEN BOSSCHE, Filip; BRIJS, Tom; WETS, Geert

170

[An investigative report concerning safety and management in the magnetic resonance environment: there are more accidents than expected].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using a questionnaire, we surveyed 2,500 facilities in Japan to clarify medical accidents concerning the magnetic resonance device and its environment. Data derived from 1,319 valid responses (52.8%), allowed us to analyze the situation of (or the reason for) the occurrence of the accidents and their environmental factors. Five hundred and nine facilities (39% of all facilities) had the experience of magnetically induced displacement of the large ferromagnetic material. Intravenous (I.V.) drip stands were involved the largest number of them: 31% (228 cases). Oxygen bottles had the second largest number of incidents: 20%. There were also many incidents involving various materials brought in by non-medical staff (e.g. stepladder for construction). About 20% of the accidents occurred outside of working hours. Patients in 12% of the facilities (154 facilities) experienced burns. In 39 of the cases, burns were received to the inside of the thighs. In 38 of the cases, patients received burns from an electrical cable touching the skin. There were also frequent incidents of burning regarding the boa. We received reports of burns and pain from the halo vest even though it's required to be worn for MR safety. Regarding incidents of contraindications, 280 patients with pacemakers were brought into the magnetic resonance (MR) inspection room. Twelve percent of the facilities experienced natural quench. Lack of training for the staff who introduce and operate high magnetic field devices are considered involving frequently occurring accidents of attractions and burns at hospitals with over 500 beds caused by carrying in materials.

Doi T; Yamatani Y; Ueyama T; Nishiki S; Ogura A; Kawamitsu H; Tsuchihashi T; Okuaki T; Matsuda T; Kumashiro M

2011-01-01

171

[An investigative report concerning safety and management in the magnetic resonance environment: there are more accidents than expected].  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a questionnaire, we surveyed 2,500 facilities in Japan to clarify medical accidents concerning the magnetic resonance device and its environment. Data derived from 1,319 valid responses (52.8%), allowed us to analyze the situation of (or the reason for) the occurrence of the accidents and their environmental factors. Five hundred and nine facilities (39% of all facilities) had the experience of magnetically induced displacement of the large ferromagnetic material. Intravenous (I.V.) drip stands were involved the largest number of them: 31% (228 cases). Oxygen bottles had the second largest number of incidents: 20%. There were also many incidents involving various materials brought in by non-medical staff (e.g. stepladder for construction). About 20% of the accidents occurred outside of working hours. Patients in 12% of the facilities (154 facilities) experienced burns. In 39 of the cases, burns were received to the inside of the thighs. In 38 of the cases, patients received burns from an electrical cable touching the skin. There were also frequent incidents of burning regarding the boa. We received reports of burns and pain from the halo vest even though it's required to be worn for MR safety. Regarding incidents of contraindications, 280 patients with pacemakers were brought into the magnetic resonance (MR) inspection room. Twelve percent of the facilities experienced natural quench. Lack of training for the staff who introduce and operate high magnetic field devices are considered involving frequently occurring accidents of attractions and burns at hospitals with over 500 beds caused by carrying in materials. PMID:21869543

Doi, Tsukasa; Yamatani, Yuya; Ueyama, Tsuyoshi; Nishiki, Shigeo; Ogura, Akio; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Okuaki, Tomoyuki; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kumashiro, Masayuki

2011-01-01

172

An investigative report concerning safety and management in the magnetic resonance environment. There are more accidents than expected  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Using a questionnaire, we surveyed 2,500 facilities in Japan to clarify medical accidents concerning the magnetic resonance device and its environment. Data derived from 1,319 valid responses (52.8%), allowed us to analyze the situation of (or the reason for) the occurrence of the accidents and their environmental factors. Five hundred and nine facilities (39% of all facilities) had the experience of magnetically induced displacement of the large ferromagnetic material. Intravenous (I.V.) drip stands were involved the largest number of them: 31% (228 cases). Oxygen bottles had the second largest number of incidents: 20%. There were also many incidents involving various materials brought in by non-medical staff (exempli gratia (e.g.) stepladder for construction). About 20% of the accidents occurred outside of working hours. Patients in 12% of the facilities (154 facilities) experienced burns. In 39 of the cases, burns were received to the inside of the thighs. In 38 of the cases, patients received burns from an electrical cable touching the skin. There were also frequent incidents of burning regarding the boa. We received reports of burns and pain from the halo vest even though it's required to be worn for MR safety. Regarding incidents of contraindications, 280 patients with pacemakers were brought into the magnetic resonance (MR) inspection room. Twelve percent of the facilities experienced natural quench. Lack of training for the staff who introduce and operate high magnetic field devices are considered involving frequently occurring accidents of attractions and burns at hospitals with over 500 beds caused by carrying in materials. (author)

2011-01-01

173

A abordagem sociotécnica na investigação e na prevenção de acidentes aéreos: o caso do vôo RG-254/ Sociotechnical approach to investigation and prevention of aircraft accidents: the case of flight RG-254  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta estudo de caso do acidente ocorrido com o vôo RG-254 da Varig, em setembro de 1989. Partindo de informações de investigações oficiais, publicações, material audiovisual, entrevistas com envolvidos no acidente e especialistas em segurança de vôo, os autores re-analisam o acidente com enfoque sociotécnico referenciado na teoria ator-rede e no conceito de acidente "normal". O texto apresenta novo entendimento para a investigação de acidentes (more) na aviação criticando a tradicional repartição de causas entre os chamados fatores "humanos", "técnicos" e "operacionais" e sugere aplicação do conceito de multicausalidade que não se restringe à mera listagem de "fatores contribuintes", mas que analisa as relações entre atores-redes envolvidos no sistema de aviação em que ocorreu o acidente. O acidente do RG-254 é descrito como sintoma do rompimento de relações entre os atores que atuam no sistema. Abstract in english This article presents a case study of the accident with Varig flight RG-254 in September 1989. Using as starting point the official investigation data, publications, audiovisual material and interviews with those involved in the accident as well as flight safety specialists, the authors re-analyze the accident through a sociotechnical focus, which is based on the actor-network theory and concepts of "normal" accident. The text presents a new understanding of aviation acci (more) dent investigation and it reviews the traditional terms of investigation based on a rigid division between "human", "technical" and "operational" factors. It also suggests the application of the multi-causality concept, which is not restricted to a mere list of "contributing factors", but which analyzes the relationships among the actor-networks involved in the aviation system where the accident occurred. The RG-254 accident is described as a symptom of the rupture of relationship among those acting in the system.

Cardoso, Vitor Alexandre de Freitas; Cukierman, Henrique Luiz

2007-06-01

174

Human factors identification and classification related to accidents'causality on hand injuries in the manufacturing industry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The causes of occupational accidents from the perspective of human factors have been a subject which has received little attention into the field of scientific research. The aim of this research was to identify and classify the human factors that influence human errors and failures that cause accidents and injuries specifically on hands. Available studies related to the topic have been developed mainly for aerospace applications and are found insufficient to explain accidents causalities in the manufacturing industry. This research was developed in the assembly industry of automotive harnesses and was conducted following a mixed Cognitive Anthropological approach. This study was developed in two phases. During the first qualitative phase, participants freely listed their knowledge to identify elements of the cultural domain, then and in the second phase they performed the successive pile sort technique for the collection data to classify elements in the cultural domain. Statistical models like Cluster Analysis and Multidimensional Scaling were applied for results' validation purposes. As results, 70 different human factors were identified and in the second phase they were classified into 4 main categories which were: human error, unsafe conditions, individual factors, and organizational factors. Statistical methods validated these results.

Reyes-Martínez RM; Maldonado-Macías A; Prado-León LR

2012-01-01

175

Experimental investigations simulating iodine release at design basis accident in PWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] After failure of an effective pressure line in the transducer compartment of the annulus of a PWR fission products, especially I-131 contained in the primary coolant, are released in the compartment atmosphere. Depressuration experiments in a 1 : 1 scale test facility were performed using Cs tracer simulating the ionic dissolved fission product behaviour. During the test-phase of about 50 minutes corresponding to the initial accident phase, the humidity-born tracer release is less than 1 % of the discharged amount. (orig./HP)

1984-01-01

176

A NEW HAZARD EVALUATION PROCEDURE FOR PREDICTING RISK FACTORS OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With annual average of 73,937 occupational accidents and 1,152 deaths, Turkey still faces an important problem. The country exercises one of the lowest performances in job safety among the European Union countries. Developments in technology increased the importance of safety management in industry. These improvements also resulted in a requirement of more investment and assignment on human in work systems. This situation increases the importance of forecasting the possible accidents that workers can face and preventing the accidents by taking necessary precautions. In this study a prognostic model has been developed to forecast the occupational accidents in coming periods at the departments of the facilities in hazardous work systems. The validity of the proposed model has been proved by implementing it into practice in hazardous work systems in the manufacturing industry.

Hüseyin CEYLAN

2013-01-01

177

Psychosocial work factors and sick leave, occupational accident, and disability pension: a cohort study of civil servants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study associations between psychosocial work factors (PWF) and sick leave, occupational accident, and disability pension. METHODS: A random population of 967 civil servants participated in a survey on PWF and health. The median follow-up time was 7 years. RESULTS: Frequent feedback from supervisor, good opportunities for mental growth, good team climate, and high appreciation were associated with a decrease in the risk of sickness absences and shift/period work, monotonous movements, and crowdedness of workplace were associated with an increase in the risk of sickness absences. Good communication at work was associated with a decrease in client violence and high work pressure was associated with an increased risk of occupational accidents. High work control and good team climate were associated with a decreased and shift/period work and client violence was associated with an increased risk of disability pensions. CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial work factors can predict health outcomes with economic impact.

Hinkka K; Kuoppala J; Väänänen-Tomppo I; Lamminpää A

2013-02-01

178

Investigation of liner tearing near penetrations in a reinforced concrete containment under severe accident loads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The inner surfaces of reinforced concrete containment buildings in the United States are lined with steel plate. During a severe accident, the liner plate serves as the main seal for preventing the leakage of radionuclides to the outside environment, while the reinforced concrete provides structural support for the linear. If the liner is torn or punctured during the accident, gases can easily escape through cracks in the reinforced concrete wall. An overpressurization test conducted on a 1:6-scale model of a reinforced concrete containment has demonstrated that the liner can tear before extensive structural failure occurs in the reinforced concrete. In the 1:6-scale model experiment, the pressure inside the model was increased to 145 psig. At this point, leakage from the model became so great that the model could not be pressurized further. Inspection of the model revealed that this leakage was due to tears that had formed in the liner at several locations around the building. All of the liner tears observed in the 1:6-scale model initiated next to studs that were used to anchor the liner to the wall of the containment. These tears were located near thickened sections of the liner that were placed around penetrations in the containment shell. Most of the leakage occurred through a single large tear that had grown along the edge of a thickened plate that surrounded a cluster of piping penetrations. This tear is shown

1989-01-01

179

Investigation of liner tearing near penetrations in a reinforced concrete containment under severe accident loads  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inner surfaces of reinforced concrete containment buildings in the United States are lined with steel plate. During a severe accident, the liner plate served as the main seal for preventing the leakage of radionuclides to the outside environment, while the reinforced concrete provides structural support for the liner. If the liner is torn or punctured during the accident, gases can easily escape through cracks in the reinforced concrete wall. An overpressurization test conducted on a 1:6-scale model of a reinforced concrete containment (Horschel, 1989) has demonstrated that the liner can tear before extensive structural failure occurs in the reinforced concrete. In the 1:6-scale model experiment, the pressure inside the model was increased to 145 psig. Leakage from the model became so great that the model could not be pressurized further. Inspection of the model revealed that this leakage was due to tears that had formed in the liner at several locations around the building. All of the liner tears observed in the 1:6-scale model initiated next to studs that were used to anchor the liner to the wall of the containment. Most of the leakage occurred through a single large tear that had grown along the edge of a thickened plate that surrounded a cluster of piping penetrations. Finite element analyses were conducted to determine the mechanisms that were the primary cause of the large liner breach. 3 refs., 7 figs.

Weatherby, J.R.; Clauss, D.B.

1989-01-01

180

Investigation of liner tearing near penetrations in a reinforced concrete containment under severe accident loads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The inner surfaces of reinforced concrete containment buildings in the United States are lined with steel plate. During a severe accident, the liner plate served as the main seal for preventing the leakage of radionuclides to the outside environment, while the reinforced concrete provides structural support for the liner. If the liner is torn or punctured during the accident, gases can easily escape through cracks in the reinforced concrete wall. An overpressurization test conducted on a 1:6-scale model of a reinforced concrete containment (Horschel, 1989) has demonstrated that the liner can tear before extensive structural failure occurs in the reinforced concrete. In the 1:6-scale model experiment, the pressure inside the model was increased to 145 psig. Leakage from the model became so great that the model could not be pressurized further. Inspection of the model revealed that this leakage was due to tears that had formed in the liner at several locations around the building. All of the liner tears observed in the 1:6-scale model initiated next to studs that were used to anchor the liner to the wall of the containment. Most of the leakage occurred through a single large tear that had grown along the edge of a thickened plate that surrounded a cluster of piping penetrations. Finite element analyses were conducted to determine the mechanisms that were the primary cause of the large liner breach. 3 refs., 7 figs

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Investigation concerning influence of cosmic rays on criticality accident alarm system. Relationship between 'single detection' and cosmic rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) has been used in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories for about 20 years, and there is occurrence of the abnormal signal called 'Single Detection', as an operational problem of CAAS. Radiation Protection Division has investigated the cause affecting Single Detection', as well as reducing the influence of noises such as electromagnetic waves and power source variations. This report shows the result of the long-term observation with detectors of CAAS and describes that cosmic rays have high possibility to cause 'Single Detection'. (author)

2007-01-01

182

Investigation on two-phase critical flow for loss-of-coolant accident of pressurized water reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The previous investigations were mainly conducted under the condition of low pressure, however, the steam-water specific volume and the interphase evaporation rate in high pressure are much different from those at low pressure. Therefore, the new experimental and theoretical investigation are performed in Xi'an Jiaotong University. The investigation results could be directly applied to the analysis of loss-of-coolant accident for pressurized water reactor. The system transition characteristics of cold leg and hot leg break loss-of-coolant tests are described for convective circulation test loop. Two types of loss-of-coolant accident are identified for 'hot leg' break, while three types for 'cold leg' break and the effect parameters are studied. Critical flow rate is dependent not only on the upstream fluid properties but also on the break geometries. Tests indicate that the mass flow rate with convergent-divergent nozzle reaches the maximum value among the different break sections at the same inlet fluid condition because the fluid separation does not occur. A wall surface cavity nucleation model is developed for prediction of the critical mass flow rate with water flowing in convergent-divergent nozzles

1996-01-01

183

Evaluación de factores de riesgo en accidentes oculares graves infantiles/ Assessment of the risk factors for severe ocular accidents in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar factores de riesgo en accidentes oculares graves infantiles. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación aplicada, epidemiológica, descriptiva, longitudinal y prospectiva sobre accidentes oculares graves en el Servicio de Oftalmología del Hospital Pediátrico Provincial de Pinar del Río (2006-2007). El universo y muestra estuvo constituido por dos grupos de niños de 1- 20 años, ambos sexos y todas las etnias. Primer Grupo: Niños con accidente ocular g (more) rave, Segundo Grupo: Niños sin accidente ocular; determinándose una muestra total de 130 seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio simple. Fueron utilizados métodos empíricos y teóricos de investigación científica. Resultados: El trauma ocular representó el 87,8% de los ingresos de urgencia durante el período. Se encontró que el grupo etáreo de 9-12 años (40%), y sexo masculino (89,2%) fueron los más afectados. Un 76,9% de los accidentados residía en zona rural. El 96,9% se encontraba fuera de la casa y sin compañía de adultos en el momento del trauma. Predominaron las familias con conocimientos y actitudes evaluados de regulares en relación a los accidentes oculares con un 57,7 % y 60,8% respectivamente. Conclusiones: Se constató elevada frecuencia de traumas oculares infantiles graves en Pinar del Río, precisando sus factores causales de riesgo y dificultades en la prevención de los mismos. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the risk factors for severe ocular accidents in children. Methods: An applied, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and prospective research of the severe ocular accidents was conducted in the Ophthalmologic Service at "Pepe Portilla" Provincial Children Hospital, Pinar del Rio. The target group and the sample were comprised of two groups of children from 1 to 16 years old of both sexes and all ethnics. First group: children and adolescents suff (more) ering from severe ocular accidents. Second group: children and adolescents without ocular accidents; a total sample of 130 patients were chosen by means of a simple sampling at random. Empiric and theoretical scientific research methods were used. Results: The ocular trauma represented 87, 8% of the admissions in the emergency service during the period. The group of ages between 9-12 and male sex (89, 2%) were the most affected; 76, 9% lived in rural zones and 96, 9% of the accidents occurred out of the house without adult company; knowledge and attitudes towards ocular accidents were evaluated as fair in families (57,7% and 60,8% respectively). Conclusions: a high frequency of severe ocular traumas in children was verified in Pinar del Rio, specifying causal risk factors and difficulties to prevent these accidents

Sixto Fuentes, Sahely; Boffill Corrales, Acela; Jalilo Hernández, Sandra María; González Pérez, Dayamí de la Caridad

2010-09-01

184

Investigations in deboration accidents during non-power operation; Untersuchungen zu Deborierungsstoerfaellen im Nichtleistungsbetrieb  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Supplementary to the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) for power operation for several nuclear power plants PSA are performed for non-power operation (shutdown, inspection outage, fuel element changes). The considered initiating events include transients, loss of coolant accidents and deboration events. Deboration occurs as consequence of deionized water or coolant ingress with undervalued boron concentration into the primary circuit. The formation of relatively unmixed deionized water plugs might be transported into the reactor core initiating reactivity disturbances. The calculations of these phenomena were performed with the 3D flow calculation code ANSYS CFX. The mixing and neutronic simulations showed that a sufficient mixing of the deionized water plug and the reactor coolant takes place und the boron concentration includes sufficient margins with respect to the criticality.

Muench, W.; Schoener, P.; Semmrich, J. [TUeV SUeD Industrie Service GmbH (Germany)

2009-07-01

185

Investigations of the behaviour of coated fuel particles and spherical fuel elements at accident temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A post irradiation annealing test apparature was constructed for the measurement of fission gas release at temperatures similar to those to be reached in a HTR during a hypothetical accident. From examinations with existing apparatures up to temperatures of 18000C results were available about the load capacity of coated particles as well as knowledges about fission gas release and defect behaviour. These results were used to plan a series of annealing tests with spherical fuel elements up to 25000C. It could be shown that the (U,Th)O2-particles with high burn up will fail during maximum core heat up of a HTR only after some hours at temperatures above 24000C. (orig.)

1978-01-01

186

Trends in state-level freight accident rates: An enhancement of risk factor development for RADTRAN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is concerned with understanding and managing risk as it applies to the shipment of spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Understanding risk in relation to mode and geography may provide opportunities to minimize radiological and non-radiological risks of transportation. To enhance such an understanding, a set of state-or waterway-specific accident, fatality, and injury rates (expressed as rates per shipment kilometer) by transportation mode and highway administrative class was developed, using publicly-available data bases. Adjustments made to accommodate miscoded or incomplete information in accident data are described, as well as the procedures for estimating state-level flow data. Results indicate that the shipping conditions under which spent fuel is likely to be transported should be less subject to accidents than the ''average'' shipment within mode. 10 refs., 3 tabs

1991-01-01

187

Trends in state-level freight accident rates: An enhancement of risk factor development for RADTRAN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is concerned with understanding and managing risk as it applies to the shipment of spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Understanding risk in relation to mode and geography may provide opportunities to minimize radiological and non-radiological risks of transportation. To enhance such an understanding, a set of state-or waterway-specific accident, fatality, and injury rates (expressed as rates per shipment kilometer) by transportation mode and highway administrative class was developed, using publicly-available data bases. Adjustments made to accommodate miscoded or incomplete information in accident data are described, as well as the procedures for estimating state-level flow data. Results indicate that the shipping conditions under which spent fuel is likely to be transported should be less subject to accidents than the average'' shipment within mode. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

Saricks, C.; Kvitek, T.

1991-01-01

188

Occupational accidents and affecting factors of metal industry in a factory in Ankara  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objective:According to the statistics of the Social Security Institution, 18672 occupational accidents occurred in the metal industry in 2008 in Turkey. Whereas 78 of these accidents resulted in death, 252 people became permanently incapable of working. In 2008, 369677 working days were lost as a result of occupational accidents. Evaluating the reasons for and the results of accidents in the metal industry and contributing to the development of recommendations for prevention in accordance with the information obtained. Method: The study was conducted with 201 of 210 workers working in heavy metal manufacturing and construction in the building company between April 2008 and June 2008. Results: The frequency of occupational accidents among the metal workers was 22% between January 2007 and June 2008. The reasons for the workers’ accidents are listed as; insufficient use of personal protective equipment (44%), carelessness (37%), and personal reasons, not to be taken of security measures at machines and looms/ unsuitable machines (both 17%).Conclusion: The study demonstrates that the accidents mostly occur because of failure to use of personal protective equipment, insufficient vocational training. Key Words: Occupational, accident, metal industry, preventionAnkara’da bir metal sanayi fabrikas?nda i? kazalar? ve etkileyen faktörler Özet Amaç: 2008 y?l?nda Sosyal Güvenlik Kurumu’nun verilerine göre metal sanayisinde 18672 i? kazas? meydana gelmi? ve 369677 i?günü kayb? olmu?tur.  Bu kazalardan 78 tanesi ölümle sonuçlan?rken, 252 ki?i kal?c? olarak i?göremez hale gelmi?tir. Metal sanayisinde meydana gelen kazalar?n sebep ve sonuçlar?n? inceleyerek, elde edilen bilgiler do?rultusunda kazalar?n önlenmesine yönelik tavsiyelerin geli?tirilmesi amaçlanm??t?r. Yöntem: Ara?t?rma, Ankara’da faaliyet gösteren a??r metal imalat, konstrüksiyon ve in?aat sanayi ?irketinde 2008 Nisan-2008 Haziran döneminde çal??an 210 i?çinin 201’ine anket uygulanmas?yla yürütülmü?tür. Bulgular: Ocak 2007 ve Haziran 2008 tarihleri aras?nda metal i?çilerinin i? kazas? s?kl??? %22 bulunmu?tur. ?? kazalar?n?n nedenleri olarak yetersiz ki?sel koruyucu ekipman kullan?m? (%44), dikkatsizlik (%37), ki?isel nedenler (%17) ile makine ve tezgahlarda güvenlik önlemlerinin al?nmamas?/makinelerin uygun olmamas? (%17) belirtilmi?tir. Sonuç: Çal??ma, i? kazalar?n?n ço?unlukla ki?isel koruyucu ekipman?n kullan?m?ndaki eksiklikten ve yetersiz mesleki e?itimden kaynakland???n? ortaya koymu?tur. Anahtar Kelimeler: ??, kaza, metal sanayi, önleme 

Buket Gulhan; Mustafa N. Ilhan; E. Fusun Civil

2012-01-01

189

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board's investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63)

1997-01-01

190

General investigation of the reactivity behaviour of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors under hypothetical accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To analyse the reactivity behavior of different high temperature reactors under hypothetical accident conditions, the specific design features of two reference plants are explained first. The description of hypothetical accident sequences gives and understanding of the physical processes and the quantitities which have the most important impact on the reactivity. Then methods and their mathematical realisation are presented which permit the investigation of the coupled temperature, fission product and reactivity behavior. The application of these methods yields different conditions under which recritically is possible or not. (orig.)[de] Zur Anlage des Reaktivitaetsverhaltens verschiedener Hochtemperaturreaktoren unter hypothetischen Stoerfallbedingungen werden zunaechst die auslegungsspezifischen Merkmale zweier Referenzanlagen dargelegt. Die Beschreibung hypothetischer Stoerfallablaeufe gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die physikalischen Vorgaenge und die wichtigsten Einflussgroessen der Reaktivitaet. Sodann werden Methoden und ihre rechentechnischen Hilfsmittel vorgestellt, mit denen das gekoppelte Temperatur-, Spaltprodukt- und Reaktivitaetsverhalten untersucht wird. Die Anwendung dieser Methoden auf die beiden Referenzanlagen zeigt, unter welchen unterschiedlichen Bedingungen eine Rekritikalitaet zu erwarten ist bzw. nicht eintreten kann. (orig.)

1982-01-01

191

Investigation of relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks of nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the main control room (MCR) of a nuclear power plant (NPP), there are lots of dynamic information sources for MCR operator's situation awareness. As the human-machine interface in MCR is advanced, operator's information acquisition, information gathering and decision-making is becoming an important part to maintain the effective and safe operation of NPPs. Diagnostic task in complex and huge systems like NPP is the most difficult and mental effort-demanding for operators. This research investigates the relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks. The amount of information flow is quantified, using information flow model and Conant's model, a kind of information theory. For the mental workload measure, eye blink rate, blink duration, fixation time, number of fixation, and gaze direction are measured during accident diagnosis tasks. Subjective methods such as NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) method are also used in the experiment. It is shown that the operator's mental workload has significant relation to information flow of diagnosis task. It makes possible to predict the mental workload through the quantity of the information flow of a system

2004-01-01

192

Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

Naser Azad

2012-01-01

193

Causes of mine accidents and recommendations for reporting accidents; Iskazalarinin nedenleri ve `iskazasi raporu` onerisi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After considering the causes of occupational accidents in mining, basic preventive measures to avoid accidents are presented. Finally, an `Accident Report Form` is recommended for a proper investigation of an accident. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 app.

Akcin, N.A.

1996-12-31

194

Investigation of severe accident phenomena in the ex-vessel phase; Untersuchung der Phaenomene schwerer Stoerfaelle ausserhalb des Druckbehaelters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To understand and mitigate the sequence of core melt accidents if a corium melt should penetrate the reactor pressure vessel, various experiments are performed supported by the development of computer programs. The DISCO experiments investigate melt release at failure of the pressure vessel and its dispersal into the different compartments of the plant. The erosive action of a pressure driven melt jet impinging on the concrete structure is studied in the KAJET experiments. The subsequent spreading of the melt on the available concrete basement is an important process which defines the conditions of concrete erosion and the possibility of melt cooling. Water addition to the melt either from the top or by injection from the bottom in the COMET cooling concept is studied with respect to arrest and cooling of the melt. International cooperation and application of the results shall aid/serve to improve and maintain the high nuclear safety standards. (orig.)

Alsmeyer, H.; Foit, J.J.; Meyer, L. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik; Schuetz, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Institut fuer Reaktorsicherheit

2004-07-01

195

Asthma is a risk factor for acute chest syndrome and cerebral vascular accidents in children with sickle cell disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and sickle cell disease are common conditions that both may result in pulmonary complications. We hypothesized that children with sickle cell disease with concomitant asthma have an increased incidence of vaso-occlusive crises that are complicated by episodes of acute chest syndrome. Methods A 5-year retrospective chart analysis was performed investigating 48 children ages 3–18 years with asthma and sickle cell disease and 48 children with sickle cell disease alone. Children were matched for age, gender, and type of sickle cell defect. Hospital admissions were recorded for acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accident, vaso-occlusive pain crises, and blood transfusions (total, exchange and chronic). Mann-Whitney test and Chi square analysis were used to assess differences between the groups. Results Children with sickle cell disease and asthma had significantly more episodes of acute chest syndrome (p = 0.03) and cerebral vascular accidents (p = 0.05) compared to children with sickle cell disease without asthma. As expected, these children received more total blood transfusions (p = 0.01) and chronic transfusions (p = 0.04). Admissions for vasoocclusive pain crises and exchange transfusions were not statistically different between cases and controls. SS disease is more severe than SC disease. Conclusions Children with concomitant asthma and sickle cell disease have increased episodes of acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accidents and the need for blood transfusions. Whether aggressive asthma therapy can reduce these complications in this subset of children is unknown and requires further studies.

Nordness Mark E; Lynn John; Zacharisen Michael C; Scott Paul J; Kelly Kevin J

2005-01-01

196

Accidents, disasters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analyzes causes of 3 accidents that occurred in Polish coal mines. A fire caused by spontaneous combustion of coal occurred in the Porabka-Klimontow mine in Sosnowiec on 22 April 1992 in an abandoned working in a coal seam prone to spontaneous combustion, 17.5 m thick, with a dip angle of 18 degrees, and mined by slicing. Investigation showed that the fire was situated in an inclined roadway that should have been filled by stowing; detection of fire gases (carbon monoxide) in the air was inefficient and inaccurate. Mine rescue and fire fighting by a system of ventilation barriers and hydraulic stowing is discussed. A fatal accident to a young miner occurred on May 12, 1992 in an inclined roadway in the Rymer mine during repair of the Skat chain conveyor. The accident was caused by failure on the part of workers and management to adhere to safety regulations: miners in training should not have been working at a site with a considerable safety hazard. Another fatal accident occurred on 22 May 1992 in the Jowisz mine in Wojtkowice during transport of the Glinik powered support. Failure of the transport system was caused by failures of individual elements of the system.

Odrobina, M.

1992-01-01

197

El Cuerpo Militar de Sanidad en la Investigación de Accidentes Aéreos/ The role of Military Health Service in Aircraft Accident Investigation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La investigación de un accidente o incidente aéreo puede ser simple o enormemente compleja. El proceso de investigación puede conducir a la elaboración de un informe directo y conciso o lo más frecuente, significa un largo camino de recopilación, análisis, estudio y finalmente la elaboración de posibles conclusiones. En este proceso, los aspectos médicos, psicológicos, ambientales, psicosociales o ergonómicos englobados en el término genérico de factores huma (more) nos cobran una especial relevancia, atribuyéndose hasta un 60-80% de causas directas o coadyuvantes al mismo. En este trabajo se revisan los antecedentes jurídicos y base legal en la que se apoya la Comisión para la investigación técnica de accidentes de aeronaves militares (CITAAM), así como sus atribuciones, organización y composición, sus funciones generales y más concretamente las encomendadas al vocal médico de la misma. Desde su creación en 1994, la experiencia acumulada ha sido enorme, haciéndose mención de algunos datos de interés estadístico pero señalando también la labor de formación realizada y su proyección nacional e internacional, sobre todo en el marco de la OTAN. Abstract in english Aircraft Accident Investigation means a complex task in order to identify the major causes which lead to the mishap. Investigation process end in a technical report, which encloses a large amount of information and data gathering documentation, to be studied, analyzed and lines of inquiry established to finally produce the appropriate conclusions. Medical, psychological, environmental, psychosocial and ergonomic faces of the investigation are framed in the so called human (more) factors, which actually leads to 60-80% of the causal factors of accidents. In this report we have reviewed the legal basis in which the CITAAM is supported, competencies, organization and composition, general functions and specifically responsibilities of the medical representative in the board. Since the establishment of the CITAAM in 1994 the experience accumulated has been very wide-ranged and we show some statistical data and work produced in education and instruction, as well as the national and international relationships mostly in the NATO frame.

Rios Tejada, F.; Puente Espada, B.

2012-12-01

198

Bases epidemiológicas do Fator Acidentário Previdenciário/ Epidemiological foundations of the Accident Insurance Factor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese ANTECEDENTES: O Conselho Nacional de Previdência Social, por meio da Resolução No. 1.236 de 28/4/2004, aprovou uma nova metodologia para definição do valor das alíquotas de contribuição devidas por empresas para o financiamento de benefícios previdenciários relacionados aos riscos do trabalho. Esta metodologia baseia-se em um indicador denominado de Fator Acidentário Previdenciário, FAP, construído a partir do risco epidemiológico, estimado para cada ramo de (more) atividade econômica. Como parte da sua estratégia de validação, o Ministério da Previdência Social decidiu pela avaliação da sua consistência epidemiológica. OBJETIVOS: Nesse estudo analisaram-se os propósitos, as fontes de informação, a natureza das medidas epidemiológicas empregadas e a metodologia da construção desse indicador, identificando-se as suas vantagens e limitações, aplicabilidade e impactos potenciais futuros. MÉTODOS: Análise documental da Resolução No. 1236 e do documento anexo. RESULTADOS: O FAP avança ao se pautar por critérios científicos transparentes que poderão permitir a redução das alíquotas quando houver efetiva melhoria das condições de trabalho, e conseqüentemente, da morbimortalidade entre trabalhadores. Supera as dificuldades relacionadas à definição e registro do nexo causal das doenças do trabalho ao considerá-las em sua totalidade, não se restringido às ocupacionais. Como prevê a redução de alíquotas com a melhoria das condições de saúde dos trabalhadores poderá contribuir para uma mais efetiva atuação dos empregadores na prevenção. CONCLUSÕES: É necessário o acompanhamento contínuo e sistemático da aplicação do FAP, com ampla participação da sociedade, revisando-o e ajustando-o aos diferentes cenários econômicos, sociais e de saúde do País, atentando-se para o seu impacto sobre a arrecadação e contas da Previdência Social. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The Brazilian National Social Insurance Counsel of the Ministry of Social Insurance approved the Resolution N. 1.236 of 28/4/2004 that defines a new methodology to assess the value of taxes to be paid by firms, for occupational health related insurance costs. This methodology utilizes the Accident Insurance Factor, (Fator Acidentário Previdenciário) FAP, based on relative risks estimated for each industry trade. As part of its validation strategy, the Social (more) Insurance Ministry decided to evaluate the epidemiological consistency of FAP. OBJECTIVE: The FAP purposes, data sources, the nature of the overall methodology, its advantages and limitations are all discussed, as well as its applicability and potential future impact on the Social Insurance Ministry budget and on the workers' health and safety. METHODS: A documental analysis was conducted with the Resolution text and its attached essay. RESULTS: The FAP represents an advance because of its transparent scientific criteria that may allows reduction of taxes, when improvement in work conditions and the resulting decrease in diseases or injuries are observed. It also overcomes problems of definition and assessment of occupational causal relationships because overall diseases and injuries will be considered regardless of their causal relation to occupational exposures. Since taxes can be reduced as work and health conditions improve, it may contribute to a more effective participation of employers in prevention. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to systematically and continuously monitor the application of FAP, with extensive society participation, reviewing and adjusting it to the distinct economic, social and health scenarios in the country, considering its impact on the Social Insurance budget.

Santana, Vilma Sousa

2005-12-01

199

Bases epidemiológicas do Fator Acidentário Previdenciário Epidemiological foundations of the Accident Insurance Factor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES: O Conselho Nacional de Previdência Social, por meio da Resolução No. 1.236 de 28/4/2004, aprovou uma nova metodologia para definição do valor das alíquotas de contribuição devidas por empresas para o financiamento de benefícios previdenciários relacionados aos riscos do trabalho. Esta metodologia baseia-se em um indicador denominado de Fator Acidentário Previdenciário, FAP, construído a partir do risco epidemiológico, estimado para cada ramo de atividade econômica. Como parte da sua estratégia de validação, o Ministério da Previdência Social decidiu pela avaliação da sua consistência epidemiológica. OBJETIVOS: Nesse estudo analisaram-se os propósitos, as fontes de informação, a natureza das medidas epidemiológicas empregadas e a metodologia da construção desse indicador, identificando-se as suas vantagens e limitações, aplicabilidade e impactos potenciais futuros. MÉTODOS: Análise documental da Resolução No. 1236 e do documento anexo. RESULTADOS: O FAP avança ao se pautar por critérios científicos transparentes que poderão permitir a redução das alíquotas quando houver efetiva melhoria das condições de trabalho, e conseqüentemente, da morbimortalidade entre trabalhadores. Supera as dificuldades relacionadas à definição e registro do nexo causal das doenças do trabalho ao considerá-las em sua totalidade, não se restringido às ocupacionais. Como prevê a redução de alíquotas com a melhoria das condições de saúde dos trabalhadores poderá contribuir para uma mais efetiva atuação dos empregadores na prevenção. CONCLUSÕES: É necessário o acompanhamento contínuo e sistemático da aplicação do FAP, com ampla participação da sociedade, revisando-o e ajustando-o aos diferentes cenários econômicos, sociais e de saúde do País, atentando-se para o seu impacto sobre a arrecadação e contas da Previdência Social.BACKGROUND: The Brazilian National Social Insurance Counsel of the Ministry of Social Insurance approved the Resolution N. 1.236 of 28/4/2004 that defines a new methodology to assess the value of taxes to be paid by firms, for occupational health related insurance costs. This methodology utilizes the Accident Insurance Factor, (Fator Acidentário Previdenciário) FAP, based on relative risks estimated for each industry trade. As part of its validation strategy, the Social Insurance Ministry decided to evaluate the epidemiological consistency of FAP. OBJECTIVE: The FAP purposes, data sources, the nature of the overall methodology, its advantages and limitations are all discussed, as well as its applicability and potential future impact on the Social Insurance Ministry budget and on the workers' health and safety. METHODS: A documental analysis was conducted with the Resolution text and its attached essay. RESULTS: The FAP represents an advance because of its transparent scientific criteria that may allows reduction of taxes, when improvement in work conditions and the resulting decrease in diseases or injuries are observed. It also overcomes problems of definition and assessment of occupational causal relationships because overall diseases and injuries will be considered regardless of their causal relation to occupational exposures. Since taxes can be reduced as work and health conditions improve, it may contribute to a more effective participation of employers in prevention. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to systematically and continuously monitor the application of FAP, with extensive society participation, reviewing and adjusting it to the distinct economic, social and health scenarios in the country, considering its impact on the Social Insurance budget.

Vilma Sousa Santana

2005-01-01

200

Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"/ Risk factors for accidents in children: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: Casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de Referencia Nacional. Participantes: Se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos) y 400 pacientes pediátricos, (more) atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles). Mediciones principales: El instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: La edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite) OR 15,04 (IC 95% 5,47 - 44,48), productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina) OR 14,19 (IC 95% 0,72 - 276,33), instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7,82 (IC 95% 5,22 - 11,73 ), cohetillos OR 5,26 (IC 95% 2,49 - 11,95), presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3,30 (IC 95% 2,02 - 5,25), cosméticos OR 2,06 (IC 95% 1,36 - 3,10), productos de limpieza OR 1,20 (IC 95% 0,22 - 5,82), medicamentos OR 1,12 (IC 95% 0,73 - 1,70). Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4,62 (IC 95% 2,61 - 8,20), trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2,04 (IC 95% 1,42 - 2,93) y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1,65 (IC 95% 1,15 - 2,36). Conclusiones: Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sope todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niños Abstract in english Objectives: To identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: Case and control incidents. Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uria, a third-level paediatric hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and 400 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, persons responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumst (more) ances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5.4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR 7,82, firecrackers OR 5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR 2,06, house cleaner products OR 1,20, medicines OR 1,12, previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2,04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1,65. Conclusions: The main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by paediatricians or family practitioners

Paulsen S., Kurt; Mejia S., Hector

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Time dependence of the {sup 137}Cs resuspension factor on the Romanian territory after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the basis of the radioactivity levels in aerosol and atmospheric deposition samples due to the Chernobyl accident, the resuspension factor of {sup 137}Cs as a four-parameter function has been inferred. The standard procedure to derive the dependence of resuspension on time assumes that the initial deposit is instantaneous. A simple method assuming a constant deposition rate over a fixed period has been proposed. Also, based on existing experimental data, an attempt was made to consider a realistic time dependence of the deposition rate to cope with the particular case of the Chernobyl accident. The differences between the two models are outlined. The Chernobyl direct deposit has been assumed to be the deposit measured between 30 April and 30 June 1986. The calculated values of the resuspension factor are consistent with the IAEA`s recommended model and depend on the rainfall that occurred in June 1986 and the site-specific disturbance conditions during the first 100 d following 1 July 1986 and only on artificial disturbance by humans and vehicles after that. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Mihaila, B. [Institute of Environmental Research and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cuculeanu, V. [National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bucharest (Romania)

1994-08-01

202

Burns in the domestic environment: characteristics and circumstances of accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study characterizes burn accidents in the domestic environment and identifies the circumstances of accidents affecting children, adults or elderly people who need supervision or care. Demographic data and burn characteristics of 61 domestic environment burn victims were collected. The family members of 13 children and one aged adult, who needed supervision or special care, were selected to answer a semi-structured interview. Two thematic groups were identified: social and environmental factors that might have contributed to the burn accidents and circumstances involving the accidents. Risk factors were: low socioeconomic and educational levels of mothers and those responsible for the children at the moment of the accident, small houses considering the number of occupants and unsafe kitchen equipment. Although cases of domestic violence were not identified there was neglect from caregivers. Health professionals should be attentive and investigate the circumstances of accidents involving vulnerable individuals. PMID:20721435

Vendrusculo, Tatiane Meda; Balieiro, Carmem Roberta Baldin; Echevarría-Guanilo, Maria Elena; Farina Junior, Jayme Adriano; Rossi, Lídia Aparecida

203

PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

Jovica Jovanovic

2004-01-01

204

Effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway: a long-term investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the findings of two studies made eleven years apart in Norway (Fridstrøm, 2000; Elvik and Kaminska, 2011) to evaluate effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway. The first study covered the period from 1991 to 2000, the second study covered the period from 2002 to 2009. In both these periods, large changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were found in the cities that were included in the study. There was, in most cities, a tendency for the use of studded tyres to go down. Effects of these changes on injury accidents were evaluated by means of negative binomial regression models, using city and day as the unit of analysis, and including more than twenty explanatory variables in order to control for confounding factors. The effects of changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were well described by an accident modification function (dose-response curve), relating the size of changes in the number of accident to the size of the change in the use of studded tyres. Accidents during the season when the use of studded tyres is permitted were found to increase by about 5 percent if the use of studded tyres was reduced by 25 percentage points (e.g. from 50 to 25 percent) and to decline by about 2 percent when the use of studded tyres increased by 20 percentage points. PMID:23474233

Elvik, Rune; Fridstrøm, Lasse; Kaminska, Joanna; Meyer, Sunniva Frislid

2013-02-12

205

Effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway: a long-term investigation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports the findings of two studies made eleven years apart in Norway (Fridstrøm, 2000; Elvik and Kaminska, 2011) to evaluate effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway. The first study covered the period from 1991 to 2000, the second study covered the period from 2002 to 2009. In both these periods, large changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were found in the cities that were included in the study. There was, in most cities, a tendency for the use of studded tyres to go down. Effects of these changes on injury accidents were evaluated by means of negative binomial regression models, using city and day as the unit of analysis, and including more than twenty explanatory variables in order to control for confounding factors. The effects of changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were well described by an accident modification function (dose-response curve), relating the size of changes in the number of accident to the size of the change in the use of studded tyres. Accidents during the season when the use of studded tyres is permitted were found to increase by about 5 percent if the use of studded tyres was reduced by 25 percentage points (e.g. from 50 to 25 percent) and to decline by about 2 percent when the use of studded tyres increased by 20 percentage points.

Elvik R; Fridstrøm L; Kaminska J; Meyer SF

2013-05-01

206

Determination of transfer factors and effective half-times in several domestic animals for cesium 137 from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the wake of the Chernobyl accident contaminated fodder-hey and grass has been fed to cows, bulls, calves, lambs and swine (fed with whey). The problem was to decide if or not the animals could be slaughtered with confidence that their meat had contaminations below the legal limits. On the one hand, transfer factors fodder-to-meat and fodder-to-milk as well as the efficiency of radioactivity reducing additives had to be determined. On the other hand the correlation of live-animals measurements with the meat contamination was investigated. The correlation was satisfactory except with swine. The high-resolution Ge detectors have strong advantages as compared to Na detectors, though too expensive for general applications in slaughter-houses. 10 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs. (qui)

1987-01-01

207

Additional investigations within the research programme launched after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The additional investigations concern the determination of the transfer of the fission products I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134, and Te-132 along the pasture-cattle-milk pathway insolving fresh grass, and of the fission products Cs-137 and Cs-134 from winter fodder to milk, beef and veal, and the enrichment of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the human organism as well as the migration of the fission products Cs-137, Cs-134, Ru-103, and K-40 from the Chernobyl fall-out to the soil. (DG)

1987-01-01

208

Use of the radioecological investigations results of both natural plant complexes and plant resources to reduce the Chernobyl NPP accidents consequences. Chapter 7  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14 proposals, recommendations and other materials of Inst. of experimental botany of Academy of Sciences of Belarus on the results of investigations of radioactive contaminations of natural vegetation complexes and plant resources after the Chernobyl accident are published. 3 tabs., 4 figs.

1995-01-01

209

Theoretical investigations of the meltoff and resolidification process of fuel claddings during accidents in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During loss-of-coolant-flow accidents in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors with failure to scram the fuel claddings will melt after boiling and evaporation of the coolant. The CMOT model presented here describes the subsequent process of relocation and resolidification of the molten claddings. The basic thermohydrodynamics equations of the two-phase flow of cladding material and sodium vapor are solved numerically by differential approximations in a Eulerian reference net. The results calculated by the model improved the insight into the dynamics of the cladding relocation process. Here are the main results: - Shortly after the onset of cladding relocation large waves of molten cladding material are generated. The motion of these waves contributes considerably to the material transport. - The dynamics of cladding relocation exhibits strong local incoherences. - The formation of cladding blockages observed at the ends of the fuel region is confirmed by the calculations. - In case of incoherent cladding meltoff less cladding material is transported upwards. - Cladding relocation strongly depends on the axial pressure drop and the underlying friction factor correlations. Recalculation of the R5 loss-of-coolant-flow experiment performed in the U.S. TREAT test reactor is in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig./HP) 891 HP

1978-01-01

210

Factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el anciano en San Juan y Martínez Socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly. San Juan y Martinez municipality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: el estudio de la problemática del anciano constituye un elemento de primordial importancia y aparece como un factor decisivo en las investigaciones médicas. Esto se debe al incremento de la población mayor de 65 años, calculada en más de 290 millones de personas con un aumento creciente en las últimas décadas. Objetivo: identificar los factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el anciano en el municipio San Juan y Martínez durante el año 2011. Material y método: se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal, el universo estuvo constituido por 615 ancianos que sufrieron algún tipo de accidentes registrados en hojas de cargo y la muestra de 300 ancianos, seleccionados por el método aleatorio estratificado. Se utilizaron como métodos la encuesta y la observación científica lo que permitió obtener una información variada y directa. Resultados: se obtuvo un predominio del sexo masculino, con edades comprendidas entre 71 y 75 años, las enfermedades asociadas que predominaron en el hombre fueron las del sistema osteomioarticular y en las mujeres la hipertensión arterial. La alteración intrínseca más frecuente fue la ingestión de medicamentos con un 90.2 % y el factor extrínseco los desniveles del piso con el 70.3 %. Conclusiones: entre los factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el an ciano predominan las enfermedades del sistema osteomioarticular, así como la ingestión de medicamentos y las barreras arquitectónicas (desniveles del piso).Introduction: the study of the problem of the elderly constitutes an essential element and it appears as a crucial factor in medical investigations, because of the increase of population older than 65 years old, calculated in more than 290 millions of people which is on the increase during the last decades. Objective: to identify the socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly in San Juan y Martinez municipality during 2011. Material and method: a descriptive and cross-sectional research was carried out which target group included 615 old people having different kinds of accidents recorded on worksheets; the sample was comprised of 300 old people chosen by means of a stratified at random method. Surveys and scientific observation were the methods used collecting varied and direct information. Results: male sex prevailed, 71-75 years old; the prevailing associated diseases in men were those of the osteomyoarticular system and hypertension in women. The ingestion of medications was the most frequent intrinsic alteration (90.2%) and difference in floor levels prevailed as extrinsic factor (70.3%). Conclusions: among the socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly were osteomyoarticular system disorders, ingestions of medications and architectural barriers (difference in floor levels).

Olga Lidia Benítez Pozo; Bertha Rita Castillo Edua; Marielvis Calero Benítez; Ileana Rosa Hernández Pérez; José Jesús Arencibia Sánchez

2013-01-01

211

Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity score, 3-dimensional reconstructions of the PMCT, and an injury pattern analysis. We describe how, on basis ofthese data, we reached a conclusion about which of the two victims was the most likely to have been in control of the airplane at the time of accident. Furthermore, we argue that all victims of fatal airplane crashes should be subject to forensic autopsy, including PMCT and forensic chemical analysis. The continuous accumulation of knowledge about injury patterns from “simple” accidents is the foundation for the correct analysis of “difficult” accidents.

HØyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov

2012-01-01

212

DSMC simulations in support of the Columbia Shuttle Orbiter accident investigation.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo simulations of Columbia Shuttle Orbiter flight STS-107 are presented. The aim of this work is to determine the aerodynamic and heating behavior of the Orbiter during aerobraking maneuvers and to provide piecewise integration of key scenario events to assess the plausibility of the candidate failure scenarios. The flight of the Orbiter is examined at two altitudes: 350-kft and 300-kft. The flowfield around the Orbiter and the heat transfer to it are calculated for the undamaged configuration. The flow inside the wing for an assumed damage to the leading edge in the form of a 10- inch hole is studied. The tragic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia and her seven-member crew was followed by an investigation that lasted almost 7 months covering numerous failure scenarios. Due to the lack of physical data about flight STS-107 (especially in the high altitude part of it), numerical simulations were employed to help with the interpretation of the forensic evidence and the evaluation of the plausibility of the candidate scenarios. The conclusion of the investigation was that the physical cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the Thermal Protection System. To protect the aluminum structure of the Orbiter during re-entry, the Orbiter is covered with various materials collectively referred to as the Thermal Protection System. The three major components of the system are various types of heat-resistant tiles, blankets, and the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels. The RCC panels are layers of graphite molded to the desired shape at very high temperatures. RCC is used for the Orbiter nose cap, chin panel, forward external tank attachment point, and wing leading edge panels and T-seals. RCC is a material capable of withstanding temperatures up to 2,000 K. Each wing leading edge consists of 22 RCC panels numbered from 1 to 22 moving outward on each wing. Because the shape of the wing changes from inboard to outboard, each panel is unique. A small space between the upper carrier panel and the RCC panel allows air pressure to equalize behind the RCC panels during ascent and re-entry. The total area of these vents on the wing is approximately 66 in. Most other areas of the Orbiter exposed to medium and high heating are protected by the tiles, which are made of a silicon-based material and can withstand temperatures up to 1,500 K. Finally, regions of the Orbiter that experience only moderate heating are protected by blankets capable of withstanding either 650K or 1,000 K.

Gallis, Michail A.; Boyles, Katie A. (NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX); LeBeau, Gerald J. (NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX)

2004-06-01

213

Human factors issues in severe accident management: Training for decision-making under stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, there is a growing awareness that the decision-making tasks required for selecting appropriate control actions, in addition to guidance from formal procedures, also involve cognitive activities commonly referred to as judgment or reasoning. A project was completed to address the nature of the cognitive skills that may be important to decision-making in the nuclear power plant environment, especially during severe accident management. The project identified a model of decision-making that could account for both rule-based and knowledge-based decision-making and used it to identify cognitive skills for both individuals and operational crews. This analysis was then used to identify existing training techniques for cognitive skills and the general characteristics of successful training techniques

1994-01-01

214

An experimental investigation on a lower head penetration survivability during a severe accident with external vessel cooling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The integrity of the lower head penetrations may be breached by a melt attack during a severe accident in nuclear power reactors. The failure of the penetrations causes the release of radioactive materials to the containment and then complicate ex-vessel phenomena may occur. The penetration failure processes are two. One is the attack of the supporting welds causing the ejection of the in-core instrumentation nozzles and the other is the flow of high temperature molten debris through the thimble tubes. Although several investigations have been performed on the problem, the penetration failure phenomenon is a plant-specific problem due to the difference of the reactor geometry and materials. So, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) started the penetration survivability experiments on the KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor: Pressurized Water Reactor Type) which would apply external vessel cooling to lessen the probability of lower head failure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the survivability of the lower head penetrations during a melt attack with external vessel cooling. (authors)

Kim, J.H.; Kang, K.H.; Koo, K.M.; Park, R.J.; Kim, S.B.; Lee, K.Y. [Thermal Hydraulics and Safety Research Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2001-07-01

215

A system of safety management practices and worker engagement for reducing and preventing accidents: An empirical and theoretical investigation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The overall research objective was to theoretically and empirically develop the ideas around a system of safety management practices (ten practices were elaborated), to test their relationship with objective safety statistics (such as accident rates), and to explore how these practices work to achieve positive safety results (accident prevention) through worker engagement. METHOD: Data were collected using safety manager, supervisor and employee surveys designed to assess and link safety management system practices, employee perceptions resulting from existing practices, and safety performance outcomes. RESULTS: Results indicate the following: there is a significant negative relationship between the presence of ten individual safety management practices, as well as the composite of these practices, with accident rates; there is a significant negative relationship between the level of safety-focused worker emotional and cognitive engagement with accident rates; safety management systems and worker engagement levels can be used individually to predict accident rates; safety management systems can be used to predict worker engagement levels; and worker engagement levels act as mediators between the safety management system and safety performance outcomes (such as accident rates). IMPLICATIONS: Even though the presence of safety management system practices is linked with incident reduction and may represent a necessary first-step in accident prevention, safety performance may also depend on mediation by safety-focused cognitive and emotional engagement by workers. Thus, when organizations invest in a safety management system approach to reducing/preventing accidents and improving safety performance, they should also be concerned about winning over the minds and hearts of their workers through human performance-based safety management systems designed to promote and enhance worker engagement.

Wachter JK; Yorio PL

2013-08-01

216

AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING CREDIT MARKET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigate through an econometric approach the credit market and the factors that interact with it. The current research is beyond the minor aspects of the behavior and determinants of credit market in Romania and our concerns go to macroeconomic factors, consumption, investments and capital market. Results demonstrate a relationship between complex factors such as monetary policy and the credit market.

CRISTIAN-FLORIN DANANAU

2012-01-01

217

Investigation regarding the long-term security developments in the Swedish nuclear power and the response to the accident at Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Swedish nuclear plants need to continue to work on analysis and actions in the plants, partly to meet the demands of legislation and agreed action plans, and partly due to additional security requirements on account of experiences from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, stress tests, security investigations and investigations relating to physical protection. It is also essential to continue with safety improvements to gradually increase margins against unforeseen events in aging plants during long-term operation

2012-01-01

218

The human factor in accidents at work; Der menschliche Faktor bei Arbeitsunfaellen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Typical core conditions for the reasons of faulty behaviour are explained. The quantitative overstraining of the mental capacity of the person, the timely overstraining of his capacity, work-related violation of behavioural habits, mental overstrain like remembrance stress, overstraining of judgement capacity like overstraining of attention are part of this core condition. Faulty actions as the result of unintended, not targeted actions are lastly attributable to deficits in the information directing the action. Faulty actions can be caused by an objective lack of necessary information, by the non-utilization of information given or by a wrong utilization of existing information. This points to prevention possibilities of faulty behaviour resulting also in accidents. (orig.) [German] Es werden typische Kernbedingungen der Entstehung von Fehlhandlungen eroertert. Dazu gehoeren die mengenmaessige Ueberforderung der geistigen Kapazitaet des Menschen, die zeitliche Ueberforderung seiner Kapazitaet, arbeitsgestalterische Verstoesse gegen Verhaltensgewohnheiten, Gedaechtnisueberforderungen als Ueberforderungen der Erinnerns, Ueberforderungen des Urteilsvermoegens; Ueberforderungen der Aufmerksamkeit. Fehlhandlungen als unbeabsichtigtes, nicht zielgerichtetes Handeln gehen letztlich auf Defizite in der handlungsleitenden Information zurueck. Sie koennen bedingt sein durch ein objektives Fehlen erforderlicher Information, durch eine fehlende Nutzung gegebener Information oder das falsche Nutzen vorhandener Information. Damit ist auf Verhuetungsmoeglichkeiten von Fehlhandlungen auch mit Unfallfolgen verwiesen. (orig.)

Hacker, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Psychologie und Methoden der Psychologie

2000-07-01

219

Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

Naser Azad; Seyed Mohsen Seyed Aliakbar; Seyed Foad Zarifi; Somayeh Hozouri

2013-01-01

220

Investigation of effect of stopping supply flow into the cell on the confinement of the radioactive materials under fire accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On November 20th 1997, a fire accident happened at Uranium Enrichment Research Laboratory, Tokai, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and ventilation filters in the laboratory clogged. When fire accident occurs in a controlled area, a large quantity of smoke generates in the area and dropping exhaust flow from the area by the clogging of ventilation filters and rising pressure in the area are caused. Moreover, leakage of smoke including radioactive materials from the area by the pressure rising is expected. To prevent the leakage, it is expected that stopping supply flow to the area during a fire accident is effective, however, quantitative evaluation about this effect has not been performed. By using CELVA-1D code, one-dimensional thermofluid analysis code, this effect is evaluated quantitatively by modeling the laboratory and estimating source terms released during the fire accident. As the results, it has been found that the efficiency of confinement of the radioactive materials into the area is preserved in the slightly long period of time in case of stopping supply flow to the area, however, this effect can be neglected in case that scale of fire accident is relatively large. (author)

Abe, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Koji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

1999-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Investigations of the potential for accident mitigation of the conceptical design for a core retention device developed in SR 209  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The potential for accident mitigation of the conceptual design for the core retention device developed in SR 209, was estimated by core meltdown and containment analyses. Such a device should prevent late fission product release especially due to failure of the containment by overpressurization (according to release categories 5 and 6 of the German Risk Study, Phase A). Assuming ideal operation of the device, the long term course of a meltdown accident can be influenced in a positive sense including the prevention of overpressurization. However, functional operation of the design seems to be highly uncertain for several reasons, i.g. due to uncertainties in the behaviour of the melt in the retention device. The design does not or only insufficiently cover accident scenarios with high pressure in vessel melt, that means for sequences relevant for their high contribution to core melt frequency. The design may have strong negative impacts on the course of meltdown accidents, LOCA's, constructive details and operation of a plant. Implementation of the measure is expected to need extreme effort, without making sense from the technical point of view. The measure at all seems not to be recommendable for accident mitigation. (orig./HP)

1984-01-01

222

[Alpine skiing--accident--and equipment studies  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to medical statistics over the last two decades, skiing is still associated with a certain risk of accident and injury. A review of studies carried out in Davos on alpine skiing accidents covering two decades aimed at assessing the effect of safety improvements in ski bindings combined with ski shoes and skis in view of injury statistics. Five comprehensive research studies included almost 10,000 injured and non-injured skiers and experience with nearly 29,000 injured skiers treated the Davos hospital. Firstly, the causes and preceptating factors of skiing accidents were determined and the role of binding release tests assessed. Then the effect of the skier on the accident was investigated. The function of ski binding adjustments was also studied. In a fourth step comprehensive data on multicentric research project were obtained. With the growing popularity of safety bindings in the 1970's and the results of research projects, the frequency of skiing accidents seemed to diminish or at least stagnate. The annual statistics from 1974 to 93 show a reduction in the frequency of tibial fractures and simultaneous rapid increase in the frequency of injuries of the knee joint, the upper limbs and the trunk. The situation demonstrate that measurements to control the accident rate cannot be based only on accident statistics and technical developments, but must rely on further studies of the mechanism of the fall and analyses of the long-term consequences of injuries.

Ziegler WJ; Matter P

1993-01-01

223

Psychological aspects of accident prevention in mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper duscusses ways of preventing work accidents and increasing work safety in underground black coal mines. Specific conditions of underground operations in coal mines are stressed. Elements of work accident prevention are analyzed: reducing hazards by introducing safer technology, automation and mechanization of operations associated with hazards, introducing special measures within the framework of safety engineering. Dependence of accident rate on such factors as personnel training, age, motivation, qualifications, and labor discipline is discussed. Investigations indicate that miner motivation plays a significant role in accident prevention. A high degree of labor motivation successfully reduces accident rate and a low degree of motivation increases accident rate. Role of labor collective in labor motivation as well as a correct system of wage incentives are evaluated. Methods of personnel training aimed at reducing accident rate are described. Role of a technique by which a group of miners attempts to find a solution to a work safety problem by amassing all ideas spontaneously contributed by participants is stressed.

Lukestikova, M.

1981-04-01

224

Estimating the causes of traffic accidents using logistic regression and discriminant analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Factors that affect traffic accidents have been analysed in various ways. In this study, we use the methods of logistic regression and discriminant analysis to determine the damages due to injury and non-injury accidents in the Eskisehir Province. Data were obtained from the accident reports of the General Directorate of Security in Eskisehir; 2552 traffic accidents between January and December 2009 were investigated regarding whether they resulted in injury. According to the results, the effects of traffic accidents were reflected in the variables. These results provide a wealth of information that may aid future measures toward the prevention of undesired results.

Karacasu M; Ergül B; Altin Yavuz A

2013-07-01

225

Childhood accidents. Three epidemiological studies on the etiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three studies on childhood accidents are presented. The aim was to study the importance of different factors regarding the accidents in question. The following factors have then been taken into consideration: the enviromental hazard, the accident proneness, the supervision and the education. Methodologically the investigations were carried out with an epidemiological technique. One is of a descriptive nature and the other two more analytically oriented. The studies are based on two different 1-year-materials consisting of accidents among children recorded in the emergency departments of Ostersund Hospital and the University Hospital in Uppsala. The results indicate that risk factors in the children's physical milieu played an important role in the occurrence of the accidents: clearly identifiable risk factors in the environment could be connected with 52% of the accidents, whereas some deficiency in supervision was noted in 20%. The investigators could identify a number of specific risk factors. Attempts were made to examine how frequency and type of childhood accidents vary with the population structure and social structure in well-defined housing areas, but the results were hard to evaluate because of methodological problems. The results are presented against the background of a detailed discussion on central methodological problems in epidemiological accident research. It is pointed out in particular that epidemiological methods have clear limitations in attempts at studying the low-frequency events that each individual type of accident in fact comprises. It is of great importance that in future research, side by side with the traditional epidemiological methods, other techniques are tested with the aim of obtaining maximal usable information from a detailed study of individual accidents and their backgrounds.

Gustafsson LH

1977-01-01

226

Selection of the important performance influencing factors for the assessment of human error under accident management situations in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper introduces the process and final results of selection of the important Performance Influencing Factors (PIFs) under emergency operation and accident management situations in nuclear power plants for use in the assessment of human errors. We collected two types of PIF taxonomies, one is the full set PIF list mainly developed for human error analysis, and the other is the PIFs for human reliability analysis (HRA) in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). 5 PIF taxonomies among the full set PIF list and 10 PIF taxonomies among HRA methodologies (CREAM, SLIM, INTENT, were collected in this research. By reviewing and analyzing PIFs selected for HRA methodologies, the criterion could be established for the selection of appropriate PIFs under emergency operation and accident management situations. Based on this selection criteria, a new PIF taxonomy was proposed for the assessment of human error under emergency operation and accident management situations in nuclear power plants

1999-01-01

227

Infant and adolescent deaths in Istanbul due to home accidents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adolescent and infant deaths due to home accidents pose an important social problem and can be prevented significantly by appropriate measures. The aims of this study about adolescent deaths under the age of 18 and infant deaths due to home accidents were assessment of risk factors and proposals for protective measures. Toward these aims, 414 autopsy reports (Provided by Mortuary Section, Council of Forensic Medicine, Istanbul Turkey, 1996-2000) were reviewed, as well as scene investigation data and information from eyewitnesses. Determination of risk factors, appropriate education, as well as legal regulations for manufacturers of household articles may significantly reduce the number of infant and adolescent deaths due to home accidents.

A?irdizer M; Yavuz MS; Albek E; Cantürk G

2005-04-01

228

Accidents with sulfuric acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006) are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents) in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old) tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc). The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

Rajkovi? Miloš B.

2006-01-01

229

Accident management for severe accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The management of severe accidents in light water reactors is receiving much attention in several countries. The reduction of risk by measures and/or actions that would affect the behavior of a severe accident is discussed. The research program that is being conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission focuses on both in-vessel accident management and containment and release accident management. The key issues and approaches taken in this program are summarized. 6 refs.

Bari, R.A.; Pratt, W.T.; Lehner, J.; Leonard, M.; Disalvo, R.; Sheron, B.

1988-01-01

230

Accident management for severe accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The management of severe accidents in light water reactors is receiving much attention in several countries. The reduction of risk by measures and/or actions that would affect the behavior of a severe accident is discussed. The research program that is being conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission focuses on both in-vessel accident management and containment and release accident management. The key issues and approaches taken in this program are summarized. 6 refs

1988-01-01

231

Accidentes vasculares cerebrales en la comarca de Osona: Factores de riesgo cardiovascular/ Cerebrovascular accidents in Osona borough: Cardiovascular risk factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Fundamento: La enfermedad vascular cerebral (EVC) es la segunda causa de ingreso en orden de frecuencia en nuestro servicio, esto refleja la alta incidencia de esta patología en nuestra comarca. En este estudio se analizan las características clínicas, biológicas, factores de riesgo cardiovasculares (FRCV) y actuación sobre los mismos al alta hospitalaria en un servicio de Medicina Interna de un hospital comarcal; hospital de referencia de la comarca de Osona, así c (more) omo otras características, de los pacientes ingresados de enero de 2001 a diciembre de 2001 por EVC. Método: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo revisando los informes de alta hospitalaria de cada paciente. Ingresaron 277 pacientes con EVC. Resultados: Las características biológicas, demográficas así como los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares analizados (hipertensión arterial, diabetes, tabaquismo, dislipemia entre otros) fueron similares respecto a otras series. La incidencia de EVC hemorrágica y cardioembólica, fue algo menor, se ha de tener en cuenta que se excluyen aquellos episodios hemorrágicos que necesitaron intervención neuroquirúrgica, éstos fueron derivados a un centro de nivel superior que dispusiera de servicio de neurocirugía. La edad no fue un factor de mal pronóstico en cuanto a presentar más secuelas después del episodio ni más mortalidad, este dato discrepa de otras series. Conclusiones: La actuación al alta sobre los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y recomendaciones higiénico-dietéticas fueron deficientes. La estancia media fue superior si la comparamos con la estancia media de las unidades de ictus especializadas. Abstract in english Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the second cause of hospitalization in the order of frequency in our service, thus reflecting this pathology’s high incidence in our borough. This study analyzes clinical and biological characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and actions taken in hospital discharge in the internal medicine department of a borough hospital (the reference hospital in Osona borough), as well as other characteristics of the hospitalize (more) d CVD patients from January 2001 to December 2001. Method: This study was performed by revising each patient’s hospital discharge report. 277 patients were hospitalized for CVD. Results: Biological and demographic characteristics, as well as cardiovascular risk factors analyzed (arterial hypertension, diabetes, smoking, or dyslipidemy) were similar to other series. Incidence of hemorrhagic and cardio-embolic CVD was slightly lower, taken into account that hemorrhagic episodes that needed neurosurgical intervention were transferred to a higher-level center with a department of neurosurgery. Age was neither a factor for bad prediction leading to bad sequels after the episode nor a cause of an increased mortality. This data differs from others series. Conclusions: Actions taken on discharge, on cardiovascular risk factors and on hygienic-dietetic recommendations were deficient. Average stay was higher when compared to average stay in specialized ictus units.

Sanclemente Ansó, C.; Alonso Valdés, F.; Rovira Pujol, E.; Vigil Martín, D.; Vilaró Pujals, J.

2004-04-01

232

Factoring the human into safety: translating research into practice. Vol. 2: The development and evaluation of a human factors accident and near miss reporting form for the offshore industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This 112 page book seeks to design and evaluate a form for reporting accidents and incidents and for collecting human factors data from personnel involved in accidents and incidents on offshore platforms. Details are given of the development of a reporting system aimed at collecting more accurate human factors incident information, and the testing of the incident reporting form on ten offshore case studies. The success of tbe form in extracting additional information to that shown in companies original reports and in shedding light on potential hazardous situations is discussed.

Mearns, K.; Whitaker, S. (and others)

2003-07-01

233

AMS: Accident management system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A study was made to demonstrate the feasibility of using the plant simulation code MAAP as the basis for an accident management system (AMS). The AMS was designed to identify and simulate accident sequences by using data which is typically found in a reactor control room. The accuracy of the AMS was determined by benchmarking the results of the AMS against the results of standard MAAP runs for a series of accidents. This was accomplished by simulating accident cases (base cases) using MAAP for both a typical PWR and BWR power plants. Control room type data generated form the simulations were used as input to the AMS at different times in the original accident. This paper reports that the results produced by the AMS were then compared to the initial base case simulations to determine the accuracy. Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that an accident management system based on MAAP can be a viable tool in the identification and simulation of a severe reactor accident. Thus, it could be effectively used to investigate accident recovery and mitigative strategies

1990-01-01

234

The state of thyroid system in children born form the parents irradiated in the result of Chornobyl accident as a factor of dysmetabolic changes in the period of sexual development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the work was to reveal functional and structural changes in the thyroid gland in children of puberty age with clinical manifestations of metabolic syndrome born from the parents irradiated in the result of Chornobyl accident. The study involved 108 patients aged 12-17. The investigated parameters characterizing TG function and the state and the of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism became the diagnostic criteria of dyshormonal disorders revealed in children with puberty dyshormonal disorders revealed in children with puberty dispituitarism. The pathological changes in the TG can be a risk factor of metabolic syndrome development.

2009-01-01

235

Social impact of accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is the quite big difference between technological risk and social risk feeling. Various biases of social and sensational factors on accidents must be considered to recognize this difference. `How safe is safe enough` is the perpetual thema concerning with not only technology but also sociology. The safety goal in aircraft design and how making effort to improve the present safety status in civil jet aircrafts is discussed as an example of social risk allowance. INSAG under IAEA started to discuss the safety culture after Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident on 1986. Safety culture and risk communication are the most important procedures to relieve the social impact for accidents. (author)

Kuroda, Isao [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

1997-03-01

236

The EPR investigation of tooth enamel for measurements of tooth enamel for measurements of absorbed gamma doses of people irradiated in Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EPR spectra of the tooth enamel of Chernobyl 'liquidators' were investigated. A lot of people were engaged in work at the Chernobyl area after the accident in 1986. A part of them is under regular medical control at the Ukrainian security service hospital. When patients lose the teeth for some reasons the EPR spectra of radiation centers in tooth enamel caused by emergency gamma radiation were investigated. The measurement of the intensities of the EPR spectra give the real individual absorbed doses of gamma radiation which are much higher than the official values registered in the medical cards of liquidators.

1993-01-01

237

Analysis Fukushima 11032011 -- Extended analysis of the Fukushima accident on 11 March 2011 under special consideration of human and organisational factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the reactor accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi on 11 March 2011, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) launched an extended analysis of the accident with the following goals: a) a comprehensive understanding of the accident unrolling and of the contributing factors; b) the identification of resulting short-, mean- and long-term requirements for the operators of Swiss nuclear power plants; c) considerations on the own surveillance activity; d) the verification of the reports delivered by the Swiss plant operators, who have to check their own plant after each incident declared as of INES 2 level or higher, whichever the location in the whole world. Undoubtedly, the design of the nuclear power plants at Fukushima Dai-ichi was inappropriate in what regards the tsunami induced by the earthquake, and that this was a key factor that led to the accident. The questions here are rather how it came to this clear design insufficiency and why the accident developed in the way it did. According to ENSI, answers to these questions require both technical as well as human and organisational considerations. ENSI had no direct access to information sources and, therefore, had to check the reliability of information obtained from public sources, especially from authorities, plant operators, expert organisations and, last but not least, media reports. The understanding gained in this way should enable a better evaluation of the situation in Switzerland and lead to the definition of the most urgent measures to be implemented. Since the principal cause of the Fukushima accident is a failure in the plant design, it is necessary to critically reconsider the design of the Swiss reactors to make sure that no such mistake has been done here. Another question is why this evident design failure was not identified earlier in the course of the decades of operation, and why no improvement has been made. In this context, human and organisational factors seem to play an important role. But the responsibility cannot be put only on a few decision makers; on the contrary some human and organisational mechanisms play a fundamental role. Such mechanisms and external conditions can lead to situations in which facts are not recognized or even rejected, although they appear evident after the events. It is the responsibility of all actors in the nuclear industry: plant operators, governments, regulatory authorities, expert organisations, to understand the potential and actual consequences of these mechanisms and to consider them within an appropriate safety culture. It is not sufficient to implement new regulations; the safety organisations must be able to respond to unforeseen situations, and this requires flexibility and adaptation ability. In this sense the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident will be helpful for the Swiss conditions

2011-03-11

238

Numerical Investigation on Asymetric Bilayer System at Integer Filling Factor  

CERN Multimedia

Deformation of the easy-axis ferromagnetic state in asymmetric bilayer systems are investigated numerically. Using the exact diagonalization the easy-axis to easy-plane ferromagnetic transition at total filling factor 3 or 4 is investigated. At still higher filling, novel stripe state in which stripes are aligned in the vertical direction occurs. The Hartree-Fock energies of relevant ordered states are calculated and compared.

Nomura, K; Jungwirth, T; MacDonald, A H

2003-01-01

239

Factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el anciano en San Juan y Martínez/ Socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly. San Juan y Martinez municipality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: el estudio de la problemática del anciano constituye un elemento de primordial importancia y aparece como un factor decisivo en las investigaciones médicas. Esto se debe al incremento de la población mayor de 65 años, calculada en más de 290 millones de personas con un aumento creciente en las últimas décadas. Objetivo: identificar los factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el anciano en el municipio San Juan y Martínez durant (more) e el año 2011. Material y método: se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal, el universo estuvo constituido por 615 ancianos que sufrieron algún tipo de accidentes registrados en hojas de cargo y la muestra de 300 ancianos, seleccionados por el método aleatorio estratificado. Se utilizaron como métodos la encuesta y la observación científica lo que permitió obtener una información variada y directa. Resultados: se obtuvo un predominio del sexo masculino, con edades comprendidas entre 71 y 75 años, las enfermedades asociadas que predominaron en el hombre fueron las del sistema osteomioarticular y en las mujeres la hipertensión arterial. La alteración intrínseca más frecuente fue la ingestión de medicamentos con un 90.2 % y el factor extrínseco los desniveles del piso con el 70.3 %. Conclusiones: entre los factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el an ciano predominan las enfermedades del sistema osteomioarticular, así como la ingestión de medicamentos y las barreras arquitectónicas (desniveles del piso). Abstract in english Introduction: the study of the problem of the elderly constitutes an essential element and it appears as a crucial factor in medical investigations, because of the increase of population older than 65 years old, calculated in more than 290 millions of people which is on the increase during the last decades. Objective: to identify the socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly in San Juan y Martinez municipality during 2011. M (more) aterial and method: a descriptive and cross-sectional research was carried out which target group included 615 old people having different kinds of accidents recorded on worksheets; the sample was comprised of 300 old people chosen by means of a stratified at random method. Surveys and scientific observation were the methods used collecting varied and direct information. Results: male sex prevailed, 71-75 years old; the prevailing associated diseases in men were those of the osteomyoarticular system and hypertension in women. The ingestion of medications was the most frequent intrinsic alteration (90.2%) and difference in floor levels prevailed as extrinsic factor (70.3%). Conclusions: among the socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly were osteomyoarticular system disorders, ingestions of medications and architectural barriers (difference in floor levels).

Benítez Pozo, Olga Lidia; Castillo Edua, Bertha Rita; Calero Benítez, Marielvis; Hernández Pérez, Ileana Rosa; Arencibia Sánchez, José Jesús

2013-04-01

240

Road Traffic Accidents In Tamilnadu: A Historical Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the reasons for road traffic accidents in Tamil nadu. Also this study investigates the different causes of accidents occurred in past years in Tamilnadu. Tamilnadu was reported in one of the accident prone zone in India with having highest rate of road accidents. This study investigates why Tamilnadu reported in top number of accidents. What are the reasons for occurring accidents and how con resistance the accidents.

R. Manigandan; R. Arunmozhi

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra *  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra, confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course, and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method, the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisan...

Xu, Qing; Li, Ying-hua; Lü, Xiu-yang

242

Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in producti...

Kerstens, N.F.H.

243

JCO criticality accident as POST-LOCA: Poor structure induced loss of organizational control accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some problems in operation and business management of JCO (Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Co.) have been studied as background factors of the criticality accident. Open information about business conditions of JCO suggests that the cause of the accident is not so simple as to be attributed only to economic pressure, but includes immanent problems in JCO. We investigate the problems from five viewpoints, organization of safety management, system of operation management, activities for business improvement, risk awareness, and restructuring of business, and discuss the effects and causality of background factors as well as remedies for them. (author)

Furuhama, Yutaka [Human Factors Group, Nuclear Power R and D Center, Tokyo Electric Power Company, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

2000-07-01

244

Acidente do trabalho investigado pelo CEREST Piracicaba: confrontando a abordagem tradicional da segurança do trabalho/ Work related accident investigated by CEREST Piracicaba: confronting the traditional approach of safety at work  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Partindo de exploração das diferentes concepções acerca dos acidentes do trabalho e pretendendo discutir suas implicações sobre a prevenção, este artigo apresenta o caso de investigação de acidente de trabalho (AT) realizado pelo Sistema de Vigilância de Acidentes do Trabalho (SIVAT) do Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador (CEREST) de Piracicaba, que utiliza a notificação a partir de todos os pronto-socorros E hospitais do município. A metodologia (more) de investigação do At utilizada pelo Cerest inclui entrevistas, análise de documentos, fotografias, observação e estudo da situação do trabalho. Por outro lado, a empresa, com auxílio de laudo do Instituto de Criminalística (IC), usando uma abordagem tradicional do ato inseguro, apresenta explicações simplistas das causas dos acidentes de trabalho, o que resulta na atribuição de culpa às vítimas desses eventos, deixando de identificar os aspectos da organização do trabalho, a concepção dos equipamentos; fatores que, explorados, apontariam caminhos para a melhoria da segurança e da confiabilidade dos sistemas. Concluiu-se pela necessidade de mudanças culturais na área de segurança com investimentos permanentes na capacitação e na difusão dos novos conceitos sobre acidentes junto aos atores sociais, aos profissionais e ao poder judiciário. Abstract in english Exploring different concepts of work-related accidents and intending to discuss their implications on prevention, this article presents a case-study on work related accident (WRA) investigation conducted by the System of Surveillance of Accidents at Work (SIVAT) at the Center of Reference on Worker's Health (CEREST) in Piracicaba, using cases notified by all emergency rooms and hospitals of the Municipal district. The methodology of investigation of Wra used by Cerest inc (more) ludes interviews, analysis of documents, pictures, observation, and investigation of the situation at worksite. On the other hand, companies present simplistic explanations of Wra occurrences, using the traditional approach based on individual unsafe action, facilitated by reports issued by the State Criminalistics Institute (IC). Consequently victims are blamed for the events, and aspects of work organization or equipment conception are ignored. Such factors, if properly analyzed, could point out solutions for improvements in safety and reliability of the systems. Authors concluded that cultural changes in the safety field are necessary, with continuous investments in training and diffusion of new concepts on accidents among social actors, professionals, and the Judiciary.

Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Mendes, Renata Wey Berti; Gonçalves, Carmen Aparecida H.

2007-06-01

245

Report of the investigation of the accident at the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO Trailer Park on Rainier Mesa at Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fourteen persons were injured, one fatally, when the ground upon which they were working collapsed, forming a subsidence crater in the recording trailer park of the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO nuclear weapons effects test on Rainier Mesa at the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984. Those persons injured were contractor and laboratory employees from Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. (REECo), Pan American World Services, Inc. (PANAM), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report presents the results of an investigation into the causes, effects, and response to the accident. 42 figures.

1984-04-09

246

Report of the investigation of the accident at the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO Trailer Park on Rainier Mesa at Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fourteen persons were injured, one fatally, when the ground upon which they were working collapsed, forming a subsidence crater in the recording trailer park of the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO nuclear weapons effects test on Rainier Mesa at the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984. Those persons injured were contractor and laboratory employees from Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. (REECo), Pan American World Services, Inc. (PANAM), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report presents the results of an investigation into the causes, effects, and response to the accident. 42 figures

1984-01-01

247

Sports Accidents  

CERN Multimedia

Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

Kiebel

1972-01-01

248

Lack of safety culture as a contributing factor in major radiation accidents reported in Latin and South America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last decades, the issue of improving safety culture to reduce the upward trend of radiation accidents have received considerable attention from scientific organizations. After the Chernobyl accident, IAEA invited worldwide experts in nuclear safety and formed a working group called 'International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group'. The Safety Culture concept has been developed by the Working Group and published in the Safety Series collection of IAEA in 1986 as No 75-INSAG-4 which provided a logical framework for establishing safety culture policy at individual and organisational level. The aim of this paper is to review the role of insufficient safety culture in the occurrence of 5 major radiation accidents reported in Latin and South America and the remedial action taken by competent authority and oriented towards improvement of basic principle of safety culture. (author)

2004-01-01

249

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our study, Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.815 and there are eight influencing factors including flexibility in offering various services, building good relationship with customers, technology and processes, customers’ experiences, brand identity in continuous advertisement, organization size, customer perception on reputation of brand and customers’ tendency to build better brand loyalty. In our survey, flexibility in offering various services received the highest rank followed by building good relationship with customers.

Naser Azad; Masoud Hassanabadi

2013-01-01

250

National Safety Transportation Board Special Investigation Report. Mobile Acetylene Trailer Accidents: Fire During Unloading in Dallas, Texas, July 25, 2007; Fire During Unloading in The Woodlands, Texas, August 7, 2007; and Overturn and Fire in East New Orleans, Louisiana, October 20, 2007.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Transportation Safety Board investigated three accidents that involved highway vehicles transporting bulk quantities of acetylene gas that occurred in 2007 and reviewed reports of a 2008 overturn accident of another vehicle. The vehicles, cal...

2009-01-01

251

Investigation of the impact of radiation dose on hormones, biologically active metabolites and immunoglobulins in Chernobyl accident recovery workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One hundred twenty-five Chernobyl accident recovery workers (liquidators) who were exposed to low-dose radiation were studied over a period of 4-6 years for changes in levels of hormones, arachidonic acid metabolites and cyclic nucleotides. Some significant changes were observed, especially in the levels of metabolites that are regulators of cell functions. In comparison to controls, there were increased levels of thyroxin, cortisol, thromboxane B2, and immunoglobulins G, A and M, and reduced levels of growth hormone, cyclic nucleotides and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1. The degree or presence of these metabolite imbalances did not correlate with the level of the radiation dose received. The only change found that did relate to the radiation dose received was a statistically significant increase in levels of biomarkers for oxidative stress, seen in workers who received higher doses.

Souchkevitch G; Lyasko L

1997-01-01

252

Human factors contributing to groundfall accidents in underground coal mines: workers' views. Information Circular/1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents findings from a Bureau of Mines study on barriers that may prevent miners from correcting and avoiding groundfall hazards. Such barriers stem from four basic types of problems: inability to recognize groundfall hazards; inability to correct groundfall hazards; lack of motivation to search for groundfall hazards; lack of motivation to correct groundfall hazards. The report also includes a summary of miners' responses concerning their recent experiences with groundfall accidents, along with industry-wide statistics on accidents and injuries caused by groundfalls in underground coal mines.

Peters, R.H.; Wiehagen, W.J.

1987-01-01

253

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - like syndrome and other hormonal factors of promotion and progression of thyroid gland cancer in males-liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The clinical and laboratory endocrinological screening performed in 1,000 males - liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences revealed hormonal factors leading to node formation and having unfavourable influence on progression and promotion of thyroid gland cancer. The factors include syndrome of low thriiodothyronine, hyperprolactinemia, latent hypothyrosis and increased production of thyroglobulin. Peculiarities of hormonal status in liquidators allow us to suggest the presence of MEN-like syndrome among the liquidators population. Possible mechanisms of expression of RET oncogene in adults that may result in MEN- like syndrome have been discussed. (author)

1997-01-01

254

Epidemiology of Accident Deaths in Jos, Nigeria (1996-2000)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Accidents are common events in our society and have contributed significantly to causes of morbidity and mortality in most hospitals. In our environment accidents are fast becoming the commonest cause of death. Only few cases of these accidents are reported to the corona for investigation. Methods: Records of deaths from January 1996- December 2000 reported to the corona for autopsies from two major Hospitals in Jos city were analyzed. Those related to accidents were retrieved and studied. Information from the Police regarding causes of accidents was also extracted. Data on the deceased such as age, sex, and nature of injury were also collated. Police reports on the contributing factors to accidents were also analysed. Results: A total of 270 cases of deaths were reported to the corona for autopsies out of which 122 (45%) were accident deaths. One hundred and three (86%) cases were males while 19 cases were females. Two-thirds of deaths (60%) were in the productive age group of 21— 40 years. Multiple fractures long bones without head injury accounted for 37.7% of deaths, followed by head/upper spinal injuries 24.6%, crushed body injuries 22%, while, intra-abdominal organ injuries which accounted for 15.6%. Analysis of types of accidents showed that vehicle, motorcycle, airplane crash and pedestrian accidents accounted for 59.8%, 20.5%, 10.7% and 9.0% respectively. Information from the Police on motor vehicle accidents, records showed that 50% of the accidental events were due to dangerous driving under the influence of alcohol. Conclusion: Accident death in our environment appears to affect mostly men in the productive and reproductive age groups. However measures that regulate vehicle speed on the road and alcohol intake by drivers may reduce more than half of such deaths.

Mandong B; Madaki J. K. A.; Mohammed A; Kidmas A; Echejoh G

2006-01-01

255

Typical accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analyzes causes of two fatal acccidents in underground coal mines in Poland in 1988. A coal miner was killed by blasted rock in a mine roadway driven by explosive fracturing. The fatal accident was caused by negligence (the blasting zone was not clearly marked, blasting was not signalled to other miners, a miner responsible for safety had left the blasting area, etc.). In another mine a coal miner entered railway tracks and was killed by an approaching locomotive. That accident was also caused by negligence and disregard for regulations covering mine haulage by locomotives. An analysis of each incident is presented. Recommendations for preventing similar accidents are made.

1989-01-01

256

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

CERN Multimedia

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

Franic, Z

2007-01-01

257

Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result ofthis study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs.

Kim, Jae Whan; Jung, Won Dae; Kang, Dae Il; Ha, Jae Joo

1999-06-01

258

Investigating internal and external factors influencing profitability of banking industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to learn the impact of some internal and external factors on profitability in banking system. The proposed model of this paper introduces three econometrics methods to study the behavior of internal, external and a combination of both factors on return on assets. The proposed study of this paper uses Vector Auto- Regressive (VAR) and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) to provide estimation of the proposed model and we use historical data over the period of 1989-2010. The results of the first model for internal factors, we consider some independent variables including ratio of total revenue on total assets (TR) and ratio of total equities on total assets (TE). The second model considers the effects of external variables on ROA such as growth domestic product (GDP) and market share (MS) and the last model includes a combination of both internal and external factors. The results indicates that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between logarithm of growth domestic product and return on equities, which means as we expect one unit increase in LGDP, there is an increase of 0.012 on ROA. In addition, when the market share increase by one percent, there will be an increase 0.025% increase on ROA and an increase of one percent in the ratio of TR will yield to an increase of one percent in ROA.

Hadi Noori; Mehdi Taghavi

2012-01-01

259

Investigating Effective Factors on Iran’s Pistachio Exportation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of Iran’s economic is depending on oil’s incomes, therefore to increase non oil exportation likeagricultural products is the main goal of country’s economic development program. The goal of this paper is to investigate effective factors in pistachio exportation and mentioned goal will be consider by variable factors such as export’s principle, aflatoxin poison, and packaging. The type of this paper is descriptive–cognition and the related information for this scope have been collected by usinglibrary resources such as books, scientific journals, moreover for collecting necessary data in order to confirm or rejectresearch hypotheses a questionnaire designed by researcher have been used . Statistical society for this research includesthe pistachio exporter in Kerman city, the method being used has been random sampling. Results of this investigationshows that the principles of exporting, aflatoxin poison and packaging have great influence in exporting Iran’spistachio.

Seyed fathollah Amiri Aghdaie

2009-01-01

260

Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) accident. A final report on the investigation of fission product chemical forms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In September of 1965, an intentionally defective fuel rod failed in the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), causing the rupture of the surrounding pressure tube and the release of superheated cooling water into a region of the reactor core. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has reviewed the PRTR incident to assemble and update all the available information regarding the incident. A principal goal of the review was to analyze any remaining clues that may indicate the stoichiometry or most probable chemical and physical forms of the released fission products. The review confirmed the role of water in limiting iodine release. About 97% of the iodine released during the accident was subsequently found in tanks containing the reactor/rupture-loop coolant. Although the chemical form of the released radioiodine cannot be stated unambiguously, the available evidence suggests that it was released in the form of cesium iodide. Most of the remaining 3% was found in the condensate collected from air cooling systems. The chemical form of this scrubbed iodine remains undefined.

Hensley, W.K.; Rogers, L.A.

1984-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Study of human factors, and its basic aspects focusing the IEA-R1 research reactor operators, aiming at the prevention of accidents caused by human failures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents a study of human factors and possible human failure reasons that can cause incidents, accidents and workers exposition, associated to risks intrinsic to the profession. The objective is to contribute with the operators of IEA-R1 reactor located at IPEN CNEN/S P. Accidents in the technological field, including the nuclear, have shown that the causes are much more connected to human failure than to system and equipment failures, what has led the regulatory bodies to consider studies on human failure. The research proposed in this work is quantitative/qualitative and also descriptive. Two questionnaires were used to collect data. The first of them was elaborated from the safety culture attributes which are described by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. The second considered individual and situational factors composing categories that could affect people in the work area. A carefully selected transcription of the theoretical basis according to the study of human factors was used. The methodology demonstrated a good reliability degree. Results lead to mediate factors which need direct actions concerning the needs of the group and of the individual. This research shows that it is necessary to have a really effective unit of planning and organization, not only to the physical and psychological health issues but also to the safety in the work. (author)

2008-01-01

262

Accidents and disasters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluates accidents that occurred in underground black coal mining in Poland. The following accidents were analyzed: a rock burst in the Porabka coal mine on 1 June 1992 (rock burst energy was 1.0x10[sup 10]J, failure of a longwall face zone 23 m long, death of 4 miners, 13 miners injured, the rock burst was associated with a 90 m thick sandstone layer in the roof and considerable mining depth of 550 m in a fault area); an accident in the Polska mine in Swietochlowice on 20 June 1992 (death of a miner in a mine roadway with carbon dioxide content of 16%, accident caused by negligence of personnel responsible for measuring composition of mine air and proper emergency signalling); a fatal accident of a miner in the Marcel mine on 20 July 1992 (during mine haulage by a suspended monorail); an accident caused a rock fall in the Wujek mine on 3 August 1992. The results of investigations into causes of a methane explosion in the Slask mine (4 deaths, 44 seriously wounded miners) on 18 December 1990 were inconclusive.

1992-01-01

263

The Application of Social Marketing in Reducing Road Traffic Accidents among Young Male Drivers: An Investigation using Physical Fear Threat Appeals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There were 338 road fatalities on Irish roads in 2007. Research in 2007 by the Road Safety Authority in Ireland states that young male drivers (17 – 25 years) are seven times more likely to be killed on Irish roads than other road users. The car driver fatality rate was found to be approximately 10 times higher for young male drivers than for female drivers in 2000.  Young male drivers in particular demonstrate a high proclivity for risky driving behaviours. These risky behaviours include drink driving, speeding, drug-driving and engaging in aggressive driving. Speed is the single largest contributing factor to road deaths in Ireland.  Approximately 40% of fatal accidents are caused by excessive or inappropriate speed. This study focuses on how dangerous driving behaviours may be addressed through social marketing. This study analyses the appropriate level of fear that needs to be induced in order to change young male driving behaviour.

Brian Harman

2009-01-01

264

Investigation of some effective factors on dust suppressors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some factors which are effective on the performance of wet type dust suppressors used in auxiliary ventilation systems were investigated. For this aim, a combined system which benefits a wet type dust suppressor in conjunction with the exhausting duct was created in a mechanized heading of OAL Coal Enterprises-Turkey. The effects of air quantity in dust suppressor, the addition of sodium oleate in water for the purpose of lowering surface tension of water, and mounting an extra dust suppressor were investigated. The practical results from the in situ air quantity and dust concentration measurements have shown that dust suppression rate could be increased by lowering the air quantity of exhausting duct, by adding chemicals in water, and by using an extra dust suppressor. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Cetin, O.; Sarac, S. [TKI-OAL Isletmesi, Ankara (Turkey)

1998-12-31

265

Investigation of the Factors Affecting Real Exchange Rate in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available his paper intends to investigate the factors affecting the real exchange rate in Iran in the period of 1978-2008. In this part, the econometric methodology and vector autoregressive model that is known as VAR is used to investigate the effect of proper variables on the real exchange rate. The results of Johansson-Jousilious test confirmed co-integration between variables, and thus long-run equilibrium relationship was confirmed among proper variables. Overall, the impulse and response functions showed that the shocking of variables, oil price and volume of money flows, has a positive impact on the real exchange rate and put it above its permanent level in the whole period of study. The results of variance decomposition showed that the most effects belonged to oil price and then volume of money flow that in fact represents greater relative importance of these variables in comparison with other variables among all model variables.

Komeil Khanarinejad; Mostafa Goudarzi; Zahra Ardakani

2012-01-01

266

Investigation of the Factors Affecting Real Exchange Rate in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper intends to investigate the factors affecting the real exchange rate in Iran in the period of 1978-2008. In this part, the econometric methodology and vector autoregressive model that is known as VAR is used to investigate the effect of proper variables on the real exchange rate. The results of Johansson-Jousilious test confirmed co-integration between variables, and thus long-run equilibrium relationship was confirmed among proper variables. Overall, the impulse and response functions showed that the shocking of variables, oil price and volume of money flows, has a positive impact on the real exchange rate and put it above its permanent level in the whole period of study. The results of variance decomposition showed that the most effects belonged to oil price and then volume of money flow that in fact represents greater relative importance of these variables in comparison with other variables among all model variables.

Mostafa Goudarzi; Komeil Khanarinejad; Zahra Ardakani

2012-01-01

267

Experimental investigation on the chemical precipitation generation under the loss of coolant accident of nuclear power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The PWR containment buildings are designed to facilitate core cooling in the event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The cooling process requires water discharged from the break and containment spray to be collected in a sump for recirculation. The containment sump contains screens to protect the components of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) and Containment Spray System (CSS) from debris. Since the containment materials may dissolve or corrode when exposed to the reactor coolant and spray solutions, various chemical precipitations can be generated in a post-LOCA environment. These chemical precipitations may become another source of debris loading to be considered in sump screen performance and downstream effects. In this study, new experimental methodology to predict the type and quantity of chemical precipitations has been developed. To generate the plant-specific chemical precipitation in a post-LOCA environment, the plant specific chemical condition of the recirculation sump during post-LOCA is simulated with the experimental reactor for the chemical effect. The plant-specific containment materials are used in the present experiment such as glass fibers, concrete blocks, aluminum specimens, and chemical reagent - boric acid, spray additives or buffering chemicals (sodium hydroxide, Tri-Sodium Phosphate (TSP), or others). The inside temperature of the reactor is controlled to simulate the plant-specific temperature profile of the recirculation sump. The total amount of aluminum released from aluminum specimens is evaluated by ICP-AES analysis to determine the amount of AlOOH and NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8} which induce very adverse effect on the head loss across the sump screens. The amount of these precipitations generated in the present experimental study is compared with the results of WCAP-16530-NP-A. (authors)

Kim, C. H.; Sung, J. J. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 25-1, Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Y. W. [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul National Univ., Bldg. 135-301, Gwanakro 599, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01

268

An investigation into causative factors in patients with bronchiectasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bronchiectasis is a pathologic description of lung damage characterized by inflamed and dilated thick-walled bronchi. These findings may result from a number of possible causes and these may influence treatment and prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine causative factors in 150 adults with bronchiectasis (56 male, 94 female) identified using high-resolution computerized tomography. Relevant factors were identified in the clinical history; cystic fibrosis gene mutation analysis was performed; humoral immune defects were determined by measuring immunoglobulins, IgG subclasses and functional response to Pneumovax II vaccine; assessment was made of neutrophil function (respiratory burst, adhesion molecule expression, and chemotaxis); ciliary function was observed and those likely to have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) were identified. Causes identified were: immune defects (12 cases), cystic fibrosis (4), Young's syndrome (5), ciliary dysfunction (3), aspiration (6), panbronchiolitis (1), congenital defect (1), ABPA (11), rheumatoid arthritis (4), and early childhood pneumonia, pertussis, or measles (44). Intensive investigation of this population of patients with bronchiectasis led to identification of one or more causative factor in 47% of cases. In 22 patients (15%), the cause identified had implications for prognosis and treatment.

Pasteur MC; Helliwell SM; Houghton SJ; Webb SC; Foweraker JE; Coulden RA; Flower CD; Bilton D; Keogan MT

2000-10-01

269

General aviation accidents in degraded visibility: a case control study of 72 accidents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Accidents in degraded visibility continue to account for a disproportionately large number of fatal crashes and fatalities in general aviation (GA). However, the relatively small percentage of these crashes annually suggests that even a small reduction in the number of crashes can result in a large reduction in associated fatalities. OBJECTIVE: This study identified risk factors associated with GA accidents that occur in degraded visibility. METHODS: Data collected during 72 National Transportation Safety Board investigations of GA accidents were compared with data collected from 135 control flights matched on weather conditions, location, time, and rules of flight. Study variables included pilot demographics, experience, testing and accident histories, and the purpose and length of flights. Initial comparisons were conducted using Chi-square analyses, followed by the development of a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Univariate analyses identified significant differences in pilot age at accident, age at initial certification, certificate level, instrument rating, testing performance, and previous accident involvement. There were also significant differences between groups related to aircraft ownership, purpose of flight, and intended flight length. The logistic regression revealed significant increased risk for pilots initially certified after age 25 [odds ratio (OR) 4.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-10.81, without instrument ratings (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.8-12.8), with prior accidents/incidents (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.7), and for intended flights longer than 300 nmi (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.6-13.8). CONCLUSIONS: Certain risk factors (e.g., instrument rating) were consistent with previous research, while others (e.g., age at certification) raise questions for future research.

Groff LS; Price JM

2006-10-01

270

Road traffic accidents in Kenya: an epidemiological appraisal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A descriptive analysis of road traffic accident (RTA) and injury data in Kenya was done using routine accident reports, official statistical abstracts, published and unpublished surveys. The characteristics of injury-producing accidents examined included trends, distribution patterns, risk factors, types of vehicles involved, and road-users injured or killed. The numbers killed increased by 578%, while non-fatal casualties rose by 506% between 1962 and 1992. Fatality rate per 10,000 vehicles increased from 50.7 to 64.2, while fatality per 100,000 population ranged between 7.3 and 8.6. 66% of the accidents occurred during daytime. 60% of the reported RTAs occurred on rural roads and had a higher case fatality rate (CFR) of 16% compared to those occurring in urban areas (11%). Human factors were responsible for 85% of all causes. Vehicle-pedestrian collisions were most severe and had the highest CFR of 24%, while only 12% of injuries resulting from vehicle-vehicle accidents were fatal. Utility vehicles, 'matatus' and buses were involved in 62% of the injury producing accidents. Of all traffic fatalities reported, pedestrians comprised 42%, passengers 38%, drivers 12%, and cyclists 8%. The high pedestrian and passenger deaths imply the need to investigate the underlying risk factors, operational and policy issues involved in the transport system, and to develop and implement appropriate responsive road safety interventions.

Odero W

1995-05-01

271

An investigation of BWR/4 parallel channel effects during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident for both intact and broken jet pumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The influence of parallel channel effects (PCE) on the effectiveness of the emergency core cooling systems in a boiling water nuclear reactor (BWR) was experimentally investigated. Specifically, the effectiveness of the core spray cooling system and the low-pressure coolant injection system during the emergency core cooling of a simulated 218-BWR/4 was studied. Experiments simulating conditions after a hypothetical design basis loss-of-coolant accident were performed in a special PCE test section in which Freon-114 was used as the working fluid. A detailed scaling analysis was performed to allow real-time simulation of the bypass leakage inflow, reflood rate, countercurrent flow limitation core decay heat, and the size of postulated jet pump breaks. It was found that BWR core cooling could be adversely affected by postulated failure of the jet pump seals by observing the parallel channel effects

1984-01-01

272

[Injury pattern and identification after airplane catastrophies. Cooperation between forensic medicine and federal criminal investigations. An airplane accident in Muhlheim/Ruhr 8 February 1988  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On February 8th 1988, a two-motor passenger aircraft of Metroliner type with 21 people on board entered a front of heavy weather at an altitude of 900 m and crashed after being struck by lightning which led to complete breakdown of the electrical systems on board. The site of the crash was in the marshy Ruhr meadows. The formation of the terrain enabled a subdivision into plan squares for rescue. The identification of the 21 bodies was carried out in the Essen Institute of Forensic Medicine in collaboration with the identification commission of the Federal Criminal Investigation Office. The experience and recommendations for future (possibly larger-scale) disasters derived from this are described. Furthermore, the accident pattern in the casualties typical for this air crash is discussed.

Weiler G; Risse M

1989-01-01

273

Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management

1993-01-01

274

Reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this book seven of the most significant accidents in the history of nuclear power are examined in detail, identifying root causes and looking for common features. In the cases analysed at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, Windscale, SL-1, NRX, Fermi and Lucens, it is shown that the root causes of these accidents were not design flaws or the mistakes of individual operators, however much these may have affected the accident sequence. The root causes were rather deep-seated failings in the institutions involved in the operation of the nuclear plant -failings which allowed the adoption of flawed designs, the provision of inadequate operator support and guidance, and a dangerous overconfidence in the technology. (author)

1990-01-01

275

Safety culture and the accident at Three Mile Island  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Prior to the accident at Three Mile Island, little attention was being paid to the human role in the safe operation of civilian nuclear power plants. The investigation of the TMI accident showed that its root causes were primarily human-related. The Kemeny Report on the TMI accident does not use the term 'safety culture'; however, it fully identifies all relevant aspects of safety culture. It was only after the accident at Chernobyl that the term 'safety culture' came into widespread use. However, it should be noted that, during the years after TMI and before Chernobyl, already major changes had been instituted concerning human factors and human reliability in the civilian nuclear energy programs of many countries. Greater credit should be given to the remarkable insights developed by the Kemeny Commission as contained in the Kemeny Report. (author)

2002-01-01

276

Investigation and risk factor analysis of hyperuricemia in pilots  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the incidence of hyperuricemia in military pilots and the relationship between hyperuricemia and other related risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Methods  A total of 2563 pilots, who had undergone a regular physical examination in the Air Force General Hospital from 2005 to 2010, participated in the current study. The participants were divided into high serum uric acid (UA) group (hyperuricemia group, UA >420µmol/L, n=294) and normal UA group (n=2269). The incidence rates of hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipemia were compared between these two groups. The dependent variable was serum UA level of the pilots. Other indices included the total cholesterol (CHO), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), fasting blood glucose (FBG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), smoking, body weight, and flight time as independent variable. Logistic multivariate regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between UA level and these indexes. Results  The incidence rates of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, and high LDL were significantly higher in hyperuricemia group than in normal UA group (POR=1.637, POR=1.025, POR=1.046, PConclusion  The serum UA of pilots is closely related to the risk factors of other cardiovascular diseases.

Hong-yu MA; Mei-cai ZHU; Shou-zhen QUAN; Dan LUO; Ying-hong AN

2012-01-01

277

Investigating factors affecting students’ performance to PISA Science items  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper aims to investigate, on the one hand, the extent to which PISA Science items validly assess the knowledge and skills of 15 year-old Greek students, while, on the other hand, to examine the effect of the following factors: student’s gender, scientific processes and contexts (situations) on the students’ performance in these PISA items. The research used paper-and-pencil test with published PISA Science items, conducted individual semi-structured interviews with 15 year-old students and finally marked the students’ responses, according to the PISA marking guide. ?he basic finding resulting from the data analysis is that the paper-and-pencil test with the PISA Science items does not tend, unlike the interview, to effectively record the Greek students’ Science knowledge and skills. Moreover, the analysis revealed that the performance of students in the PISA Science items (paper-and-pencil test and interview) tend to be independent of the student’s gender and depend on the context in which the knowledge and processes are assessed. Additionally, the possible correlation between the students’ performance and the factor of scientific processes seems to depend on the setting in which the students provide their responses (paper-and-pencil test or interview).

A. Psalidas; C. Apostolopoulos; V. Hatzinikita

2008-01-01

278

AN INVESTIGATION OF FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE BLOG ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 2000, blogs have rapidly become a cyberspace phenomenon. The new medium has createda growing trend: blog advertising. Blogs offer unique advantages over other types of advertising,such as reader coverage and low cost. In addition, blogs generally contain customer comments,which new customers can use to evaluate the advertised products. As a result, blog advertising isvery successful. A recent survey showed that 40% of the customers that read blog advertisingmade a purchase. This study investigates factors that affect blog advertising effectiveness. Alaboratory experiment was designed to determine the effects of appeal strategies, quantity andquality of negative comments, and customer involvement with the advertised product. Theexperiment was designed to test informational and. emotional appeal strategies, high and lowproportions of negative comments, high and low qualities of negative comments, and high andlow levels of customer involvement with the advertised product. Study results show thatinformational appeals match customer needs, for customers with high levels of customerinvolvement. Study results show that emotional appeals match customer needs, for customerswith low levels of customer involvement. Study results show that proportion of negativecomments has an effect, for any type of customer. Study results show that high-quality negativecomments affect customer attitudes more than low-quality negative comments, for customerswith high levels of customer involvement. Study results extend theoretical and practicalknowledge concerning factors that effect blog advertising effectiveness.

Jen-Ruei Fu1; Jessica H. F. Chen2

2012-01-01

279

Development of severe accident evaluation technology (level 2 PSA) for sodium-cooled fast reactors. (2) Identification of dominant factors in initiating phase of unprotected events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of establishing level-2 PSA evaluation method, Initiating Phase of the unprotected loss-of-flow accident was studied with theoretical investigation focusing on reactivity balance during the transient and SAS4A code analysis. Based on the knowledge accumulated in the past and present work, key parameters to be considered in the event-tree quantification were clarified. Through the SAS4A code analysis adopting the JSFR design parameters as the reference, importance of the identified items was confirmed. Within the parametric cases covered in this study, all the cases resulted in non-energetic transients demonstrating that IP energetics is highly unlikely with the JSFR design. (author)

2009-01-01

280

CAMS: Computerized Accident Management Support  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The OECD Halden Reactor Project has initiated a new research programme on computerised accident management support, the so-called CAMS project (CAMS = Computerized Accident Management Support). This work will investigate the possibilities for developing systems which provide more extensive support to the control room staff and technical support centre than the existing SPDS (Safety Parameter Display System) type of systems. The CAMS project will utilize available simulator codes and the capabilities of computerized tools to assist the plant staff during the various accident stages including: identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident, and planning accident mitigation strategies. This research programme aims at establishing a prototype system which can be used for experimental testing of the concept and serve as a tool for training and education in accident management. The CAMS prototype should provide support to the staff when the plant is in a normal state, in a disturbance sate, and in an accident state. Even though better support in an accident state is the main goal of the project, it is felt to be important that the staff is familiar with the use of the system during normal operation, when they utilize the system during transients

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Contributing factors to medial tibial stress syndrome: a prospective investigation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To conduct a prospective, multisite, cohort study investigating the possible risk factors for medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) in college athletes. METHODS: One hundred and forty-six healthy, collegiate athletes from NCAA Division I and Division II institutions participated in the study. Subjects first completed a health history questionnaire to establish previous history of injury and underwent a physical examination to assess their ankle/foot strength, ankle/foot range of motion, tibial varum, and navicular drop before the start of their respective athletic season. Athletes were instructed to report to a certified athletic trainer if they developed pain on their tibia. If MTSS was present, subjects were then placed into the symptomatic group. Independent t-tests and chi-square analyses were used to determine whether differences existed between MTSS and healthy athletes for the continuous and the discrete dependent variables, respectively. The significant dependent variables were then used in the discriminant function analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-nine subjects developed MTSS during this study. Athletes that had been participating in athletic activity for fewer than 5 yr were significantly more likely to develop MTSS (P = 0.002). Additionally, athletes with a previous history of MTSS (P = 0.0001), a previous history of stress fracture (P = 0.039), and the use of orthotics (P = 0.031) were more likely to develop MTSS compared with those who did not develop MTSS. CONCLUSION: This study established that the factors most influencing MTSS development were previous history of MTSS and stress fracture, years of running experience, and orthotic use. These data demonstrate the importance of establishing a thorough history before the start of the season so that athletes who might be at risk for MTSS development can be identified.

Hubbard TJ; Carpenter EM; Cordova ML

2009-03-01

282

Investigating Effective Factors on Development of Tourism Industry in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since long times ago, depending on petroleum and its products has been the most important challenge in Iran's economy. Therefore reducing the role of that and substituting it with other industries is one of the principal purposes of Iran's economic projects. Among these substituting industries, tourism is the most important one. Because of creating many job opportunities ,entering lots of foreign exchange and has the minimum environmental pollution .However in Iran does not given priority to tourism industry as it deserves, so Iran which is the 5th attractive country in the world, in 2009 was place 137th ranking of the countries in terms of attracting tourists. Therefore, it seems absolutely necessary to take tourism industry into consideration more seriously.The goal of this study is investigating the effective factors on tourism industry in Iran, the mentioned goal will be accomplished by variable factors such as advertisement and informing people, tourist's safety and security, reducing tourism expense, increasing welfare services and its quality, increasing foreign investment and expanding foreign relation as research hypothesis. The type of article is descriptive-cognitive and the related information for this scope has been collected by using library resources and moreover for collecting necessary data in order to accept or reject the research hypothesis a questionnaire made by researchers has been used. Statistical society for this research includes the managers of tourism agencies in Isfahan city and the method being used has been random sampling. All the variables have positive effect on tourism industry in Iran.

Seyed Fathollah Amiri Aghdaie; Ramin Momeni

2011-01-01

283

Effects of accident management strategy on the severe accident environmental conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a methodology utilizing an accident management strategy in order to determine accident environmental conditions to be used as inputs to equipment survivability assessments. In the case that there is a well-established accident management strategy for a specific nuclear power plant (NPP), an application of this tool can provide a technical rationale on equipment survivability assessment so that plant-specific and time-dependent accident environmental conditions could be practically and realistically defined in accordance with the equipment and instrumentation required for the accident management strategy or appropriate actions. For this work, three different tools are introduced; probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) outcomes, major accident management strategy actions, and accident environmental stages (AESs). In order to quantitatively investigate an applicability of accident management strategy on equipment survivability, the accident simulation for most likely scenario in Korean standard nuclear power plants (KSNPs) is performed with the MAAP4 code. The accident management guideline (AMG) actions such as the reactor coolant system (RCS) depressurization, water injection into the RCS, the containment pressure and temperature control, and hydrogen concentration control in containment are applied. The effects of these AMG actions on the accident environmental conditions are investigated by comparison to actions from previous normal accident simulation, especially focusing on equipment survivability assessment. As a result, the AMG-involved case shows the higher accident consequences along the accident environmental stages. This implies that plant-specific AMG actions need to be considered in order to determine accident environmental conditions in equipment survivability assessments.

2006-01-01

284

Human error risk management for engineering systems: a methodology for design, safety assessment, accident investigation and training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to tackle methodological issues associated with the inclusion of cognitive and dynamic considerations into Human Reliability methods. A methodology called Human Error Risk Management for Engineering Systems is presented that offers a 'roadmap' for selecting and consistently applying Human Factors approaches in different areas of application and contains also a 'body' of possible methods and techniques of its own. Two types of possible application are discussed to demonstrate practical applications of the methodology. Specific attention is dedicated to the issue of data collection and definition from specific field assessment.

2004-01-01

285

Toxicological findings in fatally injured pilots of 979 amateur-built aircraft accidents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Specimens from aviation accident pilot fatalities are submitted to the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for toxicological analyses. Trends of fatal amateur-built aircraft accidents and toxicological findings in the associated pilot fatalities have not been examined. METHODS: Fatal amateur-built aircraft accidents that occurred during 1990-2009 were evaluated by retrieving information from the CAMI toxicology database. Probable cause/factor in the amateur-built aircraft mishaps were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB's) aviation accident database. RESULTS: Of 6309 fatal aviation accidents from which CAMI received postmortem samples, 979 (16%) were related to amateur-built aircraft. There was a decreasing trend in non-amateur-built aircraft accidents, but an increasing trend in amateur-built aircraft accidents. In the 979 accidents, 392 pilots (40%) were positive for ethanol and/or drugs. In these 392 accidents also, the review showed a decreasing trend with non-amateur-built aircraft and an increasing trend with amateur-built aircraft. Percentages of pilots with prescription drugs were 26% for amateur-built aircraft, 16% for non-amateur-built aircraft, and 18% for all aircraft. Ethanol/drug use and medical condition were determined to be a cause/factor in 42 (11%) of the 385 ethanol/ drug-positive amateur-built aircraft accidents investigated by the NTSB. DISCUSSION: Drugs found in the pilots were consistent with commonly used medications in the general population. The contributory role of mechanical malfunction of home-built aircraft cannot be ruled out in the observed increasing trends in their accidents, with or without ethanol and/or drugs. Regardless, the increasing trends of such accidents are of significant concern.

Chaturvedi AK; Craft KJ; Hickerson JS; Rogers PB; Soper JW

2013-02-01

286

The management of accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: This author’s experiences in investigating well over a hundred accident occurrences has led to questioning how such events can be managed - - - while immediately recognising that the idea of managing accidents is an oxymoron, we don’t want to manage them, we don’t want not to manage them, what we desire is not to have to manage not-them, that is, manage matters so they don’t happen and then we don’t have to manage the consequences.Design/methodology/approach: The research will begin by defining some common classes of accidents in manufacturing industry, with examples taken from cases investigated, and by working backwards (too late, of course) show how those involved could have managed these sample events so they didn’t happen, finishing with the question whether any of that can be applied to other situations.Findings: As shown that the management actions needed to prevent accidents are control of design and application of technology, and control and integration of people.Research limitations/implications: This paper has shown in some of the examples provided, management actions have been know to lead to accidents being committed by others, lower in the organization.Originality/value: Today’s management activities involve, generally, the use of technology in many forms, varying from simple tools (such as knives) to the use of heavy equipment, electric power, and explosives. Against these we commit, in control of those items, the comparatively frail human mind and body, which, again generally, does succeed in controlling these resources, with (another generality) by appropriate management. However, sometimes the control slips and an accident occurs.

R. B. Ward

2009-01-01

287

Noise and accidents - a review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review examines the evidence for a possible relationship between accidents and noise in industry. Five previous studies have indicated that high noise levels may be associated with higher accident rates and therefore provide suggestive but not conclusive evidence that noise is a contributory factor in the causation of accidents. The possible mechanisms of such an effect include the role of noise in causing a lack of attention and the masking of important auditory signals such as warning shouts, sirens and machinery sounds wich indicate impending danger. In addition, the effects of a noise-induced hearing loss and the need to wear personal hearing protection to counter the noise could contribute indirectly to accidents by interfering with auditory communications. It is concluded that the possible link between noise and industrial accidents further emphasises the need for reducing noise in industry and that this should be achieved wherever possible by means of noise control.

Wilkins, P.A.; Acton, W.I.

1982-01-01

288

Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra, confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course, and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method, the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisandra under different heating temperature, decocting time, soaking time, processing methods and treatment with different solvents before decocting the Schisandra were measured by RP-HPLC method. The results showed that there is great difference of 5-HMF level in decoctions from differently processed Schisandra and unprocessed Schisandra; decocting time of 60 min has some effects on 5-HMF level in decoctions and there is certain quantity 5-HMF in processed Schisandra itself and very little 5-HMF in unprocessed Schisandra. Heating time, heating temperature and treating solvents all have effect on 5-HMF level in decoction of Schisandra. 5-HMF in Schisandra was mainly from processing course. Both long heating time and high heating temperature can increase 5-HMF level in Schisandra. The production of 5-HMF in Schisandra may have some relationships with some polar components, which can dissolve in water, ethanol and acetone, especially in ethanol. To control processing temperature, processing time and treatment with some solvent is very important for controlling 5-HMF level in Schisandra. PMID:17565516

Xu, Qing; Li, Ying-Hua; Lü, Xiu-Yang

2007-06-01

289

Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra *  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra, confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course, and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method, the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisandra under different heating temperature, decocting time, soaking time, processing methods and treatment with different solvents before decocting the Schisandra were measured by RP-HPLC method. The results showed that there is great difference of 5-HMF level in decoctions from differently processed Schisandra and unprocessed Schisandra; decocting time of 60 min has some effects on 5-HMF level in decoctions and there is certain quantity 5-HMF in processed Schisandra itself and very little 5-HMF in unprocessed Schisandra. Heating time, heating temperature and treating solvents all have effect on 5-HMF level in decoction of Schisandra. 5-HMF in Schisandra was mainly from processing course. Both long heating time and high heating temperature can increase 5-HMF level in Schisandra. The production of 5-HMF in Schisandra may have some relationships with some polar components, which can dissolve in water, ethanol and acetone, especially in ethanol. To control processing temperature, processing time and treatment with some solvent is very important for controlling 5-HMF level in Schisandra.

Xu, Qing; Li, Ying-hua; Lu, Xiu-yang

2007-01-01

290

Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra, confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course, and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method, the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisandra under different heating temperature, decocting time, soaking time, processing methods and treatment with different solvents before decocting the Schisandra were measured by RP-HPLC method. The results showed that there is great difference of 5-HMF level in decoctions from differently processed Schisandra and unprocessed Schisandra; decocting time of 60 min has some effects on 5-HMF level in decoctions and there is certain quantity 5-HMF in processed Schisandra itself and very little 5-HMF in unprocessed Schisandra. Heating time, heating temperature and treating solvents all have effect on 5-HMF level in decoction of Schisandra. 5-HMF in Schisandra was mainly from processing course. Both long heating time and high heating temperature can increase 5-HMF level in Schisandra. The production of 5-HMF in Schisandra may have some relationships with some polar components, which can dissolve in water, ethanol and acetone, especially in ethanol. To control processing temperature, processing time and treatment with some solvent is very important for controlling 5-HMF level in Schisandra.

Xu Q; Li YH; Lü XY

2007-06-01

291

Tchernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given.

1986-01-01

292

Consequences of radioactive releases into the sea resulting from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant - Evolution of expert investigation according to the data available  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 led to an unprecedented direct input of artificial radioactivity into the marine environment. The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety was requested by the French authorities to investigate the radioecologic...

Laguionie, Philippe; Bailly-du-bois, Pascal; Boust, D.; Fievet, B.; Garreau, Pierre; Connan, O.; Charmasson, Sabine

293

Investigation into the aging, or service life, respectively, of electrical equipment of the safety system and accident management instrumentation in nuclear power plant as related to operating conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The goal of this project was to research ageing of electric and electronic components used in safety systems of nuclear power plants. The contribution of different stress factors to ageing degradation and the role of preventive measures to mitigate such effects had to be evaluated to maintain plant safety during the designed life. Of most interest was accident-testing of naturally and artifically agend equipment. Components or functions susceptible to ageing are identified. Finally, recommendations for monitoring ageing degradation of such components are provided. (orig.)[de] Ziel des Vorhabens war es, das Alterungsverhalten elektrischer und elektronischer Komponenten aus sicherheitstechnisch wichtigen Systemen von Kernkraftwerken zu untersuchen. Die Bedeutung einzelner Stressparameter fuer den Alterungsprozess sowie Art und Umfang moeglicher Vorsorgemassnahmen waren zu klaeren, um das Sicherheitsniveau ueber die projektierte Lebensdauer erhalten zu koennen. Einen Schwerpunkt innerhalb des Vorhabens bildeten Tests unter Stoerfallbedingungen mit natuerlichen und kuenstlich gealterten Komponenten. Der Bericht identifiziert alterungsempfindliche Komponenten oder Komponentenfunktionen und enthaelt Vorschlaege zur Ueberwachung von Problembereichen. (orig.)

1993-01-01

294

Correspondence for disaster and demolitional accident in welding process; Yosetsu deno saigai to hakai jiko eno taio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measures to be taken are considered in case of accidents during the welding process, with reference taken to a labor accident and a cracked welded joint. In an accident, very prompt communication, accident scene conservation, prompt reporting of the progress of investigation, etc., are mandatory. The causes of accidents may be divided into those attributable to operating persons` erroneous acts, those involving the welding equipment, and those for which the work management is responsible. In the investigation of an accident, a technical knowhow-seconded answer from one who is familiar with the accident site is the good answer more often than not. The basic attitude to be assumed toward a crack accident should be based absolutely on the purely technical judgment delivered by the order-placing party. Whether the accident details are to be made known to the public, is dependent upon the fiduciary relationship between the manufacturer and purchaser. Accidents are in many cases caused by multiple factors, which are generally classed into the error in operating the product, design error, use of improper materials, error in the working process, and erroneous inspection. In a case a crack-abundant weld between a very thick cast steel element and a steel plate, inspection was conducted into the materials for the amounts of phosphorus, sulfur, carbon, etc., tensile strength, and Shore hardness. 4 figs.

Nakamura, H.

1996-07-01

295

Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at the time of the accident. A case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity score, 3-dimensional reconstructions of the PMCT, and an injury pattern analysis. We describe how, on basis of these data, we reached a conclusion about which of the two victims was the most likely to have been in control of the airplane at the time of accident. Furthermore, we argue that all victims of fatal airplane crashes should be subject to forensic autopsy, including PMCT and forensic chemical analysis. The continuous accumulation of knowledge about injury patterns from "simple" accidents is the foundation for the correct analysis of "difficult" accidents.

Høyer CB; Nielsen TS; Nagel LL; Uhrenholt L; Boel LW

2012-06-01

296

Clinical investigation of risk factors in ectopic pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective ?To discuss the relative and independent risk factors in ectopic pregnancy. Methods ?The clinical data of 870 patients with ectopic pregnancy, admitted from 2005 to 2012, were retrospectively analyzed, with 800 cases of normal pregnancy serving as control. Monofactorial correlation analysis was used to analyze the related risk factor, and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the independent risk factor. Results ?Pelvic adhesion, previous operation, cesarean section delivery, number of pregnancy, artificial abortion, medical abortion, in vitrofertilization and embryo replacement (IVF-ER), and placement of intrauterine device (IUD) are the risk factors of ectopic pregnancy, pelvic adhesion, artificial abortion, operation, number of pregnancies and IUD are the independent risk factors, and pelvic adhesion is the major risk factor. Conclusion ?Avoidance of unexpected pregnancy as possible, reduction of the number of artificial abortion, prevention and treatment of genital duct inflammation, and standardization of pelvic operation may reduce the incidence of ectopic pregnancy.

Ling-yun HU; Wei-yi ZHANG; Li-an LI; Ke HUANG; Ya-li LI

2013-01-01

297

How to reduce the number of accidents  

CERN Multimedia

Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

2012-01-01

298

Injury severities of truck drivers in single- and multi-vehicle accidents on rural highways.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In adverse driving conditions, such as inclement weather and/or complex terrain, trucks are often involved in single-vehicle (SV) accidents in addition to multi-vehicle (MV) accidents. Ten-year accident data involving trucks on rural highway from the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) is studied to investigate the difference in driver-injury severity between SV and MV accidents by using mixed logit models. Injury severity from SV and MV accidents involving trucks on rural highways is modeled separately and their respective critical risk factors such as driver, vehicle, temporal, roadway, environmental and accident characteristics are evaluated. It is found that there exists substantial difference between the impacts from a variety of variables on the driver-injury severity in MV and SV accidents. By conducting the injury severity study for MV and SV accidents involving trucks separately, some new or more comprehensive observations, which have not been covered in the existing studies can be made. Estimation findings indicate that the snow road surface and light traffic indicators will be better modeled as random parameters in SV and MV models respectively. As a result, the complex interactions of various variables and the nature of truck-driver injury are able to be disclosed in a better way. Based on the improved understanding on the injury severity of truck drivers from truck-involved accidents, it is expected that more rational and effective injury prevention strategy may be developed for truck drivers under different driving conditions in the future.

Chen F; Chen S

2011-09-01

299

Investigation of a coagulation accelerating factor (CAF) in glomerulonephritis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A coagulation accelerating factor was purified from the plasma of two patients with glomerulonephritis (GN) who suffered from thrombotic complications. The factor co-purified with factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex (FVIII/vWf) and under dissociating conditions remained associated with the factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII). Control purified FVIII/vWf showed no coagulation accelerating activity under the experimental conditions used. The levels of coagulation accelerating factor, FVIII and von Willebrand factor (vWf) were reduced by incubation with rabbit anti-human FVIII/vWf or human anti-FVIII serum indicating a close association of these three activities. Multimeric analysis of the plasma FVIII/vWf complex from the two patients demonstrated a reduction in the high molecular weight multimers and the presence of an additional band not present on analysis of normal FVIII/vWf. It is suggested that the coagulation accelerating factor represents an active form of FVIII which has different in vitro properties to thrombin activated FVIII.

Salem HH; Howard MA; Koutts J; Firkin BG

1985-03-01

300

Car Sales: Investigation into Factors Determining Consumer Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article examines customer behaviour in general and discusses factors determining customer behaviour in car industry. The paper describes a concept of consumer behaviour and the importance of factors influencing the situation. Empirical study about factors determining car industry in consumer-made decisions is carried out. In addition, statistical factor analysis is performed. The key sets of factors helping the user with choosing a new car are iden­tified and analysed at the level of the groups of factors (factor). The conducted analysis shows that car price, ergonomics, image, dynamic and user-friendliness as well as environmental groups are the main points that assist in buying a new car.Article in LithuanianStraipsnyje nagrin?jama vartotoj? elgsenos ir veiksni?, lemian?i? j? sprendimus lengv?j? automobili? sektoriuje, problema. Aprašyta vartotoj? elgsenos samprata ir veiksni? reikšm? formuojant vartotoj? elges?. Atliktas veiksni?, lemian­?i? lengv?j? automobili? sektoriaus vartotoj? sprendimus, empirinis tyrimas. Atlikta faktorin? statistini? duomen? analiz?. Remiantis empirinio tyrimo, skirto nustatyti svarbiausias veiksni? grupes, lemian?ias vartotojo apsisprendim? pirkti nauj? automobil?, veiksni? grupi? (faktorin?s) analiz?s rezultatais, galima teigti, kad automobilio kaina, ergonomiškumas, ?vaizdis, dinamika ir draugiškumas vartotojui bei aplinkai yra pagrindin?s veiksni? grup?s, lemian?ios vartotojo apsisprendim? pirkti nauj? automobil?.Straipsnis lietuvi? kalba

Aurelija Samoškien?

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Study of the Severity of Accidents in Tehran Using Statistical Modeling and Data Mining Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractBackgrounds and Aims: The Tehran province was subject to the second highest incidence of fatalities due to traffic accidents in 1390. Most studies in this field examine rural traffic accidents, but this study is based on the use of logit models and artificial neural networks to evaluate the factors that affect the severity of accidents within the city of Tehran.Materials and Methods: Among the various types of crashes, head-on collisions are specified as the most serious type, which is investigated in this study with the use of Tehran’s accident data. In the modeling process, the severity of the accident is the dependent variable and defined as a binary covariate, which are non-injury accidents and injury accidents. The independent variables are parameters such as the characteristics of the driver, time of the accident, traffic and environmental characteristics. In addition to the prediction accuracy comparison of the two models, the elasticity of the logit model is compared with a sensitivity analysis of the neural network.Results: The results show that the proposed model provides a good estimate of an accident's severity. The explanatory variables that have been determined to be significant in the final models are the driver’s gender, age and education, along with negligence of the traffic rules, inappropriate acceleration, deviation to the left, type of vehicle, pavement conditions, time of the crash and street width.Conclusion: An artificial neural network model can be useful as a statistical model in the analysis of factors that affect the severity of accidents. According to the results, human errors and illiteracy of drivers increase the severity of crashes, and therefore, educating drivers is the main strategy that will reduce accident severity in Iran. Special attention should be given to a driver’s age group, with particular care taken when they are very young.

Hesamaldin Razi; Mohammadreza Ahadi

2013-01-01

302

THE EFFECT OF THE ECONOMIC CYCLE ON WORKPLACE ACCIDENTS IN SIX EUROPEAN COUNTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the economic cycle on workplace accidents. In particular, the effect of some major factors of the economic cycle (unemployment, output per capita and unit labor cost) on fatal and non-fatal injuries is examined in six European countries (Finland, Italy, France, Switzerland, Austria and Germany). Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis are applied, considering relevant data of the selected countries, over the period 1990-2005. The analysis indicates a counter-cyclical behavior of workplace accidents. Output per capita is the only parameter whose impact is statistically significant in all cases. The different effect of the examined factors on workplace accidents and the inter-relations between these factors indicate that an economic model of the workplace is required, if the impact of the economic cycle on workplace accidents is to be studied thoroughly.

Anna Maria MOUZA; Antonis TARGOUTZIDIS

2010-01-01

303

Numerical investigation of the reactor pressure vessel behaviour under severe accident conditions taking into account the combined processes of the vessel creep and the molten pool natural convection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analysis of the WWER lower head behaviour and its failure has been performed for several molten pool structures and internal overpressure levels in a reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The different types of the molten pools (homogeneous, conventionally homogeneous, conventionally stratified, stratified) cover the bounding scenarios during a hypothetical severe accident. The parametric investigations of the failure mode and RPV behaviour for various molten pool types, its heights and internal overpressure levels are presented herein. A coupled treatment in this investigation includes: (i) a 2-D thermohydraulic analysis of a molten pool natural convection. Domestic NARAUFEM code has been used in this detailed analysis for prediction of the heat flux from the molten pool to the RPV inner surface; and (ii) a detailed 3-D transient thermal analysis of the RPV lower head. Domestic 3-D ASHTER-VVR finite element code has been used for the numerical simulations of the high temperature creep and failure of the lower head. The effect of an external RPV cooling, temperature-dependent physical properties of the molten pool and vessel steel, the hydrostatic forces and vessel dead-weight were taken into account in this study. The obtained results show that lower head failure occurs as a result of the vessel creep process which is significantly dependent on both an internal overpressure level and the type of molten pool structure. In particular, it was found that there were combinations of 'overpressure-molten pool structure' when the vessel failure started at the 'hot' layers of the vessel. (orig.)

Loktionov, V.D.; Mukhtarov, E.S.; Yaroshenko, N.I.; Orlov, V.E. [Elektrogorsk Res. and Eng. Centre on NPP Safety, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1999-07-01

304

Long term reduction of Caesium and Strontium transfer factors from soil in foodstuff and dynamics of internal doses for a russian population after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The model of the formation of the internal doses for the population living on the territory contaminated after the Chernobyl accident is described. Model parameters were obtained on the base of natural measurements results implemented in the different terms after the accident. The data on the caesium radionuclides content in the bodies of the inhabitants measurements were priority for the internal exposure dose estimation. In the case of the absence of such information, the results of the radionuclides content in the food products analysis or the data on the soil types prevailing in the areas of settlements, were used for the calculations. The data were obtained during 1986-2001 as a result of monitoring of contaminated areas in Russia that considerably differ in their soil and climate conditions, the levels of 137Cs and 90Sr surface activity on soil and types of countermeasures applied. A summary of effective half-lives (T1/2) of 137Cs and 90Sr aggregated transfer factors (Tag) from soil into agricultural and natural products observed after the Chernobyl fallout is given. The short term decrease of 137Cs Tag from soil into milk and beef during two months after fallout were observed - T1/2 varied from 13 d to 36 d in depend on the part of dry and wet fallout. The studies between autumn 1986 and 1991 suggest a decrease in the 137Cs Tag with T1/2/2 =1-2 years. From 5-6 years after deposition onwards T1/2/2 of 137Cs and 90Sr Tag's in the range of 8 to 21 years were observed. Effective half-lives of 137Cs Tag's for foods from semi-natural ecosystems (mushrooms, berries, game, fish) are longer (up to tens years). On at least for some natural products the decrease seems to be only to radioactive decay. Comparison of the data on the dynamics of 137Cs content in agricultural and natural food products indicates that the contribution of the latter in the internal dose of population grows with each year after fallout, and can reach in the remote period up to 70 %. The influence of the actually applied measures for radiation protection of the population living in different zones of radioactively contaminated territories was taken into account. The results of the internal exposure doses estimations for the population in the different terms after the accident in condition of the countermeasures absence are given for a comparison. On the most contaminated territories these doses could exceeded actual in 5-7 times.

2002-01-01

305

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was also computed and it was about 0.66, which is above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.5. The study uses Scree plot to determine important factors and there are eight factors including environmental issues, export supportive issues, potentials for export, business plan, export plan, structural barriers, competition capability and strategy.

Hoda Nosouzi; Naser Azad; Abdollah Naami

2013-01-01

306

An empirical investigation on factors influencing sales force  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today's competitive business environment, consumers are exposed to make their choice from different alternatives. Customer loyalty has never been an easy task and many business owners may lose their customer as soon as new products appear on the market. This paper presents a study to find important factors influencing on sales force using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire and distributed among 180 customers of a well-known food chain named Shahrvand in different regions in city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 156 filled ones. The questionnaire consists of 68 questions Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.847, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of our survey indicate that five major factors including.

Naser Azad; Ozhan Karimi; Azadeh Salman Tabar

2013-01-01

307

Occupational accidents in Greek Armed Forces in Evros County.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors for occupational accidents and the relationship between perceived and actual risk of occupational accidents in Greek soldiers. METHOD: A case-control study was conducted of military personnel in Evros county in Greece. Cases (n = 250) were defined as enlisted personnel having had an accident at work and the control series (n = 300) comprised of a simple random sample, stratified by age from the army population. RESULTS: Conscripted soldiers (OR = 3.8, 2.21 to 6.58, p < 0.001) and professional soldiers (OR = 2.2, 1.28-3.75, p = 0.004) had higher frequency of occurrence of accidents in comparison to army officers. The degree of risk perception due to electrical hazards (OR = 2.8, 1.81-4.18, p < 0.001), lighting (OR = 2.6, 1.74-3.97, p < 0.001), falls (OR = 2.9, 1.61-5.13, p < 0.001) and inadequate safety signs (OR = 3.3, 1.99-5.49, p < 0.001) were associated with increased occurrence of accident. Regression analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between the accident and the age, time of service in the present unit, specialty, level of education, years of service and the overall military training. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the increased likelihood of occupational accidents among military personnel with lower rank and lower level of education, less working experience (fewer years of service) and less military training (conscripted and professional soldiers). The existence of occupational accidents in the workplace, civilian or military, creates the need for the adoption of policies for the protection of workers and the organization of occupational preventive services.

Malliarou M; Sourtzi P; Galanis P; Constantinidis TC; Velonakis E

2012-12-01

308

Acidentes e violências na infância e adolescência: fatores de risco e de proteção/ Accidents and violence in childhood and adolescence: risk and protective factors/ Accidentes y violencias en la infancia y adolescencia: factores de riesgo y de protección  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Apontada pelas estatísticas como a terceira causa de mortalidade em nosso país, as causas externas (acidentes e violências) ocasionam um grande impacto com repercussão econômica, social e emocional. Conhecer os fatores relacionados a este evento torna-se essencial, pois possibilita identificar e quebrar a teia que determina a morbimortalidade por causas externas. O estudo busca analisar as publicações existentes sobre os fatores associados aos acidentes e violênci (more) as, a fim de proporcionar subsídios teóricos para os profissionais em suas práticas. Trata-se de estudo bibliográfico nas bases de dados Lilacs, Medline e Scielo. O conhecimento dos fatores de risco e proteção discutidos ao longo deste texto possibilita subsidiar a prática dos atores sociais engajados na transformação das condições geradoras de acidentes e violências. Abstract in spanish Señalada por las estadísticas como la tercera causa de mortalidad en nuestro país las causas externas (accidentes y violencias) producen un gran impacto en el ámbito económico, social y emocional. Conocer los factores relacionados con ese fenómeno se torna esencial, para que puedan ser identificadas las causas y quebrada la secuencia que determina la morbimortalidad por causas externas. En el presente estudio se realizó una búsqueda de las publicaciones existentes (more) sobre los factores asociados a los accidentes y violencias, con la finalidad de ofrecer subsidios teóricos para las prácticas de los profesionales. Se trata de un estudio bibliográfico según las bases de datos Lilacs, Medline y Scielo. El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo y protección discutidos a lo largo de este texto permite auxiliar la práctica de los actores sociales comprometidos en la transformación de las condiciones que generan accidentes y violencias. Abstract in english Singled out by statistics as the third leading cause of mortality in our country, external causes (accidents and violence) entail a great impact with economic, social and emotional rebound. Knowing the factors related to the event is essential, because it allows identifying and breaking the web that determines morbidity and mortality from external causes. The study aims to analyze the existing publications on the factors associated with accidents and violence, in order to (more) provide theoretical support for professionals in their practices. This is a bibliographical study of the Liliacs, Medline and Scielo databanks. The knowledge of the risk and protection factors discussed in the present study enables subsidize the practice of social actors engaged in transforming the conditions that lead to accidents and violence.

Martins, Christine Baccarat de Godoy

2013-08-01

309

Investigating power factor compensation capacity calculation in medium sized industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are a variety of techniques developed in order to improve the efficiency of electrical systems and reduce cost of providing electricity to the consumer. This paper presents a new technique for power-factor capacity calculation in medium-sized industrial/ commercial setups. Various loads of similar nominal power-factor are categorized and demand-factor of loads is so selected that it has engineering justifications. The developed system works on the principle of low-voltage power-factor correction, which substantially reduces electricity bill and increases loading-capacity of the electrical system. It allows commercial and industrial consumers to save on their power cost appreciably. This work utilizes software, which takes few inputs and produces numerous useful results. Adoption of this system can help the user in computing compensation-capacity, system KVA (size of transformer) and cost of compensation. A feature of this system is prediction of low PF penalty. Moreover, it also suggests the tentative payback period. (author)

2008-01-01

310

Investigating Human Factors in Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Manufacturing industries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to present the work carried out in a European Commission-funded project to adapt an existing Aircraft Maintenance Human Factors (HF) training program (STAMINA) to the Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Manufacturing industries (BPM). The STAMINA approach has been successful...

CORRIGAN, SIOBHAN

311

An investigation of the risk factors causing severe injuries in crashes involving gravel trucks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Gravel trucks that transport heavy materials such as gravel, sand, dirt, or crushed rock require great skill and attention for safe driving, especially when they carry excessive loads or drive at unwarranted speeds that tend to cause serious accidents. Very few studies in the past have attempted to examine the effect of risk factors on the severity of injury associated with gravel truck crashes. This study intends to assess the impact of risk factors on the severity of injury associated with gravel truck crashes. METHODS: Factors that contribute to 2 severity levels of fatalities or injuries and property damage only were examined by using the binary logit model. This article also estimates the effects of risk factors on various types of crashes involving gravel trucks; for example, head-on, angle, sideswipe, and rear-end. RESULTS: Some factors associated with lack of driver awareness, geometric improvements to roads or intersections, and the desire to achieve higher salaries by making more runs in a day were found to have a significant effect on causing severe injuries in gravel truck accidents. CONCLUSIONS: Some policy recommendations to prevent gravel truck-involved crashes that resulted in serious injuries include mandating gravel truck operators and companies to strictly enforce the maximum legal driving hours and improve the wage system of a low pay base and high-bonus by runs, in addition to a required driver training program, mandating gravel truck drivers to attend a traffic safety program for the education and awareness of risky driving behaviors--for example, overloading, speeding, and prolonged driving--before obtaining a professional driver's license.

Chu HC

2012-01-01

312

Factores predisponentes y repercusión del accidente hipoglucémico en embarazadas diabéticas pre-gestacionales bajo tratamiento insulínico intensivo Predisposing factors and impact of the hypoglycaemic accident on pregnant women with pregestational diabetes under intensive insulin treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analizar los factores que predisponen al accidente hipoglucémico durante el embarazo en diabéticas pre-gestacionales y su repercusión materna y perinatal. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron retrospectivamente 175 embarazadas diabéticas pre-gestacionales (73 B, 22 C, 66 D, 4 F, 1 H, 5 R, y 4 F-R) en el período 2001-2006, todas estuvieron sometidas a tratamiento dietético e insulínico y este último aplicado según el método descrito por los profesores Valdés Amador y Márquez Guillén. Los resultados maternos y perinatales se analizan comparativamente entre las que sufrieron del accidente y las que no, para lo cual utilizamos el test X² de Fisher con un significado de pOBJECTIVE: to analyze the factors predisposing the hypoglycaemic accident during pregnancy in pregestational diabetic women and its maternal and perinatal repercussion. METHODS: 175 pregnant women affected by pregestational diabetes (73 B, 22 C, 66 D, 4 F, 1 H, 5 R, y 4 F-R) were retrospectively studied from 2001 to 2006. All of them were under dietetic and insulin treatment. The latter was applied by the method described by professors Valdés Amador and Márquez Guillén. The maternal and perinatal results were comparatively analyzed among those who suffered the accident and those who did not, for which we used Fisher's chi square test with a significance of p< 0.05. RESULTS: a hypoglycaemic accident was detected in 78 patients (44.6 %). It was mild in 54 (30.9 %) and severe in 24 (13.7 %). Hypoglycaemia was more significantly frequent in type-1 diabetic women aged 25 or under, nuliparous, with low or normal body weight and with some grade of vascular lesion. No impact was detected on perinatal morbimortality, and no congenital anomalies were observed as a result of the complication. CONCLUSIONS: type-1 diabetic women with some grade of vascular lesion and with low or normal body weight are proner to the accident due very probably to the reported loss of counterregulatory hormonal reaction.

Amador Lemay Valdés; Magdalena Copello Veublen; Osvaldo Santana Bacallao; Bertha Rodríguez Anzardo; Jacinto Lang Prieto; Blanca Elena Herrera; Antonio Santurio Gil

2008-01-01

313

Qualitative Investigation of Object Oriented Frameworks Key Success Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software developers consider object-oriented frameworks as one of the most promising software development tools. Their use can shorten development time and improve productivity as well as quality of developed software. The number and the technological maturity of frameworks achieved a level, which provides to developers a reliable development environment. However, still many frameworks fail, and so do many framework based software development projects. This article presents basic knowledge needed for understanding success of frameworks and addresses key factors which impact their success. The main outcomes of the research described in the article are technological and sociological factors, for which we presume that positively influence developers’ attitude toward using frameworks and thus their success. The results of our exploratory study could help software practitioners and researchers in developing more successful frameworks and with evaluation of existing frameworks as presented in the practical application of the article’s findings.

Gregor Polan; Andrej Krajnc; Marjan Heri ko

2011-01-01

314

Variation in transfer factor of radiocaesium in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in clear cut and mature forest sites after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bank voles that were collected between 1986 and 2004 at sites in Chernobyl fallout areas of northern Sweden showed higher 137Cs activity concentrations at the mature forest sites compared to clear cuts. This difference was not attributed to differences in ground deposition between sites but to differences in aggregated transfer rates to voles. Differences in transfer between forest types were evident for all years 1986-2004 but the change occurred at different rates in the two habitats. The apparent transfer factor between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and voles was positively related and indicated that a biomagnification was about 1.5 from vegetation to these small mammalian herbivores. The aggregated transfer factor to bank voles measured in the forest habitat, although starting at higher levels declined faster with time than clear cut sites and the differences between the forest habitat and the clear cut areas diminished with time. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the mean level in bank vole was 514 Bq/kg fresh mass (SD = 505) that increased to 1485 Bq/kg (SD = 881) in 1988. The activity concentration declined thereafter. The bank voles collected in similar habitats in 2004 contained on average 1022 Bq/kg (SD = 723). Still 18 years after the radionuclide fallout over Sweden high activity concentrations in voles could be found.

2007-01-01

315

Variation in transfer factor of radiocaesium in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in clear cut and mature forest sites after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bank voles that were collected between 1986 and 2004 at sites in Chernobyl fallout areas of northern Sweden showed higher {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations at the mature forest sites compared to clear cuts. This difference was not attributed to differences in ground deposition between sites but to differences in aggregated transfer rates to voles. Differences in transfer between forest types were evident for all years 1986-2004 but the change occurred at different rates in the two habitats. The apparent transfer factor between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and voles was positively related and indicated that a biomagnification was about 1.5 from vegetation to these small mammalian herbivores. The aggregated transfer factor to bank voles measured in the forest habitat, although starting at higher levels declined faster with time than clear cut sites and the differences between the forest habitat and the clear cut areas diminished with time. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the mean level in bank vole was 514 Bq/kg fresh mass (SD = 505) that increased to 1485 Bq/kg (SD = 881) in 1988. The activity concentration declined thereafter. The bank voles collected in similar habitats in 2004 contained on average 1022 Bq/kg (SD = 723). Still 18 years after the radionuclide fallout over Sweden high activity concentrations in voles could be found.

Palo, Thomas R. [Mid-Sweden University, Department of Natural Sciences, Holmgatan 10, 85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)]. E-mail: thomas.palo@miun.se

2007-07-01

316

Experimental investigation of Small-Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accidents and Loss-Of Feedwater transient at IIST facility with passive core cooling injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two experiments of Small-Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accidents (SBLOCA) and one experiment for total Loss-Of-Feedwater transient (LOFW) have been conducted at INER Integral System Test (IIST) facility by using Passive Core Cooling System (PCCS). IIST PCCS includes three Core Makeup Tanks (CMT) and four valves for Automatic Depressurized System (ADS). These experiments not only explored the thermal-hydraulic behavior of IIST PCCS, such as CMT thermal stratification after CMT actuation and asymmetric CMT inventory during top-down drain, but also showed IIST PCCS with the capability to maintain long term core cooling during the above mentioned accidents. (author)

1999-01-01

317

Causes of the JCO criticality accident and lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Japan's first civil nuclear accident involving fatalities occurred on 30 September 1999 at the Tokai-mura uranium processing plant operated by JCO Co. Ltd. Following the accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) set up an Accident Investigation Committee to identify the causes of the accident and examine the measures required to prevent a recurrence. Based on the NSC report, this paper discusses the accident causes, problems regarding technical responses and lessons learned. (author)

1999-09-30

318

An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials). We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique study different hypotheses. All t-student values are statistically meaningful when the level of significance is ten percent and some of the parameters are even meaningful when the level of significance is five percent. The results indicate that the rate of bank deposit is negatively associated with commodity market growth rate (-.001995), US dollar exchange rate (-0.004167), banking industry growth rate (-0.278826) and moving average (-0.940418). In addition, dependent variable is positively associated with Euro exchange growth rate (0.005676).

Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee; Zahra Houshmand Neghabi

2013-01-01

319

An Investigation of Work Culture and Social Factors influencing it  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research examines work culture and social factors influencing it among employees of Islamic Azad University, the largest private organization in Iran. First, it has been tried to determine a rate for work culture and then relationships between work culture and participatory management, organizational justice, job satisfaction, and demographic variables have been examined. Research method is cross-sectional survey; research population is all personnel of the Islamic Azad Universities in three provinces: Fars, Boushehr and Kohkiloye-Boyerahmad. Overall, 481 subjects were selected by means of simple random sampling. Measurement tool is questionnaire, which includes four scales. Construct validity was obtained through factor analysis; Reliability test was also performed by means of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Research findings indicate that work culture is on average among subjects. Also, there are significant relationships between work culture and participatory management, organizational justice, job satisfaction, age and years of employment. Using regression analysis, it appears that of all independent variables, job satisfaction and years of employment are strongest predictors of work culture. Taken together, they explain 18% of the variance of work culture.

Siroos Ahmadi

2012-01-01

320

Exploratory investigation of factors affecting dietetic workforce satisfaction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aim: The purpose of the present study was to explore factors cited by metropolitan dietitians as being critical to their workforce satisfaction in the literature and a previous study. Methods: Twenty dietitians from three metropolitan hospitals in Brisbane, Australia, were recruited by convenience sample to participate in seven focus group sessions. Group discussion transcriptions were thematically analysed by two independent researchers. Results: Participants identified career progression, professional development, resource availability, team and physical environment, reward and recognition as impacting upon their satisfaction. Overwhelmingly, they identified the availability of flexitime arrangements as symbolising workplace flexibility, which was considered the most influential of satisfaction factors. Intangible forms of reward and recognition were also desired and highly valued. Conclusions: Workplace satisfaction among this sample of metropolitan dietitians is multifactorial. Increasing perceived flexibility in work hours may increase satisfaction. Provision of intangible reward and recognition is likely to be well accepted. Future research should involve another survey of a representative sample of practitioners and managers, with the view to developing practical initiatives to improve satisfaction and maintain service delivery.

CODY S; FERGUSON M; DESBROW B

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

Special Study, Train Accidents Attributed to the 'Negligence of Employees'.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report identifies and ranks the leading causes of train accidents attributed to the negligence of employees for the period 1961-1970. Analyses of the leading accident causes are performed to explore contributory factors such as rules, rule enforcement...

1972-01-01

322

[Factor Xa inhibitor (rivaroxaban and drugs under investigation)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The first factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban had been released on market, and apixaban and edoxaban are preparing for clinical use in patients with atrial fibrillation. These newer antithrombotic agents are attractive for prevention of thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation because of their favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles that seems to be better than that of direct thrombin inhibitor. The reports of rivaroxaban and apixaban have been showed noninferiority or superiority in their efficacy endpoints and also in safety endpoints even on fixed dose regimen without anticoagulation monitoring. There may be still present an important issue that we have to pay attention to find appropriate doses for the patients with renal impairment, aged or low body weight.

Atarashi H

2013-01-01

323

Investigation of risk factors and characteristics of dance injuries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for the occurrence of sport injuries in dancers related to anthropometric variables, training, and specific dance characteristics. DESIGN: One-year, retrospective, cross-sectional study. SETTING: 26th Dance Festival of Joinville (Brazil), 2008. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred dancers (409 women and 91 men) with a mean age of 18.26 ± 4.55 years. ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS: Dancers participating in the 26th Dance Festival of Joinville (Brazil) were interviewed using the Reported Condition Inquiry, which was previously validated and modified for dance. This questionnaire contains questions addressing the anthropometric data of the volunteers and characteristics of injuries that occurred in the past 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The data were collected through interviews addressing the occurrence of injuries and respective characteristics. Injury was considered any pain or musculoskeletal condition resulting from training and competition sufficient to alter the normal training routine in terms of form, duration, intensity, or frequency. RESULTS: A total of 377 injuries (75.40%) of the interviewees reported injuries in the past 12 months. The most affected anatomic segments were the ankle/foot (92 injuries; 28.75%) and thigh/leg (88 injuries; 27.50%) in classical ballet, the thigh/leg (43 injuries; 27.92%) in jazz/contemporary dance, and the knee (22 injuries; 43.14%) in tap/folk dance. The most reported causal mechanisms were dynamic overload and excessive use. CONCLUSIONS: Age and body weight were associated with injury in jazz/contemporary dance. Height was associated with injury in classical ballet and tap/folk dance. Duration of practice was associated with injury in classical ballet and jazz/contemporary dance.

Campoy FA; Coelho LR; Bastos FN; Netto Júnior J; Vanderlei LC; Monteiro HL; Padovani CR; Pastre CM

2011-11-01

324

Investigation of rations of food of population and content of cesium radionuclides in foodstuffs and organism of farmers in Bryansk region after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data on dynamic content of cesium radionuclide in different foodstuffs and in organism of mature inhabitants were presented. Right after Chernobyl accident content of 137Cs in organism correlated with consumption of milk and meet products. For some time past content of 137Cs in organism correlated with levels of consumption of natural foodstuffs (mushrooms, berries, fishes, wilderness)

1999-01-01

325

Development of a deformation and failure model for Zircaloy at high temperatures for light water reactor loss-of-coolant-accident investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe Zircaloy-4 deformation and failure behaviour at high temperatures (600 to 14000C), the phenomenological model NORA was developed and verified against numerous experimental results. The model can be applied to the calculation of fuel rod cladding deformation during small and large break loss-of-coolant-accidents. (orig./RW).

1982-01-01

326

Investigation of earthquake factor for optimum tuned mass dampers  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study the optimum parameters of tuned mass dampers (TMD) are investigated under earthquake excitations. An optimization strategy was carried out by using the Harmony Search (HS) algorithm. HS is a metaheuristic method which is inspired from the nature of musical performances. In addition to the HS algorithm, the results of the optimization objective are compared with the results of the other documented method and the corresponding results are eliminated. In that case, the best optimum results are obtained. During the optimization, the optimum TMD parameters were searched for single degree of freedom (SDOF) structure models with different periods. The optimization was done for different earthquakes separately and the results were compared.

Nigdeli, Sinan Melih; Bekda?, Gebrail

2012-09-01

327

Investigating the effective factors on the duration of breast feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: A balanced and proper diet is an essential factor in maintaining individual’s health. The improvement of feeding in different age groups, especially children, is considered a significant step in primary health care. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive and analytic study. A sample of 225 mothers whose babies were between 0-24 months and who were referred to selected centers were chosen, using random sampling. The tool was a questionnaire. To analyze the data, the descriptive statistical, frequency distribution charts, the mean and central tendency as well as inferential statistics (?2 test and Pearson correlation) were applied. Results: The findings of the research showed that there is a meaningful relation between variables of age, occupation, the method of the last delivery, inclination of mother to the breast feeding, age of fetus at the time of birth, hospitalization of the neonate, the time of first breast feeding after the childbirth, the quality of baby’s nutrition while he is hospitalized, the quality of the baby’s first nutrition, the time of starting aid-feeding, using the aid-milk and using the pacifier by the baby with the duration of breast feeding. Such a relationship was also found between husband’s idea about the breast feeding, examination of the breast during the pregnancy, teaching the advantages of the breast feeding and its correct method during the pregnancy, the place of the last childbirth, teaching the importance and the correct method of breast feeding after the childbirth, an encouraging and supporting husband concerning breast feeding, presence of the mother and the baby in a same-room after the childbirth, manner of arranging the intervals and times of the breast feeding, breast feeding during the night, renewed pregnancy and the duration of breast feeding in each session with the duration of breast feeding. Conclusion: According to the findings of the research, different factors affect duration of the breast feeding. Necessity of the midwife’s attempt to instruct mothers during pregnancy and after childbirth was affirmed. The necessity of instruction of the medical groups about breast feeding is also made clear more than before.

Jamshidi Evanaki; F. Golyan Tehrani; Sh. Babaie; Gh. Hadyan; T

2004-01-01

328

Investigation of Framingham Risk Factors in Turkish adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine 10-year risk for development of cardiovascular diseases usingFramingham risk scoring as a tool for the estimationof coronary risk and renew the blood lipid levels.Materials and methods: Samples from fasting 3169healthy donors declaring as having no cardiovasculardisease and diabetes (1800 women, mean age 46.8±9.2years) and 1369 men, mean age 46.03±8.4 years) weretested and scored according to risk factors in both genders.Results: When average values were considered, totalcholesterol level was higher (204±42 mg/dL) accordingto reactive insert reference values. High total kolesteroland low HDL-C levels were seen in 20% and 19.5% ofmen and 32.6% and 1.1% of women, respectively. Thenumber of participants having systolic blood pressure?130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure ? 85 mmHgwere 775 (24.5%) and the distribution of those valueswas 10.6 % in men and 13.9% in women. The mean 10-year cardiovascular disease risks were 9.4 % in men and4.6% in women among 3169 participants.Conclusion: A 10-year risk of coronary disease, in Turkishmales was 2-fold higher than in Turkish females. Useof Framingham study in clinical assessments maintains tobe a valid method in preventive approaches for developmentof cardiovascular diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(1): 42-49

Nilgün Tekke?in; Cumhur K?l?nç; Arda ?anl? Ökmen

2011-01-01

329

[Occupational accidents in Municipio Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela, 1979-1990. Determination of the frequency and risk factors which play a role in their production  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the period of 1979-1990 job-related injuries were studied in Maracaibo, Zulia state, in order to analyze frequencies and causes. This information was obtained from annual reports on job-related injuries Form Number 15-411 of the Venezuelan Institute of Social Security (IVSS) which has been implemented nationally since 1982. Accidents that caused loss of man-hours were considered; variables considered were: age, risk category, day of the week, work shift, month, type of accident, agent, type of lesion, mechanical cause, body part affected and type of the activity in which the company is involved. The results were expressed as absolute values (mean +/- SE) and relative values. The mean accidents/year was 1651 +/- 177.97, most of them occurring in the age groups of 20-29 years (368.8) and 30-39 years (359.8). The triannual mean rate was higher for the group of the non-serious accidents (50%). Tuesday was the day of higher accidental incidence (22%) in addition to the morning shift between 9 and 11 hours (55%). Manufacturing was the economic activity most affected (43%). The most common causative agents were materials, substances and radiations (35%). The use of defective tools were the most frequent causes of mechanical accidents (31%). Upper limbs (46%) and between the type of lesion contusions or/and bruises (53%). It was concluded that, although the number of workers and accidents slowly diminished, the accidents rate slightly increased.

Fernández-D'Pool J; Montero-Proaño G

1993-01-01

330

Accident information needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

1992-01-01

331

Accident information needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

1992-12-31

332

Investigations into the temperature-transient steam oxidation of Zircaloy 4 cladding material under hypothetical PWR-loss-of-coolant accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The temperature-transient steam oxidation has been investigated by exposure to steam of inductively heated tube sections under realistic and pessimistic assumptions about the hypothetical accident at temperatures up to 12000C and durations of 3 min or less. Thus, a variety of complete and partial LOCA-transients could be simulated in a simplified shape of their time-temperature sequences and evaluated with respect to the extent of oxidative attack. In principle, also under temperature-transient conditions, the oxygen uptake was determined mainly by temperature and time. In all cases and due to the reduced time-at-temperature, the extent of transient oxidation was lower than under comparable isothermal conditions. The agreement of calculated and experimental results was acceptable. Deviations from this kind of predictable LOCA oxidation behaviour were found in many cases during exposure of metallic or preoxidized material. Essentially, they are related to the phase transformations of the oxide and metal lattice during the temperature transients and to changes in the oxidation rate determining defect structure. Thus, anomalous effects, as higher or lower extent of oxidation, are observed. The gravimetric results are complemented by metallographic evaluations, which concentrate also on the local pattern of oxidative attack. (orig./HP)[de] Unter realistischen un pessimistischen Annahmen wurden ueber den hypothetischen Stoerfallablauf oxidationskinetische Experimente an induktiv beheizten Rohrabschnitten waehrend maximal 3 Minuten und bei maximal 12000C durchgefuehrt. Dabei konnte eine Vielzahl von KVS-Transienten in vereinfachter Form durchfahren und in bezug auf das Ausmass oxidativer Schaedigung ueberprueft werden. Im Prinzip ist auch unter transienten Bedingungen die Sauerstoffaufnahme durch die Parameter Temperatur und Zeit bestimmt. Aufgrund verminderter Zeit bei Reaktionstemperatur ist der Umfang der Oxidation niedriger als in vergleichbaren Faellen isothermer Exposition. Die Uebereinstimmung von Rechenwerten mit experimentellen Resultaten ist zufriedenstellend. Abweichungen von einem nach einfachen Zeitgesetzen zu berechnenden KVS-Oxidationsverhalten traten haeufig bei der Oxidation des metallischen und des vorkorrodierten Materials auf und sind im wesentlichen auf die im Zuge der Transienten durchlaufenen Phasenumwandlungen des oxidischen und metallischen Gitters zurueckzufuehren. Durch Aenderungen in der Gitter- und Defektstruktur kann eine Beschleunigung oder Verzoegerung (Anomalie-Effekte) der geschwindigkeitsbestimmenden Transportmechanismen auftreten. Die gravimetrischen Ergebnisse werden durch metallographischen Untersuchungen ergaenzt, die sich auch den lokalen Formen des oxidativen Angriffs zuwenden. (orig./HP)

1979-01-01

333

Investigating different factors influencing on return of private banks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Return of Investment has always been an interesting area of research among academics as well as investors. Although capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is capable of estimating risk of investment, many people argue that CAPM is not able to predict long-term return, properly. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effects of different financial figures including systematic risk (Beta), size of firm, ratio of book value to market share, volume of trade and the ratio of price/earnings (P/E) on return of private banks in Iran. The study gathers the necessary information over the period 2005-2011 from private banks in Iran. The study uses multiple regression technique to find the effects of mentioned variables on return of private banks. The results indicate that there are some meaningful and positive relationship between return of banks and systematic risk (Beta), size, volume of trade and P/E. The study also finds some meaningful and reverse relationship between bank return and book value on market value.

Pegah Motamedi

2013-01-01

334

Longterm reduction of ceasium-137 transfer factors from soil in agricultural and natural foodstuffs after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analysis of the data on dynamics of {sup 137}Cs content in the most critical (during different time periods after the radioactive fallout) links of the food chain that are necessary for assessing of the current internal doses in population, reconstruction and long-term forecast of these doses are presented. The data were obtained during 1986-2000 as a result of monitoring of contaminated areas in Russia that considerably differ in their soil conditions, the levels of {sup 137}Cs surface activity on soil and types of countermeasures applied. A summary of effective half-lives (T{sub 1/2}) of {sup 137}Cs aggregated transfer factors Tag from soil into agricultural and natural products observed after the Chernobyl fallout is given. (orig.)

Shutov, V.; Bruk, G.; Omarova, S.; Travnikova, I. [Research Inst. of Radiation Hygiene, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2001-07-01

335

Longterm reduction of ceasium-137 transfer factors from soil in agricultural and natural foodstuffs after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the data on dynamics of 137Cs content in the most critical (during different time periods after the radioactive fallout) links of the food chain that are necessary for assessing of the current internal doses in population, reconstruction and long-term forecast of these doses are presented. The data were obtained during 1986-2000 as a result of monitoring of contaminated areas in Russia that considerably differ in their soil conditions, the levels of 137Cs surface activity on soil and types of countermeasures applied. A summary of effective half-lives (T1/2) of 137Cs aggregated transfer factors Tag from soil into agricultural and natural products observed after the Chernobyl fallout is given. (orig.)

2001-01-01

336

Hull loss accident model for narrow body commercial aircraft  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accidents with narrow body aircraft were statistically evaluated covering six families of commercial aircraft includingBoeing B737, Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD80, Tupolev TU134/TU154 and Antonov AN124. A risk indicator for eachflight phase was developed based on motion characteristics, duration time, and the presence of adverse weather conditions.The estimated risk levels based on these risk indicators then developed from the risk indicator. Regression analysis indicatedvery good agreement between the estimated risk level and the accident ratio of hull loss cases per number of delivered aircraft.The effect of time on the hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft was assessed for B737, A320 and MD80. Equationsrepresenting the effect of time on hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were proposed for B737, A320, and MD80,while average values of hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were found for TU134, TU154, and AN 124. Accidentprobability equations were then developed for each family of aircraft that the probability of an aircraft in a hull loss accidentcould be estimated for any aircraft family, flight phase, presence of adverse weather factor, hour of day, day of week, monthof year, pilot age, and pilot flight hour experience. A simplified relationship between estimated hull loss accident probabilityand unsafe acts by human was proposed. Numerical investigation of the relationship between unsafe acts by human andfatality ratio suggested that the fatality ratio in hull loss accident was dominated primarily by the flight phase media.

Somchanok Tiabtiamrat; Supachok Wiriyacosol

2010-01-01

337

JAERI's activities in JCO accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was actively involved in a variety of technical supports and cooperative activities, such as advice on terminating the criticality condition, contamination checks of the residents and consultation services for the residents, as emergency response actions to the criticality accident at the uranium processing facility operated by the JCO Co. Ltd., which occurred on September 30, 1999. These activities were carried out in collaborative ways by the JAERI staff from the Tokai Research Establishment, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, and Headquarter Office in Tokyo. As well, the JAERI was engaged in the post-accident activities such as identification of accident causes, analyses of the criticality accident, and dose assessment of exposed residents, to support the Headquarter for Accident Countermeasures of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Control Committee of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). This report compiles the activities, that the JAERI has conducted to date, including the discussions on measures for terminating the criticality condition, evaluation of the fission number, radiation monitoring in the environment, dose assessment, analyses of criticality dynamics. (author)

2000-01-01

338

Recent development and results from severe accident research in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview on Japanese activities of severe accident research is presented, covering various fields and topics of experimental investigation on severe accident phenomena such as fuel damage and melt progression, fission products release and transport, and component and containment integrity. The current status of analytical investigation on severe accident is also described in the fields of the level-1 and level-2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) studies, code development and assessment activities. The basic considerations on accident management are summarized.

1992-01-01

339

Industrial accidents and their prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accident prevention is a task for all sections of the community; it should be part of the industrial process and not separated. It depends primarily on attitudes, communication and industrial relations. Money spent by management on safety is necessary, but it is not the only prerequisite. In the framework of workmen's compensation legislation where payment of lump sums for injury is the philosophy, the disability of the worker is the predominant factor. This is a negative attitude and early rehabilitation with the assessment of the worker's ability to perform is closely allied to accident prevention.

Fraser GM

1980-02-01

340

Fatores associados ao óbito de motociclistas nas ocorrências de trânsito/ Factors associated with the death of motorcyclists in traffic accidents/ Factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclista en accidentes de tránsito  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Para identificar fatores associados ao óbito em motociclistas envolvidos em ocorrências de trânsito, em Maringá-PR, foi realizado estudo retrospectivo incluindo os motociclistas envolvidos em acidentes no ano de 2004. As fontes de dados foram os registros da Polícia Militar, do SIATE e do Instituto Médico Legal. Foram realizadas análises bivariadas e regressão logística binária. Identificaram-se 2.362 motociclistas nos Boletins de Ocorrência e, destes, 1.743 ti (more) nham registros nos Relatórios de Atendimento do Socorrista. As vítimas fatais diferiram das demais quanto à faixa etária, ao local de residência, ao tempo de habilitação e as suas condições fisiológicas na cena da ocorrência. No modelo final permaneceram as seguintes variáveis: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulso e saturação de O2 no sangue. As condições fisiológicas das vítimas na cena do acidente se destacaram no modelo final e a ECGl superou o RTS na associação com óbito. Abstract in spanish Para identificar factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclistas involucrados en accidentes de tránsito, en Maringá-PR se realizó estudio retrospectivo incluyendo a los motociclistas involucrados en accidentes durante 2004. Datos recolectados de registros de Policía Militar, SIATE e Instituto Médico Legal. Se identificaron 2362 motociclistas en las Actas de Accidentes; de ellos, 1743 tenían registro en los Informes de Atención del Socorrista. Las víctimas fat (more) ales difirieron del resto en lo referente a faja etaria, lugar de residencia, tiempo de habilitación y condiciones fisiológicas en la escena del accidente. En el modelo final permanecen las variables: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulso y saturación de O2 en sangre. Las condiciones fisiológicas de las víctimas en la escena del accidente se destacan en el modelo final, y la ECGl superó al RTS en la asociación con fallecimiento. Abstract in english In order to identify the factors associated with death among motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents in Maringá - PR, a retrospective study was performed, including motorcyclists involved in accidents in the year 2004. Data were collected from the Military Police records, the Integrated System for Emergency Trauma Care (Sistema Integrado de Atendimento ao Trauma em Emergência -SIATE) and the Institute of Legal Medicine. Bivariate analyses and binary logistical regre (more) ssion were performed. A total of 2,362 motorcyclists were identified in the Police Reports, 1,743 of whom also had records in the Emergency Responders reports. Victims who succumbed to their injuries differed from victims who survived in terms of age, place of residence, time elapsed since obtaining a driver's license, and their physiological condition at the scene of the accident. The following variables were maintained in the final model: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulse, and blood oxygen saturation. The physiological conditions of the victims at the scene of the accidents were highlighted in the final model, with GCS surpassing RTS in regards to association with death.

Oliveira, Nelson Luiz Batista de; Sousa, Regina Marcia Cardoso de

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Road accidents caused by drivers falling asleep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

About 29600 Norwegian accident-involved drivers received a questionnaire about the last accident reported to their insurance company. About 9200 drivers (31%) returned the questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about sleep or fatigue as contributing factors to the accident. In addition, the drivers reported whether or not they had fallen asleep some time whilst driving. and what the consequences had been. Sleep or drowsiness was a contributing factor in 3.9% of all accidents, as reported by drivers who were at fault for the accident. This factor was strongly over-represented in night-time accidents (18.6%), in running-off-the-road accidents (8.3%), accidents after driving more than 150 km on one trip (8.1%), and personal injury accidents (7.3%). A logistic regression analysis showed that the following additional factors made significant and independent contributions to increasing the odds of sleep involvement in an accident: dry road, high speed limit, driving one's own car, not driving the car daily, high education, and few years of driving experience. More male than female drivers were involved in sleep-related accidents, but this seems largely to be explained by males driving relatively more than females on roads with high speed limits. A total of 10% of male drivers and 4% of females reported to have fallen asleep while driving during the last 12 months. A total of 4% of these events resulted in an accident. The most frequent consequence of falling asleep--amounting to more than 40% of the reported incidents--was crossing of the right edge-line before awaking, whereas crossing of the centreline was reported by 16%. Drivers' lack of awareness of important precursors of falling asleep--like highway hypnosis, driving without awareness, and similar phenomena--as well as a reluctance to discontinue driving despite feeling tired are pointed out as likely contributors to sleep-related accidents. More knowledge about the drivers' experiences immediately preceding such accidents may give a better background for implementing effective driver warning systems and other countermeasures.

Sagberg F

1999-11-01

342

SEVERE ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT TRAINING  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is (a) to define the International Atomic Energy Agency's role in the area of severe accident management training, (b) to briefly describe the status of representative severe accident analysis tools designed to support development and validation of accident management guidelines, and more recently, simulate the accident with sufficient accuracy to support the training of technical support and reactor operator staff, and (c) provide an overview of representative design-specific accident management guidelines and training. Since accident management and the development of accident management validation and training software is a rapidly evolving area, this paper is also intended to evolve as accident management guidelines and training programs are developed to meet different reactor design requirements and individual national requirements

1997-01-01

343

Hypothetical core disruptive accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The hypothetical core disruptive accident in an LMFBR is discussed under the following main headings: reactor dynamics; mechanical consequences; and post-accident heat removal. 79 references. (DCC)

1975-01-01

344

SAS3D investigations about the influence of the neutron streaming for the hypothetical loss of flow accident in SNR-300  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) accident neutron streaming causes additional neutron leakage from the core during core voiding. This leakage can be cut off after closure of the coolant channels due to fuel break-up. If this closure is not going together with axial fuel expansion or dispersal effects, such streaming cut-off can produce driving ramp rates for a short time period. This report summarizes the results of pessimistic SAS3D simulations which superimposed negative streaming reactivities due to core voiding and which were cut off node wise according to the transient fuel break-up propagation. The analyses started from the conservative ULOF bound case of the burnt Mark-Ia core of SNR-300. The integral effect of the neutron streaming in the initiating phase of the ULOF accident is shown to be rather small. In particular, there is no superposition of the streaming cut-off and the fuel-sodium interaction as positive driving mechanisms because of their different time scales. The mechanical energy determined with the nominal streaming worth distribution is 30 % below the bound case value of 98 MJ.

1982-01-01

345

Accident knowledge and emergency management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

1997-01-01

346

Accident knowledge and emergency management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

1997-03-01

347

The radiological accident in Cochabamba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In April 2002 an accident involving an industrial radiography source containing 192Ir occurred in Cochabamba, Bolivia, some 400 km from the capital, La Paz. A faulty radiography source container had been sent back to the headquarters of the company concerned in La Paz together with other equipment as cargo on a passenger bus. This gave rise to a potential for serious exposure for the bus passengers as well as for the company employees who were using and transporting the source. The Government of Bolivia requested the assistance of the IAEA under the terms of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The IAEA in response assembled and sent to Bolivia a team composed of senior radiation safety experts and radiation pathology experts from Brazil, the United Kingdom and the IAEA to investigate the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Government of Bolivia for the opportunity to report on this accident in order to disseminate the valuable lessons learned and help prevent similar accidents in the future

2004-01-01

348

The fungous infection of human organs by resistant melanin-synthesizing species is one of pathogenic factor and one of valid consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nature of melanin-containing components and sources of their appearance in bronchoalveolar washout by the accident liquidators at the Chernobyl NPP is studied. The appearance of mutant melanin containing fungal forms in the zones with increased radioactive contamination is conditioned by their adaptation to changed conditions of their existence. the conclusion is made that fungal infection of the mans organs through radio- and chemi-resistant melanin-synthesizing species at the background of radiation-induced weakening of immune reaction of the man's body is one of the most dangerous and real effects of the Chernobyl NPP accident

1997-01-01

349

Investigação de acidentes biológicos entre profissionais de saúde Investigación de accidentes biológicos entre los trabajadores de la salud Investigation of biological accidents among health care workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a principal categoria profissional exposta a risco biológico e os principais tipos de acidentes ocorridos entre trabalhadores da área de saúde, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. A partir da análise das fichas de notificação de acidentes biológicos dos 183 profissionais acidentados entre janeiro de 2005 e setembro de 2005, observamos que a categoria profissional mais exposta foi a dos auxiliares/técnicos de enfermagem (54,1%), seguida pela dos acadêmicos de medicina e odontologia (10,4%). A ocorrência de acidentes com materiais perfurocortantes foi relacionada à manipulação frequente desses objetos e ao comportamento dos profissionais que utilizam práticas que oferecem riscos de acidentes com agulhas, tais como o descarte inadequado de objetos perfurocortantes.El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las principales categorías profesional expuestas a riesgos biológicos y el principal tipo de accidentes producidos entre los profesionales del área de la salud en Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Del análisis de 183 archivos de los trabajadores que sufren accidentes con material biológico, de enero a septiembre de 2005, se observó que la categoría profesional más expuesta a sufrir accidentes fue el de los auxiliares de enfermería (54,1%), seguido por los estudiantes de odontología y medicina (10,4%). La de accidentes se relacionó con la manipulación frecuente de agujas, y con el comportamiento de los trabajadores, que mantienen prácticas que ofrecen riesgos, como la eliminación inadecuada de agujas.The aims of this study were to identify the major professional category exposed to biological risk and the principal type of accident occurred among health care workers in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Based on the analysis of 183 records filled out by the workers who suffered biohazardous accidents between January 2005 and September 2005, we found the nursing auxiliaries and technicians as the professional category more exposed to biohazardous accidents (54.1%), followed by undergraduate medical and dental students (10.4%). The occurence of acidents with piercing-cutting materials was related to frequent handling of these instruments, and to the behavior of workers who maintain practices providing risks of needlestick injuries, such as inappropriate disposal of piercing-cutting materials.

Juliana Azevedo da Silva; Vanessa Salete de Paula; Adilson José de Almeida; Livia Melo Villar

2009-01-01

350

Pilot error and its relationship with higher organizational levels: HFACS analysis of 523 accidents.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on Reason's model of human error, the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was developed as an analytical framework for the investigation of the role of human error in aviation accidents. However, there is little empirical work that formally describes numerically the relati...

Li, Wen-Chin; Harris, Don

351

Dome-shaped cover for tank vehicles for transport of hazardous materials. Investigations for the purpose of accident control; Domdeckel fuer Gefahrguttankfahrzeuge. Untersuchungen zur Unfallsicherheit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors present a valid and reproducible test for simulating the loads occurring during turnover accidents and for assessing the protective strength of dome-shaped tank covers. Test parameters are static pressure strength, shape stability after shock loads, resistance to hydrodynamic pressure shocks over 3 bar, and leaktightness. The test provides valid information but standardisation is indispensable. [Deutsch] Vorgestellt wird eine aussagefaehige, reproduzierbare Eignungspruefung, mit der die bei Umsturzunfaellen auftretende Belastung simuliert und neuentwickelte Domdeckelkonstruktionen hinsichtlich Erfuellung des Schutzziels beurteilt werden koennen. Geprueft wird hierbei die gesamte Konstruktion auf statische Druckfestigkeit, Formstabilitaet nach stossartiger Belastung, Festigkeit gegenueber hydrodynamischen Druckstoessen, die mit ueber 3 bar gemessen wurden, und auf Dichtheit. Die vorgestellte Eignungspruefung ist als Empfehlung zur Loesung der angefuehrten Sicherheitsprobelme zu werten, letztendlich ist hier aber der Normungsweg zu beschreiten. (orig.)

Feutlinske, K.; Poetzsch, M.; Wuersig, A. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

1998-11-01

352

Mapping patterns and characteristics of fatal road accidents in Israel  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper intends to provide a broad picture of traffic accidents in Israel by uncovering their patterns and determinants in order to answer an increasing need of designing preventive measures, addressing particular situations and targeting specific social groups with the ultimate objective of reducing the number of traffic fatalities and accidents. The analysis focuses on 1,793 fatal accidents occurred during the four-year period between 2003 and 2006, and applies data mining techniques with the objective of extracting from the data relevant information about accident patterns and major factors without a priori assumptions about the expected outcome of the study. Kohonen neural networks reveal five accident patterns: (i) single-vehicle accidents of young drivers; (ii) multiple-vehicle accidents between young drivers; (iii) accidents involving either motorcycles or bicycles; (iv) accidents where elderly pedestrians crossed in urban areas; (v) accidents where mostly young children and teenagers cross roads insmall villages. Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks indicate that demographic characteristics of both victims and drivers are the most relevant determinants, and other significant factors are the road conditions, the accident location in either urban or rural areas, the accident location in either sections or intersections, and the period of the day when the crash occurs.

Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria

2010-01-01

353

Road traffic accident: an emerging public health problem in assam.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In the northern states, there is hardly any scientific study except road traffic accidents (RTAs) statistics obtained by the Ministry of Home whereas the main way of transportation is by road. There is the increasing load of motor vehicles on the already dilapidated roadways which has resulted in the increasing trend of RTAs in Assam. OBJECTIVES: To find out the prevalence, probable epidemiological factors and morbidity and mortality pattern due to RTAs in Dibrugarh district. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Descriptive study was carried out in Dibrugarh district from September 1998 to August 1999 under the department of Community Medicine. The information was collected from Assam Medical College and Hospital and cross checked with the police report. A medical investigation including interview, clinical and radiological investigation was carried out; in case of fatality, post-mortem examination was examined in details. An on the spot investigation was carried out in accessible RTAs to collect the probable epidemiological factors. RESULTS: RTAs affected mainly the people of productive age group which were predominantly male. Majority of the RTAs were single vehicle accidents and half of the victims were passengers. Accident rate was maximum in twilight and winter season demanding high morbidity and mortality. Head and neck, U.limb and L.limb were commonly involved. CONCLUSION: RTAs is a major public health problem in Assam which needs more scientific study.

Bhuyan PJ; Ahmed F

2013-04-01

354

Severe Accident Research Program plan update  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In August 1989, the staff published NUREG-1365, ''Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan.'' Since 1989, significant progress has been made in severe accident research to warrant an update to NUREG-1365. The staff has prepared this SARP Plan Update to: (1) Identify those issues that have been closed or are near completion, (2) Describe the progress in our understanding of important severe accident phenomena, (3) Define the long-term research that is directed at improving our understanding of severe accident phenomena and developing improved methods for assessing core melt progression, direct containment heating, and fuel-coolant interactions, and (4) Reflect the growing emphasis in two additional areas--advanced light water reactors, and support for the assessment of criteria for containment performance during severe accidents. The report describes recent major accomplishments in understanding the underlying phenomena that can occur during a severe accident. These include Mark I liner failure, severe accident scaling methodology, source term issues, core-concrete interactions, hydrogen transport and combustion, TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project, and direct containment heating. The report also describes the major planned activities under the SARP over the next several years. These activities will focus on two phenomenological issues (core melt progression, and fuel-coolant interactions and debris coolability) that have significant uncertainties that impact our understanding and ability to predict severe accident phenomena and their effect on containment performance SARP will also focus on severe accident code development, assessment and validation. As the staff completes the research on severe accident issues that relate to current generation reactors, continued research will focus on efforts to independently evaluate the capability of new advanced light water reactor designs to withstand severe accidents

1992-01-01

355

How Enzymes Work: Investigating their specificity and susceptibility to environmental factors using Jell-O.  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity is a lab investigation in which students design and conduct experiments using pineapple juice containing the enzyme bromelain and its affect on the substrate gelatin found in Jell-O. The focus of student driven investigations are on enzyme specificity, activity and the impact of environmental factors on enzyme functioning.

Heather Netland, Jefferson High School, Alexandria, MN, based on the original activities from School Improvement in Maryland; "Pineapple/Jell-O Lab," Access Excellence Activities Exchange; "Enzyme Labs Using Jell-O" by Anne McDonald and Michael O'Hare, and AP & Regents Biology; "Lab 8: Pineapple Enzymes and Jell-O Molds" by Kim B. Foglia.

356

Integrating human factors and operational research in a multidisciplinary investigation of road maintenance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There has been limited collaboration between researchers in human factors and operational research disciplines, particularly in relation to work in complex, distributed systems. This study aimed to investigate work at the interface between human factors and operational research in the case example of road resurfacing work. Descriptive material on the factors affecting performance in road maintenance work was collected with support from a range of human factors-based methods and was used to inform operational research analyses. Investigation of the case example from a different perspective, for the supply of asphalt from a distribution centre to multiple work locations, gave a broader picture of the complexity and challenges for the improvement of road maintenance processes. Factors affecting performance in the road maintenance context have been assessed for their potential for further investigation using an integrated human factors and operational research approach. Relative strengths of the disciplines and a rationale for ongoing, collaborative work are described. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The paper provides evidence of the potential benefits of greater collaboration across human factors and operational research disciplines, using investigation of a case example in the complex, distributed system of road resurfacing.

Ryan B; Qu R; Schock A; Parry T

2011-05-01

357

Synthesis of radioactive accidents occurred at the Nuclear Studies Center of Saclay from 1973 to 1978 in laboratories using low activity sealed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each accident is analysed by the following method: all accidents are the logical of variations with respect to a stable previous situation. The analysis consists to draw up an inventory of these variations and search for links between them. Comparison between analysis of several accidents brings out accidents factors. Actual accidents are analyzed to determine these factors

358

Analysis of severe accident phenomenology and need for computerized accident management support  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the work presented in this paper is to enhance the understanding of selected phenomena related to the progression of a hypothetical severe accident in Nordic reactors. The knowledge gained in the studies will help the power utilities and the regulatory authorities in planning and execution of severe accident management. Further, the objective is to study the information needs (important parameters, measured data, etc.) in accident scenarios and to investigate how to design adequate computerized tools and information systems for assistance in accident management

1995-01-01

359

Factoring the human into safety: translating research into practice. Executive summary for Vol.1 - Benchmarking (RR 059/2002); Vol. 2 - Accident analyses (RR 060/2002): Vol.3 - Crew resource management (RR 061/2002)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) executive summary encompasses the summaries of three workpackages on factoring the human into safety and translating research into practice entitled 'Benchmarking human and organisational factors in offshore safety' (Vol 1), 'The development and evaluation of human factors accident and near miss reporting form for the offshore industry' (Vol 2), and 'Crew resource management training for offshore operations' (Vol 3). The project objectives were to develop practical programmes for the offshore oil and gas industries leading to a continued improvement in safety management, enhancement of the safety culture within the industry, and an improvement in the understanding of human organisation factors in safety.

Mearns, K.; Whitaker, S. (and others)

2003-07-01

360

Investigation of the functional brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene variant Val66MET in migraine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Experimental studies and investigations of the cerebrospinal fluid in migraineurs have suggested an involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in migraine pathophysiology. In a case-control study approach, the functional Val66MET polymorphism (rs6265) of the BDNF gene was investigated in 265 migraine patients and 153 controls. Genotype and allele frequencies did not differ between healthy subjects and migraineurs. A subgroup analysis for the occurrence of aura or clinical characteristics, including the number of attacks, did not reveal a positive association for the investigated polymorphism. Our data argue against a role of this well characterized BDNF gene variant as a risk factor in migraine.

Marziniak M; Herzog AL; Herzog A; Mössner R; Sommer C

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Radiation accidents and defence of population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Development of nuclear physics, the fundamental and the applied researches in the field of radioactive insured wide possibility for application of radionuclides and ionizing radiation source in the different fields of national economy. Application of radionuclides in chemical, metallurgical, food industry, in agriculture and etc. Fields provide a large economic profit. It's hard to apprise significance of ionizing radiation source using in medicine for diagnostics and treatment of different disease. Nuclear power engineering and nuclear industry are developing intensively. At same time nuclear power, ionizing radiation sources incur potential treat for surroundings and health of population. As even that stage of protective measure development: there is no possibility of that happening of radiation accidents. A radiation accident qualifies as loss of ionizing radiation sources direction, which provoked by disrepair equipment, natural calamity or other causes which could bring to unplanned irradiation of population or radioactive pollution of surroundings. At present some following typical cases connected with radiation accident have been chosen: Contentious using or keeping of ionizing radiation source with breach of established requires; Loss, theft of ionizing radiation sources or radiation plants, instruments; Leaving the sources of ionizing radiation in the holes; Refusal radiation technic exploited in industry, medicine, SRI and etc; Disrepair in nuclear transport means of conveyance; Crashes and accidents at NPP and at other enterprises of nuclear industry. The radiation accidents according to character, degree and scales have been divided into two groups: Radiation accidents not connected with NPP; Accidents in the nuclear engineering and industry; The radiation accidents not connected with NPP according their consequence divide into 5 groups; accidents which do not come to irradiation of personal, persons from population (more PN-permissible norm), don't pollute the industry environ and surroundings, don't do real danger of reirradiation and pollution but demand investigation of their origin; accidents as a result when personal and persons from population have gotten a doze of outward irradiation (over PN); accidents as a result when industry or surroundings have been polluted (over PN);.accidents, as a result of outward and inside irradiation of personal, persons from population (over NPP-norms of radiation safety). Volume and character of measures by foregoing radiation accidents and their consequence depend on groups and scale of accident. They include investigation of the accident reasons; realization the radiation control for estimation degree of ionizing radiation pressure to personal and individual persons from population; rendering medical help to victims; definition of surroundings pollution level; equipment, industrial and habitable places; prevention of further influence of ionizing radiation to population and spreading radionuclides in surroundings; elimination of disrepairs and liquidation of radiation accident source. Radiation accident in the nuclear engineering establishments and industry have been divided into accident and proper-crash. At present international organizations have divided a school of crashes and accidents at NPP. According to that scale 3 levels of accidents and 4 levels of crashes have been chosen. The accidents have been qualified: insignificant (1 level), middle difficulty (2 level), serious (3 level), but crashes - within the NPP (4 level), at the risk of surroundings (5 level), difficult (6 level), global (7 level). Character, volume and forms of measures by defence of population in the crashes at NPP depend on both the level of crash and the concrete radiation situation and stage of crash development. Those measures include: notification about crash; rendering medical help to victims, primary measures of personal and population defence (cover, iodine precautions, harmonisation of loading, guarantee of people with remedies of individual defence, sanitary treatment,

2002-01-01

362

Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J. [Dept. of Labor, Arlington, VA (United States)

1996-12-31

363

Vulnerability to accident of a mine - a system approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article the author attempts to develop a mathematical model to quantify the accident vulnerability of a mine on a simple scoring chart. Accident vulnerability is not the same as accident proneness, which is caused by negligence. If necessary precautions are taken an accident vulnerable mine may have no accidents - but for this the weak areas need to be known. Factors scored on in this system include: the geomechanics of the mine, including seam depth and characteristics, mining method, mechanisation; mine age; mine location; personnel training; safety systems; strata control; ventilation; ground water; old workings; and fire hazards. This model may be used to help improve safety standards at mines. 3 tabs.

Mitra, D.K. [Coal India Ltd., Calcutta (India). Safety and Rescue

1995-07-01

364

Radiological accident 'The Citadel' medical aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work exposes the medical actions carried out in the mitigation of the consequences of the accident and its main results. In a facility of storage of radioactive waste in Caracas, Venezuela, it was happened a radiological accident. This event caused radioactive contamination of the environment, as well as the irradiation and radioactive contamination of at least 10 people involved in the fact, in its majority children. Cuban institutions participated in response to the accident. Among the decisions adopted by the team of combined work Cuban-Venezuelan, we find the one of transferring affected people to Cuba, for their dosimetric and medical evaluation. Being designed a work strategy to develop the investigations to people affected by the radiological accident, in correspondence with the circumstances, magnitude and consequences of the accident. The obtained main results are: 100% presented affectations in its health, not associate directly to the accident, although the accident influenced in its psychological state. In 3 of studied people they were detected radioactive contamination with Cesium -137 with dose among 2.01 X 10-4 Sv up to 2.78 X 10-4 Sv. This accident demonstrated the necessity to have technical capacities to face these events and the importance of the international solidarity. (author)

2008-01-01

365

Updating outdated predictive accident models.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reliable predictive accident models (PAMs) (also referred to as safety performance functions (SPFs)) are essential to design and maintain safe road networks however, ongoing changes in road and vehicle design coupled with road safety initiatives, mean that these models can quickly become dated. Unfortunately, because the fitting of sophisticated PAMs including a wide range of explanatory variables is not a trivial task, available models tend to be based on data collected many years ago and seem unlikely to give reliable estimates of current accidents. Large, expensive studies to produce new models are likely to be, at best, only a temporary solution. This paper thus seeks to develop a practical and efficient methodology to allow currently available PAMs to be updated to give unbiased estimates of accident frequencies at any point in time. Two principal issues are examined: the extent to which the temporal transferability of predictive accident models varies with model complexity; and the practicality and efficiency of two alternative updating strategies. The models used to illustrate these issues are the suites of models developed for rural dual and single carriageway roads in the UK. These are widely used in several software packages in spite of being based on data collected during the 1980s and early 1990s. It was found that increased model complexity by no means ensures better temporal transferability and that calibration of the models using a scale factor can be a practical alternative to fitting new models.

Wood AG; Mountain LJ; Connors RD; Maher MJ; Ropkins K

2013-06-01

366

Relating aviation service difficulty reports to accident data for safety trend prediction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work explores the hypothesis that Service Difficulty Reports (SDR - primarily inspection reports) are related to Accident Incident Data System (AIDS - reports primarily compiled from National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigations). This work sought and found relations between equipment operability reported in the SDR and aviation safety reported in AIDS. Equipment is not the only factor in aviation accidents, but it is the factor reported in the SDR. Two approaches to risk analysis were used: (1) The conventional method, in which reporting frequencies are taken from a data base (SDR), and used with an aircraft reliability block diagram model of the critical systems to predict aircraft failure, and (2) Shape analysis that uses the magnitude and shape of the SDR distribution compared with the AIDS distribution to predict aircraft failure.

Fullwood, R.; Hall, R.; Martinez, G.; Uryasev, S.

1996-03-13

367

The Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl Unit 4 power plant on April 26, 1986 was the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power anywhere in the world. It has been reviewed by a number of international bodies and several independent countries as well. The most notable reviews have been conducted by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This paper reports that the accident was caused by a combination of design weaknesses, human errors, and fundamental management weaknesses. The soviet report provided to the international community downplays the contribution of the design to the accident. However, there were many weaknesses. Human errors contributed substantially to the accident. The accident occurred when the operating staff at Chernobyl was attempting an experiment to verify the ability of one of the stations's turbines to provide emergency electricity.