WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors accident investigation

  1. Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Fu; Faghih Roohi, Shahrzad; Hu, Xiu Ming; Xie, Min

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived. PMID:21571433

  2. Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? HFACS provides a systematic guideline in accident investigations. The hierarchal structure of HFACS forces investigators to seek out latent HOFs. ? Bayesian Network enhances the ability of the HFACS by allowing experts to quantify the degree of relationships among the HOFs. ? The fuzzy AHP helps to reduce the subjective biases by avoiding the need to give explicit probability values for the variables' states. - Abstract: This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived.

  3. Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yanfu, E-mail: isewy@nus.edu.sg [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore); Department of Safety Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Dong ying 257061 (China); Faghih Roohi, Shahrzad; Hu Xiuming; Xie Min [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} HFACS provides a systematic guideline in accident investigations. The hierarchal structure of HFACS forces investigators to seek out latent HOFs. {yields} Bayesian Network enhances the ability of the HFACS by allowing experts to quantify the degree of relationships among the HOFs. {yields} The fuzzy AHP helps to reduce the subjective biases by avoiding the need to give explicit probability values for the variables' states. - Abstract: This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived.

  4. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel

  5. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  6. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  7. Investigation of dominant factors for evaluation of sodium leak and fire accident consequences by sensitivity analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity analyses of sodium leak and fire art performed to identify the dominant factors for the accident consequences. The analyses with a multi-cell zone model code SPHINCS treat sodium spray and pool simultaneous combustion and heat-mass transfer behaviors in a large-scale two cells geometry. Atmospheric gas pressure increase and temperature increase of floor steel plate below the sodium pool are analyzed as the figures of merit to be directly focused on. The analyses clarify the important and dominant factors of the phenomena in the accident sequence quantitatively, resulting in the acquirement of the knowledge to conduct systematic code validation activity and to discuss the uncertainty in the safety evaluation results. (author)

  8. Safety-critical human factors issues derived from analysis of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident investigation reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011 had a large impact both in and outside Japan, and is not yet concluded. After Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s (TEPCO's) Fukushima accident, electric power suppliers have taken measures to respond in the event that the same state of emergency occurs - deploying mobile generators, temporary pumps and hoses, and training employees in the use of this equipment. However, it is not only the “hard” problems including the design of equipment, but the “soft” problems such as organization and safety culture that have been highlighted as key contributors in this accident. Although a number of organizations have undertaken factor analysis of the accident and proposed issues to be reviewed and measures to be taken, a systematic overview about electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture has not yet been undertaken. This study is based on three major reports: the report by the national Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (the Diet report), the report by the Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company (Government report), and the report by the non-government committee supported by the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation (Non-government report). From these reports, the sections relevant to electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture were extracted. These sections were arranged to correspond with the prerequisites for the ideal organization, and 30 issues to be reviewed by electric power suppliers were extracted using brainstorming methods. It is expected that the identified issues will become a reference for every organization concerned to work on preventive measures hereafter. (author)

  9. Accidents and human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his weak points, but also should make the best use of his strong points. (author)

  10. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  11. Investigating Prevalence of deaths from Traffic Accidents and Factors Associated with it in Yazd in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Soltani

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: This study findings provide useful information for setting priorities in order to prevent the traffic accidents injuries. In addition, appropriate intervention programs are necessary in order to prevent traffic accidents and their complications, as well as to minimize injuries in accordance with other relevant organizations.

  12. Accident investigation: keep asking "why?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletz, Trevor A

    2006-03-17

    Finding the causes of an accident or operating problem and deciding what actions to take to prevent it happening again is rather like dismantling a set of Russian dolls (Fig. 1). Each time we ask "why?" (or a similar searching question) we find another cause besides the ones we have found already and another action (or set of actions) we can take to prevent similar accidents occurring again. Many investigators stop too soon. This occurred at Flixborough, at Bhopal and in the investigation of many lesser-known accidents. We are more likely to find the deeper causes and the more original actions if groups of people with wide interests and experience are able to take part in the investigations or discuss the investigation reports. We should never look at an accident report as "closing out" a problem. As we read it, we should ask ourselves, "what else could be done?" PMID:16162391

  13. Multidisciplinary perspective on accident investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing complexity of many computer-controlled application processes is placing increasing demands on the investigation of adverse events. At the same time, there is a growing realisation that accident investigators must consider a wider range of contributory and contextual factors that help to shape human behaviour in the causes of safety-related incidents. A range of techniques have been developed to address these issues. For example (as we show in this paper), task modelling techniques have been extended from human computer interaction and systems design to analyse the causes and consequences of operator 'error'. Similarly, barrier analysis has been widely used to identify the way in which defences either protected or failed to protect a target system from potential hazards. Many barriers fail from common causes, including misconceptions that can be traced back to early stages in the development of a safety-critical system. For instance, unwarranted assumptions can be made about the impact of training on operator behaviour in emergency situations. Similarly, barrier analysis can also be used before a system has been designed to inform the system model and make it more tolerant to errors by incorporating human and technical barriers into the design. Task models often uncover deep-rooted problems, for instance, in workload allocation across many different aspects of an interactive control system. It can be difficult to use barrier and task analysis to trace these common causes that lie behind the failure of many different defences. In order to deal with this complex combination of contributory factors and systems, we promote the use of abstraction (via models) as a way of representing these components and their interrelations whether it is design, construction or investigation. We use, to formally model an abstraction of the system. Additionally, the system model (described using a dialect of high-level Petri-nets) allows to reason about the system and to check conformance with the other models (task model, safety case and barriers). This paper, therefore, shows how an analysis of safety case arguments can be used to support the application of barrier, task, error and system analysis during the investigation of a command and control failure. The intention, in this paper, is to show that if an accident involved the failure of multiple barriers, it is also possible to trace the common causes of those failures back to the assumptions and arguments that are embodied within a safety case. Many countries require that safety cases demonstrate a system is 'acceptably safe' before they grant regulatory approval. These documents and the associated analytical techniques, therefore, provide a rich source of information about why command and control failures occurred. We demonstrate our approach on a fatal mining accident case study

  14. Research investigation report on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was issued in February 2012 by Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation's Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, which consisted of six members from the private sector in independent positions and with no direct interest in the business of promoting nuclear power. Commission aimed to determine the truth behind the accident by clarifying the various problems and reveal systematic problems behind these issues so as to create a new starting point by identifying clear lessons learned. Report composed of four chapters; (1) progression of Fukushima accident and resulting damage (accident management after Fukushima accident, and effects and countermeasure of radioactive materials discharged into the environment), (2) response against Fukushima accident (emergency response of cabinet office against nuclear disaster, risk communication and on-site response against nuclear disaster), (3) analysis of historical and structural factors (technical philosophy of nuclear safety, problems of nuclear safety regulation of Fukushima accident, safety regulatory governance and social background of 'Safety Myth'), (4) Global Context (implication in nuclear security, Japan in nuclear safety regime, U.S.-Japan relations for response against Fukushima accident, lessons learned from Fukushima accident - aiming at creation of resilience). Report could identify causes of Fukushima accident and factors related to resulting damages, show the realities behind failure to prevent the spread of damage, and analyze the overall structural and historical background behind the accidents. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Analytical HFACS for investigating human errors in shipping accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Metin; Cebi, Selcuk

    2009-01-01

    Despite the innovative trends in marine technology and the implementation of safety-related regulations, shipping accidents are still a leading concern for global maritime interests. Ensuring the consistency of shipping accident investigation reports is recognized as a significant goal in order to clearly identify the root causes of these accidents. Hence, the goal of this paper is to generate an analytical Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), based on a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP), in order to identify the role of human errors in shipping accidents. Integration of FAHP improves the HFACS framework by providing an analytical foundation and group decision-making ability in order to ensure quantitative assessment of shipping accidents. PMID:19114139

  16. Psychological factors of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

  17. The Tchernobyl enigma or: the human factors in severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the analysis of many documents published after the Tchernobyl accident, we attempt to distinguish the main human factors aspects in severe accidents that come out, and the causes the most frequently quoted to ''explain'' it. But the Tchernobyl accident keeps its ''enigmatic'' feature, like any other accident. The need to make a deeper investigation concerning safety leads to look for various research paths that go beyond the usual normative positions, based on a too much mechanistic model of man. It is to the functioning of groups in work situations that we suggest to devote part of the research and thinking effort. We attempt to show briefly how two theories, the theory of ''groupthink'' and the theory of ''trade defensive ideologies'', can throw a light on the problem of human factors in nuclear power plants

  18. 14 CFR 420.59 - Launch site accident investigation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...participating in an investigation of a launch accident for launches launched from the launch site; (2) Require the licensee to cooperate...Board (NTSB) investigations of a launch accident for launches launched from the launch site. (f) Applicability of other...

  19. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics.Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  20. Independent accident investigation: a modern safety tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, safety has been subjected to a fragmented approach. In the past, every department has had its own responsibility towards safety, focusing either on working conditions, internal safety, external safety, rescue and emergency, public order or security. They each issued policy documents, which in their time were leading statements for elaboration and regulation. They also addressed safety issues with tools of various nature, often specifically developed within their domain. Due to a series of major accidents and disasters, the focus of attention is shifting from complying with quantitative risk standards towards intervention in primary operational processes, coping with systemic deficiencies and a more integrated assessment of safety in its societal context. In The Netherlands recognition of the importance of independent investigations has led to an expansion of this philosophy from the transport sector to other sectors. The philosophy now covers transport, industry, defense, natural disaster, environment and health and other major occurrences such as explosions, fires, and collapse of buildings or structures. In 2003 a multi-sector covering law will establish an independent safety board in The Netherlands. At a European level, mandatory investigation agencies are recognized as indispensable safety instruments for aviation, railways and the maritime sector, for which EU Directives are in place or being progressed [Transport accident and incident investigation in the European Union, European Transport Safety Council, ISBN 90-76024-10-3, Brussel, 2001]. Due to a series of major events, attention has been drawn to the consequences of disasters, highlighting the involvement of rescue and emergency services. They also have become subjected to investigative efforts, which in return, puts demands on investigation methodology. This paper comments on an evolutionary development in safety thinking and of safety boards, highlighting some consequences for strategic perspectives in a further development of independent accident investigation

  1. An Analysis of Construction Accident Factors Based on Bayesian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Zhao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have an analysis of construction accident factors based on bayesian network. Firstly, accidents cases are analyzed to build Fault Tree method, which is available to find all the factors causing the accidents, then qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes the factors with Bayesian network method, finally determines the safety management program to guide the safety operations. The results of this study show that bad condition of geological environment has the largest posterior probability; therefore, it is the sensitive factor that might cause the objects striking accidents, so we should pay more attention to the geological environment when preventing accidents.

  2. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and four accident investigation commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokyo Electric Power Co. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused discharge of a large amount of radioactive materials into the atmosphere and outflow of contaminated water into the ocean by reactor core melt (meltdown) and harsh accident accompanied by a hydrogen explosion (severe accident). At reviewing a future nuclear power policy, it was extremely important to investigate this accident for inspection of cause investigation and correspondence, and further analyze the background of the accident. For this purpose, accident investigation commission was established in national Diet, government, private enterprise, Tokyo Electric Power Co. This report summarized outlines of these four accident investigation reports that were already announced and compared about main points at issue such as direct cause of accident, measures before accidents (against earthquake, tsunami and severe accident), correspondence at the time of accident (inside nuclear power plant emergency response and residents' evacuation), and proposals and problems. Four reports clarified deficiency, clumsiness and a lot of problems to be improved for preventive measures of a enterprise and the government (administration) against accidents, accident correspondence, disaster prevention and others. In other words, four reports were placed with the starting point to solve these concrete problems steadily. (T. Tanaka)

  3. An Analysis of Construction Accident Factors Based on Bayesian Network

    OpenAIRE

    Yunsheng Zhao; Jinyong Pei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have an analysis of construction accident factors based on bayesian network. Firstly, accidents cases are analyzed to build Fault Tree method, which is available to find all the factors causing the accidents, then qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes the factors with Bayesian network method, finally determines the safety management program to guide the safety operations. The results of this study show that bad condition of geological environment has the largest posterio...

  4. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, J.; Rollenhagen, C.

    2012-01-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors associated with automobile accidents and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Sok; Kim, Hyung Jin; Son, Bongsoo

    2006-09-01

    This paper develops an econometric model for vehicles' inherent mortality rate and estimates the probability of accidents and survival in the United States. Logistic regression model is used to estimate probability of survival, and censored regression model is used to estimate probability of accidents. The estimation results indicated that the probability of accident and survival are influenced by the physical characteristics of the vehicles involved in the accident, and by the characteristics of the driver and the occupants. Using restrain system and riding in heavy vehicle increased the survival rate. Middle-aged drivers are less susceptible to involve in an accident, and surprisingly, female drivers are more likely to have an accident than male drivers. Riding in powerful vehicles (high horsepower) and driving late night increase the probability of accident. Overall, the driving behavior and characteristics of vehicle does matter and affects the probabilities of having a fatal accident for different types of vehicles. PMID:16696930

  6. Understanding accident investigators : a study of the required skills and behaviours for effective UK inspectors of accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Flaherty, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    In the UK, accidents associated with maritime, aviation and rail transport are conducted by the Inspectors of Accidents at the Marine, Air and Rail Accident Investigation Branches. A review of current academic literature provides little insight into the qualities and attributes essential for the role of accident investigator. A wealth of material exists about accidents themselves but as yet, a study into the profile of the accident investigator has not been conducted. This research soug...

  7. Students’ driving behaviour as a risk factor of road accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zografakis-Sfakianakis M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRoad accidents are considered to be a public health problem since they have been massively adverse consequences in demography. Since there is a human loss, especially of young people, the problem should be investigated extensively. The driving behaviour (either alone or in combination with other factors is the most important cause of road accidents for 80-90%.Purpose Investigating students’ driving behaviour (culture of a technological educational institute and how positively or negatively they take actions, preventing themselves of accidents.Material and Method400 questionnaires were supplemented. The questionnaire was consisted of 18 closed type questions, created by the research group using bibliographical sources. The data were analyzed using the x2 test, in all cases, statistical significant was considered the two-tailed P<0,05.Results A 21,7% of students has driven the previous 7 days having consumed alcohol while 57% has been passengers. Men’s alcohol consumption has showed increased infringement (93,3% in relation to women (6,7%. (x2=53,983; p <0,001. In other crucial provisions of road traffic regulation, violation was found which exceeds 50% (speeding, wrong lane driving, etc.. The highest percentage, without a safety belt or a helmet -never or and rarely - are male drivers (x2=12,074; P=0,017.It was found that a particularly large percentage of students (61% were involved in a traffic accident. From those, who have been involved in a traffic accident, as drivers (97 students, as guilty pleaded 26,8%, while non-guilty 73,2%. Statistically males were a high majority (x2=23,425; p <0,001. The traffic accident occurred during their student years in percentage of 47,5%. 18,8% of students have been transferred to hospital as a casualty of a traffic accident. ConclusionIt is confirmed once again that the concepts of 'dangerous driving behaviour" and "young" are compatible. Male students have increased risk behaviour, mainly as drivers. They also behave more dangerously during driving in relation to female, who behave significantly more maturely. Driving behaviour is a field which the academic community must consider taking specific actions in relation of primary health education either with printed or electronic information, or integrated seminars, or even by relevant film projections.

  8. Expert point of view on the investigations of large accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Frédéric; Pineau, Jean-Philippe

    1998-01-01

    Accidents are taken into account in risk assessment and shall be a basis for knowledge to be considered for improving the safety level at the design and operation stages in various industries and activities (transportation). Unfortunately, in many cases, detailed data are difficult to be accessed. Lessons learnt from French accidents in plants and transportation will be developed. In the detailed investigation of accidents, emphasis should be given on the need to consider product(s), process,...

  9. Investigation on the causes and consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even smccident was found to be similar or even smaller than that due to the car accidents in Japan. (M.N.)Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even s

  10. The application of the triboluminescence method for the investigation of air condensates, exhaled by children, affected by a complex of ecological factors after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of tribolumnescence for an integral estimation of the functional condition of the children's respiratory system affected by a complex of ecological factors after Chernobyl katastrophe was applied. The non-respiratory function of the lungs was investigated by analysing the air condensates exhaled by 36 children at the age of 7-15 years. It was found that the kinetic parameters of triboluminescence of the condensates exhaled by the children, living in ecologically unequal areas may be different. The changes of these parameters may be caused by the activisation of the free oxygen radicals of the condensate components due to the radiation factors discovered in the zones exposed to the irradiation after Chernobyl katastrophe

  11. Safety investigation of team performance in accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the capacities of the performance evaluation of teamwork (PET) method. Its practicability and efficiency are illustrated by retrospective human reliability analyse of the famous nuclear and maritime accidents. A quantitative assessment of operators' performance on the base of thermo-hydraulic (T/H) calculations and full-scope simulator data for set of NPP design basic accidents with WWER is demonstrated. The last data are obtained on the 'WWER-1000' full-scope simulator of Kozloduy NPP during the regular practical training of the operators' teams. An outlook on the 'evaluation system of main control room (MCR) operators' reliability' project, based on simulator data of operators' training is given

  12. A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Most workplace accidents that happen in enterprises are simple and seldom result in serious injuries. Very often these kinds of workplace accidents are not investigated, and if they are, then the investigation is very brief, with comments such as that it was the victim’s own fault or just an unfortunate situation which could not be helped. Most prevention analysis and investigation methods focus on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, etc. In the industrial world, such risks do give rise to disasters, albeit very seldom. Nevertheless, the fact is that simpler accidents normally caused by apparent banalities occur much more frequently and with a higher rate of fatalities, disablements and other serious injuries than the ostensibly most dangerous kinds of accidents. In 1999 a practical tool for use by safety officers was developed; this tool is based on the investigation methods applied in major accidents, but comprises a simpler and more user-friendly presentation. The tool involves three steps: Mapping the facts, analysing the events, and developing preventive solutions. Practical application of the tool has shown that it affords managers and workers a heightened insight into the cause of accidents, including those that seemed to be unavoidable, and that simple workplace accidents always have root causes on which preventive action can be focused. The problem is however that making a proper analysis is difficult and requires appropriate training, even in cases where the accidents seem to be very simple.

  13. A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Most workplace accidents that happen in enterprises are simple and seldom result in serious injuries. Very often these kinds of workplace accidents are not investigated, and if they are, then the investigation is very brief, with comments such as that it was the victim’s own fault or just an unfortunate situation which could not be helped. Most prevention analysis and investigation methods focus on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, etc. In the indus...

  14. A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Most workplace accidents that happen in enterprises are simple and seldom result in serious injuries. Very often these kinds of workplace accidents are not investigated, and if they are, then the investigation is very brief, with comments such as that it was the victim’s own fault or just an unfortunate situation which could not be helped. Most prevention analysis and investigation methods focus on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, etc. In the industrial wor...

  15. Investigating accidents involving aircraft manufactured from polymer composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    This thesis looks into the examination of polymer composite wreckage from the perspective of the aircraft accident investigator. It develops an understanding of the process of wreckage examination as well as identifying the potential for visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite aircraft wreckage. The in-field examination of aircraft wreckage, and subsequent interpretations of material failures, can be a significant part of an aircraft accident investigation. ...

  16. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident final report of the AESJ investigation committee

    CERN Document Server

    Atomic Energy Society of Japan

    2015-01-01

    The Magnitude 9 Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, followed by a massive tsunami struck  TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and triggered an unprecedented core melt/severe accident in Units 1 – 3. The radioactivity release led to the evacuation of local residents, many of whom still have not been able to return to their homes. As a group of nuclear experts, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to investigate and analyze the accident from scientific and technical perspectives for clarifying the underlying and fundamental causes, and to make recommendations. The results of the investigation by the AESJ Investigation Committee has been compiled herewith as the Final Report. Direct contributing factors of the catastrophic nuclear incident at Fukushima Daiichi NPP initiated by an unprecedented massive earthquake/ tsunami – inadequacies in tsunami measures, severe accident ma...

  17. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011. Method: The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States by estimating a generalized ordered logit model. Data for the analysis are retrie...

  18. Use of casual tree method for investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many methodologies used for investigation of accidents to facilitate the search of the factors that cause these events in different areas of industry. These can be called proactive methods, if they are used before the occurrence of the events, or reactive methods that are applied after the occurrence of the incident or accident, and are used as a basis of information to prevent further events. One of these methods is the Causal Tree Method (CTM). The basic idea of this technique is that incidents and accidents result from variations in usual processes. These variations can be related to the individual, the task, the material or the environment. The tree starts with the end event (incident or accident) and works backwards. The facts relating to the end event are used in the construction of the causal tree. The end event is the starting point and only the facts that contributed to the incident or accident should be selected. The analyst has to identify and list the variations and then display them in the analytic tree, showing causal relations. The objective of this paper is to test the application of the CTM method in investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials, in order to evaluate its efficiency on finding the typical factors causing these events. (author)

  19. Investigation on accident management measures for VVER-1000 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consequence of a total loss of AC power supply (station blackout) leading to unavailability of major active safety systems which could not perform their safety functions is that the safety criteria ensuring a secure operation of the nuclear power plant would be violated and a consequent core heat-up with possible core degradation would occur. Currently, a study which examines the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the plant during the early phase of the scenario is being performed. This paper focuses on the possibilities for delay or mitigation of the accident sequence to progress into a severe one by applying Accident Management Measures (AMM). The strategy 'Primary circuit depressurization' as a basic strategy, which is realized in the management of severe accidents is being investigated. By reducing the load over the vessel under severe accident conditions, prerequisites for maintaining the integrity of the primary circuit are being created. The time-margins for operators' intervention as key issues are being also assessed. The task is accomplished by applying the GRS thermal-hydraulic system code ATHLET. In addition, a comparative analysis of the accident progression for a station blackout event for both a reference German PWR and a reference VVER-1000, taking into account the plant specifics, is being performed. (authors)

  20. Risk management: Role of societal factors in major industrial accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses factors influencing the occurrence of major accidents in complex technological systems. Societal factors are identified as most significant in this context. Important types of societal factors are pin-pointed and discussed. The safety situation in the former Soviet Union and in today's Russian is described. The calamities at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and partly also Bhopal are discussed, and the role of societal factors identified. A main point of view is that it is not surprising that these catastrophes happened in the then existing conditions. What is surprising is that they did not happen earlier exclamation point

  1. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are investigating air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions. In this paper we present a program overview and highlight recent results of our investigations. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. We also describe the test facilities we use to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

  2. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

  3. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Influence of the critical accident seen to consciousness investigation of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here was introduced a consciousness investigation result carried out at Fukui prefecture and Osaka city after about two months of the JCO criticality accident. Peoples were disturbed by the accident, and not a little changed their individual estimations on items relating to energy. However, peoples lived in Fukui prefecture did not increase rate of opposition against nuclear energy promotion and nuclear power plant construction to their living area on comparison with a year before the accident. This reason might be understood by that the accident was not an accident of a nuclear power plant directly, and that their living area was much distant from place of the accident and was not suffered any danger. On the other hand, public opinion in Osaka city made worse on comparison with that before a year, and if such worse public opinion was thought to be due to the accident, its effect could be said to be different in each area even with no direct relation to the accident to shown a result dependent upon its various conditions. As a rough tendency on psychological disturbance due to the accident, it could be said that peoples became to have feelings of avoiding hard nuclear energy technology at a chance of the accident and to direct thoughts of soft natural energy and environment respect. (G.K.)

  4. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Accidents Caused by the Motorcycle Aspect in Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Aji Suraji; Ngudi Tjahjono

    2012-01-01

    Traffic safety should be given the highest priority in order to reduce accidents. It seems that motorcycles give the most contribution to accidents than other vehicles, especially in urban area. The accidents are caused by poor condition factors of the motorcycles. Therefore, it is important to know the motorcycle aspect as a base to implement an action program to reduce accident risks. The objectives of this research were to analyze motorcycle aspect on accident risks including tires, brakes...

  5. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011. Method: The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States by estimating a generalized ordered logit model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005–2009. Results: Results show that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because of inattentive and risky driving.

  6. Investigating Boolean Matrix Factorization.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Snášel, V.; Platoš, J.; Krömer, P.; Húsek, Dušan; Neruda, Roman; Frolov, A. A.

    - : ACM, 2008 - (Ding, C.; Li, T.; Zhu, S.), s. 18-25 ISBN 978-1-60558-307-5. [DMMT'08. Workshop in Conjunction with SIGKDD 2008 /14./. Las Vegas (US), 24.08.2008-24.08.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * nonnegative matrix factorization * neural networks * information retrieval * data mining * binary data Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://users.cs.fiu.edu/~taoli/kdd08-workshop/DMMT08-Proceedings.pdf

  7. A human factor analysis of a radiotherapy accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since September 2005, I.R.S.N. studies activities of radiotherapy treatment from the angle of the human and organizational factors to improve the reliability of treatment in radiotherapy. Experienced in nuclear industry incidents analysis, I.R.S.N. analysed and diffused in March 2008, for the first time in France, the detailed study of a radiotherapy accident from the angle of the human and organizational factors. The method used for analysis is based on interviews and documents kept by the hospital. This analysis aimed at identifying the causes of the difference recorded between the dose prescribed by the radiotherapist and the dose effectively received by the patient. Neither verbal nor written communication (intra-service meetings and protocols of treatment) allowed information to be transmitted correctly in order to permit radiographers to adjust the irradiation zones correctly. This analysis highlighted the fact that during the preparation and the carrying out of the treatment, various factors led planned controls to not be performed. Finally, this analysis highlighted the fact that unsolved areas persist in the report over this accident. This is due to a lack of traceability of a certain number of key actions. The article concluded that there must be improvement in three areas: cooperation between the practitioners, control of the actions and traceability of the actions. (author)

  8. Natural factors of technological accidents: the case of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    E. G. Petrova

    2011-01-01

    The data base of technological accidents and disasters that have occurred in Russia has been created. More than 13 000 information units have been collected and analyzed. The proportion of accidents triggered by natural events (natural-technological accidents or NTA) in the total number of technological accidents as well as a part of every NTA type in the total number of NTA was estimated. About 10 percent of all accidents registered in the data base were caused by natural events; among some ...

  9. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. PMID:26513334

  10. Development of Human Factor Management Requirements and Human Error Classification for the Prevention of Railway Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railway accident analysis results show that accidents cased by human factors are not decreasing, whereas H/W related accidents are steadily decreasing. For the efficient management of human factors, many expertise on design, conditions, safety culture and staffing are required. But current safety management activities on safety critical works are focused on training, due to the limited resource and information. In order to improve railway safety, human factors management requirements for safety critical worker and human error classification is proposed in this report. For this accident analysis, status of safety measure on human factor, safety management system on safety critical worker, current safety planning is analysis

  11. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the "State-of-the-Art

    OpenAIRE

    Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or “human error”. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to a...

  12. Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania :A Case Study of Kibaha District

    OpenAIRE

    Komba, Deus Damian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district.In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk ...

  13. Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania : A Case Study of Kibaha District

    OpenAIRE

    Komba, Deus Damian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district. In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk...

  14. National Transportation Safety Board Aircraft Accident Investigation Supported

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.

    1999-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was for NASA to help the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) gain better understanding of the events that led to the loss of Comair Flight 3272 over Monroe, Michigan, on January 9, 1997. In-flight icing was suspected as being the primary cause of this accident. Of particular interest to the Safety Board was what NASA could learn about the potential performance degradation of the wing of the Embraer EMB-120 twin-turboprop commuter aircraft with various levels of ice contamination. NASA agreed to undertake (1) ice-accretion prediction computations with NASA s LEWICE program to bound the kind of contaminations that the vehicle may have developed, (2) testing in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel to verify and refine the ice shapes developed by LEWICE, (3) a two-dimensional Navier- Stokes analysis to determine the performance degradation that those ice shapes could have caused, and (4) an examination using three-dimensional Navier-Stokes codes to study the three-dimensional effects of ice contamination.

  15. Proposal for computer investigation of LMFBR core meltdown accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental consequences of an LMFBR accident involving breach of containment are so severe that such accidents must not be allowed to happen. Present methods for analyzing hypothetical core disruptive accidents like a loss of flow with failure to scram cannot show conclusively that such accidents do not lead to a rupture of the pressure vessel. A major deficiency of present methods is their inability to follow large motions of a molten LMFBR core. Such motions may lead to a secondary supercritical configuration with a subsequent energy release that is sufficient to rupture the pressure vessel. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory proposes to develop a computer program for describing the dynamics of hypothetical accidents. This computer program will utilize implicit Eulerian fluid dynamics methods coupled with a time-dependent transport theory description of the neutronic behavior. This program will be capable of following core motions until a stable coolable configuration is reached. Survey calculations of reactor accidents with a variety of initiating events will be performed for reactors under current design to assess the safety of such reactors

  16. Experimental and calculational investigation of heat-mass-transfer processes in LOCA-type accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consideration is given to the results of investigations carried out on SVD-1 bench at bottom, top and combined reflooding after design-basis accident with guillotine rupture of cold circuit. Four types of 37-rod full-height-scale fuel assemblies of WWER-1000 have been investigated. For all types of flooding the heat transfer to water and steam-water mixture coming from bottom along with lower wetting front is the general cooling process. It is shown that the main factors acting on decrease of top flooding efficiency are exceedance of critical bubbling, flooding rates and local pressure increase in the area of upper wetting front limiting top water entry into heated region. It is pointed out that the most of the codes do not account these factors

  17. Factors influencing the public intention to use renewable energy technologies in South Korea: Effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima accident has influenced public attitudes toward energy sources and technologies, including not only nuclear energy, but also other energy sources. Therefore, it is worth investigating how the accident influenced public perceptions of renewable energy and its technologies, between the time before the accident and after the accident. This study aims to explore the effects of the Fukushima accident on the public perceptions of renewable energy technologies in South Korea, the closest nation to Japan. This study found that there were notable differences of public perceptions, including public attitudes, perceived benefits, trust, intention to use, knowledge and risks between before and after the earthquake. In addition, the perceived cost of renewable energy technologies was the primary determinant of the intention to use the technologies before the accident, whereas public attitudes toward the technologies became the main antecedents of the intention after the accident. After the accident, we found that there is a multi-dimensional matrix of perceived trust-benefits (with risks)-attitude-intention to use, in explaining the public acceptance of renewable energy technologies. Moreover, we found significant roles of the perceived trust, benefits and risks in the research model. Based on the empirical findings, both implications and suggestions are presented. - highlights: • The factors influence public intention to employ renewable energy technologies. • Fukushima accident made significant differences of public perceptions. • Perceived benefits and risks are employed as key determinants of public attitude. • Perceived cost and attitude are found as antecedents of the intention to use. • Perceived trust is a notable motivation of public perceptions

  18. Investigation of the management of the wastes from plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant discharged large amount of radio-nuclides and contaminated wide areas in and out of the site. The decontamination, storage, treatment and disposal of generated wastes are now under planning. Though regulations for the radioactive wastes arisen from normal operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities have been prepared, it is necessary to make amendment of those regulations to deal with wastes from the severe accident which may have much different features on nuclides contents, or possible accompanying hazardous chemical materials. Characteristics of wastes from accidents in foreign nuclear installations, and the treatment and the disposal of those wastes were surveyed by literature and radionuclide migration from the assumed temporally storage yards of the disaster debris was analyzed for consideration of future regulation. (author)

  19. Investigation of evaluation method for marine radiological impact during an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2012, JNES carried out to investigate the measurement information of radionuclide released to the ocean at Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, the foreign regulation for marine radiological impact, and the evaluation method for release and diffusion to the ocean at the accident inside and outside Japan. (author)

  20. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress.

  1. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress

  2. Investigations on pressure suppression system loads at accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For simulation of the integral behavior of pressure suppresion systems at accident conditions a mathematical model was developed which simulates a wide range of the loads occurring during a loss-of coolant accident. The multi-zone point model DRASYS serves for mathematical simulation of quasistatic (pressure and temperature build-up in the dry well and the suppression chamber) as well as dynamic loads (free-blowing process, water throw-up and condensing oscillations) in the course of a loss-of-coolant accident. For determination of the state variations with time in the individual pressure sections thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed between steam and water phases. Thermal non-equilibrium states are taken into account if phase separation interfaces between water and steam/air mixture exist. The flows between the individual pressure sections are treated as homogeneous, nonsteady, incompressible flows. For verification of the mathematical model recalculations were made of experiments performed at various test stands. Teh recalculations showed that the mathematical model has got a wide range of application and is suited for design and assessment of pressure suppression systems at accident conditions. (orig.)

  3. Aspects Concerning The Rules And The Investigation Of Traffic Accidents As Work Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnu, Lucian Ioan

    2015-07-01

    When Romania joined the European Union, it was imposed that the Romanian legislation in the field of the security and health at work be in line with the European one. The concept of health as it is defined by the International Body of Health, refers to a good physical, mental and social condition. The improvement of the activity of preventing the traffic accidents as work accidents must have as basis the correct and accurate evaluation of risks of getting injured. The goal of the activity of prevention and protection is to ensure the best working conditions, the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases and the adjustment to the scientific and technological progress. In the road transport sector, as in any other sector, it is very important to pay attention to working conditions to ensure a workforce motivated and well qualified. Some features make it a more difficult sector risk management than other sectors. However, if one takes into account how it works in practice this sector and the characteristics of drivers and how they work routinely, risks, dangers and threats can be managed efficiently and with great success.

  4. Accident risk and factors regarding non-motorised road users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of all traffic fatalities worldwide are non-motorised road users (NMRUs). In Denmark, the number has increased with about 30%. NMRUs consist of about 63% of the injured in the Danish traffic. Much has been done to reduce the number of injured NMRUs with counterparts, while little effort is put into the reduction of the vast majority of the accidents, NMRU single accidents, which are about 90% of all injured NMRUs. There are no efficient tools available to reduce this number. A signif...

  5. The official report of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 2011, the Act regarding Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission was enacted to investigate the Fukushima accident with the authority to request documents and request the legislative branch to use its investigative powers to obtain any necessary documents or evidence required. In December 2011, chairman and nine other members were appointed. After a six-month investigation, Commission had concluded. 'In order to prevent future disasters, fundamental reforms must take place covering both the structure of electric power industry and the structure of related government and regulatory agencies as well as operation processes, for both normal and emergency situations'. Main parts of report consisted of overview, conclusions and recommendations, and six findings; (1) was the accident preventable?, (2) Escalation of the accident, (3) Emergency response to the accident, (4) Spread of the damage, (5) Organizational issues in accident prevention and response and (6) the legal system. Based on the above findings, Commission made seven recommendations regarding (1) Monitoring of the nuclear regulatory body by the National Diet, (2) Reform the crisis management system, (3) Government responsibility for public health and welfare, (4) Monitoring the operators, (5) Criteria for the new regulatory body, (6) Reforming laws related to nuclear energy and (7) Develop a system of independent investigation commissions. National Diet's thorough debate and deliberate on these recommendation was highly encouraged for the future. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Risk factors influencing disease incidence in subjects who participated in liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyzer the relationship between disease incidence in the participants of the liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident aftereffects and the factors influencing this disease incidence. Three factors influencing the incidence of metal and neural diseases are considered. These factors are the duration of the presence at the site of the accident, time of coming to the site of accident (time elapsed since the accident to the liquidators first coming to the zone), and external irradiation dose. The basic risk factors of these diseases are the time of arrival in the accident zone and the duration of work in the zone, the irradiation dose effect being negligible here

  7. The crisis of investigative Journalism in Spain. The journalism practice in the Spanair accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente García-Santamaría, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The crash of the McDonnell Douglas plane operated by the Spanish airline Spanair, on 20 August 2008 at Barajas Airport, and the journalistic treatment it received undoubtedly represent a unique opportunity to address the current state of journalism in Spain. In particular, this article studies the use of information sources in a crisis situation, which requires a major effort to find the maximum number of primary and specialised sources to provide, in a short period of time, the audience with the key facts to understand the event. This accident also represents an excellent opportunity to study some practices within investigative journalism and the different factors that condition the media agenda. Finally, as in any other air tragedy, where millionaire compensations can be paid to the victims, it is important to examine the application of a series of ethical frameworks, which have been captured in deontological codes designed to assure fair journalistic practices.

  8. Study of Psycho-Social Factors Affecting Traffic Accidents Among Young Boys in Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Seyyed Mohammad Hossein; Fekr Azad, Hossein; Tahmasebi, Siyamak; Rafiei, Hassan; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Tajlili, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unprecedented growth of fatalities due to traffic accidents in the recent years has raised great concerns and efforts of authorities in order to identify and control the causes of these accidents. Objectives: In the present study, the contribution of psychological, social, demographic, environmental and behavioral factors on traffic accidents was studied for young boys in Tehran, emphasizing the importance of psychosocial factors. Patients and Methods: The design of the present study was quantitative (correlational) in which a sample population including 253 boys from Tehran (Iran) with an age range of 18 to 24 who had been referred to insurance institutions, hospitals, correctional facilities as well as prisons, were selected using stratified cluster sampling during the year 2013.The subjects completed the following questionnaires: demographic, general health, lifestyle, Manchester Driving Behavior Questionnaire (MDBQ), young parenting, and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). For data analysis, descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient, and inferential statistics including simultaneous regression, stepwise regression, and structural equations modeling were used. Results: The findings indicated that in the psychosocial model of driving behavior (including lapses, mistakes, and intentional violations) and accidents, psychological factors, depression (P parenting style of mother (P = 0.001), and perception of police commands (P < 0.002), played an important role in predicting driving behavior. Among social factors, perception of police regulations (P = 0.003), had an important effect on violations and mistakes. Among environmental and behavioral factors, major factors such as driving age (P = 0.001), drug and alcohol use (P = 0.001), having driver’s license (P = 0.013), records of imprisonment or committing a crime (P = 0.012) were also able to predict occurrence of accidents. Conclusions: As the results of this study show, different factors contribute to different driving behaviors and accidents. The broad scope of these factors links accidents to other social issues and damages. PMID:26421169

  9. Authority investigations of the effects of Chernobylsk reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Official activities of the Health Physics Department of the Public Health Administration (KOEJAL), Budapest during and after the Chernobylsk reactor accident comprised the organization of improved environmental control services, the information of the population and the dosimetric control of certain objectives, foodstuffs passed to the institute and of persons returned from the Soviet Union. To determine the outer and inner radiation exposure of the population in Hungary wide-spread in-situ and laboratory measurements were carried out. The surface contamination and the dose rates were determined at different sites. Till the end of 1986 more than 1000 samples including aerosol, fallout, surface and drinking water, soil, plant, milk, milk-product and meat samples were taken and analysed. The institute played an important coordinative role in sampling, sample distribution among other institutes and in the evaluation of the radiation situation of the country. (V.N.) 7 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. Psychological and social factors influencing the choice of strategy after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the post-accident situation in Chernobyl provides information that focuses on social and psychological factors in the management of nuclear accidents. This paper concentrates on the short term countermeasures. It presents the main conclusions of a field survey carried out in Ukraine. The issues talked are the concern about extend of post-response in Chernobyl, the worries over health, contamination, the concern over the future and the complexity of post-accident situation. In a second part, the paper analyses and models the factors that caused the 1993 post-accident situation. Finally, several advices are given concerning the public information and behaviour focusing on the social and psychological aspect of short-term decisions (a constant effort should always be, for example, limiting the element of surprise in order to reduce the stress of population). (TEC). 3 figs

  11. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Factors in Major Maritime Accidents in the USA and Canada (1996-2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C, M.

    2007-01-01

    Accident reports provide important insights into the causes and contributory factors leading to particular adverse events. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis that extends across the findings presented over ten years investigations into maritime accidents by both the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and Canadian Transportation Safety Board (TSB). The purpose of the study was to assess the comparative frequency of a range of causal factors in the reporting of adverse events. In order to communicate our findings, we introduce J-H graphs as a means of representing the proportion of causes and contributory factors associated with human error, equipment failure and other high level classifications in longitudinal studies of accident reports. Our results suggest the proportion of causal and contributory factors attributable to direct human error may be very much smaller than has been suggested elsewhere in the human factors literature. In contrast, more attention should be paid to wider systemic issues, including the managerial and regulatory context of maritime operations.

  12. Nuclear aerosol transport correlations: Comparisons with data, shape factors, and accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of the fission product mass is transported as an aerosol in severe nuclear reactor core melt accidents. Thus, accurate modeling of aerosol behavior is an important aspect of predicting the consequences of a core melt accident. The modeling of fission product transport as an aerosol has evolved along two paths. Detailed separate effects computer calculations (i.e. TRAPMELT, NAUA, CONTAIN, QUICK computer codes) which directly solve the integro-differential equation of aerosol agglomeration and deposition. Some integral analysis severe accident codes in development are also using the direct solution approach. The second approach to the solution of aerosol physics problems in severe accident analysis is the so-called correlation scheme incorporated in the MAAP accident analysis code. The use of the correlation method results in an efficient procedure for coupling aerosol behavior with the hydraulics of an accident sequence, and one that apparently has a numerical accuracy that is within the spread in predictions by the various direct numerical (sectional) methods. In the present paper the authors wish to briefly review the correlation method and report on further developments and implications of the method, with emphasis on as yet unpublished comparisons with experimental data, a simple methodology for estimating aerosol shape factors; and a comparison between a direct numerical attack of the aerosol transport equations and the correlation method for aerosol behavior in the primary system of a nuclear power plant under severe accident conditions

  13. Preliminary thermal-hydraulic phenomena investigation during total instantaneous blockage accident for CEFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China)]. E-mail: 1wz@sjtu.edu.cn; Cao, X.W. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2007-08-15

    The Chinese Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is under installation and commissioning right now. It is essential to investigate core disruptive accidents (CDAs) for the evaluation of CEFR's safety characteristic. As part-I preliminary investigation, accident of total instantaneous blockage (TIB) in single subassembly scale is modeled and analyzed. The degradation scenario has been calculated by a fluid-dynamics analysis code for liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs). For further investigation of accident process and influence to the neighboring bundles, seven subassembly domain is then simulated and calculated as part-II investigation. Total instantaneous blockage is assumed to occur in the center subassembly under normal operating conditions and consequences to neighboring assemblies are studied. The result shows that the key events, such as sodium boiling, clad melting, fuel particles relocation, hexcan melt-through and melt propagation into neighboring six assemblies symmetrically are adequately simulated. From comparison and discussion of the CEFR's results with the SCARABEE tests and Superphenix (SPX1)-type reactor simulation, it is concluded that all the key events appear in the same sequence whereas the propagation is limited in neighboring six assemblies. The discrepancy is probably due to less fuel inventory and better cooling capacity in CEFR subassembly design. TIB calculations help to give a better understanding and prediction of hypothetical accident scenario in subassembly blockage accidents for CEFR.

  14. Modern accident investigation and analysis - An executive guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, T. S.

    The first part of the book primes the reader for mishap investigation. Three chapters lead into the serious business of investigation through a discussion of the need for and examination of who has a stake in investigation. This is followed by coverage of the preparation that makes an efficient investigation possible. Finally a description is presented of the first important steps in the investigation, conducted at the scene of a mishap. The interacting roles of man, environment, and systems are examined, taking into account unsafe acts, human limitations, the various types of environments, different types of materials, and aspects of systems investigation. Attention is also given to analytical techniques, the mishap report, information collection, and legal aspects of investigation.

  15. Review of the TMI-2 accident evaluation and vessel investigation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Programme and the Vessel Investigation Project have been reviewed as part of a literature study on core meltdown and in-vessel coolability. The emphasis is placed on the late phase melt progression, which is of special relevance to the NKS-sponsored RAK-2.1 project on Severe Accident Phenomenology. The body of the report comprises three main sections, The TMI-2 Accident Scenario, Core Region and Relocation Path Investigations, and Lower Head Investigations. In the final discussion, the lower head gap formation mechanism is explained in terms of thermal contraction and fracturing of the debris crust. This model seems more plausible than the MAAP model based on creep expansion of the lower head. (au)

  16. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: analysis of driver-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moafian Ghasem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ?Abstract?Objective: Road traffic accident (RTA and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran. This paper explores the as-sociation between driver-related factors and RTA in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20, 2010 to June 10, 2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department. We included 538 588 RTA records, which were classified to control for the main confounders: accident type, final cause of accident, time of accident and driver-related factors. Driver-related factors included sex, educational level, license type, type of injury, duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver’s error type. Results: A total of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male, sex ratio of almost 13:1 were involved in the RTAs. Among them 423 932 (78.71% were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74% had a diploma degree. Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811, 54.00%. The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59 (75 024, 13.93%. The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years’ of driving experience. Ne-glect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589, 64.17%. Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175, 25.66% and 129 352, 24.02%, respectively. We found significant association between type of acci-dent and sex, education, license type, time of accident, final cause of accident, driver’s error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001. Conclusion: Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures, which will change inappropriate be-havior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Automobile driving; Wounds and injuries; Mortality; Iran

  17. INVESTIGATION OF THE CAUSES OF MARITIME ACCIDENTS IN THE INLAND WATERWAYS OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rabiul Islam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water transport is the proven cheapest and safest mode of transportation but it is the agent of catastrophe in Bangladesh. The overall scenario of Bangladesh inland water transport has been studied. The form of occurrences of maritime accidents in the inland waterways of Bangladesh may be categorized based on mode of failure. Data analysis of major accidents shows that prevention of passenger vessels’ accident will drastically reduce the number of casualties in Bangladesh Inland Waterways where the two repeatedly reported causes of accidents are overloading and inclement weather. Literature review shows that analyses were carried out mostly to investigate the mechanism of capsizing due to violation of “The Inland Shipping Laws and Rules”. To enlighten the roles of professionals like Naval Architects and Law Enforcing Agencies, the reasons behind the accidents in Bangladesh Inland Waterways have been simplified and the nature of actions required for preventing the accidents have been identified from practical point of view. The effect of consideration of overloading condition and higher wind pressure in design has been studied and found that it will have adverse effect on the socio-economical condition of Bangladesh. Role of proper design and construction has been identified by dividing the accidental phenomenon into two phases, capsizing and sinking of vessels.

  18. Importance Degree Evaluation of the Affecting Factors on Exhibition Security Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of exhibition security accidents is the result of the mutual coupling factors of "man-machine-environment-management". This study is going to elaborate 11 influencing factors of exhibition security accidents from four aspects, i.e., man, mechanical equipment, environment and management. With the help of grey relational analysis, this study evaluates the importance degree of the affecting factors in exhibitions. The result shows that affecting factors of facilities and equipments failure is of the greatest importance degree and site maintenance personnel, site design, building material quality are the secondary important factors; another important factors are safety management body, social environment, activity organization management, safety management system, natural environment and event participant behavior which are considered as the third important ones. Evaluation of the importance degree of affecting factors on exhibition security incidents will provide a theoretical basis for exhibition security control.

  19. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and intractable, and methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. The number of methods in each group were four, three, zero, and two, respectively. Faced with the need to investigate an accident it is essential that the chosen method is appropriate for the system and the situation. Nuclear power plants considered as systems are tightly coupled and more or less intractable and therefore require accident models and accident investigation methods that are capable of accounting for these features. If an accident concerns the NPP operation as a whole, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. If an accident only concerns the operation of a subsystem or a component, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, or possible loosely coupled and tractable. The report provides a proposal for how these characteristics can be determined. The conclusion is that no specific method is the overall best in the sense that it can be used for all conditions. While it may be convenient, or even necessary, for an organisation to adopt a specific method as its standard, this should always be done knowingly and with a willingness to reconsider the choice when the conditions so demand it. In five or ten years we must expect that the methods developed today will have been partly obsolete, not because the methods change but because the nature of socio-technical systems, and therefore the nature of accidents, do

  20. Knowledge gained from hazard studies and accidents investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Lefin, Yves; Mavrothalassitis, Guy; Pineau, Jean-Philippe

    1993-01-01

    According to the European Directive related to the prevention of major technological hazards, in France, individual hazards investigation are generally carried out for each individual facility and, according to French regulations, three different reports may be issued

  1. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from cytogenetic investigations into 55 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1977 are reviewed. This report is the seventh in an annual series (previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35, R41 and R57) which together contain data on 327 studies. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. Two cases are described in more detail: the first concerned a non-classified worker who put an iridium-192 source in his pocket and took it home; and the second involved the accidental contamination of two people with tritium gas. In a second appendix, the confidence limits on cytogenetic dosimetry for X- and ?-ray over-exposures are given and the derivation of these limits is discussed. (author)

  2. Factores de riesgo de accidentes en la edad geriátrica / Risk factors for accidents in geriatric age

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manolo, Gómez Juanola; Jorge Luis, Conill Godoy; Juan César, Pulido Ramos; Alexis, Pérez Carvajal; Idalmis, Cantún.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, longitudinal y descriptivo con elementos analíticos, para evaluar los factores de riesgo de accidentes en los ancianos, durante el período de julio 2000 a junio 2001. La muestra quedó conformada por un universo de 101 gerontes, de los consultorios médicos 13 y 32, [...] del municipio Mantua. Se aplicó el cálculo porcentual y X2 con nivel de ajuste ed a = 0,01 y a = 0,05. Dentro de los factores ambientales, en el área urbana predominaron: piso del baño deslizante (p Abstract in english A prospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted with analytical elements to evaluate the risk factors for accidents in the elderly from July 2000 to June 2001.The sample was composed of 101 aged individuals from the family physicians' offices 13 and 32, in Mantua municipality. The pe [...] rcentage calculation and X2 with a level of adjustment of a = 0.01 and a = 0.05 were applied. The following environmental factors predominated in the urban area: slipping bathroom floor (p 0.01), cooker of an inadequate height (p 0.05), polished floors, changing furniture, propping, filtrations and inadequate shoes (p 0.01). Lamp or switch away from the bed, bathroom away from the bedroom and absence of shower curtains, unlevel/irregular floor, furniture in bad state, deficient lighting, poorly protected electrical sources and circulation of pets (p 0.01) prevailed in the rural area. The most common physiological risks were: pluripathology/polypharmacy and degenerative arthropathy as a cause of balance alterations and walking, respectively. They prevailed in females (p 0.05). Congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease and cervical osteoarthritits predominated among the most frequent diseases in the females (p 0.05). 43.5 % of the males took only one drug. Sedatives (50-59 %) were the most used drugs. 59.40 % of the elderly were evaluated as low risk for accidentality.

  3. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

  4. Investigation of evaluation method for marine radiological impact during an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2012, JNES investigated the evaluation method, long-term seawater and marine deposition for release and diffusion to the ocean at the accident, and marine impact assessment code, in Japan and overseas. Also, the foreign regulations for marine radiological impact (direct release to ocean from the facilities and fallout on marine, etc.) were investigated. Furthermore, the index (e.g., intervention level) at emergency control in USA and Europe were investigated. (author)

  5. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from cytogenetic investigations into 66 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1976 are reviewed. This report is the sixth in an annual series which together contain data on 272 studies. Previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35 and R41. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. A short review is given of the laboratory's recently published dose response data for several energies of neutron radiation. A description is also given of the group's collaboration in an international experiment in which comparisons were made between a variety of dosemeters exposed to a controlled criticality pulse. In a second appendix two experiments are described in which inter- and intra-donor effects on chromosome aberration yields were examined. It was found that differences in dicentric yields were small whereas acentric aberrations were more variable. (author)

  6. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, A.L., E-mail: alsousa@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, A.C.O., E-mail: antonio.ribeiro@bayer.com [Bayer Crop Science Brasil S.A., Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, J.P., E-mail: julianapduarte@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F., E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COOPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

  7. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

  8. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are reviewed from investigations during 1979 into 82 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation. Of these 45 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations, and 26 with an institution of research, education or health. 83% of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0-0.09 Gy (0-9 rad), and 17% in the range 0.1-0.29 Gy (10-29 rad). These data are compared with data obtained by physical dosimetry, and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each over-exposure, or suspected over-exposure. (author)

  9. Links between accidents and lifestyle factors among Lithuanian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkuviene, Skirmante; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate associations of some lifestyle factors with injuries among schoolchildren. Analysis was performed using data from the survey conducted in 2002 according to the methods of World Health Organization Cross-National Study on Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC). Using stratified random sampling, the representative sample of 5645 schoolchildren aged 11, 13, and 15 years from 104 schools of Lithuania was drawn and surveyed. Associations between potential risk factors and injuries among schoolchildren were evaluated calculating odds ratio and its 95% confidence intervals. For the evaluation of the impact of explanatory variables on analyzed event, logistic regression analysis was performed. Behavioral, psychological, and social integration factors were associated with the risk to sustain injuries among school-aged children. The impact of these factors varied within subgroups of schoolchildren by grade and sex. The most significant factors were: risk-taking behavior (smoking, alcohol and drug consumption, premature sexual activity), frequent participation in sport activities, involvement in physical fight, longer time spent away from home with friends, experienced bullying, poor self-assessed health and academic achievement, unhappiness, feeling unsafe at school, and high suicidal risk. Analysis failed to identify an expected association between lower socio-economic status and risk for injury. Integrated approach to injury etiology is essential in planning injury prevention and safety promotion activities among schoolchildren, paying particular attention to lifestyle factors, which can have the potential influence on risk to sustain injuries. PMID:15687754

  10. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are reviewed from investigations during 1980 into 68 cases of suspected overexposure to radiation. Of these, 37 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations and 20 with an institution of research, education or health. 55 of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0 - 0.09 Gy (0 - 9 rad) 5 in the range 0.1 - 0.29 Gy (10 - 29 rad) and for various reasons in 8 cases no biological assessment of dose was possible. The dose estimate for the case with the highest confirmed overexposure was 0.22 Gy (22 rads). The chromosome data are compared with information obtained from physical dosimetry and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each case. (author)

  11. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident's causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62)

  12. Experimental investigations on vessel-hole ablation during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents experimental results, and subsequent analyses, of scaled reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure site ablation tests conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Power Safety (RIT/NPS). The goal of the test program is to reduce the uncertainty level associated with the phase-change-ablation process, and, thus, improve the characterization of the melt discharge loading on the containment. In a series of moderate temperature experiments, the corium melt is simulated by the binary oxide CaO-B2O3 or the binary eutectic and non-eutectic salts NaNO3-KNO3, while the RPV head steel is represented by a Pb, Sn or metal alloys plate. A complementary set of experiments was conducted at lower temperatures, using water as melt and salted ice as plate material. These experiments scale well to the postulated prototypical conditions. The multidimensional code HAMISA, developed at RIT/NPS, is employed to analyze the experiments with good pre- and post-test predictions. The effects of melt viscosity and crust surface roughness, along with failure site entrance and exit frictional losses on the ablation characteristics are investigated. Theoretical concept was proposed to describe physical mechanisms which govern the vessel-hole ablation process during core melt discharge from RPV. Experimental data obtained from hole ablation tests and separate-effect tests performed at RIT/NPS were used to validate component physical models of the HAMISA code. It is believed that the hole ablation phenomenology is quite well understood. Detailed description of experiments and experimental data, as well as results of analyses are provided in the appendixes

  13. An investigation of core liquid level depression in small break loss-of-coolant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core liquid level depression can result in partial core dryout and heatup early in a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) transient. Such behavior occurs when steam, trapped in the upper regions of the reactor primary system (between the loop seal and the core inventory), moves coolant out of the core region and uncovers the rod upper elevations. The net result is core liquid level depression. Core liquid level depression and subsequent core heatups are investigated using subscale data from the ROSA-IV Program's 1/48-scale Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and the 1/1705-scale Semiscale facility. Both facilities are Westinghouse-type, four-loop, pressurized water reactor simulators. The depression phenomena and factors which influence the minimum core level are described and illustrated using examples from the data. Analyses of the subject experiments, conducted using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 (Version 12.7) thermal-hydraulic code, are also described and summarized. Finally, the response of a typical Westinghouse four-loop plant (RESAR-3S) was calculated to qualitatively study coal liquid level depression in a full-scale system. 31 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Critical review on what factors affected the evolution of the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on why the Fukushima disaster caused such different outcomes at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS) and the Fukushima Daini NPS, although both NPSs were hit by the largest tsunami in Japanese historical records and are located only 10 km apart. First, the authors' study classifies the progression of the Fukushima accident into four phases: Phase I (between earthquake occurrence and tsunami inundation), Phase II (after tsunami inundation), Phase III (efforts at restoration) and Phase IV (recovery from harsh conditions), in order to clarify the difference in the accident progression in each unit of both NPSs. The course of the accident's evolution at each unit is compared to derive the differences of mechanical and human factors which affected the accident's progression. Second, the differences of both factors are reviewed from resilience engineering perspectives to know what factors are important to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. As the conclusions of this critical review, it can be said that: (1) the system, structures and components of NPS are systematically designed, manufactured and maintained to perform the intended functions for expected events, however they have limitations to cope with unexpected events, and (2) the plant personnel can respond to such situations successfully by changing their approach flexibly in a number of ways. (author)

  15. Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1?) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author)

  16. [The Incidence and Risk Factors of the Home Accidents in the Househoulds with Low Socioeconomic Level in Kocaeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervin Sahiner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: AIM: This study aimed to determine the incidence of home accidents in the households with low socioeconomic level who preferred in single flat or duplex and the risk factor related to house and sociodemographic characteristics. METHOD: The prospective cohort study. The universe of the survey composed of 419 households (N=1539 persons both with single flat and duplex house located at the “42 Evler” region of Izmit district of the Kocaeli province. The questionaries included “The Sociodemographic Characteristics of the Households” and “The Characteristics and Reasons of the Home Accidents.” The data were collected with face to face tecniques by home visits of households between November 28, 2008 and April 2, 2009. After the first form were filled, each household was followed up three months for home accidents. RESULTS: Twenty-seven of the households and 13.6% of the participants had home accident. The incidence of the home accident also was 4.2 person per/year. Most of the accidents (89% occurred inside of the houses. The mostly observed home accidents were 39.1% burn, 28.6% incision and 12.8% falling respectively. It was important risk factors heater for burns, knife for incisions and slippery-floor for fallings. The incidence of the home accident was higher among women (22.0% (p0.05, and in those with not house ownership itself (for rent 34.5%, for relatives house 34.8% (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This study has showed that the incidence of home accidents are high, and the characteristics of house and some sociodemographic characteristics are important risk factors in term of the home accidents. The qualified primary health services which are financed by the government have great importance for the preventing of the household accidents, determination of the risk factors and recording the home accidents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 257-268

  17. Demographic factors, fatigue, and driving accidents: An examination of the published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Milia, Lee; Smolensky, Michael H; Costa, Giovanni; Howarth, Heidi D; Ohayon, Maurice M; Philip, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    This article reviews the literature pertaining to the association between demographic variables (e.g., age, sex, race, socio-economic status) with fatigue, and when feasible, accident risk. It also explores their potential influence and interaction with some working arrangements, commute time, personality characteristics, and circadian chronotype. Fatigue has been implicated in a range of impairments that can have detrimental effects on individuals, and it is differentially associated with conventional demographic variables. However, several major methodological limitations prevent clear conclusions. First, there is absence of a shared definition both within and across disciplines. Second, although fatigue has been investigated using a variety of diverse designs, they have either been too weak to substantiate causality or lacked ecological validity. Third, while both subjective and objective measures have been used as dependent variables, fatigue has been more often found to be more strongly linked with the former. Fourth, with the exception of age and sex, the influence of other demographic variables is unknown, since they have not yet been concomitantly assessed. In instances when they have been assessed and included in statistical analyses, they are considered as covariates or confounders; thus, their contribution to the outcome variable is controlled for, rather than being a planned aspect of investigation. Because the interaction of demographic factors with fatigue is largely a neglected area of study, we recommend greater interdisciplinary collaborations, incorporation of multiple demographic variables as independent factors, and use of within-participant analyses. These recommendations would provide meaningful results that may be used to inform public policy and preventive strategies. PMID:21130214

  18. Factors Associated with Nurses’ Intention to Leave Their Jobs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Yoshinobu; Hayashida, Naomi; Orita, Makiko; Urata, Hideko; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Yumiko; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey among nurses who were working at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to clarify the factors associated with their intention to leave their jobs during the radiation emergency. We asked 345 nurses (17 men and 328 women) about their intention to leave their jobs after the accident. We also asked about relevant factors including the participants’ demographic factors, living situation, working status, an...

  19. Ergonomic (human factors) problems in design of NPPs. A review of TMI and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs

  20. Risk and preventive factors for fatalities in All-terrain Vehicle Accidents in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulruf, Boaz; Balemi, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) have been used in agriculture for a few decades now. Yet despite their invaluable contribution to the productivity of the agricultural industry they are associated with a large number of accidents, many of which result in a severe or fatal outcome. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for ATV-related fatal injuries in order to support the design of effective interventions. Using data held by the Department of Labour, the current study analysed 355 cases of serious harm accidents associated with ATVs including 45 fatalities. The findings suggest that injuries are more likely to occur when accidents involve any of the following: children under the age of 10; four-wheel drive ATVs; driving downhill; driving on a sealed road; driving backwards; or if the ATV rolls sideways. A fatal outcome is more likely to occur when ATV accidents end up with the vehicle rolling over and pinning the driver underneath. Fatalities were also associated with injuries to the head, neck and chest. Being employed; and/or having formal training; and/or having brakes and tyres well maintained on the ATV; and/or having no fluid load on the ATV reduced the risk for fatality. Since the likelihood of a fatal outcome was found to be related to human behaviour and ATV rollover, it is suggested that interventions should mainly address these two issues. PMID:20159086

  1. Review of five investigation committees' reports on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant serve accident. Focusing on accident progression and causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 11, 2011, the Tohoku district-off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake and subsequent tsunami resulted in the serve core damage at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1-3, involving hydrogen explosions at Units 1, 3, and 4 and the large release of radioactive materials to the environment. Four independent committees were established by the Japanese government, the Diet of Japan, the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation, and TEPCO to investigate the accident and published their respective reports. Also, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency carried out an analysis of accident causes to obtain the lessons learned from the accident and made its report public. This article reviews the reports and clarifies the differences in their positions, from the technological point of view, focusing on the accident progression and causes. Moreover, the undiscussed issues are identified to provide insights useful for the near-term regulatory activities including accident investigation by the Nuclear Regulation Authority. (author)

  2. Investigations of soil-plant transfer of radiocesium after deposition from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the low deposition of radiocaesium in NRW after the Chernobyl accident of about 2500 Bq 137Cs/m2 and 720 Bq 134Cs/m2, radiocaesium was not detectable in cereals from NRW. A deposition of about 44,100 Bq 137Cs/m2 and 13,500 Bq 134Cs/m2 was calculated for the vicinity of Tannheim, a village in Upper Swabia. Nevertheless, the content of radiocaesium in grain from Upper Swabia was found to be more than one hundred times lower than that of natural 40K. Transferfactors (TF/SP) for radiocaesium were determined for cereals from the three investigated soil types: Kalkvega (FAO classification: Calcaric Fluvisol), Braunerde (Cambisol) and Parabraunerde-Pseudogley (Luvisol-Planosol). The total variation in TF(SP) from 54 sampling sites was a factor of 43 (grain) and 18 (straw). However, the values did not reach the calculation basis of the German Regulatory Guide of 0.05 (Allgemeine Berechnungsgrundlage). The maximum TF(SP) for 134/137Cs in grain of 0.026 is clearly below that limit. A drastic increase of radioactivity in sewage sludge was observed in Upper Swabia. In the Tannheim sewage plant a radiocaesium content of about 12,500 Bq/kg dry matter was measured. In order to obtain further information on the possible radioecological consequences of using this sewage sludge as fertilizer a lysimeter study was carried out with application of the contaminated sewage sludge. Radioactivity in soil and several crops was measured for the growing periods 1989 and 1990. Although the soil type ('worst-case model') could have led one to expect high TF(SP) the increase of radiocaesium in plants was quite small. A higher uptake of radiocaesium by plants is caused by varying the potassium contents of the soil rather than by the application of the contaminated sewage sludge. (orig./HP)

  3. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  4. PSB-VVER experimental and analytical investigation of station blackout accident in VVER-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, I.A.; Kapustin, A.V.; Nikonov, S.M.; Rovnov, A.A.; Basov, A.V. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre (EREC), Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Elkin, I.V. [NSI RRC, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    In November 2003, an experiment simulating station blackout accident was carried out in the PSB-VVER integral test facility at the Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre (Russia). The purpose of the experiment was to provide missing data for code validation as well as to investigate the VVER thermohydraulics in the blackout conditions. The experiment covers a wide range of phenomena relating not only to transients but also to small break loss-of-coolant accidents. The data gained in the test has been used to assess the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. In this paper, a special attention has been paid to the code assessment regarding the mixture level and entrainment in steam generator secondary side. The analysis of the recorded transient has shown that the calculation of the heat transfer on the secondary side of steam generators is very sensitive to the steam generator nodalization. (authors)

  5. PSB-VVER experimental and analytical investigation of station blackout accident in VVER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2003, an experiment simulating station blackout accident was carried out in the PSB-VVER integral test facility at the Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre (Russia). The purpose of the experiment was to provide missing data for code validation as well as to investigate the VVER thermohydraulics in the blackout conditions. The experiment covers a wide range of phenomena relating not only to transients but also to small break loss-of-coolant accidents. The data gained in the test has been used to assess the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. In this paper, a special attention has been paid to the code assessment regarding the mixture level and entrainment in steam generator secondary side. The analysis of the recorded transient has shown that the calculation of the heat transfer on the secondary side of steam generators is very sensitive to the steam generator nodalization. (authors)

  6. PRTR accident: a preliminary report on the investigation of fission product chemical forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) has sparked an interest in previous reactor incidents for which data were available which might offer insights into the radiological release characterization resulting from an accident of this nature. The Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) located at Richland, Washington, has been identified as a reactor which has undergone one such incident. At the request of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is reviewing the PRTR incident to assemble and update all the information available regarding the volatile and semi-volatile fission products released to discover and investigate any clues that remain which may indicate the most probable chemical and physical forms of these released fission products

  7. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and i...

  8. Quantifying human and organizational factors in accident management using decision trees: the HORAAM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the level 2 Probabilistic Safety Study (PSA 2) project, the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) has developed a method for taking into account Human and Organizational Reliability Aspects during accident management. Actions are taken during very degraded installation operations by teams of experts in the French framework of Crisis Organization (ONC). After describing the background of the framework of the Level 2 PSA, the French specific Crisis Organization and the characteristics of human actions in the Accident Progression Event Tree, this paper describes the method developed to introduce in PSA the Human and Organizational Reliability Analysis in Accident Management (HORAAM). This method is based on the Decision Tree method and has gone through a number of steps in its development. The first one was the observation of crisis center exercises, in order to identify the main influence factors (IFs) which affect human and organizational reliability. These IFs were used as headings in the Decision Tree method. Expert judgment was used in order to verify the IFs, to rank them, and to estimate the value of the aggregated factors to simplify the quantification of the tree. A tool based on Mathematica was developed to increase the flexibility and the efficiency of the study

  9. Alterations in White Matter Microstructure as Vulnerability Factors and Acquired Signs of Traffic Accident-Induced PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yawen; Wang, Zhen; Ding, Weina; Wan, Jieqing; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yong,; Liu, Yijun; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    It remains unclear whether white matter (WM) changes found in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients are stress-induced or precursors for vulnerability. The current study aimed to identify susceptibility factors relating to the development of PTSD and to examine the ability of these factors to predict the course of longitudinal PTSD. Sixty two victims who had experienced traffic accidents underwent diffusion tensor imaging using a 3.0T MRI system within 2 days after their accidents. O...

  10. The Use of LS-DYNA in the Columbia Accident Investigation and Return to Flight Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys, Jonathan; Schatz, Josh; Carney, Kelly; Melis, Matthew; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2004-01-01

    During the launch of the Space Shuttle Columbia on January 16, 2003, foam originating from the external tank impacted the shuttle's left wing 81 seconds after lift-off. Then on February 1st, Space Shuttle Columbia broke-up during re-entry. In the weeks that followed, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board had formed various teams to investigate every aspect of the tragedy. One of these teams was the Impact Analysis Team, which was asked to investigate the foam impact on the wing leading edge. This paper will describe the approach and methodology used by the team to support the accident investigation, and more specifically the use of LS-DYNA for analyzing the foam impact event. Due to the success of the analytical predictions, the impact analysis team has also been asked to support Return to Flight activities. These activities will analyze a far broader range of impact events, but not with just foam and not only on the wing leading edge. The debris list has expanded and so have the possible impact locations. This paper will discuss the Return to Flight activities and the use of LS-DYNA to support them.

  11. Examinations on high burnup fuels to investigate fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasajima, Hideo; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Nagase, Fumihisa; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Kaminaga, Norihisa; Honda, Junichi; Nishino, Yasuharu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Gun (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) investigates high burnup fuel behavior in reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) using the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF). RIA simulating pulse irradiation tests at the NSRR provide information on the fuel failure limit, fuel failure mode, post failure events which are required for the safety evaluation. Detailed examinations at the RFEF on the test fuel rods before and after the pulse irradiation tests provide knowledge on fuel cladding deformation, fission gas release, hydride precipitation states in the cladding and so on, which compliment the NSRR transient data and deduce the failure mechanism during an RIA.

  12. Examinations on high burnup fuels to investigate fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) investigates high burnup fuel behavior in reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) using the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF). RIA simulating pulse irradiation tests at the NSRR provide information on the fuel failure limit, fuel failure mode, post failure events which are required for the safety evaluation. Detailed examinations at the RFEF on the test fuel rods before and after the pulse irradiation tests provide knowledge on fuel cladding deformation, fission gas release, hydride precipitation states in the cladding and so on, which compliment the NSRR transient data and deduce the failure mechanism during an RIA

  13. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam; Karim Hamdi; Mandana Sediqi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-su...

  14. Investigation of primary-to-secondary leakage accident on the PSB-VVER integral test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full text follows. The paper presents the main results from the test on primary-to-secondary leakage of 100 mm in equivalent diameter. The test was performed on the PSB-VVER integral test facility. PSB-VVER is a 4-loops scaled down model of primary system of NPP with VVER-1000 Russian type reactor. Volume - power scale is about 1/300 while elevation scale is 1/1. All components of the primary system of the reference NPP are modeled on PSB-VVER. Both passive (accumulators) and active (high and low pressure) ECCSs, pressurizer spray and relief circuits, feed water system and atmospheric dumping system (ADS) as well as the primary circuit gas remove emergency system are also simulated. The primary-to-secondary leakage was simulated using an external break line which connects the upper part of the hot header to SG water volume. The break line included a break nozzle (a cylindrical channel d = 5.8 mm, l/d = 10 with sharp inlet edge), quick-acting valve and two-phase mass flow rate measurement system. In addition loss of off-site power at the moment when a scram-signal is generated was assumed in the experiment. Thus the accident is to be considered as a beyond-design-basic one. The loss of off-site power results in the following: -main circulation pump shutdown; -pressurizer heaters switching off; -HPIS water cooling flow rate and number of points of water injection are reduced The study focuses on the adequacy of the associated accident management (AM) procedure developed by EDO ''GIDROPRESS'' as a General Designer of VVER-type reactors. The AM-procedure was adopted to the PSB-VVER test facility conditions using CATHARE (France) and DINAMIKA (Russia) codes analysis. The AM-procedure in PSB-VVER is as follows: after about 30 min of the onset of the accident, when the accident type and the localization of the SG affected become evident for the operator, he closes all the main steam isolation valves, inhibits the ADS actuation in the affected SG and begins to remove the core residual heat by opening the ADS in one of the intact loop. The results show that AM-procedure related to the accident investigated is adequate to prevent core overheating. (authors)

  15. Investigation of primary-to-secondary leakage accident on the PSB-VVER integral test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, I.A.; Dremin, G.I.; Galtchanskaya, S.A.; Chmal, I.I.; Moloshnikov, A.S.; Gorbunov, Y.S.; Antonova, A.I. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center, EREC, Moscow (Russian Federation); Elkin, I.V. [RRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The full text follows. The paper presents the main results from the test on primary-to-secondary leakage of 100 mm in equivalent diameter. The test was performed on the PSB-VVER integral test facility. PSB-VVER is a 4-loops scaled down model of primary system of NPP with VVER-1000 Russian type reactor. Volume - power scale is about 1/300 while elevation scale is 1/1. All components of the primary system of the reference NPP are modeled on PSB-VVER. Both passive (accumulators) and active (high and low pressure) ECCSs, pressurizer spray and relief circuits, feed water system and atmospheric dumping system (ADS) as well as the primary circuit gas remove emergency system are also simulated. The primary-to-secondary leakage was simulated using an external break line which connects the upper part of the hot header to SG water volume. The break line included a break nozzle (a cylindrical channel d = 5.8 mm, l/d = 10 with sharp inlet edge), quick-acting valve and two-phase mass flow rate measurement system. In addition loss of off-site power at the moment when a scram-signal is generated was assumed in the experiment. Thus the accident is to be considered as a beyond-design-basic one. The loss of off-site power results in the following: -main circulation pump shutdown; -pressurizer heaters switching off; -HPIS water cooling flow rate and number of points of water injection are reduced The study focuses on the adequacy of the associated accident management (AM) procedure developed by EDO ''GIDROPRESS'' as a General Designer of VVER-type reactors. The AM-procedure was adopted to the PSB-VVER test facility conditions using CATHARE (France) and DINAMIKA (Russia) codes analysis. The AM-procedure in PSB-VVER is as follows: after about 30 min of the onset of the accident, when the accident type and the localization of the SG affected become evident for the operator, he closes all the main steam isolation valves, inhibits the ADS actuation in the affected SG and begins to remove the core residual heat by opening the ADS in one of the intact loop. The results show that AM-procedure related to the accident investigated is adequate to prevent core overheating. (authors)

  16. Causes and risk factors for fatal accidents in non-commercial twin engine piston general aviation aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2015-04-01

    Accidents in twin-engine aircraft carry a higher risk of fatality compared with single engine aircraft and constitute 9% of all general aviation accidents. The different flight profile (higher airspeed, service ceiling, increased fuel load, and aircraft yaw in engine failure) may make comparable studies on single-engine aircraft accident causes less relevant. The objective of this study was to identify the accident causes for non-commercial operations in twin engine aircraft. A NTSB accident database query for accidents in twin piston engine airplanes of 4-8 seat capacity with a maximum certified weight of 3000-8000lbs. operating under 14CFR Part 91 for the period spanning 2002 and 2012 returned 376 accidents. Accident causes and contributing factors were as per the NTSB final report categories. Total annual flight hour data for the twin engine piston aircraft fleet were obtained from the FAA. Statistical analyses employed Chi Square, Fisher's Exact and logistic regression analysis. Neither the combined fatal/non-fatal accident nor the fatal accident rate declined over the period spanning 2002-2012. Under visual weather conditions, the largest number, n=27, (27%) of fatal accidents was attributed to malfunction with a failure to follow single engine procedures representing the most common contributing factor. In degraded visibility, poor instrument approach procedures resulted in the greatest proportion of fatal crashes. Encountering thunderstorms was the most lethal of all accident causes with all occupants sustaining fatal injuries. At night, a failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance was the most common accident cause leading to 36% of fatal crashes. The results of logistic regression showed that operations at night (OR 3.7), off airport landings (OR 14.8) and post-impact fire (OR 7.2) all carried an excess risk of a fatal flight. This study indicates training areas that should receive increased emphasis for twin-engine training/recency. First, increased training should be provided on single engine procedures in the event of an engine failure. Second, more focus should be placed on instrument approaches and recovery from unusual aircraft attitude where visibility is degraded. Third, pilots should be made aware of appropriate speed selection for inadvertent flights in convective weather. Finally, emphasizing the importance of conducting night operations under instrument flight rules with its altitude restrictions should lead to a diminished proportion of accidents attributed to failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance. PMID:25701648

  17. Investigating plutonium contamination in marine sediments off Fukushima coast following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident has caused large amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides to be released into the atmosphere as well as directly discharged into the sea. To obtain the vertical distribution of Pu isotopes in marine sediments and to better assess the possible contamination from the FDNPP accident in the marine environment, activities of 239+240Pu and 241Pu, as well as the atom ratios of 240Pu/239Pu and 241Pu/239Pu, were investigated in a sediment core collected from the western North Pacific in July 2011. The observed vertical profile of 239+240Pu activities and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios showed no extra injection of Pu from the accident, indicating no immediate Pu contamination from the FDNPP accident in the marine sediments in the region investigated. (author)

  18. The Analysis of the Contribution of Human Factors to the In-Flight Loss of Control Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2012-01-01

    In-flight loss of control (LOC) is currently the leading cause of fatal accidents based on various commercial aircraft accident statistics. As the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) emerges, new contributing factors leading to LOC are anticipated. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), along with other aviation agencies and communities are actively developing safety products to mitigate the LOC risk. This paper discusses the approach used to construct a generic integrated LOC accident framework (LOCAF) model based on a detailed review of LOC accidents over the past two decades. The LOCAF model is comprised of causal factors from the domain of human factors, aircraft system component failures, and atmospheric environment. The multiple interdependent causal factors are expressed in an Object-Oriented Bayesian belief network. In addition to predicting the likelihood of LOC accident occurrence, the system-level integrated LOCAF model is able to evaluate the impact of new safety technology products developed in AvSP. This provides valuable information to decision makers in strategizing NASA's aviation safety technology portfolio. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of human causal factors in the model, including the contributions from flight crew and maintenance workers. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) taxonomy was used to develop human related causal factors. The preliminary results from the baseline LOCAF model are also presented.

  19. Effective Factors in Severity of Traffic Accident-Related Traumas; an Epidemiologic Study Based on the Haddon Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Masoumi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traffic accidents are the 8th cause of mortality in different countries and are expected to rise to the 3rd rank by 2020. Based on the Haddon matrix numerous factors such as environment, host, and agent can affect the severity of traffic-related traumas. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effective factors in severity of these traumas based on Haddon matrix. Methods: In the present 1-month cross-sectional study, all the patients injured in traffic accidents, who were referred to the ED of Imam Khomeini and Golestan Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, during March 2013 were evaluated. Based on the Haddon matrix, effective factors in accident occurrence were defined in 3 groups of host, agent, and environment. Demographic data of the patients and data regarding Haddon risk factors were extracted and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: 700 injured people with the mean age of 29.66 ± 12.64 years (3-82 were evaluated (92.4% male. Trauma mechanism was car-pedestrian in 308 (44% of the cases and car-motorcycle in 175 (25%. 610 (87.1% cases were traffic accidents and 371 (53% occurred in the time between 2 pm and 8 pm. Violation of speed limit was the most common violation with 570 (81.4% cases, followed by violation of right-of-way in 57 (8.1% patients. 59.9% of the severe and critical injuries had occurred on road accidents, while 61.3% of the injuries caused by traffic accidents were mild to moderate (p < 0.001. The most common mechanisms of trauma for critical injuries were rollover (72.5%, motorcycle-pedestrian (23.8%, and car-motorcycle (13.14% accidents (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the most important effective factors in severity of traffic accident-related traumas were age over 50, not using safety tools, and undertaking among host-related factors; insufficient environment safety, road accidents and time between 2 pm and 8 pm among environmental factors; and finally, rollover, car-pedestrian, and motorcycle-pedestrian accidents among the agent factors.

  20. Fukushima nuclear accident independent investigation commission by the National Diet of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, Independent Investigation Commission (IIC) was firstly established in constitutional government by the National Diet of Japan. This article described recognition of its necessity, its setup process, its framework with start from almost zero and about 6 months period and time, its basic way to proceed investigation and several obstacles and hardships, significance of openness to the public, web's communication and simultaneous interpretation (transparency) and basic philosophy of the report. Further significance of Diet's IIC in the democratic system and evaluation of the report were added. As a problem of separation of three powers in Japan, specific recommendations to the legislation of IIC and their future evaluation, nation's governance system problem and social responsibility of scientists and others were also discussed. If Japan were not to be changed after the disaster, Japanese future might be unreliable. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 or 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study. In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation. 43 refs., 6 tabs

  2. Investigation of relationship between mental workload and information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the relationship between an operator's mental workload and the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and further to propose the information flow rate as an analytic method for measuring the mental workload. There are two types of mental workload in the advanced MCR of NPPs: the information processing workload, which is the processing that the human operator must actually perform in order to complete the diagnosis task, and emotional stress workload experienced by the operator. In this study, the focus is on the former. Three kinds of methods are used to measure the operator's workload: information flow rate, subjective methods, and physiological measures. Information flows for eight accident diagnosis tasks are modeled qualitatively using a stage model and are quantified using Conant's model. The eight accident cases are considered here are: Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), Steam Line Break (SLB), Feedwater Line Break (FLB), Pressurizer (PZR) spray and heater failure, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) trip, Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) failure, and PZR spray failure. The information flow rate is obtained for each diagnosis task by imposing time limit restrictions for the tasks. Subjective methods require the operators to respond to questionnaires to rate their level of mental effort. NASA-TLX and MCH scale are selected as subjective methods. NASA-TLX is a subjective method used in the various fields including the aviation, automobile, and nuclear industries. It has a multi-dimensional rating technique and provides an overall workload score based on a weighted average on six subscales using pair-wise comparison tests. MCH, on the other hand, is one-dimensional and uses a 10- point rating technique. As with NASA-TLX, the higher the score is, the higher the subjective workload is. For the physiological measurements, an eye tracking system analyzes eye movements related to the operator's blinking and fixation on Areas Of Interests (AOIs). AOIs in the simulator interface, FISA-2/WS, are defined to analyzed the eye movement data. Blink frequency, blink duration, eye closure fraction, number of fixations on AOIs, and fixation time on AOIs are analyzed as the physiological measures. The duration and the rate of blinking decrease when the mental demand of the task increases. Since visual input is unavailable during eye closure, reduced blink rates help to maintain continuous visual input when high levels of attention are required. With higher the mental workloads, the fixation time and the more the number of fixations for instrument observation both increase. Through the experiments, the relationship between the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and the selected measures is investigated. Results show that the information flow rate is significantly related to the subjective measures and physiological measures. In this study, the information flow rate of diagnosis tasks is in high agreement with both subjective rating scores and eye movements parameters related to blinking and fixation on AOIs. It appears, then, that information flow rate can be an alternative as an analytic approach for measuring mental workload. By using data on the information flow rate, we can predict the mental workload required for a task without performing experiments in advance

  3. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues AN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, sedentariness, metabolic syndrome

  4. Investigation of the radiological impact of reactor accidents under probabilistic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis and conceptional investigation have been performed for the accident consequence model of the German reactor risk study. A dynamic atmospheric diffusion model is developed, which is applied in the first stage of the study to all distance ranges, and will be restricted finally to the long distance range. The wind direction and its variations are not taken into account in this model. The program set UFO-BAS calculates the time integrated nuclide concentration in air at any location downwind of the source. A further model which takes into account wind direction variations is being developed. On the basis of the proposals for the calculation of the health effects in the German risk study considerations on the storage requirements were accomplished. By means of these assessments a revised grid of parameters was evaluated. Furthermore, considerations were made for the implementation of an evaluation model, which will be developed by the Institut fuer Unfallforschung. (orig./RW)

  5. The investigation on the public panic caused from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March 11, 2011, a huge earthquake and tidal waves in Japan lead to dangerous levels of nuclear leakage at Fukushima nuclear plant, the nuclear accident also cause public panic m many countries. To investigate the reason of the public panic, we employ the theories of sociology and psychology, analyzed that the public panic come from Ignorant Panic. Herd Behavior, Primacy Effect, Stereotype Activation Effect, and the superposition of these effects. In addition, we proposed three measures to the public panic: First, we should emphasize the safety of nuclear power and establish the positive image of nuclear power Second, we should emphasize the popular science of nuclear power so that nu clear power can be accepted in the public; Third, we should enhance the psychological intervention system for nuclear safe emergency and improve the effect of psychological intervention

  6. An Investigation of the Accident Behaviour for VVER-440/213 Type reactors using ESTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the first phase of a project, which aimed to replace the Source Term Code Package (STCP) by the European code package ESTER (European Source Term Evaluation Research) to investigate the phenomena during a hypothetical accident in a VVER-440/213 type reactor. At first several codes of ESTER were implemented on the RISC-6000 of the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf followed by a validation. Finally the reference case for VVER-1000 type reactors was calculated with ICARE2 and compared with STCP results. Using the known references for VVER-440/213 reactors a data base for this reactor type was generated. However it was not possible to perform a complete source term calculation with ESTER. The reasons are summarized in a concluding chapter. (author)

  7. Study of Factors Related to Accidents Occuring during the Construction Phase of Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Asilian Mahabadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Construction phase in industries is a dynamic process that is naturally and intrinsically dangerous and as it becomes more complicated, the accidents rate also increases. One should note that without considering a model, one could not obtain useful and reliable information and method to prevent accidents. Therefore, to achieve useful methods for preventing accidents, it is desirable to consider a model. The general goal of this study was presentation of a model. A model is the reflection of a fact. In other words, it should be said that the model represents a system or process whose behavior can be predicted. Models are therefore used for understanding the behavior of actual terminals and show a theory in the way that covers important variables for describing phenomena and instead, ignore factors of low importance in the expression of those phenomena. Methods: This study was a research article conducted in 2004-2005 in the Assaluyeh region. Data was gathered from accident reports present in security and health records of the projects and also statistics present at the treatment centers. In this study, an analytical model (multi-regression was presented to describe the impact of effective and deep factors on the possibility of an increase in accidents leading to death, through measurement of the effects of independent variables on the dependent variables. For this purpose, the structure of 50 accidents that led to death were studied along with another 2700 accidents, and after studying the accident reports and related documents, observing operations and equipment, counseling with accident observers and an expert team of managers, supervisors and engineers, and simulation of some accidents, unsafe conditions and functions, mismanagement and use of worn out and defective tools, equipment, devices and machinery were considered as the four independent variables and the job accidents leading to death were considered as dependent variables. The relationship between independent and dependent variables, evaluation of regression coefficients and the test of different models were based on multi-regression analytical model and analyzed using Eviews software program. Results: The final findings of this study, while specifying the possibility of occurrence of accidents leading to death with the existence of any of the independent variables showed that among the independent variables, unsafe conditions and mismanagement have relatively more important roles to play in the occurrence of accidents leading to death such that in conclusion, these factors have been defined as root causes in the model. Conclusion: Since the adjusted coefficient determined for the model in this research was 0.99; that is, the specified model could describe 99 percent of changes related to the number of job accidents leading to death and it is only for one percent of other accidents that there was no justified answer. In another words, those causes were not seen in the model. Therefore, it could be concluded that this research as compared to similar researches gained more useful results. Thus, by omitting or lowering unsafe conditions and mismanagement factors, accidents resulting in deaths can be reduced.

  8. 32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Park, Seyoung; Shin, Seongwook; Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2014-10-01

    In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated (32)P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a (32)P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between (32)P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The (32)P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67 ± 0.15 and 0.59 ± 0.06 Gy (Bq g(-1))(-1) at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. PMID:24516187

  9. A Human and Organizational Factors Perspective on the Fukushima Nuclear Accident - March 11 - March 15, 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident using a human and organizational factors framework. It analyzes the crisis at three levels: the front-line operators; the plant as a whole; and the political context including the management team of the electric company and national politicians. By looking at each of these levels as well as the relationships between them, this report describes the way the organizational structures and their accident management procedures contribute to or hinder the resolution of the crisis. The report offers detailed chronologies of the unfolding of the crisis at each of the three active reactors at Fukushima Dai-ichi, at the political level, and at Fukushima Dai-ni. These case descriptions are used as the basis for an analysis drawing on risk and crisis management studies, in particular examining Perrow's (1999) centralization-decentralization conundrum and Weick's (1988, 1993, 1995) work on sense-making, among others. The main findings include: 1/ The accident disrupts not only the situation, but also in the ways people go about gathering information on the situation People had to make sense of what happened and find new ways to interpret limited information 2/ Tue interruption of the communication flow between the ERC and MCR can have dramatic consequences. It is important to maintain the communication between the ERC and MCR in all circumstances. 3/ The difficulty of simultaneously supervise crisis room tranches due to its under sizing. A capacity adjustment to the ERC must be made according to the number of reactors involved. 4/ Because of the reluctance to make the decision to test a new possibility in a crisis context, internal coordination is necessary to decide on the implementation of new solutions. Cross-functional teams can be very useful in coming up with new solutions. 5/ Worker safety policies should be as clear and specific as possible before accidents occur. Where sub-contractors are involved, clear policies on worker safety and degree of commitment are even more important. 6/ Decentralization, even when planned and professed, may be difficult to maintain in practice, particularly as crisis become drawn out. (authors)

  10. Reduction factors for wooden houses due to external ?-radiation based on in situ measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kanagami, Takashi; Uegaki, Masaki; Tashima, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    For estimation of residents' exposure dose after a nuclear accident, the reduction factor, which is the ratio of the indoor dose to the outdoor dose is essential, as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we evaluated the median reduction factor with an interquartile range of 0.43 (0.34–0.53) based on 522 survey results for 69 detached wooden houses in two evacuation zones, Iitate village and Odaka district. The results indicated no...

  11. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine (Ecole des Mines de Paris, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France))

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and intractable, and methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. The number of methods in each group were four, three, zero, and two, respectively. Faced with the need to investigate an accident it is essential that the chosen method is appropriate for the system and the situation. Nuclear power plants considered as systems are tightly coupled and more or less intractable and therefore require accident models and accident investigation methods that are capable of accounting for these features. If an accident concerns the NPP operation as a whole, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. If an accident only concerns the operation of a subsystem or a component, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, or possible loosely coupled and tractable. The report provides a proposal for how these characteristics can be determined. The conclusion is that no specific method is the overall best in the sense that it can be used for all conditions. While it may be convenient, or even necessary, for an organisation to adopt a specific method as its standard, this should always be done knowingly and with a willingness to reconsider the choice when the conditions so demand it. In five or ten years we must expect that the methods developed today will have been partly obsolete, not because the methods change but because the nature of socio-technical systems, and therefore the nature of accidents, do

  12. Factors Associated with Nurses’ Intention to Leave Their Jobs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshinobu; Hayashida, Naomi; Orita, Makiko; Urata, Hideko; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Yumiko; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey among nurses who were working at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to clarify the factors associated with their intention to leave their jobs during the radiation emergency. We asked 345 nurses (17 men and 328 women) about their intention to leave their jobs after the accident. We also asked about relevant factors including the participants’ demographic factors, living situation, working status, and knowledge of radiation health effects. We found that living with preschoolers (OR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.02–3.44, p = 0.042), anxiety about life in Fukushima City after the accident (OR = 5.55, 95%CI: 1.18–26.13, p = 0.030), consideration of evacuation from Fukushima after the accident (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.45–4.06, p = 0.001), consideration of the possible radiation health effects in children (OR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.02–3.44, p = 0.042), and anxiety about relationships with colleagues in the hospital after the accident (OR = 3.23, p = 0.001) were independently associated with the nurses’ intention to leave their jobs after the accident. On the other hand, the percentage of nurses with knowledge on radiation health effects was relatively low among those who had the intention to leave the job and among those who did not have the intention to leave the job after the accident, with no significant differences between the two groups. Our results suggest the need for an education program for nurses regarding radiation health effects. PMID:25816345

  13. Learning lessons from accidents with a human and organisational factors perspective: deficiencies and failures of operating experience feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at reminding the failures of operating experience feedback (OEF) systems through the lessons of accidents and provides a framework for improving the efficiency of OEF processes. The risk is for example to miss lessons from other companies and industrial sectors, or to miss the implementation of adequate corrective actions with the risk to repeat accidents. Most of major accidents have been caused by a learning failure or other organisational factors as a contributing cause among several root causes. Some of the recurring organisational factors are: -) poor recognition of critical components, of critical activities or deficiency in anticipation and detection of errors, -) excessive production pressure, -) deficiency of communication or lack of quality of dialogue, -) Excessive formalism, -) organisational complexity, -) learning deficiencies (OEF, closing feedback loops, lack of listening of whistle-blowers). Some major accidents occurred in the nuclear industry. Although the Three Mile Island accident has multiple causes, in particular, an inappropriate design of the man-machine interface, it is a striking example of the loss of external lessons from incidents. As for Fukushima it is too early to have established evidence on learning failures. The systematic study and organisational analysis of OEF failures in industrial accidents whatever their sector has enabled us to provide a framework for OEF improvements. Five key OEF issues to improve in priority: 1) human and organisational factors analysis of the root causes of the events, 2) listening to the field staff, dissenting voices and whistle-blowers, 3) monitoring of the external events that provide generic lessons, 4) building an alive memory through a culture of accidents with people who become experiences pillars, and 5) the setting of external audit or organisational analysis of the OEF system by independent experts. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  14. Factors associated with nurses' intention to leave their jobs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshinobu; Hayashida, Naomi; Orita, Makiko; Urata, Hideko; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Yumiko; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey among nurses who were working at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to clarify the factors associated with their intention to leave their jobs during the radiation emergency. We asked 345 nurses (17 men and 328 women) about their intention to leave their jobs after the accident. We also asked about relevant factors including the participants' demographic factors, living situation, working status, and knowledge of radiation health effects. We found that living with preschoolers (OR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.02-3.44, p = 0.042), anxiety about life in Fukushima City after the accident (OR = 5.55, 95%CI: 1.18-26.13, p = 0.030), consideration of evacuation from Fukushima after the accident (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.45-4.06, p = 0.001), consideration of the possible radiation health effects in children (OR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.02-3.44, p = 0.042), and anxiety about relationships with colleagues in the hospital after the accident (OR = 3.23, p = 0.001) were independently associated with the nurses' intention to leave their jobs after the accident. On the other hand, the percentage of nurses with knowledge on radiation health effects was relatively low among those who had the intention to leave the job and among those who did not have the intention to leave the job after the accident, with no significant differences between the two groups. Our results suggest the need for an education program for nurses regarding radiation health effects. PMID:25816345

  15. Prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales y factores relacionados en estudiantes de odontología / Prevalence of occupational accidents and related factors in students of dentistry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katherine M, Arrieta-Vergara; Shyrley, Díaz-Cárdenas; Farith D., González-Martínez.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Describir la prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales en estudiantes de Odontología y asociarla con factores propios de su práctica clínica. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal, desarrollado en una universidad pública de la ciudad de Cartagena en 2010. Participaron 213 estudiantes que se en [...] contraban en prácticas pre-clínicas y clínicas de odontología, que corresponden al 96,8 % de la población de referencia. Se aplicó un cuestionario auto-administrado para evaluar la ocurrencia de accidentes al igual que factores asociados. Los datos fueron analizados mediante prevalencias con intervalos de confianza al 95 %, usando la prueba chi², con nivel de significancia (p Abstract in english Objective Describe the prevalence of occupational accidents students of dentistry and associate it with factors of their clinical practice. Methods Cross-sectional study, developed in a public university in the city of Cartagena in 2010. Participants included 213 students in l pre-clinics and clinic [...] s practice of dentistry, selected by simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to evaluate the occurrence of accidents as well as the associated factors. The data were analyzed by prevalence rates with confidence intervals of 95 %, using the chi² test, with significance levels of 0.05. The Association Strength was estimated by OR and the multivariate analysis through nominal logistic regression. Results The prevalence of occupational accidents is 46 %, the type of accident most often is prick (48.7 %), caused mainly by the Explorer (28.9 %). 58.1 % of the accidents are reported and continue care protocol. 87.7 % of the students enfold the needle after use. At bivariate level, only statistically significant association between occupational accidents and semester was presented, being more frequent for the more advanced semesters (p=0.004). Conclusions because of high prevalence of occupational accidents, it is necessary to insist on the implementation of strategies for safe and appropriate environments for the development of educational practices for students.

  16. Prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales y factores relacionados en estudiantes de odontología / Prevalence of occupational accidents and related factors in students of dentistry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katherine M, Arrieta-Vergara; Shyrley, Díaz-Cárdenas; Farith D., González-Martínez.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Describir la prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales en estudiantes de Odontología y asociarla con factores propios de su práctica clínica. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal, desarrollado en una universidad pública de la ciudad de Cartagena en 2010. Participaron 213 estudiantes que se en [...] contraban en prácticas pre-clínicas y clínicas de odontología, que corresponden al 96,8 % de la población de referencia. Se aplicó un cuestionario auto-administrado para evaluar la ocurrencia de accidentes al igual que factores asociados. Los datos fueron analizados mediante prevalencias con intervalos de confianza al 95 %, usando la prueba chi², con nivel de significancia (p Abstract in english Objective Describe the prevalence of occupational accidents students of dentistry and associate it with factors of their clinical practice. Methods Cross-sectional study, developed in a public university in the city of Cartagena in 2010. Participants included 213 students in l pre-clinics and clinic [...] s practice of dentistry, selected by simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to evaluate the occurrence of accidents as well as the associated factors. The data were analyzed by prevalence rates with confidence intervals of 95 %, using the chi² test, with significance levels of 0.05. The Association Strength was estimated by OR and the multivariate analysis through nominal logistic regression. Results The prevalence of occupational accidents is 46 %, the type of accident most often is prick (48.7 %), caused mainly by the Explorer (28.9 %). 58.1 % of the accidents are reported and continue care protocol. 87.7 % of the students enfold the needle after use. At bivariate level, only statistically significant association between occupational accidents and semester was presented, being more frequent for the more advanced semesters (p=0.004). Conclusions because of high prevalence of occupational accidents, it is necessary to insist on the implementation of strategies for safe and appropriate environments for the development of educational practices for students.

  17. A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AND ITS RISK FACTORS IN JHANSI AND AROUND JHANSI CITY (U . P .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expansion in network, motorization and urbanization in the country has been accompanied by a rise in road accidents leading to road traffic injuries (RTIs. Accident represents a major epidemic of non - communicable disease in present century. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs and its risk factors in Jhansi & around Jhansi city. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A hospital based cross sectional study was carried out in MLB Medical College and Hospital , Jhansi and the cases sustaining ro ad traffic injuries registering from 1 January 2013 to 31 July 2014 were taken irrespective of the place of accident. The data was entered in excel sheet and results were expressed as proportions and percentages. RESULTS: Among them maximum number of cases were in 21 - 30 years age group (30.53% followed by 31 - 40 years (21.66% and >60 years (4.65% shows the least no. of victims. In the study majority of cases were reported from Orchha Road (11.5%. In the study it was observed that majority of accidents oc cur in winter season (37.24% and in night time (34.47%.Among them 19.68% victims stated that defective road as the most common condition associated with RTA followed by poor lighting (18.54%. CONCLUSIONS: In this study majority of victims were younger, males, less educated and labourer by occupation. Among risk factors defective roads, poor lighting, excessive speed, overloading and alcohol consumption were found causing RTAs.

  18. Effect of radiation and nonradiation factors on the population health of the Mogilev region after the Chernobyl power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative assessment of the effects of radiation and nonradiation factors on the population health in 5 districts of the Mogilev region after the Chernobyl power plant accident has shown that deterioration of the population health in some districts, changed morbidity and mortality structure were due mainly to environmental pollution with chemicals discharged into the air and water as industrial and communal wastes

  19. Main investigation results on the forest radioecology in the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accident zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the long-term studies of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in zones of radioactive contamination after the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents, the following trends were revealed: (1) High retention capacity of stand canopy with respect to radioactive fallout. This leads to high doses absorbed by apical and leaf meristems, ?-radiation giving the main part of the dose; (2) Fast self-decontamination of crowns during the growth period and relatively slow decontamination in the phase of physiological rest, regardless of amount of atmospheric precipitation. The rate of crown decontamination determines the value and duration of radiation stress on woody plants; (3) Accumulation not less than 95% of the total radionuclide amount in the forest litter 1-2 years after the cessation of radioactive fallout; (4) Relatively slow migration of strontium and cesium radionuclides along the forest soil profile; (5) High capacity of the forest when serving as a biogeochemical barrier to the routes of horizontal and vertical radionuclide migration and export out of the zone of initial contamination, including migration into the river water; (6) Considerable difference between strontium and cesium when migrating in forest soils and in the soil-plant system; (7) Broad variations in transfer factors for uptake of cesium-137 from soil into forest plants depending on the plant species and soil type. The primary radiobiological effects connected with irradiation of organisms are considered and secondary disturbances due to changes of ecological bonds between the components of irradiated forest ecosystem are discussed

  20. The investigation on the mass media reports on the JCO accident in the major atomic energy countries and Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JCO (Japan Conversion Organization) accident is the worst one in the history of the atomic energy developments in Japan. The many reports about the accident appeared in the 44 mass media in the world from Sep. 30 to Oct. 14, 1999. Chronological statistics of issued 522 articles are listed under particular criteria. Some of them were based on wrong knowledge and/or overestimations about the accident based on delivered articles by the news agency. Some of others gave critics over the total atomic energy industries of Japan, especially on safety managements and so-called similar Japan syndromes. This investigation gives emphasis on the articles based on wrong knowledge. We identified the countries and the newspaper publishers and the news agencies those gave wrong descriptions. Total 25 articles used the words [explosion] and [fire], which were delivered from the Kyodo News Service. Some of the Asian newspaper wrote that a large quantity of radioactivity, radioactive material and/or nuclear fuels was released. Some other news publishers said the accident was happened at fuel reprocessing facilities, when the waste fuel rods were under cutting. Critics delivered in the individual countries were summarized, i.e. USA, Canada, France, UK, German, Russia, Australia, China, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Taiwan and the news agencies. One of the key issues is the exact information release for the press corps on the early stage of the accidents. The second point is to recognize the different status on atomic energy in the individual countries, when Japan want to explain their domestic situations. Accidents of atomic energy gave many impacts on various aspects to other countries. Japan should understand the neighborhood by collecting world information on atomic energy and analyzing them. Summaries of 522 articles appeared in the mass media were attached in this investigation among the report of 180 pages. (Tanaka, Y.)

  1. Investigation on droplet impingement erosion during steam generator tube failure accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Sodium droplet impingement is regarded as one of the mechanisms causing secondary tube failure in case of steam generator tube rupture accident. ? The moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method is applied to simulate the sodium droplet impingement. ? The erosion rate correlation for water impingement is extended for application in the sodium impingement. - Abstract: Droplet impingement erosion is one of the reasons causing the secondary heat transfer tube damage in case of the heat transfer tube failure in the steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor. This paper has been dedicated to investigate the impingement phenomena, pressure load and the damage rate by impingement. Single droplet impingement on the rigid wall was first simulated with MPS-AS (moving particle semi-implicit method for all speeds) method for water and sodium. The shockwave propagation during the impingement has been well captured. The pressure load by water impingement can be characterized with . A correlation for pressure load by sodium impingement is proposed based on the water hammer theory. The new correlation shows to be consistent with the simulation result. For prediction of erosion rate by sodium droplet impingement, were extended by including the effects of liquid properties, i.e. density, sound speed and viscosity. The extended correlations show similar prediction accuracy to the original ones.

  2. Accumulation factors and biogeochemical aspects of migration of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems in the areas impacted by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation factors of radionuclides, such as 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr, 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 140Ru, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce and 144Ce, in fish, mollusks and aquatic plants of the water bodies in the near and distant areas of the Chernobyl accident ''footprint'' were estimated. The dynamics of changes in the factors of accumulation by the organisms of radioisotopes of iodine, cesium and strontium was analyzed. (orig.)

  3. Human factors as causes for road traffic accidents in the Sultanate of Oman under consideration of road construction designs

    OpenAIRE

    Plankermann, Kai

    2014-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman has one of the highest road traffic accident (RTA) related fatality rates worldwide (Al Lamki, 2010). Since Sultan Qaboos addressed this issue in a speech in October 2009, research institutions, ministries and NGOs alike have strengthened their efforts to cope with this public health burden. Yet, still little is known about the factors contributing to the high number of RTAs. Evidence from research conducted in other countries suggests that the human factor and the i...

  4. A abordagem sociotécnica na investigação e na prevenção de acidentes aéreos: o caso do vôo RG-254 / Sociotechnical approach to investigation and prevention of aircraft accidents: the case of flight RG-254

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vitor Alexandre de Freitas, Cardoso; Henrique Luiz, Cukierman.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta estudo de caso do acidente ocorrido com o vôo RG-254 da Varig, em setembro de 1989. Partindo de informações de investigações oficiais, publicações, material audiovisual, entrevistas com envolvidos no acidente e especialistas em segurança de vôo, os autores re-analisam o acident [...] e com enfoque sociotécnico referenciado na teoria ator-rede e no conceito de acidente "normal". O texto apresenta novo entendimento para a investigação de acidentes na aviação criticando a tradicional repartição de causas entre os chamados fatores "humanos", "técnicos" e "operacionais" e sugere aplicação do conceito de multicausalidade que não se restringe à mera listagem de "fatores contribuintes", mas que analisa as relações entre atores-redes envolvidos no sistema de aviação em que ocorreu o acidente. O acidente do RG-254 é descrito como sintoma do rompimento de relações entre os atores que atuam no sistema. Abstract in english This article presents a case study of the accident with Varig flight RG-254 in September 1989. Using as starting point the official investigation data, publications, audiovisual material and interviews with those involved in the accident as well as flight safety specialists, the authors re-analyze t [...] he accident through a sociotechnical focus, which is based on the actor-network theory and concepts of "normal" accident. The text presents a new understanding of aviation accident investigation and it reviews the traditional terms of investigation based on a rigid division between "human", "technical" and "operational" factors. It also suggests the application of the multi-causality concept, which is not restricted to a mere list of "contributing factors", but which analyzes the relationships among the actor-networks involved in the aviation system where the accident occurred. The RG-254 accident is described as a symptom of the rupture of relationship among those acting in the system.

  5. Investigation of accident management procedures related to loss of feedwater and station blackout in PSB-VVER integral test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucalossi, A. [EC JRC, (JRC F.5) PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Del Nevo, A., E-mail: alessandro.delnevo@enea.it [ENEA, C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Moretti, F.; D' Auria, F. [GRNSPG, Universita di Pisa, via Diotisalvi 2, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Elkin, I.V.; Melikhov, O.I. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre, Electrogorsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four integral test facility experiments related to VVER-1000 reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TH response of the VVER-1000 primary system following total loss of feedwater and station blackout scenarios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accident management procedures in case of total loss of feedwater and station blackout. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data represent an improvement of existing database for TH code validation. - Abstract: VVER 1000 reactors have some unique and specific features (e.g. large primary and secondary side fluid inventory, horizontal steam generators, core design) that require dedicated experimental and analytical analyses in order to assess the performance of safety systems and the effectiveness of possible accident management strategies. The European Commission funded project 'TACIS 2.03/97', Part A, provided valuable experimental data from the large-scale (1:300) PSB-VVER test facility, investigating accident management procedures in VVER-1000 reactor. A test matrix was developed at University of Pisa (responsible of the project) with the objective of obtaining the experimental data not covered by the OECD VVER validation matrix and with main focus on accident management procedures. Scenarios related to total loss of feed water and station blackout are investigated by means of four experiments accounting for different countermeasures, based on secondary cooling strategies and primary feed and bleed procedures. The transients are analyzed thoroughly focusing on the identification of phenomena that will challenge the code models during the simulations.

  6. Investigation into the March 28, 1979 Three Mile Island accident by Office of Inspection and Enforcement (Investigative Report No. 50-320/79-10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant experienced the most severe accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant operating history. This report sets forth the facts concerning the events of the accident determined as a result of an investigation by the NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement. The IE investigation is limited to two aspects of the accident: (1) Those related operational actions by the licensee during the period from before the initiating event until approximately 8:00 p.m., March 28, when primary coolant flow was re-established by starting a reactor coolant pump, and (2) Those steps taken by the licensee to control the release of radioactive material to the off-site environs, and to implement his emergency plan during the period from the initiation of the event to midnight, March 30. These investigation periods were selected because they include the licensee actions which most significantly affected the accident sequence and its results

  7. Long term effects of Minks of the radiation factors from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of small radiation dose influence on human and animal reproductive functions becomes more and more topical after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident. In the number of cases, animals that reside in continues internal, as well as external exposure zone, have pregnancy interruption in its early stages (up to 30 days). This, without any doubts testifies for reproductive process disorder as a whole (hypophysis-ovary-uterus system) and also, as its separate links. The important thing is that a break in any one of those links leads to pregnancy interruption. Hence, in order to determine any disorders in reproductive system functional state, profound and detailed morphofunctional study of the system links (accounting for radiation exposure factors) needs to be done. Because research in this field has just started, we were unable to find any material on this topic. There are, however, some references for morphofunctional changes of endocrine glands, hypophysis in particular and sex glands, refereed to small radiation doses

  8. The Columbia Accident Investigation and The NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Laboratory Contributions Supporting NASA's Return to Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry, resulting in loss of the vehicle and its seven crewmembers. For the next several months, an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA, concluded in August, 2003 that the most likely cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the mission's launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing, which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. The findings of the CAIB were supported by ballistic impact tests, which simulated the physics of External Tank Foam impact on the RCC wing leading edge material. These tests ranged from fundamental material characterization tests to full-scale Orbiter Wing Leading Edge tests. Following the accident investigation, NASA spent the next 18 months focused on returning the shuttle safely to flight. In order to fully evaluate all potential impact threats from the many debris sources on the Space Shuttle during ascent, NASA instituted a significant impact testing program. The results from these tests led to the validation of high-fidelity computer models, capable of predicting actual or potential Shuttle impact events, were used in the certification of STS-114, NASA s Return to Flight Mission, as safe to fly. This presentation will provide a look into the inner workings of the Space Shuttle and a behind the scenes perspective on the impact analysis and testing done for the Columbia Accident Investigation and NASA's Return to Flight programs. In addition, highlights from recent Shuttle missions are presented.

  9. Numerical investigation of fuel fragments dynamics in liquid lead coolant after accident with fast reactor core destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results on two-dimensional convection investigation estimates relative to the lead coolant containing solid fragments of reactor heat-releasing fuel are presented according to the task the consequences of the accident connected with fast reactor core destruction are modeled. The convective flows are determined through fuel and heat release distribution. The heat release due to neutron-physical processes by formation of fuel configurations close to critical ones is accounted for along with the residual heat release. 11 refs., 3 figs

  10. Probabilistic investigations of energy release and vessel-failure for hypotetical unprotected loss-of-flow accidents in SNR 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the common investigations are summarized that were performed by the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and Interatom Company in order to access the load on and the reaction of the primary system following an unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) accident. They are part of the more general so-called SAI study and include all ULOF sequences that are imaginable for SNR 300. (RW)

  11. Investigation of fuel and clad relocation during LMFBR initiation phase accidents. The STAR experiment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactivity effects of fuel and clad motion during unprotected loss of flow accidents stronglyu influence the accident progression in LMFBRs. To study these phenomena, a series of in-pile experiments (the STAR experiments) are being performed in which clad motion and fuel dispersal are observed in small pin bundles with high-speed cinematography. The major parameters varied in the series are power level, fuel type (fresh versus preirradiation), and number of pins. The results of the first four experiments are presented in the report. The irradiated fuel tests show early fuel disruption caused by fission products followed by rapid fuel sweep out and axial clad relocation

  12. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  13. A NEW HAZARD EVALUATION PROCEDURE FOR PREDICTING RISK FACTORS OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    With annual average of 73,937 occupational accidents and 1,152 deaths, Turkey still faces an important problem. The country exercises one of the lowest performances in job safety among the European Union countries. Developments in technology increased the importance of safety management in industry. These improvements also resulted in a requirement of more investment and assignment on human in work systems. This situation increases the importance of forecasting the possible accidents that wor...

  14. Study of risc factors affecting the number of mental disorders and nervous system diseases for people who participated in liquidation of consequences of ChNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrelation of disease incidence for liquidators and factors affecting it has been studied. The diseases (mental disorders and nervous system diseases) have been taken into account provided more than 10% of people have suffered of the above diseases. Date of getting into the accident zone; duration of work within the zone; the radiation dose accumulated were considered to be risc factors. Getting into the accident zone and duration of work within the zone of accident have been though to be the main risc factors. 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. Evaluación de factores de riesgo en accidentes oculares graves infantiles / Assessment of the risk factors for severe ocular accidents in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sahely, Sixto Fuentes; Acela, Boffill Corrales; Sandra María, Jalilo Hernández; Dayamí de la Caridad, González Pérez.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar factores de riesgo en accidentes oculares graves infantiles. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación aplicada, epidemiológica, descriptiva, longitudinal y prospectiva sobre accidentes oculares graves en el Servicio de Oftalmología del Hospital Pediátrico Provincial de Pinar del Río ( [...] 2006-2007). El universo y muestra estuvo constituido por dos grupos de niños de 1- 20 años, ambos sexos y todas las etnias. Primer Grupo: Niños con accidente ocular grave, Segundo Grupo: Niños sin accidente ocular; determinándose una muestra total de 130 seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio simple. Fueron utilizados métodos empíricos y teóricos de investigación científica. Resultados: El trauma ocular representó el 87,8% de los ingresos de urgencia durante el período. Se encontró que el grupo etáreo de 9-12 años (40%), y sexo masculino (89,2%) fueron los más afectados. Un 76,9% de los accidentados residía en zona rural. El 96,9% se encontraba fuera de la casa y sin compañía de adultos en el momento del trauma. Predominaron las familias con conocimientos y actitudes evaluados de regulares en relación a los accidentes oculares con un 57,7 % y 60,8% respectivamente. Conclusiones: Se constató elevada frecuencia de traumas oculares infantiles graves en Pinar del Río, precisando sus factores causales de riesgo y dificultades en la prevención de los mismos. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the risk factors for severe ocular accidents in children. Methods: An applied, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and prospective research of the severe ocular accidents was conducted in the Ophthalmologic Service at "Pepe Portilla" Provincial Children Hospital, Pinar de [...] l Rio. The target group and the sample were comprised of two groups of children from 1 to 16 years old of both sexes and all ethnics. First group: children and adolescents suffering from severe ocular accidents. Second group: children and adolescents without ocular accidents; a total sample of 130 patients were chosen by means of a simple sampling at random. Empiric and theoretical scientific research methods were used. Results: The ocular trauma represented 87, 8% of the admissions in the emergency service during the period. The group of ages between 9-12 and male sex (89, 2%) were the most affected; 76, 9% lived in rural zones and 96, 9% of the accidents occurred out of the house without adult company; knowledge and attitudes towards ocular accidents were evaluated as fair in families (57,7% and 60,8% respectively). Conclusions: a high frequency of severe ocular traumas in children was verified in Pinar del Rio, specifying causal risk factors and difficulties to prevent these accidents

  16. Evaluación de factores de riesgo en accidentes oculares graves infantiles Assessment of the risk factors for severe ocular accidents in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahely Sixto Fuentes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar factores de riesgo en accidentes oculares graves infantiles. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación aplicada, epidemiológica, descriptiva, longitudinal y prospectiva sobre accidentes oculares graves en el Servicio de Oftalmología del Hospital Pediátrico Provincial de Pinar del Río (2006-2007. El universo y muestra estuvo constituido por dos grupos de niños de 1- 20 años, ambos sexos y todas las etnias. Primer Grupo: Niños con accidente ocular grave, Segundo Grupo: Niños sin accidente ocular; determinándose una muestra total de 130 seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio simple. Fueron utilizados métodos empíricos y teóricos de investigación científica. Resultados: El trauma ocular representó el 87,8% de los ingresos de urgencia durante el período. Se encontró que el grupo etáreo de 9-12 años (40%, y sexo masculino (89,2% fueron los más afectados. Un 76,9% de los accidentados residía en zona rural. El 96,9% se encontraba fuera de la casa y sin compañía de adultos en el momento del trauma. Predominaron las familias con conocimientos y actitudes evaluados de regulares en relación a los accidentes oculares con un 57,7 % y 60,8% respectivamente. Conclusiones: Se constató elevada frecuencia de traumas oculares infantiles graves en Pinar del Río, precisando sus factores causales de riesgo y dificultades en la prevención de los mismos.Objective: To assess the risk factors for severe ocular accidents in children. Methods: An applied, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and prospective research of the severe ocular accidents was conducted in the Ophthalmologic Service at "Pepe Portilla" Provincial Children Hospital, Pinar del Rio. The target group and the sample were comprised of two groups of children from 1 to 16 years old of both sexes and all ethnics. First group: children and adolescents suffering from severe ocular accidents. Second group: children and adolescents without ocular accidents; a total sample of 130 patients were chosen by means of a simple sampling at random. Empiric and theoretical scientific research methods were used. Results: The ocular trauma represented 87, 8% of the admissions in the emergency service during the period. The group of ages between 9-12 and male sex (89, 2% were the most affected; 76, 9% lived in rural zones and 96, 9% of the accidents occurred out of the house without adult company; knowledge and attitudes towards ocular accidents were evaluated as fair in families (57,7% and 60,8% respectively. Conclusions: a high frequency of severe ocular traumas in children was verified in Pinar del Rio, specifying causal risk factors and difficulties to prevent these accidents

  17. Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

  18. Investigation of genetic factors in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lima Bomfim, Izaura

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease where the transmission of signals in the central nervous system is affected leading to a broad range of symptoms. The aetiology of the disease is unknown but multiple genetic and environmental factors are believed to play a part. While no environmental factor has been unequivocally established a lot has happened with regard to our knowledge of the genetic component of MS. Besides the consistent replication of associations with the...

  19. Contribution of activation products to fusion accident risk: part 1. A preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Release of neutron-activation products in severe hypothetical fusion-reactor accidents may constitute a larger health hazard than that of the tritium released at the same time. Significant escape of activation products could result from lithium fires hot enough to melt and partly vaporize activated first-wall materials, or from other accident sequences that bring air into contact with activated structure hot enough to cause the formation of volatile metal oxides. Analysis of three combinations of structural materials and severe accident scenarios has been undertaken for an early conceptual tokamak reactor, using a simple consequence model based on that of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Reactor Safety Study (the Rasmussen report) to determine conceivable radiation doses near the plant boundary. No attempt was made to estimate probabilities for such severe events. In the cases of stainless-steel and molybdenum structures subject to massive lithium fires, the boundary doses far exceed those that would be produced by release of the entire plant inventory of tritium and are comparable to the doses similarly calculated for ''worst case'' light water reactor accidents. The case of niobium fusion reactor structure is more favorable. These results, based on an early fusion-reactor design not optimized with respect to safety characteristics, may well portray a worst case picture of fusion accident consequences. They suggest, however, that the large potential safety advantages of fusion compared to fission are not necessarily inherent for all designs and choices of materials, and they motivate attention to the several available strategies for greatly reducing the potential for activation-product release from fusion reactors

  20. Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatero, J. (Finnish Meteorogical Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Haemeri, K. (Helsinki Univ., Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Jaakkola, T. (Helsinki Univ., Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland)); Jantunen, M. (National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland)); Koivukoski, J. (Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Government (Finland)); Saxen, R. (STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 muR h-1 [1 muSv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

  1. Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 ?R h-1 [1 ?Sv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

  2. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  3. Experimental and calculational investigations of accident processes during the standard problems at the ISB-WWER integral test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time on the basis of experiments as were performed at the two-loop integral thermal testing unit ISB-WWER modulating the first circuit of the reactor facility with WWER-1000 five standard problems were studied in 1993 - 2001 for the investigation into accident regimes of loss of coolant in the first circuit. Verification of native and frontier calculating thermal hydraulic codes: TECH', KORSAR, ATHLET, CATHARE, RELAP was checked. Results of verification calculations were sufficiently consistent with experimental data. Most of processes and events that were a possibility in emergency conditions with WWER-1000 at low and middle flow of coolant were reproduced in the experiments. Analysis of the results demonstrates that with use of these calculating codes accident processes are simulated

  4. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents

  5. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Yusof bin [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Taha, Zahari bin [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  6. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  7. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues AN; GR Abreu; Resende RS; Goncalves WL; Gouvea SA

    2013-01-01

    Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentarines...

  8. Contribution of cognitive factors to the prediction of post-traumatic stress disorder, phobia and depression after motor vehicle accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Ehring, T.; Ehlers, A; Glucksman, E

    2006-01-01

    Past research into the psychological consequences of traumatic events has largely focused on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), although other anxiety disorders and depression are also common in the aftermath of trauma. Little is known about differential predictors of these conditions. The present study investigated the extent to which theoretically derived cognitive variables predict PTSD, phobias and depression after motor vehicle accidents. The cognitive predictors were compared to a s...

  9. Evaluation of total loss of feedwater accident/recovery phase and investigation of the associated EOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the sequence of event and the thermohydraulic behavior during total loss of feedwater accident and recovery procedure, a RELAP5/MOD3 calculation is performed and compared with the LOFT L9-1/L3-3 experiment. Also, the predictability of the code for the major thermohydraulic phenomena following the accident is assessed. As a result, it is found that a pressure control using the spray until the time the water level reaches the top of the pressurizer, an overpressure protection by pressurizer PORV, a recovery of the secondary heat removal capability by refilling steam generator, and an effective cooldown by the continued natural circulation can be perfomed without core uncovery. It is also found that the plantspecific evaluation is necessary to confirm the effectiveness of the current symptom-oriented emergency operating procedure, especially in an overpressure protection performance and steam generator recovery performance. (Author)

  10. Trends in state-level freight accident rates: An enhancement of risk factor development for RADTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is concerned with understanding and managing risk as it applies to the shipment of spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Understanding risk in relation to mode and geography may provide opportunities to minimize radiological and non-radiological risks of transportation. To enhance such an understanding, a set of state-or waterway-specific accident, fatality, and injury rates (expressed as rates per shipment kilometer) by transportation mode and highway administrative class was developed, using publicly-available data bases. Adjustments made to accommodate miscoded or incomplete information in accident data are described, as well as the procedures for estimating state-level flow data. Results indicate that the shipping conditions under which spent fuel is likely to be transported should be less subject to accidents than the ''average'' shipment within mode. 10 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Immunological and epidemiological investigations in regions contaminated by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out in Novozybkov district of Bryansk region, Russia, immunologic inspection of residents with simultaneous evaluation of radionuclides content in the body and individual dose burden. We have not found any correlation between the dose and immune characteristics: amount of T and B lymphocytes, antibodies level. Only 3 months after the accident increased level of antibodies against thyroid antigens, thyroglobulin and microsomes was found at thyroid doses over 75 cGy. 3 tabs

  12. Statistical investigation on the relation between car accident and warm katabatic winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible relationship between warm katabatic winds and human health and behaviour is analyzed; notwithstanding popular belief which is very positive about it, the connection has not been previously analyzed with the proper methods. We use a statistical model to address this question and our data suggest that the effects of warm katabatic winds in the Po Valley (Italy) can indeed be detected in the increase of car accidents

  13. Investigation of Two-Wheeled Road Traffic Accidents using Explicit FE Techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    McLundie, W. M.

    2007-01-01

    With the increase of road traffic accidents increasing due to motorised traffic in the developing world growing alongside the more traditional bicycles and light motorcycles there is good reason to re-examine the two-wheeler case. In addition, if you include the large congestion charge scheme now underway in London and similar projects being considered in other cities globally, there is an even stronger case. These schemes encourage commuters to get back onto two wheels but ...

  14. Occupational accidents and affecting factors of metal industry in a factory in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa N. Ilhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective:According to the statistics of the Social Security Institution, 18672 occupational accidents occurred in the metal industry in 2008 in Turkey. Whereas 78 of these accidents resulted in death, 252 people became permanently incapable of working. In 2008, 369677 working days were lost as a result of occupational accidents. Evaluating the reasons for and the results of accidents in the metal industry and contributing to the development of recommendations for prevention in accordance with the information obtained. Method: The study was conducted with 201 of 210 workers working in heavy metal manufacturing and construction in the building company between April 2008 and June 2008. Results: The frequency of occupational accidents among the metal workers was 22% between January 2007 and June 2008. The reasons for the workers’ accidents are listed as; insufficient use of personal protective equipment (44%, carelessness (37%, and personal reasons, not to be taken of security measures at machines and looms/ unsuitable machines (both 17%.Conclusion: The study demonstrates that the accidents mostly occur because of failure to use of personal protective equipment, insufficient vocational training. Key Words: Occupational, accident, metal industry, preventionAnkara’da bir metal sanayi fabrikas?nda i? kazalar? ve etkileyen faktörler Özet Amaç: 2008 y?l?nda Sosyal Güvenlik Kurumu’nun verilerine göre metal sanayisinde 18672 i? kazas? meydana gelmi? ve 369677 i?günü kayb? olmu?tur.  Bu kazalardan 78 tanesi ölümle sonuçlan?rken, 252 ki?i kal?c? olarak i?göremez hale gelmi?tir. Metal sanayisinde meydana gelen kazalar?n sebep ve sonuçlar?n? inceleyerek, elde edilen bilgiler do?rultusunda kazalar?n önlenmesine yönelik tavsiyelerin geli?tirilmesi amaçlanm??t?r. Yöntem: Ara?t?rma, Ankara’da faaliyet gösteren a??r metal imalat, konstrüksiyon ve in?aat sanayi ?irketinde 2008 Nisan-2008 Haziran döneminde çal??an 210 i?çinin 201’ine anket uygulanmas?yla yürütülmü?tür. Bulgular: Ocak 2007 ve Haziran 2008 tarihleri aras?nda metal i?çilerinin i? kazas? s?kl??? %22 bulunmu?tur. ?? kazalar?n?n nedenleri olarak yetersiz ki?sel koruyucu ekipman kullan?m? (%44, dikkatsizlik (%37, ki?isel nedenler (%17 ile makine ve tezgahlarda güvenlik önlemlerinin al?nmamas?/makinelerin uygun olmamas? (%17 belirtilmi?tir. Sonuç: Çal??ma, i? kazalar?n?n ço?unlukla ki?isel koruyucu ekipman?n kullan?m?ndaki eksiklikten ve yetersiz mesleki e?itimden kaynakland???n? ortaya koymu?tur. Anahtar Kelimeler: ??, kaza, metal sanayi, önleme 

  15. Reduction factors for wooden houses due to external ?-radiation based on in situ measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kanagami, Takashi; Uegaki, Masaki; Tashima, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    For estimation of residents' exposure dose after a nuclear accident, the reduction factor, which is the ratio of the indoor dose to the outdoor dose is essential, as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we evaluated the median reduction factor with an interquartile range of 0.43 (0.34-0.53) based on 522 survey results for 69 detached wooden houses in two evacuation zones, Iitate village and Odaka district. The results indicated no statistically significant difference in the median reduction factor to the representative value of 0.4 given in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-TECDOC-225 and 1162. However, with regard to the representative range of the reduction factor, we recommend the wider range of 0.2 to 0.7 or at least 0.2 to 0.6, which covered 87.7% and 80.7% of the data, respectively, rather than 0.2 to 0.5 given in the IAEA document, which covered only 66.5% of the data. We found that the location of the room within the house and area topography, and the use of cement roof tiles had the greatest influence on the reduction factor. PMID:25519512

  16. Investigation of Depth Distribution of Radionuclides in Soil Contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Haruo; Niizato, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Shingo; Abe, Hironobu; Aoki, Kazuhiro

    2014-05-01

    This work was conducted as one of the researches relating to distribution maps of radiation dose rate etc. which the government has promoted as one of the counter-measures to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, and the 2nd investigation on the depth distribution of radionuclides (RNs) in soil was conducted after about 1 year from the accident, succeedingly to the 1st investigation which was conducted after about 3 months from the accident. Soil core samples to about 50cm deep were taken at 11 locations in Nihonmatsu-city, Kawamata-town and Namie-town. Sorption-desorption experiments of Cs-137 and I-131, CEC and AEC measurements and mineralogical analyses by XRD were conducted for 3 types of soils (sandy, clayey, organic) and those elutriated components (clay, silt, sand). Radiocaesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) and Ag-110m were detected at all locations investigated and only at locations where radiation dose rate is high, respectively. Radiocaesium more than 95% and 99% of the inventory distributed within 5cm and 10cm deep in soil in the surface layer (mainly sandy soil), respectively, and distributed within 16cm and 20cm deep in organic soil and soil at locations where are supposed to have been used as farmland, respectively. Radiocaesium tended to extend to deeper parts in soil that organic and clayey soils are the support layer, particularly in organic soil, compared with the 1st investigation. Distribution coefficients of Cs-137 onto organic soil and its elutriated components were also lower than that onto other soils. This is consistent with trend of penetration profile.

  17. Experimental investigations of pupil accommodation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eui Chul; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2011-08-01

    PURPOSE. The contraction and dilation of the iris muscle that controls the amount of light entering the retina causes pupil accommodation. In this study, experiments were performed and two of the three factors that influence pupil accommodation were analyzed: lighting conditions and depth fixations. The psychological benefits were not examined, because they could not be quantified. METHODS. A head-wearable eyeglasses-based, eye-capturing device was designed to measure pupil size. It included a near-infrared (NIR) camera and an NIR light-emitting diode. Twenty-four subjects watched two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic videos of the same content, and the changes in pupil size were measured by using the eye-capturing device and image-processing methods: RESULTS. The pupil size changed with the intensity of the videos and the disparities between the left and right images of a 3D stereoscopic video. There was correlation between the pupil size and average intensity. The pupil diameter could be estimated as being contracted from approximately 5.96 to 4.25 mm as the intensity varied from 0 to 255. Further, from the changes in the depth fixation for the pupil accommodation, it was confirmed that the depth fixation also affected accommodation of pupil size. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that the lighting condition was an even more significant factor in pupil accommodation than was depth fixation (significance ratio: approximately 3.2:1) when watching 3D stereoscopic video. Pupil accommodation was more affected by depth fixation in the real world than was the binocular convergence in the 3D stereoscopic display. PMID:21357391

  18. Investigation of VVER 1000 Core Degradation During SBO Accident Scenario in Case of Pressurizer SV Stuck in Open Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the work performed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) in the frame of the SARNET2 project. The performed work continues the effort in modelling reactor core behaviour during severe accidents such as station blackout (SBO) sequence for VVER 1000 reactors based on parametric study. The work is oriented on investigation of overheated reactor core behaviour in case of reflooding by high pressure injection system (HPIS) at different stages and gives the preliminary results for the ASTEC V2 validation as well as analytical validation of severe accident management guidance (SAMG) for VVER 1000 reactors. An SBO scenario for investigation of VVER 1000 reactor core behaviour has been used with the assumption of opening the pressurizer safety valve and staying in open position, which induces additionally small break LOCA. Based on the previously performed work at the INRNE for the same scenarios a proper time for initiation has been chosen a proper time for initiation of HPP injection. For selected scenario consequently has been performed calculations vary the value of selected parameters. It has been selected the following parameters: porosity (PORO), velocity of molten mixture when crossing a grid (VGRI), etc. It has been investigated the influence of spherical and elliptical ''bottom head and lower plenum'' modelling on core degradation progression. (author)

  19. Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños. Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" / Risk factors for accidents in children. Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kurt, Paulsen Sandi; Hector, Mejia Salas.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de [...] Referencia Nacional. Participantes: se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos) y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles). Mediciones principales: el instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: la edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite) OR 15.04 (IC 95% 5. 47 - 44.48), productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina) OR 14.19 (IC 95% 0.72 ­ 276.33), instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7.82 (IC 95% 5.22 ­ 11.73 ), cohetillos OR 5.26 (IC 95% 2.49 ­ 11.95), presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3.30 (IC 95% 2.02 ­ 5.25) cosméticos OR 2.06 (IC 95% 1.36 ­ 3.10), productos de limpieza OR 1.20 (IC) (95% 0.22 ­ 5.82), medicamentos OR 1.12 (IC 95% 0.73 ­ 1.70). Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4.62 (IC 95% 2.61 ­ 8.20), trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2.04 (IC95% 1.42 ­ 2.93) y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1.65 (IC 95% 1.15 ­2.36). Conclusiones: los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sobre todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niños. Abstract in english Objectives: to identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: case and control incidents Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría, a third-level Pediatric Hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and 4 [...] 00 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, person responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumstances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5,4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR7,82, firecrackers OR5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR2,06, house cleaner products OR1,20, Medicines OR 1,12. Previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2, 04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1.65. Conclusions: the main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by pediatricians or family practitioners.

  20. Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" / Risk factors for accidents in children: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kurt, Paulsen S.; Hector, Mejia S..

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: Casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de [...] Referencia Nacional. Participantes: Se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos) y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles). Mediciones principales: El instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: La edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite) OR 15,04 (IC 95% 5,47 - 44,48), productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina) OR 14,19 (IC 95% 0,72 - 276,33), instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7,82 (IC 95% 5,22 - 11,73 ), cohetillos OR 5,26 (IC 95% 2,49 - 11,95), presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3,30 (IC 95% 2,02 - 5,25), cosméticos OR 2,06 (IC 95% 1,36 - 3,10), productos de limpieza OR 1,20 (IC 95% 0,22 - 5,82), medicamentos OR 1,12 (IC 95% 0,73 - 1,70). Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4,62 (IC 95% 2,61 - 8,20), trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2,04 (IC 95% 1,42 - 2,93) y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1,65 (IC 95% 1,15 - 2,36). Conclusiones: Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sope todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niños Abstract in english Objectives: To identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: Case and control incidents. Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uria, a third-level paediatric hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and [...] 400 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, persons responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumstances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5.4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR 7,82, firecrackers OR 5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR 2,06, house cleaner products OR 1,20, medicines OR 1,12, previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2,04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1,65. Conclusions: The main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by paediatricians or family practitioners

  1. Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" Risk factors for accidents in children: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Paulsen S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: Casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de Referencia Nacional. Participantes: Se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles. Mediciones principales: El instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: La edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite OR 15,04 (IC 95% 5,47 - 44,48, productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina OR 14,19 (IC 95% 0,72 - 276,33, instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7,82 (IC 95% 5,22 - 11,73 , cohetillos OR 5,26 (IC 95% 2,49 - 11,95, presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3,30 (IC 95% 2,02 - 5,25, cosméticos OR 2,06 (IC 95% 1,36 - 3,10, productos de limpieza OR 1,20 (IC 95% 0,22 - 5,82, medicamentos OR 1,12 (IC 95% 0,73 - 1,70. Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4,62 (IC 95% 2,61 - 8,20, trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2,04 (IC 95% 1,42 - 2,93 y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1,65 (IC 95% 1,15 - 2,36. Conclusiones: Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sope todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niñosObjectives: To identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: Case and control incidents. Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uria, a third-level paediatric hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and 400 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, persons responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumstances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5.4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR 7,82, firecrackers OR 5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR 2,06, house cleaner products OR 1,20, medicines OR 1,12, previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2,04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1,65. Conclusions: The main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by paediatricians or family practitioners

  2. Asthma is a risk factor for acute chest syndrome and cerebral vascular accidents in children with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Paul J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and sickle cell disease are common conditions that both may result in pulmonary complications. We hypothesized that children with sickle cell disease with concomitant asthma have an increased incidence of vaso-occlusive crises that are complicated by episodes of acute chest syndrome. Methods A 5-year retrospective chart analysis was performed investigating 48 children ages 3–18 years with asthma and sickle cell disease and 48 children with sickle cell disease alone. Children were matched for age, gender, and type of sickle cell defect. Hospital admissions were recorded for acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accident, vaso-occlusive pain crises, and blood transfusions (total, exchange and chronic. Mann-Whitney test and Chi square analysis were used to assess differences between the groups. Results Children with sickle cell disease and asthma had significantly more episodes of acute chest syndrome (p = 0.03 and cerebral vascular accidents (p = 0.05 compared to children with sickle cell disease without asthma. As expected, these children received more total blood transfusions (p = 0.01 and chronic transfusions (p = 0.04. Admissions for vasoocclusive pain crises and exchange transfusions were not statistically different between cases and controls. SS disease is more severe than SC disease. Conclusions Children with concomitant asthma and sickle cell disease have increased episodes of acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accidents and the need for blood transfusions. Whether aggressive asthma therapy can reduce these complications in this subset of children is unknown and requires further studies.

  3. 'The forefront' of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident investigation. 'Subject wise discussion' of technical committee of Niigata prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical committee of Niigata prefecture started' subject wise discussion of Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident investigation' since October 2013. Six subjects were chosen and discussion between committee members and TEPCO was coordinated by committee's staffs. First subject was 'seismic effects of main components caused by ground motion' and discussion was focused on problems of 'relation between station blackout (SBO) and tsunami' and also 'earthquakes and small size LOCA', which were identified by the report of National Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission. Tsunami photos might show tsunami arrival time at Unit 1 might be after 15:38 and later than emergency AC power losses of Unit 1 (SBO) around at 15:36. Real cause of SBO needed to be checked such as seawater pipe failures caused by ground motion. Hydrogen explosion might occur at fourth floor of reactor building of Unit 1 because the inside of the fourth floor was 'terribly damaged'. Maintenance hatch at fifth floor of reactor building was missing and white markings attached on metal cover of isolation condenser (IC) tank might be steam condensation marks, which might be checked by inspection. These suggested IC pipe failure at fourth floor of reactor building caused by earthquakes led to small size LOCA and hydrogen explosion. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

  5. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board's investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63)

  6. Oxidative stress status of individuals involved in traffic accidents*

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Bora ÖZDEM?R At?lhan; Sö?üt, Özgür; KAYA, Halil

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of the oxidative stress status of drivers involved in traffic accidents as a risk factor. Materials and methods: Twenty-six drivers and 28 passengers involved in traffic accidents and 31 healthy control drivers and 30 healthy control pedestrians were enrolled in the present study. The total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured in blood samples. Results: The mean value of the TOS level in drivers involved in traffic accidents was s...

  7. Factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el anciano en San Juan y Martínez / Socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly. San Juan y Martinez municipality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olga Lidia, Benítez Pozo; Bertha Rita, Castillo Edua; Marielvis, Calero Benítez; Ileana Rosa, Hernández Pérez; José Jesús, Arencibia Sánchez.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el estudio de la problemática del anciano constituye un elemento de primordial importancia y aparece como un factor decisivo en las investigaciones médicas. Esto se debe al incremento de la población mayor de 65 años, calculada en más de 290 millones de personas con un aumento crecient [...] e en las últimas décadas. Objetivo: identificar los factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el anciano en el municipio San Juan y Martínez durante el año 2011. Material y método: se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal, el universo estuvo constituido por 615 ancianos que sufrieron algún tipo de accidentes registrados en hojas de cargo y la muestra de 300 ancianos, seleccionados por el método aleatorio estratificado. Se utilizaron como métodos la encuesta y la observación científica lo que permitió obtener una información variada y directa. Resultados: se obtuvo un predominio del sexo masculino, con edades comprendidas entre 71 y 75 años, las enfermedades asociadas que predominaron en el hombre fueron las del sistema osteomioarticular y en las mujeres la hipertensión arterial. La alteración intrínseca más frecuente fue la ingestión de medicamentos con un 90.2 % y el factor extrínseco los desniveles del piso con el 70.3 %. Conclusiones: entre los factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el an ciano predominan las enfermedades del sistema osteomioarticular, así como la ingestión de medicamentos y las barreras arquitectónicas (desniveles del piso). Abstract in english Introduction: the study of the problem of the elderly constitutes an essential element and it appears as a crucial factor in medical investigations, because of the increase of population older than 65 years old, calculated in more than 290 millions of people which is on the increase during the last [...] decades. Objective: to identify the socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly in San Juan y Martinez municipality during 2011. Material and method: a descriptive and cross-sectional research was carried out which target group included 615 old people having different kinds of accidents recorded on worksheets; the sample was comprised of 300 old people chosen by means of a stratified at random method. Surveys and scientific observation were the methods used collecting varied and direct information. Results: male sex prevailed, 71-75 years old; the prevailing associated diseases in men were those of the osteomyoarticular system and hypertension in women. The ingestion of medications was the most frequent intrinsic alteration (90.2%) and difference in floor levels prevailed as extrinsic factor (70.3%). Conclusions: among the socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly were osteomyoarticular system disorders, ingestions of medications and architectural barriers (difference in floor levels).

  8. Investigation of accidents with decrease of boric acid concentration in the primary coolant of VVER-1000/model 91 reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of recent investigations on the problem of inhomogeneous boron dilution for the VVER-1000/model 91 reactor are summarized in the paper. The studies have been performed in cooperation by Russian and Finnish experts. The phenomena related to the formation of diluted slugs, their transport and mixing in the reactor coolant system, and the potential consequences in the core are discussed. The potential external sources of pure condensate in various reactor operating conditions have been investigated. Thermal hydraulic analyses for identification of accidents having an inherent mechanism for boron dilution in the primary circuit have been performed using computer codes APROS, SMABRE, and DINAMIKA. The results allow to determine the location and potential size of diluted slugs. Steady-state and transient analyses of the core response have been performed using computer codes HEXBU-3D and HEXTRAN to model the core in three dimensions. The results allow to draw conclusions on the potential for severe core damage

  9. C omplex approach to investigation of reactivity changes accidents and accidents due to component malfunction with a view to compiling safety documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics are defined of inserting reactivity, the distribution of power in the reactor core, the coefficients of reactivity and kinetic parameters. Measures for reducing the hazard of accidents caused by changes in reactivity are classified into three groups: technical and administrative measures and the system of accident protection. The methodological approach to analyses is described. An analysis is made of failures due to malfunction of components, namely failures caused by partial blocking of coolant flow through the fuel assembly, failures caused by outages of main circulation pumps, failures caused by outages of turbogenerators and failures caused by breakdown of the feed water regime. (E.S.)

  10. Investigation on the sodium leak accident of Monju. Sodium leak test simulating the Monju leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Kazuhito; Nishimura, Masahiro; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Usami, Masayuki

    1996-11-01

    Sodium fire experiments were carried out two times using the Sodium Fire Test Rig (SOFT-1) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp (PNC) as a part of works to research the cause of the accident in secondary main cooling system of Monju. The purposes of these experiments are to confirm the leak rate and leakage form of sodium from damaged thermometer, to confirm the damage to the piping insulating structure around the thermometer and to the flexible tube, and to compare the temperature history of the signal from the thermometer between the experiments and Monju. In the experiments 56({+-}2)g/sec was obtained as the leak rate under the condition of ensuring the leakage pass in the simulated thermometer. This leak rate was corrected to 53g/sec to take account of manufacturing error of the thermometer between the experiment and Monju. In calculation of this leak rate, it is assumed that the annulus size of thermometer well tip is a nominal distance and pressure value to the leakage sodium is 1.65kg/cm{sup 2}G, which was the maximum one during the leakage of Monju. The behavior of signal from the simulated thermometer was very similar to that of the damaged thermometer in Monju and it was confirmed this temperature history could be sufficiently explained by moving of the temperature contact position of the thermocouple following the runoff of leakage sodium. (J.P.N.)

  11. The West Jutland Study of Farm Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, DJ; Hansen, O N; Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, Ole; Lauritsen, J

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes the main elements of the West Jutland Study on the Prevention of Farm Accidents, that was presented in four separate papers al the 1996 Occupational Injury Symposium in Sydney, Australia. The objective of the study is to develop and conduct an intervention on the basis of an initial investigation of risk factors, aimed at reducing the number of occupational accidents in a randomly selected, representative sample of Danish farms. The article focuses on the underlying model...

  12. El Cuerpo Militar de Sanidad en la Investigación de Accidentes Aéreos / The role of Military Health Service in Aircraft Accident Investigation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Rios Tejada; B., Puente Espada.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación de un accidente o incidente aéreo puede ser simple o enormemente compleja. El proceso de investigación puede conducir a la elaboración de un informe directo y conciso o lo más frecuente, significa un largo camino de recopilación, análisis, estudio y finalmente la elaboración de posi [...] bles conclusiones. En este proceso, los aspectos médicos, psicológicos, ambientales, psicosociales o ergonómicos englobados en el término genérico de factores humanos cobran una especial relevancia, atribuyéndose hasta un 60-80% de causas directas o coadyuvantes al mismo. En este trabajo se revisan los antecedentes jurídicos y base legal en la que se apoya la Comisión para la investigación técnica de accidentes de aeronaves militares (CITAAM), así como sus atribuciones, organización y composición, sus funciones generales y más concretamente las encomendadas al vocal médico de la misma. Desde su creación en 1994, la experiencia acumulada ha sido enorme, haciéndose mención de algunos datos de interés estadístico pero señalando también la labor de formación realizada y su proyección nacional e internacional, sobre todo en el marco de la OTAN. Abstract in english Aircraft Accident Investigation means a complex task in order to identify the major causes which lead to the mishap. Investigation process end in a technical report, which encloses a large amount of information and data gathering documentation, to be studied, analyzed and lines of inquiry establishe [...] d to finally produce the appropriate conclusions. Medical, psychological, environmental, psychosocial and ergonomic faces of the investigation are framed in the so called human factors, which actually leads to 60-80% of the causal factors of accidents. In this report we have reviewed the legal basis in which the CITAAM is supported, competencies, organization and composition, general functions and specifically responsibilities of the medical representative in the board. Since the establishment of the CITAAM in 1994 the experience accumulated has been very wide-ranged and we show some statistical data and work produced in education and instruction, as well as the national and international relationships mostly in the NATO frame.

  13. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, Jan; Ours, Jan C. van

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  14. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  15. Exercise (effort) tolerance and factors affecting this tolerance for liquidators of consequences of the ChNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical efficiency and factors affecting it for persons exposed to irradiation (the radiation dose being in the range up to 0.75 Gy) has been studied. 670 participants of liquidating the consequences of ChNPP accident have been examined. Depending on the radiation doses to which the people have been exposed the liquidators have been subdivided into 4 groups: for the 1st group the radiation doses ranging from 0.25 to 0.75 Gy; for the 2nd group the radiation doses ranging from 0.10 to 0.24 Gy; for the 3rd group the radiation doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.10 Gy; for the 4th group the radiation dose being up to 0.05 Gy. The physical load was ensured with veloergometer. The results have made it possible to estimate one of the basic health criterion for liquidators of consequences of ChNPP accident (i.e. exercise (effort) tolerance). No direct relationship of the exercise magnitude and the radiation dose within the range up to 0.75 Gy and the irradiation time have been observed. The correlation of the exercise magnitude with due account to age has been provided. 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  16. Investigation of Countercurrent Helium-Air Flows in Air-ingress Accidents for VHTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Oh, Chang

    2013-10-03

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an extensive experimental database for the air- ingress phenomenon for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This research is intended to be a separate-effects experimental study. However, the project team will perform a careful scaling analysis prior to designing a scaled-down test facility in order to closely tie this research with the real application. As a reference design in this study, the team will use the 600 MWth gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) developed by General Atomic. In the test matrix of the experiments, researchers will vary the temperature and pressure of the helium— along with break size, location, shape, and orientation—to simulate deferent scenarios and to identify potential mitigation strategies. Under support of the Department of Energy, a high-temperature helium test facility has been designed and is currently being constructed at Ohio State University, primarily for high- temperature compact heat exchanger testing for the VHTR program. Once the facility is in operation (expected April 2009), this study will utilize high-temperature helium up to 900°C and 3 MPa for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) depressurization and air-ingress experiments. The project team will first conduct a scaling study and then design an air-ingress test facility. The major parameter to be measured in the experiments is oxygen (or nitrogen) concentration history at various locations following a LOCA scenario. The team will use two measurement techniques: 1) oxygen (or similar type) sensors employed in the flow field, which will introduce some undesirable intrusiveness, disturbing the flow, and 2) a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging technique, which has no physical intrusiveness to the flow but requires a transparent window or test section that the laser beam can penetrate. The team will construct two test facilities, one for high-temperature helium tests with local sensors and the other for low- temperature helium tests with the PLIF technique. The results from the two instruments will provide a means to cross-calibrate the measurement techniques.

  17. Experimental investigation of aerosol behavior in a post-LMFBR accident reactor containment atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past year the following four tasks have been completed: (1) the generation, handling and study of a dry sodium aerosol, (2) the comparison and evaluation of techniques for the determination of the various sodium compounds, (3) the calibration of th impactor and centrifuge for a pool fire sodium aerosol, and finally (4) the determination of the shape factor and effective density of a sodium pool fire aerosol

  18. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO1 and NISA2 that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident

  19. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO{sup 1} and NISA{sup 2} that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident.

  20. Evaluation and Learning after Major Railway Accidents : Various perspectives of accident research theories in evaluation reports and their implications for learning after accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Storsveen, Silje

    2012-01-01

    Accident causation has been differently approached and evaluated in the last decades. This thesis studies four large accidents in the Norwegian railway organization, i.e. the Tretten accident, the Nordstrand accident, the Åsta accident and the Alnabru/Sjursøya accident. Accident causation was investigated by systematically reviewing and comparing the respective accidents? evaluation reports to three dominant accident research theories: The Energy and Barrier theory, the Man-made Disaster theo...

  1. Factors determining FDI in Nigeria: an empirical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the recent surge of FDI in Nigeria, which is poor in terms of income but rich in natural resources. This study examines empirically whether FDI is resource seeking in Nigeria and its determining factors. Applying time series technique this paper observes that FDI flow to Nigeria is resource-seeking FDI during 1970-2006. In long run, the natural resource outflow, market size and openness have direct impact on FDI inflow while risk factors like inflation rate and foreign...

  2. Factors Determining FDI to Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2008-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) to Nigeria during 1970-2006. This study suggests that the endowment of natural resources, trade intensity, macroeconomic risk factors like inflation and exchange rates are significant determinants of FDI flow to Nigeria. The findings also suggest that in long run market size is not the significant factor for attracting FDI to Nigeria, it contradicts the existing literature. Our results indicate that FDI fl...

  3. Investigating internal and external factors influencing profitability of banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Taghavi; Hadi Noori

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to learn the impact of some internal and external factors on profitability in banking system. The proposed model of this paper introduces three econometrics methods to study the behavior of internal, external and a combination of both factors on return on assets. The proposed study of this paper uses Vector Auto- Regressive (VAR) and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) to provide estimation of the proposed model and we use historical data over t...

  4. Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Ghane; Hamid Reza Shokrizadeh; Maryam Omidvar; Hoseyn Comyab

    2014-01-01

    This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. The study also provides several suggestions for marketers seeking to use viral marketing to position brands or to change a brand’s image, to encourage new product trials and to increase product uptake rates. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use produc...

  5. Neutron Imaging Investigations of the Secondary Hydriding of Nuclear Fuel Cladding Alloys during Loss of Coolant Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, M.; Roessger, C.; Stuckert, J.; Steinbrueck, M.; Kaestner, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Schillinger, B.

    The hydrogen concentration and distribution at both sides of the burst opening of cladding tubes used in three QUENCH-LOCA simulation bundle experiments were investigated by means of neutron radiography and tomography. The quantitative correlation between the total macroscopic neutron cross-section and the atomic number density ratio between hydrogen and zirconium was determined by testing calibration specimens with known hydrogen concentrations. Hydrogen enrichments located at the end of the ballooning zone of the tested tubes were detected in the inner rods of the test bundles. Nearly all of the peripheral claddings exposed to lower temperatures do not show such enrichments. This implies that under the conditions investigated a threshold temperature exists below which no hydrogen enrichments can be formed. In order to understand the hydrogen distribution a model was developed describing the processes occurring during loss of coolant accidents after rod burst. The general shape of the hydrogen distributions with a peak each side of the ballooning region is well predicted by this model whereas the absolute concentrations are underestimated compared to the results of the neutron tomography investigations. The model was also used to discuss the influence of the alloy composition on the secondary hydrogenation. Whereas the relations for the maximal hydrogen concentrations agree well for one and the same alloy, the agreement for tests with different alloys is less satisfying, showing that material parameters such as oxidation kinetics, phase transition temperature for the zirconium oxide, and yield strength and ductility at high temperature have to be taken into account to reproduce the results of neutron imaging investigations correctly.

  6. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov

    2012-01-01

    A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity score, 3-dimensional reconstructions of the PMCT, and an injury pattern analysis. We describe how, on basis ofthese data, we reached a conclusion about which of the two victims was the most likely to have been in control of the airplane at the time of accident. Furthermore, we argue that all victims of fatal airplane crashes should be subject to forensic autopsy, including PMCT and forensic chemical analysis. The continuous accumulation of knowledge about injury patterns from “simple” accidents is the foundation for the correct analysis of “difficult” accidents.

  7. Medical Response, Search and Recovery during the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepaniak, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during atmospheric re-entry on mission STS-107. After an event such as this, with high visibility and international interest, the operational challenge of recovering the crewmembers could not be underestimated. The Space Shuttle Program is organized to respond to a vehicle mishap using the resources of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT). On the afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale Air Force Base (AFB), Louisiana. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin, Texas Disaster Field Office (DFO). The Lufkin DFO served as the primary area for all operations, including staging assets and deploying field teams for search, recovery and security of crewmember remains. More than 2,000 people from numerous organizations were involved with the recovery of the crew. All seven crewmembers of STS-107 were recovered and ceremonial last rights were administered. Astronaut and military personnel escorted the crew with honor to the MIT at Barksdale AFB, Louisiana. At Barksdale AFB a temporary morgue was established in an aircraft hangar and operated for approximately two weeks during which time coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) medical personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. Families of crewmembers and NASA management were notified daily of the current findings. Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team developed and executed a short-term plan to identify and relocate the crew with a military honor guard and protocol to the medical examiner at the Armed Forces Port Mortuary, Dover AFB, Delaware. After operations at Barksdale AFB were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term plan was developed and implemented which involved the Air Force Mortuary Affairs at Randolph AFB, Texas. This plan was coordinated with search teams in the field, Barksdale AFB Mortuary Affairs, KSC security, AFIP, and the crew surgeons at JSC.

  8. Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ghane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. The study also provides several suggestions for marketers seeking to use viral marketing to position brands or to change a brand’s image, to encourage new product trials and to increase product uptake rates. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use product on virtual marketing. In addition, the study considers internal factors such as inclusion (the need to be part of a group, the need to be different and affection on viral marketing. The survey has been accomplished among 140 Iranian people, who were familiar with virtual marketing and they are selected, randomly. Using Pearson correlation as well as regression analysis, the study provides some evidences that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between some internal/external factors and virtual marketing.

  9. Beyond design depressurization accident in a medium sized HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for the release of fission products during a beyond design accident in a medium size HTGR (HTGR-500) was investigated. The dynamic simulator for nuclear power plants (DSNP) modular code was employed in the simulation of a depressurization accident coupled with the failure of forced circulation in the decay heat removal systems. For such an extreme accident the maximal localized fuel temperature reaches 3050 degC, and within 100 hours from the beginning of the accident, 3.4% of the Cs137 inventory will be released from the fuel elements to the primary circuit, and 4.6*10-2% are estimated to be released to the environment. Fission products being swept from the primary circuit by the CO and helium released from the graphite matrix, prove to be an important factor. Although a severe accident scenario was assumed, the comparative consequence analysis point at a lower risk than the analogous light water reactor severe accident. (author)

  10. Important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima accident several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident in Japan. Among those lessons, several recommendations have been made on severe accident research. Similar to the EURSAFE efforts under EU Program, review of specific severe accident research items was started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation has been started since the Fukushima accident. Additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality have been covered. The review results are categorized in ten major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, direct containment heating, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the perspective of important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. Those are specifically investigation of damaged core and components, advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and assessment of advanced containment design which excludes long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations. (author)

  11. Investigation of CET Effect as a SAMG Entry Condition under Severe Accidents of OPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the reactor vessel failure (RPV) failure time is delayed, the probability of achieving this objective of management becomes higher. Also, that whether the entry to SAMG is too early or too late can be checked in the aspect of how much action time the operator can secure. For these reasons, Park et al. studied the effect of SAMG entry condition on operator action time for prevention of RPV failure in the OPR1000 using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 computer code in detail. In this study, various SAMG entry conditions from the points of view of delaying RPV failure time and available operator's action time were investigated for OPR1000 using level 2 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) code MELCOR. From the point of view of delaying RPV failure time, SAMG entry condition when CET is 923K is the best for SBLOCA without SI and TLOFW among selected CET conditions. However, for SBO, the best result follows when the SAMG entry condition CET is 838K. For available operator's action time's view, there was no significant difference between selected SAMG entry conditions. For these reasons, in future study, the standards of CET selection as SAMG entry conditions and the relationship between CET and quantity of oxidation heat should be researched. Also, more SAMG entry conditions should be tested which is far more different from selected conditions, such as EDF PWR standard, CET = 1100 .deg. C

  12. Nondestructive Testing As a Tool in the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDanels, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) played a crucial role in determining the Columbia tragedy's cause. Over 84,000 pieces of debris were recovered; hundreds were subsequently subjected to NDT and materials analysis. Visual NDT of the debris revealed localized areas of damage such as erosion, excessive heating, knife edging and mechanical damage. Three-dimensional reconstructions were made of the left wing leading edge, utilizing a tripod-mounted laser scanning head and focused laser beam, and an advanced topometric optical scanner (ATOS) with digital white light to scan complex-shaped debris, producing monochrome 3-D models. Texture mapping provided a means to capture true colors of the debris and superimpose them on the scanned images. Uniform deposits were found over large portions of debris, obscuring underlying materials. To determine what was beneath, inverse radiography was enlisted. The radiographs guided investigators to where samples should be taken. To ascertain compositions, these samples were subjected to analytical testing, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis. This combination of visual evidence, radiography, virtual reconstruction, and materials analysis allowed the forensic scientists to verify that a breach occurred in the leading edge of the left wing, the path the plasma followed, and the sequence of events that led to the loss.

  13. Investigation of CET Effect as a SAMG Entry Condition under Severe Accidents of OPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seungwon; Jeun, Gyoodong; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwan Yeol; Ha, Kwang Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    If the reactor vessel failure (RPV) failure time is delayed, the probability of achieving this objective of management becomes higher. Also, that whether the entry to SAMG is too early or too late can be checked in the aspect of how much action time the operator can secure. For these reasons, Park et al. studied the effect of SAMG entry condition on operator action time for prevention of RPV failure in the OPR1000 using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 computer code in detail. In this study, various SAMG entry conditions from the points of view of delaying RPV failure time and available operator's action time were investigated for OPR1000 using level 2 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) code MELCOR. From the point of view of delaying RPV failure time, SAMG entry condition when CET is 923K is the best for SBLOCA without SI and TLOFW among selected CET conditions. However, for SBO, the best result follows when the SAMG entry condition CET is 838K. For available operator's action time's view, there was no significant difference between selected SAMG entry conditions. For these reasons, in future study, the standards of CET selection as SAMG entry conditions and the relationship between CET and quantity of oxidation heat should be researched. Also, more SAMG entry conditions should be tested which is far more different from selected conditions, such as EDF PWR standard, CET = 1100 .deg. C.

  14. Accidentes vasculares cerebrales en la comarca de Osona: Factores de riesgo cardiovascular / Cerebrovascular accidents in Osona borough: Cardiovascular risk factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Sanclemente Ansó; F., Alonso Valdés; E., Rovira Pujol; D., Vigil Martín; J., Vilaró Pujals.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La enfermedad vascular cerebral (EVC) es la segunda causa de ingreso en orden de frecuencia en nuestro servicio, esto refleja la alta incidencia de esta patología en nuestra comarca. En este estudio se analizan las características clínicas, biológicas, factores de riesgo cardiovasculares [...] (FRCV) y actuación sobre los mismos al alta hospitalaria en un servicio de Medicina Interna de un hospital comarcal; hospital de referencia de la comarca de Osona, así como otras características, de los pacientes ingresados de enero de 2001 a diciembre de 2001 por EVC. Método: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo revisando los informes de alta hospitalaria de cada paciente. Ingresaron 277 pacientes con EVC. Resultados: Las características biológicas, demográficas así como los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares analizados (hipertensión arterial, diabetes, tabaquismo, dislipemia entre otros) fueron similares respecto a otras series. La incidencia de EVC hemorrágica y cardioembólica, fue algo menor, se ha de tener en cuenta que se excluyen aquellos episodios hemorrágicos que necesitaron intervención neuroquirúrgica, éstos fueron derivados a un centro de nivel superior que dispusiera de servicio de neurocirugía. La edad no fue un factor de mal pronóstico en cuanto a presentar más secuelas después del episodio ni más mortalidad, este dato discrepa de otras series. Conclusiones: La actuación al alta sobre los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y recomendaciones higiénico-dietéticas fueron deficientes. La estancia media fue superior si la comparamos con la estancia media de las unidades de ictus especializadas. Abstract in english Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the second cause of hospitalization in the order of frequency in our service, thus reflecting this pathology’s high incidence in our borough. This study analyzes clinical and biological characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and actions taken in h [...] ospital discharge in the internal medicine department of a borough hospital (the reference hospital in Osona borough), as well as other characteristics of the hospitalized CVD patients from January 2001 to December 2001. Method: This study was performed by revising each patient’s hospital discharge report. 277 patients were hospitalized for CVD. Results: Biological and demographic characteristics, as well as cardiovascular risk factors analyzed (arterial hypertension, diabetes, smoking, or dyslipidemy) were similar to other series. Incidence of hemorrhagic and cardio-embolic CVD was slightly lower, taken into account that hemorrhagic episodes that needed neurosurgical intervention were transferred to a higher-level center with a department of neurosurgery. Age was neither a factor for bad prediction leading to bad sequels after the episode nor a cause of an increased mortality. This data differs from others series. Conclusions: Actions taken on discharge, on cardiovascular risk factors and on hygienic-dietetic recommendations were deficient. Average stay was higher when compared to average stay in specialized ictus units.

  15. Investigation regarding the long-term security developments in the Swedish nuclear power and the response to the accident at Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedish nuclear plants need to continue to work on analysis and actions in the plants, partly to meet the demands of legislation and agreed action plans, and partly due to additional security requirements on account of experiences from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, stress tests, security investigations and investigations relating to physical protection. It is also essential to continue with safety improvements to gradually increase margins against unforeseen events in aging plants during long-term operation

  16. Characterization of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Charles D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA suffered the loss of the seven-member crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003 when the vehicle broke apart upon re-entry to the Earth's atmosphere. The final report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) determined that the accident was caused by a launch ascent incident-a suitcase-sized chunk of insulating foam on the Shuttle's External Tank (ET) broke off, and moving at almost 500 mph, struck an area of the leading edge of the Shuttle s left wing. As a result, one or more of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the wing leading edge were damaged. Upon re-entry, superheated air approaching 3,000 F breached the wing damage and caused the vehicle breakup and loss of crew. The large chunk of insulating foam that broke off during the Columbia launch was determined to come from the so-called bipod ramp area where the Shuttle s orbiter (containing crew) is attached to the ET. Underneath the foam in the bipod ramp area is a layer of TPS that is a cork-filled silicone rubber composite. In March 2003, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama received cured samples of the foam and composite for testing from the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, Louisiana. The MAF is where the Shuttle's ET is manufactured. The foam and composite TPS materials for the ET have been well characterized for mechanical property data at the super-cold temperatures of the liquid oxygen and hydrogen fuels used in the ET. However, modulus data on these materials is not as well characterized. The TA Instruments 2980 Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) was used to determine the modulus of the two TPS materials over a range of -145 to 95 C in the dual cantilever bending mode. Multi-strain, fixed frequency DMA tests were followed by multi-frequency, fixed strain tests to determine the approximate bounds of linear viscoelastic behavior for the two materials. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  17. Accidente vascular encefálico: Presentación clínica y factores de riesgo / Clinical presentation and risk factors of cerebrovascular accident

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta, Hernández Ch; Catalina, Samsó Z; Raúl, Escobar H; Tomás, Mesa L.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La alteración focal aguda de la función cerebral en el adulto permite diagnosticar un accidente vascular encefálico (AVE) e iniciar precozmente el rescate de tejido cerebral. En los niños, las diferencias clínicas de esta patología en relación al adulto generan atraso, subdiagnóstico e [...] impiden el tratamiento en la etapa aguda. Objetivo: Describir la presentación clínica y factores de riesgo del AVE isquémico en 156 niños, comparar la presentación clínica según edad y tipo de AVE. Pacientes y Método: Se analiza un registro de AVE isquémico, confirmado con imágenes cerebrales, en población menor de 18 años, iniciado en Enero 2003. Resultados: La mediana de edad: 4,9 meses (33% recién nacidos, 46% menores 6 años y 21% mayor de 6 años), 64% fueron hombres. Los infartos arteriales correspondieron al 85% y el resto fueron trombosis de senos venosos. Predominaron los signos difusos (67%) en menores de 6 años (p = 0,001). Las convulsiones fueron observadas en el 61% de los niños menores de 6 años (p = 0,03), el 33% presentó signos focales. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron patologías sistémicas agudas y cardiopatías. En 14,7% no se encontraron factores de riesgo. Conclusiones: La búsqueda de signos focales agudos de AVE no tiene utilidad diagnóstica en el niño, a diferencia de los adultos, pues su ausencia no excluye patología vascular isquémica focal. La patología sistémica aguda fue el factor de riesgo más frecuente para AVE. Abstract in english Introduction: Acute focal brain dysfunction in adults serves to diagnose and to provide early rescue of the brain tissue. In children, the clinical differences of this condition compared to adults results in delayed diagnosis and treatment. Objective: To describe the clinical presentation and risk f [...] actors of CVA in 156 children and related to age and type of CVA. Patients and Method: A CVA registry of newborn to 18 years old was started in January 2003 were analized. Diagnosis was confirmed by brain imaging. Results: The median of age was 4.9 month (33% was newborn, 46% 6 years old); 64% were males. Arterial ischemic stroke represented 85%, the rest were cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. In the clinical manifestations the diffuse signs were more frequently seen (67%) in children

  18. The state of thyroid system in children born form the parents irradiated in the result of Chornobyl accident as a factor of dysmetabolic changes in the period of sexual development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the work was to reveal functional and structural changes in the thyroid gland in children of puberty age with clinical manifestations of metabolic syndrome born from the parents irradiated in the result of Chornobyl accident. The study involved 108 patients aged 12-17. The investigated parameters characterizing TG function and the state and the of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism became the diagnostic criteria of dyshormonal disorders revealed in children with puberty dyshormonal disorders revealed in children with puberty dispituitarism. The pathological changes in the TG can be a risk factor of metabolic syndrome development.

  19. Specific complex of non-radiation risk factors for socially significant pathologies could affect the liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterov A.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The review considers the complex of non-radiation factors that could affect the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident: the demographic, social and professional group heterogeneity to warrant differentiation of risk, the effects of heavy metals, 'hot particles', chemicals, psychogenic stress, social dislocation in the post-perestroika period, alcohol abuse, smoking, and the effect of screening. All these factors tend to have a significant intensity, unlike the radiation exposure for the majority of subjects. It is concluded that the increased frequency and severity of some large socially significant pathologies in contingent liquidators may be due to a unique set of predominantly non-radiation factors associated, however, with a particular radiation accident.

  20. On the results of investigating cause of sodium leak accident in prototype fast breeder reactor 'Monju' in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium leak accident in the secondary system of Monju occurred on December 8, 1995. The task force for investigating the accident was established in Nuclear Safety Bureau, and on May 23, 1996, the May report on the results of investigation was published. In order to elucidate the details of the fact that only one thermometer in the secondary system was broken and the reaction of leaked sodium with steel materials, the investigation was continued. In this report, also the results of these additional investigations are included. First, the accident of this time is outlined. As for the cause of the occurrence of sodium leak, the examination of the fracture surface of the broken thermometer, the high cycle fatigue due to hydrodynamic vibration, the investigation of the design, manufacture and installation of the thermometer, and the evaluation of secondary system thermometers which were not broken are reported. The cause that only one thermometer was broken was the way of its insertion which made the restraint of vibration amplitude ineffective. As the effects of sodium leak, the pile of sodium compound on floor liner, the damage of ducts and gratings, and the color change of concrete walls were observed. The burning experiment due to sodium leak was carried out to confirm the effects. (K.I.)

  1. An empirical investigation on factors influencing export of herbal supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts who are professional in the area of production and distribution of herbal supplements and using factor analysis, the study detects eight factors including supportive laws and regulations, organizational atmosphere, marketing structure, knowledge oriented, feasibility study, research and development, competitive strategy and partnership strategies.

  2. An empirical investigation on factors influencing export of herbal supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi; Abdollah Naami; Naser Azad

    2014-01-01

    During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts wh...

  3. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.:

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in production. In principle the welding process is rather simple, the materials to be joined are clamped between two electrodes and pressed together. Because there is an interface present with a higher res...

  4. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Azad; Seyed Mohsen Seyed Aliakbar; Seyed Foad Zarifi; Somayeh Hozouri

    2013-01-01

    Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies us...

  5. Investigating the effect of different factors on profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Hamidian; Shohreh Asghari Gildeh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on profitability of shares of petrochemical industry. The study gathers the information of three firms whose stock prices were listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2012. Using different regression analysis, the study has determined that while stock price, currency rate and material influence on profitability of these firms, energy price, liquidity and gold price had no impact o...

  6. Molecular-genetic damages of children immune system under influence of Chernobyl accident factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longterm study of children immunity damage under low doses radiation exposure revealed dynamic immunoregulatory mechanisms impairment which resulted in hyper-IgE-emia syndrome, cellular immunity depression and allergy status development. Investigation of DNA damage and immune cells genome stability by new 'fast micromethod' showed a reliable increase of DNA damage in children from contaminated with Cs-137 areas. There was strong correlation between DNA breaks frequency and soil contamination level, age of children (term of exposure) and serum IgE concentration. The method may be useful for diagnostics and monitoring of hyper-IgE-emia syndrome (authors)

  7. Temporal uncertainty analysis of human errors based on interrelationships among multiple factors: A case of Minuteman III missile accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Hao; Tian, Jin; Zhao, Tingdi

    2016-01-01

    In traditional approaches of human reliability assessment (HRA), the definition of the error producing conditions (EPCs) and the supporting guidance are such that some of the conditions (especially organizational or managerial conditions) can hardly be included, and thus the analysis is burdened with incomprehensiveness without reflecting the temporal trend of human reliability. A method based on system dynamics (SD), which highlights interrelationships among technical and organizational aspects that may contribute to human errors, is presented to facilitate quantitatively estimating the human error probability (HEP) and its related variables changing over time in a long period. Taking the Minuteman III missile accident in 2008 as a case, the proposed HRA method is applied to assess HEP during missile operations over 50 years by analyzing the interactions among the variables involved in human-related risks; also the critical factors are determined in terms of impact that the variables have on risks in different time periods. It is indicated that both technical and organizational aspects should be focused on to minimize human errors in a long run. PMID:26360211

  8. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as an accident risk factor in professional drivers in Yekaterinburg. Dangerous Sleep (DS-1 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Belkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available About 20% of all road traffic accidents may be associated with falling asleep while driving. This may be caused by sleep disorders leading to daytime sleepiness, the most common of which is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Objective: to study somatic and mental health, sleep disorders, OSAS in particular, in the population of Russian drivers (Sverdlovsk Region. Patients and methods. The descriptive cohort «Dangerous Sleep» (DS-1 study of 20 professional drivers having more than 5-year driving experience was conducted at the Clinical Institute of the Brain. The mean age of the drivers was 45.8 years. They underwent somatic evaluation for cardiovascular risk factors and a psychological examination involving a risk readiness diagnostic procedure, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and an electroencephalographic examination. A somnological examination assumed testing using the Epworth sleepiness scale, polysomnography, or overnight pulse metry. Results and discussion. 30% of the drivers were found to have marked attention disorders and an inability to adapt to extreme conditions, which create a risk for professional duties. The predisposing factors were noted to be alcohol addiction, overweight, and OSAS, the rate of the latter proved to be higher than that in the general population of able-bodied men. It was shown that a somnological examination should be obligatorily performed while hiring professional drivers, particularly to long hauliers. The drivers having a long length of experience, in whom a periodic examination detects sleep disorders, should be treated for somatic diseases and should also have individual working schedules to rule out their long night-time driving. 

  9. Analysis Fukushima 11032011 -- Extended analysis of the Fukushima accident on 11 March 2011 under special consideration of human and organisational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the reactor accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi on 11 March 2011, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) launched an extended analysis of the accident with the following goals: a) a comprehensive understanding of the accident unrolling and of the contributing factors; b) the identification of resulting short-, mean- and long-term requirements for the operators of Swiss nuclear power plants; c) considerations on the own surveillance activity; d) the verification of the reports delivered by the Swiss plant operators, who have to check their own plant after each incident declared as of INES 2 level or higher, whichever the location in the whole world. Undoubtedly, the design of the nuclear power plants at Fukushima Dai-ichi was inappropriate in what regards the tsunami induced by the earthquake, and that this was a key factor that led to the accident. The questions here are rather how it came to this clear design insufficiency and why the accident developed in the way it did. According to ENSI, answers to these questions require both technical as well as human and organisational considerations. ENSI had no direct access to information sources and, therefore, had to check the reliability of information obtained from public sources, especially from authorities, plant operators, expert organisations and, last but not least, media reports. The understanding gained in this way should enable a better evaluation of the situation in Switzerland and lead to the definition of the most urgent measures to be implemented. Since the principal cause of the Fukushima accident is a failure in the plant design, it is necessary to critically reconsider the design of the Swiss reactors to make sure that no such mistake has been done here. Another question is why this evident design failure was not identified earlier in the course of the decades of operation, and why no improvement has been made. In this context, human and organisational factors seem to play an important role. But the responsibility cannot be put only on a few decision makers; on the contrary some human and organisational mechanisms play a fundamental role. Such mechanisms and external conditions can lead to situations in which facts are not recognized or even rejected, although they appear evident after the events. It is the responsibility of all actors in the nuclear industry: plant operators, governments, regulatory authorities, expert organisations, to understand the potential and actual consequences of these mechanisms and to consider them within an appropriate safety culture. It is not sufficient to implement new regulations; the safety organisations must be able to respond to unforeseen situations, and this requires flexibility and adaptation ability. In this sense the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident will be helpful for the Swiss conditions

  10. Investigation of effect of stopping supply flow into the cell on the confinement of the radioactive materials under fire accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 20th 1997, a fire accident happened at Uranium Enrichment Research Laboratory, Tokai, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and ventilation filters in the laboratory clogged. When fire accident occurs in a controlled area, a large quantity of smoke generates in the area and dropping exhaust flow from the area by the clogging of ventilation filters and rising pressure in the area are caused. Moreover, leakage of smoke including radioactive materials from the area by the pressure rising is expected. To prevent the leakage, it is expected that stopping supply flow to the area during a fire accident is effective, however, quantitative evaluation about this effect has not been performed. By using CELVA-1D code, one-dimensional thermofluid analysis code, this effect is evaluated quantitatively by modeling the laboratory and estimating source terms released during the fire accident. As the results, it has been found that the efficiency of confinement of the radioactive materials into the area is preserved in the slightly long period of time in case of stopping supply flow to the area, however, this effect can be neglected in case that scale of fire accident is relatively large. (author)

  11. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mohammad-pajooh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011. Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

  12. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.

    2014-05-01

    The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

  13. On the bad reputation of Fukushima's nuclear accident. A risk-economic approach to distance and price factors of processed food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2011, a big earthquake hit Japan and tsunami and nuclear power plant accident followed. Various discussions have been made on economical, ecological and psychological impacts of this disaster. Its bad reputation effect has not been much discussed, however. This paper deals with the relationship between the following two factors. They are: the distance from the nuclear power plant to the production place and the price of seemingly homogeneous processed food. (author)

  14. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkovi? Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  15. Investigating factors affecting students’ performance to PISA Science items

    OpenAIRE

    V. Hatzinikita; C. Apostolopoulos; Psalidas, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate, on the one hand, the extent to which PISA Science items validly assess the knowledge and skills of 15 year-old Greek students, while, on the other hand, to examine the effect of the following factors: student’s gender, scientific processes and contexts (situations) on the students’ performance in these PISA items. The research used paper-and-pencil test with published PISA Science items, conducted individual semi-structured interviews with 15 year-old st...

  16. Home accidents in older people: role of primary health care team.

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, H. J.; Firth, J.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the incidence and nature of unreported and reported home accidents in older people and to investigate associated environmental factors. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire requesting information on home accidents in the preceding month. SETTING--Inner London general practice. SUBJECTS--All registered patients aged over 65 years (n = 1662), of whom 120 were inappropriately registered and 1293 responded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Circumstances and consequences of accidents in the ...

  17. Bayes factor for investigative assessment of selected handwriting features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, F; Marquis, R; Schmittbuhl, M; Biedermann, A; Thiéry, A; Bozza, S

    2014-09-01

    This paper extends previous research on the use of multivariate continuous data in comparative handwriting examinations, notably for gender classification. A database has been constructed by analyzing the contour shape of loop characters of type a and d by means of Fourier analysis, which allows characters to be described in a global way by a set of variables (e.g., Fourier descriptors). Sample handwritings were collected from right- and left-handed female and male writers. The results reported in this paper provide further arguments in support of the view that investigative settings in forensic science represent an area of application for which the Bayesian approach offers a logical framework. In particular, the Bayes factor is computed for settings that focus on inference of gender and handedness of the author of an incriminated handwritten text. An emphasis is placed on comparing the efficiency for investigative purposes of characters a and d. PMID:25117907

  18. Recriticality, a Key Phenomenon to Investigate in Core Disruptive Accident Scenarios of Current and Future Fast Reactor Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final comments and conclusions: • Modern plants, should have performed better under Fukushima type event. • In future fast reactor systems significantly higher active and passive safety features are installed, which should cope with events like Fukushima. • One important lesson: put a focus on rare initiators, accident routes and consequences that are neither expected nor have been observed, events that are categorized under ‘black swans’. • Importance of severe accident research demonstrated - both analytically and experimentally for assessing and interpreting accident scenarios and developments. Precondition for developing preventive & mitigative safety measures. Passive safety measures are in the focus of advanced design options and must work under conditions of multiple loads and aggravating events. • Fast reactor systems behavior as the SFR under severe accident conditions: – In fast spectrum systems as the SFR the core is not in its neutronically most reactive configuration and SFRs may be loaded with MAs for waste management; – Recriticalities have a high probability because of the higher enrichment levels; – Short time scales have to be envisioned for core melt-down; – Decay heat levels might be significantly higher, if MA bearing fuel is involved. • Improve design by measures for prevention and/or mitigation of recriticalities; – High reliability of simulations required for proof; • Assessment of fuel relocated on peripheral structures; • Preventive/mitigating measures should not replace containment measures

  19. Logistic Regression Approach in Road Defects Impact on Accident Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Khalili

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Safety and accident issues are considered as an important problem in the world. Road transportation issues would have a more conspicuous countenance in the country of Iran in which, over 94 percent of all transportations take place through roads. The roads’ contribution to the traffic accidents at mean is 24 percent however this value is 36 percent in Iran. Road traffic crashes exert a huge burden on Iran's economy and health care services. Many parameters, safety signs and equipment, Vertical and horizontal arc combination along the road and all the effective factors in decreasing the accidents, are considered when determining the safety level of the roads. Road defect is being considered as one of the essential factors causing accidents to happen.  This article investigates the severity factor of the accident according to the vehicle movability situation after the accident. The results of this research has shown that most  important factors reducing the safety on the suburban roads  in Iran is “insufficient road width” pertaining to frequency  and “Level difference between road & shoulder” pertaining  to accident severity.

  20. Analysis of avalanche risk factors in backcountry terrain based on usage frequency and accident data in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techel, F.; Zweifel, B.; Winkler, K.

    2015-09-01

    Recreational activities in snow-covered mountainous terrain in the backcountry account for the vast majority of avalanche accidents. Studies analyzing avalanche risk mostly rely on accident statistics without considering exposure (or the elements at risk), i.e., how many, when and where people are recreating, as data on recreational activity in the winter mountains are scarce. To fill this gap, we explored volunteered geographic information on two social media mountaineering websites - bergportal.ch and camptocamp.org. Based on these data, we present a spatiotemporal pattern of winter backcountry touring activity in the Swiss Alps and compare this with accident statistics. Geographically, activity was concentrated in Alpine regions relatively close to the main Swiss population centers in the west and north. In contrast, accidents occurred equally often in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. Weekends, weather and avalanche conditions influenced the number of recreationists, while the odds to be involved in a severe avalanche accident did not depend on weekends or weather conditions. However, the likelihood of being involved in an accident increased with increasing avalanche danger level, but also with a more unfavorable snowpack containing persistent weak layers (also referred to as an old snow problem). In fact, the most critical situation for backcountry recreationists and professionals occurred on days and in regions when both the avalanche danger was critical and when the snowpack contained persistent weak layers. The frequently occurring geographical pattern of a more unfavorable snowpack structure also explains the relatively high proportion of accidents in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. These results have practical implications: avalanche forecasters should clearly communicate the avalanche danger and the avalanche problem to the backcountry user, particularly if persistent weak layers are of concern. Professionals and recreationists, on the other hand, require the expertise to adjust the planning of a tour and their backcountry travel behavior depending on the avalanche danger and the avalanche problem.

  1. Epidemiology of Orthopedic Fractures and Other Injuries among Inpatients Admitted due to Traffic Accidents: A 10-Year Nationwide Survey in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Ren-Hao Pan; Nien-Tzu Chang; Dachen Chu; Kuo-Fang Hsu; Yuan-Nian Hsu; Jin-Chyr Hsu; Lin-Yu Tseng; Nan-Ping Yang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the major injury patterns associated with traffic accidents and evaluate the risk factors of the main injury, a survey of Taiwan's national insurance admission data between 2002 and 2011 was performed. The incidence of traffic-accidents-related hospitalization was between 9.17% and 11.54% and the average mortality rate of the inpatients admitted due to traffic accidents was 0.68%. Of all inpatients due to road traffic accidents in Taiwan, orthopedic fractures were the most comm...

  2. JCO criticality accident as POST-LOCA: Poor structure induced loss of organizational control accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some problems in operation and business management of JCO (Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Co.) have been studied as background factors of the criticality accident. Open information about business conditions of JCO suggests that the cause of the accident is not so simple as to be attributed only to economic pressure, but includes immanent problems in JCO. We investigate the problems from five viewpoints, organization of safety management, system of operation management, activities for business improvement, risk awareness, and restructuring of business, and discuss the effects and causality of background factors as well as remedies for them. (author)

  3. The EPR investigation of tooth enamel for measurements of tooth enamel for measurements of absorbed gamma doses of people irradiated in Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPR spectra of the tooth enamel of Chernobyl 'liquidators' were investigated. A lot of people were engaged in work at the Chernobyl area after the accident in 1986. A part of them is under regular medical control at the Ukrainian security service hospital. When patients lose the teeth for some reasons the EPR spectra of radiation centers in tooth enamel caused by emergency gamma radiation were investigated. The measurement of the intensities of the EPR spectra give the real individual absorbed doses of gamma radiation which are much higher than the official values registered in the medical cards of liquidators

  4. Rough set approach for accident chains exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jinn-Tsai; Chung, Yi-Shih

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a novel non-parametric methodology--rough set theory--for accident occurrence exploration. The rough set theory allows researchers to analyze accidents in multiple dimensions and to model accident occurrence as factor chains. Factor chains are composed of driver characteristics, trip characteristics, driver behavior and environment factors that imply typical accident occurrence. A real-world database (2003 Taiwan single auto-vehicle accidents) is used as an example to demonstrate the proposed approach. The results show that although most accident patterns are unique, some accident patterns are significant and worth noting. Student drivers who are young and less experienced exhibit a relatively high possibility of being involved in off-road accidents on roads with a speed limit between 51 and 79 km/h under normal driving circumstances. Notably, for bump-into-facility accidents, wet surface is a distinctive environmental factor. PMID:17166475

  5. Accident risk and factors regarding non-motorised road users : a central road safety challenge with deficient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of all traffic fatalities worldwide are non-motorised road users (NMRUs). In Denmark, the number has increased with about 30%. NMRUs consist of about 63% of the injured in the Danish traffic. Much has been done to reduce the number of injured NMRUs with counterparts, while little effort is put into the reduction of the vast majority of the accidents, NMRU single accidents, which are about 90% of all injured NMRUs. There are no efficient tools available to reduce this number. A significantly better designed, maintained, and illuminated road network would most likely help. However, that is expensive and not possible for most road authorities. Despite this, the challenges with NMRUs in single accidents need more attention, if road safety is to be improved. The situation in Denmark is more than likely the case in many other countries as well; although the documentation is scarce.

  6. Factores asociados a los accidentes por exposición percutánea en personal de enfermería en un hospital de tercer nivel / Factors associated with accidents resulting from percutaneousexposure in nursing staff at a tertiary level hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mª Teresa, Gallardo López; Josefa, Masá Calles; Rafael, Fernández-Creuet Navajas; nmaculada, Salcedo Leal; Jokin de, Irala Estévez; Diego, Martínez de la Concha; Carmen, Díaz Molina.

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Los accidentes por exposición percutánea suponen aproximadamente un tercio de los accidentes laborales del personal sanitario hospitalario. Su importancia estriba en las enfermedades causadas por patógenos transmisibles por esta vía (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, infección VIH). Objetivos: d [...] escribir los accidentes de este tipo notificados en un hospital de tercer nivel; identificar factores asociados a estos accidentes en personal de enfermería; construir un modelo predictivo del riesgo individual de accidentarse. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo de una cohorte retrospectiva compuesta por todas las personas que notificaron un accidente entre el 1-1-93 y el 30-6-96. Estudio de casos y controles en el personal de enfermería durante el período 1-1-95 al 30-6-96, analizado mediante regresión logística múltiple. RESULTADOS: La incidencia acumulada de accidentes en un año fue de 0,078 para las/-os enfermeras/-os. En el 57,3% de los casos estuvieron implicadas agujas de jeringas desechables o precargadas. La incidencia acumulada en un año fue mayor para las agujas de cateterismo intravenoso (8,5 por 100.000). El riesgo de accidentabilidad, ajustado por variables confundentes, fue mayor para las/-os enfermeras/-os (OR=3,22; I.C.95%=1,96-5,27), para los trabajadores de la Unidad de Hemodiálisis (OR=35,21; I.C.95%=3,74-331,16) y para aquéllos con contrato eventual (OR=4,50; I.C.95%=2,24-9,04). CONCLUSIONES: Los accidentes por exposición percutánea en este hospital son más frecuentes entre el personal de enfermería y se producen, fundamentalmente, con algún tipo de aguja hueca. Se han identificado factores asociados a estos accidentes, lo que permite dirigir programas preventivos específicos sobre trabajadores con más riesgo. El modelo obtenido es válido para estimar el grado de accidentabilidad individual en los sujetos estudiados. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Accidents resulting from percutaneous exposure account for approximately one third of all accidents suffered at work by health workers in hospitals. Their importance lies in the illnesses caused by pathogens that can be transmitted in this way (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV virus). The a [...] ims are to describe accidents of this type notified in a tertiary level hospital, identify factors associated with these accidents in nursing staff and build a predictive model for the individual risk of having an accident. METHODS: A descriptive study of a retrospective cohort made up of all the people who notified having suffered an accident between 1-1-93 and 30-6-96. A study of cases and controls in nursing staff during the period 1-1-95 to 30-6-96, analysed through multiple logistical regression. RESULTS: The cumulative number of cases of accidents in one year was 0.078 for male and female nurses. In 57.3% of cases, disposable or pre-loaded syringes were involved. The cumulative number of cases in one year was greater for intravenous catheterisation (8.5% per 100,000). The risk of having an accident, adjusted on account of confusing variables, was greater for female and male nurses (OR=3.22; I.C.95%=1.96-5.27), for workers in the Haemodialysis Unit (OR=35.21; I.C.95%=3.74-331.16) and for those employed on a temporary contract (OR=4.50; I.C.95%=2.24-9.04). CONCLUSIONS: Accidents resulting from percutaneous exposure at this hospital are more frequent among nursing staff and are basically caused by some type of needle used for injections. Factors associated with these accidents were identified, allowing specific prevention programmes to be targeted at those workers at greater risk. The model obtained is valid to estimate the degree of individual accident probability for the subjects studied.

  7. Investigation and analysis of aircrew ametropia and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the refractive distribution and analysis risk factors for aircrew ametropia.METHODS: The number of 49 cases with ametropia from 1031 aircrew during May 2013 to May 2014 were reviewed. Various types of refraction composition, age, type, position, time of flight with the subjective assessment of aircrew were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Of 49 cases, 43 cases(88%were myopia, 6 cases(12%were hypermetropia.,Detection rates were higher in age over 50 years aircrew and flight time more than 3000h. Detection rates were lower in self-conscious symptom heavy aircrew, fighter aircrew and good habit of using eyes. CONCLUSION: The myopia incidence in aircrew with age >50 years and long flight time is higher, than that of fighter pilots and good habit of using eyes. We should pay attention to the increasing late-onset myopia of aviators and habit of using eyes, work intensity and time of using eyes about aircrew.

  8. Exploratory investigation of factors affecting the wing tip vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, J.; Megrail, J. L.; Shivers, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to study some factors affecting the tip vortex of a wing. It was found that there was a pronounced effect of Reynolds number on the tip-vortex core size. An attempt was made to determine what aerodynamic parameters, such as lift, drag, or induced drag, influence the size of the vortex core, but no particular function of the parameters was found to be superior to all others. Various spoilers placed on the upper and lower surfaces of the wing to increase the boundary-layer thickness resulted in a reduction in the vorticity as determined from the tuft grid. Various solid objects placed in the vortex core downstream of the wing tip seemed to decrease the vorticity within the vortex core.

  9. Acidente do trabalho investigado pelo CEREST Piracicaba: confrontando a abordagem tradicional da segurança do trabalho / Work related accident investigated by CEREST Piracicaba: confronting the traditional approach of safety at work

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia, Vilela; Renata Wey Berti, Mendes; Carmen Aparecida H., Gonçalves.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de exploração das diferentes concepções acerca dos acidentes do trabalho e pretendendo discutir suas implicações sobre a prevenção, este artigo apresenta o caso de investigação de acidente de trabalho (AT) realizado pelo Sistema de Vigilância de Acidentes do Trabalho (SIVAT) do Centro de Re [...] ferência em Saúde do Trabalhador (CEREST) de Piracicaba, que utiliza a notificação a partir de todos os pronto-socorros E hospitais do município. A metodologia de investigação do At utilizada pelo Cerest inclui entrevistas, análise de documentos, fotografias, observação e estudo da situação do trabalho. Por outro lado, a empresa, com auxílio de laudo do Instituto de Criminalística (IC), usando uma abordagem tradicional do ato inseguro, apresenta explicações simplistas das causas dos acidentes de trabalho, o que resulta na atribuição de culpa às vítimas desses eventos, deixando de identificar os aspectos da organização do trabalho, a concepção dos equipamentos; fatores que, explorados, apontariam caminhos para a melhoria da segurança e da confiabilidade dos sistemas. Concluiu-se pela necessidade de mudanças culturais na área de segurança com investimentos permanentes na capacitação e na difusão dos novos conceitos sobre acidentes junto aos atores sociais, aos profissionais e ao poder judiciário. Abstract in english Exploring different concepts of work-related accidents and intending to discuss their implications on prevention, this article presents a case-study on work related accident (WRA) investigation conducted by the System of Surveillance of Accidents at Work (SIVAT) at the Center of Reference on Worker' [...] s Health (CEREST) in Piracicaba, using cases notified by all emergency rooms and hospitals of the Municipal district. The methodology of investigation of Wra used by Cerest includes interviews, analysis of documents, pictures, observation, and investigation of the situation at worksite. On the other hand, companies present simplistic explanations of Wra occurrences, using the traditional approach based on individual unsafe action, facilitated by reports issued by the State Criminalistics Institute (IC). Consequently victims are blamed for the events, and aspects of work organization or equipment conception are ignored. Such factors, if properly analyzed, could point out solutions for improvements in safety and reliability of the systems. Authors concluded that cultural changes in the safety field are necessary, with continuous investments in training and diffusion of new concepts on accidents among social actors, professionals, and the Judiciary.

  10. Investigation and risk factor analysis of hyperuricemia in pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-yu MA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the incidence of hyperuricemia in military pilots and the relationship between hyperuricemia and other related risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Methods  A total of 2563 pilots, who had undergone a regular physical examination in the Air Force General Hospital from 2005 to 2010, participated in the current study. The participants were divided into high serum uric acid (UA group (hyperuricemia group, UA >420µmol/L, n=294 and normal UA group (n=2269. The incidence rates of hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipemia were compared between these two groups. The dependent variable was serum UA level of the pilots. Other indices included the total cholesterol (CHO, triglycerides (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, fasting blood glucose (FBG, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, smoking, body weight, and flight time as independent variable. Logistic multivariate regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between UA level and these indexes. Results  The incidence rates of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, and high LDL were significantly higher in hyperuricemia group than in normal UA group (POR=1.637, POR=1.025, POR=1.046, PConclusion  The serum UA of pilots is closely related to the risk factors of other cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Analysis methodology for RBMK-1500 core safety and investigations on corium coolability during a LWR severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents the work involving two broad aspects within the field of nuclear reactor analysis and safety. These are: - development of a fully independent reactor dynamics and safety analysis methodology of the RBMK-1500 core transient accidents and - experiments on the enhancement of coolability of a particulate bed or a melt pool due to heat removal through the control rod guide tubes. The first part of the thesis focuses on the development of the RBMK-1500 analysis methodology based on the CORETRAN code package. The second part investigates the issue of coolability during severe accidents in LWR type reactors: the coolability of debris bed and melt pool for in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. The first chapter briefly presents the status of developments in both the RBMK-1500 core analysis and the corium coolability areas. The second chapter describes the generation of the RBMK-1500 neutron cross section data library with the HELIOS code. The cross section library was developed for the whole range of the reactor conditions. The results of the benchmarking with the WIMS-D4 code and validation against the RBMK Critical Facility experiments is also presented here. The HELIOS generated neutron cross section data library provides a close agreement with the WIMS-D4 code results. The validation against the data from the Critical Experiments shows that the HELIOS generated neutron cross section library provides excellent predictions for the criticality, axial and radial power distribution, control rod reactivity worths and coolant reactivity effects, etc. The reactivity effects of voiding for the system, fuel assembly and additional absorber channel are underpredicted in the calculations using the HELIOS code generated neutron cross sections. The underprediction, however, is much less than that obtained when the WIMS-D4 code generated cross sections are employed. The third chapter describes the work, performed towards the accurate prediction, assessment and validation of the CHF and post-CHF heat transfer for the RBMK-1500 reactor fuel assemblies employing the VIPRE-02 code. This chapter describes the experiments, which were used for validating the CHF correlations, appropriate for the RBMK-1500 type reactors. These correlations after validation were added to the standard version of the VIPRE-02 code. The VIPRE-02 calculations were benchmarked against the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. It was found that these user-coded additional CHF correlations developed for the RBMK type reactors (Osmachkin, RRC KI and Khabenski correlations) and implemented into the code by the author, provide a good prediction of the CHF occurrence at the RBMK reactor nominal pressure range (at about 7 MPa). Transition and film boiling are also predicted well with the VIPRE-02 code for this pressure range. It was found, that for the RBMK-1500 reactor applications, EPRI CHF correlation should be used for the CHF predictions for the lower fuel assemblies of the reactor in the subchannel model of the RBMK-1500 fuel assembly. RRC KI and Bowring CHF correlations may be used for the upper fuel assemblies. For a single-channel model of the RBMK-1500 fuel channel, Osmachkin, RRC KI and Bowring correlations provide the closest predictions and may be used for the CHF estimation. For the low coolant mass fluxes in the fuel channel, Khabenski correlation can be applied. The fourth chapter presents the verification of the CORETRAN code for the RBMK-1500 core analysis. The model was verified against a number of RBMK-1500 plant data and transient calculations. The new RBMK-1500 core model was successfully applied in several safety assessment applications. A series of transient calculations, considered within the scope of the RBMK-type reactor Safety Analysis Report (SAR), were performed. Several cases of the transient calculations are presented in this chapter. The HELIOS/CORETRAN/VIPRE-02 core model for the RBMK-1500 is fully functional. The RBMK-1500 CPS logic, added into the CORETRAN provides an adequate response to the changes in the reactor parameters. Chapters 5 and

  12. Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result of this study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs

  13. Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Jung, Won Dae; Kang, Dae Il; Ha, Jae Joo

    1999-06-01

    In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result ofthis study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs.

  14. Gray Correlation Analysis of Coal Mine Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Yan Tian; Zeng-Shou Dong; Ze-Min Li

    2013-01-01

    Based on the statistics of 2008-2012 State Administration of study safety coal mine accident,a grey relational analysis model of coal mine accidents was established,and the grey correlation matrixes were established according to the grey relevance degree of data series. The gas accident, roof accident and flood accident were considered as the main influential factors according to the advantage analysis method. The analysis method provides scientific basis for further prevention an...

  15. Study of human factors, and its basic aspects focusing the IEA-R1 research reactor operators, aiming at the prevention of accidents caused by human failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a study of human factors and possible human failure reasons that can cause incidents, accidents and workers exposition, associated to risks intrinsic to the profession. The objective is to contribute with the operators of IEA-R1 reactor located at IPEN CNEN/S P. Accidents in the technological field, including the nuclear, have shown that the causes are much more connected to human failure than to system and equipment failures, what has led the regulatory bodies to consider studies on human failure. The research proposed in this work is quantitative/qualitative and also descriptive. Two questionnaires were used to collect data. The first of them was elaborated from the safety culture attributes which are described by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. The second considered individual and situational factors composing categories that could affect people in the work area. A carefully selected transcription of the theoretical basis according to the study of human factors was used. The methodology demonstrated a good reliability degree. Results lead to mediate factors which need direct actions concerning the needs of the group and of the individual. This research shows that it is necessary to have a really effective unit of planning and organization, not only to the physical and psychological health issues but also to the safety in the work. (author)

  16. Motorcycle accidents, rider behaviour, and psychological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo; Do?ruyol, Burak; Y?ld?r?m, Zümrüt; Çoymak, Ahmet

    2012-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (a) investigate the factor structure of the Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire (MRBQ) [Elliott, M.A., Baughan, B.J., Sexton, B.F., 2007. Errors and violations in relation to motorcyclists' crash risk. Accident Analysis and Prevention 39, 491-499] in among Turkish riders, and (b) study the relationships between different types of rider behaviour and motorcyclists' active and passive accidents and offences, and (c) investigate the usefulness of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Health Belief Model (HBM), and Locus of Control (T-LOC) in explaining rider behaviours. MRBQ was administered to a sample of motorcyclists (N=451). Principal components analysis yielded a 5-factor solution including traffic errors, control errors, speed violations, performance of stunts, and use of safety equipment. Annual mileage was related to higher number of active and passive accidents and offences whereas age was related to lower number of active and passive accidents. Stunts were the main predictors of active accidents and offences. Speeding violations predicted offences. Stunts and speeding violations were associated with the fate factor of the T-LOC, and with attitudes, subjective norms, and intention components of TPB, and cues to action and perceived severity components of the HBM. Use of safety equipment was related to the high level of perceived behavioural control and intention components of the TPB, the low score of perceived barriers component of the HBM, and the low fate factor of the T-LOC. While traffic errors were associated with the high score of perceived barriers and cues to action component of the HBM, control errors were related to the high score of vehicle and environment factor of the T-LOC. PMID:23036389

  17. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  18. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer. PMID:26397978

  19. Analyzing heterogeneous accident data from the perspective of accident occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jinn-Tsai; Chung, Yi-Shih

    2008-01-01

    Clustering and classification approaches have been commonly applied in reducing the heterogeneity in accident data. As part of an effort to understand the features of the heterogeneity, this study assessed accident data from the perspective of accident occurrences. Using the rule-based classification method, rough set theory, rules were derived which consisted of indispensable factors to certain accident outcomes and reflected the process of accident occurrences. The occurring frequency of each derived rule was then adopted as the basis for grouping accidents for further analyses. Empirical results showed that rules with high occurring frequencies were largely related to drivers with high-risk characteristics. On the other hand, road facilities played a key role in rules with low-occurring frequencies. The distinctive features indicated the essential differences between the frequently repeated and the sparsely unique processes of accident occurrences. This suggests that the heterogeneity of accident data is not limited to one single factor, such as age, gender or area. Thus, the proposed approach, which takes the process of accident occurrences into consideration, can be a potential alternative to more comprehensively analyze the heterogeneity in accident data. PMID:18215569

  20. Accidentes biológicos en estudiantes de medicina de una universidad peruana: prevalencia, mecanismos y factores de riesgo / Biological accidents in a Peruvian university medical students: prevalence, mechanisms and risk factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Inga; Gregory, López; Carlos, Kamiya.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Una de las más serias amenazas que enfrentan los estudiantes de medicina durante su práctica clínica es la posibilidad de exposición a accidentes biológicos, debido en la mayoría de los casos a la inexperiencia y el escaso desarrollo de las habilidades manuales. Objetivos: Establecer l [...] a frecuencia, mecanismos, circunstancias y factores de riesgo de los accidentes biológicos ocurridos entre estudiantes de medicina. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo observacional de corte transversal. Institución: Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Estudiantes de medicina. Metodología: Se aplicó una encuesta estructurada anónima, voluntaria y autoadministrada. Principales medidas de resultados: Accidentes biológicos. Resultados: En total fueron 307 entrevistados. La prevalencia de accidentes biológicos en la población estudiada fue de 51,5% (158/307). La media de accidentes biológicos en el último año fue de 1,06. El 91,1% de los estudiantes del último año presentó al menos un accidente biológico, versus 11,9% en los estudiantes del primer año. Los estudiantes del último año informaron con más frecuencia accidentes de riesgo alto para transmisión de infecciones, siendo 47,6% por pinchazo con objeto punzocortante, y 80,6% tuvo exposición a sangre; los accidentes de riesgo alto son mucho más frecuentes en quirófanos y sala de partos (51,9%). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de accidentes biológicos fue 51,5%, siendo el pinchazo la forma más frecuente. Es necesario desarrollar estrategias que permitan velar por la bioseguridad de los estudiantes de medicina. Abstract in english Introduction: One of the most serious problems of medical students is occupational exposure during their clinical training as they lack experience and limited development of hand skills. Objectives: To establish the frequency, mechanisms, circumstances and risk factors of biological accidents report [...] ed in medical students. Design: Descriptive observational transversal type study. Setting: Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Participants: Medical students. Methodology: A retrospective anonymous and voluntary survey was conducted. Study participants were randomly chosen. Main outcome measures: Biological accidents. Results: In a sample of 307 students 51,5% had at least one accident (158/307); median of biological accidents in the last year was 1,06; 91,1% of senior students had at least one biological accident last year versus 11,9% of first-year students. Senior students inform more often about high-risk infection-transmission accidents, 47,6% caused by pinching with a sharp object while 80,6% were exposed to blood; high-risk accidents are far more often in surgical and delivery rooms (51,9%). Conclusions: It is necessary to develop strategies that allow medical students to enforce biosecurity concepts.

  1. Infant siblings and the investigation of autism risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newschaffer Craig J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infant sibling studies have been at the vanguard of autism spectrum disorders (ASD research over the past decade, providing important new knowledge about the earliest emerging signs of ASD and expanding our understanding of the developmental course of this complex disorder. Studies focused on siblings of children with ASD also have unrealized potential for contributing to ASD etiologic research. Moving targeted time of enrollment back from infancy toward conception creates tremendous opportunities for optimally studying risk factors and risk biomarkers during the pre-, peri- and neonatal periods. By doing so, a traditional sibling study, which already incorporates close developmental follow-up of at-risk infants through the third year of life, is essentially reconfigured as an enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study. This review considers the enriched-risk pregnancy cohort approach of studying infant siblings in the context of current thinking on ASD etiologic mechanisms. It then discusses the key features of this approach and provides a description of the design and implementation strategy of one major ASD enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study: the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI.

  2. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  3. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  4. Car Sales: Investigation into Factors Determining Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelija Samoškien?

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines customer behaviour in general and discusses factors determining customer behaviour in car industry. The paper describes a concept of consumer behaviour and the importance of factors influencing the situation. Empirical study about factors determining car industry in consumer-made decisions is carried out. In addition, statistical factor analysis is performed. The key sets of factors helping the user with choosing a new car are iden­tified and analysed at the level of the groups of factors (factor. The conducted analysis shows that car price, ergonomics, image, dynamic and user-friendliness as well as environmental groups are the main points that assist in buying a new car.Article in Lithuanian

  5. An investigation on Unprotected Loss of Flow Accident in Th–Pu metal fuelled 500 MWe fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Th- Pu metal FBR core reactivity coefficients are estimated. • Static and transient behavior of Th–Pu core are compared with U–Pu–6Zr core. • Under ULOFA, Th–Pu reactor reaches safe shutdown with passive SGDHRS. - Abstract: This study focuses on computing static reactivity coefficients and analyzing Unprotected Loss of Flow Accident in a Th–Pu fuelled metal reactor. An attempt is also done to compare the static and dynamic performance of the fresh core with characteristics of U–Pu–6Zr fuelled 500 MWe metal reactor. Isothermal temperature coefficient and power coefficients are evaluated in the steady state and found to be negative. The excess reactivity and control rod worth requirements of Th–Pu metal core are assumed similar to that of U–Pu–6Zr metal core. In the Unprotected Loss of Flow Accident (ULOFA) analysis, with flow coast down initiated by station black out, it is found that power to flow ratio is increasing initially up to 53 s and then starts to reduce continuously. Power to flow ratio is found to be less than 2 at all times thus ensuring the absence of coolant boiling in the entire core. Sodium voiding starts around 886 s in the upper axial blanket and provide negative reactivity. Also it will not propagate to the core center ensuring the probability for core disruptive accident a remote one. Net reactivity feedback is negative and the major contribution is from core radial expansion. Within 12 min, the power drops to 32 MWt, making it possible for Safety Grade Decay Heat Removal (SGDHR) system to start heat removal from core ensuring safe shutdown of reactor. Sensitivity analysis by considering an uncertainty margin of ±10% in thermo physical properties of fuel composition shows that feedback reactivity of the Th–Pu system is insensitive and the conclusion on the safe shutdown remains unaltered. From this study it is found that inherent safety of Th–Pu metal fuel core is better than that of reactor core fuelled with U–Pu–6Zr metal type under ULOFA condition

  6. An investigation of graphite dust and plateout fission product behavior under pipe rupture accident condition in primary cooling system of high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), a small amount of fission products are released from fuel elements during normal operation. Then condensable fission products plateout on the inner surface of primary cooling system components. In accident conditions such as rapid depressurization events, plated-out fission products would be re-entrained into the coolant by chemical and/or mechanical forces. The re-entrainment process is called liftoff. Since this process is very complicated phenomenon, a quantitative model for analysis has not been established. Therefore, experiments were carried out to investigate the behavior of fission products and graphite dusts under the rapid depressurization condition caused by large-scale pipe rupture accident. One experiment was focused on fission products plated-out on metal surface or on/in oxide film and another was focused on the graphite dusts behavior. In this paper, applicability of turbulent burst model to graphite dusts and fission products liftoff models to the experimental data was investigated. (author)

  7. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    CERN Document Server

    Franic, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

  8. Clinical investigation of risk factors in ectopic pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-yun HU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective ?To discuss the relative and independent risk factors in ectopic pregnancy. Methods ?The clinical data of 870 patients with ectopic pregnancy, admitted from 2005 to 2012, were retrospectively analyzed, with 800 cases of normal pregnancy serving as control. Monofactorial correlation analysis was used to analyze the related risk factor, and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the independent risk factor. Results ?Pelvic adhesion, previous operation, cesarean section delivery, number of pregnancy, artificial abortion, medical abortion, in vitrofertilization and embryo replacement (IVF-ER, and placement of intrauterine device (IUD are the risk factors of ectopic pregnancy, pelvic adhesion, artificial abortion, operation, number of pregnancies and IUD are the independent risk factors, and pelvic adhesion is the major risk factor. Conclusion ?Avoidance of unexpected pregnancy as possible, reduction of the number of artificial abortion, prevention and treatment of genital duct inflammation, and standardization of pelvic operation may reduce the incidence of ectopic pregnancy.

  9. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating probability of aircraft crash are considered to be 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 35 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 2 for large bladed aircraft and 30 for small bladed aircraft. (2) The data of SDF aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total of 45 accidents occurred, 24 of them are large fixed-wing aircrafts, 4 are small fixed-wing aircrafts and 17 are bladed aircrafts. 23 to 45 accidents fell into land. (3) The data of US aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total of 16 accidents occurred, 13 of which are fixed-wing aircrafts, 3 are bladed aircrafts. 6 of 16 accidents fell into land. (4) The instrument flight information on commercial aircrafts is based on 'Air transport statics' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The total number of takeoffs and landings is 29,971,662 and the total flight distance is 9,232,867,684 km. (author)

  10. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting from the disintegration of the former Soviet Union. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has given particular attention to the accident. Estimates of average doses in separate regions of countries and for the population of the northern hemisphere as a whole were presented in Annex D of the UNSCEAR 1988 Report. The experience gained in treating the immediate radiation injuries of workers and fire fighters involved in controlling the accident were also reviewed in the UNSCEAR 1988 Report (Annex G). The UNSCEAR Committee is currently involved in the final phase of preparation of a further assessment of the exposures and effects of the accident. During the last several years, considerable attention has been devoted to investigating possible associations between health effects in the populations and the exposure to radionuclides released and dispersed following the Chernobyl accident. Of particular note has been the occurrence of numerous thyroid cancers in children. The number of thyroid cancers in individuals exposed in childhood, particularly in the severely contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is considerably greater than expected based on previous knowledge. The high incidence and the short induction period have not been experienced in other populations, and other factors are most certainly influencing the risk. If the current trend continues, further thyroid cancers can be expected to occur, especially in those exposed at young ages. The most recent findings indicate that the thyroid cancer risk for those older than 10 years of age at the time of the accident is leveling off, while the increase continues for those younger than 4-5 years in 1986. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer after childhood exposure, there is no evidence of a major public health impact 14 years after the Chernobyl accident. No increases in overall cancer incidence or mortality have been observed that could be attributed to ionizing radiation. Risk of leukaemia, one of the major concerns after radiation exposure, do

  11. An Investigation of Institutional Enhancement Factors on Student College Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaokoro, Amaechi Nkemakolem

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the importance of students' hard work and institutional factors--technology, advising, mentoring, and tutoring on student's academic performance. It is important for institutions to emphasize both students' hard work and effective institutional factors that will have positive impact on student success.

  12. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an assessment of the causes and consequences of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, which began on 11 March 2011. Caused by a huge tsunami that followed a massive earthquake, it was the worst accident at a nuclear power plant since the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. The report considers human, organizational and technical factors, and aims to provide an understanding of what happened, and why, so that the necessary lessons learned can be acted upon by governments, regulators and nuclear power plant operators throughout the world. Measures taken in response to the accident, both in Japan and internationally, are also examined. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident consists of a Report by the IAEA Director General and five technical volumes. It is the result of an extensive international collaborative effort involving five working groups with about 180 experts from 42 Member States with and without nuclear power programmes and several international bodies. It provides a description of the accident and its causes, evolution and consequences, based on the evaluation of data and information from a large number of sources available at the time of writing. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident will be of use to national authorities, international organizations, nuclear regulatory bodies, nuclear power plant operating organizations, designers of nuclear facilities and other experts in matters relating to nuclear power, as well as the wider public. The set contains six printed parts and five supplementary CD-ROMs. Contents: Report by the Director General; Technical Volume 1/5, Description and Context of the Accident; Technical Volume 2/5, Safety Assessment; Technical Volume 3/5, Emergency Preparedness and Response; Technical Volume 4/5, Radiological Consequences; Technical Volume 5/5, Post-accident Recovery; Annexes. The Report by the Director General is also available separately in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Japanese

  13. Prospective study of intellectual development, mental and behavioral disorders in children in uteroexposed to radioecological and psychosocial factors associated with the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospective study of the parameters characterizing the mental status of children in utero exposed to radioecological factors associated with the Chernobyl accident. 197 children born from May 1986 to February 1987 whose mothers lived in the period of pregnancy at contaminated territory were examined. Control group was formed by random sampling. It is shown that the children of the group under study aged 6-7 years were characterized by relative predominance of cases with border-line level of intellectual functioning (13.2 % vs. 9.2 % in the control group). By 10-12 years this difference practically smoothed over. Average group intellectual parameters of children aged 6-7 and 10-12 years in the main group were similar and did not depend on pregnancy term at the moment of exposure. Unfavorable physiological and social-demographic factors were mainly responsible for the intellectual development and emotional disordered in prenatally exposed children

  14. Factors associated with work-related accidents and sickness among maquiladora workers: the case of Nogales, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcazar, H; Denman, C; Lara, F

    1995-01-01

    The health problems of maquiladora workers were explored in a sample of 497 workers of Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The workers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire containing four sections: a sociodemographic profile, occupational history, working conditions, and a health profile. Overall, 12.6 percent of the workers reported having an accident while working in the maquila, more than 40 percent of these requiring at least one day of disability, and 18.3 percent of workers reported having an episode of sickness/disease. More than 60 percent perceived health-related risks associated with working conditions. The presence of a doctor or nurse in the plant (odds ratio = 0.30), a perception of risk associated with working conditions (odds ratio = 1.85), and the plant offering information about work-related risks (odds ratio = 0.39) were among the significant predictors of work-related accidents and disease/sickness. The authors discuss the implications of these results for programs and policies to improve safety conditions in the maquiladora industry. PMID:7591377

  15. A behavioral comparison between motorcyclists and a matched group of non-motorcycling car drivers: factors influencing accident risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswill, Mark S; Helman, Shaun

    2003-07-01

    Motorcyclists and a matched group of non-motorcycling car drivers were assessed on behavioral measures known to relate to accident involvement. Using a range of laboratory measures, we found that motorcyclists chose faster speeds than the car drivers, overtook more, and pulled into smaller gaps in traffic, though they did not travel any closer to the vehicle in front. The speed and following distance findings were replicated by two further studies involving unobtrusive roadside observation. We suggest that the increased risk-taking behavior of motorcyclists was only likely to account for a small proportion of the difference in accident risk between motorcyclists and car drivers. A second group of motorcyclists was asked to complete the simulator tests as if driving a car. They did not differ from the non-motorcycling car drivers on the risk-taking measures but were better at hazard perception. There were also no differences for sensation seeking, mild social deviance, and attitudes to riding/driving, indicating that the risk-taking tendencies of motorcyclists did not transfer beyond motorcycling, while their hazard perception skill did. PMID:12729822

  16. An investigation on different factors influencing perceived organizational change

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Saleh Ardestani; Kaveh Teymournezhad; Sajad Ahmadvand

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the impacts of different factors influencing on perceived organization change in municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of five factors including partnership, communication, training, believe in change and organization commitment and the other for organizational change in Likert scale. The study has been implemented among 147 regular employees of municipality organization in city of Tehran...

  17. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

    OpenAIRE

    E. Mohammad-pajooh; K. Ab. Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedn...

  18. An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Houshmand Neghabi; Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee

    2013-01-01

    Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials). We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique ...

  19. Transfer factors and effective half-lives of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in different environmental sample types obtained from Northern Finland: case Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivurova, Matias; Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kallio, Antti

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima NPP accident caused a small but detectable cesium fallout in northern Finland, of the order of 1 Bq/m(2). This fallout transferred further to soil, water, flora and fauna. By using modern HPGe detector systems traces of (134)Cs from the Fukushima fallout were observed in various samples of biota. In northern Finland different types of environmental samples such as reindeer meat, berries, fish, lichens and wolf were collected during 2011-2013. The observed (134)Cs concentrations varied from 0.1 Bq/kg to a few Bq/kg. By using the known (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio observed in Fukushima fallout the increase of the Fukushima accident to the (137)Cs concentrations was found to vary from 0.06 % to 6.9 % depending on the sample type. The aggregated transfer factors (Tag) and effective half-lives (Teff) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also determined and then compared with known values found from earlier studies which are calculated based on the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Generally, the Tag and Teff values determined in this study were found to agree with the values found in the earlier studies. The Teff values were sample-type specific and were found to vary from 0.91 to 2.1 years for (134)Cs and the estimates for (137)Cs ranged between 1.6 and 19 years. Interestingly, the ground lichens had the longest Teff whereas the beard lichen had the shortest. In fauna, highest Tag values were determined for wolf meat ranging between 1.0 and 2.2 m(2)/kg. In flora, the highest Tag values were determined for beard lichens, ranging from 1.9 m(2)/kg to 3.5 m(2)/kg. PMID:25935505

  20. X-ray electron investigation of samples of fuel-containing masses formed as a result of Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Method of X-ray electron spectroscopy was used to analyze six samples (1-6) of fuel-containing masses (FCM), formed in result of Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident. It was established that ions of elements (U, Zr, Si, N, C) in analyzed samples were in chemically nonequilibrium states, typical for different oxidation degrees. Relative percentage of uranium ions of different oxidation degrees in analyzed FCM samples was determined. It was revealed, that samples 1-4 represented melts of oxygen-containing compounds, including additional ions of elements with lower oxidation degree, as compared to the most stable oxides (ZrO2, SiO2, UO2 etc). It is noted that intensive chemical processes of further oxidation of uranium ions and ions of after elements with release of heat can take place in result of contact with air and rain water. This fact should be taken into account when monitoring neutron fluxes and at temperature control of nuclear fuel. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) accident. A final report on the investigation of fission product chemical forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September of 1965, an intentionally defective fuel rod failed in the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), causing the rupture of the surrounding pressure tube and the release of superheated cooling water into a region of the reactor core. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has reviewed the PRTR incident to assemble and update all the available information regarding the incident. A principal goal of the review was to analyze any remaining clues that may indicate the stoichiometry or most probable chemical and physical forms of the released fission products. The review confirmed the role of water in limiting iodine release. About 97% of the iodine released during the accident was subsequently found in tanks containing the reactor/rupture-loop coolant. Although the chemical form of the released radioiodine cannot be stated unambiguously, the available evidence suggests that it was released in the form of cesium iodide. Most of the remaining 3% was found in the condensate collected from air cooling systems. The chemical form of this scrubbed iodine remains undefined

  2. Safety culture and the accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to the accident at Three Mile Island, little attention was being paid to the human role in the safe operation of civilian nuclear power plants. The investigation of the TMI accident showed that its root causes were primarily human-related. The Kemeny Report on the TMI accident does not use the term 'safety culture'; however, it fully identifies all relevant aspects of safety culture. It was only after the accident at Chernobyl that the term 'safety culture' came into widespread use. However, it should be noted that, during the years after TMI and before Chernobyl, already major changes had been instituted concerning human factors and human reliability in the civilian nuclear energy programs of many countries. Greater credit should be given to the remarkable insights developed by the Kemeny Commission as contained in the Kemeny Report. (author)

  3. Investigating Factors Affecting Group Processes in Virtual Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Sunil; Thompson, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread popularity of distance learning, there is a need to investigate elements of online courses that continue to pose significant challenges for educators. One of the challenges relates to creating and managing group projects. This study investigated business students' perceptions of group work in online classes. The constructs…

  4. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Nosouzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was also computed and it was about 0.66, which is above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.5. The study uses Scree plot to determine important factors and there are eight factors including environmental issues, export supportive issues, potentials for export, business plan, export plan, structural barriers, competition capability and strategy.

  5. Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, S. H.; Kim, H. G.; Jang, H. S.; Moon, S. K.; Park, J. U. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management.

  6. Standardization of drift investigations of microorganisms in the cooling water inflow of large power plants on the Upper Rhine with a view to quantifying the impact of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project developed a method for recognizing and evaluating damage to the populations of the macrozoobenthos of the Rhine river in the case of accidents. It is based on regular samplings by means of the sieve belts in the cooling water take-off of the Karlsruhe Rheinhafendampfkraftwerk (RDK) and Mannheim Grosskraftwerk (GKM). Investigated is the normal drift of the individual taxa in their daily and seasonal distribution. The emphasis is on the minimum and maximum numbers of individuals and the normal rate of damage of organisms as a function of the water table.- On the basis of the results so far obtained, the range of variation of the ordinary drift can be determined. Any value exceeding the established ones is a measure of the damage sustained by the biocoenosis or the individual taxa.- Further opportunities for exploiting the power plant method for the benefit of nature conservation, the protection of species, and fishery are pointed out. (orig.)

  7. An investigation of BWR/4 parallel channel effects during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident for both intact and broken jet pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of parallel channel effects (PCE) on the effectiveness of the emergency core cooling systems in a boiling water nuclear reactor (BWR) was experimentally investigated. Specifically, the effectiveness of the core spray cooling system and the low-pressure coolant injection system during the emergency core cooling of a simulated 218-BWR/4 was studied. Experiments simulating conditions after a hypothetical design basis loss-of-coolant accident were performed in a special PCE test section in which Freon-114 was used as the working fluid. A detailed scaling analysis was performed to allow real-time simulation of the bypass leakage inflow, reflood rate, countercurrent flow limitation core decay heat, and the size of postulated jet pump breaks. It was found that BWR core cooling could be adversely affected by postulated failure of the jet pump seals by observing the parallel channel effects

  8. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  9. Investigating Factors that Influence Item Performance on ACS Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    General chemistry tests from the Examinations Institute of the Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society have been analyzed to identify factors that may influence how individual test items perform. In this paper, issues of item order (position within a set of items that comprise a test) and answer order (position of correct…

  10. Factores Asociados a Accidentes, Enfermedades y Ausentismo Laboral: Análisis de una Cohorte de Trabajadores Formales en Chile / Factors Associated with Accidents, Illness and Absenteeism: Analysis of a Cohort of Formal Workers in Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena, Hoffmeister; Carolina, Vidal; Clelia, Vallebuona; Nelly, Ferrer; Pamela, Vásquez; Gabriela, Núñez.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estimar la asociación entre factores de riesgo y la ocurrencia de enfermedades, accidentes y ausentismo laboral en trabajadores formales. Método: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva usando dos fuentes de información: registro de evaluaciones ocupacionales preventivas y de episodios de acciden [...] tes y enfermedades laborales (2009-2012). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de variables de salud y de factores de riesgo. Regresiones logísticas para la ocurrencia de enfermedades y accidentes. Se usó una regresión Poisson-cero-inflado para el ausentismo laboral. Resultados: los > 60 años tienen un exceso de riesgo de enfermedad laboral (OR-ajustada 19,18 respecto a 60 años (IRR 2,69), trabajar en actividades inmobiliarias (IRR 2,37) y en explotación de minas (IRR 2,38), tienen una probabilidad mayor de más días de ausentismo. Conclusiones: Factores no modificables (sexo y edad), junto con factores modificables, como el sedentarismo y el estado nutricional, contribuyen a eventos laborales no deseados. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the association among lifestyle-related risk factors and the occurrence of occupational diseases, accidents and absenteeism in a cohort of formal workers. Method: A retrospective cohort study was carried out by using two information sources: a registry of preventive occupatio [...] nal evaluations and another registry of episodes of occupational accidents and diseases (2009-2012). A descriptive analysis was performed of health variables and risk factors. Logistic regressions were used to calculate the likelihood of occupational accidents and diseases and a zero-inflated Poisson regression was used to model occupational absenteeism. Results: A total of 47.221 workers were included, of which 86,3% were men. The mean follow-up was 1,96 years. Workers aged >60 years had an excess risk of occupational diseases, with an OR of 19.18 compared with workers aged 60 years (IRR 2,69), and working in the property sector (IRR 2,37) and in mining (IRR 2,38) conferred a higher probability of absenteeism. Conclusions: Unmodifiable factors (age and sex), as well as modifiable factors, such as sedentariness and nutritional status, contribute to undesired occupational events.

  11. Investigation of high duty factor ISR RFQ-1000

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Y R; Fang, J X; Gao, S L; Guo, J F; Guo, Z Y; Li, D S; Li, W G; Pan, O J; Ren, X T; Wu, Y; Yan, X Q; Yu Jin Xiang; Yu, M L; Ratzinger, U; Deitinghoff, H; Klein, H; Schempp, A

    2003-01-01

    Two Integral Split Ring (ISR) RFQs with high duty factor of 16.7% have been designed for the application of heavy ion implantation and built in the past several years at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics (IHIP) in Peking University. Two kinds of PIG ion sources with permanent magnets and LEBT were installed and optimized for the injection into these two RFQs. The positive O**+ and negative O**- ions were extracted and accelerated separately as well as simultaneously. The output macro pulse O**- beam current reached 660muA at a transmission efficiency of more than 82%. The N**+ beam was also accelerated with similar transmission efficiency, but the output current intensity for positive ions were lower than the negative ions because of the extracted current limitation of ion sources. The improvements, especially for high duty factor and experimental results with the 1MeV ISR RFQ will be presented in this paper.

  12. INVESTIGATING FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ LEARNING IN A TEAM TEACHING SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Team teaching factors, including mission clarity, affiliation, innovativeness, and fairness, are examined to determine how they influence student learning in a team-taught course. The study involved 184 college students enrolled in an Introduction to Computers course delivered in a team-taught format in a large university located in the United States. The collaborative teaching design followed a traditional team teaching approach with an instructor team teaching the same course collaboratively. Students enrolled in the team-taught course filled out an online survey targeted at identifying key factors that influence student-based outcomes (satisfaction and competency in the course. Results showed that instructor team mission clarity, affiliation, and fairness are significantly related to students’ satisfaction while instructor team mission clarity and fairness are significantly related to students’ competency.

  13. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda Nosouzi; Naser Azad; Abdollah Naami

    2013-01-01

    During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was als...

  14. A method for modeling and analysis of directed weighted accident causation network (DWACN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Xu, Weixiang; Guo, Xin; Ding, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Using complex network theory to analyze accidents is effective to understand the causes of accidents in complex systems. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to establish directed weighted accident causation network (DWACN) for the Rail Accident Investigation Branch (RAIB) in the UK, which is based on complex network and using event chains of accidents. DWACN is composed of 109 nodes which denote causal factors and 260 directed weighted edges which represent complex interrelationships among factors. The statistical properties of directed weighted complex network are applied to reveal the critical factors, the key event chains and the important classes in DWACN. Analysis results demonstrate that DWACN has characteristics of small-world networks with short average path length and high weighted clustering coefficient, and display the properties of scale-free networks captured by that the cumulative degree distribution follows an exponential function. This modeling and analysis method can assist us to discover the latent rules of accidents and feature of faults propagation to reduce accidents. This paper is further development on the research of accident analysis methods using complex network.

  15. INVESTIGATING THE FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE BLOG ATTITUDE SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra SHAHSAVAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the wide application of advanced technology in education, many attitude scales have been developed to evaluate learners’ attitudes toward educational tools. However, with the rapid development of emerging technologies, using blogs as one of the Web 2.0 tools is still in its infancy and few blog attitude scales have been developed yet. In view of this need, a lot of researchers like to design a new scale based on their conceptual and theoretical framework of their own study rather than using available scales. The present study reports the design and development of a blog attitude scale (BAS. The researchers developed a pool of items to capture the complexity of the blog attitude trait, selected 29 items in the content analysis, and assigned the scale comprising 29 items to 216 undergraduate students to explore the underlying structure of the BAS. In exploratory factor analysis, three factors were discovered: blog anxiety, blog desirability, and blog self-efficacy; 14 items were excluded. The extracted items were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis which lent further support to the BAS underpinning structure.

  16. Determination of field related transfer factors for Cs-137 and Sr-90, from the fallout of the reactor accident in Chernobyl (USSR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artner, Christoph; Gerzabek, Martin H.; Horak, Othmar; Mueck, Konrad

    1991-05-01

    The plant ground transfer factor (TF) is defined. The resulting activity of the ground after radionuclide distribution causes a measurable absorption of both isotopes, Cs-137 and Sr-90, by the plants and allows to obtain TF in field conditions. Two hundred specimens of various plants were chosen. The corresponding ground specimens were taken from a zero to twenty centimeters ground layer. A survey of Cs-137 TF of various plants is given. The TF's for Sr-90 are, at least, an order of magnitude higher than those for Cs-137. In most cases, the correlation between Cs-137 TF and the measured ground activity concentration is negative. The TF's obtained for Cs-137 and Sr-90 are, in general, comparable with data which were determined long before the reactor accident by various tests with artificially contaminated grounds.

  17. The Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important that the causes of this accident (and other, similar accidents but with less dramatic consequences) are completely understood and that the role of every contributing factor is exactly determined in order to discuss modifications and to judge their relative importance and schedule in an objective way. If the role of the various factors contributing to an accident is not fully understood, there will always be a 'mythology' of prejudiced and highly simplified assumptions. The experience of failure analysis shows that the causes first assumed are hardly ever the right ones, and that in some major and complex cases even the second or third generation of assumed causes is wrong. (orig.)

  18. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to this issue, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for the latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. In this report the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2011 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2012 database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2012 revised database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 shows the followings. The trend of the 2012 database changes little as compared to the last year's report. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The number of commercial aircraft accidents is 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 58 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 5 for large bladed aircraft and 99 for small bladed aircraft. The relevant accidents for evaluating probability of aircraft crash are considered to be 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 35 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 1 for large bladed aircraft and 25 for small bladed aircraft. (2) The data of SDF aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total number of accidents is 42 comprised of 21 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 4 for small fixed-wing aircraft and 17 for bladed aircraft. The 23 accidents of the total fell into land. (3) The data of US aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total number of accidents is 16 comprised of 13 for fixed-wing aircraft and 3 for bladed aircraft. The 6 accidents of the total fell into land. (4) The instrument flight information on commercial aircrafts is based on 'Air transport statics' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The total number of takeoffs and landings is 30,685,564 and the total flight distance is 9,499,283,168 km. (author)

  19. Factores psicoeducativos que determinan la propensión al accidente deportivo en escolares: diseño y validación de un cuestionario de evaluación / Psychoeducational factors that determine the propensity to school sports accidents: design and validation of an assessment questionnaire

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro A., Latorre-Román; José C., Cámara-Pérez; Antonio, Pantoja-Vallejo; Tomás, Izquierdo-Rus.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio ha sido el diseño y validación de una escala de propensión al accidente deportivo en escolares. La muestra ha estado formada por 254 niños (M = 14.20, DT = 1.3). Las propiedades psicométricas de la escala se obtuvieron mediante un proceso de validez de contenido y un aná [...] lisis factorial de los componentes principales. Como resultados obtuvimos un cuestionario de 27 ítems formado por cinco factores y ajustado a los tópicos de validez y fiabilidad científica. Se encontraron diferencias en todos los factores de la escala entre niños y niñas y sólo en el factor búsqueda de sensaciones al considerar la edad de los sujetos. Como conclusión, esta escala es un instrumento inédito que permite la organización de los recursos materiales y didácticos en el deporte de acuerdo a aspectos psicoeducativos relacionados con la propensión al accidente de los niños, lo que es esencial en la prevención de lesiones. Abstract in english The purpose of this study has been the design and validation of a propensity scale of sports injuries in schools. The sample for the study has been formed of 254 children (M = 14.20, DT = 1.3). Psychometric properties of the scale were obtained through a process of content validity and a factorial a [...] nalysis of main components. As a result, we obtained a questionnaire of 27 items consisting of 5 factors and adjusted to validity topics and scientific reliability. Significant differences were found in all factors of the scale in relation to sex, whilst significant differences were only observed in relation to the sensation seeking factor when considering the age of the subjects. This scale is an essential tool for preventing accidents and injuries in school sport by allowing the identification of sports accident-prone students.

  20. An Investigation of Work Culture and Social Factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Ahmadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research examines work culture and social factors influencing it among employees of Islamic Azad University, the largest private organization in Iran. First, it has been tried to determine a rate for work culture and then relationships between work culture and participatory management, organizational justice, job satisfaction, and demographic variables have been examined. Research method is cross-sectional survey; research population is all personnel of the Islamic Azad Universities in three provinces: Fars, Boushehr and Kohkiloye-Boyerahmad. Overall, 481 subjects were selected by means of simple random sampling. Measurement tool is questionnaire, which includes four scales. Construct validity was obtained through factor analysis; Reliability test was also performed by means of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Research findings indicate that work culture is on average among subjects. Also, there are significant relationships between work culture and participatory management, organizational justice, job satisfaction, age and years of employment. Using regression analysis, it appears that of all independent variables, job satisfaction and years of employment are strongest predictors of work culture. Taken together, they explain 18% of the variance of work culture.

  1. An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Houshmand Neghabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials. We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique study different hypotheses. All t-student values are statistically meaningful when the level of significance is ten percent and some of the parameters are even meaningful when the level of significance is five percent. The results indicate that the rate of bank deposit is negatively associated with commodity market growth rate (-.001995, US dollar exchange rate (-0.004167, banking industry growth rate (-0.278826 and moving average (-0.940418. In addition, dependent variable is positively associated with Euro exchange growth rate (0.005676.

  2. An investigation of factors influencing indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations in indoor radon concentrations and some influencing factors have been studied during a two-year period (1986-1987) in 16 almost identical single-family houses.The annual average radon concentration in the houses varied from about 50 to about 400 Bq/m3. Variations in soil characteristics and radon concentration in soil gas could not be directly related to the variations of the average indoor radon concentrations. Most of the houses showed a ''normal'' seasonal variation of the radon concentration with a maximum in the winter and minimum in the summer. A deviating seasonal variation was found in three of the houses. Hourly data obtained in one unoccupied house during a period of 2-1/2 months showed no or only weak correlations between the indoor radon concentration and meteorological factors. However, for most of the houses, the seasonal variation of the indoor radon concentration was well correlated with the average indoor-outdoor temperature difference on a 2-month basis. It was demonstrated that the radon concentration can be strongly reduced in the Risoe houses if a district-heating duct, which is connected to all the houses, is ventilated, so that a slightly lowered pressure is maintained in the duct. 5 taps., 24 ill. (author)

  3. Investigating different factors influencing women’s economic activities

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Ghasemi

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies on how to share women’s involvement in economic activities and what sectors of industries could contribute more to their job involvement. This paper presents an empirical investigation to learn how economic growth in service industry, agricultural industry as well as other industries could contribute on economic growth. The study uses vector error correction to study the relationship between value added and women’s job opportunities in Iran over the period 1951-2003. In...

  4. Investigating important factors influencing on strategic marketing planning

    OpenAIRE

    Davood Salmani; Mohammad Reza Daraei; Ali Bayazdi

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important methods for building good marketing strategy is to learn more about existing competitors, suppliers, etc. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between wholesalers, bargaining pricing, new rivals and pricing strategy on preparing appropriate marketing strategy in meat market in city of shiraz, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 200 experts in this market. Cronbach alpha has been...

  5. Expert meeting with the Belgoprocess Inc. on the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. Search and investigation on cause elucidation and reoccurrence control for the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. A visiting report on abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate in detail on fire cause materials, test results of thermal analysis on waste liquids, and flow of affairs relating to the fire accident (15th December, 1981) of the Euro Bitum Plant (an asphalt solidification facility of the middle level wastes) settled at the Eurochemic reprocessing work in the Kingdom of Belgium, resemble to the present accident, 4 members of the Cause Elucidation Group and Mr. Kaneko, director of the Paris Office of PNC visited to Belgium to hold a meeting with experts of the Belgoprocess Inc. for 4 days. In this meeting, after exchanging mutual detail informations on accident occurred at the Euro Bitum Plant and fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility, some discussions on cause supposition of the present accident. For cause of the fire, mutual differences were found. As a state at occurring fires was much resemble, their followed states seemed to be extremely different on responses of operators to fire-extinguishing action, filter exchanging and so forth. As finishing to recover the plant after 1 month passed from the accident to restart its operation, the Belgoprocess, Inc. has conducted some improvements of the facility such as sufficiency of fire extinguishing apparatus, addition and improvements of fire detecting means, direct measurement of solid temperature and so on, as well as reinforcement of thermal analysis procedure and renewal to new apparatus. Although no special supposition on cause of the fire at this meeting, a lot of items to learn such as operation system, responses after accident, and so forth were acquired. (G.K.)

  6. Factores predisponentes y repercusión del accidente hipoglucémico en embarazadas diabéticas pre-gestacionales bajo tratamiento insulínico intensivo / Predisposing factors and impact of the hypoglycaemic accident on pregnant women with pregestational diabetes under intensive insulin treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amador, Lemay Valdés; Magdalena, Copello Veublen; Osvaldo, Santana Bacallao; Bertha, Rodríguez Anzardo; Jacinto, Lang Prieto; Blanca Elena, Herrera; Antonio, Santurio Gil.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analizar los factores que predisponen al accidente hipoglucémico durante el embarazo en diabéticas pre-gestacionales y su repercusión materna y perinatal. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron retrospectivamente 175 embarazadas diabéticas pre-gestacionales (73 B, 22 C, 66 D, 4 F, 1 H, 5 R, y 4 F-R) en el [...] período 2001-2006, todas estuvieron sometidas a tratamiento dietético e insulínico y este último aplicado según el método descrito por los profesores Valdés Amador y Márquez Guillén. Los resultados maternos y perinatales se analizan comparativamente entre las que sufrieron del accidente y las que no, para lo cual utilizamos el test X² de Fisher con un significado de p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to analyze the factors predisposing the hypoglycaemic accident during pregnancy in pregestational diabetic women and its maternal and perinatal repercussion. METHODS: 175 pregnant women affected by pregestational diabetes (73 B, 22 C, 66 D, 4 F, 1 H, 5 R, y 4 F-R) were retrospectively stu [...] died from 2001 to 2006. All of them were under dietetic and insulin treatment. The latter was applied by the method described by professors Valdés Amador and Márquez Guillén. The maternal and perinatal results were comparatively analyzed among those who suffered the accident and those who did not, for which we used Fisher's chi square test with a significance of p

  7. The management of accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ward

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This author’s experiences in investigating well over a hundred accident occurrences has led to questioning how such events can be managed - - - while immediately recognising that the idea of managing accidents is an oxymoron, we don’t want to manage them, we don’t want not to manage them, what we desire is not to have to manage not-them, that is, manage matters so they don’t happen and then we don’t have to manage the consequences.Design/methodology/approach: The research will begin by defining some common classes of accidents in manufacturing industry, with examples taken from cases investigated, and by working backwards (too late, of course show how those involved could have managed these sample events so they didn’t happen, finishing with the question whether any of that can be applied to other situations.Findings: As shown that the management actions needed to prevent accidents are control of design and application of technology, and control and integration of people.Research limitations/implications: This paper has shown in some of the examples provided, management actions have been know to lead to accidents being committed by others, lower in the organization.Originality/value: Today’s management activities involve, generally, the use of technology in many forms, varying from simple tools (such as knives to the use of heavy equipment, electric power, and explosives. Against these we commit, in control of those items, the comparatively frail human mind and body, which, again generally, does succeed in controlling these resources, with (another generality by appropriate management. However, sometimes the control slips and an accident occurs.

  8. Factores de riesgo asociados a los accidentes de trabajo en la industria de la construcción del Valle de México / Risk Factors Associated with Work-Related Accidents in the Construction Industry in the Valley of Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, Sarmiento-Salinas; Pablo, López-Rojas; Irma Araceli, Marín-Cotoñieto; Arturo, Godínez-Rocha; Luis, Haro-García; Santiago, Salinas-Tovar.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la prevalencia de accidentabilidad en la industria de la construcción, factores asociados e impacto potencial en trabajadores afiliados al Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) en el Valle de México. Material y métodos: casos y controles retrospectivo de casos prevalentes. [...] Casos: 385 trabajadores de la industria de la construcción que sufrieron y les fue dictaminado accidente de trabajo en el año de 2001. Controles: 385 trabajadores activos de la industria de la construcción sin antecedente de accidente de trabajo, pareados por sexo, puesto de trabajo, y centro de trabajo. En uno y otro grupos se exploraron características demográficas y laborales que incluyó la capacitación en el trabajo. Resultados: la prevalencia de accidentabilidad en trabajadores de la construcción: 5.5%; factores de riesgo más importantes y fracción etio lógica (FeE): grupo de edad de 16 a 20 años, OR =1.58 [IC 95%: 1.40-10.7], (p=0.001), FeE:0.36, aseguramiento eventual, OR= 3.7[IC95%: 2.16-26.45], (p= 0.001), FeE: 0.72, y falta de capacitación para el trabajo, OR=5.3[IC95%: 4.9-69.2], (p= 0.01), FeE: 0.81. Variables que no mostraron significancia fueron: salario, antigüedad en el puesto, turno y jornada de trabajo. En su conjunto, la capacitación laboral estuvo ausente en 87% de todos los trabajadores sujetos a estudio. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de accidentabilidad mantiene preponderancia en la industria de la construcción del Valle de México; los factores de riesgo identificados son potencialmente modificables donde la capacitación laboral adquiere indiscutible relevancia. Abstract in english Objective: Our aim was to describe construction-industry work-related accident prevalence in, associated factors in, and potential impact on affiliated workers of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS) in the Valley of Mexico. Materials and Methods: Pre [...] valent cases in a retrospective case-control design. Cases: These include 385 construction-industry workers who were found to have construction work-related accidents in 2001. Controls: comprised 385 active construction-industry workers without work-related accident background paired by gender, workplace, and worksite. Results. Work-related accident prevalence in construction workers was 5.5%; most important risk factors and etiology fraction (Ef) included the following: age 16-20 years odds ratio, OR = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.40-10.7, p=0.001, Efi 0.36; eventual insurance, OR = 3.7, 95% CI, 2.16-26.45, p = 0.001), Efi 0.72, and no training for job, OR =5.3, 95% CI, 4.9-69.2, p = 0.01), Ef: 0.81. Variables not showing significance were included salary, work shift, and workday. Conclusions. Work-related accident prevalence maintains its preponderance in the Valley of Mexico construction industry; identified risk factorsare potentially modifiable, among which job training acquires unquestionable relevance.

  9. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book examines the ways in which complex technological systems fail and argues that people are intrinsically unable to build, manage and maintain modern technologies. Accidents in several different types of activities are examined in detail as support for this conclusion. (orig./HSCH)

  10. Injury severities of truck drivers in single- and multi-vehicle accidents on rural highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Chen, Suren

    2011-09-01

    In adverse driving conditions, such as inclement weather and/or complex terrain, trucks are often involved in single-vehicle (SV) accidents in addition to multi-vehicle (MV) accidents. Ten-year accident data involving trucks on rural highway from the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) is studied to investigate the difference in driver-injury severity between SV and MV accidents by using mixed logit models. Injury severity from SV and MV accidents involving trucks on rural highways is modeled separately and their respective critical risk factors such as driver, vehicle, temporal, roadway, environmental and accident characteristics are evaluated. It is found that there exists substantial difference between the impacts from a variety of variables on the driver-injury severity in MV and SV accidents. By conducting the injury severity study for MV and SV accidents involving trucks separately, some new or more comprehensive observations, which have not been covered in the existing studies can be made. Estimation findings indicate that the snow road surface and light traffic indicators will be better modeled as random parameters in SV and MV models respectively. As a result, the complex interactions of various variables and the nature of truck-driver injury are able to be disclosed in a better way. Based on the improved understanding on the injury severity of truck drivers from truck-involved accidents, it is expected that more rational and effective injury prevention strategy may be developed for truck drivers under different driving conditions in the future. PMID:21658494

  11. Investigation of Framingham Risk Factors in Turkish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda ?anl? Ökmen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine 10-year risk for development of cardiovascular diseases usingFramingham risk scoring as a tool for the estimationof coronary risk and renew the blood lipid levels.Materials and methods: Samples from fasting 3169healthy donors declaring as having no cardiovasculardisease and diabetes (1800 women, mean age 46.8±9.2years and 1369 men, mean age 46.03±8.4 years weretested and scored according to risk factors in both genders.Results: When average values were considered, totalcholesterol level was higher (204±42 mg/dL accordingto reactive insert reference values. High total kolesteroland low HDL-C levels were seen in 20% and 19.5% ofmen and 32.6% and 1.1% of women, respectively. Thenumber of participants having systolic blood pressure?130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure ? 85 mmHgwere 775 (24.5% and the distribution of those valueswas 10.6 % in men and 13.9% in women. The mean 10-year cardiovascular disease risks were 9.4 % in men and4.6% in women among 3169 participants.Conclusion: A 10-year risk of coronary disease, in Turkishmales was 2-fold higher than in Turkish females. Useof Framingham study in clinical assessments maintains tobe a valid method in preventive approaches for developmentof cardiovascular diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(1: 42-49

  12. Factores predisponentes y repercusión del accidente hipoglucémico en embarazadas diabéticas pre-gestacionales bajo tratamiento insulínico intensivo Predisposing factors and impact of the hypoglycaemic accident on pregnant women with pregestational diabetes under intensive insulin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador Lemay Valdés

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analizar los factores que predisponen al accidente hipoglucémico durante el embarazo en diabéticas pre-gestacionales y su repercusión materna y perinatal. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron retrospectivamente 175 embarazadas diabéticas pre-gestacionales (73 B, 22 C, 66 D, 4 F, 1 H, 5 R, y 4 F-R en el período 2001-2006, todas estuvieron sometidas a tratamiento dietético e insulínico y este último aplicado según el método descrito por los profesores Valdés Amador y Márquez Guillén. Los resultados maternos y perinatales se analizan comparativamente entre las que sufrieron del accidente y las que no, para lo cual utilizamos el test X² de Fisher con un significado de pOBJECTIVE: to analyze the factors predisposing the hypoglycaemic accident during pregnancy in pregestational diabetic women and its maternal and perinatal repercussion. METHODS: 175 pregnant women affected by pregestational diabetes (73 B, 22 C, 66 D, 4 F, 1 H, 5 R, y 4 F-R were retrospectively studied from 2001 to 2006. All of them were under dietetic and insulin treatment. The latter was applied by the method described by professors Valdés Amador and Márquez Guillén. The maternal and perinatal results were comparatively analyzed among those who suffered the accident and those who did not, for which we used Fisher's chi square test with a significance of p< 0.05. RESULTS: a hypoglycaemic accident was detected in 78 patients (44.6 %. It was mild in 54 (30.9 % and severe in 24 (13.7 %. Hypoglycaemia was more significantly frequent in type-1 diabetic women aged 25 or under, nuliparous, with low or normal body weight and with some grade of vascular lesion. No impact was detected on perinatal morbimortality, and no congenital anomalies were observed as a result of the complication. CONCLUSIONS: type-1 diabetic women with some grade of vascular lesion and with low or normal body weight are proner to the accident due very probably to the reported loss of counterregulatory hormonal reaction.

  13. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis events and accidents at NPPs, and what additional measures should be considered as an accident progresses to the severe accident stage. Insights are provided on the experiences and practices existing or being proposed in the NEA member states, as well as new findings from post-Fukushima studies. Emphasis is placed on identifying commendable practices that support enhanced and integrated on-site accident management response and decision-making by NPP operators. The report provides information (including commendable practices) useful for regulatory authorities to consider as they implement enhancements to their regulatory framework in the area of integrated accident management building on the lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The report's insights also should be useful to regulatory authorities, operating organisations and others in the nuclear safety community for addressing accident management issues such as procedures and guidelines, equipment, infrastructure and instrumentation, and human and organisational resources. Factors such as accidents involving spent fuel pools, multi-unit aspects of accident management, the interface between onsite and off-site organisations and resources, and degradation of the surrounding infrastructure are also discussed. (authors)

  14. [A STUDY INVESTIGATING THE FACTORS OF INTERNET ADDICTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhari?, Zrinka; Staševi?, Ina; Ropac, Darko; Petri?evi?, Nina; Juriši?, Irena

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the characteristics of Internet use among elementary school eighth-graders in the Bjelo- var-Bilogora County, to evaluate gender and sociodemographic differences, and to examine predictors for Internet addiction. The study included 437 (female 51%) eighth-graders, mean age 13.8 ± 0.5 years. An anonymous questionnaire was used to measure the participants' Internet use, the functions for which they used Internet, their parents' attitude towards the child's Internet use, and their signs of Internet addiction. Logistic regression was conducted to evaluate predictors for Internet addiction. The majority of children (71.5%) reported using Internet every day. Considering important risk factors of Internet addiction development, we found that 32% of children almost always stayed on-line longer than intended, 13% of boys and 4% of girls almost always neglected chores to spend more time on-line and 51.7% of children thought their life would be boring and uninteresting without the Internet. There was no significant difference between urban and rural students. In terms of the function for which they used the Internet, they were mostly engaged in on-line community/chat websites (70%), to listen to music and watch movies (81 %), and boys in gaming websites. Most of the students (43.4%) spent 1-2 hours daily on-line, 26.2% of students spent 3-4 hours on-line, and 9% spent more than 5 hours daily on-line. In conclusion, more public health preventive measures should be conducted to raise public awareness and concern about the negative effect of Internet use and Internet addiction, especially in the young population. PMID:26285469

  15. THE EFFECT OF THE ECONOMIC CYCLE ON WORKPLACE ACCIDENTS IN SIX EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis TARGOUTZIDIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the economic cycle on workplace accidents. In particular, the effect of some major factors of the economic cycle (unemployment, output per capita and unit labor cost on fatal and non-fatal injuries is examined in six European countries (Finland, Italy, France, Switzerland, Austria and Germany. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis are applied, considering relevant data of the selected countries, over the period 1990-2005. The analysis indicates a counter-cyclical behavior of workplace accidents. Output per capita is the only parameter whose impact is statistically significant in all cases. The different effect of the examined factors on workplace accidents and the inter-relations between these factors indicate that an economic model of the workplace is required, if the impact of the economic cycle on workplace accidents is to be studied thoroughly.

  16. Tradespace investigation of strategic design factors for large space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlow, Brandon; Jewison, Christopher; Sternberg, David; Hall, Sherrie; Golkar, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Future large telescope arrays require careful balancing of satisfaction across the stakeholders' community. Development programs usually cannot afford to explicitly address all stakeholder tradeoffs during the conceptual design stage, but rather confine the analysis to performance, cost, and schedule discussions, treating policy and budget as constraints defining the envelope of the investigation. Thus, it is of interest to develop an integrated stakeholder analysis approach to explicitly address the impact of all stakeholder interactions on the design of large telescope arrays to address future science and exploration needs. This paper offers a quantitative approach for modeling some of the stakeholder influences relevant to large telescope array designs-the linkages between a given mission and the wider NASA community. The main goal of the analysis is to explore the tradespace of large telescope designs and understand the effects of different design decisions in the stakeholders' network. Proposed architectures that offer benefits to existing constellations of systems, institutions, and mission plans are expected to yield political and engineering benefits for NASA stakeholders' wider objectives. If such synergistic architectures are privileged in subsequent analysis, regions of the tradespace that better meet the needs of the wider NASA community can be selected for further development.

  17. Investigating different factors influencing on return of private banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Motamedi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Return of Investment has always been an interesting area of research among academics as well as investors. Although capital asset pricing model (CAPM is capable of estimating risk of investment, many people argue that CAPM is not able to predict long-term return, properly. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effects of different financial figures including systematic risk (Beta, size of firm, ratio of book value to market share, volume of trade and the ratio of price/earnings (P/E on return of private banks in Iran. The study gathers the necessary information over the period 2005-2011 from private banks in Iran. The study uses multiple regression technique to find the effects of mentioned variables on return of private banks. The results indicate that there are some meaningful and positive relationship between return of banks and systematic risk (Beta, size, volume of trade and P/E. The study also finds some meaningful and reverse relationship between bank return and book value on market value.

  18. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    OpenAIRE

    Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration f...

  19. Transient thermal hydraulic analysis of the IAEA 10 MW MTR reactor during Loss of Flow Accident to investigate the flow inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Transient analyses of a slow and fast LOFA were investigated. • A reactor kinetic and thermal hydraulic coupled model was developed. • Based on force balance, the flow rate during flow inversion was determined. • Flow inversion in a hot channel occurred earlier than in an average channel. • Two temperature peaks were observed during both slow and fast LOFA. - Abstract: Transient analyses of the IAEA 10 MW MTR reactor are investigated during a fast and slow Loss of Flow Accident (LOFA) with a neutron kinetic and thermal hydraulic coupling model. A spatial-dependent thermal hydraulic technique is adopted for analyzing the local thermal hydraulic parameters and hotspot location during a flow inversion. The flow rate through the channel is determined in terms of a balance between driving and preventing forces. Friction and buoyancy forces act as resistance of the flow before a flow inversion while buoyancy force becomes the driving force after a flow inversion. By taking into account the buoyancy effect to determine the flow rate, the difference in the flow inversion time between hot and average channels is investigated: a flow inversion occurs earlier in the hot channel than in an average channel. Furthermore, the movement of the hotspot location before and after a flow inversion is investigated for a slow and fast LOFA. During a flow inversion, two temperature peaks are observed: (1) the first temperature peak is at the initiation of the LOFA, and (2) the second temperature peak is when a flow inversion occurs. The maximum temperature of the cladding is found at the second temperature peak for both LOFA analyses, and is lower than the saturation temperature

  20. How to reduce the number of accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  1. Effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on goshawk reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kaori; Murase, Joe; Horie, Reiko; Endo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Although the influence of nuclear accidents on the reproduction of top predators has not been investigated, it is important that we identify the effects of such accidents because humans are also top predators. We conducted field observation for 22 years and analysed the reproductive performance of the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae), a top avian predator in the North Kanto area of Japan, before and after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in 2011. The reproductive performance declined markedly compared with the pre-accident years and progressively decreased for the three post-accident study years. Moreover, it was suggested that these declines were primarily caused by an increase in the air dose rate of radio-active contaminants measured under the nests caused by the nuclear accidents, rather than by other factors. We consider the trends in the changes of the reproductive success rates and suggest that internal exposure may play an important role in the reproductive performance of the goshawk, as well as external exposure. PMID:25802117

  2. Effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on goshawk reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kaori; Murase, Joe; Horie, Reiko; Endo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Although the influence of nuclear accidents on the reproduction of top predators has not been investigated, it is important that we identify the effects of such accidents because humans are also top predators. We conducted field observation for 22 years and analysed the reproductive performance of the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae), a top avian predator in the North Kanto area of Japan, before and after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in 2011. The reproductive performance declined markedly compared with the pre-accident years and progressively decreased for the three post-accident study years. Moreover, it was suggested that these declines were primarily caused by an increase in the air dose rate of radio-active contaminants measured under the nests caused by the nuclear accidents, rather than by other factors. We consider the trends in the changes of the reproductive success rates and suggest that internal exposure may play an important role in the reproductive performance of the goshawk, as well as external exposure. PMID:25802117

  3. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  4. Tchernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given

  5. Asthma is a risk factor for acute chest syndrome and cerebral vascular accidents in children with sickle cell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Paul J; Zacharisen Michael C; Lynn John; Nordness Mark E; Kelly Kevin J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Asthma and sickle cell disease are common conditions that both may result in pulmonary complications. We hypothesized that children with sickle cell disease with concomitant asthma have an increased incidence of vaso-occlusive crises that are complicated by episodes of acute chest syndrome. Methods A 5-year retrospective chart analysis was performed investigating 48 children ages 3–18 years with asthma and sickle cell disease and 48 children with sickle cell disease alone....

  6. Epidemiological profile of patients with cerebral vascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolline Paulo Neto da Cunha Lima, Marta Miriam Lopes Costa, Maria Julia Guimarães Oliveira Soares

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to show the profile epidemiological of patients with cerebral vascular accident in a public hospital from João Pessoa city, Paraíba, Brazil; to investigate the social demographic profile; to identify the risk factors, symptoms and sequels of the cerebral vascular accident. Methods: this is about a descriptive and exploratory study, from quantitative approach; the population was configured by sixty handbooks. Data collect was performed with a form from March to April 2007, and then data were analyzed and presented in tables and figures. This study was approval by the Ethics Committee under protocol number 58/2007. Results: data has been demonstrated that most of the handbooks belonged to patients from 46 to 85 years old; from female; they came from Mata Paraibana region; they were patients with hypertension; they had cerebral vascular accident of the type hemorrhagic. Conclusion: this study was very important for nurses, since it allowed them to have knowledge to help reduce the number of deaths and sequelae of cerebral vascular accident, also contributed to the basics to change like this, as knowledge of the disease and fitness treatment methods (among them, stand out studies of risk factors and relevance of applying an early prevention of cerebral vascular accident. Thus, the role of nursing is to prevent and detect early complications, educating the population about the disease.

  7. Analysis of the FPT-0, FPT-1 and FPT-2 experiments of the PHEBUS FP program investigating in-vessel phenomena during a LWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results and the current status of the analysis of the core degradation aspects for the FPT0, FPT1 and FPT2 tests, using the mechanistic ICARE/CATHARE code system developed by IRSN 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire'. The objective of those experiments, in the framework of the International Phebus Fission Product program, was to get a significant FP release induced by fuel rod degradation and fuel melting in a prototypical way using real materials as present in a PWR fuel assembly. During the transient, most of the phenomena that could occur in-vessel during a PWR severe accident (thermo mechanical fuel rod rupture, absorber rod degradation, steam-zircaloy chemical reaction and hydrogen generation, fuel dissolution and molten pool formation) have been observed. They are quite well simulated with the ICARE2 V3mod1 code version, in particular the hydrogen generation. The experiments showed core degradation far beyond any other integral experiment (PBF SFD, Phebus-SFD, CORA, FLHT, and LOFT-FP-2). The severe damage observed in the bundle seems to be due to significant material interactions, initiated by structural materials possibly enhanced by the fuel swelling and fragmentation, and its changes in stoichiometry. The fuel burn-up and the oxygen potential during cladding oxidation are probably important factors. It was observed that fuel liquefaction and transition from rod like geometry to molten pool could occur at a temperature (2600+/-200K) largely below the actual melting point of the pure UO2 (3110K). Though the detailed modeling of such interactions has still to be improved, the ICARE2 code simulates fairly well the observed fuel degradation. The Phebus FP series of integral experiments have proved the capability of the program to significantly improve our understanding of the source term issue and important aspects of core degradation

  8. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Nilsson, L.; Puska, E.K.; Sjövall, H.

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: (1) the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst; (2) the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power bu...

  9. Risk factors for tuberculosis in contact investigations in Rotterdam, the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kidgell-Koppelaar, Inge D.; Jan Hendrik Richardus; Sake Jan de Vlas; Jesse Eduard Verdier

    2012-01-01

    Contact investigations around tuberculosis patients enable early detection of infection and disease, and prevention of secondary tuberculosis cases. We aim to identify risk factors for M. tuberculosis transmission to contacts of tuberculosis patients, based on unique data from routine contact investigations by the Public Health Service in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, collected between 2001 and 2006. Through logistic regression analysis, we determined the effect of various risk factors on the c...

  10. Depression in young adolescents: investigations using 2 and 3 factor versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, G; Bergen, HA; Roeger, L; Allison, S.

    2004-01-01

    Associations between parenting style and depressive symptomatology in a community sample of young adolescents (N = 2596) were investigated using self-report measures including the Parental Bonding Instrument and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Specifically, the 25-item 2-factor and 3-factor models by Parker et al. (1979), Kendler's (1996) 16-item 3-factor model, and Parker's (1983) quadrant model for the Parental Bonding Instrument were compared. Data analysis included ...

  11. Investigation of Factors Influencing Students' Intentions to Use the Internet: Jordanian Universities Context

    OpenAIRE

    Awadh, Muhammad [???? ????? ????; Al-Adaileh, Raid Mohammed

    2006-01-01

    The increasing use of information technology (IT) applications within universities context increases the importance of exploring cognitive and psychological factors that might influence successful introduction and usage of IT. Consideration of these factors including students' intention to use IT is receiving a huge interest in recent literature to avoid what so called the technological disenfranchisement. Accordingly, the present study investigates certain attitudinal factors that may influe...

  12. The ultimate nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

  13. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  14. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we…

  15. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity

  16. Investigation of break location effects on thermal-hydraulics during intermediate break loss-of-coolant accident experiments at ROSA-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rig of safety assessment (ROSA)-III facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) boiling water reactor (BWR/6) system with an electrically heated core designed for integral loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and emergency core cooling system (ECCS) tests. Break location effects on thermal-hydraulics during intermediate LOCAs were investigated by using four experiments at the ROSA-III, the 15 and 25 % main recirculation pump suction line break (MRPS-B) experiments, the 21 % single-ended jet pump drive line break (JPD-B) experiment and the 15 % main steam line break (MSL-B) experiment. Water injection from the high pressure core spray (HPCS) was not used in any of the experiments. Failure of ECCS actuation by the high containment pressure was also assumed in the tests. In the MRPS-B experiments, the discharge flow turned from low quality fluid to high quality fluid when the downcomer water level dropped to the main recirculation line outlet elevation, which suppressed coolant loss from the vessel and the core. In the JPD-B experiment, the jet pump drive nozzle was covered with low quality fluid and low quality fluid discharge continued even after the downcomer water level reached the jet pump suction elevation. Low quality fluid discharge ceased after the ADS actuation. It suggestes that the JPD-B LOCA has the possibility of causing larger and more severe core dryout and cladding temperature excursion than the MRPS-B LOCA. The MSL-B LOCA was characterized by mixture level swell in the downcomer and the core. The core mixture level swell resulted in the much later core dryout initiation than that in the MRPS-B LOCA, however, ECCS actuation was also delayed because of slow downcomer water level drop. (author)

  17. Causes of the JCO criticality accident and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan's first civil nuclear accident involving fatalities occurred on 30 September 1999 at the Tokai-mura uranium processing plant operated by JCO Co. Ltd. Following the accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) set up an Accident Investigation Committee to identify the causes of the accident and examine the measures required to prevent a recurrence. Based on the NSC report, this paper discusses the accident causes, problems regarding technical responses and lessons learned. (author)

  18. Fatores associados ao óbito de motociclistas nas ocorrências de trânsito / Factors associated with the death of motorcyclists in traffic accidents / Factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclista en accidentes de tránsito

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nelson Luiz Batista de, Oliveira; Regina Marcia Cardoso de, Sousa.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Para identificar fatores associados ao óbito em motociclistas envolvidos em ocorrências de trânsito, em Maringá-PR, foi realizado estudo retrospectivo incluindo os motociclistas envolvidos em acidentes no ano de 2004. As fontes de dados foram os registros da Polícia Militar, do SIATE e do Instituto [...] Médico Legal. Foram realizadas análises bivariadas e regressão logística binária. Identificaram-se 2.362 motociclistas nos Boletins de Ocorrência e, destes, 1.743 tinham registros nos Relatórios de Atendimento do Socorrista. As vítimas fatais diferiram das demais quanto à faixa etária, ao local de residência, ao tempo de habilitação e as suas condições fisiológicas na cena da ocorrência. No modelo final permaneceram as seguintes variáveis: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulso e saturação de O2 no sangue. As condições fisiológicas das vítimas na cena do acidente se destacaram no modelo final e a ECGl superou o RTS na associação com óbito. Abstract in spanish Para identificar factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclistas involucrados en accidentes de tránsito, en Maringá-PR se realizó estudio retrospectivo incluyendo a los motociclistas involucrados en accidentes durante 2004. Datos recolectados de registros de Policía Militar, SIATE e Instituto M [...] édico Legal. Se identificaron 2362 motociclistas en las Actas de Accidentes; de ellos, 1743 tenían registro en los Informes de Atención del Socorrista. Las víctimas fatales difirieron del resto en lo referente a faja etaria, lugar de residencia, tiempo de habilitación y condiciones fisiológicas en la escena del accidente. En el modelo final permanecen las variables: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulso y saturación de O2 en sangre. Las condiciones fisiológicas de las víctimas en la escena del accidente se destacan en el modelo final, y la ECGl superó al RTS en la asociación con fallecimiento. Abstract in english In order to identify the factors associated with death among motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents in Maringá - PR, a retrospective study was performed, including motorcyclists involved in accidents in the year 2004. Data were collected from the Military Police records, the Integrated System f [...] or Emergency Trauma Care (Sistema Integrado de Atendimento ao Trauma em Emergência -SIATE) and the Institute of Legal Medicine. Bivariate analyses and binary logistical regression were performed. A total of 2,362 motorcyclists were identified in the Police Reports, 1,743 of whom also had records in the Emergency Responders reports. Victims who succumbed to their injuries differed from victims who survived in terms of age, place of residence, time elapsed since obtaining a driver's license, and their physiological condition at the scene of the accident. The following variables were maintained in the final model: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulse, and blood oxygen saturation. The physiological conditions of the victims at the scene of the accidents were highlighted in the final model, with GCS surpassing RTS in regards to association with death.

  19. Consequences of radioactive releases into the sea resulting from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant - Evolution of expert investigation according to the data available

    OpenAIRE

    Laguionie, Philippe; Bailly-du-bois, Pascal; Boust, D; Fievet, B.; Garreau, Pierre; Connan, O.; Charmasson, Sabine; Arnaud, M.; Duffa, Celine; D Champion

    2012-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 led to an unprecedented direct input of artificial radioactivity into the marine environment. The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety was requested by the French authorities to investigate the radioecological impact of this input, in particular the potential contamination of products of marine origin used for human consumption. This article describes the close link between the responses provided and ...

  20. Investigating the effects of different factors on development of open source enterprise resources planning software packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghorbaninia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of different factors on development of open source enterprise resources planning software packages. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 210 experts in the field of open source software package development. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. Using Pearson correlation as well as stepwise regression analysis, the study determines three most important factors including fundamental issues, during and after implementation of open source software development. The study also determines a positive and strong relationship between fundamental factors and after implementation factors (r=0.9006, Sig. = 0.000.

  1. Health requirements for accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following results and requirements on accident dosimetry can be drawn from the analysis of diagnostic and therapeutic treatments with accident exposed persons: information on dose is needed for classifying persons and providing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. If and how therapy is used, depends on the actual clinical state and results of laboratory examinations. For this purpose dosimetric data provided within several hours with an accuracy given by a factor of 3 and within two or three days by a factor of 1.5 to 2 are needed. The type of irradiation must be known (whole-body, local, type of radiation). (author)

  2. Normal Accident at Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrow, Charles

    1981-01-01

    Discusses some aspects of the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Explains a number of factors involved including the type of accident, warnings, design and equipment failure, operator error, and negative synergy. Presents alternatives to systems with catastrophic potential. (MK)

  3. The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

  4. Scaling and design analyses of a scaled-down, high-temperature test facility for experimental investigation of the initial stages of a VHTR air-ingress accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcilesi, David J. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Nuclear Engineering Program; Ham, Tae Kyu [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Nuclear Engineering Program; Kim, In Hun [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Nuclear Engineering Program; Sun, Xiaodong [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Nuclear Engineering Program; Christensen, Richard N. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Nuclear Engineering Program; Oh, Chang H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    A critical event in the safety analysis of the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is an air-ingress accident. This accident is initiated, in its worst case scenario, by a double-ended guillotine break of the coaxial cross vessel, which leads to a rapid reactor vessel depressurization. In a VHTR, the reactor vessel is located within a reactor cavity that is filled with air during normal operating conditions. Following the vessel depressurization, the dominant mode of ingress of an air–helium mixture into the reactor vessel will either be molecular diffusion or density-driven stratified flow. The mode of ingress is hypothesized to depend largely on the break conditions of the cross vessel. Since the time scales of these two ingress phenomena differ by orders of magnitude, it is imperative to understand under which conditions each of these mechanisms will dominate in the air ingress process. Computer models have been developed to analyze this type of accident scenario. There are, however, limited experimental data available to understand the phenomenology of the air-ingress accident and to validate these models. Therefore, there is a need to design and construct a scaled-down experimental test facility to simulate the air-ingress accident scenarios and to collect experimental data. The current paper focuses on the analyses performed for the design and operation of a 1/8th geometric scale (by height and diameter), high-temperature test facility. A geometric scaling analysis for the VHTR, a time scale analysis of the air-ingress phenomenon, a transient depressurization analysis of the reactor vessel, a hydraulic similarity analysis of the test facility, a heat transfer characterization of the hot plenum, a power scaling analysis for the reactor system, and a design analysis of the containment vessel are discussed.

  5. Important factors governing exposure of the population and countermeasure application in rural settlements of the Russian Federation in the long term after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural settlements located in areas of the Russian Federation contaminated after the Chernobyl accident and exceeding an annual dose of 1 mSv a-1 have been classified according to 137Cs contamination density, internal dose and the neighbourhood of forests. It has been shown that, with the exception of the most contaminated areas, the internal doses decreased in accordance with a decline in 137Cs availability for plant root uptake. An inverse tendency was observed in areas with 137Cs contamination above 555 kBq m-2 which can be explained by a reduction or even termination of countermeasure application and by an increasing consumption of forest products in areas where restrictive countermeasures are still implemented. Twenty-seven settlements have been studied to estimate the effectiveness of countermeasures applied previously and to identify the most important factors governing the radiation exposure to the population and its change with time. It has been shown that the effectiveness of countermeasures which resulted in a decrease of up to 40% of doses has a tendency to decline in the long term. The need for continuation of remediation in rural settlements was evaluated both for selected settlements and extrapolated to the whole contaminated area and it has been shown that the application of countermeasures will be of importance at least up to the year 2045. Rather high effectiveness in terms of internal dose reduction (factor of 2-2.5) of radical improvement (disking, ploughing and reseeding) and administration of Cs binders to animals (Ferrocyn) was demonstrated for the selected settlements. It could be demonstrated that for forest-remote settlements there is a linear dependence between internal dose normalised to the density of contamination and the proportion of peat soils around settlements. For near-forest settlements, this dependence was less pronounced which can be explained by the high contribution of forest food products to the internal dose. Milk is still the major dose-forming product in rural Russian settlements (its contribution to internal dose in forest-remote settlements is above 70%); however, in near-forest settlements, the contribution of mushrooms to the internal dose is comparable to the contribution from milk

  6. Investigating the frequency spectrum of mechanical quality factor for piezoelectric materials based on phenomenological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weijia; Zhao, Hui; Ma, Jie; Yao, Yu; Uchino, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    Heat generation due to losses restricts piezoelectric materials from maintaining a high power density, which will further limit the miniaturization of piezoelectric devices. As an evaluation index of the loss level, the mechanical quality factor shows an opposite tendency with losses. The mechanical quality factor should therefore be evaluated. By new methods to determine the mechanical quality factor, the highest mechanical quality factor has been discovered within the working bandwidth other than the resonance and antiresonance frequencies, which is almost double the value at the resonance. In this study, the prime determinant of the maximum value has been experimentally investigated on the basis of the phenomenological model of the admittance phase. The investigation experimentally infers that the change in the tendency of the phase leads to the appearance of the maximum value. Thus, the new phenomenon is experimentally explained for the first time.

  7. Experimental investigation of void distribution in Suppression Pool during the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident using air–water two-phase mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Basic understanding of the venting phenomena in the SP during a LOCA was obtained. • A series of experiment is carried out using the PUMA-E test facility. • Two phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. • The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. - Abstract: During the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the non-condensable gas initially contained in the BWR containment is discharged to the pressure suppression chamber through the blowdown pipes. The performance of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) can be degraded due to the released gas ingestion into the suction intakes of the ECCS pumps. The understanding of the relevant phenomena in the pressure suppression chamber is important in analyzing potential gas intrusion into the suction intakes of ECCS pumps. To obtain the basic understanding of the relevant phenomena and the generic data of void distribution in the pressure suppression chamber during the initial blowdown period of a LOCA, tests with various blowdown conditions were conducted using the existing Suppression Pool (SP) tank of the integral test facility, called Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR applications (PUMA-E) facility, a scaled downcomer pipe installed in the PUMA-E SP, and air discharge pipe system. Two different diameter sizes of air injection pipe (0.076 and 0.102 m), a range of air volumetric flux (7.9–24.7 m/s), initial void conditions in an air injection pipe (fully void, partially void, and fully filled with water) and different air velocity ramp rates (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 s) are used to investigate the impact of the blowdown conditions to the void distribution in the SP. Two distinct phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. The quasi-steady phase provided less void penetration depth and was categorized by oscillations in the void penetration. The initial void conditions in an air injection pipe and air volumetric fluxes were only found to significantly impact on the void distribution in the SP

  8. Reproductive risk factors and endometrial cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dossus, Laure; Allen, Naomi; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bakken, Kjersti; Lund, Eiliv; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fournier, Agnes; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Boeing, Heiner; Schütze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H M; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Redondo, Maria-Luisa; Duell, Eric; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Arriola, Larraitz; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Manjer, Jonas; Borgquist, Signe; Lukanova, Annie; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Key, Tim; Chajes, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Mouw, Traci; Gallo, Valentina; Riboli, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Endometrial cancer risk has been associated with reproductive factors (age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, age at first and last birth, time since last birth and use of oral contraceptives (OCs)]. However, these factors are closely interrelated and whether they act independently still requires clarification. We conducted a study to examine the association of menstrual and reproductive variables with the risk of endometrial cancer among the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer an...

  9. An empirical investigation on factors influencing customer selection of ADSL services

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Azad; K. Darabi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an empirical investigation on various factors affecting ADSL service selection in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed model of this paper uses a standard questionnaire and distributes it among randomly selected customers who have some experiences on internet based ADSL products. The study implements factor analysis as well as weighted regression technique to perform the study. There are eight hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper, which indicates...

  10. Injury rates and injury risk factors among federal bureau of investigation new agent trainees

    OpenAIRE

    Knapik Joseph J; Grier Tyson; Spiess Anita; Swedler David I; Hauret Keith G; Graham Bria; Yoder James; Jones Bruce H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors were acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire and existing data at the FBI Academy. Results A total of 426 men and 105 women participated in the project. Thirty-five percent of men and 42% of women experienc...

  11. Investigating critical success factors in agile systems development projects / Ruhan Wagener.

    OpenAIRE

    Wagener, Ruhan Pieter

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the critical success factors involved in agile systems development projects. Various systems development methodologies and project management methodologies are presented with their underlying principles, strengths and weaknesses. Thereafter the critical success factors adopted from the work of Chow and Cao (2007) are presented. A positivistic research paradigm was chosen for data collection and analysis. The survey method was chosen for data collection. A questionn...

  12. Investigating the Effects of Psychological Factors on Belief and Experience of Precognitive Dreams

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has established a relationship between psychological factors and precognitive dreaming belief and experience. The present study investigates this claim, specifically focussing on the relationship between the psychological factors of personality, memory, IQ and implicit awareness with precognitive dreaming belief and experience measures. 50 participants volunteered to take part in the study which took place at The University of Edinburgh psychology building’s Admiral’s Labora...

  13. Investigating the Factors Influence Adoption of Internet Banking in Malaysia: Adopters Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Hoe Hong; Boon Heng Teh; Gowrie Vinayan; Chin Hooi Soh; Nasreen Khan; Tze San Ong

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to investigate the factors that influence adopters to take up the Internetbanking services in Malaysia. The sampling units in this survey are the adopters of Internet banking who wereusing it for at least six months. A total of 116 useable questionnaires was coded and analyzed by using SPSSsoftware. Statistical methods like descriptive analysis, factor analysis and regression analysis were used in thisresearch. The regression results showed that Complexity...

  14. An investigation on different factors influencing on target market selection in petrochemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Saeedeh Koohi; Ali Alikhani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors influencing on selection of petrochemical market. The survey has accomplished among 97 randomly selected experts in petrochemical industry in Iran. The survey designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some experts and using binomial test; it has confirmed that except one factor, cultural affairs, other issues including political, cultural, regulations, economic, infrastructure, market potential, buyers’ poten...

  15. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on electronic banking for developing export

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Azad; Vahid Abbaszadeh; Mohammad Rikhtegar; Hamed Asgari

    2013-01-01

    Developing economy needs appropriate infrastructure in different areas including electronic banking. This paper presents an empirical investigation on important factors influencing electronic banking for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 regular customers who use banking services of various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.752 and there are five factors including internet infr...

  16. A study on people's awareness of the causal factors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident and measures to ensure nuclear power plants safety. Questionnaire survey conducted in the Kansai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we conducted three questionnaire surveys targeting a total of 808 respondents living in the cities of Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe, in order to elucidate people's awareness of the following 1) the causal factors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, 2) measures taken by electric power companies to ensure nuclear power plants safety, 3) management measures for earthquake and tsunami disaster. The results revealed that 1) the causal factors of the accident the respondents were aware of were a) a mega earthquake and tsunami disaster, b) insufficient preparations for an earthquake and tsunami disaster, c) failure to take adequate management decisions and insufficient preparations to prevent severe nuclear power plant accidents, d) high confidence in nuclear power plants safety, 2) most respondents knew about the information concerning the measures taken by electric power companies from television and newspapers, and only a few respondents sought additional information, 3) respondents were anxious about a) the uncertainty of pre-disaster hazard assumptions and management measures, b) limitations of technological countermeasures against the natural disasters, c) the tendency to overvalue the safety measures. (author)

  17. The Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqua, M.; Stueck, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Tohoku earthquake and the subsequent tsunami hit the Japanese east coast, causing more than 15,000 fatalities. To this date, 3,000 people are still missing. The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP was the nuclear installation that was most affected by the tsunami. The earthquake cut off the NPP from the national grid. About 45 minutes later, the tsunami flooded units 1-4 and led to core meltdown events with large releases for units 1, 2 and 3. Unit 4 had been in refuelling outage at that time and lost the cooling of the spent fuel pool for several days. Considerable hydrogen explosions occurred in units 1, 3 and 4. Shortly after the accident, TEPCO started to mitigate the consequences of the accident by providing external cooling to the reactors and by removing the radioactive debris from the site. Great emphasis was laid on effective radiation protection measures for the clean-up workers. Thus, up to now there has been no fatality due to the radiation caused by the Fukushima accident. The main steps of the accident sequences are described, taking into account the latest findings of investigations performed by TEPCO or on behalf of the regulatory body. The presentation focuses on the description of the status of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and the future steps for cleaning-up the site. In the presentation, the major phases of the roadmap that TEPCO has developed for the clean-up are highlighted. The risks associated with the current plant status and the clean-up phases are described. Abstract the content of the manuscript in a few lines.

  18. Movilidad, accidentalidad por tránsito y sus factores asociados en estudiantes universitarios de Guatemala / Mobility, traffic accidents, and associated factors among Guatemalan university students / Mobilidade, acidentes de trânsito e fatores associados entre estudantes universitários da Guatemala

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Rodríguez-Guzmán; Eladio, Jiménez-Mejías; Virginia, Martínez-Ruiz; Fernando, Lupiáñez-Tapia; Pablo, Lardelli-Claret; José Juan, Jiménez-Moleón.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi identificar e quantificar a associação entre a intensidade de exposição (km/anos percorridos), a acidentalidade e os seus fatores em universitários da Guatemala. Realizou-se um estudo transversal durante o curso 2010-2011 sobre uma amostra de 1.016 condutores de veículos, que responde [...] ram a um questionário autoadministrado que valorizava: padrões de mobilidade, uso de dispositivos de segurança, maneira de condução e acidentalidade. Obtiveram-se associações positivas entre intensidade de exposição e maior implicância em circunstâncias de risco ao conduzir (coeficiente de regressão ajustado a 3,25; IC95%: 2,23-4,27, para as maiores exposições). Tanto a maior implicância em ditas circunstâncias como uma maioridade foram as variáveis mais fortemente associadas com a maior acidentalidade. Apesar de a intensidade de exposição ser associada positivamente com uma maior acidentalidade, estabelecemos que a maior parte da dita associação está mediada pela maior implicância em circunstâncias de risco ao conduzir. Abstract in spanish El objetivo fue identificar y cuantificar la asociación entre la intensidad de exposición (km/año recorridos), la accidentalidad y sus factores asociados en universitarios de Guatemala. Se realizó un estudio trasversal durante el curso 2010-2011, sobre una muestra de 1.016 conductores, quienes cumpl [...] imentaron un cuestionario autoadministrado que valoraba: patrones de movilidad, uso de dispositivos de seguridad, estilos de conducción y accidentalidad. Se obtuvieron asociaciones positivas entre la intensidad de exposición y la mayor implicación en circunstancias de riesgo al volante (coeficiente de regresión ajustado de 3,25, IC95%: 2,23-4,27, para las mayores exposiciones). Tanto una mayor implicación en tales circunstancias, como una mayor edad, fueron las variables más fuertemente asociadas con la mayor accidentalidad. Pese a que la intensidad de exposición se asocia positivamente con una mayor accidentalidad, se constató que la mayor parte de dicha asociación está mediada por una mayor implicación en circunstancias de riesgo al volante. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the association between the amount of driving (km/year), traffic accidents, and other factors among university students in Guatemala. A cross-sectional study was performed during the 2010-2011 school year in a sample of 1,016 drivers who completed a [...] self-administered questionnaire that assessed mobility patterns, use of safety accessories, driving style, and automobile crashes. The results showed a positive association between amount of driving and greater involvement in risky driving (adjusted regression coefficient 3.25, 95%CI: 2.23-4.27, for the highest level of exposure). More frequent involvement in risky driving and older age showed the strongest associations with traffic accidents. Although the amount of driving was positively associated with a higher accident rate, most of this association was found to be mediated by involvement in risky driving practices.

  19. JAERI's activities in JCO accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was actively involved in a variety of technical supports and cooperative activities, such as advice on terminating the criticality condition, contamination checks of the residents and consultation services for the residents, as emergency response actions to the criticality accident at the uranium processing facility operated by the JCO Co. Ltd., which occurred on September 30, 1999. These activities were carried out in collaborative ways by the JAERI staff from the Tokai Research Establishment, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, and Headquarter Office in Tokyo. As well, the JAERI was engaged in the post-accident activities such as identification of accident causes, analyses of the criticality accident, and dose assessment of exposed residents, to support the Headquarter for Accident Countermeasures of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Control Committee of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). This report compiles the activities, that the JAERI has conducted to date, including the discussions on measures for terminating the criticality condition, evaluation of the fission number, radiation monitoring in the environment, dose assessment, analyses of criticality dynamics. (author)

  20. The influence of accident measures on accident scenarios for VVER-1000-Type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For VVER-1000-type reactors severe accident scenarios and possible mitigation strategies are investigated. The Station blackout sequence is chosen as reference case. At first a comparison between the cases with and without working spray systems is discussed. Afterwards the results of a parametric study investigating the influence of different water volumes on the course of the accident are presented. It can be shown that most of these accident mitigation measures will maintain the containment integrity and reduce the source term. (author)

  1. Nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents in a didactic manner the technical and historical elements allowing to understand the risks and consequences of a nuclear accident. The main accidents which took place in France, US, Ukraine and Japan are analyzed. Content: 1 - Physics of nuclear accidents - reactor accidents; 2 - Accidents of the beginning of the nuclear era: Windscale (1957), Santa Susana (1959), Idaho Falls (1961), Saint Laurent des Eaux A1 (1969); 3 - The Three Mile Island accident; 4 - the Chernobyl accident; 5 - the Fukushima accident: hydrogen explosion; how about France?; 6 - Conclusions and perspectives; Appendix 1: the INES scale; Appendix 2: deterministic approach of barriers dimensioning: application to PWR reactors; the incident/accident classes; the deterministic safety criteria; Appendix 3: history of significant nuclear reactor accidents in the world; Bibliography; Index. (J.S.)

  2. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  3. Estimated recurrence frequencies for initiating accident categories associated with the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimated recurrence frequencies for each of twenty-five generic LMFBR initiating accident categories were quantified using the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design. These estimates were obtained using simplified systems fault trees and functional event tree models from the Accident Delineation Study Phase I Final Report coupled with order-of-magnitude estimates for the initiator-dependent failure probabilities of the individual CRBRP engineered safety systems. Twelve distinct protected accident categories where SCRAM is assumed to be successful are estimated to occur at a combined rate of 10-3 times per year while thirteen unprotected accident categories in which SCRAM fails are estimated to occur at a combined rate on the order of 10-5 times per year. These estimates are thought to be representative despite the fact that human performance factors, maintenance and repair, as well as input common cause uncertainties, were not treated explicitly. The overall results indicate that for the CRBRP design no single accident category appears to be dominant, nor can any be totally eliminated from further investigation in the areas of accident phenomenology for in-core events and post-accident phenomenology for containment

  4. Theoretical and experimental investigations into the filtration of the atmosphere within the containments of pressurized water reactors after serious reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For serious accidents in nuclear power stations equipped with pressurized water reactors and with boundary conditions assumed, a conservative evaluation was made of the condition of the atmosphere within the reactor containment, particularly referring to pressure, temperature, air humidity and activity release. Based on these data the loads were calculated of accident filter systems of different designs as a function of parameters such as the course of releases and the volume flow through the filter systems. A number of experimental results are indicated on the behaviour of iodine sorption materials under extreme conditions including the least favorable temperature, humidity and pressure derived from the calculations above. Reference is made to the targets of future R and D work on aerosol removal

  5. Prioritization of Lesson learned from Fukushima Accident using AHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) the present research signifies the technical and nontechnical issues of Fukushima accident. The study exposed that besides technical fixes such as enhanced engineering safety features and better siting choices, the critical ingredient for safe operation of nuclear reactors lie in the quality of human training and transparency of the nuclear regulatory process that keeps public interest at the forefront. In this paper a strategy to increase Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety has been developed. By using AHP, best alternative to improve safety and to allocate budget for all technical and non-technical factors related with nuclear safety has been investigated. By using AHP a methodology to increase NPP safety has been proposed. With the help of this technique the qualitative aspect of Fukushima accident has been examined by considering experts judgment. The results showed that a lack of regulatory authorities was one of the main causes of accident. So, more budget allocation in this area would be helpful to reduce accidents and to improve nuclear safety. Even if AHP only addresses the qualitative aspect of safety factors, this study can be extended to quantitative evaluation with other tools such as fault trees or crisis trees so that the final results enable data-driven decision-making process, which is on-going project at Kyung Hee University

  6. Prioritization of Lesson learned from Fukushima Accident using AHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Park, Sujina; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Zubair, Muhammad [Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-05-15

    Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) the present research signifies the technical and nontechnical issues of Fukushima accident. The study exposed that besides technical fixes such as enhanced engineering safety features and better siting choices, the critical ingredient for safe operation of nuclear reactors lie in the quality of human training and transparency of the nuclear regulatory process that keeps public interest at the forefront. In this paper a strategy to increase Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety has been developed. By using AHP, best alternative to improve safety and to allocate budget for all technical and non-technical factors related with nuclear safety has been investigated. By using AHP a methodology to increase NPP safety has been proposed. With the help of this technique the qualitative aspect of Fukushima accident has been examined by considering experts judgment. The results showed that a lack of regulatory authorities was one of the main causes of accident. So, more budget allocation in this area would be helpful to reduce accidents and to improve nuclear safety. Even if AHP only addresses the qualitative aspect of safety factors, this study can be extended to quantitative evaluation with other tools such as fault trees or crisis trees so that the final results enable data-driven decision-making process, which is on-going project at Kyung Hee University.

  7. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nagel, Lise Loft; Uhrenholt, Lars; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2012-01-01

    A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. ...

  8. Accident occurrence model for the risk analysis of industrialfacilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an accident occurrence model for the risk analysis of industrial facilities. To better understand the characteristics of industrial accident data, the proposed accident occurrence model is based on a chemical reaction. The model introduces a defensive barrier, which corresponds to the activation energy in a chemical reaction, to prevent an accident. Furthermore, the uncertainty factor in the defensive barrier is mathematically derived as a gamma distribution. The analytical results for the proposed accident occurrence model indicate a Pareto type II distribution, which is the same result found by using a risk curve. Therefore, the analytical model validates the effectiveness of analyzing industrial risk with a riskcurve. Highlights: ? An accident occurrence model based on chemical reaction was proposed. ? Uncertainty factor ? of the defensive barrier to prevent accidents was introduced. ? Accident data of the industrial facilities obey the Pareto type II distribution

  9. Factors Affecting Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce Success: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-I Philip

    2010-01-01

    It is generally believed that Business to Business (B2B) e-commerce has a great impact on business performance improvement. Considerable research also shows that another dependent variable, B2B e-commerce success, can be a good overall measure of B2B systems. This paper investigated and examined the impact of several factors, which are either…

  10. Investigating Factors Related to Virtual Private Network Adoption in Small Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate six factors that may influence adoption of virtual private network (VPN) technologies in small businesses with fewer than 100 employees. Prior research indicated small businesses employing fewer than 100 workers do not adopt VPN technology at the same rate as larger competitors, and the…

  11. Investigation of bandwidth, efficiency, and quality factor for circular patch antennas with magneto-dielectric substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Baqer; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    This article documents an investigation of the effect of a magneto-dielectric substrate on the performance of a circular patch antenna; in particular, the radiation efficiency, the quality factor, and the bandwidth. Both analytical and numerical methods have been used to model the patch antenna. The numerical method is used for lossy substrates, while the analytical method is used for lossless substrates.

  12. Investigations of mass attenuation coefficients and exposure buildup factors of some low-Z building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Low cost materials show better shielding effectiveness than concrete for E > 1 MeV. ? Correlation between Zeff and EBF for shielding effectiveness. ? Buildup factors are necessary to study shielding properties of materials. - Abstract: To check the gamma ray shielding properties of selected low-Z building materials such as Soil-I, Soil-II, Dolomite, Gypsum, Igneous Rock and Lime Stone, some parameters of dosimetric interest have been investigated in the energy range 0.015–15 MeV. The photon interactions with the samples have been discussed mainly in terms of mass attenuation coefficient, equivalent atomic number and exposure buildup factor. From the present investigations, it has been concluded that the values of exposure buildup factors are very large in the medium energy region and Soil-I acts as best gamma ray shielding material among the selected samples.

  13. Scenario development on application of engineering technology for geological disposal. Study on accidents and human factors caused at site characterization, construction, operation and closure stages and that impact on safety functions after closure of disposal facility (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the safety assessment for the high-level radioactive waste geological disposal, scenarios need to be developed in consideration of influence on barrier features by applying engineering technologies at each stage of site characterization, construction, operation and closure of disposal facility. To develop scenarios on application of engineering technologies from the point of view of safety regulation, it is important to grasp information of the engineering technologies which are possibly applied to geological disposal and to organize relationships between accidents and human factors caused by application of engineering technologies and influence by the factors on safety functions of engineered and natural barriers after closure stage. In this study, the engineering technologies which are applicable for activities of site characterization, construction, operation and closure for geological disposal are listed. We compiled their technical features, application procedures, and points to notice in applying the engineering technologies. As the points to notice, we listed roles of the engineering technologies which possibly affect safety functions based on information of long-term evaluation of features of barriers. From these information, “deviation events” which are deviated states of engineered and natural barriers from intended states were identified. Assuming the occurrence of the deviation events, possible evolution of features of barriers or loss/reduction of safety functions of barriers was discussed. Furthermore, the accidents and human factors which can progress the deviation events were specified based on the information on operational procedures of the engineering technologies. Finally, the sequence of influence of the accidents and human factors caused by application of engineering technologies on long-term safety after closure of the disposal facility were shown as scenarios. These results were integrated as a database that could support development of scenarios caused by application of engineering technologies to geological disposal. (author)

  14. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bus safety is a concern not only in developing countries, but also in the U.S. and Europe. In Denmark, disentangling risk factors that are positively or negatively related to bus accident severity and injury occurrence to bus passengers can contribute to promote safety as an essential principle of sustainable transit and advance the vision “every accident is one too many”. Methods Bus accident data were retrieved from the national accident database for the period 2002–2011. A generalized...

  15. Hygienic measures during accidents at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems of radiation protection in case of large-scale accidents at nuclear power plants are discussed. Aims and purposes of protective measures are shown. Ways of radiation factor effects at various accident stages are described as well as corresponding protective measures. Attention is paid to the criteria of decision adoption at various accident development phases. Examples from the Chernobyl accident experience are presented. 10 refs.; 3 tabs

  16. The cost of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed by a technical section of the SFEN, and based on a meeting with representatives of different organisations (OECD-NEA, IRSN, EDF, and European Nuclear Energy Forum), this publication addresses the economic consequences of a severe accident (level 6 or 7) within an electricity producing nuclear power plant. Such an assessment essentially relies on three pillars: release of radio-elements outside the reactor, the scenario of induced consequences, and the method of economic quantification. After a recall and a comment of safety arrangements, and of the generally admitted probability of such an accident, this document notices that several actors are concerned by nuclear energy and are trying to assess accident costs. The issue of how to assess a cost (or costs) of a nuclear accident is discussed: there are in fact several types of costs and consequences. Thus, some costs can be rather precisely quantified when some others can be difficult to assess or with uncertainty. The relevance of some cost categories appears to be a matter of discussion and one must not forget that consequences can occur on a long term. The need for methodological advances is outlined and three categories of technical objectives are identified for the assessment (efficiency of safety measures to be put forward to mitigate the risk via a better accident management, compensation of victims and nuclear civil responsibility, and comparison of electricity production sectors and assessment of externalisation to guide public choices). It is outlined that the impact of accidents depend on several factors, that the most efficient mean to limit consequences of accidents is of course to limit radioactive emissions

  17. Correlation between the Ship Grounding Accident and the Ship Traffic – A Case Study Based on the Statistics of the Gulf of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsham Mazaheri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ship traffic is one of the factors that is presented in almost all of the existing grounding models, and is considered as one of the affecting factors on the likelihood of grounding accident. This effect in grounding accident is mostly accepted by the experts as a common sense or simply by just generalizing the ship-ship collision cases to grounding accidents. There is no available research on the actual causal link between the ship traffic and grounding accident in the literature. In this paper, authors have utilized the statistical analysis on historical grounding accident data in the Gulf of Finland between the years 1989 and 2010 and the AIS data of the same area in year 2010, as the source of ship traffic data, to investigate the possible existence of any correlation between the ship traffic and the grounding accident. The results show that for the studied area (Gulf of Finland there is no correlation between the traffic density and the grounding accident. However, the possibility of the existence of minor relation between the traffic distribution and grounding accident is shown by the result. This finding, however, needs further investigation for more clarification.

  18. Problematic eating behaviors among bariatric surgical candidates: a psychometric investigation and factor analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, Bethany L; Delparte, Chelsea A; Wright, Kristi D; Hart, Regan

    2015-01-01

    Psychological factors (e.g., anxiety, depression) are routinely assessed in bariatric pre-surgical programs, as high levels of psychopathology are consistently related to poor program outcomes (e.g., failure to lose significant weight pre-surgery, weight regain post-surgery). Behavioral factors related to poor program outcomes and ways in which behavioral and psychological factors interact, have received little attention in bariatric research and practice. Potentially problematic behavioral factors are queried by Section H of the Weight and Lifestyle Inventory (WALI-H), in which respondents indicate the relevance of certain eating behaviors to obesity. A factor analytic investigation of the WALI-H serves to improve the way in which this assessment tool is interpreted and used among bariatric surgical candidates, and subsequent moderation analyses serve to demonstrate potential compounding influences of psychopathology on eating behavior factors. Bariatric surgical candidates (n =362) completed several measures of psychopathology and the WALI-H. Item responses from the WALI-H were subjected to principal axis factoring with oblique rotation. Results revealed a three-factor model including: (1) eating in response to negative affect, (2) overeating/desirability of food, and (3) eating in response to positive affect/social cues. All three behavioral factors of the WALI-H were significantly associated with measures of depression and anxiety. Moderation analyses revealed that depression did not moderate the relationship between anxiety and any eating behavior factor. Although single forms of psychopathology are related to eating behaviors, the combination of psychopathology does not appear to influence these problematic behaviors. Recommendations for pre-surgical assessment and treatment of bariatric surgical candidates are discussed. PMID:25464064

  19. Investigations of Knight shifts and g factors for Y123 and Y124 superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Min-Quan, E-mail: mqkuang@yeah.net; Wu, Shao-Yi; Hu, Xian-Fen; Li, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Zhi-Hong

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • We study g factors and Knight shifts for Y123 and Y124 superconductors. • The theoretical relationships between Knight shifts and g factors are established. • High order perturbation formulas are adopted with local structures of Cu{sup 2+} sites. • Anisotropies of g factors and Knight shifts are ascribed to elongation of Cu{sup 2+} sites. -- Abstract: By adopting the uniform high order perturbation formulas of Knight shifts and g factors for 3d{sup 9} ions in orthorhombically and tetragonally elongated octahedra, the experimental results of these parameters for Cu(1) sites in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} and Cu(2) site in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} are systematically investigated. The calculated Knight shifts (and g factors for Cu(2) site) agree well with the observed values. The anisotropies of the g factors and Knight shifts are attributed to the local orthorhombic and tetragonal elongations of the Cu{sup 2+} sites. The present studies would be helpful to attain a more complete spectroscopic understanding for g factors and Knight shifts.

  20. Influence of factors of radiative and nonradiative nature on the health state of military garnison population, stationed on the contaminated zone after accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hormonal control of 207 adult representatives of the population of 6-10 Ci/km2 radioactive density contaminated territories that live there 5 years minimum was studied. The paper presents the morbidity structure according to disease different types. Ecological and social-psychological factors are stressed to affect the morbidity along with the radioactive contamination. The paper presents the results of investigations into endocrine regulation (according to 12 studied indices). The obtained data show that men in the radioactive contaminated territories suffer more often from more severe disordered endocrine function. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  1. A comprehensive investigation of the pseudo-skin factor for partially completed vertical wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prohibit gas and/or water coning, it is very common for wells to be completed over only a portion of their productive zone. Such a procedure causes an additional pressure drop, termed the pseudo-skin factor, which reduces the well productivity. In order to ascertain whether or not a partially penetrated well requires stimulation, one has to quantitatively determine the different components of the total skin. Hence, an accurate evaluation of the pseudo-skin factor as one of the main components of the total skin is critical. Many authors have employed different mathematics to find expressions for estimating the pseudo-skin factor, however, since a comprehensive investigation of the available models has not as yet been performed, the diversity of these expressions could be very confusing. This paper first aims to propose an analytical model which accurately estimates the pseudo-skin factor in a partially penetrated well. In model development, the impacts of anisotropy and the arbitrariness of the open interval location are all taken into account, and the model is validated against a numerical simulator (ECLIPSE). Its second aim is to take the results of the numerical simulator as the comparison basis, and make a comprehensive investigation of the available models to check their accuracy for estimating the pseudo-skin factor. The results of the investigation show that, in comparison to other methods, this proposed model, Streltsova's method and that of Yeh and Reynolds, estimate the pseudo-skin factor favourably close to that obtained by the simulator. (paper)

  2. Methods for accident analysis. A paradigm shift; Methoden der Unfallanalyse. Ein Paradigmenwechsel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissenborn, Katrin [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Hannover (Germany). Arbeitssicherheit und Umweltschutz

    2011-07-01

    Different methods of accident investigation are compared and presented. The development of accident analysis from root cause to accident consequences is highlighted. Measures are focused which would have avoided the accident. Apart from technical issues, the paper also deals with wrong organisational development. The investigation method supports a learning company culture that is concentrating on staff health. (orig.)

  3. Factors Affecting Mental Models in CD-ROM Searching : A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate possible factors affecting mental models in CD-ROM searching. The subjects were college and graduate students of National Taiwan University. They used PsyLIT CD-ROM database to search their own questions. After instructions, 52 subjects did 58 searchers. According to search terms selections, four types of mental models were identified. This article discussed possible factors that influences the above four types of mental models, including subject characteristics, search results and questions.[Article content in Chinese

  4. Factors Affecting the Nominal Exchange Rate of Pakistan: An Econometric Investigation (1982-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ur Rehman Khattak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Which macroeconomic factors determine the nominal exchange rate of Pak-rupee against US dollar during the period 1982-2008? This issue has been investigated in this paper by using Ordinary Least Squares and Johansen’s Cointegration techniques. The results show that both monetary and real factors i.e. money supply, trade balance, foreign exchange reserves, inflation and interest rate have long run relationship with the exchange rate of Pak-rupee. However, the granger causality test results show that the relationship between most of the macroeconomic variables and nominal exchange rate bi-directional.

  5. An Investigation into the Determining Factors of Zoo Visitor Attendances in UK Zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Whitworth, Andrew William

    2012-01-01

    The debate as to which animals are most beneficial to keep in zoos in terms of financial and conservative value is readily disputed; however, demographic factors have also been shown to relate to visitor numbers on an international level. The main aims of this research were: (1) To observe the distribution and location of zoos across the UK, (2) to develop a way of calculating zoo popularity in terms of the species kept within a collection and (3) to investigate the factors related to visitor...

  6. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on electronic banking for developing export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing economy needs appropriate infrastructure in different areas including electronic banking. This paper presents an empirical investigation on important factors influencing electronic banking for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 regular customers who use banking services of various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.752 and there are five factors including internet infrastructure, advanced services, usability and information design. The most important sub-criteria include building required culture, customer awareness, the role of government, internet knowledge and compatibility with internet technology.

  7. Investigação de acidentes biológicos entre profissionais de saúde / Investigation of biological accidents among health care workers / Investigación de accidentes biológicos entre los trabajadores de la salud

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Azevedo da, Silva; Vanessa Salete de, Paula; Adilson José de, Almeida; Livia Melo, Villar.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a principal categoria profissional exposta a risco biológico e os principais tipos de acidentes ocorridos entre trabalhadores da área de saúde, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. A partir da análise das fichas de notificação de acidentes biológicos dos 183 pr [...] ofissionais acidentados entre janeiro de 2005 e setembro de 2005, observamos que a categoria profissional mais exposta foi a dos auxiliares/técnicos de enfermagem (54,1%), seguida pela dos acadêmicos de medicina e odontologia (10,4%). A ocorrência de acidentes com materiais perfurocortantes foi relacionada à manipulação frequente desses objetos e ao comportamento dos profissionais que utilizam práticas que oferecem riscos de acidentes com agulhas, tais como o descarte inadequado de objetos perfurocortantes. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las principales categorías profesional expuestas a riesgos biológicos y el principal tipo de accidentes producidos entre los profesionales del área de la salud en Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Del análisis de 183 archivos de los trabajadores que sufren accide [...] ntes con material biológico, de enero a septiembre de 2005, se observó que la categoría profesional más expuesta a sufrir accidentes fue el de los auxiliares de enfermería (54,1%), seguido por los estudiantes de odontología y medicina (10,4%). La de accidentes se relacionó con la manipulación frecuente de agujas, y con el comportamiento de los trabajadores, que mantienen prácticas que ofrecen riesgos, como la eliminación inadecuada de agujas. Abstract in english The aims of this study were to identify the major professional category exposed to biological risk and the principal type of accident occurred among health care workers in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Based on the analysis of 183 records filled out by the workers who suffered biohazardous accidents be [...] tween January 2005 and September 2005, we found the nursing auxiliaries and technicians as the professional category more exposed to biohazardous accidents (54.1%), followed by undergraduate medical and dental students (10.4%). The occurence of acidents with piercing-cutting materials was related to frequent handling of these instruments, and to the behavior of workers who maintain practices providing risks of needlestick injuries, such as inappropriate disposal of piercing-cutting materials.

  8. Natural hazard impacts on transport systems: analyzing the data base of transport accidents in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    We consider a transport accident as any accident that occurs during transportation of people and goods. It comprises of accidents involving air, road, rail, water, and pipeline transport. With over 1.2 million people killed each year, road accidents are one of the world's leading causes of death; another 20-50 million people are injured each year on the world's roads while walking, cycling, or driving. Transport accidents of other types including air, rail, and water transport accidents are not as numerous as road crashes, but the relative risk of each accident is much higher because of the higher number of people killed and injured per accident. Pipeline ruptures cause large damages to the environment. That is why safety and security are of primary concern for any transport system. The transport system of the Russian Federation (RF) is one of the most extensive in the world. It includes 1,283,000 km of public roads, more than 600,000 km of airlines, more than 200,000 km of gas, oil, and product pipelines, 115,000 km of inland waterways, and 87,000 km of railways. The transport system, especially the transport infrastructure of the country is exposed to impacts of various natural hazards and weather extremes such as heavy rains, snowfalls, snowdrifts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, snow avalanches, debris flows, rock falls, fog or icing roads, and other natural factors that additionally trigger many accidents. In June 2014, the Ministry of Transport of the RF has compiled a new version of the Transport Strategy of the RF up to 2030. Among of the key pillars of the Strategy are to increase the safety of the transport system and to reduce negative environmental impacts. Using the data base of technological accidents that was created by the author, the study investigates temporal variations and regional differences of the transport accidents' risk within the Russian federal regions and a contribution of natural factors to occurrences of different transport accident types.

  9. Physical dosimetry and biological indicators of carcinogenic risk in a cohort of persons exposed to unhealthy ecological factors following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orel, V E; Tereschenki, V M; Czyatkovskaya, N N; Mazepa, M G; Buzunov, V A

    1998-01-01

    The April 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident caused ecological changes in the Ovruch State forests in the Zhytomir oblast in the Ukraine. The highest radioactivity existed in moss, followed by the pine-forest substrate and soil. During 1984-1985, the pine needles were primarily surface contaminated, whereas during 1986-1988, they were contaminated secondarily. Radioactivity in air was highest (1.07+/-0.185 Bq/l) during dry and sunny weather and when trees were felled; the lowest levels (0.196+/-0.044 Bq/l) occurred during periods of stable snow coverage. Between 1987 and 1989 (i.e., after the Chernobyl accident), the caesium levels in forestry employees exceeded by 13.9-fold the average levels found in the Ukrainian Polessje population. Ovruch forest guards and woodcutters had the highest effective equivalent doses of radiation, and they therefore exhibited the highest carcinogenic risk. PMID:9886158

  10. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

  11. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  12. Investigating the Effective Factors on Entering into International Markets by Presenting the Local Islamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mohammad Ali Alamolhodaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of small and medium size businesses is regarded as one of the most leading general policies in many of the world’s countries. The reason is that it is often the small and medium size companies which have a vital role in industrial innovation and gain profit for their societies through economic development. This research has investigated and identified the effective factors (organizational factors and business etiquette in Islam on entering into international markets by presenting local Islamic model in the companies of incubator of Science and Technology Park. The statistical population of the research includes the existing companies of Incubator of Mashhad Science and Technology Park. The statistical sample was investigated through simple random sampling from managers of active companies in export in Science and Technology Park. AMOS and SPSS software were applied for data analysis to identify the effects among variables survey research methodology and questionnaire tools were used.

  13. Investigation of trachoma related factors on migrant laborers' children in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wen Xue

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the trachoma related factors on migrant laborers' children in Shanghai.METHODS: With random cluster sampling, 3 879 migrant laborers' children, aged(10.22±2.00years old, from 7 schools in Shanghai, participated in the questionnaire survey, under parents' guidance. RESULTS: Our survey achieved a 98.27% response rate and got a total of 3 812 valid questionnaires, 2 114 males and 1 698 females. Totally 288 cases of trachoma were found. Compared with students who were clinically diagnosed as trachoma, the other students got a high rate in using separate towels, not rubbing eyes, prefer vegetarian diet, asking parents for help when got an eye discomfort and asking for a doctor. Using separate towels would be the main relative factor of the prevalence of trachoma. CONCLUSION: Good health habits could be protective factors to susceptible population.

  14. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on work stress: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Davoudzadeh Moghaddam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An individual with a career faced with various career challenges may experience work-related stress. Work related stress is a factor that threatens employees’ health. The most common negative consequences of stress are particularly the deterioration of performance and efficiency, decrease in productivity and quality of customer’s services, which results in health problems. Work-related stress is a global issue, and banks are no exception. This paper presents a survey to investigate the influencing factors on work stress in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 randomly selected bank department managers in city of Tehran, Iran. Using principle component analysis, the study has detected five factors including organizational characteristics, external environment, work content, personal characteristics and top management.

  15. Improvement of dose evaluation system for employees at severe accident of nuclear power plant. Development of gamma-ray buildup factors by invariant embedding method and application to deep penetration problem by QAD code and G33 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors developed the system that estimates direct line and skyshine using the QAD code and the G33 code in order to evaluate the radiation dose of employees at severe accident in a nuclear power plant. Since the gamma-ray buildup factors used presently is lacking in data of very deep region and there is a problem in accuracy, the buildup factors were improved. The data set of buildup factor was extended up to depths of 300mfp with the invariant embedding (IE) method and the realistic model for the effect of bremsstrahlung on the buildup factors. Consequently, it was shown that the buildup factors had sufficient accuracy to 300 mfp and the conventional data set of buildup factor had been improved considerably. Moreover, the parameters of geometric progression (GP) formula to the improved buildup factors were computed. In order to apply to a very deep penetration problem, the improved buildup factors and GP fitting parameters were introduced into the QAD code and the G33 code. (author)

  16. Collaborative distance: investigating issues related to distance factors affecting collaboration performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pallot, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Both organisations and individuals are using more collaborative work, across geographic, disciplinary and organisational boundaries, leading to increased demand for Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to support a more effective and efficient distributed collaboration. This thesis presents an empirical study exploring various aspects related to collaborative distance in the context of innovation projects. It focuses on the investigation of issues related to distance factors that ...

  17. Investigation of Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunction in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    ?afi Edemci; Dilek Karaku?; Halil Uçan; Fatma ?a?maz; Canan Çelik

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sexual dysfunction (SD) is an important, but generally underestimated symptom in the course of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to investigate the factors related to SD in MS patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one MS patients with and 21 MS patients without SD were included in this study. Age, SD duration, disease duration, marital status, educational status, bladder and bowel dysfunction, disability, independence, cognitive performances and psychological fun...

  18. Investigating important factors influencing customer relationship management: A case study from banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sedigh; Ali Alikhani

    2013-01-01

    This paper performs an investigation on measuring the effect of different factors on customer relationship management (CRM) for different branches of an Iranian banks located in various regions of city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 275 managers and using structural equation modeling examines the effects of five variables including CRM knowledge, employment’s information technology skills, specialty, strategic use, CRM performance on the performance of CRM. Cronbach a...

  19. Investigating the Factor Structure of the Love Attitude Scale (LAS) with Malaysian Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Shahrazad W. S.; Suzana Mohd. Hoesni; Chong S. T.

    2012-01-01

    Love is an emotion often experienced by individuals involved in romantic relationships. As a result, love has become an important determining factor in entering marriage among couples. This experience of love may vary across individuals and cultures. Hence, love style measurement serves as an indicator in choosing appropriate partner. We investigate the reliability and validity of the Love Attitude Scale (LAS) in this study. This scale has 24 items which measures six love styles namely Eros, ...

  20. An investigation of the factors affecting innovation performance in chain and independent hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Ottenbacher, M; Shaw, V; Lockwood, A

    2006-01-01

    The failure rate of new service projects is high, because the knowledge about how innovations should be developed is limited. In the last decade, several studies have investigated the success factors associated with service innovations (e.g., Atuahene-Gima, 1996; de Brentani, 2001; Storey and Easingwood, 1998). However, no research in new service development (NSD) has addressed the question of whether chain affiliated and independently operated service firms have different approaches for deve...

  1. Investigating the Factors Associated with Job Satisfaction of Construction Workers in South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    M.Reza Hosseini; Nicholas Chileshe; George Zillante

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly, its aim is to ascertain the major aspects of job satisfaction for South Australian construction workers including the main ramifications of job satisfaction in the working environment. Secondly, it investigates the influence of key age-related factors i.e. chronological age, organisational age and length of service on major aspects of job satisfaction. The collected data for this study comprised 72 questionnaires completed by construction practit...

  2. An investigation on important factors influencing on forecasted earnings adjustment: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Babakhani; Behzad Ghorbani; Ali Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing earning adjustment on firms selected on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2011. There are four independent variables associated with the proposed study of this paper including Proportion of shares owned by institutional investors, Return on assets, Profit change and Market value to book value. In addition, Investment restructuring is considered as control variable. The results of the implementation...

  3. An investigation on important factors influencing consumer purchase: A case study of food products

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Haghighi; Maria Gooyandeh Hagh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effect of five factors on purchasing food product including brand and reputation, being green product producer, quality of packaging, taste of food products and materials used in products. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 20 questions, distributes 440 questionnaires among some consumers who were regular customers of food chains in west part of city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 225 properly filled ones. The stud...

  4. Managing the academic talent void: Investigating factors in academic turnover and retention in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Theron

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Globally, the demand for academic staff in higher education is expected to continue to increase. The South African situation is exacerbated by the so-called ‘retirement swell’ and turnover and retention problems; measurements to diagnose these factors remain limited.Research purpose: This study aimed to investigate the factors that influence turnover and retention of academic and to validate the developed talent retention diagnostic tool for use in South African higher education institutions.Motivation for the study: Limited research currently exists on the retention factors of academic staff in the South African context.Research approach, design and method: Using an investigative quantitative research approach, the tool was administered to a convenience sample of academics (n = 153 in 13 higher education institutions.Main findings: The results showed an array of distinguishing turnover and retention factors and proved the tool to be a valid and reliable measure. Over half the respondents indicated slight to strong dissatisfaction with compensation and performance management practices. Significantly, 34% indicated that they considered exiting their academic institution, citing unhappiness about compensation, as the most likely reason, whilst 74.5% have previously looked for another job.Practical/managerial implications: The research highlights key areas (i.e. compensation, emotional recognition, a bonus structure that reflects employee contribution, performance management systems, mentorship and career development opportunities that higher education should attend to if they want to retain their key and talented academic staff.Contribution/value-add: The results contribute to new knowledge on the factors that contribute to turnover and retention of academic staff and present a valid and reliable measure to assess these retention factors.

  5. Managing the academic talent void: Investigating factors in academic turnover and retention in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marguerite, Theron; Nicolene, Barkhuizen; Yvonne, du Plessis.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ORIENTATION: Globally, the demand for academic staff in higher education is expected to continue to increase. The South African situation is exacerbated by the so-called 'retirement swell' and turnover and retention problems; measurements to diagnose these factors remain limited. RESEARCH PURPOSE: T [...] his study aimed to investigate the factors that influence turnover and retention of academic and to validate the developed talent retention diagnostic tool for use in South African higher education institutions. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Limited research currently exists on the retention factors of academic staff in the South African context. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: Using an investigative quantitative research approach, the tool was administered to a convenience sample of academics (n = 153) in 13 higher education institutions. MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed an array of distinguishing turnover and retention factors and proved the tool to be a valid and reliable measure. Over half the respondents indicated slight to strong dissatisfaction with compensation and performance management practices. Significantly, 34% indicated that they considered exiting their academic institution, citing unhappiness about compensation, as the most likely reason, whilst 74.5% have previously looked for another job. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The research highlights key areas (i.e. compensation, emotional recognition, a bonus structure that reflects employee contribution, performance management systems, mentorship and career development opportunities) that higher education should attend to if they want to retain their key and talented academic staff. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The results contribute to new knowledge on the factors that contribute to turnover and retention of academic staff and present a valid and reliable measure to assess these retention factors.

  6. Farm accidents in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, D.; Bishop, C.; Sibert, J R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the problem of accidental injury to children on farms. DESIGN--Prospective county based study of children presenting to accident and emergency departments over 12 months with injuries sustained in a farm setting and nationwide review of fatal childhood farm accidents over the four years April 1986 to March 1990. SETTING--Accident and emergency departments in Aberystwyth, Carmarthen, Haverfordwest, and Llanelli and fatal accidents in England, Scotland, and Wales notified ...

  7. Accident prevention in radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    O Holmbert

    2007-01-01

    In order to prevent accidents in radiotherapy, it is important to learn from accidents that have occurred previously. Lessons learned from a number of accidents are summarised and underlying patterns are looked for in this paper. Accidents can be prevented by applying several safety layers of preventive actions. Categories of these preventive actions are discussed together with specific actions belonging to each category of safety layer.

  8. Fatores associados ao risco de internação por acidentes de trânsito no Município de Maringá-PR Factors associated to risks of hospital admissions due to traffic accidents in the city of Maringa, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula Soares

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores associados ao risco de internação da coorte constituída pelas vítimas dos acidentes de trânsito ocorridos no Município de Maringá - PR, no ano 2000. MÉTODO: A coorte foi composta pelas vítimas que tiveram registro no Serviço Integrado de Atendimento ao Trauma em Emergência (SIATE ou em Boletim de Ocorrência Policial (BO. Foi feita vinculação dos bancos gerados com os dados do SIATE, do BO, da Autorização de Internação Hospitalar (AIH-SUS e da Comunicação de Internação Hospitalar (CIH. Foram realizadas análises univariadas e de regressão múltipla de Cox para identificar, entre as variáveis relacionadas à vítima, ao acidente e ao condutor do veículo, os fatores de risco para internação. RESULTADOS: Foram identificadas 3.468 pessoas vitimadas em 2.725 acidentes. O risco médio de internação foi de 19,4/100 vítimas (673 internações. A análise de regressão múltipla identificou como categorias de maior risco de internação: vítimas pedestres, ciclistas e motociclistas; com idade acima de 50 anos; vitimadas em colisão com transporte pesado ou ônibus; em acidentes ocorridos de madrugada e de tarde, em algumas regiões da cidade; e sendo o condutor do veículo residente no próprio município. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que os programas de redução dos acidentes de trânsito devem considerar os subgrupos mais vulneráveis a acidentes graves e que as múltiplas determinações do risco apontam para a necessidade de ações articuladas dos diversos setores de governo e segmentos da sociedade nesses programas.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors associated to risks in hospital admissions of the population of traffic accident victims in the city of Maringa, PR, in 2000. METHOD: The cohort comprised the victims registered by the Integrated Trauma Care Emergency Services (SIATE or in Police Records (BO. We linked the databases generated by SIATE, BO, Hospital Admission Authorizations (AIH-SUS, and Hospital Admission Communications (CIH. Several univariate analyses and Cox's multiple regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for hospital admissions among the variables related to victims, accidents and vehicle drivers. RESULTS: 3,468 victims in 2,725 accidents were identified. The average hospital admission risk was 19.4/100 victims (673 hospital admissions. The major categories for hospital admissions identified by the multiple regression analysis were: pedestrians, bikers, and motorcyclists; victims over 50 years of age; individuals involved in accidents with heavy load trucks or buses; accidents taking place at dawn and in the afternoon, in some areas of the city; and the vehicle driver living in the city of Maringá. CONCLUSION: We concluded that traffic accident reduction programs should take into consideration the most vulnerable subgroups that are subject to serious accidents. We also concluded that multiple risk determination points toward the need for joint actions by the various government sectors and segments of society in these programs.

  9. The nuclear accidents: Causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discussed and compared the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents and cited their consequences. To better understand how these accidents occurred, a brief description of PWR type (reactor type of T.M.I.) and of RBMK type (reactor type of Chernobyl) has been presented. The author has also set out briefly the safety analysis objectives and the three barriers established to protect the public against the radiological consequences. To distinguish failures that cause severe accidents and to analyze them in details, it is necessary to classify the accidents. There are many ways to do it according to their initiator event, or to their frequency, or to their degree of gravity. The safety criteria adopted by nuclear industry have been explained. These criteria specify the limits of certain physical parameters that should not be exceeded in case of incidents or accidents. To compare the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents, the events that led to both have been presented. As observed the main common contributing factors in both cases are that the operators did not pay attention to warnings and signals that were available to them and that they were not trained to handle these accident sequences. The essential conclusions derived from these severe accidents are: -The improvement of operators competence contribute to reduce the accident risks; -The rapid and correct diagnosis of real conditions at each point of the accidents permits an appropriate behavior that would bring the plant to a stable state; -Competent technical teams have to intervene and to assist the operators in case of emergency; -Emergency plans and an international collaboration are necessary to limit the accident risks. 11 figs. (author)

  10. Principais fatores associados à ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito na BR 163, Mato Grosso, Brasil, 2004 Main factors associated with motor vehicle accidents on Federal Highway 163, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Victório de Carvalho Almeida

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O transporte é essencial para o desenvolvimento econômico de Mato Grosso, Brasil, sendo a BR 163 a principal rodovia de escoamento da produção agropecuária da região. Uma das conseqüências desta atividade é a ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito. Com o objetivo de analisar e categorizar os principais fatores associados à ocorrência de acidentes nesta rodovia, foram utilizados dados da Superintendência de Polícia Rodoviária Federal referentes ao ano de 2004. Nos resultados, destacaram-se como fatores associados à maior chance de ocorrência de acidentes com vítimas (com significância estatística: a condição de rolamento regular (OR = 1,89; IC: 1,32-2,70; os acidentes do tipo colisão frontal (OR = 14,14; IC: 8,96-22,32 e atropelamento de pedestre (OR = 35,95; IC: 8,10-159,52; e os fatores contribuintes defeito na via (OR = 4,35; IC: 1,94-9,75 e desobediência à sinalização (OR = 5,69; IC: 2,01-16,12. Conclui-se que para reduzir o problema dos acidentes nesta rodovia é preciso estabelecer medidas de intervenção de caráter global, não focalizando ações somente na modificação do comportamento do condutor e na fiscalização, mas considerando questões regionais e suas dimensões econômicas, sociais e culturais.Transportation is essential to the economic development of Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and Federal Highway 163 is the main route for marketing regional agricultural produce. One unfortunate consequence of this activity is the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents. With the aim of analyzing and categorizing the main factors associated with motor vehicle accidents on this highway, the current study used data from the Mato Grosso State Division of the Brazilian Federal Highway Patrol for the year 2004. Factors significantly associated with accidents involving casualties were: substandard paving (OR = 1.89; CI: 1.32-2.70; front-end collisions (OR = 14.14; CI: 8.96-22.32; and running over pedestrians (OR = 35.95; CI: 8.10-159.52. Contributing factors included highway maintenance problems (OR = 4.35; CI: 1.94-9.75 and disobeying traffic signs (OR = 5.69; CI: 2.01-16.12. In conclusion, reduction of motor vehicle accidents on this highway requires comprehensive intervention rather than targeting measures only to drivers or highway patrol personnel, but considering regional issues and their economic, social, and cultural dimensions.

  11. Principais fatores associados à ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito na BR 163, Mato Grosso, Brasil, 2004 / Main factors associated with motor vehicle accidents on Federal Highway 163, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 2004

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lívia Victório de Carvalho, Almeida; Marta Gislene, Pignatti; Mariano Martinez, Espinosa.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O transporte é essencial para o desenvolvimento econômico de Mato Grosso, Brasil, sendo a BR 163 a principal rodovia de escoamento da produção agropecuária da região. Uma das conseqüências desta atividade é a ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito. Com o objetivo de analisar e categorizar os principais [...] fatores associados à ocorrência de acidentes nesta rodovia, foram utilizados dados da Superintendência de Polícia Rodoviária Federal referentes ao ano de 2004. Nos resultados, destacaram-se como fatores associados à maior chance de ocorrência de acidentes com vítimas (com significância estatística): a condição de rolamento regular (OR = 1,89; IC: 1,32-2,70); os acidentes do tipo colisão frontal (OR = 14,14; IC: 8,96-22,32) e atropelamento de pedestre (OR = 35,95; IC: 8,10-159,52); e os fatores contribuintes defeito na via (OR = 4,35; IC: 1,94-9,75) e desobediência à sinalização (OR = 5,69; IC: 2,01-16,12). Conclui-se que para reduzir o problema dos acidentes nesta rodovia é preciso estabelecer medidas de intervenção de caráter global, não focalizando ações somente na modificação do comportamento do condutor e na fiscalização, mas considerando questões regionais e suas dimensões econômicas, sociais e culturais. Abstract in english Transportation is essential to the economic development of Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and Federal Highway 163 is the main route for marketing regional agricultural produce. One unfortunate consequence of this activity is the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents. With the aim of analyzing and catego [...] rizing the main factors associated with motor vehicle accidents on this highway, the current study used data from the Mato Grosso State Division of the Brazilian Federal Highway Patrol for the year 2004. Factors significantly associated with accidents involving casualties were: substandard paving (OR = 1.89; CI: 1.32-2.70); front-end collisions (OR = 14.14; CI: 8.96-22.32); and running over pedestrians (OR = 35.95; CI: 8.10-159.52. Contributing factors included highway maintenance problems (OR = 4.35; CI: 1.94-9.75) and disobeying traffic signs (OR = 5.69; CI: 2.01-16.12). In conclusion, reduction of motor vehicle accidents on this highway requires comprehensive intervention rather than targeting measures only to drivers or highway patrol personnel, but considering regional issues and their economic, social, and cultural dimensions.

  12. An empirical investigation on factors influencing customer selection of ADSL services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical investigation on various factors affecting ADSL service selection in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed model of this paper uses a standard questionnaire and distributes it among randomly selected customers who have some experiences on internet based ADSL products. The study implements factor analysis as well as weighted regression technique to perform the study. There are eight hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper, which indicates the effects of product marketing, place and time of marketing mix, process-marketing mix, productivity and quality of marketing mix, people, promotion and education and physical evidence on customer choice. The results of factor analysis have confirmed the impacts of the first four factors but the effects of the other factor were not confirmed. In other words, the results of the survey have indicated that product marketing, place and time of marketing mix, process-marketing mix and productivity and quality of marketing mix influence customer choice. However, the other four components including people, promotion, price and physical evidence do not play essential role on customer choice.

  13. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background information for designing detailed studies that aim to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of breast cancer in the Cypriot population, including the study of gene-environment interactions. Furthermore, our study provides the first scientific evidence for formulating targeted campaigns for prevention and early diagnosis of breast cancer in Cyprus.

  14. Investigação de acidentes biológicos entre profissionais de saúde Investigación de accidentes biológicos entre los trabajadores de la salud Investigation of biological accidents among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Azevedo da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a principal categoria profissional exposta a risco biológico e os principais tipos de acidentes ocorridos entre trabalhadores da área de saúde, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. A partir da análise das fichas de notificação de acidentes biológicos dos 183 profissionais acidentados entre janeiro de 2005 e setembro de 2005, observamos que a categoria profissional mais exposta foi a dos auxiliares/técnicos de enfermagem (54,1%, seguida pela dos acadêmicos de medicina e odontologia (10,4%. A ocorrência de acidentes com materiais perfurocortantes foi relacionada à manipulação frequente desses objetos e ao comportamento dos profissionais que utilizam práticas que oferecem riscos de acidentes com agulhas, tais como o descarte inadequado de objetos perfurocortantes.El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las principales categorías profesional expuestas a riesgos biológicos y el principal tipo de accidentes producidos entre los profesionales del área de la salud en Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Del análisis de 183 archivos de los trabajadores que sufren accidentes con material biológico, de enero a septiembre de 2005, se observó que la categoría profesional más expuesta a sufrir accidentes fue el de los auxiliares de enfermería (54,1%, seguido por los estudiantes de odontología y medicina (10,4%. La de accidentes se relacionó con la manipulación frecuente de agujas, y con el comportamiento de los trabajadores, que mantienen prácticas que ofrecen riesgos, como la eliminación inadecuada de agujas.The aims of this study were to identify the major professional category exposed to biological risk and the principal type of accident occurred among health care workers in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Based on the analysis of 183 records filled out by the workers who suffered biohazardous accidents between January 2005 and September 2005, we found the nursing auxiliaries and technicians as the professional category more exposed to biohazardous accidents (54.1%, followed by undergraduate medical and dental students (10.4%. The occurence of acidents with piercing-cutting materials was related to frequent handling of these instruments, and to the behavior of workers who maintain practices providing risks of needlestick injuries, such as inappropriate disposal of piercing-cutting materials.

  15. Estudo médico-social dos fatores contribuintes para os acidentes das aeronaves executivas convencionais registrados entre 1971 e 1975, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: I - Época e hora da ocorrência e principal fator contribuinte / Medico-social study of factors related to aircraft accidents with light planes occurred during the period of 1971 to 1975, S. Paulo, Brazil: I - The month and hour of the occurrence and the principal contributing factor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Affonso Renato, Meira.

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Em estudo sobre os acidentes aeronáuticos ocorridos de 1971 à 1975 com aeronaves executivas convencionais na área do IV Comando Aéreo Regional, foram analisados diversos fatores contribuintes para esse fato. Foram examinados a época da ocorrência e o principal fator contribuinte, concluindo-se que o [...] período do dia em que se verificou maior número de acidentes foi à tarde entre 14 e 18 h., e que o fator operacional, devido ao piloto, está associado estatisticamente com a ocorrência dos acidentes. Não foi possível comprovar maior índice de ocorrência de acidentes com referência aos meses do ano. Abstract in english Studying the aircraft accidents occurred with light planes during the period of 1971 to 1975 in the area of the IV Comar in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, several factors related with accidents were analyzed. Among these the month and hour of the occurrence and the principal factor that contributed [...] to the accident were studied. It was found that the majorit of the aircraft accidents occurred from 2 P.M. to 6 P.M. and that the main factor that contributed to the occurrence of the accidents was linked with the pilots' attitudes. It was not possible to establish an association of the accident with the month of occurrence.

  16. Preliminary Investigation Of Emirati Women Entrepreneurship In The UAE Motivating Factors Challenges And Government Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rehan Shahnawaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this research is to conduct an in depth preliminary investigation of the Emirati Women Entrepreneurship in the UAE in terms of the factors motivating the Emirati women to engage in the entrepreneurial activities challenges and issues faced by them in that process and initiatives taken by the government of UAE in overcoming those challenges and in encouraging promoting and safeguarding their interests. Methodology This research is an exploratory one due to the fact that the topic of the research strongly requires an in depth analysis or investigation of the underlying motivating factors challenges and issues and the government initiatives taken on behalf of Emirati women entrepreneurs. The research has used qualitative content analysis technique in which the existing literature secondary data on women and Emirati women entrepreneurship was gathered and discussed to serve the purpose of the research such as from other published researches internet searches and books. DiscussionsFindings The research explored an array of factors motivating the Emirati women towards entrepreneurship and the challenges and issues they come across in that process. The motivating factors were divided into positive and negative factors with main emphasis on the positive factors. Among the positive motivating factors were the Emiratization change in the organizational culture and beliefs relaxation of social and cultural structures inde-pendence and self-improvement and development. The negative motivating factors were the necessity unacceptable working conditions inflexible work hours wage gap between males and females and job frustrations. The major challenges and issues they usually come across are traditions cultural religious and social restrictions lack of managerial experience and basic business knowledge low self-confidence and determination male prejudice stereotyping and preconception minimal networking gender based promotional decisions lack of interpersonal support from the husbands and family members family responsibilities and obligations and difficulties in accessing capital from the banks. Some of the UAE government initiatives taken on their behalf were the UAE Womens OrganizationsAssociations Emirates Business Women Councils EBWC Mohammad Bin Rashid Establishment for Young Business Leaders and Dubai Women Establishment. Overall its been found that the Emirati women have great potential to contribute successfully towards every profession but just because of the gender differences they experience innumerable challenges that restrict them to think big or develop a career for themselves in entrepreneurship or in some other field. The study will be of great significance on the behalf of Emirati women entrepreneurs as well as for the purpose of better policy formulation and initiatives.

  17. Investigation of steam generator cooling capability under the loss-of-RHR accident during the midloop operation of Yonggwang Nuclear Units 3/4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A loss of the residual heat removal (RHR) accident during mid-loop operation of Yong-gwang Nuclear Units 3/4 was analyzed using the best estimate code RELAPS/MOD3.1.2 and CATHARE2 V1.3u. In this work the following assumptions are used; (1) initially the reactor coolant system (RCS) above the hot leg center line is filled with nitrogen gas, (2) two 3/4-inch diameter vent valves on the reactor vessel head and the top of pressurizer in the reactor coolant system are always open, and a level indicator is connected to the RBR suction line, (3) the two steam generators are operated in wet lay-up status and the steam generator atmospheric dump valve assemblies are removed so that the secondary side pressure remains at nearly atmospheric condition throughout the accident, and (4) the loss of RHR is presumed to occur at 48 hours after reactor shutdown. Slightly different input models and initial conditions were used for the RELAP5 and CATHARE2 code, which turned out to entail large difference in the results. Overall findings are (1) the core boiling begins at ?5 min, (2) the peak RCS pressure is ?3.0 bar, which may lead to temporary seal break, (3) ?94% of the decay heat is removed by reflux condensation in the steam generator U-tubes in spite of the presence of noncondensable gas, (4) the core uncovery time is estimated to be 7.2 hours with a conservative approach. It was also found that, from the CATHARE sensitivity calculation, one steam generator is enough to remove the decay heat with slight increase of the RCS pressure. In the RELAP5 calculations, significant mass errors were observed

  18. Investigations on the safety of radioactive materials transport. Pt. 2. Modeling of the radiological consequences in the vicinity of an accident. Final report on the working package 2; Untersuchungen zur Sicherheit bei der Befoerderung radioaktiver Stoffe. T. 2. Modellierung radiologischer Folgen im Nahbereich eines Unfalls. Abschlussbericht zum Arbeitspaket 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Cornelia

    2014-08-15

    One aim of this project 3611R03300 was to analyse methods and procedures accord-ing to state-of-the-art technology concerning their applicability to assess the radiologi-cal consequences in the near vicinity of a transport accident. The analysis focusses on the dispersion models used for the airborne radionuclides released during an accident. In view of the large amount of simulations needed for a probabilistic assessment of the accident's radiological impact, simplified methods to calculate nuclide concentrations and deposition rates for the near vicinity were searched. Additionally, conservative fac-tors were determined to convert the results valid for 150 m distance to the accident, which was the shortest distance examined in the Transportstudie Konrad 2009, to the near vicinity (20 m distance).

  19. Severe Accident Research Program plan update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1989, the staff published NUREG-1365, ''Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan.'' Since 1989, significant progress has been made in severe accident research to warrant an update to NUREG-1365. The staff has prepared this SARP Plan Update to: (1) Identify those issues that have been closed or are near completion, (2) Describe the progress in our understanding of important severe accident phenomena, (3) Define the long-term research that is directed at improving our understanding of severe accident phenomena and developing improved methods for assessing core melt progression, direct containment heating, and fuel-coolant interactions, and (4) Reflect the growing emphasis in two additional areas--advanced light water reactors, and support for the assessment of criteria for containment performance during severe accidents. The report describes recent major accomplishments in understanding the underlying phenomena that can occur during a severe accident. These include Mark I liner failure, severe accident scaling methodology, source term issues, core-concrete interactions, hydrogen transport and combustion, TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project, and direct containment heating. The report also describes the major planned activities under the SARP over the next several years. These activities will focus on two phenomenological issues (core melt progression, and fuel-coolant interactions and debris coolability) that have significant uncertainties that impact our understanding and ability to predict severe accident phenomena and their effect on containment performance SARP will also focus on severe accident code development, assessment and validation. As the staff completes the research on severe accident issues that relate to current generation reactors, continued research will focus on efforts to independently evaluate the capability of new advanced light water reactor designs to withstand severe accidents

  20. The influence of the environmental and psychological factors of the Chernobyl' accident on the functional condition of regulatory hormone system in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional condition of the studied hormone systems (hormones in the periphery blood) in young men taken part in the accident liquidation and suffered from neuro-circulatory dystonia has been shown to have a number of peculiarities. In the bar period after leaving the 30-km zone the excess of adrenal cortex activity on the background of the impairment of the mechanism of the negative feedback in the hypothis-adrenal system has been registered. This fact is reflected in the state of the hormonal functions regulating the vessel tonus and hydrocarbon exchange resulting in the dystonia reaction of the hypertonia type. 12 refs.; 1 tab

  1. An analysis of the Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with a systematic analysis of the chain of events that took place during the Three Mile Island accident, the authors assess the significance of the four distinct phases of the accident. Inferences that can be drawn with respect to the safety of CANDU reactors are discussed. A rational reaction to the accident is suggested, and several factors are shown not to have played an important part, contrary to public impressions. The authors point out that over-reaction to the accident could detract from public safety. The Canadian response to the accident is discussed. (auth)

  2. Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J. [Dept. of Labor, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

  3. The effect of work accidents on the efficiency of production in the coal sector

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yasar, Kasap.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with other sectors, mining is one of the sectors with the highest rates of work accidents. Such accidents negatively affect a country's economy by wasting domestic resources and causing losses of both labour force and working days. What distinguishes mining from other branches of indus [...] try is that its working environments change continually and the working conditions are particularly harsh. Because of the practice of labour-intensive underground production methods, which leads to an increase in risk factors in terms of work accidents, and the fact that coal is a leading resource in meeting the ever-increasing demand for energy, this study investigated how work accidents affected the efficiency of production in the Turkish Hard Coal Enterprise (TTK) between 1987 and 2006. Using data envelopment analysis, the overall sources of technical inefficiency in the years examined were determined. The results from this analysis revealed that the overall technical efficiency was as low as 69.7%, particularly as a result of the disaster in 1992; work accidents therefore had a negative effect on production efficiency. The greatest degree of pure technical inefficiency was found to have occurred in the period between 1992 and 2000, when the highest number of work accidents were noted, whilst the greatest degree of scale inefficiency was found to have occurred between 1987 and 1993. Because TTK has a prominent position among institutions and attaches great importance to workers' health and safety, an increase was noted in efficiency scores after 1993.

  4. The effect of work accidents on the efficiency of production in the coal sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya?ar Kasap

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with other sectors, mining is one of the sectors with the highest rates of work accidents. Such accidents negatively affect a country’s economy by wasting domestic resources and causing losses of both labour force and working days. What distinguishes mining from other branches of industry is that its working environments change continually and the working conditions are particularly harsh. Because of the practice of labour-intensive underground production methods, which leads to an increase in risk factors in terms of work accidents, and the fact that coal is a leading resource in meeting the ever-increasing demand for energy, this study investigated how work accidents affected the efficiency of production in the Turkish Hard Coal Enterprise (TTK between 1987 and 2006. Using data envelopment analysis, the overall sources of technical inefficiency in the years examined were determined. The results from this analysis revealed that the overall technical efficiency was as low as 69.7%, particularly as a result of the disaster in 1992; work accidents therefore had a negative effect on production efficiency. The greatest degree of pure technical inefficiency was found to have occurred in the period between 1992 and 2000, when the highest number of work accidents were noted, whilst the greatest degree of scale inefficiency was found to have occurred between 1987 and 1993. Because TTK has a prominent position among institutions and attaches great importance to workers’ health and safety, an increase was noted in efficiency scores after 1993.

  5. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. The description focuses on the witness' own behavior, and what he saw and heard, and thus is written from the perspective of action by one individual. This was done simply because it was easier for the witness to write down his memories as he remembers them. Description of the activities of other organizations and people is provided only as necessary, to ensure that consistency in the descriptive approach is not lost. The essentials of this report were rewritten as a third-person objective description in the summary of the report by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). Since then, comments have been received from sources such as former members of the Nuclear Safety Commission (Dr. Kenji Sumita and Dr. Akira Kanagawa), concerned parties from the former Science and Technology Agency, and reports from the JCO Criticality Accident Investigation Committee of the AESJ, and thus this report was rewritten to correct incorrect information, and add material where that was felt to be necessary. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality accident. To mark this occasion we have decided to translate the record of what occurred at the accident site into English so that more people can draw lessons from this accident. This report is an English version of JAEA-Technology 2009-073. (author)

  6. Time trends in motorcycle accidents in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, A

    1983-03-01

    Motorcycle accidents constitute a major cause of death and disability among the young. This paper draws on routinely collected data to describe the trends for motorcycling and motorcycle accidents in Britain between 1951 and 1980. The level of risk (calculated as motorcyclist fatalities per motorcycle kilometre travelled) has fallen, but this effect has been overwhelmed by changes in motorcycle use. The paper discusses some of the factors that may have contributed to these time trends and concludes that accident prevention programmes should address the determinants of use as well as those of risk. PMID:6875448

  7. The West Jutland Study of Farm Accidents : A model for prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, DJ; Hansen, O N

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes the main elements of the West Jutland Study on the Prevention of Farm Accidents, that was presented in four separate papers al the 1996 Occupational Injury Symposium in Sydney, Australia. The objective of the study is to develop and conduct an intervention on the basis of an initial investigation of risk factors, aimed at reducing the number of occupational accidents in a randomly selected, representative sample of Danish farms. The article focuses on the underlying model used in the study, the methods and design employed, and the form and content of the intervention that is currently underway. Results will be presented at a later date. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. The social and psychological aspects of the ChNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions and the life style of the population living on the controlled areas and of the accident-result lequidators have been studied. As a base for the investigation the conception of the life style was taken into consideration as a factor forming the health. The process of forming a new artificial social and ecological focus characterized by the changes in the inhabitance among the population, the destruction of the routine life style, the high risk radiation incidence, the increase of the migration, the poor health has been found out to be taking place in the regions exposed to the ChNPP accident. 5 refs

  9. Radiological accident 'The Citadel' medical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work exposes the medical actions carried out in the mitigation of the consequences of the accident and its main results. In a facility of storage of radioactive waste in Caracas, Venezuela, it was happened a radiological accident. This event caused radioactive contamination of the environment, as well as the irradiation and radioactive contamination of at least 10 people involved in the fact, in its majority children. Cuban institutions participated in response to the accident. Among the decisions adopted by the team of combined work Cuban-Venezuelan, we find the one of transferring affected people to Cuba, for their dosimetric and medical evaluation. Being designed a work strategy to develop the investigations to people affected by the radiological accident, in correspondence with the circumstances, magnitude and consequences of the accident. The obtained main results are: 100% presented affectations in its health, not associate directly to the accident, although the accident influenced in its psychological state. In 3 of studied people they were detected radioactive contamination with Cesium -137 with dose among 2.01 X 10-4 Sv up to 2.78 X 10-4 Sv. This accident demonstrated the necessity to have technical capacities to face these events and the importance of the international solidarity. (author)

  10. Factors Affecting Buying Behavior of an Apartment an Empirical Investigation in Amman, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwfeq Haddad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the main factors that influencing the customers' buying behavior toward apartment, and tried to identify the most influencing factors that affect buying. A convenience sample consists of 120 persons who already bought an apartment in different areas in Amman. One sample ttest, independent sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used in testing the hypotheses. This study found that respondents would significantly adopt the main constructs when buying residential apartments, including aesthetic, economic, marketing, geographic, and social constructs. And the study concluded that there were significant differences in decision making regarding buying residential apartments according to the sample gender and Age. And there were significant differences in the respondents answer due to age and there were no significant differences according to the marital status or educational level.

  11. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Purchase of Comprehensive Car Insurance Policies of Vehicle Owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan EYGÜ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive insurance is the coverage purchased by the individuals in exchange for the premiums paid for insuring their movable properties against the damages caused by either their or others’ faults. Comprehensive insurance is generally rooted in the automotive sector and its applications are generally designed for this sector. Vehicle owners buy their vehicles according to their tastes using a considerable part of their savings. Purchasing of a comprehensive car insurance policy means that the purchaser is transferring the costs borne by the risks to be occurred related to his or her vehicle to the insurance company. Thus, the vehicle is insured against any costs arise in case of any damage. This study were examined to investigate the comprehensive car insurance policy ownership ratio of vehicle owners, factors that may be affecting the ownership of such policies, opinions of policy owners on the insurance company providing the coverage and the factors affecting the decision of not purchasing comprehensive car insurance policies.

  12. An investigation on important factors influencing customer repurchase: A case study of Airline agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Rahimi Shamsabadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been an increase trend on purchasing via internet, which indicates a steady growth on this internet service. There are different advantages on e-purchase services such as availability of usage, fast and reliable services, etc. The purpose of this survey is to investigate on different influencing factors on customer's fidelity on purchasing air ticket from different agencies located in Tehran, Iran. The Cronbach Alpha validates our results. The proposed conceptual model of this paper is estimated using multi-variable regression model and the results indicate that direct factors influence customer satisfaction, significantly. The results indicate that while customer perception does not have any relationship with repurchase but it has direct relationship with customer's perception and trust.

  13. An Investigation of Social Factors Affecting on Personnel Job Satisfaction of Remedial Service Insurance Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Yaser Ebrahimian Jolodar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the paramount importance of job satisfaction and due to its main consequences such as reduction of work absence and resignation, personnel promotion and society?s health, and more importantly, its role in achievement of organization goals, this study aimed at investigating the effects of six social factors including personnel?s belief, salary and benefits, participation in organizational decision-making, sense of job security, interaction with colleagues and meeting the basic needs of personnel on job satisfaction. The statistical population of this study was the personnel of Remedial Service Insurance Department in Sari and the questionnaire was distributed among them. The results showed that there is a significant and positive correlation among all these factors and they have meaningful effects on personnel job satisfaction based on multiple regression analysis. Furthermore, findings revealed that personnel?s belief about their job has the most effects on job satisfaction.

  14. Single molecule fluorescence methodologies for investigating transcription factor binding kinetics to nucleosomes and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; North, Justin A; Poirier, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    Site specific DNA binding complexes must bind their DNA target sites and then reside there for a sufficient amount of time for proper regulation of DNA processing including transcription, replication and DNA repair. In eukaryotes, the occupancy of DNA binding complexes at their target sites is regulated by chromatin structure and dynamics. Methodologies that probe both the binding and dissociation kinetics of DNA binding proteins with naked and nucleosomal DNA are essential for understanding the mechanisms by which these complexes function. Here, we describe single-molecule fluorescence methodologies for quantifying the binding and dissociation kinetics of transcription factors at a target site within DNA, nucleosomes and nucleosome arrays. This approach allowed for the unexpected observation that nucleosomes impact not only binding but also dissociation kinetics of transcription factors and is well-suited for the investigation of numerous DNA processing complexes that directly interact with DNA organized into chromatin. PMID:25304387

  15. Investigation of functional gastrointestinal disorders and their related factors in rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ying WANG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective?To investigate the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs in the rural population. Methods?A questionnaire survey was carried out in six villages of Lankao county in Henan Province, using the Rome ? criteria, to assess the prevalence of FGIDs, and to analyze the FGID-related risk factors, using self-rating anxiety scale (SAS and self-rating depression scale (SDS to assess their risk factors. Results?A total of 3032 residents (male 1531, female 1501 were investigated with mean age of 42.5±16.8 years. Among the residents surveyed, 282(9.30% were diagnosed with FGIDs. The prevalence of the complaints showed that functional heartburn (1.99%, functional dyspepsia (1.85%, non-specific functional gastrointestinal disorders (1.76% and irritable bowel syndrome (1.58% ranked the highest in above order. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of FGIDs between female (10.26% and male (8.36%, P?0.05. The prevalence rate of FGID increased with the increase of age, and reached the peak in the people with age over 60 years (18.58%, P?0.001. Statistical analysis indicated that smoking might be associated with FGIDs, accounting 12.76% in smoking people and 8.79% in non-smoking people (P < 0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that FGIDs might involve the following risk factors, including advanced age, irregular eating habit, with a preference of eating raw or cold foods, cold drinking, anxiety and depression (P < 0.05. Conclusions?The prevalence rate of FGIDs in these areas is lower than that reported elsewhere. Age and unhealthy life style might be the risk factors of FGIDs. The psychologic disorders such as anxiety and depression were also associated with people suffering from FGIDs.

  16. Vehicle accidents related to sleep: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Horne, J.; Reyner, L

    1999-01-01

    Falling asleep while driving accounts for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents under monotonous driving conditions. Many of these accidents are related to work--for example, drivers of lorries, goods vehicles, and company cars. Time of day (circadian) effects are profound, with sleepiness being particularly evident during night shift work, and driving home afterwards. Circadian factors are as important in determining driver sleepiness as is the duration of the drive, but only ...

  17. Time trends in motorcycle accidents in Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, A.

    1983-01-01

    Motorcycle accidents constitute a major cause of death and disability among the young. This paper draws on routinely collected data to describe the trends for motorcycling and motorcycle accidents in Britain between 1951 and 1980. The level of risk (calculated as motorcyclist fatalities per motorcycle kilometre travelled) has fallen, but this effect has been overwhelmed by changes in motorcycle use. The paper discusses some of the factors that may have contributed to these time trends and con...

  18. Investigation of Factors Influencing the Precipitation of Iron Oxides from Fe(II) Containing Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Goti?, Marijan; Musi?, Svetozar; Popovi?, Stanko; Sekovani?, Lavoslav

    2008-01-01

    Factors that influence the precipitation of iron oxides from Fe(II) containing solutions were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, (57)Fe Mossbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, FE SEM and EDS techniques. Near spherical aggregates of spindle-shape goethite particles were obtained by oxidation of 0.1 mol dm(-3) FeSO(4) solution (suspension) with pure oxygen at 90 degrees C. Wide and thin goethite particles elongated along the crystallographic c-axis were formed in parallel. With the addition ...

  19. Investigating the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief)

    OpenAIRE

    Toll, Benjamin A.; Katulak, Nicole A.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the proposed two-factor structure of the 10-item Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief) and to provide evidence for the psychometric properties of this questionnaire using the seven-point scoring set from the original QSU study [Tiffany, S.T., Drobes, D.J. (1991). The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges. British Journal of Addiction 86, 1467–1476.]. The study sample (N =576) was comprised of smokers presenting...

  20. Concerning the structure of occupational accidents involving construction workers in the erection of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of 561 occupational accidents involving construction workers which took place during the construction of nuclear power plants failed to show any significant deviation in comparison with general construction as regards process classification, classification of accidents according to occupation and situation, and accidents severity. Occupational accidents which are typial for nuclear power plant construction are a rare exception. (orig.)

  1. Experience and lessons learned from emergency disposal of Fukushima nuclear power station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Fukushima nuclear accident, we visited the related medical aid agencies for nuclear accidents and conducted investigations in disaster-affected areas in Japan. This article summarizes the problems with emergency disposal of Fukushima nuclear accident while disclosing problems should be solved during the emergency force construction for nuclear accidents. (authors)

  2. The Chernobyl Accident: About the Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    On April 26, 1986 an accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The accident happened during a routine test, intended to demonstrate how long the turbines would spin after a power loss. Prior to the test, the automatic shutdown mechanisms were disabled. Coolant water was reduced and the power output was increased. The operator tried to shut down the reactor but a flaw in the design caused a large power surge.

  3. Factors associated with providing social security benefits for traumatic brain injury resulting from occupational accidents / Fatores associados à concessão de benefício previdenciário por traumatismo cranioencefálico decorrente de acidente de trabalho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denismar Borges de, Miranda; Rita Franco, Rego; Denise Nunes, Viola; Verônica Maria Cadena, Lima; Edriene Barros, Teixeira.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Acidente de Trabalho (AT) é considerado um importante agravo à saúde do trabalhador no Brasil, sendo o Traumatismo Cranioencefálico (TCE) o mais comum dentre eles. O TCE está associado a altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade entre trabalhadores. OBJETIVO: Verificar os fatores as [...] sociados à concessão de benefícios previdenciários por TCE decorrentes de acidente de trabalho de acordo com o ramo de atividade econômica específica, no Brasil, em 2009. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo epidemiológico de corte transversal que foi conduzido com todos os trabalhadores que integram o Regime Geral da Previdência Social (RGPS) do Brasil. Dados secundários foram obtidos do Sistema Único de Informações de Benefícios, do Cadastro Sincronizado Nacional do Ministério da Fazenda e do Cadastro Geral de Empregados e Desempregados e analisados utilizando-se regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 2.006 casos de benefícios previdenciários por TCE decorrentes de AT no Brasil, e identificaram-se fatores associados à concessão do benefício diferenciados de acordo com a seção da Classificação Nacional de Atividades Econômicas à qual o beneficiário estava vinculado. Foram encontradas associações com o sexo, a renda e a região da empresa. CONCLUSÃO: Os fatores associados à concessão de benefícios previdenciários por TCE decorrentes de AT diferem a depender da CNAE em estudo. A compreensão desses fatores poderá contribuir com o planejamento de políticas públicas de caráter preventivo. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The Occupational Accident (OA) is considered to be an important public health problem in Brazil. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the most common among them. The TBI is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates among workers. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with [...] providing social security benefits for TBI due to occupational accidents according to the specific type of economic activity in Brazil, in 2009. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted with all workers who were part of the General Regime of Social Security (RGPS) of Brazil. Secondary data were obtained from the National Information System Benefit, from the Synchronized National Register of the Ministry of Finance and from the General Register of Employed and Unemployed Persons. Data were analyzed using the multiple logistic regression method. RESULTS: We analyzed 2,006 cases of social security benefits for traumatic brain injury due to Occupational Accident. Factors associated with the concession of the benefit according to the economic activity of the Company of the beneficiary were identified. Associations were found with sex, income and the region of the Company. CONCLUSION: Factors associated with the concession of social security benefits by TBI resulting from OA differ depending on the type of economic activity in the study. Understanding these factors may contribute to the planning of preventive policies.

  4. Fatores ergonômicos de risco e de proteção contra acidentes de trabalho: um estudo caso-controle / Ergonomic risk and protection factors from health accidents: a case-control study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raphael Mendonça, Guimarães; Maria Yvone Chaves, Mauro; René, Mendes; André Oliveira de, Melo; Tatiana Fernandes da, Costa.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estudar a relação entre os acidentes ocupacionais e os riscos ergonômicos no âmbito da organização do processo de trabalho de Enfermagem. Foi utilizado o método epidemiológico e um desenho de estudos caso-controle. O universo de estudo foram enfermarias do servi [...] ço de enfermagem clínica do Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto (HUPE), localizado no município do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram analisados com o programa Epi-Info 2004®, onde foram comparados, através de uma análise de odds ratio, os fatores estudados em um grupo controle de não acidentados e um grupo de estudo de acidentados. Obtivemos, como resultado, variáveis que foram classificadas por grupos de risco e proteção, de acordo com os valores de medidas encontrados. Foram considerados fatores de risco: divisão de tarefas insatisfatórias, concentração de atividades excessiva, acúmulo de divisão de tarefas, atividades de crescimento profissional, ocupação total da carga horária durante a jornada de trabalho. Como fatores de proteção: pausas durante o trabalho, disponibilidade de EPI, utilização de EPI, compatibilidade entre o cargo e o maior nível de formação, retorno da chefia quanto ao desempenho exercido e realização profissional. Abstract in english The research aimed to study the relationship between occupational accidents and ergonomic risks in the nursing work process. The epidemiological method was used with a case-control design. The research site was the clinical ward of Pedro Ernesto Academic Hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were analyze [...] d with Epi-Info 2004®. Factors in the case group of workers who had an accident and the control group of workers who did not have an accident were compared through odds ratio. As results, we attained variables classified into risk groups and protection groups, according to the measurements found.

  5. Factors controlling radiocesium distribution in river sediments: Field and laboratory studies after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Kd of 137Cs were not only related to particle size but also to clay mineral content. • 137Cs can be extracted from sediments in water when salinity becomes high. • RCs in sediments will be equilibrated with stable Cs during its transportation. - Abstract: This study used laboratorial estimations and determined the distribution coefficient (Kd) of 137Cs in river sediments sampled from the Abukuma River and the Kuchibuto River to investigate the particle size dependence of RCs distribution. Results show that the Kd patterns of 137Cs (particle size-dependence of Kd) were not only related to the particle size of large particles (low clay mineral content) but also to the clay mineral content of small particles (high clay mineral content) and particularly cation concentration in aqueous phase. By contrast, the Kd patterns of stable Cs (133Cs) exhibited no obvious particle size dependence. Adsorption species of Cs that was added to the river sediments at various particle sizes was almost the same at the molecular scale as determined by the extended X-ray absorption fine structure. Our findings indicate that river sediments have high fixation ability to 137Cs. Nevertheless, adsorbed 137Cs can be extracted from sediments in the water phase when salinity becomes high, such as that in seawater. The distribution patterns of 137Cs at various particle sizes can slowly down the equilibrium of the adsorption of 137Cs during the transportation of river sediments, and then the behavior of 137Cs should eventually be similar to that of stable Cs in the river system. Therefore, the particle size of sediments is an important factor in the distribution of RCs at the early stage of its deposition. In the end, RCs adsorbed on the sediments will be equilibrated with the stable Cs during its transportation in the river system. Controlling factors such as the mineralogy of sediments could possibly make the distribution patterns of RCs similar to that of stable Cs in the long run

  6. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMIRI, Mehran; ARDESHIR, Abdollah; FAZEL ZARANDI, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011. Methods The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA), Total Severity Index (TSI), and Risk Factor (RF) were defined. The core of this work is devoted to analyzing the data from different perspectives such as age of workers, occupation and construction phase, day of the week, time of the day, seasonal analysis, regional considerations, type of accident, and body parts affected. Results Workers between 15-19 years old (TAR=13.4%) are almost six times more exposed to risk of accident than the average of all ages (TAR=2.51%). Laborers and structural workers (TAR=66.6%) and those working at heights (TAR=47.2%) experience more accidents than other groups of workers. Moreover, older workers over 65 years old (TSI=1.97%> average TSI=1.60%), work supervisors (TSI=12.20% >average TSI=9.09%), and night shift workers (TSI=1.89% >average TSI=1.47%) are more prone to severe accidents. Conclusion It is recommended that laborers, young workers, weekend and night shift workers be supervised more carefully in the workplace. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be compulsory in working environments, and special attention should be undertaken to people working outdoors and at heights. It is also suggested that policymakers pay more attention to the improvement of safety conditions in deprived and cold western regions. PMID:26005662

  7. The prevalence of abnormal results of annual investigations among diabetic patients with different risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic theme of this study was to promote the use of risk approach and encourage selectively in requesting laboratory investigations. The objective was to estimate the proportion of abnormal results obtained from routinely requested annual investigations among the whole study population and the odds ratio of abnormal test results among patients with certain risk factors. A total of 459 diabetic patients aged 12 years and over, attending the primary care clinics of a university hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were included in this study. In this cross-sectional study, analysis of associations between patient's demographic characteristics and clinical findings (independent variables), and the results of annual investigations were conducted. A multiple logistic regression analysis was carried to identify certain independent variables associated with abnormal investigations. The proportion of patients who had abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) was 23%, chest X-ray (CXR) 26% and liver function test (LFT) 9%. High systolic blood pressure (BP) and age were found to be important determinants of abnormal ECG and CXR. Patients who had high systolic BP (>140mm Hg) were found to be 2.39 times more likely to have abnormal ECG (OR=2.39), and their odds ratio of abnormal CXR was 2.33. Furthermore, for each 10-year increment in age, there was a 43% increased likelihood of abnormal ECG and 295 increase of abnormal CXR. Smokers were nine times more likely to have abnormal LFT (OR=9.26, 95% CI=2.29 tp 37.5). The disease duration and obesity were not found to have and independent association with the possibility of having abnormal results. The study results led to some tentative suggestions on guidelines for clinicians in their decision either to request annual investigations for all diabetic patients, or to restrict some investigations to certain group of patients. This was discussed and compared with the findings from the literature and other authorities recommendations. (author)

  8. Seminar Investigation of the effect of anthropogenic factors on water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present CD contains 59 presentations, presented on the seminar Investigation of the anthropogenic factors effect on water systems, held in Bratislava, Slovakia, 23-24 April 2003. The content of this Proceedings is divided into thematic groups: Precipitation, Global Climatic Changes, Rainfall-runoff Modelling, design Values; Quality of Water in Water streams; River Basin Management; Water Retention in River Basins, Effect of Forests, Urban Areas, River Training; Hydraulic Modelling of Flood Flow, Flood Plain Areas, Flood Maps; Sediment Transport in relation with Flood Discharges; Diffuse Sources of Pollution, Point Sources in River Basin; Surface Water and Groundwater Interaction; GIS Utilization for Problem Solution. Water management indirectly influences by its activities the social and economic development of Slovakia. Water as raw material for drinking water production as well as vital liquid and raw material enter almost all manufacturing processes. But water become also a destructive element that hit different locations of Slovak territory and cause damages on people and live animals as well as material damages. In economic utilizing of water and handling water, drainage and treatment, the principle of minimising negative impacts on the environment must be exercised having in mind sustaining, in for the future generations.Water management is struggling with a number of problems at the moment. The project Investigation of the anthropogenic factors effect on water systems is aiming to solve the most important issues like are surface and subsurface run, retention capacity of river basin. quality of surface and ground water, water interaction and other

  9. Investigating the effects of Iranian cultural factors on brand equity for strategic management of market share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jahandoost

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Brand is a symbol, logo and indicator of the specific identity of a product manufacturer and the services they render which can create value for both the manufacturer itself and the customers of those products and services. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between Iranian cultural factors with those creating brand value in this industry. The proposed study chooses Philpa System Co. as statistical population and the subject for our case study. The study chooses 56 people who had some past purchase experience from Philpa System as samples. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among the participants. The validity of which was confirmed through depth interviews made with experts of the pertinent industry and its reliability was also calculated using Cronbach's alpha test and was shown to be 82.4 %, which indicated the good reliability of these questionnaires. The data obtained from these questionnaires were analyzed using path analysis and structural equation modeling methods. The results gained from the investigations showed that different aspects of Iranian cultural factors, specifically customer honoring, had the greatest effect on the quality of customers’ perception from the brand; it was also shown that promotion in any of the other aspects presented in Aaker’s brand equity model will directly influence and increase the perceived quality of the brand.

  10. Severe accident issues raised by the Fukushima accident and improvements suggested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper revisits the Fukushima accident to draw lessons in the aspect of nuclear safety considering the fact that the Fukushima accident resulted in core damage for three nuclear power plants simultaneously and that there is a high possibility of a failure of the integrity of reactor vessel and primary containment vessel. A brief review on the accident progression at Fukushima nuclear power plants is discussed to highlight the nature and characteristic of the event. As the severe accident management measures at the Fukushima Daiich nuclear power plants seem to be not fully effective, limitations of current severe accident management strategy are discussed to identify the areas for the potential improvements including core cooling strategy, containment venting, hydrogen control, depressurization of primary system, and proper indication of event progression. The gap between the Fukushima accident event progression and current understanding of severe accident phenomenology including the core damage, reactor vessel failure, containment failure, and hydrogen explosion are discussed. Adequacy of current safety goals are also discussed in view of the socio-economic impact of the Fukushima accident. As a conclusion, it is suggested that an investigation on a coherent integrated safety principle for the severe accident and development of innovative mitigation features is necessary for robust and resilient nuclear power system.

  11. Severe accident issues raised by the Fukushima accident and improvements suggested

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Tae Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    This paper revisits the Fukushima accident to draw lessons in the aspect of nuclear safety considering the fact that the Fukushima accident resulted in core damage for three nuclear power plants simultaneously and that there is a high possibility of a failure of the integrity of reactor vessel and primary containment vessel. A brief review on the accident progression at Fukushima nuclear power plants is discussed to highlight the nature and characteristic of the event. As the severe accident management measures at the Fukushima Daiich nuclear power plants seem to be not fully effective, limitations of current severe accident management strategy are discussed to identify the areas for the potential improvements including core cooling strategy, containment venting, hydrogen control, depressurization of primary system, and proper indication of event progression. The gap between the Fukushima accident event progression and current understanding of severe accident phenomenology including the core damage, reactor vessel failure, containment failure, and hydrogen explosion are discussed. Adequacy of current safety goals are also discussed in view of the socio-economic impact of the Fukushima accident. As a conclusion, it is suggested that an investigation on a coherent integrated safety principle for the severe accident and development of innovative mitigation features is necessary for robust and resilient nuclear power system.

  12. Investigation of Particle-Size Distribution and Friction Factor for a Gravel-Bed river: Marbar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreizi Z

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of flow and sediment size distribution in gravel –bed Rivers has been the pivotal attention of many researchers for more than three decades. The surface grain size of gravel and cobble-bed rivers re?ects the caliber and volume of sediment that is supplied to the channel and magnitude of discharge events that are capable of moving sediment. Also, defining friction factor, the relationship between the mean shear velocity and the mean flow velocity in rivers, has been a central problem in river studies for a very long time, but it continues to defy a complete analytical solution. Most of rivers in Zagros Mountains located in the central Iran consist of gravel and cobble-bed Rivers showing very difficult flow measurements and various grain size distributions. In this paper, two reaches were selected to investigate the particle-size distribution and friction factor estimation of Marbar River. The results showed that particles stability in pools is due to their larger median diameter in comparison to riffles. The contribution of form friction factor is more important than skin friction in Marbar river.

  13. Factors Influencing Students’ Acceptance of M-Learning: An Investigation in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Abu-Al-Aish

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available M-learning will play an increasingly significant role in the development of teaching and learning methods for higher education. However, the successful implementation of m-learning in higher education will be based on users’ acceptance of this technology. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to study the factors that affect university students’ intentions to accept m-learning. Based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT (Venkatesh et al., 2003, this study proposes a model to identify the factors that influence the acceptance of m-learning in higher education and to investigate if prior experience of mobile devices affects the acceptance of m-learning. A structural equation model was used to analyse the data collected from 174 participants. The results indicate that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, influence of lecturers, quality of service, and personal innovativeness were all significant factors that affect behavioural intention to use m-learning. Prior experience of mobile devices was also found to moderate the effect of these constructs on behavioural intention. The results of this research extend the UTAUT in the context of m-learning acceptance by adding quality of service and personal innovativeness to the structure of UTAUT and provide practitioners and educators with useful guidelines for designing a successful m-learning system.

  14. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  15. Identification and evaluation of accident sequences in nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic analysis techniques are being more and more used for the evaluation of accident progression in nuclear power plants, especially after the issue of the Reactor Safety Study (Report WASH-1400). This study and subsequent discussions have indicated the necessity of better investigating some major items, namely: adequate data base for the probabilistic evaluations; completeness of the analysis with respect both to accident initiation and behaviour; adequate treatment of uncertainties on the physical and operational parameters governing the accident behaviour. Furthermore, recent occurrences have stressed the importance of the operational aspects of reactor safety, such as plant-specific identification of possible occurrences, their prompt recognition, on-line prediction of subsequent developments and actions to be taken. The paper reviews the contributions in progress at JRC-Ispra to all these aspects, and specifically reports on the following: (1) The set-up of a European Reliability Data System for the acquisition and organisation of operational data of LWRs in the European Community. (2) The development of more complete and realistic models of systems. This work includes multistate static models of components and systems with a view to automatic fault-tree construction and dynamic models for accident sequence identification. The dynamic modelling approach ESCS (Event Sequence and Consequences Spectrum), shown in detail with an example, represents a step forward with respect to event-tree technique and opens new possibilities in dealing with human factors and on-line diagnosis problems. (3) The development of RSM (Response Surface Methodology) for the analysis of uncertainty propagations in consequence and in probability of accident chains. (author)

  16. Potential Regulatory Use of New Accident Source Term Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accident release estimates have been used in the regulatory process for more than two decades. Many parts of the process are based upon release assumptions contained in the 1962 document 'Calculation of Distance Factors for Power and Test Reactor Sites', which forms the basis for 10 CSFR 100, as well as those based upon the more recent 1975 'Reactor Safety Study' risk estimates. Examples of regulatory used of TID-14844 include containment performance, environmental qualification of equipment, air filtration and other fission product mitigation systems, accident monitoring onsite and offsite and siting. Examples of regulatory uses of WASH-1400 release estimates include emergency planning, evaluating offsite impacts and risks for such uses as Environmental Impact Statements, assessing offsite contamination and recovery, evaluating standard plant designs, and investigating new regulatory requirements. In carrying out the Severe Accident Policy Implementation Program, the U. S. NRC staff expects to propose a number of changes to rules as well as other changes in regulatory practice. These changes could arise from research regarding radioactivity releases under severe accident conditions, as well as other insights expected to be gained through the evaluation of severe accidents. A number of changes in rules and regulatory practices can be expected from our improved understanding arising from the extensive conditions. The implementation of such changes may require a capability to perform source term calculations, selection of a regulatory principle, or framework, in connection with evaluation of plants beyond the current design basis, development of new forms of source terms, and revision of the affected rules and other regulatory practices

  17. A preliminary factor analytic investigation into the firstorder factor structure of the Fifteen Factor Plus (15FQ+ on a sample of Black South African managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seretse Moyo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The Fifteen Factor Questionnaire Plus (15FQ+ is a prominent personality questionnaire that organisations frequently use in personnel selection in South Africa.Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to undertake a factor analytic investigation of the first-order factor structure of the 15FQ+.Motivation for the study: The construct validity of the 15FQ+, as a measure of personality, is necessary even though it is insufficient to justify its use in personnel selection.Research design, approach and method: The researchers evaluated the fit of the measurement model, which the structure and scoring key of the 15FQ+ implies, in a quantitative study that used an ex post facto correlation design through structural equation modelling. They conducted a secondary data analysis. They selected a sample of 241 Black South African managers from a large 15FQ+ database.Main findings: The researchers found good measurement model fit. The measurement model parameter estimates were worrying. The magnitude of the estimated model parameters suggests that the items generally do not reflect the latent personality dimensions the designers intended them to with a great degree of precision. The items are reasonably noisy measures of the latent variables they represent.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should use the 15FQ+ carefully on Black South African managers until further local research evidence becomes available.Contribution/value-add: The study is a catalyst to trigger the necessary additional research we need to establish convincingly the psychometric credentials of the 15FQ+ as a valuable assessment tool in South Africa.

  18. Modeling consequences of the accident at Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuermann, W.; Piater, A.; Krass, C.; Lurk, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme; Wilbois, T.; Ren, Y. [T-Systems GEI GmbH, Ulm (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    The reactor accident in Fukushima Daiichi caused by one of the heaviest earthquakes in recent history and the disastrous tsunami at 11 March 2011 has, especially in Germany, aroused again the discussion about the risks of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and the safety of nuclear power plants. Within this context it is also discussed how the operating company and the regulator authorities react, which actions they take to secure people and how believable their statements are. Taking this into account it seems reasonable to investigate, on the basis of this accident, how useful the tools, developed after the Chernobyl accident, can be applied to assist the decision makers. (orig.)

  19. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  20. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  1. Injury rates and injury risk factors among federal bureau of investigation new agent trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapik Joseph J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors were acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire and existing data at the FBI Academy. Results A total of 426 men and 105 women participated in the project. Thirty-five percent of men and 42% of women experienced one or more injuries during training. The injury incidence rate was 2.5 and 3.2 injuries/1,000 person-days for men and women, respectively (risk ratio (women/men = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.7. The activities most commonly associated with injuries (% of total were defensive tactics training (58%, physical fitness training (20%, physical fitness testing (5%, and firearms training (3%. Among the men, higher injury risk was associated with older age, slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the physical fitness test (PFT, lower self-rated physical activity, lower frequency of aerobic exercise, a prior upper or lower limb injury, and prior foot or knee pain that limited activity. Among the women higher injury risk was associated with slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the PFT, and prior back pain that limited activity. Conclusion The results of this investigation supported those of a previous retrospective investigation emphasizing that lower fitness and self-reported pain limiting activity were associated with higher injury risk among FBI new agents.

  2. An Investigation of Factors Influencing Design Team Attributes in Green Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Elforgani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Buildings contribute significantly global environmental problems. Better design can minimize these impacts. Design Green Building (DGB aims to reduce buildings' impact on the environment. However, the green design performance depends on design team attributes. In addition, the Governance System (GS and Client Quality (CQ as external factors have influence on Design Team Attributes (DTA of green building. Approach: To identify mentioned factors questionnaire survey was conducted to collect dada required. A sample of 277 respondents has been covered under the study, including architects and engineers practicing design and consultancy building sectors. Analysis data includes descriptive and quantitative analysis by using SSPS software version 16 was carried out. A correlation and regression models was established to explore the relationship between identified factors. Results: Architect is most involved one during the design process of green buildings with mean 4.82 followed by mechanical and electrical engineers with mean 4.52 and 4.44 respectively, while structural and civil engineers, interior designers and quantity survivors were 3.71, 3.29 and 2.88 respectively. The most design team attributes were investigated have a significance degree of influence except design team reputation. On the other hand, the other hand, the Governance system and client quality have major influence on these attributes. Conclusion: Involvement and participation of a ll project stakeholders are required. Design team attributes are the key factors to improve green design performance. Governance system and client quality play major role to enhance design team attributes. Therefore, effective regulations and policies may increase performance of the green Effective design team management device should be applied to implement Design team attributes effectively in order to improve green design team performance.

  3. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  4. Radiation accident in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily due to a lack of safety systems although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

  5. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathways of 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs from the Chernobyl fallout to man were followed in the county of Vaesterbotten, Sweden. Reported airplane measurements had shown that the ground deposition of 137Cs was 3-40 kBq/m2 with hot spots with more than 80 kBq/m2. Multiplying with a factor of 0.6 gave the 134Cs deposition and an approximate factor of 20 the 131I ground deposition. The effective dose equivalent from 131I became low, 137Cs activity concentration in different types of food was measured in approximately 8000 samples. The most important sources of Cs intake in man were lake fish, elk (European moose) and reindeer. Variations with time was studied in detail for four types of lake fish. Whole-body measurements on more than 250 persons showed that no group of people on average received more than 1 mSv from food during the first year after the Chernobyl accident. However, single persons eating large amounts of reindeer meat received up to 2.5 mSv. People buying all their food in ordinary provision-shops got less than 0.1 mSv from the food during the first year. The present level of 90Sr activity concentration in man will only give an effective dose equivalent of 0.004 mSv/year, most of it being a result of the atmospheric nuclear bomb tests. (orig.)

  6. Post-accident heat removal: Numerical and experimental simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We analyze PAHR issues of FBR through experimental and numerical methodology. • This paper highlights findings of series of experiments in U–Na and simulant under melt conditions. • Critical parameters for molten fuel jet breakup and fragmentation are investigated. -- Abstract: Post-accident heat removal (PAHR) after severe accident in nuclear reactors plays a vital role to ensure public safety by effectively cooling fragmented core debris within the primary boundary. Design and implementation of multiple safety features demand thorough understanding of the sequences involved in accident progression. The key factors influencing PAHR are molten fuel coolant interaction and grid plate melt through, followed by relocation of fragmented fuel and structural materials settling on the core catcher in the form of debris below the core. The present work is focused on experimental and numerical investigation of melt fragmentation and settlement, morphological characteristics of debris, and finally heat removal from the debris bed via dedicated decay heat removal system. Series of dedicated experimental facilities have been setup in stages and preliminary trials are being conducted to generate the database for development and validation of numerical models, to be used for safety analysis of reactor systems. This paper also discusses preliminary experimental results and comparisons of data with numerical findings

  7. Post-accident heat removal: Numerical and experimental simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sanjay Kumar, E-mail: skd@igcar.gov.in [Safety Engineering Division, Reactor Design Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Sharma, Anil Kumar; Hemanth Rao, E.; Anandan, J.; Avinash, C.H.S.S.; Kondala Rao, R.; Murthy, S.S.; Malarvizhi, B.; Lydia, G.; Kumaresan, M.; Ponraju, D.; Nashine, B.K. [Safety Engineering Division, Reactor Design Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Chellapandi, P. [Reactor Design Group (RDG), IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We analyze PAHR issues of FBR through experimental and numerical methodology. • This paper highlights findings of series of experiments in U–Na and simulant under melt conditions. • Critical parameters for molten fuel jet breakup and fragmentation are investigated. -- Abstract: Post-accident heat removal (PAHR) after severe accident in nuclear reactors plays a vital role to ensure public safety by effectively cooling fragmented core debris within the primary boundary. Design and implementation of multiple safety features demand thorough understanding of the sequences involved in accident progression. The key factors influencing PAHR are molten fuel coolant interaction and grid plate melt through, followed by relocation of fragmented fuel and structural materials settling on the core catcher in the form of debris below the core. The present work is focused on experimental and numerical investigation of melt fragmentation and settlement, morphological characteristics of debris, and finally heat removal from the debris bed via dedicated decay heat removal system. Series of dedicated experimental facilities have been setup in stages and preliminary trials are being conducted to generate the database for development and validation of numerical models, to be used for safety analysis of reactor systems. This paper also discusses preliminary experimental results and comparisons of data with numerical findings.

  8. Consequences of radioactive releases into the sea resulting from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant - Evolution of expert investigation according to the data available

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 led to an unprecedented direct input of artificial radioactivity into the marine environment. The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety was requested by the French authorities to investigate the radioecological impact of this input, in particular the potential contamination of products of marine origin used for human consumption. This article describes the close link between the responses provided and the availability of the data, as well as their nature and ability to meet the requirements of expert investigation. These responses were needed: (i) to evaluate the inputs of radionuclides into the marine environment, (ii) to understand their dispersion in seawater, and (iii) to estimate their transfer to the biota and sediments. Three phases can be distinguished which characterise these processes during the accident and post-accident periods. The first phase corresponds to an emergency phase during which no measurements were available on samples from the marine environment. It involved the formulation of hypotheses based solely on the expertise of the Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety. The second phase started when the Japanese authorities provided measurements of the concentrations of radionuclides in seawater. Although these data were not yet adapted to addressing the problems of radioecology, the scenarios could then be refined and the estimates developed in more detail. During the third phase, the accumulation of data over the course of time made it possible to study the phenomena in an appropriate way. The chronology of the events shows that it is essential to have (i) significant measurements of concentration from samples collected in the various matrices of the marine environment, regularly updated and sufficiently well-documented, (ii) samples of seawater collected at the earliest opportunity as close as possible to the damaged site to characterise the source term, and (iii) a numerical tool allowing rapid modelling of the dispersion of radionuclides in seawater, as well as their transfer to sediments and the biota, ultimately for the purpose of estimating the dose to humans. (authors)

  9. Diving injuries are (usually) no accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzacott, Peter

    2015-03-01

    When recently submitting a manuscript to DHM, I noticedthat three of our keywords contain the word accident, namely 'accidents', 'diving accidents' and 'scuba accidents'. 'Accident' is most strictly defined in the legal sense thus: "… the word accident is used only for events that occur without the intervention of a human being. This kind of accident also may be called an act of God. It is an event that no person caused or could have prevented - such as a tornado, a tidal wave, or an ice storm." In a review of cave diving fatalities, the medical examiner's cause of death in each case (n = 368) was considered and, from these and their extensive case files, case histories were traced back through the disabling injury to the triggering event. In the majority of cases there was a clear breach of established safe procedures. The number of 'accidents' where, for example, a cave unexpectedly collapsed was rare, by far the exception. Including these words in our approved list is at odds with the stable of British Medical Journal publications, (e.g., Injury Prevention) which have dissuaded use of the word 'accident' since 1993 and banned the word since 2001. Since 2004, at considerable expense, many former NHS hospital accident and emergency wards in the UK have steadily been renamed emergency departments. The Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine has been renamed Emergency Medicine Journal and, as recently as last year, the New York Police Department changed the name of their Accident Investigation Squad to Collision Investigation Squad. They also no longer use the word 'accident' in their reports, following the lead of the US Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration which stopped using the word in all its printed material in 1997, claiming it "…promotes the concept that these events are outside of human influence or control."(p.1.) There are many such examples of this subtle yet important change that is overtaking both western medicine and, in particular, public health. Rather than 'accident' the current trend is to accurately describe the cause of an injury. To illustrate, a submission formerly entitled 'Hot water accidents in Welsh children' would now more likely be titled 'Hot water burns in Welsh children'. The difference should be obvious; hot water burns in children are largely avoidable, (as are diving injuries). Therefore, I respectfully request we remove these key words from our journal's list. Hopefully this would not inconvenience some of our European colleagues for whom English is a second language, and this should be considered. In France, for example, decompression sickness (DCS) is known as an "accident de desaturation" and decompression illness (DCI, including arterial gas embolism), is initially described in French as an accident de decompression (ADD). After all signs and symptoms are identified, commonly at around 24 h, then the injury is termed a "maladie de decompression" (MDD). The Canadian Government department responsible for aviation, Transports Canada, also refer to DCS/DCI as MDD. The BMJ makes exceptions, e.g., if the word appears in a formal title such as Child Accident Prevention Trust. Regarding ADD however, may I respectfully suggest to my French colleagues they consider adopting "blessure de décompression" (BDD)? In diving research at least, the leading hypothesis is that DCS may be prevented through better understanding of the mechanisms of this protean disease. That DCS is an 'accident' is the null hypothesis. PMID:25964042

  10. Occupational accidents in the Danish merchant fleet and the nationality of seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine occupational accidents reported from non-passenger merchant ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register in 2010-2012, with a focus on analysing nationality differences in the risk of getting injured in an accident. Methods Data about notified occupational accidents were collected from notifications sent to the Danish Maritime Authority and from records of contact with Danish Radio Medical. Events were matched by personal identification and accident data to create a unified database. Stratified cumulative time spent on board by seafarers was used to calculate accident rates. Incidence rates of different nationalities were compared by Poisson regression. Results Western European seafarers had an overall accident rate of 17.5 per 100000 person-days, which proved to be significantly higher than that of Eastern European, South East Asian and Indian seaman (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.53, 0.51 and 0.74, respectively), although differences decreased over the investigated period. Smaller but in most cases still significant discrepancies were observed for serious injuries. The back injury rate of Western European employees was found especially high, while eye injuries seem to be more frequent among South East Asian workers. Conclusions The study identified substantial differences between nationalities in the rate of various accidents reported from merchant ships sailing under the Danish flag. The differences may be attributed to various factors such as safety behaviour. Investigation of special injury types and characterisation of effective elements of safety culture can contribute to the improvement of workplace safety in the maritime sector.

  11. Fatores associados ao uso de serviço de atenção pré-hospitalar por vítimas de acidentes de trânsito / Factors associated with pre-hospital care in victims of traffic accidents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto Marini, Ladeira; Sandhi Maria, Barreto.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Em um estudo de corte transversal foram avaliadas as características das vítimas de acidentes de trânsito ocorridos em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de conhecer as características dos acidentes e das vítimas que usaram o serviço de atendimento pré-hospitalar, e investigar se o [...] uso deste serviço está associado a um menor tempo até o atendimento hospitalar. Participaram do estudo todas as 1.564 vítimas de acidente de trânsito atendidas nos três maiores hospitais públicos de referência para emergência na cidade entre 10 de novembro e 14 de dezembro de 2003. As associações foram investigadas utilizando-se razões de prevalência obtidas por regressão de Poisson. Os resultados mostraram que 49,7% das vítimas usaram o serviço de atendimento pré-hospitalar, sendo a utilização menor entre ocupantes de bicicleta e pedestres. A gravidade (AIS = 2 e AIS ³ 3), idade (30-39 anos, 40-49, ³ 50 anos), relato de uso de álcool e tempo de admissão hospitalar Abstract in english This was a cross-sectional study of all victims of traffic accidents in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, admitted to the three largest public hospitals in the city from November 10 to December 14, 2003, to identify characteristics associated with the use of pre-hospital emergency treatmen [...] t and investigate whether the time between the accident and hospital admission was shorter among these victims. The association between pre-hospital treatment and target variables was assessed by prevalence ratios obtained from Poisson regression. Among 1,564 victims, 778 (49.7%) were transported in vehicles with pre-hospital treatment. Pre-hospital treatment was less common for bicyclists and pedestrians. The prevalence ratio was higher among victims with more severe injuries (AIS = 2 and AIS ³ 3), older victims (30-39 years, 40-49 years, ³ 50 years), those who reported alcohol use, and when the time between accident and hospital admission was less than 60 minutes. According to the results, pre-hospital treatment is more frequent among severely injured victims and helps reduce the time between the accident and hospital admission.

  12. Fatores associados ao uso de serviço de atenção pré-hospitalar por vítimas de acidentes de trânsito Factors associated with pre-hospital care in victims of traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Marini Ladeira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Em um estudo de corte transversal foram avaliadas as características das vítimas de acidentes de trânsito ocorridos em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de conhecer as características dos acidentes e das vítimas que usaram o serviço de atendimento pré-hospitalar, e investigar se o uso deste serviço está associado a um menor tempo até o atendimento hospitalar. Participaram do estudo todas as 1.564 vítimas de acidente de trânsito atendidas nos três maiores hospitais públicos de referência para emergência na cidade entre 10 de novembro e 14 de dezembro de 2003. As associações foram investigadas utilizando-se razões de prevalência obtidas por regressão de Poisson. Os resultados mostraram que 49,7% das vítimas usaram o serviço de atendimento pré-hospitalar, sendo a utilização menor entre ocupantes de bicicleta e pedestres. A gravidade (AIS = 2 e AIS ³ 3, idade (30-39 anos, 40-49, ³ 50 anos, relato de uso de álcool e tempo de admissão hospitalar This was a cross-sectional study of all victims of traffic accidents in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, admitted to the three largest public hospitals in the city from November 10 to December 14, 2003, to identify characteristics associated with the use of pre-hospital emergency treatment and investigate whether the time between the accident and hospital admission was shorter among these victims. The association between pre-hospital treatment and target variables was assessed by prevalence ratios obtained from Poisson regression. Among 1,564 victims, 778 (49.7% were transported in vehicles with pre-hospital treatment. Pre-hospital treatment was less common for bicyclists and pedestrians. The prevalence ratio was higher among victims with more severe injuries (AIS = 2 and AIS ³ 3, older victims (30-39 years, 40-49 years, ³ 50 years, those who reported alcohol use, and when the time between accident and hospital admission was less than 60 minutes. According to the results, pre-hospital treatment is more frequent among severely injured victims and helps reduce the time between the accident and hospital admission.

  13. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 4. Chernobyl accident consequences in the Ukraine and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of scientific general conclusion and analysis of wide spectrum of radioecological investigations of the Chernobyl accident consequences within the territory of the Ukraine are given. Investigations were conducted in 1986-1992 and before the accident. Information on the environmental radioactivity in Russia due to the Chernobyl accident is also presented. Attention is paid to the population migration and results of statistical processing of population disease incidence in contaminated areas (illustrated by the Tula region). 39 figs.; 47 tabs

  14. Characteristics of injuries caused by paragliding accidents: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbek, Umut; ?merci, Ahmet; Akgün, Ula?; Ye?il, Murat; Aydin, Ali; Balci, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to analyze the characteristics and risk factors relating to fatalities and injuries caused by paragliding. METHODS: The judicial examination reports and hospital documents of 82 patients traumatized in 64 accidents during 242 355 paragliding jumps between August 2004 and September 2011 were analyzed. RESULTS: In these accidents, 18 of the 82 patients lost their lives. In the patients with a confirmed cause of accident, most of them were involved with multiple fractures and internal organ injuries (n=8, 44.4%). CONCLUSION: We investigated the incidence of paragliding injuries, the types of the injuries, and the severity of affected anatomical regions. The findings are significant for the prevention of paragliding injuries and future research. PMID:26401185

  15. The effectiveness of using pictures in teaching young children about burn injury accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsueh-Fen; Lin, Fang-Suey; Chang, Chien-Ju

    2015-11-01

    This study utilized the "story grammar" approach (Stein and Glenn, 1979) to analyze the within-corpus differences in recounting of sixty 6- and 7-year-old children, specifically whether illustrations (5-factor accident sequence) were or were not resorted to as a means to assist their narration of a home accident in which a child received a burn injury from hot soup. Our investigation revealed that the message presentation strategy "combining oral and pictures" better helped young children to memorize the story content (sequence of events leading to the burn injury) than "oral only." Specifically, the content of "the dangerous objects that caused the injury", "the unsafe actions that people involved took", and "how the people involved felt about the severity of the accident" differed significantly between the two groups. PMID:26154205

  16. Noise as an explanatory factor in work-related fatality reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshaies, Pierre; Martin, Richard; Belzile, Danny; Fortier, Pauline; Laroche, Chantal; Leroux, Tony; Nélisse, Hugues; Girard, Serge-André; Arcand, Robert; Poulin, Maurice; Picard, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Noise exposure in the workplace is a common reality in Québec, Canada as it is elsewhere. However, the extent to which noise acts as a causal or contributive factor in industrial work-related accidents has not been studied thoroughly despite its plausibility. This article aims to describe the importance or potential importance, during investigations looking into the specific causes of each work-related fatal accident, of noise as an explanatory factor. The written information contained in the accident reports pertaining to contextual and technical elements were used. The study used multiple case qualitative content analysis. This descriptive study was based on the content analysis of the 788 reports from the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec [Workers' Compensation Board (WCB)] investigating the fatal work-related accidents between 1990 and 2005. The study was descriptive (number and percentages). Noise was explicitly stated as one of the explanatory factors for the fatal outcome in 2.2% (17/788) of the fatal accidents, particularly when the work involved vehicular movement or the need to communicate between workers. Noise was not typically considered a unique cause in the accident, notably because the investigators considered that the accident would have probably occurred due to other risk factors (for example, disregard of safety rules, shortcomings in work methods, and inadequate training). Noise is an important risk factor when communication is involved in work. Since noise is ubiquitous and may also interfere with vigilance and other risk factors for accidents, it may be a much more important contributing factor to accidents than is currently recognized. PMID:26356371

  17. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

  18. Accidents in radiotherapy: Lack of quality assurance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 150 radiological accidents, involving more than 3000 patients with adverse effects, 15 patient's fatalities and about 5000 staff and public exposures have been collected and analysed. Out of 67 analysed accidents in external beam therapy 22% has been caused by wrong calculation of the exposure time or monitor units, 13% by inadequate review of patient's chart, 12% by mistakes in the anatomical area to be treated. The remaining 35% can be attributed to 17 different causes. The most common mistakes in brachytherapy were wrong activities of sources used for treatment (20%), inadequate procedures for placement of sources applicators (14%), mistakes in calculating the treatment time (12%), etc. The direct and contributing causes of radiological accidents have been deduced from each event, when it was possible and categorized into 9 categories: mistakes in procedures (30%), professional mistakes (17%), communication mistakes (15%), lack of training (8.5%), interpretation mistakes (7%), lack of supervision (6%), mistakes in judgement (6%), hardware failures (5%), software and other mistakes (5.5%). Three types of direct and contributing causes responsible for almost 62% of all accidents are directly connected to the quality assurance of treatment. The lessons learnt from the accidents are related to frequencies of direct and contributing factors and show that most of the accident are caused by lack, non-application of quality assurance (QA) procedures or by underestimating of QA procedures. The international system for collection of accidents and dissemination of lessons learnt from the different accidents, proposed by IAEA, can contribute to better practice in many radiotherapy departments. Most of the accidents could have been avoided, had a comprehensive QA programme been established and properly applied in all radiotherapy departments, whatever the size. (author)

  19. Direct causes of the Chernobyl NPP accident in 26.04.86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real causes of the Chernobyl accident are analysed, incidentally the whole complex of factors of nuclear power plant potential hazard concerning their design and operation (before and after the Chernobyl accident) was revealed. 412 refs

  20. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Utilization of Information Technology (IT by Agricultural Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rezaei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the aim of investigating factors affecting utilization of information technology by students of agriculture. A survey approach was used in this study and a questionnaire was developed to gather the data. The study population was postgraduate students (MS and PhD of economic and agricultural development faculty in Tehran University who were selected by applying random sampling technique. Sample size for students was 61 persons. Data was analyzed by using SPSS/WIN software. The results of the research indicated that there was a positive significant relationship between using of information technology by students and their age, average, prior experience, information technology skills, innovativeness, perceived ease of use, attitude and self-efficacy. The relationship between computer anxiety and using of IT was negative. Stepwise Regression Analysis showed that innovativeness and attitude predict 53.2 percent of variations of IT use by students.

  1. Investigating important factors influencing customer relationship management: A case study from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sedigh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation on measuring the effect of different factors on customer relationship management (CRM for different branches of an Iranian banks located in various regions of city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 275 managers and using structural equation modeling examines the effects of five variables including CRM knowledge, employment’s information technology skills, specialty, strategic use, CRM performance on the performance of CRM. Cronbach alpha has been calculated for the questionnaire as 0.881, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The survey has concluded that there were meaningful relationships between all four mentioned variables and performance of CRM. In other words, knowledge and information technology influence on improving employments’ skills, which increase strategic use of CRM components and this would improve CRM performance.

  2. ???????????????????????? Investigating the Factors on Mathematics Career-Choice Intentions with the Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??? Min-Ning Yu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????????????Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study???TIMSS?2003 ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? The purpose of this study was to investigate impact factor on mathematics career-choice process used TIMSS dataset of Taiwan 8th grade students. The interest development model and career choice model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT used to establish a latent variable model. The results showed, concerning interest development model, math outcome expectations & math self-efficacy had a direct effect on math learning interests but math achievement had an indirect effect on. As to career choice model, math outcome expectations & math learning interests had a direct effect on math career-choice intentions but math achievement & math self-efficacy had an indirect effect on. The above-mentioned hadn’t sex differences in math career choice process. Finally, some conclusions and suggestions for practice applications and future researches were suggested and proposed.

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING MOBILE-LEARNING ADOPTION INTENTION: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION IN HIGH EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Tan Vu Khanh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of mobile phones and tablets for learning purposes among university students in Vietnam. For this purpose, the research is based on relevant technology acceptance literature and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM is proposed to analyze the adoption of mobile devices and smart phones by Vietnam students for accessing course materials, searching the web for information related to their discipline, sharing knowledge, conducting assignments etc. Employing structural equation modeling (SEM technology, the model was assessed based on the data collected from 301 participants using a survey questionnaire. These results validate the power of TAM constructs and its appropriateness for predicting acceptance of mobile learning. Usefulness had the highest path coefficients and was a strong predictor of behavioral intention and attitude to use and thus actual use. The proposed TAM model also can improve the understanding of students’ motivation by suggesting what external factors are the most important in enhancing students acceptance of mobile learning.

  4. Studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, R.; San Juan, C.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we review studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics, making special emphasis on the policy framework in the European Union. We find several conclusions, among which the following should be emphasized. First, this review highlights the existence of different methodologies to build up models to identify the effects of policy reforms affecting land use and desertification. Second, use of micro data to set up an econometric-process simulation model of land use has already been used with success. Third, in the geographical distribution of land use, prices drive all short and long-rung processes. Finally, logistic models have recently been used to study micro decisions at the agricultural sector to identify relative rents and land characteristics such as location and soil fertility as main determinants of land use patters. (Author) 8 refs.

  5. Studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we review studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics, making special emphasis on the policy framework in the European Union. We find several conclusions, among which the following should be emphasized. First, this review highlights the existence of different methodologies to build up models to identify the effects of policy reforms affecting land use and desertification. Second, use of micro data to set up an econometric-process simulation model of land use has already been used with success. Third, in the geographical distribution of land use, prices drive all short and long-rung processes. Finally, logistic models have recently been used to study micro decisions at the agricultural sector to identify relative rents and land characteristics such as location and soil fertility as main determinants of land use patters. (Author) 8 refs.

  6. An investigation on important factors influencing on forecasted earnings adjustment: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Babakhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing earning adjustment on firms selected on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2011. There are four independent variables associated with the proposed study of this paper including Proportion of shares owned by institutional investors, Return on assets, Profit change and Market value to book value. In addition, Investment restructuring is considered as control variable. The results of the implementation of regression analysis indicate that there was a reverse relationship between earning forecasted adjustment and two independent variables including size of firm as well as the ratio of market value to book value. However, Net profit has a direct and positive relationship with earning forecast adjustment.

  7. The animal kingdom in the Chernobyl NPP accident zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monograph has the review and analysis of data on the problem of estimation of the Chernobyl accident effect on animal world of the Republic of Belarus. Questions of ionizing irradiation influence on organisms, populations and ecosystems are considered. Features of radionuclides accumulation by the animals of various systematic groups are investigated. Characteristic of the parasitological situation in the 30-km zone is given, the effect of secondary radioecological factors stipulated by exception of economic activity in zone of alienation and moving away on forming of fauna complexes is analysed. The book is designed on zoologists, radio ecologists, experts in the field of nature protection. (authors). 326 refs., 35 tabs., 39 figs

  8. Epidemiological investigation into the introduction and factors for spread of Peste des Petits Ruminants, southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epaphras A. Muse

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to confirm and identify sources and elucidate factors associated with the introduction of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR in southern Tanzania. This study was conducted in Tandahimba and Newala districts of Mtwara region following suspected outbreak of PPR in the area. Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews of key informants who included goat and sheep owners with suspected cases of PPR and animal health service providers as well as local administrative authority. Additionally, 216 serum samples and 28 swabs were collected for serological and virological laboratory disease confirmation. The results show that PPR was first introduced in Likuna village of Newala district in February 2009 through newly purchased goats from the Pugu livestock market located about 700 km in the outskirts of Dar es Salaam city. Factors which contributed to spread of PPR included communal grazing and the cheap prices of sick animals bought by livestock keepers for slaughtering in other villages. Laboratory findings confirmed presence of PPR in the area by RT-PCR and serological analysis revealed that seroprevalence was 31%. These findings have confirmed, for the first time, introduction of PPR in southern Tanzania. The presence of PPR poses high risk of southward spread of the disease to other southern African countries in the SADC region thus calling for concerted and collaborative efforts in prevention and control of the disease to avoid losses. Further elaborate studies on the spread, prevalence and risk factors associated with the disease should urgently be investigated.

  9. Investigation of risk factors for acute stress reaction following induced abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukeli? Jelka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Termination of pregnancy - induced abortion is inevitable in family planning as the final solution in resolving unwanted pregnancies. It can be the cause of major physical and phychological concequences on women’s health. Diverse opinions on psychological consequences of induced abortion can be found in literature. Material and methods. A prospective study was performed in order to predict acute stress disorder (ASD after the induced abortion and the possibility of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Seven days after the induced abortion, 40 women had to fill in: 1. a special questionnaire made for this investigation, with questions linked to some risk factors inducing stress, 2. Likert’s emotional scale and 3. Bryant’s acute stress reaction scale. Results. After an induced abortion 52.5% women had ASD and 32.5% women had PTSD. Women with ASD after the abortion developed more sense of guilt, irritability, shame, self-judgement, fear from God and self-hatred. They were less educated, had lower income, they were more religious, did not approve of abortion and had worse relationship with their partners after the abortion in comparison to women without ASD. Age, number of previous abortions and decision to abort did not differ between the two groups. Discussion and conclusion. Induced abortion represents a predisposing factor for ASD and PTSD in women. Some psychosocial factors contribute to the development of stress after abortion. Serbia has a task to reduce the number of abortions which is very high, in order, to preserve reproductive and phychological health of women.

  10. Epidemiological investigation into the introduction and factors for spread of Peste des Petits Ruminants, southern Tanzania

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Epaphras A., Muse; Esron D, Karimuribo; George C, Gitao; Gerald, Misinzo; Lesakit S.B., Mellau; Peter L.M., Msoffe; Emmanuel S., Swai; Mbyuzi O., Albano.

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to confirm and identify sources and elucidate factors associated with the introduction of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in southern Tanzania. This study was conducted in Tandahimba and Newala districts of Mtwara region following suspected outbreak of PPR in the area. Quali [...] tative data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews of key informants who included goat and sheep owners with suspected cases of PPR and animal health service providers as well as local administrative authority. Additionally, 216 serum samples and 28 swabs were collected for serological and virological laboratory disease confirmation. The results show that PPR was first introduced in Likuna village of Newala district in February 2009 through newly purchased goats from the Pugu livestock market located about 700 km in the outskirts of Dar es Salaam city. Factors which contributed to spread of PPR included communal grazing and the cheap prices of sick animals bought by livestock keepers for slaughtering in other villages. Laboratory findings confirmed presence of PPR in the area by RT-PCR and serological analysis revealed that seroprevalence was 31%. These findings have confirmed, for the first time, introduction of PPR in southern Tanzania. The presence of PPR poses high risk of southward spread of the disease to other southern African countries in the SADC region thus calling for concerted and collaborative efforts in prevention and control of the disease to avoid losses. Further elaborate studies on the spread, prevalence and risk factors associated with the disease should urgently be investigated.

  11. AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION ON FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE EMPLOYEE ATTRITION OF IT SMES IN MADURAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anbuoli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper is to initially investigate the intrinsic factors that affect the employee attrition of SMEs of IT companies in Madurai. The in-depth interview and deeper discussion with the employees of this region and opinion from expects were asked for basic problem face by employee attrition in their companies. The primary data were collected to probe the generic tendency of how they rate their problems. The mean score of the opinion on their rating of the problem and the ANOVA indicates that the problem related to factor affect the employee attrition (or turnover represents significant costs to most organizations. It is odd, therefore, that many organizations neither measure such costs nor have targets or plans to reduce them. In this paper, we have made an endeavor to highlight attrition issue faced by IT industry. We try to find out the various reasons for this problem, and have proposed some ways in which this issue can be addressed.

  12. Investigation on the determining factor in the performance of in situ fabricated lithium polymer secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our preliminary research, an in situ fabrication of the lithium polymer cell starting from Li/1 M LiTFSI in DOL + DME (2:1 by weight)/LiCoO2 cell is successfully achieved owing to the electro-polymerization of DOL solvent. Basing on previous work, a comprehensive investigation on the new technology is conducted and some significant result is presented in this paper. The influence of three leading factors such as: current rate, upper limit voltage and temperature are laid a heavy emphasis. It is found that upper limit voltage is a prerequisite to the initiation of DOL polymerization as long as the operating temperature is kept far below the temperature limit for the occurrence of thermal-initiated polymerization. Once this requirement is satisfied, the current rate exerts a positive influence on DOL's electro-polymerization and helps to the formation of a conductive polymer electrolyte, but as another two factors are concerned, the case is just the reverse. And besides, benefiting from the 'regulation' effect of current rate, the lack of capacity retentivity that is encountered during the high-temperature or high-voltage cycling can be compensated by an electrochemical pretreatment. And finally, it is indicated that all the influential mechanism tightly related to the variation in the cell internal resistance

  13. Investigating the Factors Associated with Job Satisfaction of Construction Workers in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reza Hosseini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly, its aim is to ascertain the major aspects of job satisfaction for South Australian construction workers including the main ramifications of job satisfaction in the working environment. Secondly, it investigates the influence of key age-related factors i.e. chronological age, organisational age and length of service on major aspects of job satisfaction. The collected data for this study comprised 72 questionnaires completed by construction practitioners working at operational levels in the South Australian construction industry. Based on the responses from the target group, this study deduced that job dissatisfaction was predominantly related to the adverse impact on personal health and quality of life. In addition, indifference and the perception of dejection in the workplace are the main consequences of low levels of job satisfaction. Inferential analyses revealed that none of the age-related factors could significantly affect the major aspects of job satisfaction of construction workers in the South Australian context. The study concludes with providing practical suggestions