WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors accident investigation

  1. Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? HFACS provides a systematic guideline in accident investigations. The hierarchal structure of HFACS forces investigators to seek out latent HOFs. ? Bayesian Network enhances the ability of the HFACS by allowing experts to quantify the degree of relationships among the HOFs. ? The fuzzy AHP helps to reduce the subjective biases by avoiding the need to give explicit probability values for the variables' states. - Abstract: This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived.

  2. Investigation of Key Factors for Accident Severity at Railroad Grade Crossings by Using a Logit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Shou-Ren; Li, Chin-Shang; Lee, Chi-Kang

    2010-01-01

    Although several studies have used logit or probit models and their variants to fit data of accident severity on roadway segments, few have investigated accident severity at a railroad grade crossing (RGC). Compared to accident risk analysis in terms of accident frequency and severity of a highway system, investigation of the factors contributing to traffic accidents at an RGC may be more complicated because of additional highway–railway interactions. Because the proportional odds assumptio...

  3. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel

  4. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  5. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  6. An analysis on human factor issues in criticality accident at a uranium processing plant. Investigation on human behavior contributing to the criticality accident. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At 10:30 am, September 30th, 1999, a criticality accident occurred in a conversion building of a uranium processing plant in Tokai, Ibaraki prefecture. 69 people including 3 workers who then worked at the building, 3 fire fighters who dispatched to rescue them were exposed to the radiation. People with a 350 m-radius of the site were recommended to evacuate themselves from the region to a temporarily prepared evacuation center. And about one hundred thousand people within a 10 km-radius were also advised to stay inside of their home. Nuclear Safety Commission's Accident Investigation Committee is investigating causes of this accident and have been revealing that deviation from government-authorized processing method and negligence of its illegal procedure had contributed to the accident. The influence of this accident is expanding not only to the plant operating company, local people but also to Japanese nuclear power policy, the whole nuclear industry in Japan. Especially pervasion of 'Safety Culture' is strongly being required. This report analyses latent factors of some human behavior directly contributing to the criticality accident. It also mentions that 4 critical points on the poor climate for safety in the work place, the inadequate safety management, the unsuitable equipment and the production-biased company's policy are the latent factors of this accident. It also finds that the poor climate and the production-biased policy are the most important factors. It policy are the most important factors. It can be said that some people directly or indirectly having caused the accident are the victims of them. (author)

  7. Safety-critical human factors issues derived from analysis of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident investigation reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011 had a large impact both in and outside Japan, and is not yet concluded. After Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s (TEPCO's) Fukushima accident, electric power suppliers have taken measures to respond in the event that the same state of emergency occurs - deploying mobile generators, temporary pumps and hoses, and training employees in the use of this equipment. However, it is not only the 'hard' problems including the design of equipment, but the 'soft' problems such as organization and safety culture that have been highlighted as key contributors in this accident. Although a number of organizations have undertaken factor analysis of the accident and proposed issues to be reviewed and measures to be taken, a systematic overview about electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture has not yet been undertaken. This study is based on three major reports: the report by the national Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (the Diet report), the report by the Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company (Government report), and the report by the non-government committee supported by the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation (Non-government report). From these reports, the sections relevant to electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture were extracted. These sections were arranged to correspond with the prerequisites for the ideal organization, and 30 issues to be reviewed by electric power suppliers were extracted using brainstorming methods. It is expected that the identified issues will become a reference for every organization concerned to work on preventive measures hereafter. (author)

  8. Safety-critical human factors issues derived from analysis of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident investigation reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011 had a large impact both in and outside Japan, and is not yet concluded. After Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s (TEPCO's) Fukushima accident, electric power suppliers have taken measures to respond in the event that the same state of emergency occurs - deploying mobile generators, temporary pumps and hoses, and training employees in the use of this equipment. However, it is not only the “hard” problems including the design of equipment, but the “soft” problems such as organization and safety culture that have been highlighted as key contributors in this accident. Although a number of organizations have undertaken factor analysis of the accident and proposed issues to be reviewed and measures to be taken, a systematic overview about electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture has not yet been undertaken. This study is based on three major reports: the report by the national Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (the Diet report), the report by the Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company (Government report), and the report by the non-government committee supported by the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation (Non-government report). From these reports, the sections relevant to electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture were extracted. These sections were arranged to correspond with the prerequisites for the ideal organization, and 30 issues to be reviewed by electric power suppliers were extracted using brainstorming methods. It is expected that the identified issues will become a reference for every organization concerned to work on preventive measures hereafter. (author)

  9. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  10. Accidents and human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be iistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his weak points, but also should make the best use of his strong points. (author)

  11. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately from any investigation conducted by other companies involved in the accident, and it did not review its analyses, conclusions or recommendations with any other company or investigation team. Also, at the time this report was written, other investigations, such as the U.S. Coast Guard and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Joint Investigation and the President's National Commission were ongoing. While the understanding of this accident will continue to develop with time, the information in this report can support learning and the prevention of a recurrence. The accident on April 20, 2010, involved a well integrity failure, followed by a loss of hydrostatic control of the well. This was followed by a failure to control the flow from the well with the BOP equipment, which allowed the release and subsequent ignition of hydrocarbons. Ultimately, the BOP emergency functions failed to seal the well after the initial explosions. During the course of the investigation, the team used fault tree analysis to define and consider various scenarios, failure modes and possible contributing factors. Eight key findings related to the causes of the accident emerged: (1) The annulus cement barrier did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (2) The shoe track barriers did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (3) The negative-pressure test was accepted although well integrity had not been established; (4) Influx was not recognized until hydrocarbons were in the riser; (5) Well control response actions failed to regain control of the well; (6) Diversion to the mud gas separator resulted in gas venting onto the rig; (7) The fire and gas system did not prevent hydrocarbon ignition; (8) The BOP emergency mode did not seal the well.

  12. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Ca, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately from any investigation conducted by other companies involved in the accident, and it did not review its analyses, conclusions or recommendations with any other company or investigation team. Also, at the time this report was written, other investigations, such as the U.S. Coast Guard and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Joint Investigation and the President's National Commission were ongoing. While the understanding of this accident will continue to develop with time, the information in this report can support learning and the prevention of a recurrence. The accident on April 20, 2010, involved a well integrity failure, followed by a loss of hydrostatic control of the well. This was followed by a failure to control the flow from the well with the BOP equipment, which allowed the release and subsequent ignition of hydrocarbons. Ultimately, the BOP emergency functions failed to seal the well after the initial explosions. During the course of the investigation, the team used fault tree analysis to define and consider various scenarios, failure modes and possible contributing factors. Eight key findings related to the causes of the accident emerged: (1) The annulus cement barrier did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (2) The shoe track barriers did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (3) The negative-pressure test was accepted although well integrity had not been established; (4) Influx was not recognized until hydrocarbons were in the riser; (5) Well control response actions failed to regain control of the well; (6) Diversion to the mud gas separator resulted in gas venting onto the rig; (7) The fire and gas system did not prevent hydrocarbon ignition; (8) The BOP emergency mode did not seal the well.

  13. A New Accident Investigation Approach Based on Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Parhizi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study some data mining techniques for accident investigation and risk analysis is proposed. Function of most of accident investigation and risk analysis methodologies have been based on establishment of different scenarios of accident occurrence and simulation of accidents situation and so far no fundamental action for the analysis of remained data from accident has taken place. This study with the approach of data analysis and using different techniques of data mining can eliminate deficiencies of other techniques therewith covers theirs advantages. In this study factor analysis utilized to identify effective factors on occurrence of accidents. Cluster analysis utilized to classify accidents. A case study in a petrochemical company has been done in order to execute and investigate proposed methodology. The results show four different factors effecting on accident`s occurrence and ten different clusters of accidents recognized. Also association rules exposed to discover all patterns and rules that cause occurrence of accidents.

  14. Multidisciplinary perspective on accident investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basnyat, S. [LIIHS-IRIT, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: basnyat@irit.fr; Chozos, N. [Dept. of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nick@dcs.gla.ac.uk; Palanque, P. [LIIHS-IRIT, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: palanque@irit.fr

    2006-12-15

    The increasing complexity of many computer-controlled application processes is placing increasing demands on the investigation of adverse events. At the same time, there is a growing realisation that accident investigators must consider a wider range of contributory and contextual factors that help to shape human behaviour in the causes of safety-related incidents. A range of techniques have been developed to address these issues. For example (as we show in this paper), task modelling techniques have been extended from human computer interaction and systems design to analyse the causes and consequences of operator 'error'. Similarly, barrier analysis has been widely used to identify the way in which defences either protected or failed to protect a target system from potential hazards. Many barriers fail from common causes, including misconceptions that can be traced back to early stages in the development of a safety-critical system. For instance, unwarranted assumptions can be made about the impact of training on operator behaviour in emergency situations. Similarly, barrier analysis can also be used before a system has been designed to inform the system model and make it more tolerant to errors by incorporating human and technical barriers into the design. Task models often uncover deep-rooted problems, for instance, in workload allocation across many different aspects of an interactive control system. It can be difficult to use barrier and task analysis to trace these common causes that lie behind the failure of many different defences. In order to deal with this complex combination of contributory factors and systems, we promote the use of abstraction (via models) as a way of representing these components and their interrelations whether it is design, construction or investigation. We use, to formally model an abstraction of the system. Additionally, the system model (described using a dialect of high-level Petri-nets) allows to reason about the system and to check conformance with the other models (task model, safety case and barriers). This paper, therefore, shows how an analysis of safety case arguments can be used to support the application of barrier, task, error and system analysis during the investigation of a command and control failure. The intention, in this paper, is to show that if an accident involved the failure of multiple barriers, it is also possible to trace the common causes of those failures back to the assumptions and arguments that are embodied within a safety case. Many countries require that safety cases demonstrate a system is 'acceptably safe' before they grant regulatory approval. These documents and the associated analytical techniques, therefore, provide a rich source of information about why command and control failures occurred. We demonstrate our approach on a fatal mining accident case study.

  15. Estimating the Influence of Accident Related Factors on Motorcycle Fatal Accidents using Logistic Regression (Case Study: Denpasar-Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedagama D.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Denpasar the capital of Bali Province, motorcycle accident contributes to about 80% of total road accidents. Out of those motorcycle accidents, 32% are fatal accidents. This study investigates the influence of accident related factors on motorcycle fatal accidents in the city of Denpasar during period 2006-2008 using a logistic regression model. The study found that the fatality of collision with pedestrians and right angle accidents were respectively about 0.44 and 0.40 times lower than collision with other vehicles and accidents due to other factors. In contrast, the odds that a motorcycle accident will be fatal due to collision with heavy and light vehicles were 1.67 times more likely than with other motorcycles. Collision with pedestrians, right angle accidents, and heavy and light vehicles were respectively accounted for 31%, 29%, and 63% of motorcycle fatal accidents.

  16. A Serious Game for Traffic Accident Investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsubaih, Ahmed; Maddock, Steve; Romano, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    In Dubai, traffic accidents kill one person every 37 hours and injure one person every 3 hours. Novice traffic accident investigators in the Dubai police force are expected to "learn by doing" in this intense environment. Currently, they use no alternative to the real world in order to practice. This paper argues for the use of an alternative…

  17. Psychological factors of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

  18. CURRENT FACTORS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN ISFAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B AMINMAN SOUR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction. Car accident mortality is the third order causes of death in the USA, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Given present survival and outcome Iranian data, more than 14,000 patients die annually in road accidents. Having a valid and reliable data could be useful in reduce mortality and morbidity reduction.
    Methods. Twenty five percent of total traumatic patients in Isfahan were selected (N=2809 at the time of study (1997-1998. Forty five percent of them with car accident were asked about causes of accidents and risk factors for the severity and type of injuries were recorded based on International Classification of Disease 10.
    Results. Most of the victims were young (10-20 years old, students and industrial workers. Statistically unreasonable numbers of cars without extension of roads and high ways, using old and unsafe cars will affects on accidents.
    Discussion. In comparison with European and some Asian countries, Iran has unacceptable road accidents and it seems necessary to pay more attention to stop the current increasing data.

     

  19. Independent accident investigation: a modern safety tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, safety has been subjected to a fragmented approach. In the past, every department has had its own responsibility towards safety, focusing either on working conditions, internal safety, external safety, rescue and emergency, public order or security. They each issued policy documents, which in their time were leading statements for elaboration and regulation. They also addressed safety issues with tools of various nature, often specifically developed within their domain. Due to a series of major accidents and disasters, the focus of attention is shifting from complying with quantitative risk standards towards intervention in primary operational processes, coping with systemic deficiencies and a more integrated assessment of safety in its societal context. In The Netherlands recognition of the importance of independent investigations has led to an expansion of this philosophy from the transport sector to other sectors. The philosophy now covers transport, industry, defense, natural disaster, environment and health and other major occurrences such as explosions, fires, and collapse of buildings or structures. In 2003 a multi-sector covering law will establish an independent safety board in The Netherlands. At a European level, mandatory investigation agencies are recognized as indispensable safety instruments for aviation, railways and the maritime sector, for which EU Directives are in place or being progressed [Transport accident and incident investigatioansport accident and incident investigation in the European Union, European Transport Safety Council, ISBN 90-76024-10-3, Brussel, 2001]. Due to a series of major events, attention has been drawn to the consequences of disasters, highlighting the involvement of rescue and emergency services. They also have become subjected to investigative efforts, which in return, puts demands on investigation methodology. This paper comments on an evolutionary development in safety thinking and of safety boards, highlighting some consequences for strategic perspectives in a further development of independent accident investigation

  20. Understanding accident investigators : a study of the required skills and behaviours for effective UK inspectors of accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Flaherty, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    In the UK, accidents associated with maritime, aviation and rail transport are conducted by the Inspectors of Accidents at the Marine, Air and Rail Accident Investigation Branches. A review of current academic literature provides little insight into the qualities and attributes essential for the role of accident investigator. A wealth of material exists about accidents themselves but as yet, a study into the profile of the accident investigator has not been conducted. This research soug...

  1. The medical investigation of airship accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, C J; McMeekin, R R; Ruehle, C J; Canik, J J

    1988-07-01

    A review of the autopsy reports for 18 of 21 victims in 3 of the 4 nonrigid Navy airship accidents during the period 1955 to 1966 revealed that the patterns of injury, complicated by postcrash entrapment, immersion, or fire, are similar to the injuries observed in the low-speed, low-altitude crashes of rigid airships and of light aircraft. With the renewed interest in the development of airships for military purposes, there is a need for improved design related to crashworthiness and to aircrew habitability, safety, restraint, and egress in order to enhance the chance for survival in the event of an accident. PMID:3171506

  2. A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Most workplace accidents that happen in enterprises are simple and seldom result in serious injuries. Very often these kinds of workplace accidents are not investigated, and if they are, then the investigation is very brief, with comments such as that it was the victim’s own fault or just an unfortunate situation which could not be helped. Most prevention analysis and investigation methods focus on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, etc. In the industrial world, such risks do give rise to disasters, albeit very seldom. Nevertheless, the fact is that simpler accidents normally caused by apparent banalities occur much more frequently and with a higher rate of fatalities, disablements and other serious injuries than the ostensibly most dangerous kinds of accidents. In 1999 a practical tool for use by safety officers was developed; this tool is based on the investigation methods applied in major accidents, but comprises a simpler and more user-friendly presentation. The tool involves three steps: Mapping the facts, analysing the events, and developing preventive solutions. Practical application of the tool has shown that it affords managers and workers a heightened insight into the cause of accidents, including those that seemed to be unavoidable, and that simple workplace accidents always have root causes on which preventive action can be focused. The problem is however that making a proper analysis is difficult and requires appropriate training, even in cases where the accidents seem to be very simple.

  3. CIEMAT's Experimental Activity in the Investigation of Severe Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CIEMAT has three medium and small scale experimental plants in the service of research into specific phenomena associated with severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Experimental investigation is supplemented with analytical type work for validating, improving and developing models which accurately estimate the phenomenology expected under severe accident conditions. (Author)

  4. The study of method for calculating the accident atmospheric dispersion factor and accident washout factor for coastal nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model to estimate the accident probabilistic dispersion factor in which the effect of internal boundary layer is considered and a set of deterministic and probabilistic models to estimate the accident washout factor are set up based on the models of accident dispersion factor given by current guides. The accident probabilistic dispersion factor, the deterministic washout factor for different time interval after accident release, the accident probabilistic washout factor and the dose corresponding to various pathway are estimated based on the measured meteorological data on the site of a coastal nuclear power plant to be built in the east part of China. The result shows that: the value of accident probabilistic dispersion factor given by the proposed model are 5.9 times of those given by the common model; for the dose obtained during 0 to 8 h after accident release, the external exposure dose from washout deposition given by deterministic model is about 5.50 times of those from dry deposition; the ratio between external exposure dose from washout and dry deposition given by conservative probabilistic model with and without considering the effect from internal boundary layer is 9.56 and 56.7 respectively; for the realistic probabilistic model the value of above ratio is 1.93 and 11.4

  5. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  6. Safety investigation of team performance in accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, G; Todorov, V; Takov, T; Petrov, V; Stoychev, K; Vladimirov, V; Chukov, I

    2004-07-26

    The paper presents the capacities of the performance evaluation of teamwork (PET) method. Its practicability and efficiency are illustrated by retrospective human reliability analyse of the famous nuclear and maritime accidents. A quantitative assessment of operators' performance on the base of thermo-hydraulic (T/H) calculations and full-scope simulator data for set of NPP design basic accidents with WWER is demonstrated. The last data are obtained on the 'WWER-1000' full-scope simulator of Kozloduy NPP during the regular practical training of the operators' teams. An outlook on the "evaluation system of main control room (MCR) operators' reliability" project, based on simulator data of operators' training is given. PMID:15231353

  7. Investigating accidents involving aircraft manufactured from polymer composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    This thesis looks into the examination of polymer composite wreckage from the perspective of the aircraft accident investigator. It develops an understanding of the process of wreckage examination as well as identifying the potential for visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite aircraft wreckage. The in-field examination of aircraft wreckage, and subsequent interpretations of material failures, can be a significant part of an aircraft accident investigation. ...

  8. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident final report of the AESJ investigation committee

    CERN Document Server

    Atomic Energy Society of Japan

    2015-01-01

    The Magnitude 9 Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, followed by a massive tsunami struck  TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and triggered an unprecedented core melt/severe accident in Units 1 – 3. The radioactivity release led to the evacuation of local residents, many of whom still have not been able to return to their homes. As a group of nuclear experts, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to investigate and analyze the accident from scientific and technical perspectives for clarifying the underlying and fundamental causes, and to make recommendations. The results of the investigation by the AESJ Investigation Committee has been compiled herewith as the Final Report. Direct contributing factors of the catastrophic nuclear incident at Fukushima Daiichi NPP initiated by an unprecedented massive earthquake/ tsunami – inadequacies in tsunami measures, severe accident ma...

  9. CAIB Report: Columbia Accident Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster took place on February 1, 2003. For the next seven months, a group of scientists have been compiling evidence to determine what went wrong and how to prevent future accidents. At this NASA website, visitors can read the findings of this extensive report. Within the report interface, users can view six short movies illustrating the launch, the foam striking the Space Shuttle, Columbia's reentry, and the impact testing of the RCC panel. The site also has links to media coverage, released records, and the mission overview.

  10. Investigation of the core melt accident in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the thesis the core melt accident, heating up and collapsing of the reactor core were investigated. The most important parameters of influence were found and their effect on the development of the accident were shown. A causal diagram was developed representing the great number of events occurring in the course of the core melt accident as well as their mutual dependences. Models were developed and applied for a detailed description of the collapse process, melting of materials, heat and material transport at flow-off of the melted mass and for taking into account steam blocking in the destroyed core sections. (orig.)

  11. Comparing the Identification of Recommendations by Different Accident Investigators Using a Common Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris W.; Oltedal, H. A.; Holloway, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Accident reports play a key role in the safety of complex systems. These reports present the recommendations that are intended to help avoid any recurrence of past failures. However, the value of these findings depends upon the causal analysis that helps to identify the reasons why an accident occurred. Various techniques have been developed to help investigators distinguish root causes from contributory factors and contextual information. This paper presents the results from a study into the individual differences that can arise when a group of investigators independently apply the same technique to identify the causes of an accident. This work is important if we are to increase the consistency and coherence of investigations following major accidents.

  12. Human factors review for severe accident sequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a human factors research project performed to: (1) support the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) program and (2) develop a descriptive model of operator response in accident management. The first goal was accomplished by working with SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) accident sequence to systematically assess critical operator actions and thereby demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. The second goal was accomplished by developing a model called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which provides both a conceptual structure linking off-normal safety functions with potential unconventional emergency responses and a method for developing technical guidance for those responses based on operations, engineering, and human factors data and expertise. The four components comprising the model are described and their use is shown through a table-top demonstration. 48 refs., 30 figs., 9 tabs

  13. Investigating accidents involving aircraft manufactured from polymer composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Leigh

    This study looks into the examination of polymer composite wreckage from the perspective of the aircraft accident investigator. It develops an understanding of the process of wreckage examination as well as identifying the potential for visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite aircraft wreckage. The in-field examination of aircraft wreckage, and subsequent interpretations of material failures, can be a significant part of an aircraft accident investigation. As the use of composite materials in aircraft construction increases, the understanding of how macroscopic failure characteristics of composite materials may aid the field investigator is becoming of increasing importance.. The first phase of this research project was to explore how investigation practitioners conduct wreckage examinations. Four accident investigation case studies were examined. The analysis of the case studies provided a framework of the wreckage examination process. Subsequently, a literature survey was conducted to establish the current level of knowledge on the visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite failures. Relevant literature was identified and a compendium of visual and macroscopic characteristics was created. Two full-scale polymer composite wing structures were loaded statically, in an upward bending direction, until each wing structure fractured and separated. The wing structures were subsequently examined for the existence of failure characteristics. The examination revealed that whilst characteristics were present, the fragmentation of the structure destroyed valuable evidence. A hypothetical accident scenario utilising the fractured wing structures was developed, which UK government accident investigators subsequently investigated. This provided refinement to the investigative framework and suggested further guidance on the interpretation of polymer composite failures by accident investigators..

  14. CURRENT FACTORS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN ISFAHAN

    OpenAIRE

    Aminman Sour, B.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. Car accident mortality is the third order causes of death in the USA, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Given present survival and outcome Iranian data, more than 14,000 patients die ann...

  15. Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure

  16. Investigation on accident management measures for WWER-1000 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consequence of a total loss of AC power supply (station blackout) leading to unavailability of major active safety systems which could not perform their safety functions is that the safety criteria ensuring a secure operation of the nuclear power plant would be violated and a consequent core heat-up with possible core degradation would occur. Currently, a study which examines the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the plant during the early phase of the scenario is being performed. This paper focuses on the possibilities for delay or mitigation of the accident sequence to progress into a severe one by applying accident management measures. The strategy 'Primary circuit depressurization' as a basic strategy, which is realized in the management of severe accidents is being investigated. By reducing the load over the vessel under severe accident conditions, prerequisites for maintaining the integrity of the primary circuit are being created. The time-margins for operators' intervention as key issues are being also assessed. The task is accomplished by applying the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH thermal-hydraulic system code ATHLET. In addition, a comparative analysis of the accident progression for a station blackout event for both a reference German PWR and a reference WWER-1000, taking into account the plant specifics, is being performed. (Authors)

  17. An investigation of glider winch launch accidents utilizing multipoint aerodynamics models in flight simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Santel, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The presented thesis investigated the mechanisms leading to accidents during the winch launch of gliders. Initially, data from the accident database of the German Federal Bureau of Aircraft Accident Investigation was studied. Critical phases of the launch were identied along with the associated probabilities and risks of accidents. From this data requirements to an aerodynamics model suitable for accident reconstruction were formulated. An instationary multipoint aerodynamics approach, based ...

  18. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

  19. Motorcycle accidents in forensic pathology. Human factors, and injury and crash tipologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Marinoni

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the main human factors, related to motorcycle accidents, and the accident configuration and the lesive pattern. The present study considers the 200 two-wheel crashes occurred in Italy in the Province of Pavia between 1999 and 2001. For all cases a revision of the injured people’s interviews and their clinical records has been made. All the accidents of the survey have been examined considering the traumatic lesion abscribed to the accident to assess a direct causal link between human factors and the crash tipology and the injury pattern. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationship between the variables and a logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association of injury severity with some variables supposed to be predictive factors. Frontal-lateral impact collisions are about 6 times more likely to be caused by a traffic scan error of the other vehicle driver (no rider than other types of crashes (OR= 5,8; p < 0,0001; IC 95%: 2,875-11,736. Contusions-abrasions show the highest percentages in motorcyclists with no coverage worn (p < 0,001 and riders with no clothing have a higher risk to be severely injured than riders with coverage, but it is not statistically significant. Instead, there is not a statistical significant association between: rider’s gender, rider’s age, riding experience and accident configuration; damaged region of the helmet and cranium injury severity.

  20. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Influence of the critical accident seen to consciousness investigation of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here was introduced a consciousness investigation result carried out at Fukui prefecture and Osaka city after about two months of the JCO criticality accident. Peoples were disturbed by the accident, and not a little changed their individual estimations on items relating to energy. However, peoples lived in Fukui prefecture did not increase rate of opposition against nuclear energy promotion and nuclear power plant construction to their living area on comparison with a year before the accident. This reason might be understood by that the accident was not an accident of a nuclear power plant directly, and that their living area was much distant from place of the accident and was not suffered any danger. On the other hand, public opinion in Osaka city made worse on comparison with that before a year, and if such worse public opinion was thought to be due to the accident, its effect could be said to be different in each area even with no direct relation to the accident to shown a result dependent upon its various conditions. As a rough tendency on psychological disturbance due to the accident, it could be said that peoples became to have feelings of avoiding hard nuclear energy technology at a chance of the accident and to direct thoughts of soft natural energy and environment respect. (G.K.)

    1. Psychosocial work characteristics as risk factors for being injured in an occupational accident.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Swaen, G M H; van Amelsvoort, L P G M; Bültmann, U; Slangen, J J M; Kant, I J

      2004-06-01

      The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial work characteristics and the risk for being injured in an occupational accident. We performed this study within the framework of the Maastricht Cohort Study of Fatigue at Work, a prospective cohort study on employees (n = 7051) from a wide range of companies and organizations. One hundred eight workers reported being injured in an occupational accident for which the subject consulted a physician or physiotherapist. Adjustments were made for work environment and demographic variables. High psychologic job demands were a risk factor for being injured in an occupational accident. Low decision latitude had a crude relative risk for being injured in an occupational accident of 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23-3.39). This relationship almost completely disappeared after adjustment for the confounders mentioned here. Coworker and supervisor support were inversely related to the risk of being injured in an occupational accident but did not reach statistical significance. Other psychosocial work characteristics that had a significant effect on the risk for being injured in an occupational accident were conflicts with the supervisor (relative risk [RR] = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.42-4.37) or colleagues (RR = 2.62; 95% CI = 1.58-4.35), job satisfaction (RR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.08-1.91), and high emotional demands (RR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.52-3.94). We conclude that after adjustment for demographic variables, fatigue, and factors that describe the type of work environment that high psychologic job demands, emotional demands, and conflicts with the supervisor and/or colleagues are risk factors for being injured in an occupational accident. PMID:15213513

    2. Implementing recommendations from accident investigations: a case study of inter-organisational challenges.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cedergren, Alexander

      2013-04-01

      In many industries, a national accident investigation board conducts investigations following major accidents. For safety improvements to be achieved, however, it is essential that the recommendations presented in these investigations are followed by necessary actions. In this paper, challenges related to implementation of recommendations from accident investigations are studied. The theoretical framework providing the foundation for the study lies at the intersection between systems safety, risk governance, and implementation research. Empirical data for the case study was collected from the Swedish railway sector. The first part of the paper presents an analysis of the extent of recommendations that have not resulted in implemented actions. The second part consists of an interview study aiming at providing a deeper understanding of the difficulties related to transforming these recommendations into actual changes. Two key factors that give rise to challenges to implementation of recommendations are identified. The first factor is related to the different actors' views on their own and other stakeholders' roles in the implementation process, and can be described as a trade-off between being insider and outsider to the industry. The second factor is related to the scope of the accident investigations and their recommendations, and can be described as a trade-off between micro-level and macro-level factors. The opportunities for implementing recommendations, and achieving safety improvements at the industry level, are affected by the ways in which the different stakeholders manage these trade-offs at the local level. This study thus mainly contributes by highlighting the importance of co-ordinating the various actors involved in the implementation process, and the results show that challenges to implementation to a large extent arise in the interactions between these actors. PMID:23416681

    3. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

      2012-01-01

      Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011. Method: The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States by estimating a generalized ordered logit model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005–2009. Results: Results show that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because of inattentive and risky driving.

    4. Investigation of shipping accident injury severity and mortality.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Weng, Jinxian; Yang, Dong

      2015-03-01

      Shipping movements are operated in a complex and high-risk environment. Fatal shipping accidents are the nightmares of seafarers. With ten years' worldwide ship accident data, this study develops a binary logistic regression model and a zero-truncated binomial regression model to predict the probability of fatal shipping accidents and corresponding mortalities. The model results show that both the probability of fatal accidents and mortalities are greater for collision, fire/explosion, contact, grounding, sinking accidents occurred in adverse weather conditions and darkness conditions. Sinking has the largest effects on the increment of fatal accident probability and mortalities. The results also show that the bigger number of mortalities is associated with shipping accidents occurred far away from the coastal area/harbor/port. In addition, cruise ships are found to have more mortalities than non-cruise ships. The results of this study are beneficial for policy-makers in proposing efficient strategies to prevent fatal shipping accidents. PMID:25617776

    5. Investigating Boolean Matrix Factorization.

      Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

      Snášel, V.; Platoš, J.; Krömer, P.; Húsek, Dušan; Neruda, Roman; Frolov, A. A.

      - : ACM, 2008 - (Ding, C.; Li, T.; Zhu, S.), s. 18-25 ISBN 978-1-60558-307-5. [DMMT'08. Workshop in Conjunction with SIGKDD 2008 /14./. Las Vegas (US), 24.08.2008-24.08.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * nonnegative matrix factorization * neural networks * information retrieval * data mining * binary data Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://users.cs.fiu.edu/~taoli/kdd08-workshop/DMMT08-Proceedings.pdf

    6. Development of severe accident evaluation technology (level 2 PSA) for sodium-cooled fast reactors. (5) Identification of dominant factors in ex-vessel accident sequences

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The evaluation of accident progression outside of a reactor vessel (ex-vessel) and subsequent transfer behavior of radioactive materials is of great importance from the viewpoint of Level 2 PSA. Hence typical ex-vessel accident sequences in the JAEA Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor are qualitatively discussed in this paper and dominant behaviors or factors in the sequences are investigated through parametric calculations using the CONTAIN/LMR code. Scenarios to be focused on are, 1) sodium vapor leakage from the reactor vessel and 2) sodium-concrete reaction, which are both to be considered in the accident category of LOHRS (loss of heat removal system) and might be followed by an early containment failure due to the thermal effect of sodium combustion and hydrogen burning respectively. The calculated results clarify that the sodium vapor leak rate and the scale of sodium-concrete reaction are the important factors to dominate the ex-vessel accident progression. In addition to the understandings of the dominant factors, the analyzed results also provide the specific information such as pressure loading value to the containment and the timing of pressurization, which is indispensable as technical base in Level 2 PSA for developing event trees and for quantifying the accident consequences. (author)

    7. Implementing recommendations from accident investigations: a case study of inter-organisational challenges

      OpenAIRE

      Cedergren, Alexander

      2013-01-01

      In many industries, a national accident investigation board conducts investigations following major accidents. For safety improvements to be achieved, however, it is essential that the recommendations presented in these investigations are followed by necessary actions. In this paper, challenges related to implementation of recommendations from accident investigations are studied. The theoretical framework providing the foundation for the study lies at the intersection between systems safety, ...

    8. Causal factors in accidents of high-speed craft and conventional ocean-going vessels

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      An analysis of 40 ocean-going commercial vessel accidents is compared with the study of a similar number of high-speed crafts (HSCs) accidents, using in both cases a methodology that highlights the sequence of events leading to the accident and identifies the associated latent or causal factors. The main objective of this study was to identify and understand the difference in the pattern of causal factors associated with HSC accidents, as compared with the more traditional ocean-going ships. From the analysis one can see that the HSC accidents are mainly related to bridge personnel and operations, where the human element is the key factor identified as being responsible for the majority of the accidents. When compared with ocean-going commercial vessels, it is clear that navigational equipment and procedures have a larger preponderance in terms of the occurrence of accidents of HSC and particular attention should be given to these issues

    9. Investigation into information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This report was prepared in response to a request from NRC Chairman Ahearne that directed the Office of Inspection and Enforcement to resume its investigation of information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) that occurred on March 28, 1979. This investigation was resumed on March 21, 1980. The transfer of information among individuals, agencies, and personnel from Metropolitan Edison was analyzed to ascertain what knowledge was held by various individuals of the specific events, parameters, and systems during the accident at TMI. Maximum use was made of existing records, and additional interviews were conducted to clarify areas that had not been pursued during earlier investigations. Although the passage of time between the accident and post-accident interviews hampered precise recollections of events and circumstances, the investigation revealed that information was not intentionally withheld during the accident and that the system for effective transfer of information was inadequate during the accident

    10. Embryogenesis of esophageal atresia: Is localized vascular accident a factor?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Dutta Hemonta

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available Several theories on embryogenesis of esophageal atresia have been proposed, none could explain the whole spectrum of this anomaly. We report a new variant of esophageal atresia in which the two blind pouches were joined by an atretic band. Histology of the atretic part showed groups of striated muscle arranged haphazardly without any lumen. The existing theories on etiology of esophageal atresia cannot explain this variant. However, localized vascular accident during intrauterine life resulting in disturbances in regional microcirculation could be a possible factor as demonstrated by Louw and Barnard in relation to jejunoileal atresia. This is contrary to the current understanding that disproportionate growth of the horizontal esophageal folds results in esophageal atresia.

    11. An analysis on human factor issues in criticality accident at a uranium processing plant

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This report analyses latent factors of a human behavior directly contributing to the criticality accident. It is pouring some 16 kg-U with an enrichment of 18.8% into the precipitation tank. It is the fact that the direct cause of this accident is the workers' unsafe act. However, the authors find lots of latent factors relating to the production-biased company's policy, the poor climate for safety in the work place, the inadequate safety management and the unsuitable equipment. This accident was caused by many organizational factors. This paper also discusses lessons learned from this accident. (author)

    12. Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania :A Case Study of Kibaha District

      OpenAIRE

      Komba, Deus Damian

      2007-01-01

      This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district.In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk ...

    13. Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania : A Case Study of Kibaha District

      OpenAIRE

      Komba, Deus Damian

      2007-01-01

      This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district. In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk...

    14. Aviation occupant survival factors: an empirical study of the SQ006 accident.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chang, Yu-Hern; Yang, Hui-Hua

      2010-03-01

      We present an empirical study of Singapore Airline (SIA) flight SQ006 to illustrate the critical factors that influence airplane occupant survivability. The Fuzzy Delphi Method was used to identify and rank the survival factors that may reduce injury and fatality in potentially survivable accidents. This is the first attempt by a group from both the public and private sectors in Taiwan to focus on cabin-safety issues related to survival factors. We designed a comprehensive survey based on our discussions with aviation safety experts. We next designed an array of important cabin-safety dimensions and then investigated and selected the critical survival factors for each dimension. Our findings reveal important cabin safety and survivability information that should provide a valuable reference for developing and evaluating aviation safety programs. We also believe that the results will be practical for designing cabin-safety education material for air travelers. Finally, the major contribution of this research is that it has identified 47 critical factors that influence accident survivability; therefore, it may encourage improvements that will promote more successful cabin-safety management. PMID:20159096

    15. Investigation report on causes of radiation overexposure accident at Hirosaki National Hospital and prevention of similar accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The number of patients involved in the accident in the title, announced on October 3, 2003, was as many as around 300 and thereby a great attention was generated in public. For this, official committees for examination of the accident and for health effect, and the investigation group based on academic societies concerned, started. This report was done by the third group. The group performed the investigation of 2 hospital visits in November 4-25, which containing the discussions with the medical doctors in charge and radiation engineer in charge, and the perusal of the list of patients overexposed. Investigations were on the hospital and its system for radiation treatment, on the actual flow of the treatment, on the doctors and engineer both in charge, on the accident details, on the difference of radiation doses indicated by doctors and exposed by the engineer, and on classification of patients. The cause of the accident was thought essentially to be the different speculation of dose between doctors and engineer which had been based on their insufficient communication/technological background, that might be common in many other hospitals. For prevention, use of dose expression in International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRU) 50 for the isocenter, continuous education of personnel, setting up of quality assurance (QA) section etc., were pointed out important. (N.I.)

    16. The contributions of sleep-related risk factors to diurnal car accidents.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Violani, Cristiano; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca

      2013-03-01

      This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads. PMID:23246705

    17. Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly

    18. The contribution of human factors to accidents in the offshore oil industry

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Accidents such as the Piper Alpha disaster illustrate that the performance of a highly complex socio-technical system, is dependent upon the interaction of technical, human, social, organisational, managerial and environmental factors and that these factors can be important co-contributors that could potentially lead to a catastrophic event. The purpose of this article is to give readers an overview of how human factors contribute to accidents in the offshore oil industry. An introduction to human errors and how they relate to human factors in general terms is given. From here the article discusses some of the human factors which were found to influence safety in other industries and describes the human factors codes used in accident reporting forms in the aviation, nuclear and marine industries. Analysis of 25 accident reporting forms from offshore oil companies in the UK sector of the North Sea was undertaken in relation to the human factors. Suggestions on how these accident reporting forms could be improved are given. Finally, this article describes the methods by which accidents can be reduced by focusing on the human factors, such as feedback from accident reporting in the oil industry, auditing of unsafe acts and auditing of latent failures

    19. Investigation of the management of the wastes from plant accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant discharged large amount of radio-nuclides and contaminated wide areas in and out of the site. The decontamination, storage, treatment and disposal of generated wastes are now under planning. Though regulations for the radioactive wastes arisen from normal operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities have been prepared, it is necessary to make amendment of those regulations to deal with wastes from the severe accident which may have much different features on nuclides contents, or possible accompanying hazardous chemical materials. Characteristics of wastes from accidents in foreign nuclear installations, and the treatment and the disposal of those wastes were surveyed by literature and radionuclide migration from the assumed temporally storage yards of the disaster debris was analyzed for consideration of future regulation. (author)

    20. Factors influencing the public intention to use renewable energy technologies in South Korea: Effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The Fukushima accident has influenced public attitudes toward energy sources and technologies, including not only nuclear energy, but also other energy sources. Therefore, it is worth investigating how the accident influenced public perceptions of renewable energy and its technologies, between the time before the accident and after the accident. This study aims to explore the effects of the Fukushima accident on the public perceptions of renewable energy technologies in South Korea, the closest nation to Japan. This study found that there were notable differences of public perceptions, including public attitudes, perceived benefits, trust, intention to use, knowledge and risks between before and after the earthquake. In addition, the perceived cost of renewable energy technologies was the primary determinant of the intention to use the technologies before the accident, whereas public attitudes toward the technologies became the main antecedents of the intention after the accident. After the accident, we found that there is a multi-dimensional matrix of perceived trust-benefits (with risks)-attitude-intention to use, in explaining the public acceptance of renewable energy technologies. Moreover, we found significant roles of the perceived trust, benefits and risks in the research model. Based on the empirical findings, both implications and suggestions are presented. - highlights: • The factors influence public intention to employ renewable energy technologies. • Fukushima accident made significant differences of public perceptions. • Perceived benefits and risks are employed as key determinants of public attitude. • Perceived cost and attitude are found as antecedents of the intention to use. • Perceived trust is a notable motivation of public perceptions

    1. Investigation of evaluation method for marine radiological impact during an accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In 2012, JNES carried out to investigate the measurement information of radionuclide released to the ocean at Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, the foreign regulation for marine radiological impact, and the evaluation method for release and diffusion to the ocean at the accident inside and outside Japan. (author)

    2. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      NONE

      1996-04-01

      An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress.

    3. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress

    4. Investigations on pressure suppression system loads at accident conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      For simulation of the integral behavior of pressure suppresion systems at accident conditions a mathematical model was developed which simulates a wide range of the loads occurring during a loss-of coolant accident. The multi-zone point model DRASYS serves for mathematical simulation of quasistatic (pressure and temperature build-up in the dry well and the suppression chamber) as well as dynamic loads (free-blowing process, water throw-up and condensing oscillations) in the course of a loss-of-coolant accident. For determination of the state variations with time in the individual pressure sections thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed between steam and water phases. Thermal non-equilibrium states are taken into account if phase separation interfaces between water and steam/air mixture exist. The flows between the individual pressure sections are treated as homogeneous, nonsteady, incompressible flows. For verification of the mathematical model recalculations were made of experiments performed at various test stands. Teh recalculations showed that the mathematical model has got a wide range of application and is suited for design and assessment of pressure suppression systems at accident conditions. (orig.)

    5. Investigation of PWR accident transients with the Bethsy facility

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      BETHSY is a scaled down model of a 900 eMW Framatome pressurized water reactor (PWR) which has been designed to allow the study of PWR accident transients with the double purpose of Cathare code and Emergency Operating Procedure verification. The full operation of the facility was started in 1987. Since then, a fairly large variety of tests have been conducted which include steady state situations (single phase natural circulation, balanced and unbalanced loops, two-phase natural circulation, degraded steam generator mass inventory) as well as accident transients such as 2 inch and 6 inch cold leg breaks, steam break at pressurizer, single and multiple steam generator tube ruptures (SGTR), total loss of feedwater. In order to illustrate the ongoing Bethsy program, three different kinds of tests are briefly presented, dealing with two-phase natural circulation, intermediate cold leg breaks and multiple SGTR

    6. Have US Legislatures Fully Considered Causal Factors in Assigning Liability for Inherent Risk Accidents?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Terence J. Centner

      2014-09-01

      Full Text Available The public’s dissatisfaction with American tort rules has led US state legislatures to enact more than 120 statutes for assigning liability for accident losses. Many of these statutes address the liability of accidents involving inherent risks of activities where neither the activity provider nor injured participant was negligent. Due to business complaints about high insurance costs, legislatures decided that participants ought to bear the costs arising from inherent risk accidents. Yet, causal factors associated with sport activities may support an alternative liability rule to maximize social welfare. Because inherent risk statutes lead to increased activity levels, they are accompanied by increased accident costs. Factors causing incorrect liability results may be compared to offer a recommendation for a liability regime for inherent risk accidents.

    7. An analysis on human factor issues in criticality accident at a uranium processing plant. Pt. 2. A study on organizational factors contributing to the accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      At 10:35 September 30th 1999, a criticality accident occurred in a uranium processing plant in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture, Japan during a job to make uranium solution. 150 people were exposed to the radiation. Two of three workers who have engaged in the job and were exposed to a massive dosage of radiation died of multi organ failures on 83 days and 210 days after the accident, respectively. The authors revealed in the former report (S99001) several latent factors contributing to pouring some 16 kg-U into the precipitation tank. It suggests some organizational factors played significant roles in this accident. Therefore, this report discusses organizational factors of this accident. As a result, this accident is heavily contributed by (1) company executives/managers' biased decision making giving emphasis on productivity or cost-effectiveness, (2) inappropriate process management, labor management and document management and (3) an organizational culture allowing them not to always follow rules. This report also proposes the directions of countermeasures to reestablish nuclear safety. (author)

    8. Calculation of atmospheric dispersion factor for accident release from coastal nuclear power

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      A model of calculating the probabilistic atmospheric dispersion factor for accident release from nuclear power plant (NPP), in which the effect of internal bound layer was taken into account and proposed. The final accident probabilistic dispersion factor used to evaluate dose, the dose for each pathway and the individual effective dose at the bound of a coastal NPP (0.5 km from the coastline) were estimated. The measured parameters from field atmosphere dispersion experiment on site of a NPP were applied. The result showed that not only the value of accident probabilistic dispersion factor but also the value of individual effective dose predicted were 5.9 times higher than those derived by a traditional model. Hence, the effect of internal bound layer on the accident dispersion factor and dose must be taken into account for coastal NPP when the frequency occurring internal bound layer is too high to be neglected

    9. Organizational factors and reoccurrence protection on the JCO nuclear critical accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      A nuclear critical accident formed at a nuclear fuel conversion factory in Tokai-mura on September, 1999 became gradually clear not to be a simple human error formed at a level of workmen but to be an organizational error or accident relating to various organizational factors. As a nuclear power facility adopts a depth protection system fundamentally, a large accident with serious danger would not form only by a single trouble and a human error and unless some factors overlaps. By reviewing recent serious accidents and troubles, all of them seem to have a keyword of 'organizational factor'. In the JCO accident, there are some organizational factors such as a climate deviating from a manual, insufficient and loose check against change of procedure, reduction of operators from a reason of profit priority, attitude on priority of working efficiency, and so forth, which are partially common to the Chernobyl accident. Recently, accidents and troubles impossible to make them a cause of simple human error by a person but to have to say an organizational error, have increased. This trend seems to depend upon not only complication and scale-up of technology system but also graduate change of social and management systems operating them. Therefore, it seems to be necessary to introduce a concept of depth protection (multiple protection) in order to keep its reliability and safety when complicating and scaling-up of system. (G.K.)

    10. RISK FACTORS OF TRAFFICT ACCIDENT IN LABUANG BAJI HOSPITAL, MAKASSAR, INDONESIA, 2002-2004

      OpenAIRE

      Arsin, Arsunan

      2008-01-01

      RISK FACTORS OF TRAFFICT ACCIDENT IN LABUANG BAJI HOSPITAL, MAKASSAR, INDONESIA, 2002-2004 A. Arsunan Arsin School of Public Health, Hassanuddin University The aim of the study was to find out the risk factors of the traffic accident in Makassar city in 2002-2004. The study was a control case study in which the severely injured was 59 people and 94 people were slightly injured as a control. They were the sufferers of traffic accident treated in the hospital. All of them are Maka...

    11. The official report of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In October 2011, the Act regarding Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission was enacted to investigate the Fukushima accident with the authority to request documents and request the legislative branch to use its investigative powers to obtain any necessary documents or evidence required. In December 2011, chairman and nine other members were appointed. After a six-month investigation, Commission had concluded. 'In order to prevent future disasters, fundamental reforms must take place covering both the structure of electric power industry and the structure of related government and regulatory agencies as well as operation processes, for both normal and emergency situations'. Main parts of report consisted of overview, conclusions and recommendations, and six findings; (1) was the accident preventable?, (2) Escalation of the accident, (3) Emergency response to the accident, (4) Spread of the damage, (5) Organizational issues in accident prevention and response and (6) the legal system. Based on the above findings, Commission made seven recommendations regarding (1) Monitoring of the nuclear regulatory body by the National Diet, (2) Reform the crisis management system, (3) Government responsibility for public health and welfare, (4) Monitoring the operators, (5) Criteria for the new regulatory body, (6) Reforming laws related to nuclear energy and (7) Develop a system of independent investigation commissions. National Diet's thorough debate and dels. National Diet's thorough debate and deliberate on these recommendation was highly encouraged for the future. (T. Tanaka)

    12. The crisis of investigative Journalism in Spain. The journalism practice in the Spanair accident

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      José Vicente García-Santamaría, Ph.D.

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available The crash of the McDonnell Douglas plane operated by the Spanish airline Spanair, on 20 August 2008 at Barajas Airport, and the journalistic treatment it received undoubtedly represent a unique opportunity to address the current state of journalism in Spain. In particular, this article studies the use of information sources in a crisis situation, which requires a major effort to find the maximum number of primary and specialised sources to provide, in a short period of time, the audience with the key facts to understand the event. This accident also represents an excellent opportunity to study some practices within investigative journalism and the different factors that condition the media agenda. Finally, as in any other air tragedy, where millionaire compensations can be paid to the victims, it is important to examine the application of a series of ethical frameworks, which have been captured in deontological codes designed to assure fair journalistic practices.

    13. Risk factors influencing disease incidence in subjects who participated in liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident consequences

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The authors analyzer the relationship between disease incidence in the participants of the liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident aftereffects and the factors influencing this disease incidence. Three factors influencing the incidence of metal and neural diseases are considered. These factors are the duration of the presence at the site of the accident, time of coming to the site of accident (time elapsed since the accident to the liquidators first coming to the zone), and external irradiation dose. The basic risk factors of these diseases are the time of arrival in the accident zone and the duration of work in the zone, the irradiation dose effect being negligible here

    14. Investigation of ALPHA experiment by severe accident analysis code SAMPSON

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Baglietto, Emilio [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-Okayama, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)], E-mail: emilio.baglietto@us.cd-adapco.com; Ninokata, Hisashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-Okayama, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Naitoh, Masanori [Safety Analysis Department, NUPEC, Toranomon Building, 4-1-8 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)

      2008-07-15

      The severe accident analysis code SAMPSON is adopted in this work to evaluate its capability of reproducing the complex gap cooling phenomenon. The ALPHA experiment is adopted for validation, where molten aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) produced by a thermite reaction is poured into a water filled hemispherical vessel at the ambient pressure of approximately 1.3 MPa. The spreading and cooling of the debris that has relocated into the pressure vessel lower plenum are simulated, including the analysis of the RPV failure. The model included in the code to simulate the water penetration inside the gap is evaluated and improvements are proposed. The importance of the introduction of some mechanistic approach to describe the gap formation and evolution is underlined where the results show its necessity in order to correctly reproduce the experimental trends.

    15. Investigation of alpha experiment by severe accident analysis code SAMPSON

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The severe accident analysis code SAMPSON is adopted in this work to evaluate its capability of reproducing the complex gap cooling phenomenon. The ALPHA experiment is adopted for validation, where molten aluminum oxide (Al2O3) produced by a thermite reaction is poured into a water filled hemispherical vessel at the ambient pressure of approximately 1.3 MPa. The spreading and cooling of the debris that has relocated into the pressure vessel lower plenum are simulated, including the analysis of the RPV failure. The model included in the core to mimic the water penetration inside the gap is evaluated and improvements are proposed. The importance of the introduction of some mechanistic approach to describe the gap formation and evolution is underlined, where the results show its necessity in order to correctly reproduce the experimental trends. (author)

    16. Embryogenesis of esophageal atresia: Is localized vascular accident a factor?

      OpenAIRE

      Bs Ralf-bodo, Tr X. F.; Stricker Ingo

      2010-01-01

      Several theories on embryogenesis of esophageal atresia have been proposed, none could explain the whole spectrum of this anomaly. We report a new variant of esophageal atresia in which the two blind pouches were joined by an atretic band. Histology of the atretic part showed groups of striated muscle arranged haphazardly without any lumen. The existing theories on etiology of esophageal atresia cannot explain this variant. However, localized vascular accident during intrauterine life resulti...

    17. Modern accident investigation and analysis - An executive guide

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ferry, T. S.

      The first part of the book primes the reader for mishap investigation. Three chapters lead into the serious business of investigation through a discussion of the need for and examination of who has a stake in investigation. This is followed by coverage of the preparation that makes an efficient investigation possible. Finally a description is presented of the first important steps in the investigation, conducted at the scene of a mishap. The interacting roles of man, environment, and systems are examined, taking into account unsafe acts, human limitations, the various types of environments, different types of materials, and aspects of systems investigation. Attention is also given to analytical techniques, the mishap report, information collection, and legal aspects of investigation.

    18. Review of the TMI-2 accident evaluation and vessel investigation projects

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The results of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Programme and the Vessel Investigation Project have been reviewed as part of a literature study on core meltdown and in-vessel coolability. The emphasis is placed on the late phase melt progression, which is of special relevance to the NKS-sponsored RAK-2.1 project on Severe Accident Phenomenology. The body of the report comprises three main sections, The TMI-2 Accident Scenario, Core Region and Relocation Path Investigations, and Lower Head Investigations. In the final discussion, the lower head gap formation mechanism is explained in terms of thermal contraction and fracturing of the debris crust. This model seems more plausible than the MAAP model based on creep expansion of the lower head. (au)

    19. Ontology Development and Evolution in the Accident Investigation Domain

      Science.gov (United States)

      Carvalho, Robert; Berrios, Dan; Williams, James

      2004-01-01

      InvestiigationOrganizer (IO) is a collaborative semantic web system designed to support the conduct of mishap investigations. IO provides a common repository for a wide range of mishap related information, allowing investigators to integrate evidence, causal models, and investigation results. IO has been used to support investigations ranging from a small property damage case to the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Through IO'S use in these investigations, we have learned significant lessons? about the application of ontologies and semantic systems to solving real-world problems. This paper will describe the development of the ontology within IO, from the initial development, its growth in response to user requests during use in investigations, and the recent work that was done to control the results of that growth. This paper will also describe the lessons learned from this experience and how they may apply to the implementaton of future ontologies and semantic systems.

    20. Importance Degree Evaluation of the Affecting Factors on Exhibition Security Accidents

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Lin Wei-Ling

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available The occurrence of exhibition security accidents is the result of the mutual coupling factors of "man-machine-environment-management". This study is going to elaborate 11 influencing factors of exhibition security accidents from four aspects, i.e., man, mechanical equipment, environment and management. With the help of grey relational analysis, this study evaluates the importance degree of the affecting factors in exhibitions. The result shows that affecting factors of facilities and equipments failure is of the greatest importance degree and site maintenance personnel, site design, building material quality are the secondary important factors; another important factors are safety management body, social environment, activity organization management, safety management system, natural environment and event participant behavior which are considered as the third important ones. Evaluation of the importance degree of affecting factors on exhibition security incidents will provide a theoretical basis for exhibition security control.

    1. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and intractable, and methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. The number of methods in each group were four, three, zero, and two, respectively. Faced with the need to investigate an accident it is essential that the chosen method is appropriate for the system and the situation. Nuclear power plants considered as systems are tightly coupled and more or less intractable and therefore require accident models and accident investigation methods that are capable of accounting for these features. If an accident concerns the NPP operation as a whole, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. If an accident only concerns the operation of a subsystem or a component, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, or possible loosely coupled and tractable. The report provides a proposal for how these characteristics can be determined. The conclusion is that no specific method is the overall best in the sense that it can be used for all conditions. While it may be convenient, or even necessary, for an organisation to adopt a specific method as its standard, this should always be done knowingly and with a willingness to reconsider the choice when the conditions so demand it. In five or ten years we must expect that the methods developed today will have been partly obsolete, not because the methods change but because the nature of socio-technical systems, and therefore the nature of accidents, do

    2. [Risk factors associated with road accidents among young people in Tuscany (Italy): a cross sectional study].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Innocenti, Francesco; Voller, Fabio; Berti, Alice; Silvestri, Caterina

      2013-01-01

      In most countries, national statistics institutes either do not measure or underestimate the impact of behavioral aspects as causes of road accidents. To bridge this gap, the Regional Health Agency of Tuscany (Italy) created the EDIT project, which evaluates driving behaviors and other lifestyle risk factors in a sample of secondary school students. Study results show that driving while under the influence of alcohol or drugs or while being distracted by cigarette smoking or the use of mobile phones are the risk factors most frequently associated with traffic accidents. PMID:23903036

    3. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Results from cytogenetic investigations into 55 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1977 are reviewed. This report is the seventh in an annual series (previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35, R41 and R57) which together contain data on 327 studies. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. Two cases are described in more detail: the first concerned a non-classified worker who put an iridium-192 source in his pocket and took it home; and the second involved the accidental contamination of two people with tritium gas. In a second appendix, the confidence limits on cytogenetic dosimetry for X- and ?-ray over-exposures are given and the derivation of these limits is discussed. (author)

    4. Investigations on optimization of accident management measures following a station blackout accident in a VVER-1000 pressurized water reactor

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The reactor safety issues are of primary importance for preserving the health of the population and ensuring no release of radioactivity and fission products into the environment. A part of the nuclear research focuses on improvement of the safety of existing nuclear power plants. Studies, research and efforts are a continuing process at improving the safety and reliability of existing and newly developed nuclear power plants at prevention of a core melt accident. Station blackout (loss of AC power supply) is one of the dominant accidents taken into consideration at performing accident analysis. In case of multiple failures of safety systems it leads to a severe accident. To prevent an accident to turn into a severe one or to mitigate the consequences, accident management measures must be performed. The present paper outlines possibilities for application and optimization of accident management measures following a station blackout accident. Assessed is the behaviour of the nuclear power plant during a station blackout accident without accident management measures and with application of primary/secondary side oriented accident management measures. Discussed are the possibilities for operators ' intervention and the influence of the performed accident management measures on the course of the accident. Special attention has been paid to the effectiveness of the passive feeding and physical phenomena having an influence on the system behaviour. The performed simulationsystem behaviour. The performed simulations show that the effectiveness of the secondary side feeding procedure can be limited due to an early evaporation or flashing effects in the feed water system. The analyzed cases show that the effectiveness of the accident management measures strongly depends on the initiation criteria applied for depressurization of the reactor coolant system. (authors)

    5. Factores de riesgo de accidentes en la edad geriátrica Risk factors for accidents in geriatric age

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Manolo Gómez Juanola

      2004-12-01

      Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, longitudinal y descriptivo con elementos analíticos, para evaluar los factores de riesgo de accidentes en los ancianos, durante el período de julio 2000 a junio 2001. La muestra quedó conformada por un universo de 101 gerontes, de los consultorios médicos 13 y 32, del municipio Mantua. Se aplicó el cálculo porcentual y X2 con nivel de ajuste ed a = 0,01 y a = 0,05. Dentro de los factores ambientales, en el área urbana predominaron: piso del baño deslizante (pA prospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted with analytical elements to evaluate the risk factors for accidents in the elderly from July 2000 to June 2001.The sample was composed of 101 aged individuals from the family physicians' offices 13 and 32, in Mantua municipality. The percentage calculation and X2 with a level of adjustment of a = 0.01 and a = 0.05 were applied. The following environmental factors predominated in the urban area: slipping bathroom floor (p 0.01, cooker of an inadequate height (p 0.05, polished floors, changing furniture, propping, filtrations and inadequate shoes (p 0.01. Lamp or switch away from the bed, bathroom away from the bedroom and absence of shower curtains, unlevel/irregular floor, furniture in bad state, deficient lighting, poorly protected electrical sources and circulation of pets (p 0.01 prevailed in the rural area. The most common physiological risks were: pluripathology/polypharmacy and degenerative arthropathy as a cause of balance alterations and walking, respectively. They prevailed in females (p 0.05. Congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease and cervical osteoarthritits predominated among the most frequent diseases in the females (p 0.05. 43.5 % of the males took only one drug. Sedatives (50-59 % were the most used drugs. 59.40 % of the elderly were evaluated as low risk for accidentality.

    6. Factores de riesgo de accidentes en la edad geriátrica / Risk factors for accidents in geriatric age

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Manolo, Gómez Juanola; Jorge Luis, Conill Godoy; Juan César, Pulido Ramos; Alexis, Pérez Carvajal; Idalmis, Cantún.

      2004-12-01

      Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, longitudinal y descriptivo con elementos analíticos, para evaluar los factores de riesgo de accidentes en los ancianos, durante el período de julio 2000 a junio 2001. La muestra quedó conformada por un universo de 101 gerontes, de los consultorios médicos 13 y 32, [...] del municipio Mantua. Se aplicó el cálculo porcentual y X2 con nivel de ajuste ed a = 0,01 y a = 0,05. Dentro de los factores ambientales, en el área urbana predominaron: piso del baño deslizante (p Abstract in english A prospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted with analytical elements to evaluate the risk factors for accidents in the elderly from July 2000 to June 2001.The sample was composed of 101 aged individuals from the family physicians' offices 13 and 32, in Mantua municipality. The pe [...] rcentage calculation and X2 with a level of adjustment of a = 0.01 and a = 0.05 were applied. The following environmental factors predominated in the urban area: slipping bathroom floor (p 0.01), cooker of an inadequate height (p 0.05), polished floors, changing furniture, propping, filtrations and inadequate shoes (p 0.01). Lamp or switch away from the bed, bathroom away from the bedroom and absence of shower curtains, unlevel/irregular floor, furniture in bad state, deficient lighting, poorly protected electrical sources and circulation of pets (p 0.01) prevailed in the rural area. The most common physiological risks were: pluripathology/polypharmacy and degenerative arthropathy as a cause of balance alterations and walking, respectively. They prevailed in females (p 0.05). Congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease and cervical osteoarthritits predominated among the most frequent diseases in the females (p 0.05). 43.5 % of the males took only one drug. Sedatives (50-59 %) were the most used drugs. 59.40 % of the elderly were evaluated as low risk for accidentality.

    7. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The results are reviewed from investigations during 1979 into 82 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation. Of these 45 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations, and 26 with an institution of research, education or health. 83% of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0-0.09 Gy (0-9 rad), and 17% in the range 0.1-0.29 Gy (10-29 rad). These data are compared with data obtained by physical dosimetry, and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each over-exposure, or suspected over-exposure. (author)

    8. Investigation and evaluation for environmental impact at Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In 2012, JNES investigated the weather data and the environmental monitoring data and constructed the method to specify contribution of the environmental impact from each plant based on the dose analysis result at Unit 1-3 of Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. JNES calculated the dose rate in an accident early stage based on analysis of a monitoring data. Moreover, JNES evaluated the dose by additional release of the radioactive material in case of assuming the loss of coolant injection to a nuclear reactor by the request of NISA. (author)

    9. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Sousa, A.L., E-mail: alsousa@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, A.C.O., E-mail: antonio.ribeiro@bayer.com [Bayer Crop Science Brasil S.A., Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, J.P., E-mail: julianapduarte@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F., E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COOPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

      2013-07-01

      Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

    10. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

    11. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident's causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62)

    12. Experimental investigations on vessel-hole ablation during severe accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This report presents experimental results, and subsequent analyses, of scaled reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure site ablation tests conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Power Safety (RIT/NPS). The goal of the test program is to reduce the uncertainty level associated with the phase-change-ablation process, and, thus, improve the characterization of the melt discharge loading on the containment. In a series of moderate temperature experiments, the corium melt is simulated by the binary oxide CaO-B2O3 or the binary eutectic and non-eutectic salts NaNO3-KNO3, while the RPV head steel is represented by a Pb, Sn or metal alloys plate. A complementary set of experiments was conducted at lower temperatures, using water as melt and salted ice as plate material. These experiments scale well to the postulated prototypical conditions. The multidimensional code HAMISA, developed at RIT/NPS, is employed to analyze the experiments with good pre- and post-test predictions. The effects of melt viscosity and crust surface roughness, along with failure site entrance and exit frictional losses on the ablation characteristics are investigated. Theoretical concept was proposed to describe physical mechanisms which govern the vessel-hole ablation process during core melt discharge from RPV. Experimental data obtained from hole ablation tests and separate-effect tests performed at RIT/NPS were used to validate component physical models of the HAMISA code. It is believed that the hole ablation phenomenology is quite well understood. Detailed description of experiments and experimental data, as well as results of analyses are provided in the appendixes

    13. An investigation of core liquid level depression in small break loss-of-coolant accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Core liquid level depression can result in partial core dryout and heatup early in a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) transient. Such behavior occurs when steam, trapped in the upper regions of the reactor primary system (between the loop seal and the core inventory), moves coolant out of the core region and uncovers the rod upper elevations. The net result is core liquid level depression. Core liquid level depression and subsequent core heatups are investigated using subscale data from the ROSA-IV Program's 1/48-scale Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and the 1/1705-scale Semiscale facility. Both facilities are Westinghouse-type, four-loop, pressurized water reactor simulators. The depression phenomena and factors which influence the minimum core level are described and illustrated using examples from the data. Analyses of the subject experiments, conducted using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 (Version 12.7) thermal-hydraulic code, are also described and summarized. Finally, the response of a typical Westinghouse four-loop plant (RESAR-3S) was calculated to qualitatively study coal liquid level depression in a full-scale system. 31 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs

    14. Critical review on what factors affected the evolution of the Fukushima accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This paper focuses on why the Fukushima disaster caused such different outcomes at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS) and the Fukushima Daini NPS, although both NPSs were hit by the largest tsunami in Japanese historical records and are located only 10 km apart. First, the authors' study classifies the progression of the Fukushima accident into four phases: Phase I (between earthquake occurrence and tsunami inundation), Phase II (after tsunami inundation), Phase III (efforts at restoration) and Phase IV (recovery from harsh conditions), in order to clarify the difference in the accident progression in each unit of both NPSs. The course of the accident's evolution at each unit is compared to derive the differences of mechanical and human factors which affected the accident's progression. Second, the differences of both factors are reviewed from resilience engineering perspectives to know what factors are important to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. As the conclusions of this critical review, it can be said that: (1) the system, structures and components of NPS are systematically designed, manufactured and maintained to perform the intended functions for expected events, however they have limitations to cope with unexpected events, and (2) the plant personnel can respond to such situations successfully by changing their approach flexibly in a number of ways. (author)

    15. Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1?) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author)

    16. Investigations into the air cleaning aspects of the Three Mile Island accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Investigative groups that have placed heavy emphasis on analysis of the air cleaning systems have included the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island (chaired by J. Kemeny), the Office of Inspection and Enforcement of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (two studies done independently, one by an Investigative Team, the other by a Special Review Group), internal USNRC Task Forces formed specifically for this purpose (termed Lessons Learned), and an independent USNRC Special Inquiry Group staffed primarily by USNRC but under the outside supervision of attorney M. Rogovin (the Rogovin Report). The efforts of these groups in the air cleaning area are described. The mechanisms whereby gaseous radioactive materials were released are discussed. The efforts of the various investigative groups for the Three Mile Island accident pertaining to air cleaning technology, the recommendations these groups have made, and the potential impact on the nuclear industry of the implementation of these recommendations are reviewed

    17. NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia: Synopsis of the Report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board

      Science.gov (United States)

      Smith, Marcia S.

      2003-01-01

      NASA's space shuttle Columbia broke apart on February 1, 2003 as it returned to Earth from a 16-day science mission. All seven astronauts aboard were killed. NASA created the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), chaired by Adm. (Ret.) Harold Gehman, to investigate the accident. The Board released its report (available at [http://www.caib.us]) on August 26, 2003, concluding that the tragedy was caused by technical and organizational failures. The CAIB report included 29 recommendations, 15 of which the Board specified must be completed before the shuttle returns to flight status. This report provides a brief synopsis of the Board's conclusions, recommendations, and observations. Further information on Columbia and issues for Congress are available in CRS Report RS21408. This report will not be updated.

    18. Soil contamination following an industrial accident : towards efficient investigations and assessment

      OpenAIRE

      Hazebrouck, Benoît; Blancher, P.; Verger, P.; Pirard, P.; Heyman, Christophe; Mosqueron, Luc; Motreff, Y.; Ricoux, C.; Pagnon, Stéphane

      2010-01-01

      When an industrial accident occurs, e.g. the explosion or the fire of a chemical facility, soil investigations and subsequent risk mitigation generally need to be decided and performed rapidly. This requires specific organisation and tools: Procedures for an immediate and coordinated intervention of relevant actors: industrials, administrations for industrial facilities, emergency and health, local authorities, environmental consultants and laboratories, NGOs. Models and input data on emissio...

    19. Ergonomic (human factors) problems in design of NPPs. A review of TMI and Chernobyl accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs

    20. Investigations of soil-plant transfer of radiocesium after deposition from the Chernobyl reactor accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Due to the low deposition of radiocaesium in NRW after the Chernobyl accident of about 2500 Bq 137Cs/m2 and 720 Bq 134Cs/m2, radiocaesium was not detectable in cereals from NRW. A deposition of about 44,100 Bq 137Cs/m2 and 13,500 Bq 134Cs/m2 was calculated for the vicinity of Tannheim, a village in Upper Swabia. Nevertheless, the content of radiocaesium in grain from Upper Swabia was found to be more than one hundred times lower than that of natural 40K. Transferfactors (TF/SP) for radiocaesium were determined for cereals from the three investigated soil types: Kalkvega (FAO classification: Calcaric Fluvisol), Braunerde (Cambisol) and Parabraunerde-Pseudogley (Luvisol-Planosol). The total variation in TF(SP) from 54 sampling sites was a factor of 43 (grain) and 18 (straw). However, the values did not reach the calculation basis of the German Regulatory Guide of 0.05 (Allgemeine Berechnungsgrundlage). The maximum TF(SP) for 134/137Cs in grain of 0.026 is clearly below that limit. A drastic increase of radioactivity in sewage sludge was observed in Upper Swabia. In the Tannheim sewage plant a radiocaesium content of about 12,500 Bq/kg dry matter was measured. In order to obtain further information on the possible radioecological consequences of using this sewage sludge as fertilizer a lysimeter study was carried out with application of the contaminated sewage sludge. Radioactivity in soil and several crops was measured for the growing periods 1989 and 1990. Although the soil type ('worst-case model') could have led one to expect high TF(SP) the increase of radiocaesium in plants was quite small. A higher uptake of radiocaesium by plants is caused by varying the potassium contents of the soil rather than by the application of the contaminated sewage sludge. (orig./HP)

    1. Risk and preventive factors for fatalities in All-terrain Vehicle Accidents in New Zealand.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Shulruf, Boaz; Balemi, Andrew

      2010-03-01

      All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) have been used in agriculture for a few decades now. Yet despite their invaluable contribution to the productivity of the agricultural industry they are associated with a large number of accidents, many of which result in a severe or fatal outcome. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for ATV-related fatal injuries in order to support the design of effective interventions. Using data held by the Department of Labour, the current study analysed 355 cases of serious harm accidents associated with ATVs including 45 fatalities. The findings suggest that injuries are more likely to occur when accidents involve any of the following: children under the age of 10; four-wheel drive ATVs; driving downhill; driving on a sealed road; driving backwards; or if the ATV rolls sideways. A fatal outcome is more likely to occur when ATV accidents end up with the vehicle rolling over and pinning the driver underneath. Fatalities were also associated with injuries to the head, neck and chest. Being employed; and/or having formal training; and/or having brakes and tyres well maintained on the ATV; and/or having no fluid load on the ATV reduced the risk for fatality. Since the likelihood of a fatal outcome was found to be related to human behaviour and ATV rollover, it is suggested that interventions should mainly address these two issues. PMID:20159086

    2. Analytical and experimental investigations of the passive heat transport in HTRs under severe accident conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Thermodynamic accident analyses have been performed with computer simulation models to investigate core heatup sequences, sensitivity analyses, power variations, anticipated transients without scram, and core displacement considerations for probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) of small gas-cooled high-temperature reactors (e.g. HTR-Module). In worst case considerations where not only a loss of the active heat removal system is assumed but also a loss of the vessel cooling system, the heat would be transported into the surrounding concrete structure. In such a case the concrete would act as a natural long-term intermediate heat storage dissipating the heat through the concrete surface. Large scale and reactor safety experiments have been performed to investigate passive heat transport mechanisms -- which can cooldown a HIR core during severe accident conditions -- for validation basis of computer simulation codes used for accident analyses. In general, the comparisons of experimental and analytical results with computer calculations of the heat transport codes are in good agreement

    3. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

      2013-09-01

      As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

    4. Investigations of postulated accident sequences for the Fort St. Vrain HTGR

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The systems analysis capability of the ORNL HTGR Safety analysis research program includes a family of computer codes: an overall plant NSSS simulation (ORTAP), and detailed component codes for investigating core neutronic accidents (CORTAP), shutdown emergency-cooling accidents via a 3-dimensional core model (ORECA), and once-through steam generator transients (BLAST). The component codes can either be run independently or in the overall NSSS code. Verification efforts have consisted primarily of using existing Fort St. Vrain reactor dynamics data to compare against code predictions. Comparisons of core thermal conditions made for reactor scrams from power levels between 30 and 50% showed good agreement. An optimization program was used to rationalize the difference between the predicted and measured refueling region outlet temperatures, and, in general, excellent agreement was attained by adjustment of models and parameters within their uncertainty ranges. However, more work is required to establish a unique and valid set of models

    5. Severe human factor accidents and their management in a in-service nuclear Power plant

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is an important part of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in a nuclear power plant (NPP). It can be used to evaluate and quantify the behaviors of the operators in a post-accident response. The paper picks up the serious human factor event sequences that contribute more than 5% to the overall Core Damage Frequency (CDF) involved in PSA through a HRA analysis on a domestic PWR. The basic human error probabilities (BHEPs) of these human factor event sequences are resulted, on the basis of which the actions of the operators within the main control room (MCR) after the accidents are analyzed and their criticalities are arranged in order. The paper, from the point of engineering management,puts forward the measures to improve the corresponding emergency operating procedures (EOPs) and the MCR surroundings through analyzing serious human factor event sequence arrangement and the actions of operators in the post-accident interferences. With regard to the operator's interferences of high criticality the NPP should enforce training and improve its ability of interferences. (authors)

    6. The role of social and psychological factors in radiation protection after accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The inclusion of social and psychological factors in the justification and optimisation of intervention after an accident requires identification of the relevant factors and their appropriate quantification. Recent studies suggest a possible approach. Some social and psychological factors either influence the consequences of radiation protection countermeasures, or are direct consequences of those measures. Such factors can be grouped into those that alter the dose-effectiveness of a countermeasure, those that extend the need for countermeasures in time or space, and those that fall into neither of the first two categories. Factors of the first two types can be quantified in terms of changes to the anticipated averted dose and monetary cost of a countermeasure. Quantification of the third type is currently difficult, but the existence of structural models for applications in social psychology suggests that such models could be developed for radiation protection in the future. (author)

    7. The Use of LS-DYNA in the Columbia Accident Investigation and Return to Flight Activities

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gabrys, Jonathan; Schatz, Josh; Carney, Kelly; Melis, Matthew; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.

      2004-01-01

      During the launch of the Space Shuttle Columbia on January 16, 2003, foam originating from the external tank impacted the shuttle's left wing 81 seconds after lift-off. Then on February 1st, Space Shuttle Columbia broke-up during re-entry. In the weeks that followed, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board had formed various teams to investigate every aspect of the tragedy. One of these teams was the Impact Analysis Team, which was asked to investigate the foam impact on the wing leading edge. This paper will describe the approach and methodology used by the team to support the accident investigation, and more specifically the use of LS-DYNA for analyzing the foam impact event. Due to the success of the analytical predictions, the impact analysis team has also been asked to support Return to Flight activities. These activities will analyze a far broader range of impact events, but not with just foam and not only on the wing leading edge. The debris list has expanded and so have the possible impact locations. This paper will discuss the Return to Flight activities and the use of LS-DYNA to support them.

    8. Status of ANL out-of-pile investigations of severe accident phenomena for liquid metal reactors

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Research addressing LMFBR whole core accidents has been terminated, and there is now emphasis on quantifying reactivity feedbacks, and in particular enhancing negative feedback, so that advanced LMR designs will provide inherently safe operation. The status of recent HCDA-related laboratory research performed at ANL, up to the time that such activities were no longer needed to support CRBR licensing, is described. Included are descriptions of programs addressing sodium channel voiding, fuel sweepout, fuel dispersal and plugging, boiled-up pool, UO2/sodium FCI, and debris coolability. Descriptions of recent investigations involving the metal fuel/sodium system are also included

    9. Investigation of primary-to-secondary leakage accident on the PSB-VVER integral test facility

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The full text follows. The paper presents the main results from the test on primary-to-secondary leakage of 100 mm in equivalent diameter. The test was performed on the PSB-VVER integral test facility. PSB-VVER is a 4-loops scaled down model of primary system of NPP with VVER-1000 Russian type reactor. Volume - power scale is about 1/300 while elevation scale is 1/1. All components of the primary system of the reference NPP are modeled on PSB-VVER. Both passive (accumulators) and active (high and low pressure) ECCSs, pressurizer spray and relief circuits, feed water system and atmospheric dumping system (ADS) as well as the primary circuit gas remove emergency system are also simulated. The primary-to-secondary leakage was simulated using an external break line which connects the upper part of the hot header to SG water volume. The break line included a break nozzle (a cylindrical channel d = 5.8 mm, l/d = 10 with sharp inlet edge), quick-acting valve and two-phase mass flow rate measurement system. In addition loss of off-site power at the moment when a scram-signal is generated was assumed in the experiment. Thus the accident is to be considered as a beyond-design-basic one. The loss of off-site power results in the following: -main circulation pump shutdown; -pressurizer heaters switching off; -HPIS water cooling flow rate and number of points of water injection are reduced The study focuses on the adequacy of the associated accident management (AM) procedure developed by EDO ''GIDROPRESS'' as a General Designer of VVER-type reactors. The AM-procedure was adopted to the PSB-VVER test facility conditions using CATHARE (France) and DINAMIKA (Russia) codes analysis. The AM-procedure in PSB-VVER is as follows: after about 30 min of the onset of the accident, when the accident type and the localization of the SG affected become evident for the operator, he closes all the main steam isolation valves, inhibits the ADS actuation in the affected SG and begins to remove the core residual heat by opening the ADS in one of the intact loop. The results show that AM-procedure related to the accident investigated is adequate to prevent core overheating. (authors)

    10. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at the plutonium reclamation facility, Hanford site, Richland, Washington

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m., a chemical explosion occurred in Tank A-109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility on the Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington. The Facility, also known as Building 236-Z, is an inactive processing facility located at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The explosion occurred when a highly concentrated solution of hydroxylamine nitrate (HN) and nitric acid (HNO3) auto-catalytically reacted inside Tank A-109. On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225.1, Accident Investigations. The scope of the Boards investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. This paper describes the accident, gives the three root causes of the accident and also six contributing causes, and discusses the major conclusions and judgments of need identified by the Board

    11. Investigating plutonium contamination in marine sediments off Fukushima coast following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident has caused large amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides to be released into the atmosphere as well as directly discharged into the sea. To obtain the vertical distribution of Pu isotopes in marine sediments and to better assess the possible contamination from the FDNPP accident in the marine environment, activities of 239+240Pu and 241Pu, as well as the atom ratios of 240Pu/239Pu and 241Pu/239Pu, were investigated in a sediment core collected from the western North Pacific in July 2011. The observed vertical profile of 239+240Pu activities and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios showed no extra injection of Pu from the accident, indicating no immediate Pu contamination from the FDNPP accident in the marine sediments in the region investigated. (author)

    12. Causes and risk factors for fatal accidents in non-commercial twin engine piston general aviation aircraft.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Boyd, Douglas D

      2015-04-01

      Accidents in twin-engine aircraft carry a higher risk of fatality compared with single engine aircraft and constitute 9% of all general aviation accidents. The different flight profile (higher airspeed, service ceiling, increased fuel load, and aircraft yaw in engine failure) may make comparable studies on single-engine aircraft accident causes less relevant. The objective of this study was to identify the accident causes for non-commercial operations in twin engine aircraft. A NTSB accident database query for accidents in twin piston engine airplanes of 4-8 seat capacity with a maximum certified weight of 3000-8000lbs. operating under 14CFR Part 91 for the period spanning 2002 and 2012 returned 376 accidents. Accident causes and contributing factors were as per the NTSB final report categories. Total annual flight hour data for the twin engine piston aircraft fleet were obtained from the FAA. Statistical analyses employed Chi Square, Fisher's Exact and logistic regression analysis. Neither the combined fatal/non-fatal accident nor the fatal accident rate declined over the period spanning 2002-2012. Under visual weather conditions, the largest number, n=27, (27%) of fatal accidents was attributed to malfunction with a failure to follow single engine procedures representing the most common contributing factor. In degraded visibility, poor instrument approach procedures resulted in the greatest proportion of fatal crashes. Encountering thunderstorms was the most lethal of all accident causes with all occupants sustaining fatal injuries. At night, a failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance was the most common accident cause leading to 36% of fatal crashes. The results of logistic regression showed that operations at night (OR 3.7), off airport landings (OR 14.8) and post-impact fire (OR 7.2) all carried an excess risk of a fatal flight. This study indicates training areas that should receive increased emphasis for twin-engine training/recency. First, increased training should be provided on single engine procedures in the event of an engine failure. Second, more focus should be placed on instrument approaches and recovery from unusual aircraft attitude where visibility is degraded. Third, pilots should be made aware of appropriate speed selection for inadvertent flights in convective weather. Finally, emphasizing the importance of conducting night operations under instrument flight rules with its altitude restrictions should lead to a diminished proportion of accidents attributed to failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance. PMID:25701648

    13. The Analysis of the Contribution of Human Factors to the In-Flight Loss of Control Accidents

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

      2012-01-01

      In-flight loss of control (LOC) is currently the leading cause of fatal accidents based on various commercial aircraft accident statistics. As the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) emerges, new contributing factors leading to LOC are anticipated. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), along with other aviation agencies and communities are actively developing safety products to mitigate the LOC risk. This paper discusses the approach used to construct a generic integrated LOC accident framework (LOCAF) model based on a detailed review of LOC accidents over the past two decades. The LOCAF model is comprised of causal factors from the domain of human factors, aircraft system component failures, and atmospheric environment. The multiple interdependent causal factors are expressed in an Object-Oriented Bayesian belief network. In addition to predicting the likelihood of LOC accident occurrence, the system-level integrated LOCAF model is able to evaluate the impact of new safety technology products developed in AvSP. This provides valuable information to decision makers in strategizing NASA's aviation safety technology portfolio. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of human causal factors in the model, including the contributions from flight crew and maintenance workers. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) taxonomy was used to develop human related causal factors. The preliminary results from the baseline LOCAF model are also presented.

    14. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

      OpenAIRE

      Afsane Zamanimoghadam; Karim Hamdi; Mandana Sediqi

      2014-01-01

      The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-...

    15. Fukushima nuclear accident independent investigation commission by the National Diet of Japan

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      After the Fukushima nuclear accident, Independent Investigation Commission (IIC) was firstly established in constitutional government by the National Diet of Japan. This article described recognition of its necessity, its setup process, its framework with start from almost zero and about 6 months period and time, its basic way to proceed investigation and several obstacles and hardships, significance of openness to the public, web's communication and simultaneous interpretation (transparency) and basic philosophy of the report. Further significance of Diet's IIC in the democratic system and evaluation of the report were added. As a problem of separation of three powers in Japan, specific recommendations to the legislation of IIC and their future evaluation, nation's governance system problem and social responsibility of scientists and others were also discussed. If Japan were not to be changed after the disaster, Japanese future might be unreliable. (T. Tanaka)

    16. Test Plans for Investigating Molten Fuel Behavior in Coolant Channel during SFR Core Melting Accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The metal-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor system is expected to accommodate all credible malfunctions or accident initiators passively without damage to the core. However, the evaluation of the safety performance and the containment requirements for this system will most likely require consideration of postulated low-probability accident sequences that result in partial or whole core melting. For these sequences, some phenomenological uncertainties exist and experimental data are needed for modeling purposes. One such data need is concerned with the potential for freezing and plugging of molten metallic fuel in above-and below-core structures and possibly in inter subassembly spaces. The first basic data need is the properties for metallic fuel/steel mixtures such as liquidus/solidus and mobilization temperatures, as part of measurement of phenomenological data describing the relocation and freezing behavior of molten metallic fuel. Accordingly, plans for two different tests, one for determination of the liquidus/solidus temperature and another for determination of the mobilization temperature, are described in this report. Test plans are then described in the report for the investigations of the relocation and freezing behavior of molten metallic fuel in coolant channels, including possible chemical interactions of molten fuel with the channel steel structure

    17. An outline of the interim report of the investigation committee on the accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Interim report of the Investigation Committee of the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations (NPSs) was published in December 26, 2011. The Japanese cabinet approved ten committee members including the author in May 2011. The committee interviewed more than 400 people over a total of 900 hours of hearings with about 40 staffs consisting of administrative team and three investigation teams of social system, root causes of the accident and countermeasures to prevent damage expansion of the accident. Interim report concluded 'the accident at Fukushima NPSs was caused by failures of every provision against reactor severe accident'. The failures appeared on (1) function of supervisory system for emergency response, (2) Fukushima Daiichi NPSs on-site disaster response especially related with operation of isolation condenser of unit 1 and high-pressure coolant injection system of unit 3, (3) Fukushima Daiichi NPSs off-site disaster response such the government failed to make use of data on the radioactive plumes released from the plant for evacuations, and (4) preparedness against tsunami and severe accident management. Possible worst or best simulation cases were also discussed. With no human support available on-site, workers might not have been able to prevent the meltdowns. Final report was due at the end of July 2012. (T. Tanaka)

    18. Investigation of relationship between mental workload and information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks in NPPs

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the relationship between an operator's mental workload and the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and further to propose the information flow rate as an analytic method for measuring the mental workload. There are two types of mental workload in the advanced MCR of NPPs: the information processing workload, which is the processing that the human operator must actually perform in order to complete the diagnosis task, and emotional stress workload experienced by the operator. In this study, the focus is on the former. Three kinds of methods are used to measure the operator's workload: information flow rate, subjective methods, and physiological measures. Information flows for eight accident diagnosis tasks are modeled qualitatively using a stage model and are quantified using Conant's model. The eight accident cases are considered here are: Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), Steam Line Break (SLB), Feedwater Line Break (FLB), Pressurizer (PZR) spray and heater failure, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) trip, Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) failure, and PZR spray failure. The information flow rate is obtained for each diagnosis task by imposing time limit restrictions for the tasks. Subjective methods require the operators to respond to questionnaires to rate their level of mental effort. NASA-TLX and MCH scale are selected as subjective methods. NASA-TLX is a subjective method used in the various fields including the aviation, automobile, and nuclear industries. It has a multi-dimensional rating technique and provides an overall workload score based on a weighted average on six subscales using pair-wise comparison tests. MCH, on the other hand, is one-dimensional and uses a 10- point rating technique. As with NASA-TLX, the higher the score is, the higher the subjective workload is. For the physiological measurements, an eye tracking system analyzes eye movements related to the operator's blinking and fixation on Areas Of Interests (AOIs). AOIs in the simulator interface, FISA-2/WS, are defined to analyzed the eye movement data. Blink frequency, blink duration, eye closure fraction, number of fixations on AOIs, and fixation time on AOIs are analyzed as the physiological measures. The duration and the rate of blinking decrease when the mental demand of the task increases. Since visual input is unavailable during eye closure, reduced blink rates help to maintain continuous visual input when high levels of attention are required. With higher the mental workloads, the fixation time and the more the number of fixations for instrument observation both increase. Through the experiments, the relationship between the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and the selected measures is investigated. Results show that the information flow rate is significantly related to the subjective measures and physiological measures. In this study, the information flow rate of diagnosis tasks is in high agreement with both subjective rating scores and eye movements parameters related to blinking and fixation on AOIs. It appears, then, that information flow rate can be an alternative as an analytic approach for measuring mental workload. By using data on the information flow rate, we can predict the mental workload required for a task without performing experiments in advance

    19. Investigation of Occupational Accidents Induce Sever Injury in Fars, Iran from 2005 to 2007

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mojtaba Kamalinia

      2012-09-01

      Full Text Available Occupational accidents and incidents are increased in parallel of growth and expansion of industries. Implementation of preventive measures requires detailed analysis of accidents. So, the major goal of this study was analyze data on occupational accidents induced sever injury in Fars province, in the period 2005-2007 in order to use clues that would support political definition of priorities and strategies for prevention.Data were collected from 200 accidents registered in the Fars Labor Organization. Inclusion criteria were having an occupational accident during 2005-2007 and availability of the events records.Analysis was done using SPSS software (version 16.0 and descriptive analysis was used.The majority of injured workers (98% were male. Of the accidents, 79% were occurred in Fars’ capital. The most frequent occupational accidents and injuries occurred in private industries (97.5%. Most commonly affected workers were aged group 21 - 35. Results also shown that,84% of workers had low education under diplomalevel. Workers with experience less than one year (12 month had more accident (52.5% than others. The most frequent occupational accidents occurred in construction activities (construction building. Of the accident, 24.13% were occurred due to neglect of regulations and lack of supervision. Unsafe act and unsafe condition were causes of 21.68% accidents.Accidents analysis and assessment could be used to identify component causing accidents and to give recommendations for accident prevention. Some considerations should be regarding for preventive measures which included: implementing and evaluating training program and establishment of OHS system, as well as insurance position

    20. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Emerit, I.; Levy, A.; Cernjavski, L. [Universite Paris (France)] [and others

      1995-11-01

      Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 or 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study. In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation. 43 refs., 6 tabs.

    1. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 or 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study. In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation. 43 refs., 6 tabs

    2. The investigation on the public panic caused from the Fukushima nuclear accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      March 11, 2011, a huge earthquake and tidal waves in Japan lead to dangerous levels of nuclear leakage at Fukushima nuclear plant, the nuclear accident also cause public panic m many countries. To investigate the reason of the public panic, we employ the theories of sociology and psychology, analyzed that the public panic come from Ignorant Panic. Herd Behavior, Primacy Effect, Stereotype Activation Effect, and the superposition of these effects. In addition, we proposed three measures to the public panic: First, we should emphasize the safety of nuclear power and establish the positive image of nuclear power Second, we should emphasize the popular science of nuclear power so that nu clear power can be accepted in the public; Third, we should enhance the psychological intervention system for nuclear safe emergency and improve the effect of psychological intervention

    3. Investigation of the radiological impact of reactor accidents under probabilistic aspects

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      An analysis and conceptional investigation have been performed for the accident consequence model of the German reactor risk study. A dynamic atmospheric diffusion model is developed, which is applied in the first stage of the study to all distance ranges, and will be restricted finally to the long distance range. The wind direction and its variations are not taken into account in this model. The program set UFO-BAS calculates the time integrated nuclide concentration in air at any location downwind of the source. A further model which takes into account wind direction variations is being developed. On the basis of the proposals for the calculation of the health effects in the German risk study considerations on the storage requirements were accomplished. By means of these assessments a revised grid of parameters was evaluated. Furthermore, considerations were made for the implementation of an evaluation model, which will be developed by the Institut fuer Unfallforschung. (orig./RW)

    4. Study of Factors Related to Accidents Occuring during the Construction Phase of Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Projects

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      H Asilian Mahabadi

      2008-01-01

      Full Text Available Introduction: Construction phase in industries is a dynamic process that is naturally and intrinsically dangerous and as it becomes more complicated, the accidents rate also increases. One should note that without considering a model, one could not obtain useful and reliable information and method to prevent accidents. Therefore, to achieve useful methods for preventing accidents, it is desirable to consider a model. The general goal of this study was presentation of a model. A model is the reflection of a fact. In other words, it should be said that the model represents a system or process whose behavior can be predicted. Models are therefore used for understanding the behavior of actual terminals and show a theory in the way that covers important variables for describing phenomena and instead, ignore factors of low importance in the expression of those phenomena. Methods: This study was a research article conducted in 2004-2005 in the Assaluyeh region. Data was gathered from accident reports present in security and health records of the projects and also statistics present at the treatment centers. In this study, an analytical model (multi-regression was presented to describe the impact of effective and deep factors on the possibility of an increase in accidents leading to death, through measurement of the effects of independent variables on the dependent variables. For this purpose, the structure of 50 accidents that led to death were studied along with another 2700 accidents, and after studying the accident reports and related documents, observing operations and equipment, counseling with accident observers and an expert team of managers, supervisors and engineers, and simulation of some accidents, unsafe conditions and functions, mismanagement and use of worn out and defective tools, equipment, devices and machinery were considered as the four independent variables and the job accidents leading to death were considered as dependent variables. The relationship between independent and dependent variables, evaluation of regression coefficients and the test of different models were based on multi-regression analytical model and analyzed using Eviews software program. Results: The final findings of this study, while specifying the possibility of occurrence of accidents leading to death with the existence of any of the independent variables showed that among the independent variables, unsafe conditions and mismanagement have relatively more important roles to play in the occurrence of accidents leading to death such that in conclusion, these factors have been defined as root causes in the model. Conclusion: Since the adjusted coefficient determined for the model in this research was 0.99; that is, the specified model could describe 99 percent of changes related to the number of job accidents leading to death and it is only for one percent of other accidents that there was no justified answer. In another words, those causes were not seen in the model. Therefore, it could be concluded that this research as compared to similar researches gained more useful results. Thus, by omitting or lowering unsafe conditions and mismanagement factors, accidents resulting in deaths can be reduced.

    5. Investigating critical success factors in tile industry

      OpenAIRE

      Davood Salmani; Gholam Reza Taleghani; Maryam Mollaali; Arezoo Salmani

      2014-01-01

      This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine critical success factors influencing the success of tile industry in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among some experts in tile industry. Using Pearson correlation test, the study has detected that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between marketing planning and the success of tile industry (r = 0.312 Sig. = 0.001). However, there is not any meaningful relationship between low co...

    6. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine (Ecole des Mines de Paris, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France))

      2008-01-15

      The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and intractable, and methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. The number of methods in each group were four, three, zero, and two, respectively. Faced with the need to investigate an accident it is essential that the chosen method is appropriate for the system and the situation. Nuclear power plants considered as systems are tightly coupled and more or less intractable and therefore require accident models and accident investigation methods that are capable of accounting for these features. If an accident concerns the NPP operation as a whole, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. If an accident only concerns the operation of a subsystem or a component, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, or possible loosely coupled and tractable. The report provides a proposal for how these characteristics can be determined. The conclusion is that no specific method is the overall best in the sense that it can be used for all conditions. While it may be convenient, or even necessary, for an organisation to adopt a specific method as its standard, this should always be done knowingly and with a willingness to reconsider the choice when the conditions so demand it. In five or ten years we must expect that the methods developed today will have been partly obsolete, not because the methods change but because the nature of socio-technical systems, and therefore the nature of accidents, do

    7. Personal doses and effective indoor shielding factors from external radiation after Chernobyl's accident measured by TL dosemeters

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In order to estimate effective indoor shielding factors for external gamma radiation after Chernobyl's accident, personal doses were monitored in a selected group of employees utilizing high-sensitive CaF2(Mn) thermoluminescent dosemeters IJS TLD-05. During the first month after the accident the group which minimized its outdoor activities and lived predominantly in multistoreyed houses achieved dose reduction factor 1/4,5. The outdoor doses measured with TLD during the year and personal doses received during various travels to eastern Europe are also discussed. (author). 2 refs.; 1 tab.; 2 figs

    8. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rodrigues AN

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, sedentariness, metabolic syndrome

    9. The investigation on the mass media reports on the JCO accident in the major atomic energy countries and Asian countries

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The JCO (Japan Conversion Organization) accident is the worst one in the history of the atomic energy developments in Japan. The many reports about the accident appeared in the 44 mass media in the world from Sep. 30 to Oct. 14, 1999. Chronological statistics of issued 522 articles are listed under particular criteria. Some of them were based on wrong knowledge and/or overestimations about the accident based on delivered articles by the news agency. Some of others gave critics over the total atomic energy industries of Japan, especially on safety managements and so-called similar Japan syndromes. This investigation gives emphasis on the articles based on wrong knowledge. We identified the countries and the newspaper publishers and the news agencies those gave wrong descriptions. Total 25 articles used the words [explosion] and [fire], which were delivered from the Kyodo News Service. Some of the Asian newspaper wrote that a large quantity of radioactivity, radioactive material and/or nuclear fuels was released. Some other news publishers said the accident was happened at fuel reprocessing facilities, when the waste fuel rods were under cutting. Critics delivered in the individual countries were summarized, i.e. USA, Canada, France, UK, German, Russia, Australia, China, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Taiwan and the news agencies. One of the key issues is the exact information release for the press corps on the early stage of the accidents. The second point is to of the accidents. The second point is to recognize the different status on atomic energy in the individual countries, when Japan want to explain their domestic situations. Accidents of atomic energy gave many impacts on various aspects to other countries. Japan should understand the neighborhood by collecting world information on atomic energy and analyzing them. Summaries of 522 articles appeared in the mass media were attached in this investigation among the report of 180 pages. (Tanaka, Y.)

    10. Factors Associated with Nurses’ Intention to Leave Their Jobs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sato, Yoshinobu; Hayashida, Naomi; Orita, Makiko; Urata, Hideko; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Yumiko; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

      2015-01-01

      We conducted a survey among nurses who were working at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to clarify the factors associated with their intention to leave their jobs during the radiation emergency. We asked 345 nurses (17 men and 328 women) about their intention to leave their jobs after the accident. We also asked about relevant factors including the participants’ demographic factors, living situation, working status, and knowledge of radiation health effects. We found that living with preschoolers (OR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.02–3.44, p = 0.042), anxiety about life in Fukushima City after the accident (OR = 5.55, 95%CI: 1.18–26.13, p = 0.030), consideration of evacuation from Fukushima after the accident (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.45–4.06, p = 0.001), consideration of the possible radiation health effects in children (OR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.02–3.44, p = 0.042), and anxiety about relationships with colleagues in the hospital after the accident (OR = 3.23, p = 0.001) were independently associated with the nurses’ intention to leave their jobs after the accident. On the other hand, the percentage of nurses with knowledge on radiation health effects was relatively low among those who had the intention to leave the job and among those who did not have the intention to leave the job after the accident, with no significant differences between the two groups. Our results suggest the need for an education program for nurses regarding radiation health effects. PMID:25816345

    11. Learning lessons from accidents with a human and organisational factors perspective: deficiencies and failures of operating experience feedback systems

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This paper aims at reminding the failures of operating experience feedback (OEF) systems through the lessons of accidents and provides a framework for improving the efficiency of OEF processes. The risk is for example to miss lessons from other companies and industrial sectors, or to miss the implementation of adequate corrective actions with the risk to repeat accidents. Most of major accidents have been caused by a learning failure or other organisational factors as a contributing cause among several root causes. Some of the recurring organisational factors are: -) poor recognition of critical components, of critical activities or deficiency in anticipation and detection of errors, -) excessive production pressure, -) deficiency of communication or lack of quality of dialogue, -) Excessive formalism, -) organisational complexity, -) learning deficiencies (OEF, closing feedback loops, lack of listening of whistle-blowers). Some major accidents occurred in the nuclear industry. Although the Three Mile Island accident has multiple causes, in particular, an inappropriate design of the man-machine interface, it is a striking example of the loss of external lessons from incidents. As for Fukushima it is too early to have established evidence on learning failures. The systematic study and organisational analysis of OEF failures in industrial accidents whatever their sector has enabled us to provide a framework for OEF improvements. Five key OEF issues to improve in priorit Five key OEF issues to improve in priority: 1) human and organisational factors analysis of the root causes of the events, 2) listening to the field staff, dissenting voices and whistle-blowers, 3) monitoring of the external events that provide generic lessons, 4) building an alive memory through a culture of accidents with people who become experiences pillars, and 5) the setting of external audit or organisational analysis of the OEF system by independent experts. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

    12. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Afsane Zamanimoghadam

      2014-07-01

      Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

    13. First Annual Report: NASA-ONERA Collaboration on Human Factors in Aviation Accidents and Incidents

      Science.gov (United States)

      Srivastava, Ashok; Fabiani, Patrick

      2012-01-01

      This is the first annual report jointly prepared by NASA and ONERA on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the human factors entailed in aviation accidents and incidents particularly focused on consequences of decreases in human performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this Agreement is to generate reliable, automated procedures that improve understanding of the levels and characteristics of flight-crew fatigue factors whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and ONERA are collaborating on the development and assessment of automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases much larger than can be handled practically by human experts. This report presents the approach that is currently expected to be used in processing and analyzing the data for identifying decrements in aircraft performance and examining their relationships to decrements in crewmember performance due to fatigue. The decisions on the approach were based on samples of both the numerical and textual data that will be collected during the four studies planned under the Human Factors Monitoring Program (HFMP). Results of preliminary analyses of these sample data are presented in this report.

    14. General investigation of the reactivity behaviour of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors under hypothetical accident conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      To analyse the reactivity behavior of different high temperature reactors under hypothetical accident conditions, the specific design features of two reference plants are explained first. The description of hypothetical accident sequences gives and understanding of the physical processes and the quantitities which have the most important impact on the reactivity. Then methods and their mathematical realisation are presented which permit the investigation of the coupled temperature, fission product and reactivity behavior. The application of these methods yields different conditions under which recritically is possible or not. (orig.)

    15. Effect of radiation and nonradiation factors on the population health of the Mogilev region after the Chernobyl power plant accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Comparative assessment of the effects of radiation and nonradiation factors on the population health in 5 districts of the Mogilev region after the Chernobyl power plant accident has shown that deterioration of the population health in some districts, changed morbidity and mortality structure were due mainly to environmental pollution with chemicals discharged into the air and water as industrial and communal wastes

    16. Investigations related to the chemical behaviour of methyl iodide at severe PWR-accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The decomposition velocity of methyl iodide in aqueous solutions of boric acid has been measured at temperatures up to 423 K and at chemical conditions which are expected to exist in the sumpwater pool during a severe reactor accident. The decomposition was due only to hydrolysis which increased by the expected amount at high temperature. No influence of the cooling water additives was observed. Treatment of the available kinetic data indicated that the influence of polluting material expectedly present in the sump is likely to be negligible too. A possible exception may be the enhancement of the decomposition rate by particulate and dissolved silver. The resistance of methyl iodide to gas phase decomposition by steam and oxygen at 423 K was investigated and only slow decomposition in the order of 10-7/s observed which is explained by reaction with steel surfaces. Neither gas phase oxidation nor hydrolysis occur at this temperature. The resistance to oxidation is of kinetic nature. Gas phase hydrolysis is not possible due to thermodynamics. This was confirmed by the observed gas phase formation of methyl iodide from hydrogen iodide and methanol at 423 K. The kinetics of this reaction are best explained by two parallel reactions, one of second order with a kinetic constant of 1.25 x 10-5/kPa s, and one of third order under action of steam with a constant of 2 x 10-6/kPa2 s. (orig./HP)

    17. A abordagem sociotécnica na investigação e na prevenção de acidentes aéreos: o caso do vôo RG-254 / Sociotechnical approach to investigation and prevention of aircraft accidents: the case of flight RG-254

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Vitor Alexandre de Freitas, Cardoso; Henrique Luiz, Cukierman.

      2007-06-01

      Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta estudo de caso do acidente ocorrido com o vôo RG-254 da Varig, em setembro de 1989. Partindo de informações de investigações oficiais, publicações, material audiovisual, entrevistas com envolvidos no acidente e especialistas em segurança de vôo, os autores re-analisam o acident [...] e com enfoque sociotécnico referenciado na teoria ator-rede e no conceito de acidente "normal". O texto apresenta novo entendimento para a investigação de acidentes na aviação criticando a tradicional repartição de causas entre os chamados fatores "humanos", "técnicos" e "operacionais" e sugere aplicação do conceito de multicausalidade que não se restringe à mera listagem de "fatores contribuintes", mas que analisa as relações entre atores-redes envolvidos no sistema de aviação em que ocorreu o acidente. O acidente do RG-254 é descrito como sintoma do rompimento de relações entre os atores que atuam no sistema. Abstract in english This article presents a case study of the accident with Varig flight RG-254 in September 1989. Using as starting point the official investigation data, publications, audiovisual material and interviews with those involved in the accident as well as flight safety specialists, the authors re-analyze t [...] he accident through a sociotechnical focus, which is based on the actor-network theory and concepts of "normal" accident. The text presents a new understanding of aviation accident investigation and it reviews the traditional terms of investigation based on a rigid division between "human", "technical" and "operational" factors. It also suggests the application of the multi-causality concept, which is not restricted to a mere list of "contributing factors", but which analyzes the relationships among the actor-networks involved in the aviation system where the accident occurred. The RG-254 accident is described as a symptom of the rupture of relationship among those acting in the system.

    18. Accumulation factors and biogeochemical aspects of migration of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems in the areas impacted by the Chernobyl accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The accumulation factors of radionuclides, such as 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr, 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 140Ru, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce and 144Ce, in fish, mollusks and aquatic plants of the water bodies in the near and distant areas of the Chernobyl accident ''footprint'' were estimated. The dynamics of changes in the factors of accumulation by the organisms of radioisotopes of iodine, cesium and strontium was analyzed. (orig.)

    19. Investigation of accident management procedures related to loss of feedwater and station blackout in PSB-VVER integral test facility

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Highlights: ? Four integral test facility experiments related to VVER-1000 reactor. ? TH response of the VVER-1000 primary system following total loss of feedwater and station blackout scenarios. ? Accident management procedures in case of total loss of feedwater and station blackout. ? Experimental data represent an improvement of existing database for TH code validation. - Abstract: VVER 1000 reactors have some unique and specific features (e.g. large primary and secondary side fluid inventory, horizontal steam generators, core design) that require dedicated experimental and analytical analyses in order to assess the performance of safety systems and the effectiveness of possible accident management strategies. The European Commission funded project “TACIS 2.03/97”, Part A, provided valuable experimental data from the large-scale (1:300) PSB-VVER test facility, investigating accident management procedures in VVER-1000 reactor. A test matrix was developed at University of Pisa (responsible of the project) with the objective of obtaining the experimental data not covered by the OECD VVER validation matrix and with main focus on accident management procedures. Scenarios related to total loss of feed water and station blackout are investigated by means of four experiments accounting for different countermeasures, based on secondary cooling strategies and primary feed and bleed procedures. The transients are analyzed thoroughly focusing on the identification ocusing on the identification of phenomena that will challenge the code models during the simulations.

    20. Análise e classificação dos fatores humanos nos acidentes industriais / Analysis and classification of the human factors in industrial accidents

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Cármen Regina Pereira, Correa; Moacyr Machado, Cardoso Junior.

      2007-04-01

      Full Text Available O presente texto apresenta a evolução do conhecimento do fenômeno "acidente", mostrando a mudança do conceito do acidente como obra do destino para um componente do processo produtivo de qualquer segmento - industrial, aeronáutico, serviços, transporte dentre outros. O método de análise e classifica [...] ção dos fatores humanos nos acidentes é apresentado e discutido quanto à viabilidade de implementação. Finalmente, conclui-se que a forma atual e moderna para prevenção de acidentes está baseada na identificação antecipada das falhas latentes da organização e do sistema, e que a ferramenta apresentada contribui para a gestão proativa e conseqüentemente para a diminuição do impacto dos acidentes do trabalho no processo produtivo. Abstract in english The present text presents the evolution of the knowledge of the phenomenon "accident", showing the change of the concept of the accident as workmanship of the destination for one component of the productive process of any segment - industrial, aeronautical, services, transports amongst others. The m [...] ethod of analysis and classification of the human factors in the accidents is presented and argued how much to the implementation viability. Finally one concludes that the current and modern form for prevention of accidents is based on the anticipated identification of the latent failures of the organization and the system, and that the presented tool contributes consequently for the pro-active management and in the reduction of the impact of the employment-related accidents in the productive process.

    1. Análise e classificação dos fatores humanos nos acidentes industriais Analysis and classification of the human factors in industrial accidents

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Cármen Regina Pereira Correa

      2007-04-01

      Full Text Available O presente texto apresenta a evolução do conhecimento do fenômeno "acidente", mostrando a mudança do conceito do acidente como obra do destino para um componente do processo produtivo de qualquer segmento - industrial, aeronáutico, serviços, transporte dentre outros. O método de análise e classificação dos fatores humanos nos acidentes é apresentado e discutido quanto à viabilidade de implementação. Finalmente, conclui-se que a forma atual e moderna para prevenção de acidentes está baseada na identificação antecipada das falhas latentes da organização e do sistema, e que a ferramenta apresentada contribui para a gestão proativa e conseqüentemente para a diminuição do impacto dos acidentes do trabalho no processo produtivo.The present text presents the evolution of the knowledge of the phenomenon "accident", showing the change of the concept of the accident as workmanship of the destination for one component of the productive process of any segment - industrial, aeronautical, services, transports amongst others. The method of analysis and classification of the human factors in the accidents is presented and argued how much to the implementation viability. Finally one concludes that the current and modern form for prevention of accidents is based on the anticipated identification of the latent failures of the organization and the system, and that the presented tool contributes consequently for the pro-active management and in the reduction of the impact of the employment-related accidents in the productive process.

    2. Investigation into the March 28, 1979 Three Mile Island accident by Office of Inspection and Enforcement (Investigative Report No. 50-320/79-10)

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant experienced the most severe accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant operating history. This report sets forth the facts concerning the events of the accident determined as a result of an investigation by the NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement. The IE investigation is limited to two aspects of the accident: (1) Those related operational actions by the licensee during the period from before the initiating event until approximately 8:00 p.m., March 28, when primary coolant flow was re-established by starting a reactor coolant pump, and (2) Those steps taken by the licensee to control the release of radioactive material to the off-site environs, and to implement his emergency plan during the period from the initiation of the event to midnight, March 30. These investigation periods were selected because they include the licensee actions which most significantly affected the accident sequence and its results

    3. Report from investigation committee on the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Government's Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company published its final report on July 23, 2012. Results of investigation combined final report and interim report published on December 26, 2011. The author was head of accident accuse investigation team mostly in charge of site response, prior measure and plant behavior. This article reported author related technical investigation results focusing on site response and prior measures against tsunamis of units 1-3 of Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations. Misunderstanding of working state of isolation condenser of unit 1, unsuitability of alternative water injection at manual stop of high-pressure coolant injection (HPCI) system of unit 3 and improper prior measure against tsunami and severe accident were pointed out in interim report. Improper monitoring of suppression chamber of unit 2 and again unsuitable work for HPCI system of unit 3 were reported in final report. Thorough technical investigation was more encouraged to update safety measures of nuclear power stations. (T. Tanaka)

    4. Logit Model of Motorcycle Accidents in the Philippines Considering Personal and Environmental Factors

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rosemary R. Seva

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available The study aims to determine significant personal and environmental variables in predicting motorcycle accidents in the Philippines, compare the results with findings in other countries, and propose possible government interventions. Data were gathered from 177 participants through the use of a survey in a licensing center in the largest city in Metro Manila. Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of an accident from variables considered in the model. Three variables were found to be significant predictors of motorcycle accidents: age, driving behavior, and junction type. Younger drivers are more likely to be involved in accidents. The significance of age was unexpected because similar models found this to be insignificant. Driving behavior, specifically, committing violation predicts accident likelihood. Driving at t- and y-junctions also predicts motorcycle accidents. In the Philippines, a unique set of variables were found to predict motorcycle accidents. Although previous studies have established the effect of these variables to accident likelihood, the combination was unforeseen. Government agencies can focus on interventions directed at these three variables.

    5. Main investigation results on the forest radioecology in the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accident zones

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      As a result of the long-term studies of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in zones of radioactive contamination after the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents, the following trends were revealed: (1) High retention capacity of stand canopy with respect to radioactive fallout. This leads to high doses absorbed by apical and leaf meristems, ?-radiation giving the main part of the dose; (2) Fast self-decontamination of crowns during the growth period and relatively slow decontamination in the phase of physiological rest, regardless of amount of atmospheric precipitation. The rate of crown decontamination determines the value and duration of radiation stress on woody plants; (3) Accumulation not less than 95% of the total radionuclide amount in the forest litter 1-2 years after the cessation of radioactive fallout; (4) Relatively slow migration of strontium and cesium radionuclides along the forest soil profile; (5) High capacity of the forest when serving as a biogeochemical barrier to the routes of horizontal and vertical radionuclide migration and export out of the zone of initial contamination, including migration into the river water; (6) Considerable difference between strontium and cesium when migrating in forest soils and in the soil-plant system; (7) Broad variations in transfer factors for uptake of cesium-137 from soil into forest plants depending on the plant species and soil type. The primary radiobiological effects connected with irradiation of organiscts connected with irradiation of organisms are considered and secondary disturbances due to changes of ecological bonds between the components of irradiated forest ecosystem are discussed

    6. Human factors identification and classification related to accidents'causality on hand injuries in the manufacturing industry.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Reyes-Martínez, Rosa María; Maldonado-Macías, Aide; Prado-León, Lilia Roselia

      2012-01-01

      The causes of occupational accidents from the perspective of human factors have been a subject which has received little attention into the field of scientific research. The aim of this research was to identify and classify the human factors that influence human errors and failures that cause accidents and injuries specifically on hands. Available studies related to the topic have been developed mainly for aerospace applications and are found insufficient to explain accidents causalities in the manufacturing industry. This research was developed in the assembly industry of automotive harnesses and was conducted following a mixed Cognitive Anthropological approach. This study was developed in two phases. During the first qualitative phase, participants freely listed their knowledge to identify elements of the cultural domain, then and in the second phase they performed the successive pile sort technique for the collection data to classify elements in the cultural domain. Statistical models like Cluster Analysis and Multidimensional Scaling were applied for results' validation purposes. As results, 70 different human factors were identified and in the second phase they were classified into 4 main categories which were: human error, unsafe conditions, individual factors, and organizational factors. Statistical methods validated these results. PMID:22317198

    7. Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity to fragment. The molten fuel-coolant mixtures with a binary oxidic core melt (UO2-ZrO2) may feature low triggerability and low explosivity. The mechanical-to-thermal conversion ratio may be very low. The presence of metallic component in the melt may significantly enhance triggerability and explosivity of molten corium. The characteristics of melt spreading into 2-D channel are much different from those into 1-D channel. The evaluations of spreading parameters in reactor accident situations would be strongly affected by the uncertainties in the boundary conditions of the melt spreading process, such as downward heat removal and of upward heat removal in case of core melt spreading under water. Computer codes were developed and validated against the data obtained in the MSWI Project. The Multiphase Eulerian Lagrangian Transport code (MELT-313) was validated to investigate the hydrodynamics during the premixing process of jet penetrating into a water pool. The FlowLab code employing the multi-fluid multi-phase Lattice-Boltzmann method was developed and validated. In the Lattice-Boltzmann approach, no special treatment is needed to track the interface. A scaling technology was developed to describe the spreading efficiency of melt into I -D channel. The melt vessel interaction thermal analysis (MVITA) code describes the process of melt pool formation, melt pool convection and the resulting vessel thermal loadings. A gap cooling model and model representing penetrations were incorporated into this code. The code was coupled with ANSYS code, which performs structure analysis. Thus a coupled thermal and mechanical analysis of the loadings of a pressure vessel during the melt-vessel interaction, could be performed

    8. Long term effects of Minks of the radiation factors from the Chernobyl accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The study of small radiation dose influence on human and animal reproductive functions becomes more and more topical after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident. In the number of cases, animals that reside in continues internal, as well as external exposure zone, have pregnancy interruption in its early stages (up to 30 days). This, without any doubts testifies for reproductive process disorder as a whole (hypophysis-ovary-uterus system) and also, as its separate links. The important thing is that a break in any one of those links leads to pregnancy interruption. Hence, in order to determine any disorders in reproductive system functional state, profound and detailed morphofunctional study of the system links (accounting for radiation exposure factors) needs to be done. Because research in this field has just started, we were unable to find any material on this topic. There are, however, some references for morphofunctional changes of endocrine glands, hypophysis in particular and sex glands, refereed to small radiation doses

    9. Investigation of an accident in a resins manufacturing site: The role of accelerator on polymerisation of methyl methacrylate

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Highlights: • The accelerator produces an increase in the initial rate of polymerisation. • The accelerator increases the extent of polymerisation in certain conditions. • The accelerator decreases the induction time due to the presence of inhibitor. • Runaway reaction is more likely to occur in presence of the accelerator. • The experimental data support the hypothesis about the accident. - Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of an accelerator on the polymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA). This study is based on the results of an investigation of an accident in a manufacturing site for resins located in the United Kingdom. As sequence of event to cause the accident the following was assumed: during an unattended batch process a runaway undesired polymerisation of methyl methacrylate occurred, generating rapid vaporisation of monomer, which in contact with an ignition source, led to an explosion followed by a fire. Since no initiator for the polymerisation reaction had been jet added to the blend, it was supposed that the accelerator contributed to the onset of the undesired polymerisation. The accelerator involved in the accident t has therefore been tested by differential scanning calorimetry and adiabatic calorimetry. The experimental data allowed the authors to prove the hypothesis made and to define safety ranges for the polymerisation reaction

    10. Investigation of critical safety function 'Integrity' in case of Steam Line Break accident for WWER 1000/V320

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In this paper are presented the results of investigation of critical safety function 'Integrity' in case of Steam Line Break accident. The investigation has been done in supporting of Symptom Based Emergency Operating Procedures for WWER1000/V320. This kind of analyses are designed to provide the response of monitored plant parameters to identify symptoms available to the operators, timing of the loss of critical safety functions and timing of operator actions to avoid the loss of critical safety functions or core damage. RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been used to simulate the Steam Line Break accident in a WWER1000 NPP model. This model was developed and validated at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy for analyses of operational occurrences, abnormal events, and design bases scenarios. The model provides a significant analytical capability for the specialists working in the field of NPP safety (Authors)

    11. Radioecological investigations in the ecosystem of the Black Sea following the Chernobyl accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs measured in the Black Sea before and after the Chernobyl accident were compared. The majority of the radionuclides after the accident was brought to the Black Sea with precipitations in late April and in May 1986. The radioactivity of surface waters decreased appreciably from the North to the South and was rather nonuniform. In the years following the accident, radiostrontium in the northwestern part of the Black Sea was contributed to appreciably by water from the Dnieper river. The migration of the two radionuclides in the ecosystem of the Black Sea and the effect of wastes on the processes of radionuclide redistribution in the shelf zone of the sea were studied. (B.S.). 19 figs., 12 refs

    12. Study of risc factors affecting the number of mental disorders and nervous system diseases for people who participated in liquidation of consequences of ChNPP accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Interrelation of disease incidence for liquidators and factors affecting it has been studied. The diseases (mental disorders and nervous system diseases) have been taken into account provided more than 10% of people have suffered of the above diseases. Date of getting into the accident zone; duration of work within the zone; the radiation dose accumulated were considered to be risc factors. Getting into the accident zone and duration of work within the zone of accident have been though to be the main risc factors. 3 figs.; 2 tabs

    13. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      NONE

      2004-07-01

      This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

    14. Evaluación de factores de riesgo en accidentes oculares graves infantiles / Assessment of the risk factors for severe ocular accidents in children

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Sahely, Sixto Fuentes; Acela, Boffill Corrales; Sandra María, Jalilo Hernández; Dayamí de la Caridad, González Pérez.

      2010-09-01

      Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar factores de riesgo en accidentes oculares graves infantiles. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación aplicada, epidemiológica, descriptiva, longitudinal y prospectiva sobre accidentes oculares graves en el Servicio de Oftalmología del Hospital Pediátrico Provincial de Pinar del Río ( [...] 2006-2007). El universo y muestra estuvo constituido por dos grupos de niños de 1- 20 años, ambos sexos y todas las etnias. Primer Grupo: Niños con accidente ocular grave, Segundo Grupo: Niños sin accidente ocular; determinándose una muestra total de 130 seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio simple. Fueron utilizados métodos empíricos y teóricos de investigación científica. Resultados: El trauma ocular representó el 87,8% de los ingresos de urgencia durante el período. Se encontró que el grupo etáreo de 9-12 años (40%), y sexo masculino (89,2%) fueron los más afectados. Un 76,9% de los accidentados residía en zona rural. El 96,9% se encontraba fuera de la casa y sin compañía de adultos en el momento del trauma. Predominaron las familias con conocimientos y actitudes evaluados de regulares en relación a los accidentes oculares con un 57,7 % y 60,8% respectivamente. Conclusiones: Se constató elevada frecuencia de traumas oculares infantiles graves en Pinar del Río, precisando sus factores causales de riesgo y dificultades en la prevención de los mismos. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the risk factors for severe ocular accidents in children. Methods: An applied, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and prospective research of the severe ocular accidents was conducted in the Ophthalmologic Service at "Pepe Portilla" Provincial Children Hospital, Pinar de [...] l Rio. The target group and the sample were comprised of two groups of children from 1 to 16 years old of both sexes and all ethnics. First group: children and adolescents suffering from severe ocular accidents. Second group: children and adolescents without ocular accidents; a total sample of 130 patients were chosen by means of a simple sampling at random. Empiric and theoretical scientific research methods were used. Results: The ocular trauma represented 87, 8% of the admissions in the emergency service during the period. The group of ages between 9-12 and male sex (89, 2%) were the most affected; 76, 9% lived in rural zones and 96, 9% of the accidents occurred out of the house without adult company; knowledge and attitudes towards ocular accidents were evaluated as fair in families (57,7% and 60,8% respectively). Conclusions: a high frequency of severe ocular traumas in children was verified in Pinar del Rio, specifying causal risk factors and difficulties to prevent these accidents

    15. Investigate sequence of Fukushima accident without prediction. Why isolation condenser of unit 1 was manually stopped promptly

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The author insisted on investigating sequence of Fukushima Daiichi accident Unit 1 without prediction to confirm whether pipe failures occurred or not due to ground motion, which could be checked by later inspection of containment inside. At 2:52 pm in March 11, pressure drop 2.4 MPa from 7 MPa to 4.6 MPa within about 10 minutes was abnormal compared to 1.4 MPa obtained by simulation without pipe rapture assumed. At 3.3 pm, isolation condensers(ICs) were manually stopped and that of system B was not operated again, which was told to follow operating manual requesting cooling rate less than 55degC/hr. Pressure was thought to be adjusted by steam relief valve (SRV), but was told by operation of system A of IC. SRV operation was recorded as not usable. Flow sheet of IC used for accident explanation was different from that submitted for application. (T. Tanaka)

    16. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Naser Azad

      2012-04-01

      Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

    17. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

      2015-02-01

      Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

    18. Investigation of genetic factors in multiple sclerosis

      OpenAIRE

      Lima Bomfim, Izaura

      2009-01-01

      Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease where the transmission of signals in the central nervous system is affected leading to a broad range of symptoms. The aetiology of the disease is unknown but multiple genetic and environmental factors are believed to play a part. While no environmental factor has been unequivocally established a lot has happened with regard to our knowledge of the genetic component of MS. Besides the consistent replication of associations with the...

    19. Immunological and epidemiological investigations in regions contaminated by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      We have carried out in Novozybkov district of Bryansk region, Russia, immunologic inspection of residents with simultaneous evaluation of radionuclides content in the body and individual dose burden. We have not found any correlation between the dose and immune characteristics: amount of T and B lymphocytes, antibodies level. Only 3 months after the accident increased level of antibodies against thyroid antigens, thyroglobulin and microsomes was found at thyroid doses over 75 cGy. 3 tabs

    20. An Investigation of Spray Performance to Remove Gaseous Iodine- Approach to mitigate the consequences of severe accident

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Younus, Irfan; Yim, Man Sung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

      2014-05-15

      New technological approaches need to be in place to address such concern which has significantly deteriorated public confidence in nuclear power. Such technological approach must be capable of systematically mitigate the consequence of severe nuclear accidents involving radioactivity release. An example of such approach is spray technology. In case of an accident involving radioactivity release to the environment, it may possible to deploy spray system to quickly respond to the released radioactivity and to minimize the impact of accidental releases on humans and the environment. During early phase of Fukushima nuclear accident mitigation process, water spray operations were carried out through fire trucks and military helicopters, but the primary concern of such operations was to cool down the reactor and to extinguish the fire and not to minimize the spread of radioactive materials. The aim of this research is to investigate spray technology for effective and efficient capturing of fission products released from leaked/damaged nuclear reactor to the environment. For this purpose, a systematic approach with in depth information about release phenomena and spray features will be required. Based on the information regarding release phenomena including types of materials and their amount and size, release locations, release conditions such as rates, velocities, temperature, etc., requirements for spray application is being developed including spray material types (foam, mist etc.), spray solution additives, flow rates, pressure, drop size, spray coverage area and spray duration, etc. Subsequently the efficiency and effectiveness of spray system to reduce the Dispersion of radioactivity in the environment during the course of severe accident can be characterized. This paper is a summary of our initial investigation for the use of spray technology to reduce the consequence of severe nuclear accident. An experimental investigation of iodine removal efficiency in a spray chamber is demonstrated. The spray solution of pH 13 was prepared by adding 0.5 % NaOH and 0.2 % Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}. At constant carrier gas flow rate, the iodine removal efficiency was found to increase with increasing the spray flow rate.

    1. An Investigation of Spray Performance to Remove Gaseous Iodine- Approach to mitigate the consequences of severe accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      New technological approaches need to be in place to address such concern which has significantly deteriorated public confidence in nuclear power. Such technological approach must be capable of systematically mitigate the consequence of severe nuclear accidents involving radioactivity release. An example of such approach is spray technology. In case of an accident involving radioactivity release to the environment, it may possible to deploy spray system to quickly respond to the released radioactivity and to minimize the impact of accidental releases on humans and the environment. During early phase of Fukushima nuclear accident mitigation process, water spray operations were carried out through fire trucks and military helicopters, but the primary concern of such operations was to cool down the reactor and to extinguish the fire and not to minimize the spread of radioactive materials. The aim of this research is to investigate spray technology for effective and efficient capturing of fission products released from leaked/damaged nuclear reactor to the environment. For this purpose, a systematic approach with in depth information about release phenomena and spray features will be required. Based on the information regarding release phenomena including types of materials and their amount and size, release locations, release conditions such as rates, velocities, temperature, etc., requirements for spray application is being developed including spray material types (foam, mist etc.), spray solution additives, flow rates, pressure, drop size, spray coverage area and spray duration, etc. Subsequently the efficiency and effectiveness of spray system to reduce the Dispersion of radioactivity in the environment during the course of severe accident can be characterized. This paper is a summary of our initial investigation for the use of spray technology to reduce the consequence of severe nuclear accident. An experimental investigation of iodine removal efficiency in a spray chamber is demonstrated. The spray solution of pH 13 was prepared by adding 0.5 % NaOH and 0.2 % Na2S2O3. At constant carrier gas flow rate, the iodine removal efficiency was found to increase with increasing the spray flow rate

    2. Trends in state-level freight accident rates: An enhancement of risk factor development for RADTRAN

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is concerned with understanding and managing risk as it applies to the shipment of spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Understanding risk in relation to mode and geography may provide opportunities to minimize radiological and non-radiological risks of transportation. To enhance such an understanding, a set of state-or waterway-specific accident, fatality, and injury rates (expressed as rates per shipment kilometer) by transportation mode and highway administrative class was developed, using publicly-available data bases. Adjustments made to accommodate miscoded or incomplete information in accident data are described, as well as the procedures for estimating state-level flow data. Results indicate that the shipping conditions under which spent fuel is likely to be transported should be less subject to accidents than the ''average'' shipment within mode. 10 refs., 3 tabs

    3. Occupational accidents and affecting factors of metal industry in a factory in Ankara

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mustafa N. Ilhan

      2012-08-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Objective:According to the statistics of the Social Security Institution, 18672 occupational accidents occurred in the metal industry in 2008 in Turkey. Whereas 78 of these accidents resulted in death, 252 people became permanently incapable of working. In 2008, 369677 working days were lost as a result of occupational accidents. Evaluating the reasons for and the results of accidents in the metal industry and contributing to the development of recommendations for prevention in accordance with the information obtained. Method: The study was conducted with 201 of 210 workers working in heavy metal manufacturing and construction in the building company between April 2008 and June 2008. Results: The frequency of occupational accidents among the metal workers was 22% between January 2007 and June 2008. The reasons for the workers’ accidents are listed as; insufficient use of personal protective equipment (44%, carelessness (37%, and personal reasons, not to be taken of security measures at machines and looms/ unsuitable machines (both 17%.Conclusion: The study demonstrates that the accidents mostly occur because of failure to use of personal protective equipment, insufficient vocational training. Key Words: Occupational, accident, metal industry, preventionAnkara’da bir metal sanayi fabrikas?nda i? kazalar? ve etkileyen faktörler Özet Amaç: 2008 y?l?nda Sosyal Güvenlik Kurumu’nun verilerine göre metal sanayisinde 18672 i? kazas? meydana gelmi? ve 369677 i?günü kayb? olmu?tur.  Bu kazalardan 78 tanesi ölümle sonuçlan?rken, 252 ki?i kal?c? olarak i?göremez hale gelmi?tir. Metal sanayisinde meydana gelen kazalar?n sebep ve sonuçlar?n? inceleyerek, elde edilen bilgiler do?rultusunda kazalar?n önlenmesine yönelik tavsiyelerin geli?tirilmesi amaçlanm??t?r. Yöntem: Ara?t?rma, Ankara’da faaliyet gösteren a??r metal imalat, konstrüksiyon ve in?aat sanayi ?irketinde 2008 Nisan-2008 Haziran döneminde çal??an 210 i?çinin 201’ine anket uygulanmas?yla yürütülmü?tür. Bulgular: Ocak 2007 ve Haziran 2008 tarihleri aras?nda metal i?çilerinin i? kazas? s?kl??? %22 bulunmu?tur. ?? kazalar?n?n nedenleri olarak yetersiz ki?sel koruyucu ekipman kullan?m? (%44, dikkatsizlik (%37, ki?isel nedenler (%17 ile makine ve tezgahlarda güvenlik önlemlerinin al?nmamas?/makinelerin uygun olmamas? (%17 belirtilmi?tir. Sonuç: Çal??ma, i? kazalar?n?n ço?unlukla ki?isel koruyucu ekipman?n kullan?m?ndaki eksiklikten ve yetersiz mesleki e?itimden kaynakland???n? ortaya koymu?tur. Anahtar Kelimeler: ??, kaza, metal sanayi, önleme 

    4. Modeling of the corium cooling and loading factor analysis for containment during severe accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The paper is devoted to the development and study of the mathematical model for corium melt interaction with low-temperature melting blocks in the passive protection systems (PPS) against severe accidents at the NPP, and learning the peculiarities of construction and operation of the PPS. The configurations of cooling blocks' distributions considered and the results of their work in the corium cooling pool are compared to the data of other PPS's conceptions. The conclusion is made that the models developed and the results obtained may be useful for constructing the PPS against severe accidents

    5. Investigations of transitional and accident operating conditions in models of fast-reactor fuel-element bundles

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In recent years it has become necessary to analyze transient regimes for coolant flow in fuel rod bundles in connection with radiation from both transitional regimes of reactor operation and accident situations, which are caused by failure of large elements of the coolant circulation loops. Two types of processes are distinguished: controllable transition regimes of a nuclear power plant safety system, and accident regimes which are accompanied by failure of the safety system. Much attention has been paid to examining hypothetical, that is extremely improbable, accidents. Thermal hydraulic calculations of similar regimes lead to the postulation of problems with combined heat transfer in the fuel element plus coolant system, and they are much more complicated that stationary calculations. Specific problems arise when the coolant boils in fuel element bundles. The nonuniformity of the coolant heating over the bundle cross section leads to boiling initially only in some of the fuel elements, while the rest of the flow remains single-phase. The goal of this work is to analyze the features of transitional and accident processes in fuel element bundles (up to the destruction of the fuel elements) and to determine the direction for further development of these efforts. It should be noted that the occurrence of a vapor phase in the core also effects its physical characteristics (the void effect on reactivity); therefore the problem is complex. Here attention is focused on the complex. Here attention is focused on the thermal physics side of the problem, because published investigations do not sufficiently reflect the actual state of the problem

    6. Investigation concerning influence of cosmic rays on criticality accident alarm system. Relationship between 'single detection' and cosmic rays

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) has been used in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories for about 20 years, and there is occurrence of the abnormal signal called 'Single Detection', as an operational problem of CAAS. Radiation Protection Division has investigated the cause affecting Single Detection', as well as reducing the influence of noises such as electromagnetic waves and power source variations. This report shows the result of the long-term observation with detectors of CAAS and describes that cosmic rays have high possibility to cause 'Single Detection'. (author)

    7. Reliability based investigation of design factors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      1978-06-30

      Second-moment probabilistic techniques are used to formulate structural resistances and loads and to derive reliability-based safety, load, and strength factors for design. Existing concepts of the second-moment reliability theory have been extended to the practical case of multiple load combinations. This development consistently includes the stochastic character of loads and the unpredictable nature of their combinations. For this purpose, a new technique for the evaluation of load combinations is presented, whereby the moments of the extreme of combined loads is obtained in terms of the moments of individual loads and parameters describing their random fluctuations in time. Reliability-based safety, load, and strength factors are derived in terms of the acceptable level of risk, the coefficients of variation of the loads and resistance, uncertainties associated with errors in modeling and estimation, and a set of parameters describing the stochastic nature of loads and their combinations.

    8. Investigation of VVER 1000 Core Degradation During SBO Accident Scenario in Case of Pressurizer SV Stuck in Open Position

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This paper presents the work performed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) in the frame of the SARNET2 project. The performed work continues the effort in modelling reactor core behaviour during severe accidents such as station blackout (SBO) sequence for VVER 1000 reactors based on parametric study. The work is oriented on investigation of overheated reactor core behaviour in case of reflooding by high pressure injection system (HPIS) at different stages and gives the preliminary results for the ASTEC V2 validation as well as analytical validation of severe accident management guidance (SAMG) for VVER 1000 reactors. An SBO scenario for investigation of VVER 1000 reactor core behaviour has been used with the assumption of opening the pressurizer safety valve and staying in open position, which induces additionally small break LOCA. Based on the previously performed work at the INRNE for the same scenarios a proper time for initiation has been chosen a proper time for initiation of HPP injection. For selected scenario consequently has been performed calculations vary the value of selected parameters. It has been selected the following parameters: porosity (PORO), velocity of molten mixture when crossing a grid (VGRI), etc. It has been investigated the influence of spherical and elliptical ''bottom head and lower plenum'' modelling on core degradation progression. (author)

    9. Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" Risk factors for accidents in children: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Kurt Paulsen S.

      2005-01-01

      Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: Casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de Referencia Nacional. Participantes: Se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles. Mediciones principales: El instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: La edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite OR 15,04 (IC 95% 5,47 - 44,48, productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina OR 14,19 (IC 95% 0,72 - 276,33, instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7,82 (IC 95% 5,22 - 11,73 , cohetillos OR 5,26 (IC 95% 2,49 - 11,95, presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3,30 (IC 95% 2,02 - 5,25, cosméticos OR 2,06 (IC 95% 1,36 - 3,10, productos de limpieza OR 1,20 (IC 95% 0,22 - 5,82, medicamentos OR 1,12 (IC 95% 0,73 - 1,70. Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4,62 (IC 95% 2,61 - 8,20, trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2,04 (IC 95% 1,42 - 2,93 y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1,65 (IC 95% 1,15 - 2,36. Conclusiones: Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sope todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niñosObjectives: To identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: Case and control incidents. Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uria, a third-level paediatric hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and 400 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, persons responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumstances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5.4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR 7,82, firecrackers OR 5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR 2,06, house cleaner products OR 1,20, medicines OR 1,12, previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2,04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1,65. Conclusions: The main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by paediatricians or family practitioners

    10. Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" / Risk factors for accidents in children: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Kurt, Paulsen S.; Hector, Mejia S..

      2005-01-01

      Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: Casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de [...] Referencia Nacional. Participantes: Se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos) y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles). Mediciones principales: El instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: La edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite) OR 15,04 (IC 95% 5,47 - 44,48), productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina) OR 14,19 (IC 95% 0,72 - 276,33), instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7,82 (IC 95% 5,22 - 11,73 ), cohetillos OR 5,26 (IC 95% 2,49 - 11,95), presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3,30 (IC 95% 2,02 - 5,25), cosméticos OR 2,06 (IC 95% 1,36 - 3,10), productos de limpieza OR 1,20 (IC 95% 0,22 - 5,82), medicamentos OR 1,12 (IC 95% 0,73 - 1,70). Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4,62 (IC 95% 2,61 - 8,20), trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2,04 (IC 95% 1,42 - 2,93) y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1,65 (IC 95% 1,15 - 2,36). Conclusiones: Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sope todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niños Abstract in english Objectives: To identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: Case and control incidents. Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uria, a third-level paediatric hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and [...] 400 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, persons responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumstances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5.4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR 7,82, firecrackers OR 5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR 2,06, house cleaner products OR 1,20, medicines OR 1,12, previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2,04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1,65. Conclusions: The main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by paediatricians or family practitioners

    11. Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños. Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" / Risk factors for accidents in children. Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Kurt, Paulsen Sandi; Hector, Mejia Salas.

      2003-06-01

      Full Text Available Objetivos: identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de [...] Referencia Nacional. Participantes: se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos) y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles). Mediciones principales: el instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: la edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite) OR 15.04 (IC 95% 5. 47 - 44.48), productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina) OR 14.19 (IC 95% 0.72 ­ 276.33), instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7.82 (IC 95% 5.22 ­ 11.73 ), cohetillos OR 5.26 (IC 95% 2.49 ­ 11.95), presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3.30 (IC 95% 2.02 ­ 5.25) cosméticos OR 2.06 (IC 95% 1.36 ­ 3.10), productos de limpieza OR 1.20 (IC) (95% 0.22 ­ 5.82), medicamentos OR 1.12 (IC 95% 0.73 ­ 1.70). Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4.62 (IC 95% 2.61 ­ 8.20), trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2.04 (IC95% 1.42 ­ 2.93) y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1.65 (IC 95% 1.15 ­2.36). Conclusiones: los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sobre todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niños. Abstract in english Objectives: to identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: case and control incidents Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría, a third-level Pediatric Hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and 4 [...] 00 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, person responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumstances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5,4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR7,82, firecrackers OR5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR2,06, house cleaner products OR1,20, Medicines OR 1,12. Previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2, 04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1.65. Conclusions: the main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by pediatricians or family practitioners.

    12. Asthma is a risk factor for acute chest syndrome and cerebral vascular accidents in children with sickle cell disease

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Scott Paul J

      2005-01-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and sickle cell disease are common conditions that both may result in pulmonary complications. We hypothesized that children with sickle cell disease with concomitant asthma have an increased incidence of vaso-occlusive crises that are complicated by episodes of acute chest syndrome. Methods A 5-year retrospective chart analysis was performed investigating 48 children ages 3–18 years with asthma and sickle cell disease and 48 children with sickle cell disease alone. Children were matched for age, gender, and type of sickle cell defect. Hospital admissions were recorded for acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accident, vaso-occlusive pain crises, and blood transfusions (total, exchange and chronic. Mann-Whitney test and Chi square analysis were used to assess differences between the groups. Results Children with sickle cell disease and asthma had significantly more episodes of acute chest syndrome (p = 0.03 and cerebral vascular accidents (p = 0.05 compared to children with sickle cell disease without asthma. As expected, these children received more total blood transfusions (p = 0.01 and chronic transfusions (p = 0.04. Admissions for vasoocclusive pain crises and exchange transfusions were not statistically different between cases and controls. SS disease is more severe than SC disease. Conclusions Children with concomitant asthma and sickle cell disease have increased episodes of acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accidents and the need for blood transfusions. Whether aggressive asthma therapy can reduce these complications in this subset of children is unknown and requires further studies.

    13. 'The forefront' of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident investigation. 'Subject wise discussion' of technical committee of Niigata prefecture

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Technical committee of Niigata prefecture started' subject wise discussion of Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident investigation' since October 2013. Six subjects were chosen and discussion between committee members and TEPCO was coordinated by committee's staffs. First subject was 'seismic effects of main components caused by ground motion' and discussion was focused on problems of 'relation between station blackout (SBO) and tsunami' and also 'earthquakes and small size LOCA', which were identified by the report of National Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission. Tsunami photos might show tsunami arrival time at Unit 1 might be after 15:38 and later than emergency AC power losses of Unit 1 (SBO) around at 15:36. Real cause of SBO needed to be checked such as seawater pipe failures caused by ground motion. Hydrogen explosion might occur at fourth floor of reactor building of Unit 1 because the inside of the fourth floor was 'terribly damaged'. Maintenance hatch at fifth floor of reactor building was missing and white markings attached on metal cover of isolation condenser (IC) tank might be steam condensation marks, which might be checked by inspection. These suggested IC pipe failure at fourth floor of reactor building caused by earthquakes led to small size LOCA and hydrogen explosion. (T. Tanaka)

    14. Investigations of the behaviour of coated fuel particles and spherical fuel elements at accident temperatures

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      A post irradiation annealing test apparature was constructed for the measurement of fission gas release at temperatures similar to those to be reached in a HTR during a hypothetical accident. From examinations with existing apparatures up to temperatures of 18000C results were available about the load capacity of coated particles as well as knowledges about fission gas release and defect behaviour. These results were used to plan a series of annealing tests with spherical fuel elements up to 25000C. It could be shown that the (U,Th)O2-particles with high burn up will fail during maximum core heat up of a HTR only after some hours at temperatures above 24000C. (orig.)

    15. Investigation of the behaviour of packaged radioactive waste under fire accident conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      A study has been made of the behaviour of packaged intermediate level waste (ILW) when exposed to fire conditions so as to provide information to support safety cases for ILW transport and disposal. The temperatures used in the study were selected to exceed those that the waste might be subject to in fire accidents during the transport and handling of ILW. Four waste materials, immobilised in cement or in organic resin, with properties representative of a wide range of waste streams were included in the study. Tests were carried out on samples of both real waste materials and non-radioactive simulants, and also on full-scale (500 litre) drums of simulant wastes. The overall release fractions were low, even for external temperatures of up to 1000oC. Examination showed that the stainless steel drums were still in good condition and on sectioning, little damage to the matrix or decrease in its strength was evident. (author)

    16. Fuel-element simulator for investigating thermal-hydraulic accidents in water-water reactors

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      A fuel-element simulator should provide the necessary environmental parameters (thermal flux, and temperature at the cladding surface) and satisfy the requirements of reliability and modeling an actual fuel element, according to a formulated research problem. A universal simulator design, which could be used in a wide range of research, does not exist up to now and it is hardly useful in general. In developing fuel-element simulators to study loss-of-coolant accidents in water-water reactors, the most important condition from the modeling point of view is that the overall heat capacity of the simulator should correspond to that of the fuel element. The overall heat capacity and the temperature distribution over the reactor cross section determine the reserve of accumulated energy, which cannot be modeled by simply increasing the supplied electrical power. Experiments showed the magnesium oxide, as compared to other materials, is the best model of uranium oxide due to the closeness of the heat transfer coefficient and the thermal conductivity of these materials. Moreover, MgO has a high coefficient of thermal expansion, close to that of stainless steel. The construction of fuel-element simulators often uses boron nitride powder, which is densified by one means or another. Boron nitride has the highest thermal conductivity (besides beryllium oxide), but it has a lower electrical conductivity than magnesium oxide. These materials simultaneously fulfill the function of el simultaneously fulfill the function of electrically insulating the heating element from the cladding. The basic disadvantage of this design is that the simulator has no gas gap; however, this is compensated by its simplicity, reliability, and long lifetime. This article presents several test designs for analysis and solving problems characteristic of loss-of-coolant accidents. Test results from VVER-440 fuel rod simulators using 19-rod assemblies an presented

    17. Investigations on the safety of radioactive materials transport. Pt. 2. Modeling of the radiological consequences in the vicinity of an accident. Final report on the working package 2

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      One aim of this project 3611R03300 was to analyse methods and procedures accord-ing to state-of-the-art technology concerning their applicability to assess the radiologi-cal consequences in the near vicinity of a transport accident. The analysis focusses on the dispersion models used for the airborne radionuclides released during an accident. In view of the large amount of simulations needed for a probabilistic assessment of the accident's radiological impact, simplified methods to calculate nuclide concentrations and deposition rates for the near vicinity were searched. Additionally, conservative fac-tors were determined to convert the results valid for 150 m distance to the accident, which was the shortest distance examined in the Transportstudie Konrad 2009, to the near vicinity (20 m distance).

    18. Factors affecting vertical distribution of Fukushima accident-derived radiocesium in soil under different land-use conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan, triggered by a big earthquake and the resulting tsunami on 11 March 2011, caused a substantial release of radiocesium (137Cs and 134Cs) and a subsequent contamination of soils in a range of terrestrial ecosystems. Identifying factors and processes affecting radiocesium retention in these soils is essential to predict how the deposited radiocesium will migrate through the soil profile and to other biological components. We investigated vertical distributions of radiocesium and physicochemical properties in soils (to 20 cm depth) at 15 locations under different land-use types (croplands, grasslands, and forests) within a 2 km × 2 km mesh area in Fukushima city. The total 137Cs inventory deposited onto and into soil was similar (58.4 ± 9.6 kBq m?2) between the three different land-use types. However, aboveground litter layer at the forest sites and herbaceous vegetation at the non-forested sites contributed differently to the total 137Cs inventory. At the forest sites, 50–91% of the total inventory was observed in the litter layer. The aboveground vegetation contribution was in contrast smaller (137Cs in mineral soil layers; 137Cs penetrated deeper in the forest soil profiles than in the non-forested soil profiles. We quantified 1 soil profiles. We quantified 137Cs retention at surface soil layers, and showed that higher 137Cs retention can be explained in part by larger amounts of silt- and clay-sized particles in the layers. More importantly, the 137Cs retention highly and negatively correlated with soil organic carbon content divided by clay content across all land-use types. The results suggest that organic matter inhibits strong adsorption of 137Cs on clay minerals in surface soil layers, and as a result affects the vertical distribution and thus the mobility of 137Cs in soil, particularly in the forest ecosystems. - Highlights: ? Vertical distribution of radiocesium was investigated for 15 soils. ? Forest litter layer held 50–91% of the total 137Cs inventory. ? 137Cs penetrated deeper in forest soils than in cropland and grassland soils. ? Stronger 137Cs retention was observed in soils rich in finer-sized particles. ? 137Cs retention was lower in soils rich in organic carbon relative to clay content.

    19. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board's investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63)

    20. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Gerton, R.E.

      1997-07-25

      On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board`s investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63).

    1. Investigation of Various Essential Factors for Optimum Infrared Thermography

      OpenAIRE

      OKADA, Keiji; TAKEMURA, Kei; Sato, Shigeru

      2013-01-01

      We investigated various essential factors for optimum infrared thermography for cattle clinics. The effect of various factors on the detection of surface temperature was investigated in an experimental room with a fixed ambient temperature using a square positioned on a wall. Various factors of animal objects were examined using cattle to determine the relationships among presence of hair, body surface temperature, surface temperature of the eyeball, the highest temperature of ...

    2. Factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el anciano en San Juan y Martínez / Socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly. San Juan y Martinez municipality

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Olga Lidia, Benítez Pozo; Bertha Rita, Castillo Edua; Marielvis, Calero Benítez; Ileana Rosa, Hernández Pérez; José Jesús, Arencibia Sánchez.

      2013-04-01

      Full Text Available Introducción: el estudio de la problemática del anciano constituye un elemento de primordial importancia y aparece como un factor decisivo en las investigaciones médicas. Esto se debe al incremento de la población mayor de 65 años, calculada en más de 290 millones de personas con un aumento crecient [...] e en las últimas décadas. Objetivo: identificar los factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el anciano en el municipio San Juan y Martínez durante el año 2011. Material y método: se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal, el universo estuvo constituido por 615 ancianos que sufrieron algún tipo de accidentes registrados en hojas de cargo y la muestra de 300 ancianos, seleccionados por el método aleatorio estratificado. Se utilizaron como métodos la encuesta y la observación científica lo que permitió obtener una información variada y directa. Resultados: se obtuvo un predominio del sexo masculino, con edades comprendidas entre 71 y 75 años, las enfermedades asociadas que predominaron en el hombre fueron las del sistema osteomioarticular y en las mujeres la hipertensión arterial. La alteración intrínseca más frecuente fue la ingestión de medicamentos con un 90.2 % y el factor extrínseco los desniveles del piso con el 70.3 %. Conclusiones: entre los factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el an ciano predominan las enfermedades del sistema osteomioarticular, así como la ingestión de medicamentos y las barreras arquitectónicas (desniveles del piso). Abstract in english Introduction: the study of the problem of the elderly constitutes an essential element and it appears as a crucial factor in medical investigations, because of the increase of population older than 65 years old, calculated in more than 290 millions of people which is on the increase during the last [...] decades. Objective: to identify the socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly in San Juan y Martinez municipality during 2011. Material and method: a descriptive and cross-sectional research was carried out which target group included 615 old people having different kinds of accidents recorded on worksheets; the sample was comprised of 300 old people chosen by means of a stratified at random method. Surveys and scientific observation were the methods used collecting varied and direct information. Results: male sex prevailed, 71-75 years old; the prevailing associated diseases in men were those of the osteomyoarticular system and hypertension in women. The ingestion of medications was the most frequent intrinsic alteration (90.2%) and difference in floor levels prevailed as extrinsic factor (70.3%). Conclusions: among the socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly were osteomyoarticular system disorders, ingestions of medications and architectural barriers (difference in floor levels).

    3. Factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el anciano en San Juan y Martínez Socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly. San Juan y Martinez municipality

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Olga Lidia Benítez Pozo

      2013-04-01

      Full Text Available Introducción: el estudio de la problemática del anciano constituye un elemento de primordial importancia y aparece como un factor decisivo en las investigaciones médicas. Esto se debe al incremento de la población mayor de 65 años, calculada en más de 290 millones de personas con un aumento creciente en las últimas décadas. Objetivo: identificar los factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el anciano en el municipio San Juan y Martínez durante el año 2011. Material y método: se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal, el universo estuvo constituido por 615 ancianos que sufrieron algún tipo de accidentes registrados en hojas de cargo y la muestra de 300 ancianos, seleccionados por el método aleatorio estratificado. Se utilizaron como métodos la encuesta y la observación científica lo que permitió obtener una información variada y directa. Resultados: se obtuvo un predominio del sexo masculino, con edades comprendidas entre 71 y 75 años, las enfermedades asociadas que predominaron en el hombre fueron las del sistema osteomioarticular y en las mujeres la hipertensión arterial. La alteración intrínseca más frecuente fue la ingestión de medicamentos con un 90.2 % y el factor extrínseco los desniveles del piso con el 70.3 %. Conclusiones: entre los factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el an ciano predominan las enfermedades del sistema osteomioarticular, así como la ingestión de medicamentos y las barreras arquitectónicas (desniveles del piso.Introduction: the study of the problem of the elderly constitutes an essential element and it appears as a crucial factor in medical investigations, because of the increase of population older than 65 years old, calculated in more than 290 millions of people which is on the increase during the last decades. Objective: to identify the socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly in San Juan y Martinez municipality during 2011. Material and method: a descriptive and cross-sectional research was carried out which target group included 615 old people having different kinds of accidents recorded on worksheets; the sample was comprised of 300 old people chosen by means of a stratified at random method. Surveys and scientific observation were the methods used collecting varied and direct information. Results: male sex prevailed, 71-75 years old; the prevailing associated diseases in men were those of the osteomyoarticular system and hypertension in women. The ingestion of medications was the most frequent intrinsic alteration (90.2% and difference in floor levels prevailed as extrinsic factor (70.3%. Conclusions: among the socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly were osteomyoarticular system disorders, ingestions of medications and architectural barriers (difference in floor levels.

    4. Determination of transfer factors and effective half-times in several domestic animals for cesium 137 from the Chernobyl reactor accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In the wake of the Chernobyl accident contaminated fodder-hey and grass has been fed to cows, bulls, calves, lambs and swine (fed with whey). The problem was to decide if or not the animals could be slaughtered with confidence that their meat had contaminations below the legal limits. On the one hand, transfer factors fodder-to-meat and fodder-to-milk as well as the efficiency of radioactivity reducing additives had to be determined. On the other hand the correlation of live-animals measurements with the meat contamination was investigated. The correlation was satisfactory except with swine. The high-resolution Ge detectors have strong advantages as compared to Na detectors, though too expensive for general applications in slaughter-houses. 10 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs. (qui)

    5. Investigation of relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks of nuclear power plant

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In the main control room (MCR) of a nuclear power plant (NPP), there are lots of dynamic information sources for MCR operator's situation awareness. As the human-machine interface in MCR is advanced, operator's information acquisition, information gathering and decision-making is becoming an important part to maintain the effective and safe operation of NPPs. Diagnostic task in complex and huge systems like NPP is the most difficult and mental effort-demanding for operators. This research investigates the relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks. The amount of information flow is quantified, using information flow model and Conant's model, a kind of information theory. For the mental workload measure, eye blink rate, blink duration, fixation time, number of fixation, and gaze direction are measured during accident diagnosis tasks. Subjective methods such as NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) method are also used in the experiment. It is shown that the operator's mental workload has significant relation to information flow of diagnosis task. It makes possible to predict the mental workload through the quantity of the information flow of a system

    6. SIMBATH 1976-1992, seventeen years of experimental investigation of key issues concerned with severe reactor accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The course of the initiating phase of severe fast reactor accidents is determined by early material motion. In simulation experiments (SIMBATH, simulation experiments in fuel element mock-ups with thermite) the behavior of single pin, 7 pin, 19 pin, 37 pin bundles undergoing meltdown was investigated. Thermite (Al + Fe2O3) filled tubes were used to simulate fuel rods, while exothermal heat of the thermite reaction simulated the nuclear heat. The energy of 3.4 kJ per centimeter of pin length resulted in melting temperature of about 3200 K. SIMBATH is an out-of-pile experimental program with non-radioactive materials which provided the possibility to perform numerous experiments. The x-ray high speed photography used in the test enabled to visualise material motion and relocation qualitatively, and furthermore to gain quantitative results by additionally installed photodiodes. The results of the experiment serve as a database to evaluate physical phenomena relevant to be modelled by computer codes (SIMMER) and to verify the codes. The experiments were carried out either in stagnant sodium with an axial temperature gradient, or in flowing sodium, simulating unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) or unprotected transient overpower accidents (UTOP) conditions, respectively

    7. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Naser Azad

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

    8. Experimental investigations on the behaviour of main cooling pumps in loss-of-coolant accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      For an analysis of loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors the stationary and transient behaviour of main cooling pumps at the flowing of a single- or two-phase medium has to be known. Therefore experiments in decisive parametric ranges were carried out on two axial, in contrast to the original in a scale of 1:4 and 1:5 scaled down model pumps. The stationary experimental results show that the valid laws of similarity for the description of the pump behaviour H/H0=f(Q/Q0; n/n0) und T/T0=f(Q/Q0; n/n0) at single-phase flow are also relevant at the two-phase flow, if the volumetric steam content as well as the pressure are taken into account as additional parameters. The results of the blowdown experiments correspond to the stationary measured values as long as no critical flow conditions occur in the experimental pump. The essay contains the following chapters: laws of similarity, model pumps, experimental set-up, measurement techniques, stationary experiments (experimental results), transient experiments (experimental results), conclusions. (orig.)

    9. Investigation on the sodium leak accident of Monju. Sodium leak test simulating the Monju leak

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Shimoyama, Kazuhito; Nishimura, Masahiro; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Usami, Masayuki

      1996-11-01

      Sodium fire experiments were carried out two times using the Sodium Fire Test Rig (SOFT-1) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp (PNC) as a part of works to research the cause of the accident in secondary main cooling system of Monju. The purposes of these experiments are to confirm the leak rate and leakage form of sodium from damaged thermometer, to confirm the damage to the piping insulating structure around the thermometer and to the flexible tube, and to compare the temperature history of the signal from the thermometer between the experiments and Monju. In the experiments 56({+-}2)g/sec was obtained as the leak rate under the condition of ensuring the leakage pass in the simulated thermometer. This leak rate was corrected to 53g/sec to take account of manufacturing error of the thermometer between the experiment and Monju. In calculation of this leak rate, it is assumed that the annulus size of thermometer well tip is a nominal distance and pressure value to the leakage sodium is 1.65kg/cm{sup 2}G, which was the maximum one during the leakage of Monju. The behavior of signal from the simulated thermometer was very similar to that of the damaged thermometer in Monju and it was confirmed this temperature history could be sufficiently explained by moving of the temperature contact position of the thermocouple following the runoff of leakage sodium. (J.P.N.)

    10. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

    11. El Cuerpo Militar de Sanidad en la Investigación de Accidentes Aéreos / The role of Military Health Service in Aircraft Accident Investigation

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      F., Rios Tejada; B., Puente Espada.

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available La investigación de un accidente o incidente aéreo puede ser simple o enormemente compleja. El proceso de investigación puede conducir a la elaboración de un informe directo y conciso o lo más frecuente, significa un largo camino de recopilación, análisis, estudio y finalmente la elaboración de posi [...] bles conclusiones. En este proceso, los aspectos médicos, psicológicos, ambientales, psicosociales o ergonómicos englobados en el término genérico de factores humanos cobran una especial relevancia, atribuyéndose hasta un 60-80% de causas directas o coadyuvantes al mismo. En este trabajo se revisan los antecedentes jurídicos y base legal en la que se apoya la Comisión para la investigación técnica de accidentes de aeronaves militares (CITAAM), así como sus atribuciones, organización y composición, sus funciones generales y más concretamente las encomendadas al vocal médico de la misma. Desde su creación en 1994, la experiencia acumulada ha sido enorme, haciéndose mención de algunos datos de interés estadístico pero señalando también la labor de formación realizada y su proyección nacional e internacional, sobre todo en el marco de la OTAN. Abstract in english Aircraft Accident Investigation means a complex task in order to identify the major causes which lead to the mishap. Investigation process end in a technical report, which encloses a large amount of information and data gathering documentation, to be studied, analyzed and lines of inquiry establishe [...] d to finally produce the appropriate conclusions. Medical, psychological, environmental, psychosocial and ergonomic faces of the investigation are framed in the so called human factors, which actually leads to 60-80% of the causal factors of accidents. In this report we have reviewed the legal basis in which the CITAAM is supported, competencies, organization and composition, general functions and specifically responsibilities of the medical representative in the board. Since the establishment of the CITAAM in 1994 the experience accumulated has been very wide-ranged and we show some statistical data and work produced in education and instruction, as well as the national and international relationships mostly in the NATO frame.

    12. A limited investigation of the sensitivity of the containment source term to certain primary circuit parameters under PWR severe accident conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The sensitivity of the source term to the containment for a limited number of primary circuit parameters and phenomena has been investigated for three hypothetical PWR severe accident sequences. These sequences are: a large hot leg break with failure of electric power to engineered safety features (AB hot leg); a small cold leg break with failure of pumped ECCS (S2D) and a transient initiated sequence with failure of secondary system relief valves, power conversion and auxiliary feedwater systems and loss of on and off-site power for at least 3 hours (TMLB'). All of these are substantially beyond the design basis. The investigation is a direct continuation of the PWR Severe Accident Containment Study. Results are discussed in terms of the effect of a given parameter or phenomenon on the retention in the primary circuit, the physical form of the source to the containment and finally the parameters describing the aerosol size distribution entering the containment. For an AB hot leg large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) sequence the retention within the primary circuit is generally small and largely insensitive to most of the parameters considered. However, the particle size distribution of released aerosol material is sensitive to many of the parameters studied, and variations greater than a factor of 3 are predicted. The circuit residence time for a S2D small break LOCA sequence is higher than for a large break, and this results in increased retention. The size distribution and quantity of aerosols reaching the containment show strong sensitivities to many of the parameters studied. During a transient-initiated TLMB' sequence the residence times within the primary circuit are even longer than for the small break LOCA sequence. Calculations predict almost complete retention of the aerosol species and very high retention of volatile fission products. The retention of fission products is dominated by the rise in circuit temperatures following core slump, and this results in high vapour fractions being released into the containment. Fission product vapour fractions have been overlooked in containment behaviour calculations and may give rise to aerosol nucleation at the circuit breach. This could result in a bi-modal size distribution that would require careful assessment. The timing, and physical characteristics of the aerosol and fission product sources to the containment are sensitive to most of the parameters studied. (author)

    13. Investigation of hydrogen and fission product issues for containment safety assessment under severe accident conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The OECD-THAI (Thermal hydraulics, Hydrogen, Aerosols, and Iodine) project was commenced on 1st of January 2007 for duration of three years under the auspices of nine OECD countries. The project focuses on resolving outstanding issues concerning the hydrogen and fission products behaviour in case of a severe nuclear reactor accident. Experiments are performed in the enhanced-scale test facility THAI operated by Becker Technologies GmbH under the sponsorship of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology. The OECD-THAI experimental program contemplates a total of three test series and three additional independent tests, namely; He/H2 Material scaling (HM) tests, Hydrogen Deflagration (HD) tests, hydrogen Recombiner (HR) tests, one test on the interaction of metal iodides with Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner (PAR), one PAR poisoning test, and one aerosol material wash-down scoping test. The complete experimental program consists of more than 60 test runs performed in THAI test facility. The first three test series of the experimental program have been completed so far. In the frame of the project, experimental data have also been subjected to validation and further improvement of CFD and lumped parameter codes for containment safety analyses. The experimental data from HM test series have been analysed successfully with thermal-hydraulic system codes and 3D CFD codes. The results of this exercise has confirmed and extended the findings from the Iirmed and extended the findings from the International Standard Problem ISP-47. Test results from HD test series have also been provided for the recently launched International Standard Problem number 49 (ISP-49) on hydrogen deflagration. (author)

    14. Human factors issues in severe accident management: Training for decision-making under stress

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, there is a growing awareness that the decision-making tasks required for selecting appropriate control actions, in addition to guidance from formal procedures, also involve cognitive activities commonly referred to as judgment or reasoning. A project was completed to address the nature of the cognitive skills that may be important to decision-making in the nuclear power plant environment, especially during severe accident management. The project identified a model of decision-making that could account for both rule-based and knowledge-based decision-making and used it to identify cognitive skills for both individuals and operational crews. This analysis was then used to identify existing training techniques for cognitive skills and the general characteristics of successful training techniques

    15. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jovica Jovanovic

      2004-01-01

      Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

    16. Investigation of Countercurrent Helium-Air Flows in Air-ingress Accidents for VHTRs

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Oh, Chang

      2013-10-03

      The primary objective of this research is to develop an extensive experimental database for the air- ingress phenomenon for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This research is intended to be a separate-effects experimental study. However, the project team will perform a careful scaling analysis prior to designing a scaled-down test facility in order to closely tie this research with the real application. As a reference design in this study, the team will use the 600 MWth gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) developed by General Atomic. In the test matrix of the experiments, researchers will vary the temperature and pressure of the helium— along with break size, location, shape, and orientation—to simulate deferent scenarios and to identify potential mitigation strategies. Under support of the Department of Energy, a high-temperature helium test facility has been designed and is currently being constructed at Ohio State University, primarily for high- temperature compact heat exchanger testing for the VHTR program. Once the facility is in operation (expected April 2009), this study will utilize high-temperature helium up to 900°C and 3 MPa for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) depressurization and air-ingress experiments. The project team will first conduct a scaling study and then design an air-ingress test facility. The major parameter to be measured in the experiments is oxygen (or nitrogen) concentration history at various locations following a LOCA scenario. The team will use two measurement techniques: 1) oxygen (or similar type) sensors employed in the flow field, which will introduce some undesirable intrusiveness, disturbing the flow, and 2) a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging technique, which has no physical intrusiveness to the flow but requires a transparent window or test section that the laser beam can penetrate. The team will construct two test facilities, one for high-temperature helium tests with local sensors and the other for low- temperature helium tests with the PLIF technique. The results from the two instruments will provide a means to cross-calibrate the measurement techniques.

    17. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO1 and NISA2 that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident

    18. Effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway : A long-term investigation

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Elvik, Rune; FridstrØm, Lasse

      2013-01-01

      This paper reports the findings of two studies made eleven years apart in Norway (0035 and 0025) to evaluate effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway. The first study covered the period from 1991 to 2000, the second study covered the period from 2002 to 2009. In both these periods, large changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were found in the cities that were included in the study. There was, in most cities, a tendency for the use of studded tyres to go down. Effects of these changes on injury accidents were evaluated by means of negative binomial regression models, using city and day as the unit of analysis, and including more than twenty explanatory variables in order to control for confounding factors. The effects of changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were well described by an accident modification function (dose–response curve), relating the size of changes in the number of accident to the size of the change in the use of studded tyres. Accidents during the season when the use of studded tyres is permitted were found to increase by about 5 percent if the use of studded tyres was reduced by 25 percentage points (e.g. from 50 to 25 percent) and to decline by about 2 percent when the use of studded tyres increased by 20 percentage points.

    19. Investigation of evaluation methods for human factors education effectiveness

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Education effectiveness in accordance with investment is required in the steam of electric power regulation alleviation. Therefore, evaluation methods for human factors education effectiveness which can observe human factors culture pervading process were investigated through research activities on education effectiveness in universities and actual in house education in industry companies. As a result, the contents of evaluation were found to be the change of feeling for human factors and some improving proposals in work places when considering the purpose of human factors education. And, questionnaire is found to be suitable for the style of evaluation. In addition, the timing of evaluation is desirable for both just after education and after some period in work places. Hereafter, data will be collected using these two kinds of questionnaires in human factors education courses in CRIEPI and some education courses in utilities. Thus, education effectiveness evaluation method which is suitable for human factors will be established. (author)

    20. Theoretical investigations of the meltoff and resolidification process of fuel claddings during accidents in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      During loss-of-coolant-flow accidents in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors with failure to scram the fuel claddings will melt after boiling and evaporation of the coolant. The CMOT model presented here describes the subsequent process of relocation and resolidification of the molten claddings. The basic thermohydrodynamics equations of the two-phase flow of cladding material and sodium vapor are solved numerically by differential approximations in a Eulerian reference net. The results calculated by the model improved the insight into the dynamics of the cladding relocation process. Here are the main results: - Shortly after the onset of cladding relocation large waves of molten cladding material are generated. The motion of these waves contributes considerably to the material transport. - The dynamics of cladding relocation exhibits strong local incoherences. - The formation of cladding blockages observed at the ends of the fuel region is confirmed by the calculations. - In case of incoherent cladding meltoff less cladding material is transported upwards. - Cladding relocation strongly depends on the axial pressure drop and the underlying friction factor correlations. Recalculation of the R5 loss-of-coolant-flow experiment performed in the U.S. TREAT test reactor is in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig./HP) 891 HP

    1. Second report of the special committee on the investigation of the accident in a US nuclear power station, Nuclear Safety Commission

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The first report was published in May, 1979, by this special committee on the accident in Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. It was decided to publish the second report because the more detailed informations were obtained on the development of the accident regarding the operation of the reactor and the radiation control, and the technical evaluation became feasible. In this report, the features of the reactor and the background of the accident are described centering around the development of the accident in Chapter 1, and the matters to be examined in view of the safety measures in Japan are pointed out from the teachings obtained by the experiences of the accident in Chapter 2. However, the final technical evaluation of the reactor, the measures at the time of emergency, the problems of environment and location, the social and economic considerations and the plan of the repair are left as the subjects for the future, therefore the investigation will be continued hereafter to contribute to the improvement of safety in the nuclear power stations in Japan. The matters to be reflected to the measures for security in Japan concerning the standards and safety examination, the design of reactor plants, the operation control of reactor plants, the prevention of disasters and the study on safety are discussed. (Kako, I.)

    2. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report.

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      HØyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov

      2012-01-01

      A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity score, 3-dimensional reconstructions of the PMCT, and an injury pattern analysis. We describe how, on basis ofthese data, we reached a conclusion about which of the two victims was the most likely to have been in control of the airplane at the time of accident. Furthermore, we argue that all victims of fatal airplane crashes should be subject to forensic autopsy, including PMCT and forensic chemical analysis. The continuous accumulation of knowledge about injury patterns from “simple” accidents is the foundation for the correct analysis of “difficult” accidents.

    3. Beyond design depressurization accident in a medium sized HTGR

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The potential for the release of fission products during a beyond design accident in a medium size HTGR (HTGR-500) was investigated. The dynamic simulator for nuclear power plants (DSNP) modular code was employed in the simulation of a depressurization accident coupled with the failure of forced circulation in the decay heat removal systems. For such an extreme accident the maximal localized fuel temperature reaches 3050 degC, and within 100 hours from the beginning of the accident, 3.4% of the Cs137 inventory will be released from the fuel elements to the primary circuit, and 4.6*10-2% are estimated to be released to the environment. Fission products being swept from the primary circuit by the CO and helium released from the graphite matrix, prove to be an important factor. Although a severe accident scenario was assumed, the comparative consequence analysis point at a lower risk than the analogous light water reactor severe accident. (author)

    4. Medical Response, Search and Recovery during the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

      Science.gov (United States)

      Stepaniak, Philip C.

      2010-01-01

      On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during atmospheric re-entry on mission STS-107. After an event such as this, with high visibility and international interest, the operational challenge of recovering the crewmembers could not be underestimated. The Space Shuttle Program is organized to respond to a vehicle mishap using the resources of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT). On the afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale Air Force Base (AFB), Louisiana. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin, Texas Disaster Field Office (DFO). The Lufkin DFO served as the primary area for all operations, including staging assets and deploying field teams for search, recovery and security of crewmember remains. More than 2,000 people from numerous organizations were involved with the recovery of the crew. All seven crewmembers of STS-107 were recovered and ceremonial last rights were administered. Astronaut and military personnel escorted the crew with honor to the MIT at Barksdale AFB, Louisiana. At Barksdale AFB a temporary morgue was established in an aircraft hangar and operated for approximately two weeks during which time coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) medical personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. Families of crewmembers and NASA management were notified daily of the current findings. Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team developed and executed a short-term plan to identify and relocate the crew with a military honor guard and protocol to the medical examiner at the Armed Forces Port Mortuary, Dover AFB, Delaware. After operations at Barksdale AFB were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term plan was developed and implemented which involved the Air Force Mortuary Affairs at Randolph AFB, Texas. This plan was coordinated with search teams in the field, Barksdale AFB Mortuary Affairs, KSC security, AFIP, and the crew surgeons at JSC.

    5. Investigating internal and external factors influencing profitability of banking industry

      OpenAIRE

      Mehdi Taghavi; Hadi Noori

      2012-01-01

      This paper presents an empirical investigation to learn the impact of some internal and external factors on profitability in banking system. The proposed model of this paper introduces three econometrics methods to study the behavior of internal, external and a combination of both factors on return on assets. The proposed study of this paper uses Vector Auto- Regressive (VAR) and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) to provide estimation of the proposed model and we use historical data over t...

    6. Investigating Effective Factors on Iran’s Pistachio Exportation

      OpenAIRE

      Seyed fathollah Amiri Aghdaie

      2009-01-01

      The problem of Iran’s economic is depending on oil’s incomes, therefore to increase non oil exportation likeagricultural products is the main goal of country’s economic development program. The goal of this paper is to investigate effective factors in pistachio exportation and mentioned goal will be consider by variable factors such as export’s principle, aflatoxin poison, and packaging. The type of this paper is descriptive–cognition and the related information for this scope have ...

    7. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty

      OpenAIRE

      Naser Azad; Masoud Hassanabadi

      2013-01-01

      Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our s...

    8. Risk factors to cerebrovascular accident users in Hospital Geral Prado Valadares

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Carla Virginia Souza Santos

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the main risk factors for stroke in users of the General Hospital Prado Valadares, in Jequié / BA. We performed a descriptive analysis of observational retrospective approach, in 327 records of patients suffering from stroke in hospitalized HGPV from March 2003 to December 2005, since data collection occurred late in the second half of 2006. Of the records analyzed, 50.7% corresponded to females, and 26.9% of patients died and most developed only a characteristic sign or symptom of stroke (57.8%. 64.2% had a history of only one modifiable risk factor, and high blood pressure as found in the records reviewed (79.8%. It was found in this study that most patients with stroke were female, the presence of only one symptom, and only one modifiable risk factor, hypertension being the most common risk factor. From this perspective there is the immediate need for wider dissemination in the society about the risk factors for this pathology, as a means of preventing their consequences on the individual and the high costs to staying in hospital bed.

    9. Investigation of CET Effect as a SAMG Entry Condition under Severe Accidents of OPR1000

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      If the reactor vessel failure (RPV) failure time is delayed, the probability of achieving this objective of management becomes higher. Also, that whether the entry to SAMG is too early or too late can be checked in the aspect of how much action time the operator can secure. For these reasons, Park et al. studied the effect of SAMG entry condition on operator action time for prevention of RPV failure in the OPR1000 using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 computer code in detail. In this study, various SAMG entry conditions from the points of view of delaying RPV failure time and available operator's action time were investigated for OPR1000 using level 2 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) code MELCOR. From the point of view of delaying RPV failure time, SAMG entry condition when CET is 923K is the best for SBLOCA without SI and TLOFW among selected CET conditions. However, for SBO, the best result follows when the SAMG entry condition CET is 838K. For available operator's action time's view, there was no significant difference between selected SAMG entry conditions. For these reasons, in future study, the standards of CET selection as SAMG entry conditions and the relationship between CET and quantity of oxidation heat should be researched. Also, more SAMG entry conditions should be tested which is far more different from selected conditions, such as EDF PWR standard, CET = 1100 .deg. C

    10. Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing

      OpenAIRE

      Nina Ghane; Hamid Reza Shokrizadeh; Maryam Omidvar; Hoseyn Comyab

      2014-01-01

      This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. The study also provides several suggestions for marketers seeking to use viral marketing to position brands or to change a brand’s image, to encourage new product trials and to increase product uptake rates. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use prod...

    11. Numerical Investigation on Asymmetric Bilayer System at Integer Filling Factor

      OpenAIRE

      Nomura, K.; Yoshioka, D.; Jungwirth, T.; MacDonald, A.H.

      2003-01-01

      Deformation of the easy-axis ferromagnetic state in asymmetric bilayer systems are investigated numerically. Using the exact diagonalization the easy-axis to easy-plane ferromagnetic transition at total filling factor 3 or 4 is investigated. At still higher filling, novel stripe state in which stripes are aligned in the vertical direction occurs. The Hartree-Fock energies of relevant ordered states are calculated and compared.

    12. Experimental investigation of material chemical effects on emergency core cooling pump suction filter performance after loss of coolant accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Integral tests of head loss through an emergency core cooling filter screen are conducted, simulating reactor building environmental conditions for 30 days after a loss of coolant accident. A test rig with five individual loops each of whose chamber is established to test chemical product formation and measure the head loss through a sample filter. The screen area at each chamber and the amounts of reactor building materials are scaled down according to specific plant condition. A series of tests have been performed to investigate the effects of calcium-silicate, reactor building spray, existence of calcium-silicate with tri-sodium phosphate (TSP), and composition of materials. The results showed that head loss across the chemical bed with even a small amount of calcium-silicate insulation instantaneously increased as soon as TSP was added to the test solution. Also, the head loss across the filter screen is strongly affected by spray duration and the head loss increase is rapid at the early stage, because of high dissolution and precipitation of aluminum and zinc. After passivation of aluminum and zinc by corrosion, the head loss increase is much slowed down and is mainly induced by materials such as calcium, silicon, and magnesium leached from NUKONTM and concrete. Furthermore, it is newly found that the spay buffer agent, tri-sodium phosphate, to form protective coating on the aluminum surface and reduce aluminum leaching is not effective for a large amo leaching is not effective for a large amount of aluminum and a long spray.

    13. An experimental investigation on a lower head penetration survivability during a severe accident with external vessel cooling

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The integrity of the lower head penetrations may be breached by a melt attack during a severe accident in nuclear power reactors. The failure of the penetrations causes the release of radioactive materials to the containment and then complicate ex-vessel phenomena may occur. The penetration failure processes are two. One is the attack of the supporting welds causing the ejection of the in-core instrumentation nozzles and the other is the flow of high temperature molten debris through the thimble tubes. Although several investigations have been performed on the problem, the penetration failure phenomenon is a plant-specific problem due to the difference of the reactor geometry and materials. So, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) started the penetration survivability experiments on the KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor: Pressurized Water Reactor Type) which would apply external vessel cooling to lessen the probability of lower head failure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the survivability of the lower head penetrations during a melt attack with external vessel cooling. (authors)

    14. Investigation regarding the long-term security developments in the Swedish nuclear power and the response to the accident at Fukushima

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Swedish nuclear plants need to continue to work on analysis and actions in the plants, partly to meet the demands of legislation and agreed action plans, and partly due to additional security requirements on account of experiences from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, stress tests, security investigations and investigations relating to physical protection. It is also essential to continue with safety improvements to gradually increase margins against unforeseen events in aging plants during long-term operation

    15. Selection of the important performance influencing factors for the assessment of human error under accident management situations in nuclear power plants

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This paper introduces the process and final results of selection of the important Performance Influencing Factors (PIFs) under emergency operation and accident management situations in nuclear power plants for use in the assessment of human errors. We collected two types of PIF taxonomies, one is the full set PIF list mainly developed for human error analysis, and the other is the PIFs for human reliability analysis (HRA) in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). 5 PIF taxonomies among the full set PIF list and 10 PIF taxonomies among HRA methodologies (CREAM, SLIM, INTENT, were collected in this research. By reviewing and analyzing PIFs selected for HRA methodologies, the criterion could be established for the selection of appropriate PIFs under emergency operation and accident management situations. Based on this selection criteria, a new PIF taxonomy was proposed for the assessment of human error under emergency operation and accident management situations in nuclear power plants

    16. Accident management

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The foundation of the framework for a Severe Accident Management Program is the contained in the Probabilistic Safety Study (PSS) or the Individual Plant Evaluations (IPE) for a specific plant. The development of a Severe Accident Management Program at a plant is based on the use of the information, in conjunction with other applicable information. A Severe Accident Management Program must address both accident prevention and accident mitigation. The overall Severe Accident Management framework must address these two facets, as a living program in terms of gathering the evaluating information, the readiness to respond to an event. Significant international experience in the development of severe accident management programs exist which should provide some direction for the development of Severe Accident Management in the U.S. This paper reports that the two most important elements of a Severe Accident Management Program are the Emergency Consultation process and the standards for measuring the effectiveness of individual Severe Accident Management Programs at utilities

    17. The influence of cognitive factors on reported in-hospital fall accidents among elderly patients

      OpenAIRE

      Uleberg, Jorunn Kvalø

      2013-01-01

      Background: In-hospital falls among elderly represent a major problem for both the patient and the hospital. It can lead to serious physical injuries requiring surgery, prolonged rehabilitation, psychological trauma, fear of new falls, dependency in daily activities, and even death. In-hospital falls are one of the most common adverse events reported by hospitals both internationally and nationally. One of the most prominent risk factors for falls is cognitive impairment. The incidence of fal...

    18. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

      OpenAIRE

      Naser Azad; Seyed Mohsen Seyed Aliakbar; Seyed Foad Zarifi; Somayeh Hozouri

      2013-01-01

      Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies ...

    19. Presence equation : An investigation into cognitive factors underlying presence

      OpenAIRE

      Sas, Corina; O Hare, G. M. P.

      2003-01-01

      The relationship between presence and cognitive factors such as absorption, creative imagination, empathy, and willingness to experience presence was investigated. Presence was defined, operationalized, and measured using a questionnaire that we devised. Absorption and creative imagination were measured using questionnaires developed in the area of hypnosis, and empathy was assessed through an interpersonal reactivity index. Results indicated significant correlations between presence and each...

    20. Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nina Ghane

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. The study also provides several suggestions for marketers seeking to use viral marketing to position brands or to change a brand’s image, to encourage new product trials and to increase product uptake rates. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use product on virtual marketing. In addition, the study considers internal factors such as inclusion (the need to be part of a group, the need to be different and affection on viral marketing. The survey has been accomplished among 140 Iranian people, who were familiar with virtual marketing and they are selected, randomly. Using Pearson correlation as well as regression analysis, the study provides some evidences that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between some internal/external factors and virtual marketing.

    1. Accidente vascular encefálico: Presentación clínica y factores de riesgo / Clinical presentation and risk factors of cerebrovascular accident

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Marta, Hernández Ch; Catalina, Samsó Z; Raúl, Escobar H; Tomás, Mesa L.

      2013-07-01

      Full Text Available Introducción: La alteración focal aguda de la función cerebral en el adulto permite diagnosticar un accidente vascular encefálico (AVE) e iniciar precozmente el rescate de tejido cerebral. En los niños, las diferencias clínicas de esta patología en relación al adulto generan atraso, subdiagnóstico e [...] impiden el tratamiento en la etapa aguda. Objetivo: Describir la presentación clínica y factores de riesgo del AVE isquémico en 156 niños, comparar la presentación clínica según edad y tipo de AVE. Pacientes y Método: Se analiza un registro de AVE isquémico, confirmado con imágenes cerebrales, en población menor de 18 años, iniciado en Enero 2003. Resultados: La mediana de edad: 4,9 meses (33% recién nacidos, 46% menores 6 años y 21% mayor de 6 años), 64% fueron hombres. Los infartos arteriales correspondieron al 85% y el resto fueron trombosis de senos venosos. Predominaron los signos difusos (67%) en menores de 6 años (p = 0,001). Las convulsiones fueron observadas en el 61% de los niños menores de 6 años (p = 0,03), el 33% presentó signos focales. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron patologías sistémicas agudas y cardiopatías. En 14,7% no se encontraron factores de riesgo. Conclusiones: La búsqueda de signos focales agudos de AVE no tiene utilidad diagnóstica en el niño, a diferencia de los adultos, pues su ausencia no excluye patología vascular isquémica focal. La patología sistémica aguda fue el factor de riesgo más frecuente para AVE. Abstract in english Introduction: Acute focal brain dysfunction in adults serves to diagnose and to provide early rescue of the brain tissue. In children, the clinical differences of this condition compared to adults results in delayed diagnosis and treatment. Objective: To describe the clinical presentation and risk f [...] actors of CVA in 156 children and related to age and type of CVA. Patients and Method: A CVA registry of newborn to 18 years old was started in January 2003 were analized. Diagnosis was confirmed by brain imaging. Results: The median of age was 4.9 month (33% was newborn, 46% 6 years old); 64% were males. Arterial ischemic stroke represented 85%, the rest were cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. In the clinical manifestations the diffuse signs were more frequently seen (67%) in children

    2. The state of thyroid system in children born form the parents irradiated in the result of Chornobyl accident as a factor of dysmetabolic changes in the period of sexual development

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The purpose of the work was to reveal functional and structural changes in the thyroid gland in children of puberty age with clinical manifestations of metabolic syndrome born from the parents irradiated in the result of Chornobyl accident. The study involved 108 patients aged 12-17. The investigated parameters characterizing TG function and the state and the of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism became the diagnostic criteria of dyshormonal disorders revealed in children with puberty dyshormonal disorders revealed in children with puberty dispituitarism. The pathological changes in the TG can be a risk factor of metabolic syndrome development.

    3. Specific complex of non-radiation risk factors for socially significant pathologies could affect the liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Koterov A.N.

      2014-12-01

      Full Text Available The review considers the complex of non-radiation factors that could affect the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident: the demographic, social and professional group heterogeneity to warrant differentiation of risk, the effects of heavy metals, 'hot particles', chemicals, psychogenic stress, social dislocation in the post-perestroika period, alcohol abuse, smoking, and the effect of screening. All these factors tend to have a significant intensity, unlike the radiation exposure for the majority of subjects. It is concluded that the increased frequency and severity of some large socially significant pathologies in contingent liquidators may be due to a unique set of predominantly non-radiation factors associated, however, with a particular radiation accident.

    4. A Summary of the Space Shuttle Columbia Tragedy and the Use of LS Dyna in the Accident Investigation and Return to Flight Efforts

      Science.gov (United States)

      Melis, Matthew; Carney, Kelly; Gabrys, Jonathan; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.

      2004-01-01

      On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry resulting in loss of 7 crewmembers and craft. For the next several months an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA concluded in August, 2003 that the cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the missions launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. In order to gain a better understanding the foam impact on the orbiters RCC wing leading edge, a multi-center team of NASA and Boeing impact experts was formed to characterize the foam and RCC materials for impact analysis using LS Dyna. Dyna predictions were validated with sub-component and full scale tests. LS Dyna proved to be a valuable asset in supporting both the Columbia Accident Investigation and NASA s return to flight efforts. This paper summarizes Columbia Accident and the nearly seven month long investigation that followed. The use of LS-DYNA in this effort is highlighted. Contributions to the investigation and return to flight efforts of the multicenter team consisting of members from NASA Glenn, NASA Langley, and Boeing Philadelphia are introduced and covered in detail in papers to follow in these proceedings.

    5. Evaluation of the population dose in relation to social and geographical factors after the Chernobyl accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      For decision-making on settlement level, it is necessary to develop a reliable model for dose estimates which would take account of the whole range of local factors influencing the dose and enable the most reliable estimates based on only limited radiological data. For this aim a general concept of internal dose assessment has been designed. To implement this concept the authors suggested the cluster regression model. A comparison of different type of dose assessment models is demonstrated for a representative sample of settlements in the Gomel region. This work is the result of a three-year cooperation between the Scientific Research Institute for Radiation Medicine, Gomel Branch, Belarus, and the Research Centre Juelich, Germany. This cooperation was supported by the Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology. (orig.)

    6. Internal Flow Thermal/Fluid Modeling of STS-107 Port Wing in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sharp, John R.; Kittredge, Ken; Schunk, Richard G.

      2003-01-01

      As part of the aero-thermodynamics team supporting the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAB), the Marshall Space Flight Center was asked to perform engineering analyses of internal flows in the port wing. The aero-thermodynamics team was split into internal flow and external flow teams with the support being divided between shorter timeframe engineering methods and more complex computational fluid dynamics. In order to gain a rough order of magnitude type of knowledge of the internal flow in the port wing for various breach locations and sizes (as theorized by the CAB to have caused the Columbia re-entry failure), a bulk venting model was required to input boundary flow rates and pressures to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This paper summarizes the modeling that was done by MSFC in Thermal Desktop. A venting model of the entire Orbiter was constructed in FloCAD based on Rockwell International s flight substantiation analyses and the STS-107 reentry trajectory. Chemical equilibrium air thermodynamic properties were generated for SINDA/FLUINT s fluid property routines from a code provided by Langley Research Center. In parallel, a simplified thermal mathematical model of the port wing, including the Thermal Protection System (TPS), was based on more detailed Shuttle re-entry modeling previously done by the Dryden Flight Research Center. Once the venting model was coupled with the thermal model of the wing structure with chemical equilibrium air properties, various breach scenarios were assessed in support of the aero-thermodynamics team. The construction of the coupled model and results are presented herein.

    7. An empirical investigation on factors influencing export of herbal supplements

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi

      2014-02-01

      Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts who are professional in the area of production and distribution of herbal supplements and using factor analysis, the study detects eight factors including supportive laws and regulations, organizational atmosphere, marketing structure, knowledge oriented, feasibility study, research and development, competitive strategy and partnership strategies.

    8. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.:

      OpenAIRE

      Kerstens, N. F. H.

      2010-01-01

      The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in production. In principle the welding process is rather simple, the materials to be joined are clamped between two electrodes and pressed together. Because there is an interface present with a higher res...

    9. An empirical investigation on factors influencing export of herbal supplements

      OpenAIRE

      Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi; Abdollah Naami; Naser Azad

      2014-01-01

      During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts wh...

    10. Accidents with sulfuric acid

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rajkovi? Miloš B.

      2006-01-01

      Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

    11. On the bad reputation of Fukushima's nuclear accident. A risk-economic approach to distance and price factors of processed food

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In 2011, a big earthquake hit Japan and tsunami and nuclear power plant accident followed. Various discussions have been made on economical, ecological and psychological impacts of this disaster. Its bad reputation effect has not been much discussed, however. This paper deals with the relationship between the following two factors. They are: the distance from the nuclear power plant to the production place and the price of seemingly homogeneous processed food. (author)

    12. Logistic Regression Approach in Road Defects Impact on Accident Severity

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mohadeseh Khalili

      2013-05-01

      Full Text Available Safety and accident issues are considered as an important problem in the world. Road transportation issues would have a more conspicuous countenance in the country of Iran in which, over 94 percent of all transportations take place through roads. The roads’ contribution to the traffic accidents at mean is 24 percent however this value is 36 percent in Iran. Road traffic crashes exert a huge burden on Iran's economy and health care services. Many parameters, safety signs and equipment, Vertical and horizontal arc combination along the road and all the effective factors in decreasing the accidents, are considered when determining the safety level of the roads. Road defect is being considered as one of the essential factors causing accidents to happen.  This article investigates the severity factor of the accident according to the vehicle movability situation after the accident. The results of this research has shown that most  important factors reducing the safety on the suburban roads  in Iran is “insufficient road width” pertaining to frequency  and “Level difference between road & shoulder” pertaining  to accident severity.

    13. JCO criticality accident as POST-LOCA: Poor structure induced loss of organizational control accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Some problems in operation and business management of JCO (Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Co.) have been studied as background factors of the criticality accident. Open information about business conditions of JCO suggests that the cause of the accident is not so simple as to be attributed only to economic pressure, but includes immanent problems in JCO. We investigate the problems from five viewpoints, organization of safety management, system of operation management, activities for business improvement, risk awareness, and restructuring of business, and discuss the effects and causality of background factors as well as remedies for them. (author)

    14. Accident management for severe accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The management of severe accidents in light water reactors is receiving much attention in several countries. The reduction of risk by measures and/or actions that would affect the behavior of a severe accident is discussed. The research program that is being conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission focuses on both in-vessel accident management and containment and release accident management. The key issues and approaches taken in this program are summarized. 6 refs

    15. Investigating internal and external factors influencing profitability of banking industry

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mehdi Taghavi

      2012-09-01

      Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to learn the impact of some internal and external factors on profitability in banking system. The proposed model of this paper introduces three econometrics methods to study the behavior of internal, external and a combination of both factors on return on assets. The proposed study of this paper uses Vector Auto- Regressive (VAR and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM to provide estimation of the proposed model and we use historical data over the period of 1989-2010. The results of the first model for internal factors, we consider some independent variables including ratio of total revenue on total assets (TR and ratio of total equities on total assets (TE. The second model considers the effects of external variables on ROA such as growth domestic product (GDP and market share (MS and the last model includes a combination of both internal and external factors. The results indicates that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between logarithm of growth domestic product and return on equities, which means as we expect one unit increase in LGDP, there is an increase of 0.012 on ROA. In addition, when the market share increase by one percent, there will be an increase 0.025% increase on ROA and an increase of one percent in the ratio of TR will yield to an increase of one percent in ROA.

    16. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.

      2014-05-01

      The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

    17. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      E. Mohammad-pajooh

      2014-05-01

      Full Text Available The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011. Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

    18. Theoretical investigations of the fission product release out of the core of a high temperature reactor during hypothetical heat up accidents as example of caesium

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The investigation has been performed by means of a physical model, taking into account the micro- and macro-structures of the pyrolytical and graphitical reactor components as well as renouncing an introduction of effective diffusion coefficients by the description of the fission products transport through the coated particle layers and the fuel elements and renouncing an assumption of the spontaneously adsorption-desorption equilibrium on the surface of the fuel elements. The solving method and the respective computer codes were also developed. In addition the theoretically calculated and the experimentally determined results regarding the caesium release from single coated particles as well as fuel elements at accident temperatures were compared. Finally the caesium release from the core of the PNP-500 reactor during a heat up accident has been estimated and discussed. (orig./HP)

    19. Investigating Effective Factors on Iran’s Pistachio Exportation

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Seyed fathollah Amiri Aghdaie

      2009-10-01

      Full Text Available The problem of Iran’s economic is depending on oil’s incomes, therefore to increase non oil exportation likeagricultural products is the main goal of country’s economic development program. The goal of this paper is to investigate effective factors in pistachio exportation and mentioned goal will be consider by variable factors such as export’s principle, aflatoxin poison, and packaging. The type of this paper is descriptive–cognition and the related information for this scope have been collected by usinglibrary resources such as books, scientific journals, moreover for collecting necessary data in order to confirm or rejectresearch hypotheses a questionnaire designed by researcher have been used . Statistical society for this research includesthe pistachio exporter in Kerman city, the method being used has been random sampling. Results of this investigationshows that the principles of exporting, aflatoxin poison and packaging have great influence in exporting Iran’spistachio.

    20. The EPR investigation of tooth enamel for measurements of tooth enamel for measurements of absorbed gamma doses of people irradiated in Chernobyl accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The EPR spectra of the tooth enamel of Chernobyl 'liquidators' were investigated. A lot of people were engaged in work at the Chernobyl area after the accident in 1986. A part of them is under regular medical control at the Ukrainian security service hospital. When patients lose the teeth for some reasons the EPR spectra of radiation centers in tooth enamel caused by emergency gamma radiation were investigated. The measurement of the intensities of the EPR spectra give the real individual absorbed doses of gamma radiation which are much higher than the official values registered in the medical cards of liquidators

    1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - like syndrome and other hormonal factors of promotion and progression of thyroid gland cancer in males-liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The clinical and laboratory endocrinological screening performed in 1,000 males - liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences revealed hormonal factors leading to node formation and having unfavourable influence on progression and promotion of thyroid gland cancer. The factors include syndrome of low thriiodothyronine, hyperprolactinemia, latent hypothyrosis and increased production of thyroglobulin. Peculiarities of hormonal status in liquidators allow us to suggest the presence of MEN-like syndrome among the liquidators population. Possible mechanisms of expression of RET oncogene in adults that may result in MEN- like syndrome have been discussed. (author)

    2. Investigation of factors affecting RNA-seq gene expression calls.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Harati, Sahar; Phan, John H; Wang, May D

      2014-08-01

      RNA-seq enables quantification of the human transcriptome. Estimation of gene expression is a fundamental issue in the analysis of RNA-seq data. However, there is an inherent ambiguity in distinguishing between genes with very low expression and experimental or transcriptional noise. We conducted an exploratory investigation of some factors that may affect gene expression calls. We observed that the distribution of reads that map to exonic, intronic, and intergenic regions are distinct. These distributions may provide useful insights into the behavior of gene expression noise. Moreover, we observed that these distributions are qualitatively similar between two sequence mapping algorithms. Finally, we examined the relationship between gene length and gene expression calls, and observed that they are correlated. This preliminary investigation is important for RNA-seq gene expression analysis because it may lead to more effective algorithms for distinguishing between true gene expression and experimental or transcriptional noise. PMID:25571173

    3. [Cerebrovascular accidents: risk factors, clinical course and prognosis in the Cardiology "B" Service of the du Point G University Hospital Center, Bamako].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Coulibaly, S; Diakité, S; Diall, I B; Menta, I; Sacko, A K; Diallo, B

      2010-01-01

      Our study of series, futurology, descriptive and analytical proceeded in the service of Cardiology B of the CHU of the Point G of the 1(er) July at 31 Décember 2007 and related to 57 in-patients. It aimed to release the factors of risks, to evaluate under treatment the evolution and to determine the prognostic elements of the cerebral vascular accidents. All the patients hospitalized in the service of Cardiology G for the period of study for cerebral vascular accident documented by a cerebral TDM was included in the series. The cerebral vascular accidents represented more of the quarter (25,22 %) of the admissions. The sample counted 29 women (50,9 %) and 28 men (49,1 %) with a sex ratio of 1,03 in favour of the women. The average age was 61,17 years ± 13,71 there. Arterial hypertension (59,6 %) was the first factor of risk and in the series the ischaemic AVC constituted approximately three quarters (70,2 %) of the organic types. It was especially male and the rather female hemorrhagic lesion. The hemorrhagic AVC was noted before 30 years and the ischaemic AVC beyond. The complications were with female prevalence and identical lethality in the two sexes. The hospital death rate in the study was considerable (10,5 %). The found prognostic elements did not have statistical significance. PMID:21436005

    4. Lack of safety culture as a contributing factor in major radiation accidents reported in Latin and South America

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In the last decades, the issue of improving safety culture to reduce the upward trend of radiation accidents have received considerable attention from scientific organizations. After the Chernobyl accident, IAEA invited worldwide experts in nuclear safety and formed a working group called 'International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group'. The Safety Culture concept has been developed by the Working Group and published in the Safety Series collection of IAEA in 1986 as No 75-INSAG-4 which provided a logical framework for establishing safety culture policy at individual and organisational level. The aim of this paper is to review the role of insufficient safety culture in the occurrence of 5 major radiation accidents reported in Latin and South America and the remedial action taken by competent authority and oriented towards improvement of basic principle of safety culture. (author)

    5. Accident risk and factors regarding non-motorised road users : a central road safety challenge with deficient data

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Agerholm, Niels; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

      2015-01-01

      Almost half of all traffic fatalities worldwide are non-motorised road users (NMRUs). In Denmark, the number has increased with about 30%. NMRUs consist of about 63% of the injured in the Danish traffic. Much has been done to reduce the number of injured NMRUs with counterparts, while little effort is put into the reduction of the vast majority of the accidents, NMRU single accidents, which are about 90% of all injured NMRUs. There are no efficient tools available to reduce this number. A significantly better designed, maintained, and illuminated road network would most likely help. However, that is expensive and not possible for most road authorities. Despite this, the challenges with NMRUs in single accidents need more attention, if road safety is to be improved. The situation in Denmark is more than likely the case in many other countries as well; although the documentation is scarce.

    6. Chernobyl accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The radioactive cloud released during the Chernobyl accident reached the Padana plain and Lombardy in the night of April 30th 1986; the cloud remained in the northern Italian skies for a few days and then disappeared either dispersed by winds and washed by rains. The evidence in atmosphere of radionuclides as Tellurium, Iodine, Cesium, was promptly observed. The intense rain, in first week of may, washed the radioactivity and fall-out contamined the land, soil, grass. The present work concerns the overall contamination of the Northern Italy territory and in particular the radioactive fall-out in the Lakes region. Samples of soil have been measured at the gamma spectroscope; a correlation is found between the radionuclides concentration in soil samples and the rain intensity, when appropriate deposition models are considered. A number of measurements has been done on the Como'lake ecosystem: sediments, plankton, fishes and the overall fall-out in the area has been investigated

    7. Investigation of steam line break accident during the development of emergency operating procedures for WWER440/V230

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The results of thermal-hydraulic analyses of Steam Line Break (SLB) accident in supporting of symptom based emergency operating procedures are presented. This kind of analyses are designed to provide the response of monitored plant parameters to identify symptoms available to the operators, timing of the loss of critical safety functions and timing of operator actions to avoid the loss of critical safety functions or core damage. RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been used to simulate the SLB accident in a WWER 440 NPP model. This model was developed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy for analyses of operational occurrences, abnormal events, and design bases scenarios. The model provides a significant analytical capability for the specialists working in the field of NPP safety. (authors)

    8. Prophylaxis and pharmacologic correction of body functions under influence of emergency factors of large-scale radioactive accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The experience of Chernobyl's accidents response showed the necessity of adaptation of troops radiative protection medical system to the conditions of peacetime. The article describes the tests working out the optimal use scheme of time-table medical means of protection under conditions of large-scale radiative accidents. The state of neuropsychical activity, cardiovascular, respiratory, hemopoietic, immune and other body systems have been studied, perspective ways of drug application as means of body resistance increase under such conditions have been estimated. 6 figs

    9. Acidente do trabalho investigado pelo CEREST Piracicaba: confrontando a abordagem tradicional da segurança do trabalho / Work related accident investigated by CEREST Piracicaba: confronting the traditional approach of safety at work

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia, Vilela; Renata Wey Berti, Mendes; Carmen Aparecida H., Gonçalves.

      2007-06-01

      Full Text Available Partindo de exploração das diferentes concepções acerca dos acidentes do trabalho e pretendendo discutir suas implicações sobre a prevenção, este artigo apresenta o caso de investigação de acidente de trabalho (AT) realizado pelo Sistema de Vigilância de Acidentes do Trabalho (SIVAT) do Centro de Re [...] ferência em Saúde do Trabalhador (CEREST) de Piracicaba, que utiliza a notificação a partir de todos os pronto-socorros E hospitais do município. A metodologia de investigação do At utilizada pelo Cerest inclui entrevistas, análise de documentos, fotografias, observação e estudo da situação do trabalho. Por outro lado, a empresa, com auxílio de laudo do Instituto de Criminalística (IC), usando uma abordagem tradicional do ato inseguro, apresenta explicações simplistas das causas dos acidentes de trabalho, o que resulta na atribuição de culpa às vítimas desses eventos, deixando de identificar os aspectos da organização do trabalho, a concepção dos equipamentos; fatores que, explorados, apontariam caminhos para a melhoria da segurança e da confiabilidade dos sistemas. Concluiu-se pela necessidade de mudanças culturais na área de segurança com investimentos permanentes na capacitação e na difusão dos novos conceitos sobre acidentes junto aos atores sociais, aos profissionais e ao poder judiciário. Abstract in english Exploring different concepts of work-related accidents and intending to discuss their implications on prevention, this article presents a case-study on work related accident (WRA) investigation conducted by the System of Surveillance of Accidents at Work (SIVAT) at the Center of Reference on Worker' [...] s Health (CEREST) in Piracicaba, using cases notified by all emergency rooms and hospitals of the Municipal district. The methodology of investigation of Wra used by Cerest includes interviews, analysis of documents, pictures, observation, and investigation of the situation at worksite. On the other hand, companies present simplistic explanations of Wra occurrences, using the traditional approach based on individual unsafe action, facilitated by reports issued by the State Criminalistics Institute (IC). Consequently victims are blamed for the events, and aspects of work organization or equipment conception are ignored. Such factors, if properly analyzed, could point out solutions for improvements in safety and reliability of the systems. Authors concluded that cultural changes in the safety field are necessary, with continuous investments in training and diffusion of new concepts on accidents among social actors, professionals, and the Judiciary.

    10. Analysis methodology for RBMK-1500 core safety and investigations on corium coolability during a LWR severe accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This thesis presents the work involving two broad aspects within the field of nuclear reactor analysis and safety. These are: - development of a fully independent reactor dynamics and safety analysis methodology of the RBMK-1500 core transient accidents and - experiments on the enhancement of coolability of a particulate bed or a melt pool due to heat removal through the control rod guide tubes. The first part of the thesis focuses on the development of the RBMK-1500 analysis methodology based on the CORETRAN code package. The second part investigates the issue of coolability during severe accidents in LWR type reactors: the coolability of debris bed and melt pool for in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. The first chapter briefly presents the status of developments in both the RBMK-1500 core analysis and the corium coolability areas. The second chapter describes the generation of the RBMK-1500 neutron cross section data library with the HELIOS code. The cross section library was developed for the whole range of the reactor conditions. The results of the benchmarking with the WIMS-D4 code and validation against the RBMK Critical Facility experiments is also presented here. The HELIOS generated neutron cross section data library provides a close agreement with the WIMS-D4 code results. The validation against the data from the Critical Experiments shows that the HELIOS generated neutron cross section library provides excellent predictions for the criticality, axial and radial power distribution, control rod reactivity worths and coolant reactivity effects, etc. The reactivity effects of voiding for the system, fuel assembly and additional absorber channel are underpredicted in the calculations using the HELIOS code generated neutron cross sections. The underprediction, however, is much less than that obtained when the WIMS-D4 code generated cross sections are employed. The third chapter describes the work, performed towards the accurate prediction, assessment and validation of the CHF and post-CHF heat transfer for the RBMK-1500 reactor fuel assemblies employing the VIPRE-02 code. This chapter describes the experiments, which were used for validating the CHF correlations, appropriate for the RBMK-1500 type reactors. These correlations after validation were added to the standard version of the VIPRE-02 code. The VIPRE-02 calculations were benchmarked against the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. It was found that these user-coded additional CHF correlations developed for the RBMK type reactors (Osmachkin, RRC KI and Khabenski correlations) and implemented into the code by the author, provide a good prediction of the CHF occurrence at the RBMK reactor nominal pressure range (at about 7 MPa). Transition and film boiling are also predicted well with the VIPRE-02 code for this pressure range. It was found, that for the RBMK-1500 reactor applications, EPRI CHF correlation should be used for the CHF predictions for the lower fuel assemblies of the reactor in the subchannel model of the RBMK-1500 fuel assembly. RRC KI and Bowring CHF correlations may be used for the upper fuel assemblies. For a single-channel model of the RBMK-1500 fuel channel, Osmachkin, RRC KI and Bowring correlations provide the closest predictions and may be used for the CHF estimation. For the low coolant mass fluxes in the fuel channel, Khabenski correlation can be applied. The fourth chapter presents the verification of the CORETRAN code for the RBMK-1500 core analysis. The model was verified against a number of RBMK-1500 plant data and transient calculations. The new RBMK-1500 core model was successfully applied in several safety assessment applications. A series of transient calculations, considered within the scope of the RBMK-type reactor Safety Analysis Report (SAR), were performed. Several cases of the transient calculations are presented in this chapter. The HELIOS/CORETRAN/VIPRE-02 core model for the RBMK-1500 is fully functional. The RBMK-1500 CPS logic, added into the CORETRAN provides an adequate response to the changes in the reactor parameters. Chapters 5 and

    11. Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Kim, Jae Whan; Jung, Won Dae; Kang, Dae Il; Ha, Jae Joo

      1999-06-01

      In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result ofthis study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs.

    12. Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result of this study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs

    13. Nuclear accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

    14. Study of human factors, and its basic aspects focusing the IEA-R1 research reactor operators, aiming at the prevention of accidents caused by human failures

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This work presents a study of human factors and possible human failure reasons that can cause incidents, accidents and workers exposition, associated to risks intrinsic to the profession. The objective is to contribute with the operators of IEA-R1 reactor located at IPEN CNEN/S P. Accidents in the technological field, including the nuclear, have shown that the causes are much more connected to human failure than to system and equipment failures, what has led the regulatory bodies to consider studies on human failure. The research proposed in this work is quantitative/qualitative and also descriptive. Two questionnaires were used to collect data. The first of them was elaborated from the safety culture attributes which are described by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. The second considered individual and situational factors composing categories that could affect people in the work area. A carefully selected transcription of the theoretical basis according to the study of human factors was used. The methodology demonstrated a good reliability degree. Results lead to mediate factors which need direct actions concerning the needs of the group and of the individual. This research shows that it is necessary to have a really effective unit of planning and organization, not only to the physical and psychological health issues but also to the safety in the work. (author)

    15. Investigation of factors influencing the attrition breakage of coal

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      V., Oberholzer; J., van der Walt.

      2009-04-01

      Full Text Available The presence of fines (particles smaller than 6 mm in diameter) causes hydrodynamic problems in gasifiers and therefore it is of great importance to minimize the amount of fine coal in the feed. This serves as motivation for understanding coal's breakage mechanisms, which could lead to the ability t [...] o predict the generation of fines. The aim of this project was to simulate the pulsating effect of the conveyor belt in order to investigate factors influencing the breakage. Results indicated that an increased initial particle size had an increasing effect in the amount of fines generated. Weathering had an insignificant effect on the breakage of coal. To conclude, a breakage model was developed to describe the rate of breakage out of the top size when a combination of two breakage modes is present.

    16. Investigation and analysis of aircrew ametropia and related factors

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Li-Juan Zheng

      2014-10-01

      Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the refractive distribution and analysis risk factors for aircrew ametropia.METHODS: The number of 49 cases with ametropia from 1031 aircrew during May 2013 to May 2014 were reviewed. Various types of refraction composition, age, type, position, time of flight with the subjective assessment of aircrew were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Of 49 cases, 43 cases(88%were myopia, 6 cases(12%were hypermetropia.,Detection rates were higher in age over 50 years aircrew and flight time more than 3000h. Detection rates were lower in self-conscious symptom heavy aircrew, fighter aircrew and good habit of using eyes. CONCLUSION: The myopia incidence in aircrew with age >50 years and long flight time is higher, than that of fighter pilots and good habit of using eyes. We should pay attention to the increasing late-onset myopia of aviators and habit of using eyes, work intensity and time of using eyes about aircrew.

    17. Report of the investigation of the accident at the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO Trailer Park on Rainier Mesa at Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Fourteen persons were injured, one fatally, when the ground upon which they were working collapsed, forming a subsidence crater in the recording trailer park of the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO nuclear weapons effects test on Rainier Mesa at the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984. Those persons injured were contractor and laboratory employees from Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. (REECo), Pan American World Services, Inc. (PANAM), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report presents the results of an investigation into the causes, effects, and response to the accident. 42 figures

    18. A limited investigation of the sensitivity of the containment source term to certain primary circuit parameters under PWR severe accident conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The sensitivity of the source term to the containment for a limited number of primary circuit parameters and phenomena has been investigated for three hypothetical PWR severe accident sequences. These sequences are: a large hot leg break with failure of electric power to engineered safety features (AB hot leg); a small cold leg break with failure of pumped ECCS (S2D) and a transient initiated sequence with failure of secondary system relief valves, power conversion and auxiliary feedwater systems and loss of on and off-site power for at least 3 hours (TMLB'). (author)

    19. Epidemiology of Accident Deaths in Jos, Nigeria (1996-2000

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mandong B

      2006-09-01

      Full Text Available Background: Accidents are common events in our society and have contributed significantly to causes of morbidity and mortality in most hospitals. In our environment accidents are fast becoming the commonest cause of death. Only few cases of these accidents are reported to the corona for investigation. Methods: Records of deaths from January 1996- December 2000 reported to the corona for autopsies from two major Hospitals in Jos city were analyzed. Those related to accidents were retrieved and studied. Information from the Police regarding causes of accidents was also extracted. Data on the deceased such as age, sex, and nature of injury were also collated. Police reports on the contributing factors to accidents were also analysed. Results: A total of 270 cases of deaths were reported to the corona for autopsies out of which 122 (45% were accident deaths. One hundred and three (86% cases were males while 19 cases were females. Two-thirds of deaths (60% were in the productive age group of 21— 40 years. Multiple fractures long bones without head injury accounted for 37.7% of deaths, followed by head/upper spinal injuries 24.6%, crushed body injuries 22%, while, intra-abdominal organ injuries which accounted for 15.6%. Analysis of types of accidents showed that vehicle, motorcycle, airplane crash and pedestrian accidents accounted for 59.8%, 20.5%, 10.7% and 9.0% respectively. Information from the Police on motor vehicle accidents, records showed that 50% of the accidental events were due to dangerous driving under the influence of alcohol. Conclusion: Accident death in our environment appears to affect mostly men in the productive and reproductive age groups. However measures that regulate vehicle speed on the road and alcohol intake by drivers may reduce more than half of such deaths.

    20. Accident Monitoring During Severe Accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      IAEA SSR 2/1 requires that ''Instrumentation shall be provided for determining the values of all the main variables that can affect the fission process, the integrity of the reactor core, the reactor coolant systems and the containment at the nuclear power plant, for obtaining essential information on the plant that is necessary for its safe and reliable operation, for determining the status of the plant in accident conditions, and for making decisions for the purposes of accident management.'' Current criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation are largely based upon experience from the Three Mile Island NPP in 1979 and are mostly limited to design basis events. The criteria have been provided by IEEE Std. 497 using a symptom based approach. The Fukushima Daiichi accident has highlighted a need to re-examine these criteria for instrumentation that is provided to fulfil this requirement. The goal of establishing accident monitoring criteria is to provide critical information (information on the critical safety functions) to the ultimate decision makers (in the control room, emergency operating facility, etc.) during whatever situation (internal or external initiation) may arise with a significant level of confidence (validated from an alternate source). Establishing functional and design criteria for accidents beyond design basis events present many unique issues and challenges such as defining the accident environment to consider. Due to the nature of severe accidents, past approaches for choosing and qualifying accident monitoring instruments will not fully prepare an operating plant to assess the condition of the critical safety functions of the plant. This lack of reliable information will inhibit the decision makers from effectively managing the accident. This paper will describe the issues to be considered when establishing the functional and design criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation to support operation under severe accident conditions in nuclear power plants.(author).

    1. Accidentes biológicos en estudiantes de medicina de una universidad peruana: prevalencia, mecanismos y factores de riesgo / Biological accidents in a Peruvian university medical students: prevalence, mechanisms and risk factors

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Elizabeth, Inga; Gregory, López; Carlos, Kamiya.

      2010-03-01

      Full Text Available Introducción: Una de las más serias amenazas que enfrentan los estudiantes de medicina durante su práctica clínica es la posibilidad de exposición a accidentes biológicos, debido en la mayoría de los casos a la inexperiencia y el escaso desarrollo de las habilidades manuales. Objetivos: Establecer l [...] a frecuencia, mecanismos, circunstancias y factores de riesgo de los accidentes biológicos ocurridos entre estudiantes de medicina. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo observacional de corte transversal. Institución: Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Estudiantes de medicina. Metodología: Se aplicó una encuesta estructurada anónima, voluntaria y autoadministrada. Principales medidas de resultados: Accidentes biológicos. Resultados: En total fueron 307 entrevistados. La prevalencia de accidentes biológicos en la población estudiada fue de 51,5% (158/307). La media de accidentes biológicos en el último año fue de 1,06. El 91,1% de los estudiantes del último año presentó al menos un accidente biológico, versus 11,9% en los estudiantes del primer año. Los estudiantes del último año informaron con más frecuencia accidentes de riesgo alto para transmisión de infecciones, siendo 47,6% por pinchazo con objeto punzocortante, y 80,6% tuvo exposición a sangre; los accidentes de riesgo alto son mucho más frecuentes en quirófanos y sala de partos (51,9%). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de accidentes biológicos fue 51,5%, siendo el pinchazo la forma más frecuente. Es necesario desarrollar estrategias que permitan velar por la bioseguridad de los estudiantes de medicina. Abstract in english Introduction: One of the most serious problems of medical students is occupational exposure during their clinical training as they lack experience and limited development of hand skills. Objectives: To establish the frequency, mechanisms, circumstances and risk factors of biological accidents report [...] ed in medical students. Design: Descriptive observational transversal type study. Setting: Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Participants: Medical students. Methodology: A retrospective anonymous and voluntary survey was conducted. Study participants were randomly chosen. Main outcome measures: Biological accidents. Results: In a sample of 307 students 51,5% had at least one accident (158/307); median of biological accidents in the last year was 1,06; 91,1% of senior students had at least one biological accident last year versus 11,9% of first-year students. Senior students inform more often about high-risk infection-transmission accidents, 47,6% caused by pinching with a sharp object while 80,6% were exposed to blood; high-risk accidents are far more often in surgical and delivery rooms (51,9%). Conclusions: It is necessary to develop strategies that allow medical students to enforce biosecurity concepts.

    2. Development of severe accident evaluation technology (level 2 PSA) for sodium-cooled fast reactors. (3) Identification of dominant factors in transition phase of unprotected events

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The event progression of the transition phase in the unprotected loss of flow accident of the JSFR design concept was analyzed using the SIMMER-III code reflecting the knowledge obtained from the EAGLE experimental program. It was clarified through the parametric calculations that the fuel discharge behavior through the paths such as the inner duct of modified-FAIDUS and control-rod guide tube is playing a very important role. Effective fuel discharge through these paths prevents possibility of severe recriticality events. Important factors dominating the transition phase were identified through these parametric calculations. (author)

    3. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

      CERN Document Server

      Franic, Z

      2007-01-01

      Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

    4. Database on aircraft accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating probability of aircraft crash are considered to be 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 35 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 2 for large bladed aircraft and 30 for small bladed aircraft. (2) The data of SDF aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total of 45 accidents occurred, 24 of them are large fixed-wing aircrafts, 4 are small fixed-wing aircrafts and 17 are bladed aircrafts. 23 to 45 accidents fell into land. (3) The data of US aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total of 16 accidents occurred, 13 of which are fixed-wing aircrafts, 3 are bladed aircrafts. 6 of 16 accidents fell into land. (4) The instrument flight information on commercial aircrafts is based on 'Air transport statics' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The total number of takeoffs and landings is 29,971,662 and the total flight distance is 9,232,867,684 km. (author)

    5. Infant siblings and the investigation of autism risk factors

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Newschaffer Craig J

      2012-04-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Infant sibling studies have been at the vanguard of autism spectrum disorders (ASD research over the past decade, providing important new knowledge about the earliest emerging signs of ASD and expanding our understanding of the developmental course of this complex disorder. Studies focused on siblings of children with ASD also have unrealized potential for contributing to ASD etiologic research. Moving targeted time of enrollment back from infancy toward conception creates tremendous opportunities for optimally studying risk factors and risk biomarkers during the pre-, peri- and neonatal periods. By doing so, a traditional sibling study, which already incorporates close developmental follow-up of at-risk infants through the third year of life, is essentially reconfigured as an enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study. This review considers the enriched-risk pregnancy cohort approach of studying infant siblings in the context of current thinking on ASD etiologic mechanisms. It then discusses the key features of this approach and provides a description of the design and implementation strategy of one major ASD enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study: the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI.

    6. The Application of Social Marketing in Reducing Road Traffic Accidents among Young Male Drivers: An Investigation using Physical Fear Threat Appeals

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Brian Harman

      2009-02-01

      Full Text Available There were 338 road fatalities on Irish roads in 2007. Research in 2007 by the Road Safety Authority in Ireland states that young male drivers (17 – 25 years are seven times more likely to be killed on Irish roads than other road users. The car driver fatality rate was found to be approximately 10 times higher for young male drivers than for female drivers in 2000.  Young male drivers in particular demonstrate a high proclivity for risky driving behaviours. These risky behaviours include drink driving, speeding, drug-driving and engaging in aggressive driving. Speed is the single largest contributing factor to road deaths in Ireland.  Approximately 40% of fatal accidents are caused by excessive or inappropriate speed. This study focuses on how dangerous driving behaviours may be addressed through social marketing. This study analyses the appropriate level of fear that needs to be induced in order to change young male driving behaviour.

    7. Safety culture and the accident at Three Mile Island

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Prior to the accident at Three Mile Island, little attention was being paid to the human role in the safe operation of civilian nuclear power plants. The investigation of the TMI accident showed that its root causes were primarily human-related. The Kemeny Report on the TMI accident does not use the term 'safety culture'; however, it fully identifies all relevant aspects of safety culture. It was only after the accident at Chernobyl that the term 'safety culture' came into widespread use. However, it should be noted that, during the years after TMI and before Chernobyl, already major changes had been instituted concerning human factors and human reliability in the civilian nuclear energy programs of many countries. Greater credit should be given to the remarkable insights developed by the Kemeny Commission as contained in the Kemeny Report. (author)

    8. Transfer factors and effective half-lives of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in different environmental sample types obtained from Northern Finland: case Fukushima accident.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Koivurova, Matias; Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kallio, Antti

      2015-08-01

      The Fukushima NPP accident caused a small but detectable cesium fallout in northern Finland, of the order of 1 Bq/m(2). This fallout transferred further to soil, water, flora and fauna. By using modern HPGe detector systems traces of (134)Cs from the Fukushima fallout were observed in various samples of biota. In northern Finland different types of environmental samples such as reindeer meat, berries, fish, lichens and wolf were collected during 2011-2013. The observed (134)Cs concentrations varied from 0.1 Bq/kg to a few Bq/kg. By using the known (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio observed in Fukushima fallout the increase of the Fukushima accident to the (137)Cs concentrations was found to vary from 0.06 % to 6.9 % depending on the sample type. The aggregated transfer factors (Tag) and effective half-lives (Teff) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also determined and then compared with known values found from earlier studies which are calculated based on the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Generally, the Tag and Teff values determined in this study were found to agree with the values found in the earlier studies. The Teff values were sample-type specific and were found to vary from 0.91 to 2.1 years for (134)Cs and the estimates for (137)Cs ranged between 1.6 and 19 years. Interestingly, the ground lichens had the longest Teff whereas the beard lichen had the shortest. In fauna, highest Tag values were determined for wolf meat ranging between 1.0 and 2.2 m(2)/kg. In flora, the highest Tag values were determined for beard lichens, ranging from 1.9 m(2)/kg to 3.5 m(2)/kg. PMID:25935505

    9. Optimization of health protection of the public following a major nuclear accident: Interaction between radiation protection and social and psychological factors

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      National and international guidance on the optimization of countermeasures to reduce doses in the post-release phase of an accident rightly emphasizes the importance and relevance of psychological, social, and economic factors to this process (e.g., NRPB 1990; ICRP 1991: CEC 1993; IAEA 1994). However, whilst economic factors are, at least partially, taken into account in developing the advice, explicit guidance is not provided on how psychological and social factors should be included in the optimization. Instead it is suggested that this is a matter for those with the appropriate competence and those with responsibility for making the final decisions. This approach implicitly assumes that the optimization of psychological and social factors, and that the results of the two procedures can then be combined to arrive at an optimum course of action. We recognize that formal optimization only forms one input to the process of making decisions on countermeasures and that it is important that psychological and social factors, as well as any other factors, are not open-quotes double-counted.close quotes i.e., accounted for within international advice and then again at the time of the decision. It is our view that the optimization of radiation protection and economic factors, and certain psychological and social factors, should not be carried out independently. Research conducted by our respective organization indicates a number of areas in which the optimization of radiationeas in which the optimization of radiation protection and economic factors requires an understanding of key psychological and social processes. These areas fall into three groups; the need to ensure that countermeasures are successfully implemented, the need to achieve a net benefit for overall health, and the need to ensure a smooth transition back to normal living. 10 refs

    10. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accidentAccident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis events and accidents at NPPs, and what additional measures should be considered as an accident progresses to the severe accident stage. Insights are provided on the experiences and practices existing or being proposed in the NEA member states, as well as new findings from post-Fukushima studies. Emphasis is placed on identifying commendable practices that support enhanced and integrated on-site accident management response and decision-making by NPP operators. The report provides information (including commendable practices) useful for regulatory authorities to consider as they implement enhancements to their regulatory framework in the area of integrated accident management building on the lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The report's insights also should be useful to regulatory authorities, operating organisations and others in the nuclear safety community for addressing accident management issues such as procedures and guidelines, equipment, infrastructure and instrumentation, and human and organisational resources. Factors such as accidents involving spent fuel pools, multi-unit aspects of accident management, the interface between onsite and off-site organisations and resources, and degradation of the surrounding infrastructure are also discussed. (authors)The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons

    11. Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management

    12. Experimental investigation on the chemical precipitation generation under the loss of coolant accident of nuclear power plants

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The PWR containment buildings are designed to facilitate core cooling in the event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The cooling process requires water discharged from the break and containment spray to be collected in a sump for recirculation. The containment sump contains screens to protect the components of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) and Containment Spray System (CSS) from debris. Since the containment materials may dissolve or corrode when exposed to the reactor coolant and spray solutions, various chemical precipitations can be generated in a post-LOCA environment. These chemical precipitations may become another source of debris loading to be considered in sump screen performance and downstream effects. In this study, new experimental methodology to predict the type and quantity of chemical precipitations has been developed. To generate the plant-specific chemical precipitation in a post-LOCA environment, the plant specific chemical condition of the recirculation sump during post-LOCA is simulated with the experimental reactor for the chemical effect. The plant-specific containment materials are used in the present experiment such as glass fibers, concrete blocks, aluminum specimens, and chemical reagent - boric acid, spray additives or buffering chemicals (sodium hydroxide, Tri-Sodium Phosphate (TSP), or others). The inside temperature of the reactor is controlled to simulate the plant-specific temperature profile of the recirculation sump. Thture profile of the recirculation sump. The total amount of aluminum released from aluminum specimens is evaluated by ICP-AES analysis to determine the amount of AlOOH and NaAlSi3O8 which induce very adverse effect on the head loss across the sump screens. The amount of these precipitations generated in the present experimental study is compared with the results of WCAP-16530-NP-A. (authors)

    13. Cytogenetic investigation of individuals living in areas of the Ukraine contaminated by fault from the Chernobyl reactor accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      A number of areas in Ukraine were severely contaminated by fallout from Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Reactor accident in April 1986. The purpose of the study described here was to determine whether the exposures received by individuals in these areas were sufficiently high to produce measurable increase in chromosomal aberrations. The individuals studied were selected from the Koselets, Chernigov, Narodichi, and Ovruch regions specifically the districts of Chernigov and the districts of Jitomir. Indication of radiation exposure was based on an increase of total frequency of aberrant cells and frequency of aberration of chromosomal type. All cytogenetic abnormalities in metaphases were examined, and results compared between exposed groups and non-exposed controls. The highest cytogenetic effects was observed in individuals from Ovruch and Narodichi regions, for which the mean levels of chromosome aberration were 1.88 and 1.29 per 100 cells, respectively. Among individuals living in Narodichi region, the observed frequency of dicentric and centric rings was 0.04 and for double minutes was 0.87 per 100 cells. among all exposed groups, the frequency of chromatid type was approximately the same. The results of the study of subjects with effective dose equivalent below 10 c Sv show that the mean frequency of chromosomal type aberrations i.e dicentric, centric, and acentric rings) among individuals living in different contaminated regions of Ukraine was significantly higheregions of Ukraine was significantly higher that the mean population indices. Moreover, individuals exposed to long-lived radionuclides such as Cs137 and Sr90 were observed as having higher chromosome aberration frequency when compared with individuals exposed to short-lived iodine radionuclides. Continued observation on high-risk individuals who live in the contaminated areas is recommended. Similarly, there is a need for objective criteria to define when further monitoring of the genetic effects among the exposed adults and children in the Ukraine is appropriate. These criteria should be based on sound scientific principles, consistently but sensitively applied

    14. An investigation of BWR/4 parallel channel effects during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident for both intact and broken jet pumps

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The influence of parallel channel effects (PCE) on the effectiveness of the emergency core cooling systems in a boiling water nuclear reactor (BWR) was experimentally investigated. Specifically, the effectiveness of the core spray cooling system and the low-pressure coolant injection system during the emergency core cooling of a simulated 218-BWR/4 was studied. Experiments simulating conditions after a hypothetical design basis loss-of-coolant accident were performed in a special PCE test section in which Freon-114 was used as the working fluid. A detailed scaling analysis was performed to allow real-time simulation of the bypass leakage inflow, reflood rate, countercurrent flow limitation core decay heat, and the size of postulated jet pump breaks. It was found that BWR core cooling could be adversely affected by postulated failure of the jet pump seals by observing the parallel channel effects

    15. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

      OpenAIRE

      Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Ab Aziz, K.

      2014-01-01

      The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedn...

    16. The Three Mile Island accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      It is important that the causes of this accident (and other, similar accidents but with less dramatic consequences) are completely understood and that the role of every contributing factor is exactly determined in order to discuss modifications and to judge their relative importance and schedule in an objective way. If the role of the various factors contributing to an accident is not fully understood, there will always be a 'mythology' of prejudiced and highly simplified assumptions. The experience of failure analysis shows that the causes first assumed are hardly ever the right ones, and that in some major and complex cases even the second or third generation of assumed causes is wrong. (orig.)

    17. Database on aircraft accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to this issue, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for the latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. In this report the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2011 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2012 database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2012 revised database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 shows the followings. The trend of the 2012 database changes little as compared to the last year's report. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The number of commercial aircraft accidents is 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 58 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 5 for large bladed aircraft and 99 for small bladed aircraft. The relevant accidents for evaluating probability of aircraft crash are considered to be 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 35 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 1 for large bladed aircraft and 25 for small bladed aircraft. (2) The data of SDF aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total number of accidents is 42 comprised of 21 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 4 for small fixed-wing aircraft and 17 for bladed aircraft. The 23 accidents of the total fell into land. (3) The data of US aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total number of accidents is 16 comprised of 13 for fixed-wing aircraft and 3 for bladed aircraft. The 6 accidents of the total fell into land. (4) The instrument flight information on commercial aircrafts is based on 'Air transport statics' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The total number of takeoffs and landings is 30,685,564 and the total flight distance is 9,499,283,168 km. (author)

    18. Factores Asociados a Accidentes, Enfermedades y Ausentismo Laboral: Análisis de una Cohorte de Trabajadores Formales en Chile / Factors Associated with Accidents, Illness and Absenteeism: Analysis of a Cohort of Formal Workers in Chile

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Lorena, Hoffmeister; Carolina, Vidal; Clelia, Vallebuona; Nelly, Ferrer; Pamela, Vásquez; Gabriela, Núñez.

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available Objetivo: Estimar la asociación entre factores de riesgo y la ocurrencia de enfermedades, accidentes y ausentismo laboral en trabajadores formales. Método: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva usando dos fuentes de información: registro de evaluaciones ocupacionales preventivas y de episodios de acciden [...] tes y enfermedades laborales (2009-2012). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de variables de salud y de factores de riesgo. Regresiones logísticas para la ocurrencia de enfermedades y accidentes. Se usó una regresión Poisson-cero-inflado para el ausentismo laboral. Resultados: los > 60 años tienen un exceso de riesgo de enfermedad laboral (OR-ajustada 19,18 respecto a 60 años (IRR 2,69), trabajar en actividades inmobiliarias (IRR 2,37) y en explotación de minas (IRR 2,38), tienen una probabilidad mayor de más días de ausentismo. Conclusiones: Factores no modificables (sexo y edad), junto con factores modificables, como el sedentarismo y el estado nutricional, contribuyen a eventos laborales no deseados. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the association among lifestyle-related risk factors and the occurrence of occupational diseases, accidents and absenteeism in a cohort of formal workers. Method: A retrospective cohort study was carried out by using two information sources: a registry of preventive occupatio [...] nal evaluations and another registry of episodes of occupational accidents and diseases (2009-2012). A descriptive analysis was performed of health variables and risk factors. Logistic regressions were used to calculate the likelihood of occupational accidents and diseases and a zero-inflated Poisson regression was used to model occupational absenteeism. Results: A total of 47.221 workers were included, of which 86,3% were men. The mean follow-up was 1,96 years. Workers aged >60 years had an excess risk of occupational diseases, with an OR of 19.18 compared with workers aged 60 years (IRR 2,69), and working in the property sector (IRR 2,37) and in mining (IRR 2,38) conferred a higher probability of absenteeism. Conclusions: Unmodifiable factors (age and sex), as well as modifiable factors, such as sedentariness and nutritional status, contribute to undesired occupational events.

    19. Investigating Factors Affecting Group Processes in Virtual Learning Environments

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hazari, Sunil; Thompson, Sandra

      2015-01-01

      With the widespread popularity of distance learning, there is a need to investigate elements of online courses that continue to pose significant challenges for educators. One of the challenges relates to creating and managing group projects. This study investigated business students' perceptions of group work in online classes. The constructs…

    20. Factores psicoeducativos que determinan la propensión al accidente deportivo en escolares: diseño y validación de un cuestionario de evaluación / Psychoeducational factors that determine the propensity to school sports accidents: design and validation of an assessment questionnaire

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Pedro A., Latorre-Román; José C., Cámara-Pérez; Antonio, Pantoja-Vallejo; Tomás, Izquierdo-Rus.

      2013-05-01

      Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio ha sido el diseño y validación de una escala de propensión al accidente deportivo en escolares. La muestra ha estado formada por 254 niños (M = 14.20, DT = 1.3). Las propiedades psicométricas de la escala se obtuvieron mediante un proceso de validez de contenido y un aná [...] lisis factorial de los componentes principales. Como resultados obtuvimos un cuestionario de 27 ítems formado por cinco factores y ajustado a los tópicos de validez y fiabilidad científica. Se encontraron diferencias en todos los factores de la escala entre niños y niñas y sólo en el factor búsqueda de sensaciones al considerar la edad de los sujetos. Como conclusión, esta escala es un instrumento inédito que permite la organización de los recursos materiales y didácticos en el deporte de acuerdo a aspectos psicoeducativos relacionados con la propensión al accidente de los niños, lo que es esencial en la prevención de lesiones. Abstract in english The purpose of this study has been the design and validation of a propensity scale of sports injuries in schools. The sample for the study has been formed of 254 children (M = 14.20, DT = 1.3). Psychometric properties of the scale were obtained through a process of content validity and a factorial a [...] nalysis of main components. As a result, we obtained a questionnaire of 27 items consisting of 5 factors and adjusted to validity topics and scientific reliability. Significant differences were found in all factors of the scale in relation to sex, whilst significant differences were only observed in relation to the sensation seeking factor when considering the age of the subjects. This scale is an essential tool for preventing accidents and injuries in school sport by allowing the identification of sports accident-prone students.

    1. The weakening of cell protection as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident recovery factors affect on liquidator's organism

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The markers of oxidative stress as well as intracellular antioxidants (enzymatic and non- enzymatic) were studied in 100 Chernobyl accident recovery workers(liquidators). Hormone screening tests were carried out in 250 liquidators. All persons (mean age - 35 years) have got external irradiation dose from 2 to 30 cGr. Control group was selected from persons of same age having not participated in accident liquidation. The significant antioxidant imbalance was found. ROS inactivating enzymes deficiency was revealed in neutrofils, lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM). For instance, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity in liquidator's AM was 2,8±0,3 U/mg protein (4,1-±1,8 U/mg protein in controls, P<0,05). Catalase activity was also lower than in control group (P<0,05). The significant disorder of the thiol-disulfide turnover was revealed: depression of reduced glutathione by 1,71-±0,46 ?mol/l (control: 3,15±-0,34 ?tmol/l, P<0,05). The oxidative stress destructive action realized in the conditions of excessive production of ROS, while the antioxidant potential was diminished(P<0,05). The oxidative destruction of lipids and proteins was found to be induced by free radical action. TBARS level in alveolar macrophages of liquidators was more than three times higher compared to controls. Enhanced levels of protein carbonyl groups were found as well. The decrease of TT3 in liquidators was detected most frequently. In 19% liquidators examined, TT3 was below the reference value (0,8 ng/ml). The TT3 level was registered at the low limit of the reference range (0,8 ng/ml) in 18% of liquidators. ''Low T3'' syndrome may be considered as a cell protection weakening. All the cellular protective mechanisms take part in processes of DNA synthesis and repair, transcription and translation, cell respiration and metabolism. Significant impairment of the cellular protective systems in liquidators could be regarded as a base of persistent ''chromosomal pathology'' and imbalance of metabolism complicated by the various diseases including oncology. (author)

    2. CAMS: Computerized Accident Management Support

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The OECD Halden Reactor Project has initiated a new research programme on computerised accident management support, the so-called CAMS project (CAMS = Computerized Accident Management Support). This work will investigate the possibilities for developing systems which provide more extensive support to the control room staff and technical support centre than the existing SPDS (Safety Parameter Display System) type of systems. The CAMS project will utilize available simulator codes and the capabilities of computerized tools to assist the plant staff during the various accident stages including: identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident, and planning accident mitigation strategies. This research programme aims at establishing a prototype system which can be used for experimental testing of the concept and serve as a tool for training and education in accident management. The CAMS prototype should provide support to the staff when the plant is in a normal state, in a disturbance sate, and in an accident state. Even though better support in an accident state is the main goal of the project, it is felt to be important that the staff is familiar with the use of the system during normal operation, when they utilize the system during transients

    3. Investigating power factor compensation capacity calculation in medium sized industry

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      There are a variety of techniques developed in order to improve the efficiency of electrical systems and reduce cost of providing electricity to the consumer. This paper presents a new technique for power-factor capacity calculation in medium-sized industrial/ commercial setups. Various loads of similar nominal power-factor are categorized and demand-factor of loads is so selected that it has engineering justifications. The developed system works on the principle of low-voltage power-factor correction, which substantially reduces electricity bill and increases loading-capacity of the electrical system. It allows commercial and industrial consumers to save on their power cost appreciably. This work utilizes software, which takes few inputs and produces numerous useful results. Adoption of this system can help the user in computing compensation-capacity, system KVA (size of transformer) and cost of compensation. A feature of this system is prediction of low PF penalty. Moreover, it also suggests the tentative payback period. (author)

    4. Investigating Factors that Influence Item Performance on ACS Exams

      Science.gov (United States)

      Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

      2012-01-01

      General chemistry tests from the Examinations Institute of the Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society have been analyzed to identify factors that may influence how individual test items perform. In this paper, issues of item order (position within a set of items that comprise a test) and answer order (position of correct…

    5. Investigation of high duty factor ISR RFQ-1000

      CERN Document Server

      Lu, Y R; Fang, J X; Gao, S L; Guo, J F; Guo, Z Y; Li, D S; Li, W G; Pan, O J; Ren, X T; Wu, Y; Yan, X Q; Yu Jin Xiang; Yu, M L; Ratzinger, U; Deitinghoff, H; Klein, H; Schempp, A

      2003-01-01

      Two Integral Split Ring (ISR) RFQs with high duty factor of 16.7% have been designed for the application of heavy ion implantation and built in the past several years at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics (IHIP) in Peking University. Two kinds of PIG ion sources with permanent magnets and LEBT were installed and optimized for the injection into these two RFQs. The positive O**+ and negative O**- ions were extracted and accelerated separately as well as simultaneously. The output macro pulse O**- beam current reached 660muA at a transmission efficiency of more than 82%. The N**+ beam was also accelerated with similar transmission efficiency, but the output current intensity for positive ions were lower than the negative ions because of the extracted current limitation of ion sources. The improvements, especially for high duty factor and experimental results with the 1MeV ISR RFQ will be presented in this paper.

    6. Qualitative Investigation of Object Oriented Frameworks Key Success Factors

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gregor Polan

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available Software developers consider object-oriented frameworks as one of the most promising software development tools. Their use can shorten development time and improve productivity as well as quality of developed software. The number and the technological maturity of frameworks achieved a level, which provides to developers a reliable development environment. However, still many frameworks fail, and so do many framework based software development projects. This article presents basic knowledge needed for understanding success of frameworks and addresses key factors which impact their success. The main outcomes of the research described in the article are technological and sociological factors, for which we presume that positively influence developers’ attitude toward using frameworks and thus their success. The results of our exploratory study could help software practitioners and researchers in developing more successful frameworks and with evaluation of existing frameworks as presented in the practical application of the article’s findings.

    7. Investigation of Factors Associated With Paternal Nondisjunction of Chromosome 21

      OpenAIRE

      OLIVER, Tiffany Renee; Bhise, Archit; Feingold, Eleanor; Tinker, Stuart; Masse, Nirupama; Sherman, Stephanie L.

      2009-01-01

      Previous studies on relatively small samples of individuals with trisomy 21 caused by paternally derived errors have shown that: (1) advanced paternal age is not a risk factor for chromosome 21 nondisjunction (NDJ), (2) absence of recombination, but not the location of recombination is associated with paternal NDJ and (3) there is an excess of males among live-births with paternally derived trisomy 21. An excess of males is also observed among all individuals with trisomy 21. Using 128 famili...

    8. Acidentes e violências na infância e adolescência: fatores de risco e de proteção / Accidents and violence in childhood and adolescence: risk and protective factors / Accidentes y violencias en la infancia y adolescencia: factores de riesgo y de protección

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Christine Baccarat de Godoy, Martins.

      2013-08-01

      Full Text Available Apontada pelas estatísticas como a terceira causa de mortalidade em nosso país, as causas externas (acidentes e violências) ocasionam um grande impacto com repercussão econômica, social e emocional. Conhecer os fatores relacionados a este evento torna-se essencial, pois possibilita identificar e que [...] brar a teia que determina a morbimortalidade por causas externas. O estudo busca analisar as publicações existentes sobre os fatores associados aos acidentes e violências, a fim de proporcionar subsídios teóricos para os profissionais em suas práticas. Trata-se de estudo bibliográfico nas bases de dados Lilacs, Medline e Scielo. O conhecimento dos fatores de risco e proteção discutidos ao longo deste texto possibilita subsidiar a prática dos atores sociais engajados na transformação das condições geradoras de acidentes e violências. Abstract in spanish Señalada por las estadísticas como la tercera causa de mortalidad en nuestro país las causas externas (accidentes y violencias) producen un gran impacto en el ámbito económico, social y emocional. Conocer los factores relacionados con ese fenómeno se torna esencial, para que puedan ser identificadas [...] las causas y quebrada la secuencia que determina la morbimortalidad por causas externas. En el presente estudio se realizó una búsqueda de las publicaciones existentes sobre los factores asociados a los accidentes y violencias, con la finalidad de ofrecer subsidios teóricos para las prácticas de los profesionales. Se trata de un estudio bibliográfico según las bases de datos Lilacs, Medline y Scielo. El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo y protección discutidos a lo largo de este texto permite auxiliar la práctica de los actores sociales comprometidos en la transformación de las condiciones que generan accidentes y violencias. Abstract in english Singled out by statistics as the third leading cause of mortality in our country, external causes (accidents and violence) entail a great impact with economic, social and emotional rebound. Knowing the factors related to the event is essential, because it allows identifying and breaking the web that [...] determines morbidity and mortality from external causes. The study aims to analyze the existing publications on the factors associated with accidents and violence, in order to provide theoretical support for professionals in their practices. This is a bibliographical study of the Liliacs, Medline and Scielo databanks. The knowledge of the risk and protection factors discussed in the present study enables subsidize the practice of social actors engaged in transforming the conditions that lead to accidents and violence.

    9. The management of accidents

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      R. B. Ward

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available Purpose: This author’s experiences in investigating well over a hundred accident occurrences has led to questioning how such events can be managed - - - while immediately recognising that the idea of managing accidents is an oxymoron, we don’t want to manage them, we don’t want not to manage them, what we desire is not to have to manage not-them, that is, manage matters so they don’t happen and then we don’t have to manage the consequences.Design/methodology/approach: The research will begin by defining some common classes of accidents in manufacturing industry, with examples taken from cases investigated, and by working backwards (too late, of course show how those involved could have managed these sample events so they didn’t happen, finishing with the question whether any of that can be applied to other situations.Findings: As shown that the management actions needed to prevent accidents are control of design and application of technology, and control and integration of people.Research limitations/implications: This paper has shown in some of the examples provided, management actions have been know to lead to accidents being committed by others, lower in the organization.Originality/value: Today’s management activities involve, generally, the use of technology in many forms, varying from simple tools (such as knives to the use of heavy equipment, electric power, and explosives. Against these we commit, in control of those items, the comparatively frail human mind and body, which, again generally, does succeed in controlling these resources, with (another generality by appropriate management. However, sometimes the control slips and an accident occurs.

    10. INVESTIGATING THE FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE BLOG ATTITUDE SCALE

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Zahra SHAHSAVAR

      2010-10-01

      Full Text Available Due to the wide application of advanced technology in education, many attitude scales have been developed to evaluate learners’ attitudes toward educational tools. However, with the rapid development of emerging technologies, using blogs as one of the Web 2.0 tools is still in its infancy and few blog attitude scales have been developed yet. In view of this need, a lot of researchers like to design a new scale based on their conceptual and theoretical framework of their own study rather than using available scales. The present study reports the design and development of a blog attitude scale (BAS. The researchers developed a pool of items to capture the complexity of the blog attitude trait, selected 29 items in the content analysis, and assigned the scale comprising 29 items to 216 undergraduate students to explore the underlying structure of the BAS. In exploratory factor analysis, three factors were discovered: blog anxiety, blog desirability, and blog self-efficacy; 14 items were excluded. The extracted items were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis which lent further support to the BAS underpinning structure.

    11. Human error risk management for engineering systems: a methodology for design, safety assessment, accident investigation and training

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The objective of this paper is to tackle methodological issues associated with the inclusion of cognitive and dynamic considerations into Human Reliability methods. A methodology called Human Error Risk Management for Engineering Systems is presented that offers a 'roadmap' for selecting and consistently applying Human Factors approaches in different areas of application and contains also a 'body' of possible methods and techniques of its own. Two types of possible application are discussed to demonstrate practical applications of the methodology. Specific attention is dedicated to the issue of data collection and definition from specific field assessment

    12. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis events and accidents at NPPs, and what additional measures should be considered as an accident progresses to the severe accident stage. Insights are provided on the experiences and practices existing or being proposed in the NEA member states, as well as new findings from post-Fukushima studies. Emphasis is placed on identifying commendable practices that support enhanced and integrated on-site accident management response and decision-making by NPP operators. The report provides information (including commendable practices) useful for regulatory authorities to consider as they implement enhancements to their regulatory framework in the area of integrated accident management building on the lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The report's insights also should be useful to regulatory authorities, operating organisations and others in the nuclear safety community for addressing accident management issues such as procedures and guidelines, equipment, infrastructure and instrumentation, and human and organisational resources. Factors such as accidents involving spent fuel pools, multi-unit aspects of accident management, the interface between onsite and off-site organisations and resources, and degradation of the surrounding infrastructure are also discussed. (authors)

    13. Experimental investigations in the PKL test facility on thermal hydraulic system behavior of PWR under accident situations

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      After a short overview on AREVA's thermal hydraulic platform, this presentation focused on the PKL project giving an survey of the different test programs and topics of investigation with emphasis on the current test program OECD-PKL 3. The presentation also includes a short description of the test facility, some typical results and findings derived from the PKL experiments will be exemplarily discussed in more detail

    14. Monte Carlo investigation of electron beam relative output factors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zhang, Geoffrey G.

      One of the tasks in commissioning an electron accelerator in cancer clinics is to measure relative output factors (ROFs) versus various parameters such as applicator size (called applicator factors), cutout size (cutout factors) and air-gap size (gap factors) for various electron beam energies and applicator sizes. This kind of measurement takes a lot of time and labour. This thesis shows that Monte Carlo simulation offers an alternative to this task. With BEAM (Med. Phys. 22(1995)503-524), an EGS4 user- code, clinical accelerator electron beams are simulated and ROFs for a Siemens MD2 linear accelerator and a Varian Clinac 2100C accelerator are calculate The study shows that the Monte Carlo method is not only practical in clinics but also powerful in analyzing the related physics. The calculated ROFs agree within 1% with the measurements for most cases and 2% for all cases that have been studied, which is more than acceptable in clinical practice. The details of each component of the dose, such as dose from particles scattered off the photon-jaws and the applicator, the dose from contaminant photon, the dose from direct electrons, etc., are also analyzed. The study also explains quantitatively why the effective SSD (Source to Phantom Surface Distance) is often not the nominal reference SSD. For ROF measurements for small fields using an ion chamber, this study discusses the stopping- power ratio corrections due to changes in the depth of dose maximum as a function of field size and versus various accelerators. Since it handles ROF calculations for arbitrary fields, including square, rectangular, circular and irregular fields, in the same way, Monte Carlo is the simplest method to get ROFs compared to other algorithms. As the first step towards implementing Monte Carlo methods in clinical treatment planning, Monte Carlo calculations for electron beam ROFs can replace measurements in clinical practice. It takes about 6 hours of CPU time on a single Pentium Pro 200MHz computer to simulate an accelerator and additional 2 hours for each ROF.

    15. Analysis of diffusion process and influence factors in the air ingress accident of the HTR-PM

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Air ingress, one of the beyond design basis accidents for high temperature gas-cooled reactors, receives high attention during the design of the 250 MW pebble-bed modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-PM), because it may result in severe consequence including the corrosion of the fuel element and graphite reflector. The diffusion process and the set-up time of the stable natural convection after the double-ended guillotine break of the hot-gas duct are studied in the paper. On the basis of the preliminary design of the HTR-PM and its DLOCA analysis results, the diffusion process, as well as the influence of the core temperature distribution and the length of the hot-gas duct, is studied with the DIFFLOW code, which adopts a one-dimension variable cross-section diffusion model with fixed wall temperature. To preliminarily estimate the influence of chemical reaction between oxygen and graphite, which will change the gas component of the mixture, the diffusion processes between the He/N2, He/O2, He/CO and He/CO2 are calculated, respectively. Furthermore, the code has been improved and the varying wall temperature can be simulated. The more accurate analysis is carried out with the changing temperature distribution from the DLOCA calculation. The analysis shows that there is enough time to adopt appropriate mitigation measures to stop the air ingress and the severe consequence of fuel element damage and large release of fission product can be avoided

    16. THE EFFECT OF THE ECONOMIC CYCLE ON WORKPLACE ACCIDENTS IN SIX EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Antonis TARGOUTZIDIS

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the economic cycle on workplace accidents. In particular, the effect of some major factors of the economic cycle (unemployment, output per capita and unit labor cost on fatal and non-fatal injuries is examined in six European countries (Finland, Italy, France, Switzerland, Austria and Germany. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis are applied, considering relevant data of the selected countries, over the period 1990-2005. The analysis indicates a counter-cyclical behavior of workplace accidents. Output per capita is the only parameter whose impact is statistically significant in all cases. The different effect of the examined factors on workplace accidents and the inter-relations between these factors indicate that an economic model of the workplace is required, if the impact of the economic cycle on workplace accidents is to be studied thoroughly.

    17. Integrated Road Accident And Cost Prediction Model

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      K. Nachimuthu

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of an integrated road accidents and its cost prediction model for Chennai city using system dynamics approach. In this case, the simulation road accident prediction model was developed from the base year 2010 using road accident data collected from 2006 to 2010. In this research an attempt is made to establish relationship between road accident with factors of human behaviors, vehicle factors and road factors. STELLA software is a powerful tool for making a simulation model instead of stock and flow diagram, graphical interface, table and graph view, causal relational diagrams and build in functions. The system dynamics road accident prediction model was developed using STELLA software. The main objective of the studies is to establish simple, practicable simulation road accident and its cost models that can predict the expected number of accidents from 2010 to 2020. The predicted number of accident in 2010 was 5255 and accident for the year 2020 will be 21612. The model was also validated by comparing the predicted accident values of the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 with actual accident values. Add results of cost how much you predicted here.

    18. Factores de riesgo asociados a los accidentes de trabajo en la industria de la construcción del Valle de México / Risk Factors Associated with Work-Related Accidents in the Construction Industry in the Valley of Mexico

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Rodrigo, Sarmiento-Salinas; Pablo, López-Rojas; Irma Araceli, Marín-Cotoñieto; Arturo, Godínez-Rocha; Luis, Haro-García; Santiago, Salinas-Tovar.

      2004-12-01

      Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la prevalencia de accidentabilidad en la industria de la construcción, factores asociados e impacto potencial en trabajadores afiliados al Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) en el Valle de México. Material y métodos: casos y controles retrospectivo de casos prevalentes. [...] Casos: 385 trabajadores de la industria de la construcción que sufrieron y les fue dictaminado accidente de trabajo en el año de 2001. Controles: 385 trabajadores activos de la industria de la construcción sin antecedente de accidente de trabajo, pareados por sexo, puesto de trabajo, y centro de trabajo. En uno y otro grupos se exploraron características demográficas y laborales que incluyó la capacitación en el trabajo. Resultados: la prevalencia de accidentabilidad en trabajadores de la construcción: 5.5%; factores de riesgo más importantes y fracción etio lógica (FeE): grupo de edad de 16 a 20 años, OR =1.58 [IC 95%: 1.40-10.7], (p=0.001), FeE:0.36, aseguramiento eventual, OR= 3.7[IC95%: 2.16-26.45], (p= 0.001), FeE: 0.72, y falta de capacitación para el trabajo, OR=5.3[IC95%: 4.9-69.2], (p= 0.01), FeE: 0.81. Variables que no mostraron significancia fueron: salario, antigüedad en el puesto, turno y jornada de trabajo. En su conjunto, la capacitación laboral estuvo ausente en 87% de todos los trabajadores sujetos a estudio. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de accidentabilidad mantiene preponderancia en la industria de la construcción del Valle de México; los factores de riesgo identificados son potencialmente modificables donde la capacitación laboral adquiere indiscutible relevancia. Abstract in english Objective: Our aim was to describe construction-industry work-related accident prevalence in, associated factors in, and potential impact on affiliated workers of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS) in the Valley of Mexico. Materials and Methods: Pre [...] valent cases in a retrospective case-control design. Cases: These include 385 construction-industry workers who were found to have construction work-related accidents in 2001. Controls: comprised 385 active construction-industry workers without work-related accident background paired by gender, workplace, and worksite. Results. Work-related accident prevalence in construction workers was 5.5%; most important risk factors and etiology fraction (Ef) included the following: age 16-20 years odds ratio, OR = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.40-10.7, p=0.001, Efi 0.36; eventual insurance, OR = 3.7, 95% CI, 2.16-26.45, p = 0.001), Efi 0.72, and no training for job, OR =5.3, 95% CI, 4.9-69.2, p = 0.01), Ef: 0.81. Variables not showing significance were included salary, work shift, and workday. Conclusions. Work-related accident prevalence maintains its preponderance in the Valley of Mexico construction industry; identified risk factorsare potentially modifiable, among which job training acquires unquestionable relevance.

    19. Long term reduction of Caesium and Strontium transfer factors from soil in foodstuff and dynamics of internal doses for a russian population after the Chernobyl accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The model of the formation of the internal doses for the population living on the territory contaminated after the Chernobyl accident is described. Model parameters were obtained on the base of natural measurements results implemented in the different terms after the accident. The data on the caesium radionuclides content in the bodies of the inhabitants measurements were priority for the internal exposure dose estimation. In the case of the absence of such information, the results of the radionuclides content in the food products analysis or the data on the soil types prevailing in the areas of settlements, were used for the calculations. The data were obtained during 1986-2001 as a result of monitoring of contaminated areas in Russia that considerably differ in their soil and climate conditions, the levels of 137Cs and 90Sr surface activity on soil and types of countermeasures applied. A summary of effective half-lives (T1/2) of 137Cs and 90Sr aggregated transfer factors (Tag) from soil into agricultural and natural products observed after the Chernobyl fallout is given. The short term decrease of 137Cs Tag from soil into milk and beef during two months after fallout were observed - T1/2 varied from 13 d to 36 d in depend on the part of dry and wet fallout. The studies between autumn 1986 and 1991 suggest a decrease in the 137Cs Tag with T1/2/2 =1-2 years. From 5-6 years after deposition onwards T1/2/2 of 137Cs and 90Sr Tag's in the range of 8 to 21 years were observed. Effective half-lives of 137Cs Tag's for foods from semi-natural ecosystems (mushrooms, berries, game, fish) are longer (up to tens years). On at least for some natural products the decrease seems to be only to radioactive decay. Comparison of the data on the dynamics of 137Cs content in agricultural and natural food products indicates that the contribution of the latter in the internal dose of population grows with each year after fallout, and can reach in the remote period up to 70 %. The influence of the actually applied measures for radiation protection of the population living in different zones of radioactively contaminated territories was taken into account. The results of the internal exposure doses estimations for the population in the different terms after the accident in condition of the countermeasures absence are given for a comparison. On the most contaminated territories these doses could exceeded actual in 5-7 times

    20. MY NASA DATA: Investigating Factors that Influence Climate

      Science.gov (United States)

      Latitude and longitude impact climate. Students will learn this first hand by researching the climate for a specific 10° x 10° quadrant of the country. Students will download data sets on both temperature and precipitation for their quadrant and will determine averages for each of those factors. Using that information, students will construct a climatogram (a climate diagram). After analyzing the climatogram, students will prepare a poster and give an oral presentation. The influence on their quadrant's climate of additional factors such as elevation, topography and solar intensity will also be considered. Note: This lesson involves several activities. Following the recommended sequence and timetable, the lesson could take six to ten 50-minute class periods. It is possible to reduce the time commitment by modifying the activities. This lesson uses student- and citizen science-friendly microsets of authentic NASA Earth system science data from the MY NASA DATA project. It also includes related links, extension, an online glossary, and a list of related AP Environmental Science topics.

    1. Investigating important factors influencing on strategic marketing planning

      OpenAIRE

      Davood Salmani; Mohammad Reza Daraei; Ali Bayazdi

      2014-01-01

      One of the most important methods for building good marketing strategy is to learn more about existing competitors, suppliers, etc. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between wholesalers, bargaining pricing, new rivals and pricing strategy on preparing appropriate marketing strategy in meat market in city of shiraz, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 200 experts in this market. Cronbach alpha has been...

    2. Investigating different factors influencing on return of private banks

      OpenAIRE

      Pegah Motamedi

      2013-01-01

      Return of Investment has always been an interesting area of research among academics as well as investors. Although capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is capable of estimating risk of investment, many people argue that CAPM is not able to predict long-term return, properly. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effects of different financial figures including systematic risk (Beta), size of firm, ratio of book value to market share, volume of trade and the ratio of price/...

    3. Transient thermal hydraulic analysis of the IAEA 10 MW MTR reactor during Loss of Flow Accident to investigate the flow inversion

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Highlights: • Transient analyses of a slow and fast LOFA were investigated. • A reactor kinetic and thermal hydraulic coupled model was developed. • Based on force balance, the flow rate during flow inversion was determined. • Flow inversion in a hot channel occurred earlier than in an average channel. • Two temperature peaks were observed during both slow and fast LOFA. - Abstract: Transient analyses of the IAEA 10 MW MTR reactor are investigated during a fast and slow Loss of Flow Accident (LOFA) with a neutron kinetic and thermal hydraulic coupling model. A spatial-dependent thermal hydraulic technique is adopted for analyzing the local thermal hydraulic parameters and hotspot location during a flow inversion. The flow rate through the channel is determined in terms of a balance between driving and preventing forces. Friction and buoyancy forces act as resistance of the flow before a flow inversion while buoyancy force becomes the driving force after a flow inversion. By taking into account the buoyancy effect to determine the flow rate, the difference in the flow inversion time between hot and average channels is investigated: a flow inversion occurs earlier in the hot channel than in an average channel. Furthermore, the movement of the hotspot location before and after a flow inversion is investigated for a slow and fast LOFA. During a flow inversion, two temperature peaks are observed: (1) the first temperature peak is at the initiation of the LOFA, and (2) the second temperature peak is when a flow inversion occurs. The maximum temperature of the cladding is found at the second temperature peak for both LOFA analyses, and is lower than the saturation temperature

    4. How to reduce the number of accidents

      CERN Multimedia

      2012-01-01

      Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

    5. Study of the Severity of Accidents in Tehran Using Statistical Modeling and Data Mining Techniques

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hesamaldin Razi

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available AbstractBackgrounds and Aims: The Tehran province was subject to the second highest incidence of fatalities due to traffic accidents in 1390. Most studies in this field examine rural traffic accidents, but this study is based on the use of logit models and artificial neural networks to evaluate the factors that affect the severity of accidents within the city of Tehran.Materials and Methods: Among the various types of crashes, head-on collisions are specified as the most serious type, which is investigated in this study with the use of Tehran’s accident data. In the modeling process, the severity of the accident is the dependent variable and defined as a binary covariate, which are non-injury accidents and injury accidents. The independent variables are parameters such as the characteristics of the driver, time of the accident, traffic and environmental characteristics. In addition to the prediction accuracy comparison of the two models, the elasticity of the logit model is compared with a sensitivity analysis of the neural network.Results: The results show that the proposed model provides a good estimate of an accident's severity. The explanatory variables that have been determined to be significant in the final models are the driver’s gender, age and education, along with negligence of the traffic rules, inappropriate acceleration, deviation to the left, type of vehicle, pavement conditions, time of the crash and street width.Conclusion: An artificial neural network model can be useful as a statistical model in the analysis of factors that affect the severity of accidents. According to the results, human errors and illiteracy of drivers increase the severity of crashes, and therefore, educating drivers is the main strategy that will reduce accident severity in Iran. Special attention should be given to a driver’s age group, with particular care taken when they are very young.

    6. Evaluation of severe accident environmental conditions taking accident management strategy into account for equipment survivability assessments

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This paper presents a methodology utilizing accident management strategy in order to determine accident environmental conditions in equipment survivability assessments. In case that there is well-established accident management strategy for specific nuclear power plant, an application of this tool can provide a technical rationale on equipment survivability assessment so that plant-specific and time-dependent accident environmental conditions could be practically and realistically defined in accordance with the equipment and instrumentation required for accident management strategy or action appropriately taken. For this work, three different tools are introduced; Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) outcomes, major accident management strategy actions, and Accident Environmental Stages (AESs). In order to quantitatively investigate an applicability of accident management strategy to equipment survivability, the accident simulation for a most likely scenario in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPs) is performed with MAAP4 code. The Accident Management Guidance (AMG) actions such as the Reactor Control System (RCS) depressurization, water injection into the RCS, the containment pressure and temperature control, and hydrogen concentration control in containment are applied. The effects of these AMG actions on the accident environmental conditions are investigated by comparing with those from previous normal accident simulation, especially focused on equipment sulation, especially focused on equipment survivability assessment. As a result, the AMG-involved case shows the higher accident consequences along the accident environmental stages

    7. Investigation of earthquake factor for optimum tuned mass dampers

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nigdeli, Sinan Melih; Bekda?, Gebrail

      2012-09-01

      In this study the optimum parameters of tuned mass dampers (TMD) are investigated under earthquake excitations. An optimization strategy was carried out by using the Harmony Search (HS) algorithm. HS is a metaheuristic method which is inspired from the nature of musical performances. In addition to the HS algorithm, the results of the optimization objective are compared with the results of the other documented method and the corresponding results are eliminated. In that case, the best optimum results are obtained. During the optimization, the optimum TMD parameters were searched for single degree of freedom (SDOF) structure models with different periods. The optimization was done for different earthquakes separately and the results were compared.

    8. Effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on goshawk reproduction

      Science.gov (United States)

      Murase, Kaori; Murase, Joe; Horie, Reiko; Endo, Koichi

      2015-01-01

      Although the influence of nuclear accidents on the reproduction of top predators has not been investigated, it is important that we identify the effects of such accidents because humans are also top predators. We conducted field observation for 22 years and analysed the reproductive performance of the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae), a top avian predator in the North Kanto area of Japan, before and after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in 2011. The reproductive performance declined markedly compared with the pre-accident years and progressively decreased for the three post-accident study years. Moreover, it was suggested that these declines were primarily caused by an increase in the air dose rate of radio-active contaminants measured under the nests caused by the nuclear accidents, rather than by other factors. We consider the trends in the changes of the reproductive success rates and suggest that internal exposure may play an important role in the reproductive performance of the goshawk, as well as external exposure. PMID:25802117

    9. Variation in transfer factor of radiocaesium in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in clear cut and mature forest sites after the Chernobyl accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Bank voles that were collected between 1986 and 2004 at sites in Chernobyl fallout areas of northern Sweden showed higher 137Cs activity concentrations at the mature forest sites compared to clear cuts. This difference was not attributed to differences in ground deposition between sites but to differences in aggregated transfer rates to voles. Differences in transfer between forest types were evident for all years 1986-2004 but the change occurred at different rates in the two habitats. The apparent transfer factor between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and voles was positively related and indicated that a biomagnification was about 1.5 from vegetation to these small mammalian herbivores. The aggregated transfer factor to bank voles measured in the forest habitat, although starting at higher levels declined faster with time than clear cut sites and the differences between the forest habitat and the clear cut areas diminished with time. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the mean level in bank vole was 514 Bq/kg fresh mass (SD = 505) that increased to 1485 Bq/kg (SD = 881) in 1988. The activity concentration declined thereafter. The bank voles collected in similar habitats in 2004 contained on average 1022 Bq/kg (SD = 723). Still 18 years after the radionuclide fallout over Sweden high activity concentrations in voles could be found

    10. Accident: Reminder

      CERN Multimedia

      2003-01-01

      There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

    11. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

    12. Investigation of Framingham Risk Factors in Turkish adults

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Arda ?anl? Ökmen

      2011-03-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine 10-year risk for development of cardiovascular diseases usingFramingham risk scoring as a tool for the estimationof coronary risk and renew the blood lipid levels.Materials and methods: Samples from fasting 3169healthy donors declaring as having no cardiovasculardisease and diabetes (1800 women, mean age 46.8±9.2years and 1369 men, mean age 46.03±8.4 years weretested and scored according to risk factors in both genders.Results: When average values were considered, totalcholesterol level was higher (204±42 mg/dL accordingto reactive insert reference values. High total kolesteroland low HDL-C levels were seen in 20% and 19.5% ofmen and 32.6% and 1.1% of women, respectively. Thenumber of participants having systolic blood pressure?130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure ? 85 mmHgwere 775 (24.5% and the distribution of those valueswas 10.6 % in men and 13.9% in women. The mean 10-year cardiovascular disease risks were 9.4 % in men and4.6% in women among 3169 participants.Conclusion: A 10-year risk of coronary disease, in Turkishmales was 2-fold higher than in Turkish females. Useof Framingham study in clinical assessments maintains tobe a valid method in preventive approaches for developmentof cardiovascular diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(1: 42-49

    13. [Snowboarding accidents].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Müller, R; Brügger, O; Mathys, R; Stüssi, E

      2000-12-01

      The present review summarises the related literature of the last ten years with request to snowboarding accidents. Sport accident statistics of snowboarding show high and increasing numbers of injuries. Already snowboarding ranks third of all sport accidents in Switzerland. According to the literature the injury risk in snowboarding is twice that of skiing, although the injuries are less serious. About 50% of the injured snowboarders are beginners. Beginners have a higher risk of injury than more advanced snowboarders. Additionally, and a relative large part of them are injured the first day of their snowboard career. The pattern of injury has changed over the last years. Today, injuries to the lower extremities account no longer for more than 50% but are now decreased to about 25%. Nowadays, wrist, knee, ankle, and shoulder are the most frequently injured body parts. It is the authors opinion that with up-to-date protectors, release bindings, and training of falling techniques the numbers and seriousness of injuries could be reduced, in particular injuries to the wrist and ankle. PMID:11199401

    14. Investigating different factors influencing on return of private banks

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Pegah Motamedi

      2013-09-01

      Full Text Available Return of Investment has always been an interesting area of research among academics as well as investors. Although capital asset pricing model (CAPM is capable of estimating risk of investment, many people argue that CAPM is not able to predict long-term return, properly. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effects of different financial figures including systematic risk (Beta, size of firm, ratio of book value to market share, volume of trade and the ratio of price/earnings (P/E on return of private banks in Iran. The study gathers the necessary information over the period 2005-2011 from private banks in Iran. The study uses multiple regression technique to find the effects of mentioned variables on return of private banks. The results indicate that there are some meaningful and positive relationship between return of banks and systematic risk (Beta, size, volume of trade and P/E. The study also finds some meaningful and reverse relationship between bank return and book value on market value.

    15. Analysis of Crew Fatigue in AIA Guantanamo Bay Aviation Accident

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Miller, Donna L.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Lebacqz, J. Victor; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

      1994-01-01

      Flight operations can engender fatigue, which can affect flight crew performance, vigilance, and mood. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) requested the NASA Fatigue Countermeasures Program to analyze crew fatigue factors in an aviation accident that occurred at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. There are specific fatigue factors that can be considered in such investigations: cumulative sleep loss, continuous hours of wakefulness prior to the incident or accident, and the time of day at which the accident occurred. Data from the NTSB Human Performance Investigator's Factual Report, the Operations Group Chairman's Factual Report, and the Flight 808 Crew Statements were analyzed, using conservative estimates and averages to reconcile discrepancies among the sources. Analysis of these data determined the following: the entire crew displayed cumulative sleep loss, operated during an extended period of continuous wakefulness, and obtained sleep at times in opposition to the circadian disposition for sleep, and that the accident occurred in the afternoon window of physiological sleepiness. In addition to these findings, evidence that fatigue affected performance was suggested by the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) transcript as well as in the captain's testimony. Examples from the CVR showed degraded decision-making skills, fixation, and slowed responses, all of which can be affected by fatigue; also, the captain testified to feeling "lethargic and indifferent" just prior to the accident. Therefore, the sleep/wake history data supports the hypothesis that fatigue was a factor that affected crewmembers' performance. Furthermore, the examples from the CVR and the captain's testimony support the hypothesis that the fatigue had an impact on specific actions involved in the occurrence of the accident.

    16. Epidemiological profile of patients with cerebral vascular accident

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Carolline Paulo Neto da Cunha Lima, Marta Miriam Lopes Costa, Maria Julia Guimarães Oliveira Soares

      2009-10-01

      Full Text Available Objectives: to show the profile epidemiological of patients with cerebral vascular accident in a public hospital from João Pessoa city, Paraíba, Brazil; to investigate the social demographic profile; to identify the risk factors, symptoms and sequels of the cerebral vascular accident. Methods: this is about a descriptive and exploratory study, from quantitative approach; the population was configured by sixty handbooks. Data collect was performed with a form from March to April 2007, and then data were analyzed and presented in tables and figures. This study was approval by the Ethics Committee under protocol number 58/2007. Results: data has been demonstrated that most of the handbooks belonged to patients from 46 to 85 years old; from female; they came from Mata Paraibana region; they were patients with hypertension; they had cerebral vascular accident of the type hemorrhagic. Conclusion: this study was very important for nurses, since it allowed them to have knowledge to help reduce the number of deaths and sequelae of cerebral vascular accident, also contributed to the basics to change like this, as knowledge of the disease and fitness treatment methods (among them, stand out studies of risk factors and relevance of applying an early prevention of cerebral vascular accident. Thus, the role of nursing is to prevent and detect early complications, educating the population about the disease.

    17. Transportation accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Predicting the possible consequences of transportation accidents provides a severe challenge to an analyst who must make a judgment of the likely consequences of a release event at an unpredictable time and place. Since it is impractical to try to obtain detailed knowledge of the meteorology and terrain for every potential accident location on a route or to obtain accurate descriptions of population distributions or sensitive property to be protected (data which are more likely to be more readily available when one deals with fixed-site problems), he is constrained to make conservative assumptions in response to a demanding public audience. These conservative assumptions are frequently offset by very small source terms (relative to a fixed site) created when a transport vehicle is involved in an accident. For radioactive materials, which are the principal interest of the authors, only the most elementary models have been used for assessing the consequences of release of these materials in the transportation setting. Risk analysis and environmental impact statements frequently have used the Pasquill-Gifford/gaussian techniques for releases of short duration, which are both simple and easy to apply and require a minimum amount of detailed information. However, after deciding to use such a model, the problem of selecting what specific parameters to use in specific transportation situations still presents itself. Additional complications arise because source terms are notcations arise because source terms are not well characterized, release rates can be variable over short and long time periods, and mechanisms by which source aerosols become entrained in air are not always obvious. Some approaches that have been used to address these problems will be reviewed with emphasis on guidelines to avoid the Worst-Case Scenario Syndrome

    18. Nuclear accident emergency introduction

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Nuclear accident emergency is an action for controlling or reliving nuclear accident and relaxing accident result. It is different from normal order and normal work procedures, and it is also the last part of depth defense. The article introduces the main content of nuclear accident emergency management work and an example of nuclear accident emergency drill. (author)

    19. Investigation of stress concentration factor - Stress intensity factor interaction for flaws in filleted rods

      Science.gov (United States)

      Springfield, C. W., Jr.; Jung, H. Y.

      1988-01-01

      To predict the fatigue life of machine parts which contain flaws in regions of stress concentration, the engineer needs to treat a series of crack sizes and/or shapes quickly and economically. In this paper the stress intensity factor distributions for circular surface flaws in the roots of fillets in rods loaded by remote tension are presented and examined. The examination reveals insight into the interaction of cracks with other stress concentrating discontinuities, and based on this it is suggested that weight function methods used in conjunction with known crack solutions may provide needed, efficient stress intensity factor prediction methods for such three-dimensional geometries.

    20. Fast armatures must limit accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      After pipe ruptures in the primary system of a nuclear power plants, quick-action stop armatures have the task to prevent the consequences of the accident by immediately stopping the volume flow in pipes, thus preventing the radioactive medium from flowing to the point of rupture. The article reports on the simulation of such accidents in the Karlstein superheated-steam reactor (HDR) as well as on the investigation procedure and results. (orig./UA) 891 UA 892 EKI

    1. The ultimate nuclear accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

    2. [Sleep and accidents].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Philip, Pierre; Sagaspe, Patricia

      2011-10-01

      The evolution of society and labor organization (24/7 working) has significantly changed our lifestyles and increased the number of workers with sleep debt and staggered hours. Populations are particularly at risk of excessive sleepiness due to sleep deprivation (professional obligations), circadian factors (e.g. night driving) and sleep disorders (e.g. obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and hypersomnia). Excessive daytime sleepiness (i.e. difficulty staying awake) is estimated to affect about 5 % of the population. Public health studies have shown that sleepiness at the wheel and other risks associated with sleep are responsible for 5% to 30% of road accidents, depending on the type of driver and/or road. Strategies to reduce accidents related to sleepiness include--reliable diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders,--management of chronobiological conflicts,--adequate catch-up sleep, and--countermeasures against sleepiness at the wheel. PMID:22812165

    3. The vver severe accident management

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher

    4. Accident report 1974

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This report continues the series of annual evaluations of accidents which took place at Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung. The statistics are supplemented by examples of accidents and of preventive actions. The following objectives are pursued bx this compilation: 1)Providing a survey of the development of the number of accidents which occurred from 1960 until 1974 and comparison of figures indicated. 2) Classification of accidents under different aspects and, hence, indication of accidents most frequently occurring. 3) Report about accident prevention activities. (orig.)

    5. ASTEC investigations of severe core damage behaviour of VVER-1000 in case of loss of coolant accident along with Station-Black-Out

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Severe accident analysis of a reactor is an important aspect for evaluation of source term. Analyses have been carried out for VVER-1000 V320 reactor following LOCA along with Station-Black-Out using the severe accident code ASTEC. The predictions of different severe accident parameters like vessel rupture time, hydrogen and corium production and radioactivity release to containment have been compared for three break sizes. Since these predictions are dependent on different core degradation parameters and models, a sensitivity analysis is also carried out to study the effect of different core degradation parameters and models on severe core damage progression. LOCA analyses show a variation of degradation parameters which is a consequence of steam-rich and steam-starved conditions. All these calculations of VVER-1000 scenarios show that the ASTEC V2 code gives reliable and consistent results on this type of reactor, including its specifics like Zr1%Nb clad material and horizontal steam generators

    6. Consequences of radioactive releases into the sea resulting from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant - Evolution of expert investigation according to the data available

      OpenAIRE

      Laguionie, Philippe; Bailly-du-bois, Pascal; Boust, D.; Fievet, B.; Garreau, Pierre; Connan, O.; Charmasson, Sabine; Arnaud, M.; Duffa, Celine; Champion, D.

      2012-01-01

      The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 led to an unprecedented direct input of artificial radioactivity into the marine environment. The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety was requested by the French authorities to investigate the radioecological impact of this input, in particular the potential contamination of products of marine origin used for human consumption. This article describes the close link between the responses provided and ...

    7. Accident Assessment

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      There is a general feeling that decommissioning is an activity involving limited risks, compared to NPP operation, and in particular risks involving the general public. This is technically confirmed by licensing analysis and evaluations, where, once the spent fuel has been removed from the plant, the radioactivity inventory available to be released to the environment is very limited. Decommissioning activities performed so far in the world have also confirmed the first assumptions and no specific issue has been identified, in this field, to justify a completely new approach. Commercial interests in international harmonization, which could drive an in-depth discussion about the bases of this approach, are weak at the moment. However, there are several reasons why a discussion in an international framework about the Safety Case for decommissioning (and, in particular, about Accident Assessment) may be considered necessary and important, and why it may show some specific and peculiar aspects. An effort for a comprehensive and systematic D and D accident safety assessment of the decommissioning process is justified. It is necessary also to explore in a holistic way the aspects of industrial safety, and develop tools for the decision-making process optimization. The expected results are the implementation of appropriate and optimized protective measures in any event and of adequate on/off-site emergency plans for optimal public and workers protection. The experience from other decommissioning projects and large-scale industrial activities is essential to balance provisions and an Operating Experience review process (specific for decommissioning) should help to focus on real issues

    8. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.

      2014-01-01

      This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we…

    9. Fatores associados ao óbito de motociclistas nas ocorrências de trânsito Factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclista en accidentes de tránsito Factors associated with the death of motorcyclists in traffic accidents

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nelson Luiz Batista de Oliveira

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available Para identificar fatores associados ao óbito em motociclistas envolvidos em ocorrências de trânsito, em Maringá-PR, foi realizado estudo retrospectivo incluindo os motociclistas envolvidos em acidentes no ano de 2004. As fontes de dados foram os registros da Polícia Militar, do SIATE e do Instituto Médico Legal. Foram realizadas análises bivariadas e regressão logística binária. Identificaram-se 2.362 motociclistas nos Boletins de Ocorrência e, destes, 1.743 tinham registros nos Relatórios de Atendimento do Socorrista. As vítimas fatais diferiram das demais quanto à faixa etária, ao local de residência, ao tempo de habilitação e as suas condições fisiológicas na cena da ocorrência. No modelo final permaneceram as seguintes variáveis: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, pulso e saturação de O2 no sangue. As condições fisiológicas das vítimas na cena do acidente se destacaram no modelo final e a ECGl superou o RTS na associação com óbito.Para identificar factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclistas involucrados en accidentes de tránsito, en Maringá-PR se realizó estudio retrospectivo incluyendo a los motociclistas involucrados en accidentes durante 2004. Datos recolectados de registros de Policía Militar, SIATE e Instituto Médico Legal. Se identificaron 2362 motociclistas en las Actas de Accidentes; de ellos, 1743 tenían registro en los Informes de Atención del Socorrista. Las víctimas fatales difirieron del resto en lo referente a faja etaria, lugar de residencia, tiempo de habilitación y condiciones fisiológicas en la escena del accidente. En el modelo final permanecen las variables: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, pulso y saturación de O2 en sangre. Las condiciones fisiológicas de las víctimas en la escena del accidente se destacan en el modelo final, y la ECGl superó al RTS en la asociación con fallecimiento.In order to identify the factors associated with death among motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents in Maringá - PR, a retrospective study was performed, including motorcyclists involved in accidents in the year 2004. Data were collected from the Military Police records, the Integrated System for Emergency Trauma Care (Sistema Integrado de Atendimento ao Trauma em Emergência -SIATE and the Institute of Legal Medicine. Bivariate analyses and binary logistical regression were performed. A total of 2,362 motorcyclists were identified in the Police Reports, 1,743 of whom also had records in the Emergency Responders reports. Victims who succumbed to their injuries differed from victims who survived in terms of age, place of residence, time elapsed since obtaining a driver's license, and their physiological condition at the scene of the accident. The following variables were maintained in the final model: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, pulse, and blood oxygen saturation. The physiological conditions of the victims at the scene of the accidents were highlighted in the final model, with GCS surpassing RTS in regards to association with death.

    10. Fatores associados ao óbito de motociclistas nas ocorrências de trânsito / Factors associated with the death of motorcyclists in traffic accidents / Factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclista en accidentes de tránsito

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Nelson Luiz Batista de, Oliveira; Regina Marcia Cardoso de, Sousa.

      1379-13-01

      Full Text Available Para identificar fatores associados ao óbito em motociclistas envolvidos em ocorrências de trânsito, em Maringá-PR, foi realizado estudo retrospectivo incluindo os motociclistas envolvidos em acidentes no ano de 2004. As fontes de dados foram os registros da Polícia Militar, do SIATE e do Instituto [...] Médico Legal. Foram realizadas análises bivariadas e regressão logística binária. Identificaram-se 2.362 motociclistas nos Boletins de Ocorrência e, destes, 1.743 tinham registros nos Relatórios de Atendimento do Socorrista. As vítimas fatais diferiram das demais quanto à faixa etária, ao local de residência, ao tempo de habilitação e as suas condições fisiológicas na cena da ocorrência. No modelo final permaneceram as seguintes variáveis: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulso e saturação de O2 no sangue. As condições fisiológicas das vítimas na cena do acidente se destacaram no modelo final e a ECGl superou o RTS na associação com óbito. Abstract in spanish Para identificar factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclistas involucrados en accidentes de tránsito, en Maringá-PR se realizó estudio retrospectivo incluyendo a los motociclistas involucrados en accidentes durante 2004. Datos recolectados de registros de Policía Militar, SIATE e Instituto M [...] édico Legal. Se identificaron 2362 motociclistas en las Actas de Accidentes; de ellos, 1743 tenían registro en los Informes de Atención del Socorrista. Las víctimas fatales difirieron del resto en lo referente a faja etaria, lugar de residencia, tiempo de habilitación y condiciones fisiológicas en la escena del accidente. En el modelo final permanecen las variables: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulso y saturación de O2 en sangre. Las condiciones fisiológicas de las víctimas en la escena del accidente se destacan en el modelo final, y la ECGl superó al RTS en la asociación con fallecimiento. Abstract in english In order to identify the factors associated with death among motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents in Maringá - PR, a retrospective study was performed, including motorcyclists involved in accidents in the year 2004. Data were collected from the Military Police records, the Integrated System f [...] or Emergency Trauma Care (Sistema Integrado de Atendimento ao Trauma em Emergência -SIATE) and the Institute of Legal Medicine. Bivariate analyses and binary logistical regression were performed. A total of 2,362 motorcyclists were identified in the Police Reports, 1,743 of whom also had records in the Emergency Responders reports. Victims who succumbed to their injuries differed from victims who survived in terms of age, place of residence, time elapsed since obtaining a driver's license, and their physiological condition at the scene of the accident. The following variables were maintained in the final model: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulse, and blood oxygen saturation. The physiological conditions of the victims at the scene of the accidents were highlighted in the final model, with GCS surpassing RTS in regards to association with death.

    11. Hull loss accident model for narrow body commercial aircraft

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Somchanok Tiabtiamrat

      2010-10-01

      Full Text Available Accidents with narrow body aircraft were statistically evaluated covering six families of commercial aircraft includingBoeing B737, Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD80, Tupolev TU134/TU154 and Antonov AN124. A risk indicator for eachflight phase was developed based on motion characteristics, duration time, and the presence of adverse weather conditions.The estimated risk levels based on these risk indicators then developed from the risk indicator. Regression analysis indicatedvery good agreement between the estimated risk level and the accident ratio of hull loss cases per number of delivered aircraft.The effect of time on the hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft was assessed for B737, A320 and MD80. Equationsrepresenting the effect of time on hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were proposed for B737, A320, and MD80,while average values of hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were found for TU134, TU154, and AN 124. Accidentprobability equations were then developed for each family of aircraft that the probability of an aircraft in a hull loss accidentcould be estimated for any aircraft family, flight phase, presence of adverse weather factor, hour of day, day of week, monthof year, pilot age, and pilot flight hour experience. A simplified relationship between estimated hull loss accident probabilityand unsafe acts by human was proposed. Numerical investigation of the relationship between unsafe acts by human andfatality ratio suggested that the fatality ratio in hull loss accident was dominated primarily by the flight phase media.

    12. Human Factors and Safety Culture in Maritime Safety (revised)

      OpenAIRE

      Heinz Peter Berg

      2013-01-01

      As in every industry at risk, the human and organizational factors constitute the main stakes for maritime safety. Furthermore, several events at sea have been used to develop appropriate risk models. The investigation on maritime accidents is, nowadays, a very important tool to identify the problems related to human factor and can support accident prevention and the improvement of maritime safety. Part of this investigation should in future also be near misses. Operation of ships is full of ...

    13. How Enzymes Work: Investigating their specificity and susceptibility to environmental factors using Jell-O.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Heather Netland, Jefferson High School, Alexandria, MN, based on the original activities from School Improvement in Maryland; "Pineapple/Jell-O Lab," Access Excellence Activities Exchange; "Enzyme Labs Using Jell-O" by Anne McDonald and Michael O'Hare, and AP & Regents Biology; "Lab 8: Pineapple Enzymes and Jell-O Molds" by Kim B. Foglia.

      This activity is a lab investigation in which students design and conduct experiments using pineapple juice containing the enzyme bromelain and its affect on the substrate gelatin found in Jell-O. The focus of student driven investigations are on enzyme specificity, activity and the impact of environmental factors on enzyme functioning.

    14. Normal Accident at Three Mile Island.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Perrow, Charles

      1981-01-01

      Discusses some aspects of the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Explains a number of factors involved including the type of accident, warnings, design and equipment failure, operator error, and negative synergy. Presents alternatives to systems with catastrophic potential. (MK)

    15. The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

    16. Development of a deformation and failure model for Zircaloy at high temperatures for light water reactor loss-of-coolant-accident investigations

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      To describe Zircaloy-4 deformation and failure behaviour at high temperatures (600 to 14000C), the phenomenological model NORA was developed and verified against numerous experimental results. The model can be applied to the calculation of fuel rod cladding deformation during small and large break loss-of-coolant-accidents. (orig./RW)

    17. Investigating the effects of different factors on development of open source enterprise resources planning software packages

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mehdi Ghorbaninia

      2014-08-01

      Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of different factors on development of open source enterprise resources planning software packages. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 210 experts in the field of open source software package development. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. Using Pearson correlation as well as stepwise regression analysis, the study determines three most important factors including fundamental issues, during and after implementation of open source software development. The study also determines a positive and strong relationship between fundamental factors and after implementation factors (r=0.9006, Sig. = 0.000.

    18. Scaling and design analyses of a scaled-down, high-temperature test facility for experimental investigation of the initial stages of a VHTR air-ingress accident

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Chang H. Oh

      2015-07-01

      A critical event in the safety analysis of the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is an airingress accident. This accident is initiated, in its worst case scenario, by a double-ended guillotine break of the coaxial cross vessel, which leads to a rapid reactor vessel depressurization. In a VHTR, the reactor vessel is located within a reactor cavity that is filled with air during normal operating conditions. Following the vessel depressurization, the dominant mode of ingress of an air–helium mixture into the reactor vessel will either be molecular diffusion or density-driven stratified flow. The mode of ingress is hypothesized to depend largely on the break conditions of the cross vessel. Since the time scales of these two ingress phenomena differ by orders of magnitude, it is imperative to understand under which conditions each of these mechanisms will dominate in the air ingress process. Computer models have been developed to analyze this type of accident scenario. There are, however, limited experimental data available to understand the phenomenology of the air-ingress accident and to validate these models. Therefore, there is a need to design and construct a scaled-down experimental test facility to simulate the air-ingress accident scenarios and to collect experimental data. The current paper focuses on the analyses performed for the design and operation of a 1/8th geometric scale (by height and diameter), high-temperature test facility. A geometric scaling analysis for the VHTR, a time scale analysis of the air-ingress phenomenon, a transient repressurization analysis of the reactor vessel, a hydraulic similarity analysis of the test facility, a heat transfer characterization of the hot plenum, a power scaling analysis for the reactor system, and a design analysis of the containment vessel are discussed.

    19. The Fukushima accident

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Maqua, M.; Stueck, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, Koeln (Germany)

      2012-07-01

      On 11 March 2011, the Tohoku earthquake and the subsequent tsunami hit the Japanese east coast, causing more than 15,000 fatalities. To this date, 3,000 people are still missing. The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP was the nuclear installation that was most affected by the tsunami. The earthquake cut off the NPP from the national grid. About 45 minutes later, the tsunami flooded units 1-4 and led to core meltdown events with large releases for units 1, 2 and 3. Unit 4 had been in refuelling outage at that time and lost the cooling of the spent fuel pool for several days. Considerable hydrogen explosions occurred in units 1, 3 and 4. Shortly after the accident, TEPCO started to mitigate the consequences of the accident by providing external cooling to the reactors and by removing the radioactive debris from the site. Great emphasis was laid on effective radiation protection measures for the clean-up workers. Thus, up to now there has been no fatality due to the radiation caused by the Fukushima accident. The main steps of the accident sequences are described, taking into account the latest findings of investigations performed by TEPCO or on behalf of the regulatory body. The presentation focuses on the description of the status of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and the future steps for cleaning-up the site. In the presentation, the major phases of the roadmap that TEPCO has developed for the clean-up are highlighted. The risks associated with the current plant status and the clean-up phases are described. Abstract the content of the manuscript in a few lines.

    20. Accident information needs

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information

    1. Nuclear reactor accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This book presents in a didactic manner the technical and historical elements allowing to understand the risks and consequences of a nuclear accident. The main accidents which took place in France, US, Ukraine and Japan are analyzed. Content: 1 - Physics of nuclear accidents - reactor accidents; 2 - Accidents of the beginning of the nuclear era: Windscale (1957), Santa Susana (1959), Idaho Falls (1961), Saint Laurent des Eaux A1 (1969); 3 - The Three Mile Island accident; 4 - the Chernobyl accident; 5 - the Fukushima accident: hydrogen explosion; how about France?; 6 - Conclusions and perspectives; Appendix 1: the INES scale; Appendix 2: deterministic approach of barriers dimensioning: application to PWR reactors; the incident/accident classes; the deterministic safety criteria; Appendix 3: history of significant nuclear reactor accidents in the world; Bibliography; Index. (J.S.)

    2. A study on people's awareness of the causal factors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident and measures to ensure nuclear power plants safety. Questionnaire survey conducted in the Kansai area

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In this study, we conducted three questionnaire surveys targeting a total of 808 respondents living in the cities of Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe, in order to elucidate people's awareness of the following 1) the causal factors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, 2) measures taken by electric power companies to ensure nuclear power plants safety, 3) management measures for earthquake and tsunami disaster. The results revealed that 1) the causal factors of the accident the respondents were aware of were a) a mega earthquake and tsunami disaster, b) insufficient preparations for an earthquake and tsunami disaster, c) failure to take adequate management decisions and insufficient preparations to prevent severe nuclear power plant accidents, d) high confidence in nuclear power plants safety, 2) most respondents knew about the information concerning the measures taken by electric power companies from television and newspapers, and only a few respondents sought additional information, 3) respondents were anxious about a) the uncertainty of pre-disaster hazard assumptions and management measures, b) limitations of technological countermeasures against the natural disasters, c) the tendency to overvalue the safety measures. (author)

    3. Severe accident phenomena

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

    4. Movilidad, accidentalidad por tránsito y sus factores asociados en estudiantes universitarios de Guatemala / Mobility, traffic accidents, and associated factors among Guatemalan university students / Mobilidade, acidentes de trânsito e fatores associados entre estudantes universitários da Guatemala

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Sandra, Rodríguez-Guzmán; Eladio, Jiménez-Mejías; Virginia, Martínez-Ruiz; Fernando, Lupiáñez-Tapia; Pablo, Lardelli-Claret; José Juan, Jiménez-Moleón.

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available O objetivo foi identificar e quantificar a associação entre a intensidade de exposição (km/anos percorridos), a acidentalidade e os seus fatores em universitários da Guatemala. Realizou-se um estudo transversal durante o curso 2010-2011 sobre uma amostra de 1.016 condutores de veículos, que responde [...] ram a um questionário autoadministrado que valorizava: padrões de mobilidade, uso de dispositivos de segurança, maneira de condução e acidentalidade. Obtiveram-se associações positivas entre intensidade de exposição e maior implicância em circunstâncias de risco ao conduzir (coeficiente de regressão ajustado a 3,25; IC95%: 2,23-4,27, para as maiores exposições). Tanto a maior implicância em ditas circunstâncias como uma maioridade foram as variáveis mais fortemente associadas com a maior acidentalidade. Apesar de a intensidade de exposição ser associada positivamente com uma maior acidentalidade, estabelecemos que a maior parte da dita associação está mediada pela maior implicância em circunstâncias de risco ao conduzir. Abstract in spanish El objetivo fue identificar y cuantificar la asociación entre la intensidad de exposición (km/año recorridos), la accidentalidad y sus factores asociados en universitarios de Guatemala. Se realizó un estudio trasversal durante el curso 2010-2011, sobre una muestra de 1.016 conductores, quienes cumpl [...] imentaron un cuestionario autoadministrado que valoraba: patrones de movilidad, uso de dispositivos de seguridad, estilos de conducción y accidentalidad. Se obtuvieron asociaciones positivas entre la intensidad de exposición y la mayor implicación en circunstancias de riesgo al volante (coeficiente de regresión ajustado de 3,25, IC95%: 2,23-4,27, para las mayores exposiciones). Tanto una mayor implicación en tales circunstancias, como una mayor edad, fueron las variables más fuertemente asociadas con la mayor accidentalidad. Pese a que la intensidad de exposición se asocia positivamente con una mayor accidentalidad, se constató que la mayor parte de dicha asociación está mediada por una mayor implicación en circunstancias de riesgo al volante. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the association between the amount of driving (km/year), traffic accidents, and other factors among university students in Guatemala. A cross-sectional study was performed during the 2010-2011 school year in a sample of 1,016 drivers who completed a [...] self-administered questionnaire that assessed mobility patterns, use of safety accessories, driving style, and automobile crashes. The results showed a positive association between amount of driving and greater involvement in risky driving (adjusted regression coefficient 3.25, 95%CI: 2.23-4.27, for the highest level of exposure). More frequent involvement in risky driving and older age showed the strongest associations with traffic accidents. Although the amount of driving was positively associated with a higher accident rate, most of this association was found to be mediated by involvement in risky driving practices.

    5. Estimated recurrence frequencies for initiating accident categories associated with the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant design

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Estimated recurrence frequencies for each of twenty-five generic LMFBR initiating accident categories were quantified using the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design. These estimates were obtained using simplified systems fault trees and functional event tree models from the Accident Delineation Study Phase I Final Report coupled with order-of-magnitude estimates for the initiator-dependent failure probabilities of the individual CRBRP engineered safety systems. Twelve distinct protected accident categories where SCRAM is assumed to be successful are estimated to occur at a combined rate of 10-3 times per year while thirteen unprotected accident categories in which SCRAM fails are estimated to occur at a combined rate on the order of 10-5 times per year. These estimates are thought to be representative despite the fact that human performance factors, maintenance and repair, as well as input common cause uncertainties, were not treated explicitly. The overall results indicate that for the CRBRP design no single accident category appears to be dominant, nor can any be totally eliminated from further investigation in the areas of accident phenomenology for in-core events and post-accident phenomenology for containment

    6. Prioritization of Lesson learned from Fukushima Accident using AHP

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) the present research signifies the technical and nontechnical issues of Fukushima accident. The study exposed that besides technical fixes such as enhanced engineering safety features and better siting choices, the critical ingredient for safe operation of nuclear reactors lie in the quality of human training and transparency of the nuclear regulatory process that keeps public interest at the forefront. In this paper a strategy to increase Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety has been developed. By using AHP, best alternative to improve safety and to allocate budget for all technical and non-technical factors related with nuclear safety has been investigated. By using AHP a methodology to increase NPP safety has been proposed. With the help of this technique the qualitative aspect of Fukushima accident has been examined by considering experts judgment. The results showed that a lack of regulatory authorities was one of the main causes of accident. So, more budget allocation in this area would be helpful to reduce accidents and to improve nuclear safety. Even if AHP only addresses the qualitative aspect of safety factors, this study can be extended to quantitative evaluation with other tools such as fault trees or crisis trees so that the final results enable data-driven decision-making process, which is on-going project at Kyung Hee University

    7. The fungous infection of human organs by resistant melanin-synthesizing species is one of pathogenic factor and one of valid consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The nature of melanin-containing components and sources of their appearance in bronchoalveolar washout by the accident liquidators at the Chernobyl NPP is studied. The appearance of mutant melanin containing fungal forms in the zones with increased radioactive contamination is conditioned by their adaptation to changed conditions of their existence. the conclusion is made that fungal infection of the mans organs through radio- and chemi-resistant melanin-synthesizing species at the background of radiation-induced weakening of immune reaction of the man's body is one of the most dangerous and real effects of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    8. Accident occurrence model for the risk analysis of industrialfacilities

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This paper describes an accident occurrence model for the risk analysis of industrial facilities. To better understand the characteristics of industrial accident data, the proposed accident occurrence model is based on a chemical reaction. The model introduces a defensive barrier, which corresponds to the activation energy in a chemical reaction, to prevent an accident. Furthermore, the uncertainty factor in the defensive barrier is mathematically derived as a gamma distribution. The analytical results for the proposed accident occurrence model indicate a Pareto type II distribution, which is the same result found by using a risk curve. Therefore, the analytical model validates the effectiveness of analyzing industrial risk with a riskcurve. Highlights: ? An accident occurrence model based on chemical reaction was proposed. ? Uncertainty factor ? of the defensive barrier to prevent accidents was introduced. ? Accident data of the industrial facilities obey the Pareto type II distribution

    9. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the behaviour of iodine during severe accidents: organic iodide, iodine/silver reaction, iodine/iron reaction. Pt. 4: organic iodide. Final report

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Analysis of the consequences of severe accidents in nuclear power plants requires knowledge of the behaviour of radionuclides relevant from the radiological viewpoint. The role played by radioiodine is particularly important. In the current modelling of iodine behaviour the heterogeneous formation of organic iodide is not adequately taken into consideration owing to a lack of data or insufficient accuracy of data. This project is intended to eliminate some gaps in critical areas. This final report, part 4, describes the tests carried out in the two relevant areas - heterogeneous formation of organic coatings in the gas phase (containment atmosphere) - heterogeneous formation of organic iodide at organic coatings in aqueous phase (containment sump). Moreover, modelling suggestions how to include the resulting knowledge in the iodine accident behaviour code IMPAIR are given. (orig.)

    10. State of material research concerning fuel rod behaviour in LWR loss-of-coolant accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      When laying out an emergency cooling system, the deformation characteristics of fuel cans has to be known. In experimental investigations, some of the factors are examined which can influence the plastic behaviour of Zy-4 within the temperature range of loss-of-collant accidents (400-1,300 degrees C). (HP)

    11. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on electronic banking for developing export

      OpenAIRE

      Naser Azad; Vahid Abbaszadeh; Mohammad Rikhtegar; Hamed Asgari

      2013-01-01

      Developing economy needs appropriate infrastructure in different areas including electronic banking. This paper presents an empirical investigation on important factors influencing electronic banking for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 regular customers who use banking services of various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.752 and there are five factors including internet infr...

    12. Investigating virulence factors of clinical Candida isolates in relation to atmospheric conditions and genotype

      OpenAIRE

      Melek ?NC?; Atalay, Mustafa Altay; Koç, Ay?e Nedret; Erkan YULA; EV?RGEN, Ömer; Durmaz, Süleyman; DEM?R, Gonca

      2011-01-01

      To investigate some virulence factors in Candida species isolated from patients with suspected invasive fungal infection and to identify their relationship with Candida genotypes. Materials and methods: Overall 45 isolates (20 Candida albicans and 25 non-albicans Candida spp.) genotyped by rep-PCR were included in this study. Virulence factors were studied in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In isolates, egg yolk agar was used for determining phospholipase activity, while bovine serum ...

    13. An empirical investigation on factors influencing customer selection of ADSL services

      OpenAIRE

      Naser Azad; Darabi, K.

      2013-01-01

      In this paper, we present an empirical investigation on various factors affecting ADSL service selection in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed model of this paper uses a standard questionnaire and distributes it among randomly selected customers who have some experiences on internet based ADSL products. The study implements factor analysis as well as weighted regression technique to perform the study. There are eight hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper, which indicates...

    14. Investigating the Effects of Psychological Factors on Belief and Experience of Precognitive Dreams

      OpenAIRE

      Hutton, Jenny

      2013-01-01

      Previous research has established a relationship between psychological factors and precognitive dreaming belief and experience. The present study investigates this claim, specifically focussing on the relationship between the psychological factors of personality, memory, IQ and implicit awareness with precognitive dreaming belief and experience measures. 50 participants volunteered to take part in the study which took place at The University of Edinburgh psychology building’s Admiral’s La...

    15. Total Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor and Venous Thrombosis: The Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology

      OpenAIRE

      Zakai, Neil A.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Cushman, Mary

      2010-01-01

      Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) inhibits tissue factor, a potent coagulation initiator. Limited evidence suggests that low TFPI levels are associated with increased risk of venous thrombosis (VTE). We measured total TFPI in a nested case-control study in the Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology. Control subjects were frequency matched 2:1 to cases on age, sex, race, and cohort. Odds ratio for VTE by TFPI levels were computed using logistic regression models adjusting ...

    16. Investigating the Factors Influence Adoption of Internet Banking in Malaysia: Adopters Perspective

      OpenAIRE

      Yong Hoe Hong; Boon Heng Teh; Gowrie Vinayan; Chin Hooi Soh; Nasreen Khan; Tze San Ong

      2013-01-01

      The main purpose of this research is to investigate the factors that influence adopters to take up the Internetbanking services in Malaysia. The sampling units in this survey are the adopters of Internet banking who wereusing it for at least six months. A total of 116 useable questionnaires was coded and analyzed by using SPSSsoftware. Statistical methods like descriptive analysis, factor analysis and regression analysis were used in thisresearch. The regression results showed that Complexity...

    17. An investigation on different factors influencing on target market selection in petrochemical industry

      OpenAIRE

      Saeedeh Koohi; Ali Alikhani

      2014-01-01

      This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors influencing on selection of petrochemical market. The survey has accomplished among 97 randomly selected experts in petrochemical industry in Iran. The survey designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some experts and using binomial test; it has confirmed that except one factor, cultural affairs, other issues including political, cultural, regulations, economic, infrastructure, market potential, buyers’ pot...

    18. Investigating the effects of different factors on development of open source enterprise resources planning software packages

      OpenAIRE

      Mehdi Ghorbaninia

      2014-01-01

      This paper investigates the effects of different factors on development of open source enterprise resources planning software packages. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 210 experts in the field of open source software package development. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. Using Pearson correlation as well as stepwise regression analysis, the study determines three most important factors inclu...

    19. Investigating critical success factors in agile systems development projects / Ruhan Wagener.

      OpenAIRE

      Wagener, Ruhan Pieter

      2012-01-01

      This study investigates the critical success factors involved in agile systems development projects. Various systems development methodologies and project management methodologies are presented with their underlying principles, strengths and weaknesses. Thereafter the critical success factors adopted from the work of Chow and Cao (2007) are presented. A positivistic research paradigm was chosen for data collection and analysis. The survey method was chosen for data collection. A questionn...

    20. Injury rates and injury risk factors among federal bureau of investigation new agent trainees

      OpenAIRE

      Knapik Joseph J; Grier Tyson; Spiess Anita; Swedler David I; Hauret Keith G; Graham Bria; Yoder James; Jones Bruce H

      2011-01-01

      Abstract Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors were acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire and existing data at the FBI Academy. Results A total of 426 men and 105 women participated in the project. Thirty-five percent of men and 42% of women experienc...

    1. Applicability of simplified methods to evaluate consequences of criticality accident using past accident data

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Applicability of four simplified methods to evaluate the consequences of criticality accident was investigated. Fissions in the initial burst and total fissions were evaluated using the simplified methods and those results were compared with the past accident data. The simplified methods give the number of fissions in the initial burst as a function of solution volume; however the accident data did not show such tendency. This would be caused by the lack of accident data for the initial burst with high accuracy. For total fissions, simplified almost reproduced the upper envelope of the accidents. However several accidents, which were beyond the applicable conditions, resulted in the larger total fissions than the evaluations. In particular, the Tokai-mura accident in 1999 gave in the largest total specific fissions, because the activation of cooling system brought the relatively high power for a long time. (author)

    2. 76 FR 55079 - Recreational Vessel Accident Reporting

      Science.gov (United States)

      2011-09-06

      ...accidents; and (2) take steps to clarify what, how...not have access to the internet, you may view the docket...recommended a number of steps to be taken to clarify...Would the use of an Internet reporting system reduce...accidents does a State investigate or cause to be...

    3. Investigating Elementary & Intermediate Level Students’ Perspectives towards Demotivating Factors In ESP Classes

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Masoud Zoghi

      2014-09-01

      Full Text Available In the present study, attempts were made to investigate and contrast the demotivating factors in English classes from the viewpoint of ESP students at different proficiency levels. To this end, 134 ESP students were chosen from Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch. Based on the scores obtained from Oxford Placement Test, the sample was divided into two groups, i.e. the intermediate level of proficiency students (n=60 and the elementary level of proficiency students (n=74. The data required for the study were collected by means of a demotivating factors questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using the Minitab statistical package version 16. Results revealed that there were no significant differences among the demotivating factors perceived across the groups. From the viewpoint of both groups, teachers’ attitude and personality, their teaching methods, and the weakness of students in English vocabulary were among the highest frequency mentioned demotivating factors.Keywords: ESP, demotivating factors, proficiency levels

    4. Informal Parental Traffic Training and Children's Traffic Accidents

      OpenAIRE

      Drott, Peder; Johansson, Bo S.; A?stro?m, Bo

      2008-01-01

      The aims of the present study were (a) to assess the relationship between informal traffic training by parents and their childrens involvement in traffic accidents and (b) to identify factors contributing to this relationship. The first two studies involved questionnaires on informal parental traffic education, the childs exposure to traffic and traffic-related accidents. Both studies showed that rate of accidents increased with training, particularly for outdoor training. An accident analysi...

    5. The cost of nuclear accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Proposed by a technical section of the SFEN, and based on a meeting with representatives of different organisations (OECD-NEA, IRSN, EDF, and European Nuclear Energy Forum), this publication addresses the economic consequences of a severe accident (level 6 or 7) within an electricity producing nuclear power plant. Such an assessment essentially relies on three pillars: release of radio-elements outside the reactor, the scenario of induced consequences, and the method of economic quantification. After a recall and a comment of safety arrangements, and of the generally admitted probability of such an accident, this document notices that several actors are concerned by nuclear energy and are trying to assess accident costs. The issue of how to assess a cost (or costs) of a nuclear accident is discussed: there are in fact several types of costs and consequences. Thus, some costs can be rather precisely quantified when some others can be difficult to assess or with uncertainty. The relevance of some cost categories appears to be a matter of discussion and one must not forget that consequences can occur on a long term. The need for methodological advances is outlined and three categories of technical objectives are identified for the assessment (efficiency of safety measures to be put forward to mitigate the risk via a better accident management, compensation of victims and nuclear civil responsibility, and comparison of electricity production sectors and assessment of externalisation to guide public choices). It is outlined that the impact of accidents depend on several factors, that the most efficient mean to limit consequences of accidents is of course to limit radioactive emissions

    6. Perspective on post-Fukushima severe accident research

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      After the Fukushima Daiichi accident in March 2011 several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident, in which some recommendations on severe accident research are included. The review of specific severe accident research items had already started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation started after the Fukushima accident in this working group to cover additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality. The review results are categorized in nine major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. In January 2012, in collaboration with this working group, Research Expert Committee on Evaluation of Severe Accident was established in AESJ in order to investigate severe accident related issues for future LWR development. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the seven important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. They are (1) investigation of damaged core and components, (2) advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, (3) development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, (4) analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, (5) enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, (6) advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and (7) assessment of advanced containment design which exchides long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations. Lastly severe accident research conducted at Kyoto University is briefly introduced. (author)

    7. Correlation between the Ship Grounding Accident and the Ship Traffic – A Case Study Based on the Statistics of the Gulf of Finland

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Arsham Mazaheri

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available Ship traffic is one of the factors that is presented in almost all of the existing grounding models, and is considered as one of the affecting factors on the likelihood of grounding accident. This effect in grounding accident is mostly accepted by the experts as a common sense or simply by just generalizing the ship-ship collision cases to grounding accidents. There is no available research on the actual causal link between the ship traffic and grounding accident in the literature. In this paper, authors have utilized the statistical analysis on historical grounding accident data in the Gulf of Finland between the years 1989 and 2010 and the AIS data of the same area in year 2010, as the source of ship traffic data, to investigate the possible existence of any correlation between the ship traffic and the grounding accident. The results show that for the studied area (Gulf of Finland there is no correlation between the traffic density and the grounding accident. However, the possibility of the existence of minor relation between the traffic distribution and grounding accident is shown by the result. This finding, however, needs further investigation for more clarification.

    8. The nuclear accidents: Causes and consequences

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The author discussed and compared the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents and cited their consequences. To better understand how these accidents occurred, a brief description of PWR type (reactor type of T.M.I.) and of RBMK type (reactor type of Chernobyl) has been presented. The author has also set out briefly the safety analysis objectives and the three barriers established to protect the public against the radiological consequences. To distinguish failures that cause severe accidents and to analyze them in details, it is necessary to classify the accidents. There are many ways to do it according to their initiator event, or to their frequency, or to their degree of gravity. The safety criteria adopted by nuclear industry have been explained. These criteria specify the limits of certain physical parameters that should not be exceeded in case of incidents or accidents. To compare the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents, the events that led to both have been presented. As observed the main common contributing factors in both cases are that the operators did not pay attention to warnings and signals that were available to them and that they were not trained to handle these accident sequences. The essential conclusions derived from these severe accidents are: -The improvement of operators competence contribute to reduce the accident risks; -The rapid and correct diagnosis of real conditions at each point of the accidents permits an appropriate behavihe accidents permits an appropriate behavior that would bring the plant to a stable state; -Competent technical teams have to intervene and to assist the operators in case of emergency; -Emergency plans and an international collaboration are necessary to limit the accident risks. 11 figs. (author)

    9. Consequences and effectiveness of relocation after nuclear accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Extensive parameter studies have been performed with the program package COSYMA for probabilistic accident consequence assessments to quantify by means of PRA methods the interdependence of those quantities, which influence the extent, the duration, the efficiency and the monetary costs of relocation. As most important quantities, the amount of radionuclides released, the dose intervention levels for relocation, the (avoided) radiation doses in the population and the associated costs have been identified. Decontamination measures have also been included in the investigations, since they reduce the duration of relocation. The expression of all relevant accident consequences in monetary units allowed to investigate the applicability of cost/benefit analysis for deriving the most favourable intervention levels. It could be shown that weighting with different factors of collective doses calculated from different individual dose bands, and thus incorporating subjective judgements, significantly extends and improves the method. (orig./HP)

    10. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Employment Motivation in People with Intellectual Disabilities

      Science.gov (United States)

      Andrews, Abbye; Rose, John L.

      2010-01-01

      Relatively small numbers of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are engaging in paid employment and those who are tend to be working only part-time. This preliminary study addressed the question of what factors motivate people with ID to work. The issue was investigated in a sample of 10 young work-age adults attending supported learning…

    11. Factors Affecting Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce Success: An Empirical Investigation

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chen, Chun-I Philip

      2010-01-01

      It is generally believed that Business to Business (B2B) e-commerce has a great impact on business performance improvement. Considerable research also shows that another dependent variable, B2B e-commerce success, can be a good overall measure of B2B systems. This paper investigated and examined the impact of several factors, which are either…

    12. Exploring Resiliency within Schools: An Investigation of the Effects of Protective Factors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Phillips, Matthew D.; Turner, Michael G.; Holt, Thomas J.

      2014-01-01

      Although research has explored the effects of protective factors on fostering resiliency within "individuals," the same level of inquiry has not emerged investigating the causes of why high-risk "organizations" are resilient to serious violent delinquency. One type of organization that seems particularly appropriate for…

    13. Investigating Factors Related to the Effects of Time-Out on Stuttering in Adults

      Science.gov (United States)

      Franklin, Diane E.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Hennessey, Neville W.; Beilby, Janet M.

      2008-01-01

      Background: Response-contingent time-out has been shown to be an effective technique for enhancing fluency in people who stutter. However, the factors that determine individual responsiveness to time-out are not well understood. Aims: The study investigated the effectiveness of using response-contingent time-out to reduce stuttering frequency in…

    14. Influence of factors of radiative and nonradiative nature on the health state of military garnison population, stationed on the contaminated zone after accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Hormonal control of 207 adult representatives of the population of 6-10 Ci/km2 radioactive density contaminated territories that live there 5 years minimum was studied. The paper presents the morbidity structure according to disease different types. Ecological and social-psychological factors are stressed to affect the morbidity along with the radioactive contamination. The paper presents the results of investigations into endocrine regulation (according to 12 studied indices). The obtained data show that men in the radioactive contaminated territories suffer more often from more severe disordered endocrine function. 3 refs., 2 tabs

    15. Consequence analysis of depressurization accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The consequences of the depressurization accidents for the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor are investigated. A consequence model is developed that is used to delineate the parameters that are important to the consequence calculations. A numerical example of the calculational technique is given

    16. Natural hazard impacts on transport systems: analyzing the data base of transport accidents in Russia

      Science.gov (United States)

      Petrova, Elena

      2015-04-01

      We consider a transport accident as any accident that occurs during transportation of people and goods. It comprises of accidents involving air, road, rail, water, and pipeline transport. With over 1.2 million people killed each year, road accidents are one of the world's leading causes of death; another 20-50 million people are injured each year on the world's roads while walking, cycling, or driving. Transport accidents of other types including air, rail, and water transport accidents are not as numerous as road crashes, but the relative risk of each accident is much higher because of the higher number of people killed and injured per accident. Pipeline ruptures cause large damages to the environment. That is why safety and security are of primary concern for any transport system. The transport system of the Russian Federation (RF) is one of the most extensive in the world. It includes 1,283,000 km of public roads, more than 600,000 km of airlines, more than 200,000 km of gas, oil, and product pipelines, 115,000 km of inland waterways, and 87,000 km of railways. The transport system, especially the transport infrastructure of the country is exposed to impacts of various natural hazards and weather extremes such as heavy rains, snowfalls, snowdrifts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, snow avalanches, debris flows, rock falls, fog or icing roads, and other natural factors that additionally trigger many accidents. In June 2014, the Ministry of Transport of the RF has compiled a new version of the Transport Strategy of the RF up to 2030. Among of the key pillars of the Strategy are to increase the safety of the transport system and to reduce negative environmental impacts. Using the data base of technological accidents that was created by the author, the study investigates temporal variations and regional differences of the transport accidents' risk within the Russian federal regions and a contribution of natural factors to occurrences of different transport accident types.

    17. Investigação de acidentes biológicos entre profissionais de saúde / Investigation of biological accidents among health care workers / Investigación de accidentes biológicos entre los trabajadores de la salud

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Juliana Azevedo da, Silva; Vanessa Salete de, Paula; Adilson José de, Almeida; Livia Melo, Villar.

      2009-09-01

      Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a principal categoria profissional exposta a risco biológico e os principais tipos de acidentes ocorridos entre trabalhadores da área de saúde, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. A partir da análise das fichas de notificação de acidentes biológicos dos 183 pr [...] ofissionais acidentados entre janeiro de 2005 e setembro de 2005, observamos que a categoria profissional mais exposta foi a dos auxiliares/técnicos de enfermagem (54,1%), seguida pela dos acadêmicos de medicina e odontologia (10,4%). A ocorrência de acidentes com materiais perfurocortantes foi relacionada à manipulação frequente desses objetos e ao comportamento dos profissionais que utilizam práticas que oferecem riscos de acidentes com agulhas, tais como o descarte inadequado de objetos perfurocortantes. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las principales categorías profesional expuestas a riesgos biológicos y el principal tipo de accidentes producidos entre los profesionales del área de la salud en Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Del análisis de 183 archivos de los trabajadores que sufren accide [...] ntes con material biológico, de enero a septiembre de 2005, se observó que la categoría profesional más expuesta a sufrir accidentes fue el de los auxiliares de enfermería (54,1%), seguido por los estudiantes de odontología y medicina (10,4%). La de accidentes se relacionó con la manipulación frecuente de agujas, y con el comportamiento de los trabajadores, que mantienen prácticas que ofrecen riesgos, como la eliminación inadecuada de agujas. Abstract in english The aims of this study were to identify the major professional category exposed to biological risk and the principal type of accident occurred among health care workers in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Based on the analysis of 183 records filled out by the workers who suffered biohazardous accidents be [...] tween January 2005 and September 2005, we found the nursing auxiliaries and technicians as the professional category more exposed to biohazardous accidents (54.1%), followed by undergraduate medical and dental students (10.4%). The occurence of acidents with piercing-cutting materials was related to frequent handling of these instruments, and to the behavior of workers who maintain practices providing risks of needlestick injuries, such as inappropriate disposal of piercing-cutting materials.

    18. Investigations of Knight shifts and g factors for Y123 and Y124 superconductors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kuang, Min-Quan; Wu, Shao-Yi; Hu, Xian-Fen; Li, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Zhi-Hong

      2013-09-01

      By adopting the uniform high order perturbation formulas of Knight shifts and g factors for 3d9 ions in orthorhombically and tetragonally elongated octahedra, the experimental results of these parameters for Cu(1) sites in YBa2Cu3O7, YBa2Cu3O7-? and YBa2Cu4O8 and Cu(2) site in YBa2Cu3O7-? are systematically investigated. The calculated Knight shifts (and g factors for Cu(2) site) agree well with the observed values. The anisotropies of the g factors and Knight shifts are attributed to the local orthorhombic and tetragonal elongations of the Cu2+ sites. The present studies would be helpful to attain a more complete spectroscopic understanding for g factors and Knight shifts.

    19. Accident knowledge and emergency management

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

    20. Accident knowledge and emergency management

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

      1997-03-01

      The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

    1. The radiological accident in Cochabamba

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In April 2002 an accident involving an industrial radiography source containing 192Ir occurred in Cochabamba, Bolivia, some 400 km from the capital, La Paz. A faulty radiography source container had been sent back to the headquarters of the company concerned in La Paz together with other equipment as cargo on a passenger bus. This gave rise to a potential for serious exposure for the bus passengers as well as for the company employees who were using and transporting the source. The Government of Bolivia requested the assistance of the IAEA under the terms of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The IAEA in response assembled and sent to Bolivia a team composed of senior radiation safety experts and radiation pathology experts from Brazil, the United Kingdom and the IAEA to investigate the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Government of Bolivia for the opportunity to report on this accident in order to disseminate the valuable lessons learned and help prevent similar accidents in the future

    2. Nuclear Power Plant Accidents

      Science.gov (United States)

      NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENTS Nuclear power plants have safety and security procedures in place and are closely ... a plume). What are the main dangers of nuclear power plant accidents? Radioactive materials in the plume ...

    3. Investigations of Knight shifts and g factors for Y123 and Y124 superconductors

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Highlights: • We study g factors and Knight shifts for Y123 and Y124 superconductors. • The theoretical relationships between Knight shifts and g factors are established. • High order perturbation formulas are adopted with local structures of Cu2+ sites. • Anisotropies of g factors and Knight shifts are ascribed to elongation of Cu2+ sites. -- Abstract: By adopting the uniform high order perturbation formulas of Knight shifts and g factors for 3d9 ions in orthorhombically and tetragonally elongated octahedra, the experimental results of these parameters for Cu(1) sites in YBa2Cu3O7, YBa2Cu3O7?? and YBa2Cu4O8 and Cu(2) site in YBa2Cu3O7?? are systematically investigated. The calculated Knight shifts (and g factors for Cu(2) site) agree well with the observed values. The anisotropies of the g factors and Knight shifts are attributed to the local orthorhombic and tetragonal elongations of the Cu2+ sites. The present studies would be helpful to attain a more complete spectroscopic understanding for g factors and Knight shifts

    4. Investigation into promotion/disincentive factors and proposal of support policy in implementation of risk assessment

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The implementation of risk assessment (RA) has been mandated effort in business place of the type of industry that must elect a safe hygiene manager by the enforcement of the revised Occupational Safety and Health Act of April, 2006. However, it is guessed that some problems are still left unfinished in many business places to promote RA effectively. In this study, at first the authors investigated promotion factors and disincentive factors when implementing RA by literature survey. As the result, factors to show as follows were classified in some categories such as participation of the top, the organization which promotes RA, the use of the existing safety activity, matching of RA technique and work, etc. unlike conventional safety activity to learn from a disaster, infiltrating significance of RA to prevent a risk enough, letting a worker engaged in work participate in RA. Next, the authors performed the visit investigation for 8 business places and extracted a new promotion factors to show as follows. incorporating RA in usual duties, utilizing results of RA effectively. In reference to above promotion factors, the authors examined a policy to implement RA smoothly. (author)

    5. Mapping patterns and characteristics of fatal road accidents in Israel

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria

      2010-01-01

      This paper intends to provide a broad picture of traffic accidents in Israel by uncovering their patterns and determinants in order to answer an increasing need of designing preventive measures, addressing particular situations and targeting specific social groups with the ultimate objective of reducing the number of traffic fatalities and accidents. The analysis focuses on 1,793 fatal accidents occurred during the four-year period between 2003 and 2006, and applies data mining techniques with the objective of extracting from the data relevant information about accident patterns and major factors without a priori assumptions about the expected outcome of the study. Kohonen neural networks reveal five accident patterns: (i) single-vehicle accidents of young drivers; (ii) multiple-vehicle accidents between young drivers; (iii) accidents involving either motorcycles or bicycles; (iv) accidents where elderly pedestrians crossed in urban areas; (v) accidents where mostly young children and teenagers cross roads insmall villages. Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks indicate that demographic characteristics of both victims and drivers are the most relevant determinants, and other significant factors are the road conditions, the accident location in either urban or rural areas, the accident location in either sections or intersections, and the period of the day when the crash occurs.

    6. Total tissue factor pathway inhibitor and venous thrombosis. The Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zakai, Neil A; Lutsey, Pamela L; Folsom, Aaron R; Heckbert, Susan R; Cushman, Mary

      2010-08-01

      Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) inhibits tissue factor, a potent coagulation initiator. Limited evidence suggests that low TFPI levels are associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We measured total TFPI in a nested case-control study in the Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology. Control subjects were frequency matched 2:1 to cases on age, sex, race, and cohort. Odds ratios (ORs) for VTE by TFPI levels were computed using logistic regression models adjusting for age, race, sex, coagulation factors (factors VII, VIII, IX, XI, D-dimer), and body mass index (BMI). To evaluate for greater than additive interactions, we calculated the percent relative excess risk due to interaction between TFPI and other VTE risk factors. A total of 534 cases of VTE occurred and matched to 1,091 controls. Mean baseline TFPI in ng/ml (standard deviation) in those who developed VTE and controls was 36.4 (12.8) and 35.0 (11.1), respectively. Higher TFPI was associated with male sex, age, BMI, factors VII, VIII, IX, XI, and D-dimer. TFPI level did not differ by ethnicity, factor V Leiden, or prothrombin G20210A. Compared with those in the upper 95%, the bottom 5% of TFPI had an age-, sex-, race-, and study-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.35 (0.86, 2.12) for VTE. Adjusting for factors VII, VIII, IX, and XI the OR was 1.93 (1.05, 3.53). Further addition of D-dimer and BMI to this model decreased the OR to 1.70 (0.98, 2.93). Low TFPI did not demonstrate greater than additive interaction with other VTE risk factors. PMID:20431849

    7. Factors Affecting the Nominal Exchange Rate of Pakistan: An Econometric Investigation (1982-2008

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Naeem Ur Rehman Khattak

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available Which macroeconomic factors determine the nominal exchange rate of Pak-rupee against US dollar during the period 1982-2008? This issue has been investigated in this paper by using Ordinary Least Squares and Johansen’s Cointegration techniques. The results show that both monetary and real factors i.e. money supply, trade balance, foreign exchange reserves, inflation and interest rate have long run relationship with the exchange rate of Pak-rupee. However, the granger causality test results show that the relationship between most of the macroeconomic variables and nominal exchange rate bi-directional.

    8. An investigation on different factors influencing on target market selection in petrochemical industry

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Saeedeh Koohi

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors influencing on selection of petrochemical market. The survey has accomplished among 97 randomly selected experts in petrochemical industry in Iran. The survey designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some experts and using binomial test; it has confirmed that except one factor, cultural affairs, other issues including political, cultural, regulations, economic, infrastructure, market potential, buyers’ potentials and buyer’s positions influence on market development. The implementation of Freedman test has indicated that Buyers’ positions are number one priority followed by buyers’ potentials, rules and regulations.

    9. Investigation of the factors disguising radiation effects on the human body

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Herein we have studied the effects of some hereditary and environmental factors on children's states of health. The factors under investigation, along with radiation, also impact the immunological status and human adaptivity, thus disguising hazardous radiation effects. The state-of-health criterion we have chosen are children's liability to a wide range of intrinsic diseases through the first three years of life. The analysis involved 626 children (326 male and 300 female) who's parents and grandparents lived in the vicinity of the Russian Federal Nuclear Centre (RFNC), a large-scale nuclear facility. Our results should preferably be taken into consideration when projecting radiation effects on the human body. (author)

    10. Quantifying safety benefit of winter road maintenance: accident frequency modeling.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Usman, Taimur; Fu, Liping; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F

      2010-11-01

      This research presents a modeling approach to investigate the association of the accident frequency during a snow storm event with road surface conditions, visibility and other influencing factors controlling for traffic exposure. The results have the premise to be applied for evaluating different maintenance strategies using safety as a performance measure. As part of this approach, this research introduces a road surface condition index as a surrogate measure of the commonly used friction measure to capture different road surface conditions. Data from various data sources, such as weather, road condition observations, traffic counts and accidents, are integrated and used to test three event-based models including the Negative Binomial model, the generalized NB model and the zero inflated NB model. These models are compared for their capability to explain differences in accident frequencies between individual snow storms. It was found that the generalized NB model best fits the data, and is most capable of capturing heterogeneity other than excess zeros. Among the main results, it was found that the road surface condition index was statistically significant influencing the accident occurrence. This research is the first showing the empirical relationship between safety and road surface conditions at a disaggregate level (event-based), making it feasible to quantify the safety benefits of alternative maintenance goals and methods. PMID:20728638

    11. Fatores associados ao risco de internação por acidentes de trânsito no Município de Maringá-PR / Factors associated to risks of hospital admissions due to traffic accidents in the city of Maringa, PR

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula, Soares; Marilisa Berti de Azevedo, Barros.

      2006-06-01

      Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores associados ao risco de internação da coorte constituída pelas vítimas dos acidentes de trânsito ocorridos no Município de Maringá - PR, no ano 2000. MÉTODO: A coorte foi composta pelas vítimas que tiveram registro no Serviço Integrado de Atendimento ao Trauma em Emergên [...] cia (SIATE) ou em Boletim de Ocorrência Policial (BO). Foi feita vinculação dos bancos gerados com os dados do SIATE, do BO, da Autorização de Internação Hospitalar (AIH-SUS) e da Comunicação de Internação Hospitalar (CIH). Foram realizadas análises univariadas e de regressão múltipla de Cox para identificar, entre as variáveis relacionadas à vítima, ao acidente e ao condutor do veículo, os fatores de risco para internação. RESULTADOS: Foram identificadas 3.468 pessoas vitimadas em 2.725 acidentes. O risco médio de internação foi de 19,4/100 vítimas (673 internações). A análise de regressão múltipla identificou como categorias de maior risco de internação: vítimas pedestres, ciclistas e motociclistas; com idade acima de 50 anos; vitimadas em colisão com transporte pesado ou ônibus; em acidentes ocorridos de madrugada e de tarde, em algumas regiões da cidade; e sendo o condutor do veículo residente no próprio município. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que os programas de redução dos acidentes de trânsito devem considerar os subgrupos mais vulneráveis a acidentes graves e que as múltiplas determinações do risco apontam para a necessidade de ações articuladas dos diversos setores de governo e segmentos da sociedade nesses programas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors associated to risks in hospital admissions of the population of traffic accident victims in the city of Maringa, PR, in 2000. METHOD: The cohort comprised the victims registered by the Integrated Trauma Care Emergency Services (SIATE) or in Police Records (BO). We l [...] inked the databases generated by SIATE, BO, Hospital Admission Authorizations (AIH-SUS), and Hospital Admission Communications (CIH). Several univariate analyses and Cox's multiple regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for hospital admissions among the variables related to victims, accidents and vehicle drivers. RESULTS: 3,468 victims in 2,725 accidents were identified. The average hospital admission risk was 19.4/100 victims (673 hospital admissions). The major categories for hospital admissions identified by the multiple regression analysis were: pedestrians, bikers, and motorcyclists; victims over 50 years of age; individuals involved in accidents with heavy load trucks or buses; accidents taking place at dawn and in the afternoon, in some areas of the city; and the vehicle driver living in the city of Maringá. CONCLUSION: We concluded that traffic accident reduction programs should take into consideration the most vulnerable subgroups that are subject to serious accidents. We also concluded that multiple risk determination points toward the need for joint actions by the various government sectors and segments of society in these programs.

    12. Improving risk assessment in schizophrenia: epidemiological investigation of criminal history factors.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Witt, Katrina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena

      2015-05-01

      Background Violence risk assessment in schizophrenia relies heavily on criminal history factors. Aims To investigate which criminal history factors are most strongly associated with violent crime in schizophrenia. Method A total of 13 806 individuals (8891 men and 4915 women) with two or more hospital admissions for schizophrenia were followed up for violent convictions. Multivariate hazard ratios for 15 criminal history factors included in different risk assessment tools were calculated. The incremental predictive validity of these factors was estimated using tests of discrimination, calibration and reclassification. Results Over a mean follow-up of 12.0 years, 17.3% of men (n = 1535) and 5.7% of women (n = 281) were convicted of a violent offence. Criminal history factors most strongly associated with subsequent violence for both men and women were a previous conviction for a violent offence; for assault, illegal threats and/or intimidation; and imprisonment. However, only a previous conviction for a violent offence was associated with incremental predictive validity in both genders following adjustment for young age and comorbid substance use disorder. Conclusions Clinical and actuarial approaches to assess violence risk can be improved if included risk factors are tested using multiple measures of performance. PMID:25657352

    13. Principais fatores associados à ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito na BR 163, Mato Grosso, Brasil, 2004 Main factors associated with motor vehicle accidents on Federal Highway 163, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 2004

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Lívia Victório de Carvalho Almeida

      2009-02-01

      Full Text Available O transporte é essencial para o desenvolvimento econômico de Mato Grosso, Brasil, sendo a BR 163 a principal rodovia de escoamento da produção agropecuária da região. Uma das conseqüências desta atividade é a ocorrência de acidentes de trânsito. Com o objetivo de analisar e categorizar os principais fatores associados à ocorrência de acidentes nesta rodovia, foram utilizados dados da Superintendência de Polícia Rodoviária Federal referentes ao ano de 2004. Nos resultados, destacaram-se como fatores associados à maior chance de ocorrência de acidentes com vítimas (com significância estatística: a condição de rolamento regular (OR = 1,89; IC: 1,32-2,70; os acidentes do tipo colisão frontal (OR = 14,14; IC: 8,96-22,32 e atropelamento de pedestre (OR = 35,95; IC: 8,10-159,52; e os fatores contribuintes defeito na via (OR = 4,35; IC: 1,94-9,75 e desobediência à sinalização (OR = 5,69; IC: 2,01-16,12. Conclui-se que para reduzir o problema dos acidentes nesta rodovia é preciso estabelecer medidas de intervenção de caráter global, não focalizando ações somente na modificação do comportamento do condutor e na fiscalização, mas considerando questões regionais e suas dimensões econômicas, sociais e culturais.Transportation is essential to the economic development of Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and Federal Highway 163 is the main route for marketing regional agricultural produce. One unfortunate consequence of this activity is the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents. With the aim of analyzing and categorizing the main factors associated with motor vehicle accidents on this highway, the current study used data from the Mato Grosso State Division of the Brazilian Federal Highway Patrol for the year 2004. Factors significantly associated with accidents involving casualties were: substandard paving (OR = 1.89; CI: 1.32-2.70; front-end collisions (OR = 14.14; CI: 8.96-22.32; and running over pedestrians (OR = 35.95; CI: 8.10-159.52. Contributing factors included highway maintenance problems (OR = 4.35; CI: 1.94-9.75 and disobeying traffic signs (OR = 5.69; CI: 2.01-16.12. In conclusion, reduction of motor vehicle accidents on this highway requires comprehensive intervention rather than targeting measures only to drivers or highway patrol personnel, but considering regional issues and their economic, social, and cultural dimensions.

    14. Investigação de acidentes biológicos entre profissionais de saúde Investigación de accidentes biológicos entre los trabajadores de la salud Investigation of biological accidents among health care workers

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Juliana Azevedo da Silva

      2009-09-01

      Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a principal categoria profissional exposta a risco biológico e os principais tipos de acidentes ocorridos entre trabalhadores da área de saúde, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. A partir da análise das fichas de notificação de acidentes biológicos dos 183 profissionais acidentados entre janeiro de 2005 e setembro de 2005, observamos que a categoria profissional mais exposta foi a dos auxiliares/técnicos de enfermagem (54,1%, seguida pela dos acadêmicos de medicina e odontologia (10,4%. A ocorrência de acidentes com materiais perfurocortantes foi relacionada à manipulação frequente desses objetos e ao comportamento dos profissionais que utilizam práticas que oferecem riscos de acidentes com agulhas, tais como o descarte inadequado de objetos perfurocortantes.El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las principales categorías profesional expuestas a riesgos biológicos y el principal tipo de accidentes producidos entre los profesionales del área de la salud en Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Del análisis de 183 archivos de los trabajadores que sufren accidentes con material biológico, de enero a septiembre de 2005, se observó que la categoría profesional más expuesta a sufrir accidentes fue el de los auxiliares de enfermería (54,1%, seguido por los estudiantes de odontología y medicina (10,4%. La de accidentes se relacionó con la manipulación frecuente de agujas, y con el comportamiento de los trabajadores, que mantienen prácticas que ofrecen riesgos, como la eliminación inadecuada de agujas.The aims of this study were to identify the major professional category exposed to biological risk and the principal type of accident occurred among health care workers in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Based on the analysis of 183 records filled out by the workers who suffered biohazardous accidents between January 2005 and September 2005, we found the nursing auxiliaries and technicians as the professional category more exposed to biohazardous accidents (54.1%, followed by undergraduate medical and dental students (10.4%. The occurence of acidents with piercing-cutting materials was related to frequent handling of these instruments, and to the behavior of workers who maintain practices providing risks of needlestick injuries, such as inappropriate disposal of piercing-cutting materials.

    15. Investigation of trachoma related factors on migrant laborers' children in Shanghai

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Wen-Wen Xue

      2013-07-01

      Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the trachoma related factors on migrant laborers' children in Shanghai.METHODS: With random cluster sampling, 3 879 migrant laborers' children, aged(10.22±2.00years old, from 7 schools in Shanghai, participated in the questionnaire survey, under parents' guidance. RESULTS: Our survey achieved a 98.27% response rate and got a total of 3 812 valid questionnaires, 2 114 males and 1 698 females. Totally 288 cases of trachoma were found. Compared with students who were clinically diagnosed as trachoma, the other students got a high rate in using separate towels, not rubbing eyes, prefer vegetarian diet, asking parents for help when got an eye discomfort and asking for a doctor. Using separate towels would be the main relative factor of the prevalence of trachoma. CONCLUSION: Good health habits could be protective factors to susceptible population.

    16. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on work stress: Evidence from banking industry

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Alireza Davoudzadeh Moghaddam

      2015-08-01

      Full Text Available An individual with a career faced with various career challenges may experience work-related stress. Work related stress is a factor that threatens employees’ health. The most common negative consequences of stress are particularly the deterioration of performance and efficiency, decrease in productivity and quality of customer’s services, which results in health problems. Work-related stress is a global issue, and banks are no exception. This paper presents a survey to investigate the influencing factors on work stress in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 randomly selected bank department managers in city of Tehran, Iran. Using principle component analysis, the study has detected five factors including organizational characteristics, external environment, work content, personal characteristics and top management.

    17. Semiscale recovery investigations: A comparison of results from semiscale Mod-2C small break LOCA [loss-of-coolant accidents] without HPI [high pressure injection] tests

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Inadequate core cooling conditions can result in small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) without high pressure injection (HPI) unless appropriate operator action is taken. Results from the S-NH test series, performed in the Semiscale Mod-2C facility, show that for SBLOCAs below 2.1% inadequate core cooling results before the accumulator actuation pressure is reached. Various recovery operations were used in the experiments in the S-NH test series to mitigate the heater rod temperature excursions and lower the primary system pressure to the accumulator actuation pressure. These recovery operations included steam generator secondary steam-and-feed and primary coolant pump restart. In addition, in one of the experiments steam generator secondary steam-and-feed operations were begun before a heater rod temperature excursion began. The effectiveness each procedure had in mitigating the heater rod temperature excursions is discussed and compared

    18. An investigation on important factors influencing on forecasted earnings adjustment: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

      OpenAIRE

      Fatemeh Babakhani; Behzad Ghorbani; Ali Mohammadi

      2014-01-01

      This paper presents an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing earning adjustment on firms selected on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2011. There are four independent variables associated with the proposed study of this paper including Proportion of shares owned by institutional investors, Return on assets, Profit change and Market value to book value. In addition, Investment restructuring is considered as control variable. The results of the implementation...

    19. An investigation on important factors influencing customer repurchase: A case study of Airline agencies

      OpenAIRE

      Mohammadreza Rahimi Shamsabadi; Naser Azad

      2012-01-01

      During the past few years, there has been an increase trend on purchasing via internet, which indicates a steady growth on this internet service. There are different advantages on e-purchase services such as availability of usage, fast and reliable services, etc. The purpose of this survey is to investigate on different influencing factors on customer's fidelity on purchasing air ticket from different agencies located in Tehran, Iran. The Cronbach Alpha validates our results. The proposed con...

    20. Investigating the Behaviors of the Elementary School Students in Reference to Factors Associated with Daylight

      OpenAIRE

      Seied Majid Mofidi Shemirani; Gholam Hossein Memarian; Shahnaz Pour Naseri; Hashem Hashem Nejad; Vahid Vaziri

      2011-01-01

      There is no simple guide to human behavior which architects can use but recommendations rather an understanding of the principles of behavior and of man's interactions with buildings. To investigate the Behaviors of the Elementary School Students, the attitudes and behaviors towards the visual environment of three hundred and fifty primary school students were studied in eleven schools of varying design, with particular reference to factors associated with daylight and fenestration. The surve...

    1. Investigation of Power Factor Behavior in AC Railway System Based on Special Traction Transformers

      OpenAIRE

      Mohsen Kalantari; Mohammad Javad Sadeghi; Seyed Saeed Fazel; Siamak Farshad

      2010-01-01

      The single-phase traction load has essentially an unbalance characteristic at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC), which injects harmonic into the utility grid. In this paper, the effect of harmonic distortion and unbalance loading are investigated simultaneously for electrical railway systems. Special traction transformers (i.e. single-phase, V/V, Wye-Delta, Scott, and Le Blanc) are used between the utility grid and the traction load. For analysis, different defini-tions of power factors are ...

    2. Investigating the effects of Iranian cultural factors on brand equity for strategic management of market share

      OpenAIRE

      Maryam Jahandoost; Solmaz Bahrami

      2013-01-01

      Brand is a symbol, logo and indicator of the specific identity of a product manufacturer and the services they render which can create value for both the manufacturer itself and the customers of those products and services. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between Iranian cultural factors with those creating brand value in this industry. The proposed study chooses Philpa System Co. as statistical population and the subject for our case study. The study chooses 56 people who had ...

    3. An investigation of the factors affecting innovation performance in chain and independent hotels

      OpenAIRE

      Ottenbacher, M.; Shaw, V.; Lockwood, A.

      2006-01-01

      The failure rate of new service projects is high, because the knowledge about how innovations should be developed is limited. In the last decade, several studies have investigated the success factors associated with service innovations (e.g., Atuahene-Gima, 1996; de Brentani, 2001; Storey and Easingwood, 1998). However, no research in new service development (NSD) has addressed the question of whether chain affiliated and independently operated service firms have different approaches for deve...

    4. Investigating important factors influencing customer relationship management: A case study from banking industry

      OpenAIRE

      Ali Sedigh; Ali Alikhani

      2013-01-01

      This paper performs an investigation on measuring the effect of different factors on customer relationship management (CRM) for different branches of an Iranian banks located in various regions of city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 275 managers and using structural equation modeling examines the effects of five variables including CRM knowledge, employment’s information technology skills, specialty, strategic use, CRM performance on the performance of CRM. Cronbach...

    5. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Elementary School Students' BMI Values Based on the System Dynamics Modeling

      OpenAIRE

      Lan, Tian-Syung; Chen, Kai-Ling; Chen, Pin-Chang; Ku, Chao-Tai; Chiu, Pei-Hsuan; Wang, Meng-Hsiang

      2014-01-01

      This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student's personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and implementation of school nutrition education, and students' peer...

    6. Investigating the Factor Structure of the Love Attitude Scale (LAS) with Malaysian Samples

      OpenAIRE

      Wan Shahrazad W. S.; Suzana Mohd. Hoesni; Chong S. T.

      2012-01-01

      Love is an emotion often experienced by individuals involved in romantic relationships. As a result, love has become an important determining factor in entering marriage among couples. This experience of love may vary across individuals and cultures. Hence, love style measurement serves as an indicator in choosing appropriate partner. We investigate the reliability and validity of the Love Attitude Scale (LAS) in this study. This scale has 24 items which measures six love styles namely Eros, ...

    7. Severe Accident Research Program plan update

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In August 1989, the staff published NUREG-1365, ''Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan.'' Since 1989, significant progress has been made in severe accident research to warrant an update to NUREG-1365. The staff has prepared this SARP Plan Update to: (1) Identify those issues that have been closed or are near completion, (2) Describe the progress in our understanding of important severe accident phenomena, (3) Define the long-term research that is directed at improving our understanding of severe accident phenomena and developing improved methods for assessing core melt progression, direct containment heating, and fuel-coolant interactions, and (4) Reflect the growing emphasis in two additional areas--advanced light water reactors, and support for the assessment of criteria for containment performance during severe accidents. The report describes recent major accomplishments in understanding the underlying phenomena that can occur during a severe accident. These include Mark I liner failure, severe accident scaling methodology, source term issues, core-concrete interactions, hydrogen transport and combustion, TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project, and direct containment heating. The report also describes the major planned activities under the SARP over the next several years. These activities will focus on two phenomenological issues (core melt progression, and fuel-coolant interactions and debris coolability) that have significant uncertainties that impact our understanding and ability to predict severe accident phenomena and their effect on containment performance SARP will also focus on severe accident code development, assessment and validation. As the staff completes the research on severe accident issues that relate to current generation reactors, continued research will focus on efforts to independently evaluate the capability of new advanced light water reactor designs to withstand severe accidents

    8. The accident in Chernobyl power station

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      On April 26, 1986 an accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union. The accident, an uncontrolled power excursion, resulted in the destruction of the affected reactor. Thirty-one people gave their lives. Large amounts of radioactive materials were released into the environment and widely dispersed. The accident was caused by major weaknesses in the design of the RBMK-reactor in connection with grave acts of maloperation by the staff. The accident has not shown unknown phenomena. In the light water reactors used in the Federal Republic of Germany power excursions with the potential to destroy the fuel are excluded by the design of these reactors. The findings made as a result of investigations of the Chernobyl accident show no reasons for reassessing the safety concept of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig./HP)

    9. Managing the academic talent void: Investigating factors in academic turnover and retention in South Africa

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Marguerite, Theron; Nicolene, Barkhuizen; Yvonne, du Plessis.

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available ORIENTATION: Globally, the demand for academic staff in higher education is expected to continue to increase. The South African situation is exacerbated by the so-called 'retirement swell' and turnover and retention problems; measurements to diagnose these factors remain limited. RESEARCH PURPOSE: T [...] his study aimed to investigate the factors that influence turnover and retention of academic and to validate the developed talent retention diagnostic tool for use in South African higher education institutions. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Limited research currently exists on the retention factors of academic staff in the South African context. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: Using an investigative quantitative research approach, the tool was administered to a convenience sample of academics (n = 153) in 13 higher education institutions. MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed an array of distinguishing turnover and retention factors and proved the tool to be a valid and reliable measure. Over half the respondents indicated slight to strong dissatisfaction with compensation and performance management practices. Significantly, 34% indicated that they considered exiting their academic institution, citing unhappiness about compensation, as the most likely reason, whilst 74.5% have previously looked for another job. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The research highlights key areas (i.e. compensation, emotional recognition, a bonus structure that reflects employee contribution, performance management systems, mentorship and career development opportunities) that higher education should attend to if they want to retain their key and talented academic staff. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The results contribute to new knowledge on the factors that contribute to turnover and retention of academic staff and present a valid and reliable measure to assess these retention factors.

    10. Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J. [Dept. of Labor, Arlington, VA (United States)

      1996-12-31

      This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

    11. An analysis of the Three Mile Island accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Starting with a systematic analysis of the chain of events that took place during the Three Mile Island accident, the authors assess the significance of the four distinct phases of the accident. Inferences that can be drawn with respect to the safety of CANDU reactors are discussed. A rational reaction to the accident is suggested, and several factors are shown not to have played an important part, contrary to public impressions. The authors point out that over-reaction to the accident could detract from public safety. The Canadian response to the accident is discussed. (auth)

    12. JCO criticality accident termination operation

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. The description focuses on the witness' own behavior, and what he saw and heard, and thus is written from the perspective of action by one individual. This was done simply because it was easier for the witness to write down his memories as he remembers them. Description of the activities of other organizations and people is provided only as necessary, to ensure that consistency in the descriptive approach is not lost. The essentials of this report were rewritten as a third-person objective description in the summary of the report by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). Since then, comments have been received from sources such as former members of the Nuclear Safety Commission (Dr. Kenji Sumita and Dr. Akira Kanagawa), concerned parties from the former Science and Technology Agency, and reports from the JCO Criticality Accident Investigation Committee of the AESJ, and thus this report was rewritten to correct incorrect information, and add material where that was felt to be necessary. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality accident. To mark this occasion we have decided to translate the record of what occurred at the accident site into English so that more people can draw lessons from this accident. This report is an English version of JAEA-Technology 2009-073. (author)

    13. The effect of work accidents on the efficiency of production in the coal sector

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ya?ar Kasap

      2011-05-01

      Full Text Available In comparison with other sectors, mining is one of the sectors with the highest rates of work accidents. Such accidents negatively affect a country’s economy by wasting domestic resources and causing losses of both labour force and working days. What distinguishes mining from other branches of industry is that its working environments change continually and the working conditions are particularly harsh. Because of the practice of labour-intensive underground production methods, which leads to an increase in risk factors in terms of work accidents, and the fact that coal is a leading resource in meeting the ever-increasing demand for energy, this study investigated how work accidents affected the efficiency of production in the Turkish Hard Coal Enterprise (TTK between 1987 and 2006. Using data envelopment analysis, the overall sources of technical inefficiency in the years examined were determined. The results from this analysis revealed that the overall technical efficiency was as low as 69.7%, particularly as a result of the disaster in 1992; work accidents therefore had a negative effect on production efficiency. The greatest degree of pure technical inefficiency was found to have occurred in the period between 1992 and 2000, when the highest number of work accidents were noted, whilst the greatest degree of scale inefficiency was found to have occurred between 1987 and 1993. Because TTK has a prominent position among institutions and attaches great importance to workers’ health and safety, an increase was noted in efficiency scores after 1993.

    14. The effect of work accidents on the efficiency of production in the coal sector

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Yasar, Kasap.

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available In comparison with other sectors, mining is one of the sectors with the highest rates of work accidents. Such accidents negatively affect a country's economy by wasting domestic resources and causing losses of both labour force and working days. What distinguishes mining from other branches of indus [...] try is that its working environments change continually and the working conditions are particularly harsh. Because of the practice of labour-intensive underground production methods, which leads to an increase in risk factors in terms of work accidents, and the fact that coal is a leading resource in meeting the ever-increasing demand for energy, this study investigated how work accidents affected the efficiency of production in the Turkish Hard Coal Enterprise (TTK) between 1987 and 2006. Using data envelopment analysis, the overall sources of technical inefficiency in the years examined were determined. The results from this analysis revealed that the overall technical efficiency was as low as 69.7%, particularly as a result of the disaster in 1992; work accidents therefore had a negative effect on production efficiency. The greatest degree of pure technical inefficiency was found to have occurred in the period between 1992 and 2000, when the highest number of work accidents were noted, whilst the greatest degree of scale inefficiency was found to have occurred between 1987 and 1993. Because TTK has a prominent position among institutions and attaches great importance to workers' health and safety, an increase was noted in efficiency scores after 1993.

    15. Technical Advisory Team (TAT) report on the rocket sled test accident of October 9, 2008.

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Stofleth, Jerome H.; Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Medina, Anthony J.

      2009-01-01

      This report summarizes probable causes and contributing factors that led to a rocket motor initiating prematurely while employees were preparing instrumentation for an AIII rocket sled test at SNL/NM, resulting in a Type-B Accident. Originally prepared by the Technical Advisory Team that provided technical assistance to the NNSA's Accident Investigation Board, the report includes analyses of several proposed causes and concludes that the most probable source of power for premature initiation of the rocket motor was the independent battery contained in the HiCap recorder package. The report includes data, evidence, and proposed scenarios to substantiate the analyses.

    16. An empirical investigation on factors influencing customer selection of ADSL services

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Naser Azad

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical investigation on various factors affecting ADSL service selection in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed model of this paper uses a standard questionnaire and distributes it among randomly selected customers who have some experiences on internet based ADSL products. The study implements factor analysis as well as weighted regression technique to perform the study. There are eight hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper, which indicates the effects of product marketing, place and time of marketing mix, process-marketing mix, productivity and quality of marketing mix, people, promotion and education and physical evidence on customer choice. The results of factor analysis have confirmed the impacts of the first four factors but the effects of the other factor were not confirmed. In other words, the results of the survey have indicated that product marketing, place and time of marketing mix, process-marketing mix and productivity and quality of marketing mix influence customer choice. However, the other four components including people, promotion, price and physical evidence do not play essential role on customer choice.

    17. Radiological accident 'The Citadel' medical aspects

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The work exposes the medical actions carried out in the mitigation of the consequences of the accident and its main results. In a facility of storage of radioactive waste in Caracas, Venezuela, it was happened a radiological accident. This event caused radioactive contamination of the environment, as well as the irradiation and radioactive contamination of at least 10 people involved in the fact, in its majority children. Cuban institutions participated in response to the accident. Among the decisions adopted by the team of combined work Cuban-Venezuelan, we find the one of transferring affected people to Cuba, for their dosimetric and medical evaluation. Being designed a work strategy to develop the investigations to people affected by the radiological accident, in correspondence with the circumstances, magnitude and consequences of the accident. The obtained main results are: 100% presented affectations in its health, not associate directly to the accident, although the accident influenced in its psychological state. In 3 of studied people they were detected radioactive contamination with Cesium -137 with dose among 2.01 X 10-4 Sv up to 2.78 X 10-4 Sv. This accident demonstrated the necessity to have technical capacities to face these events and the importance of the international solidarity. (author)

    18. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hadjisavvas Andreas

      2010-08-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background information for designing detailed studies that aim to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of breast cancer in the Cypriot population, including the study of gene-environment interactions. Furthermore, our study provides the first scientific evidence for formulating targeted campaigns for prevention and early diagnosis of breast cancer in Cyprus.

    19. Vehicle accidents related to sleep: a review

      OpenAIRE

      Horne, J.; Reyner, L.

      1999-01-01

      Falling asleep while driving accounts for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents under monotonous driving conditions. Many of these accidents are related to work--for example, drivers of lorries, goods vehicles, and company cars. Time of day (circadian) effects are profound, with sleepiness being particularly evident during night shift work, and driving home afterwards. Circadian factors are as important in determining driver sleepiness as is the duration of the drive, but only ...

    20. The Chernobyl Accident: About the Accident

      Science.gov (United States)

      On April 26, 1986 an accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The accident happened during a routine test, intended to demonstrate how long the turbines would spin after a power loss. Prior to the test, the automatic shutdown mechanisms were disabled. Coolant water was reduced and the power output was increased. The operator tried to shut down the reactor but a flaw in the design caused a large power surge.

    1. The Chernobyl accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The radioactive cloud released during the Chernobyl accident reached the Po Plain and Lombardy in the night of April 30, 1986; the clod remained in the northern Italian skies for a few days ans then disappared either dispersed by winds or washed by rains. The evidence in the atmosphere of radionuclides as tellurium, iodine, cesium was promply observed by the Istituto di Fisica. Samples of soil have been measured at the gamma-spectroscope; a linear correlation is found between the radionuclide concentration in soil samples and the rain intensity, when appropriate deposition models are considered. A number of measurements has been done on Lake Como ecosystem: sediments, plakton, fishes and the overall fallout in the lake area have been investigated

    2. Clinical significance of the dynamic changes of serum IGF-1 levels in patients with acute cerebro-vascular accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Objective: To investigate the dynamic changes of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in patients with acute cerebrovascular accident. Methods: Serum IGF-1 levels were determined with RIA in 40 patients with cerebral infarction, 20 patients with lacunar infarcts and 40 patients with cerebral haemorrhage within 3days after onset and on d14 as well as in 30 controls. Results: The serum IGF-1 levels in patients with cerebral vascular accidents were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum levels of IGF-1 dropped markedly during the acute stage after cerebrovascular accident and the magnitude might reflect the severity of the event, IGF-1 might be capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier after cerebrovascular accident and providing some protection against nerve injury, this fact might be of potential clinical applicability. (authors)

    3. Concerning the structure of occupational accidents involving construction workers in the erection of nuclear power plants

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      An investigation of 561 occupational accidents involving construction workers which took place during the construction of nuclear power plants failed to show any significant deviation in comparison with general construction as regards process classification, classification of accidents according to occupation and situation, and accidents severity. Occupational accidents which are typial for nuclear power plant construction are a rare exception. (orig.)

    4. Accident prevention in SME using ORM

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      JØrgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan

      2008-01-01

      Risk perception in SMEs is normally low, and this is closely related to the fact that the chance of a mall enterprise experiencing a serious accident is very small compared to companies that employ a large workforce. This is a fact even though the SMEs together have a higher accident frequency compared with large enterprises. To reach the SMEs we must find a way of supporting them, because they normally have neither the time nor the resources to acquire the knowledge and awareness necessary for working with their own safety. The Occupational Risk Model (ORM) developed by the Dutch Workgroup Occupational Risk Model WORM has been transferred to a Danish context, with the aim of creating a more simple system particularly for SMEs. The ORM identifies the activities in a person’s daily work that contribute most to the person’s risk and also identifies what conditions need to be changed in order to reduce that risk. Our investigation seeks to determine whether we can use the ORM method to collect information aboutthe risks in SMEs and whether we can present this information in a way that allows the SMEs to use it constructively. Finally we seek to evaluate the impact of this method on occupational safety in SMEs, as the project also focuses on management factors that can motivate the SMEs to increase their risk awareness and own initiatives. The project is now half way through the project period.

    5. Campfire-2000: Comprehensive Accident Management Program Featuring Innovative Research and Engineering for the Year 2000 and Beyond

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The CAMPFIRE-2000 accident management program is being developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute symphonizing the proven state-of-the-art technologies and newly proposed innovative research and engineering. The ultimate goal of the program is to resolve the plant-specific accident management issues utilizing a coherent, consistent, pragmatic, methodical approach. The program focuses on the preventive measures to maintain reactor core geometry and the mitigative measures to secure containment integrity, should a severe accident take place in a nuclear power plant. CAMPFIRE-2000 consists of strategy assessment methods, guidance and procedures, instrumentation and information, calculational aids and tools, human and organization factors, handbook of accident management, and technical expert system. In particular, the one most immediate issue involves the simulation of the rather rapid cooling of the core debris and the reactor vessel lower head of be Three Mile Island Unit 2 nuclear plant as has recently been identified from post-accident metallurgical testing of the sample specimens. As a top-notch companion experiment for CAMPFIRE-2000, a large-scale, real-material, high pressure system test SONATA-IV is proposed as a multi-lateral, multi-disciplinary project calling for international collaboration to investigate the potentially inherent, naturally-occurring in-vessel cooling mechanism from the very relevant severe accident management perspectivee accident management perspective

    6. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study

      Science.gov (United States)

      AMIRI, Mehran; ARDESHIR, Abdollah; FAZEL ZARANDI, Mohammad Hossein

      2014-01-01

      Abstract Background The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011. Methods The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA), Total Severity Index (TSI), and Risk Factor (RF) were defined. The core of this work is devoted to analyzing the data from different perspectives such as age of workers, occupation and construction phase, day of the week, time of the day, seasonal analysis, regional considerations, type of accident, and body parts affected. Results Workers between 15-19 years old (TAR=13.4%) are almost six times more exposed to risk of accident than the average of all ages (TAR=2.51%). Laborers and structural workers (TAR=66.6%) and those working at heights (TAR=47.2%) experience more accidents than other groups of workers. Moreover, older workers over 65 years old (TSI=1.97%> average TSI=1.60%), work supervisors (TSI=12.20% >average TSI=9.09%), and night shift workers (TSI=1.89% >average TSI=1.47%) are more prone to severe accidents. Conclusion It is recommended that laborers, young workers, weekend and night shift workers be supervised more carefully in the workplace. Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be compulsory in working environments, and special attention should be undertaken to people working outdoors and at heights. It is also suggested that policymakers pay more attention to the improvement of safety conditions in deprived and cold western regions. PMID:26005662

    7. Factors associated with providing social security benefits for traumatic brain injury resulting from occupational accidents / Fatores associados à concessão de benefício previdenciário por traumatismo cranioencefálico decorrente de acidente de trabalho

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Denismar Borges de, Miranda; Rita Franco, Rego; Denise Nunes, Viola; Verônica Maria Cadena, Lima; Edriene Barros, Teixeira.

      2014-03-01

      Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Acidente de Trabalho (AT) é considerado um importante agravo à saúde do trabalhador no Brasil, sendo o Traumatismo Cranioencefálico (TCE) o mais comum dentre eles. O TCE está associado a altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade entre trabalhadores. OBJETIVO: Verificar os fatores as [...] sociados à concessão de benefícios previdenciários por TCE decorrentes de acidente de trabalho de acordo com o ramo de atividade econômica específica, no Brasil, em 2009. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo epidemiológico de corte transversal que foi conduzido com todos os trabalhadores que integram o Regime Geral da Previdência Social (RGPS) do Brasil. Dados secundários foram obtidos do Sistema Único de Informações de Benefícios, do Cadastro Sincronizado Nacional do Ministério da Fazenda e do Cadastro Geral de Empregados e Desempregados e analisados utilizando-se regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 2.006 casos de benefícios previdenciários por TCE decorrentes de AT no Brasil, e identificaram-se fatores associados à concessão do benefício diferenciados de acordo com a seção da Classificação Nacional de Atividades Econômicas à qual o beneficiário estava vinculado. Foram encontradas associações com o sexo, a renda e a região da empresa. CONCLUSÃO: Os fatores associados à concessão de benefícios previdenciários por TCE decorrentes de AT diferem a depender da CNAE em estudo. A compreensão desses fatores poderá contribuir com o planejamento de políticas públicas de caráter preventivo. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The Occupational Accident (OA) is considered to be an important public health problem in Brazil. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the most common among them. The TBI is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates among workers. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with [...] providing social security benefits for TBI due to occupational accidents according to the specific type of economic activity in Brazil, in 2009. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted with all workers who were part of the General Regime of Social Security (RGPS) of Brazil. Secondary data were obtained from the National Information System Benefit, from the Synchronized National Register of the Ministry of Finance and from the General Register of Employed and Unemployed Persons. Data were analyzed using the multiple logistic regression method. RESULTS: We analyzed 2,006 cases of social security benefits for traumatic brain injury due to Occupational Accident. Factors associated with the concession of the benefit according to the economic activity of the Company of the beneficiary were identified. Associations were found with sex, income and the region of the Company. CONCLUSION: Factors associated with the concession of social security benefits by TBI resulting from OA differ depending on the type of economic activity in the study. Understanding these factors may contribute to the planning of preventive policies.

    8. Fatores ergonômicos de risco e de proteção contra acidentes de trabalho: um estudo caso-controle / Ergonomic risk and protection factors from health accidents: a case-control study

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Raphael Mendonça, Guimarães; Maria Yvone Chaves, Mauro; René, Mendes; André Oliveira de, Melo; Tatiana Fernandes da, Costa.

      2005-09-01

      Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estudar a relação entre os acidentes ocupacionais e os riscos ergonômicos no âmbito da organização do processo de trabalho de Enfermagem. Foi utilizado o método epidemiológico e um desenho de estudos caso-controle. O universo de estudo foram enfermarias do servi [...] ço de enfermagem clínica do Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto (HUPE), localizado no município do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram analisados com o programa Epi-Info 2004®, onde foram comparados, através de uma análise de odds ratio, os fatores estudados em um grupo controle de não acidentados e um grupo de estudo de acidentados. Obtivemos, como resultado, variáveis que foram classificadas por grupos de risco e proteção, de acordo com os valores de medidas encontrados. Foram considerados fatores de risco: divisão de tarefas insatisfatórias, concentração de atividades excessiva, acúmulo de divisão de tarefas, atividades de crescimento profissional, ocupação total da carga horária durante a jornada de trabalho. Como fatores de proteção: pausas durante o trabalho, disponibilidade de EPI, utilização de EPI, compatibilidade entre o cargo e o maior nível de formação, retorno da chefia quanto ao desempenho exercido e realização profissional. Abstract in english The research aimed to study the relationship between occupational accidents and ergonomic risks in the nursing work process. The epidemiological method was used with a case-control design. The research site was the clinical ward of Pedro Ernesto Academic Hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were analyze [...] d with Epi-Info 2004®. Factors in the case group of workers who had an accident and the control group of workers who did not have an accident were compared through odds ratio. As results, we attained variables classified into risk groups and protection groups, according to the measurements found.

    9. Fatores ergonômicos de risco e de proteção contra acidentes de trabalho: um estudo caso-controle Ergonomic risk and protection factors from health accidents: a case-control study

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Raphael Mendonça Guimarães

      2005-09-01

      Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estudar a relação entre os acidentes ocupacionais e os riscos ergonômicos no âmbito da organização do processo de trabalho de Enfermagem. Foi utilizado o método epidemiológico e um desenho de estudos caso-controle. O universo de estudo foram enfermarias do serviço de enfermagem clínica do Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto (HUPE, localizado no município do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram analisados com o programa Epi-Info 2004®, onde foram comparados, através de uma análise de odds ratio, os fatores estudados em um grupo controle de não acidentados e um grupo de estudo de acidentados. Obtivemos, como resultado, variáveis que foram classificadas por grupos de risco e proteção, de acordo com os valores de medidas encontrados. Foram considerados fatores de risco: divisão de tarefas insatisfatórias, concentração de atividades excessiva, acúmulo de divisão de tarefas, atividades de crescimento profissional, ocupa??o total da carga horária durante a jornada de trabalho. Como fatores de proteção: pausas durante o trabalho, disponibilidade de EPI, utilização de EPI, compatibilidade entre o cargo e o maior nível de formação, retorno da chefia quanto ao desempenho exercido e realização profissional.The research aimed to study the relationship between occupational accidents and ergonomic risks in the nursing work process. The epidemiological method was used with a case-control design. The research site was the clinical ward of Pedro Ernesto Academic Hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were analyzed with Epi-Info 2004®. Factors in the case group of workers who had an accident and the control group of workers who did not have an accident were compared through odds ratio. As results, we attained variables classified into risk groups and protection groups, according to the measurements found.

    10. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

    11. Military radiation accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      There have been approximately 50 accidents in which nuclear weapons have been involved. In the majority of accidents, there has been a high explosive detonation and there has never been a nuclear yield. There have been at least two accidents in which six of the eight warheads involved suffered high explosive detonation and plutonium dispersion. These accidents have required massive logistical support for a period of months to facilitate decontamination, removal, and subsequent burial of the plutonium. To date, the U.S. government has not had a single weapons accident in which the plutonium has undergone criticality with subsequent nuclear yield. Such an accident is possible, but it is felt to have a probability of less than one in a million for having a nuclear yield in excess of 4 lb of TNT

    12. Identification and evaluation of accident sequences in nuclear power reactors

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Probabilistic analysis techniques are being more and more used for the evaluation of accident progression in nuclear power plants, especially after the issue of the Reactor Safety Study (Report WASH-1400). This study and subsequent discussions have indicated the necessity of better investigating some major items, namely: adequate data base for the probabilistic evaluations; completeness of the analysis with respect both to accident initiation and behaviour; adequate treatment of uncertainties on the physical and operational parameters governing the accident behaviour. Furthermore, recent occurrences have stressed the importance of the operational aspects of reactor safety, such as plant-specific identification of possible occurrences, their prompt recognition, on-line prediction of subsequent developments and actions to be taken. The paper reviews the contributions in progress at JRC-Ispra to all these aspects, and specifically reports on the following: (1) The set-up of a European Reliability Data System for the acquisition and organisation of operational data of LWRs in the European Community. (2) The development of more complete and realistic models of systems. This work includes multistate static models of components and systems with a view to automatic fault-tree construction and dynamic models for accident sequence identification. The dynamic modelling approach ESCS (Event Sequence and Consequences Spectrum), shown in detail with an example, represents a step fotail with an example, represents a step forward with respect to event-tree technique and opens new possibilities in dealing with human factors and on-line diagnosis problems. (3) The development of RSM (Response Surface Methodology) for the analysis of uncertainty propagations in consequence and in probability of accident chains. (author)

    13. Modeling consequences of the accident at Fukushima

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The reactor accident in Fukushima Daiichi caused by one of the heaviest earthquakes in recent history and the disastrous tsunami at 11 March 2011 has, especially in Germany, aroused again the discussion about the risks of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and the safety of nuclear power plants. Within this context it is also discussed how the operating company and the regulator authorities react, which actions they take to secure people and how believable their statements are. Taking this into account it seems reasonable to investigate, on the basis of this accident, how useful the tools, developed after the Chernobyl accident, can be applied to assist the decision makers. (orig.)

    14. Modeling consequences of the accident at Fukushima

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Scheuermann, W.; Piater, A.; Krass, C.; Lurk, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme; Wilbois, T.; Ren, Y. [T-Systems GEI GmbH, Ulm (Germany)

      2011-06-15

      The reactor accident in Fukushima Daiichi caused by one of the heaviest earthquakes in recent history and the disastrous tsunami at 11 March 2011 has, especially in Germany, aroused again the discussion about the risks of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and the safety of nuclear power plants. Within this context it is also discussed how the operating company and the regulator authorities react, which actions they take to secure people and how believable their statements are. Taking this into account it seems reasonable to investigate, on the basis of this accident, how useful the tools, developed after the Chernobyl accident, can be applied to assist the decision makers. (orig.)

    15. Investigating the Behaviors of the Elementary School Students in Reference to Factors Associated with Daylight

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Seied Majid Mofidi Shemirani

      2011-02-01

      Full Text Available There is no simple guide to human behavior which architects can use but recommendations rather an understanding of the principles of behavior and of man's interactions with buildings. To investigate the Behaviors of the Elementary School Students, the attitudes and behaviors towards the visual environment of three hundred and fifty primary school students were studied in eleven schools of varying design, with particular reference to factors associated with daylight and fenestration. The survey included social issues, personality characteristics of the primary school students and the varying visual characteristics of the buildings including photometric studies. Considerable proportions of students choose to work or sit near windows, the chief factor being the amount of daylight. View content, view out and nature are important. The most popular children occupy favored window places. Space and comfort both thermal and visual are important. Gender separation is natural.

    16. AFM Analysis on Polymer Optical Micro-Resonators: Investigation on Quality Factor Origin

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      David Pluchon

      2013-08-01

      Full Text Available This paper deals with the surface analysis of spherical polymeric optical micro-resonators in order to correlate surface defects with optical characteristics. Atomic force microscopy was used on structures to determine surface quality, which is the main origin of optical scattering losses. Surface morphologies were numerically treated to enable a relevant investigation on surface parameters such as root mean square (RMS roughness (30.1 +/- 3.0 nm or correlation length (few microns necessary to express optical quality factors. A statistical analysis was conducted for calibration of these parameters as a function of cavities’ diameter. Results are in perfect agreement with spectral analyses performed in parallel on others structures. This comparison highlights the main role of scattering losses on quality factor origin.

    17. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Purchase of Comprehensive Car Insurance Policies of Vehicle Owners

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hakan EYGÜ

      2012-09-01

      Full Text Available Comprehensive insurance is the coverage purchased by the individuals in exchange for the premiums paid for insuring their movable properties against the damages caused by either their or others’ faults. Comprehensive insurance is generally rooted in the automotive sector and its applications are generally designed for this sector. Vehicle owners buy their vehicles according to their tastes using a considerable part of their savings. Purchasing of a comprehensive car insurance policy means that the purchaser is transferring the costs borne by the risks to be occurred related to his or her vehicle to the insurance company. Thus, the vehicle is insured against any costs arise in case of any damage. This study were examined to investigate the comprehensive car insurance policy ownership ratio of vehicle owners, factors that may be affecting the ownership of such policies, opinions of policy owners on the insurance company providing the coverage and the factors affecting the decision of not purchasing comprehensive car insurance policies.

    18. An investigation on important factors influencing customer repurchase: A case study of Airline agencies

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mohammadreza Rahimi Shamsabadi

      2012-04-01

      Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been an increase trend on purchasing via internet, which indicates a steady growth on this internet service. There are different advantages on e-purchase services such as availability of usage, fast and reliable services, etc. The purpose of this survey is to investigate on different influencing factors on customer's fidelity on purchasing air ticket from different agencies located in Tehran, Iran. The Cronbach Alpha validates our results. The proposed conceptual model of this paper is estimated using multi-variable regression model and the results indicate that direct factors influence customer satisfaction, significantly. The results indicate that while customer perception does not have any relationship with repurchase but it has direct relationship with customer's perception and trust.

    19. The Chernobyl accident consequences

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

    20. Nuclear and radiological accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In this article, Dr J.C. Nenot shows that nuclear and radiological accidents could be avoid or their consequences minimized by means simple prevention dispositions for the man protection and for the equipment. The main accidents analyzed by the author are: Marshall Islands in 1954 (Thermonuclear explosion), Kysthym (Urals) in 1957 (chemical explosion of radioactive wastes), Juarez (Mexico) in 1983 (radiotherapy sources), Chernobyl (Ukraine) in 1986 (reactor accident), Goiania (Brasil) in 1987 (radiotherapy source)

    1. Monitoring and Analysis of Construction Site Accidents by Using Accidents Analysis Management System in Turkey

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Fatih Yilmaz

      2015-02-01

      Full Text Available Due to the inadequacy in measures at many construction sites in Turkey, approximately 400 workers died and hundreds of workers become permanently disabled in occupational accidents. Occupational accidents cause serious financial loss for both the company and the country economies. This study is conducted to analyze causes and results of occupational accidents at a construction site in Istanbul-Turkey. Research data consists of the accident statistics of a construction site in Istanbul, which is obtained by using “Retrospective Cohort” method. In this study, causes and results of occupational accidents, which occurred in the construction site, are investigated.The main reasons for accident occurrence are “being hit by dashing and flitting objects”, “being hit by objects”, “falling objects” and “being stung by something”. As a result of occupational accidents, injuries occurred in the form of incision, exposure to metal burrs, contusion, transient loss of vision, trauma and perforation. Eye, finger, foot and hand injuries are the most common accidents. The majority of occupational accidents occur on Mondays, in summer months and between the hours 16.00-18.00. The most important reason of occupational accidents is “unsafe behaviours” with a ratio of 67 %, which is defined as not to obey the rules although the necessary occupational safety measures are provided. 312 work-day losses occurred in the construction site during the monitoring period. All major and minor accidents in construction sites should be recorded, their causes should be investigated and all necessary measures should be provided. Construction enterprises should perform within the frame of a health and safety management system.

    2. Reactivity insertion accident analysis

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The correct prediction of postulated accidents is the fundamental requirement for the reactor licensing procedures. Accident sequences and severity of their consequences depend upon the analysis which rely on analytical tools which must be validated against known experimental results. Present work presents a systematic approach to analyse and estimate the reactivity insertion accident sequences. The methodology is based on the CINETHICA code which solves the point-kinetics/thermohydraulic coupled equations with weighted temperature feedback. Comparison against SPERT experimental results shows good agreement for the step insertion accidents. (author)

    3. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

    4. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M

      1988-09-01

      With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents. PMID:3242158

    5. Investigating the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief)

      OpenAIRE

      Toll, Benjamin A.; Katulak, Nicole A.; Mckee, Sherry A.

      2005-01-01

      This study was designed to investigate the proposed two-factor structure of the 10-item Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief) and to provide evidence for the psychometric properties of this questionnaire using the seven-point scoring set from the original QSU study [Tiffany, S.T., Drobes, D.J. (1991). The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges. British Journal of Addiction 86, 1467–1476.]. The study sample (N =576) was comprised of smokers presenti...

    6. The Chernobyl accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The pathways of 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs from the Chernobyl fallout to man were followed in the county of Vaesterbotten, Sweden. Reported airplane measurements had shown that the ground deposition of 137Cs was 3-40 kBq/m2 with hot spots with more than 80 kBq/m2. Multiplying with a factor of 0.6 gave the 134Cs deposition and an approximate factor of 20 the 131I ground deposition. The effective dose equivalent from 131I became low, 137Cs activity concentration in different types of food was measured in approximately 8000 samples. The most important sources of Cs intake in man were lake fish, elk (European moose) and reindeer. Variations with time was studied in detail for four types of lake fish. Whole-body measurements on more than 250 persons showed that no group of people on average received more than 1 mSv from food during the first year after the Chernobyl accident. However, single persons eating large amounts of reindeer meat received up to 2.5 mSv. People buying all their food in ordinary provision-shops got less than 0.1 mSv from the food during the first year. The present level of 90Sr activity concentration in man will only give an effective dose equivalent of 0.004 mSv/year, most of it being a result of the atmospheric nuclear bomb tests. (orig.)

    7. Accident Management in VVER-1000

      OpenAIRE

      F. D'Auria; Suslov, A.; N. Muellner; G. Petrangeli; Cherubini, M.

      2008-01-01

      The present paper deals with the investigation study on accident management in VVER-1000 reactor type conducted in the framework of a European Commission funded project. The mentioned study involved both experimental and computational fields. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the main findings from the execution of a wide-range analysis focused on AM in VVER-1000 with main regard to the qualification of computational tools and the proposal for an optimal AM strategy for this kind of NPP.

    8. Radiation accident in Viet Nam

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily due to a lack of safety systems although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

    9. Post-accident heat removal: Numerical and experimental simulation

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Das, Sanjay Kumar, E-mail: skd@igcar.gov.in [Safety Engineering Division, Reactor Design Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Sharma, Anil Kumar; Hemanth Rao, E.; Anandan, J.; Avinash, C.H.S.S.; Kondala Rao, R.; Murthy, S.S.; Malarvizhi, B.; Lydia, G.; Kumaresan, M.; Ponraju, D.; Nashine, B.K. [Safety Engineering Division, Reactor Design Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Chellapandi, P. [Reactor Design Group (RDG), IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India)

      2013-12-15

      Highlights: • We analyze PAHR issues of FBR through experimental and numerical methodology. • This paper highlights findings of series of experiments in U–Na and simulant under melt conditions. • Critical parameters for molten fuel jet breakup and fragmentation are investigated. -- Abstract: Post-accident heat removal (PAHR) after severe accident in nuclear reactors plays a vital role to ensure public safety by effectively cooling fragmented core debris within the primary boundary. Design and implementation of multiple safety features demand thorough understanding of the sequences involved in accident progression. The key factors influencing PAHR are molten fuel coolant interaction and grid plate melt through, followed by relocation of fragmented fuel and structural materials settling on the core catcher in the form of debris below the core. The present work is focused on experimental and numerical investigation of melt fragmentation and settlement, morphological characteristics of debris, and finally heat removal from the debris bed via dedicated decay heat removal system. Series of dedicated experimental facilities have been setup in stages and preliminary trials are being conducted to generate the database for development and validation of numerical models, to be used for safety analysis of reactor systems. This paper also discusses preliminary experimental results and comparisons of data with numerical findings.

    10. Diving injuries are (usually) no accident.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Buzzacott, Peter

      2015-03-01

      When recently submitting a manuscript to DHM, I noticedthat three of our keywords contain the word accident, namely 'accidents', 'diving accidents' and 'scuba accidents'. 'Accident' is most strictly defined in the legal sense thus: "… the word accident is used only for events that occur without the intervention of a human being. This kind of accident also may be called an act of God. It is an event that no person caused or could have prevented - such as a tornado, a tidal wave, or an ice storm." In a review of cave diving fatalities, the medical examiner's cause of death in each case (n = 368) was considered and, from these and their extensive case files, case histories were traced back through the disabling injury to the triggering event. In the majority of cases there was a clear breach of established safe procedures. The number of 'accidents' where, for example, a cave unexpectedly collapsed was rare, by far the exception. Including these words in our approved list is at odds with the stable of British Medical Journal publications, (e.g., Injury Prevention) which have dissuaded use of the word 'accident' since 1993 and banned the word since 2001. Since 2004, at considerable expense, many former NHS hospital accident and emergency wards in the UK have steadily been renamed emergency departments. The Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine has been renamed Emergency Medicine Journal and, as recently as last year, the New York Police Department changed the name of their Accident Investigation Squad to Collision Investigation Squad. They also no longer use the word 'accident' in their reports, following the lead of the US Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration which stopped using the word in all its printed material in 1997, claiming it "…promotes the concept that these events are outside of human influence or control."(p.1.) There are many such examples of this subtle yet important change that is overtaking both western medicine and, in particular, public health. Rather than 'accident' the current trend is to accurately describe the cause of an injury. To illustrate, a submission formerly entitled 'Hot water accidents in Welsh children' would now more likely be titled 'Hot water burns in Welsh children'. The difference should be obvious; hot water burns in children are largely avoidable, (as are diving injuries). Therefore, I respectfully request we remove these key words from our journal's list. Hopefully this would not inconvenience some of our European colleagues for whom English is a second language, and this should be considered. In France, for example, decompression sickness (DCS) is known as an "accident de desaturation" and decompression illness (DCI, including arterial gas embolism), is initially described in French as an accident de decompression (ADD). After all signs and symptoms are identified, commonly at around 24 h, then the injury is termed a "maladie de decompression" (MDD). The Canadian Government department responsible for aviation, Transports Canada, also refer to DCS/DCI as MDD. The BMJ makes exceptions, e.g., if the word appears in a formal title such as Child Accident Prevention Trust. Regarding ADD however, may I respectfully suggest to my French colleagues they consider adopting "blessure de décompression" (BDD)? In diving research at least, the leading hypothesis is that DCS may be prevented through better understanding of the mechanisms of this protean disease. That DCS is an 'accident' is the null hypothesis. PMID:25964042

    11. Occupational accidents in the Danish merchant fleet and the nationality of seafarers

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

      2014-01-01

      Background The aim of the study was to examine occupational accidents reported from non-passenger merchant ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register in 2010-2012, with a focus on analysing nationality differences in the risk of getting injured in an accident. Methods Data about notified occupational accidents were collected from notifications sent to the Danish Maritime Authority and from records of contact with Danish Radio Medical. Events were matched by personal identification and accident data to create a unified database. Stratified cumulative time spent on board by seafarers was used to calculate accident rates. Incidence rates of different nationalities were compared by Poisson regression. Results Western European seafarers had an overall accident rate of 17.5 per 100000 person-days, which proved to be significantly higher than that of Eastern European, South East Asian and Indian seaman (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.53, 0.51 and 0.74, respectively), although differences decreased over the investigated period. Smaller but in most cases still significant discrepancies were observed for serious injuries. The back injury rate of Western European employees was found especially high, while eye injuries seem to be more frequent among South East Asian workers. Conclusions The study identified substantial differences between nationalities in the rate of various accidents reported from merchant ships sailing under the Danish flag. The differences may be attributed to various factors such as safety behaviour. Investigation of special injury types and characterisation of effective elements of safety culture can contribute to the improvement of workplace safety in the maritime sector.

    12. The prevalence of abnormal results of annual investigations among diabetic patients with different risk factors

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The basic theme of this study was to promote the use of risk approach and encourage selectively in requesting laboratory investigations. The objective was to estimate the proportion of abnormal results obtained from routinely requested annual investigations among the whole study population and the odds ratio of abnormal test results among patients with certain risk factors. A total of 459 diabetic patients aged 12 years and over, attending the primary care clinics of a university hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were included in this study. In this cross-sectional study, analysis of associations between patient's demographic characteristics and clinical findings (independent variables), and the results of annual investigations were conducted. A multiple logistic regression analysis was carried to identify certain independent variables associated with abnormal investigations. The proportion of patients who had abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) was 23%, chest X-ray (CXR) 26% and liver function test (LFT) 9%. High systolic blood pressure (BP) and age were found to be important determinants of abnormal ECG and CXR. Patients who had high systolic BP (>140mm Hg) were found to be 2.39 times more likely to have abnormal ECG (OR=2.39), and their odds ratio of abnormal CXR was 2.33. Furthermore, for each 10-year increment in age, there was a 43% increased likelihood of abnormal ECG and 295 increase of abnormal CXR. Smokers were nine times more likely to have abnormal LFT (OR=9mes more likely to have abnormal LFT (OR=9.26, 95% CI=2.29 tp 37.5). The disease duration and obesity were not found to have and independent association with the possibility of having abnormal results. The study results led to some tentative suggestions on guidelines for clinicians in their decision either to request annual investigations for all diabetic patients, or to restrict some investigations to certain group of patients. This was discussed and compared with the findings from the literature and other authorities recommendations. (author)

    13. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

      1996-12-31

      Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.

    14. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 4. Chernobyl accident consequences in the Ukraine and Russia

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Results of scientific general conclusion and analysis of wide spectrum of radioecological investigations of the Chernobyl accident consequences within the territory of the Ukraine are given. Investigations were conducted in 1986-1992 and before the accident. Information on the environmental radioactivity in Russia due to the Chernobyl accident is also presented. Attention is paid to the population migration and results of statistical processing of population disease incidence in contaminated areas (illustrated by the Tula region). 39 figs.; 47 tabs

    15. Investigation of the performance based structural safety factor of elbow pipes in nuclear power plants

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The piping systems in nuclear power plant are composed of various typed pipes such as straight pipe, elbow, branch and reducer etc. The elbow is connected from straight pipe to another pipes in order to establish the complicated piping system. Elbow is one of very important components considering management of wall thinning degradation. It is however applied by various loads such as system pressure, earthquake, postulated break loading and many transient loads, which provoke simply the internal pressure, bending and torsional stress. In this study, firstly pipes in the secondary system of the nuclear power plant are investigated in view of the ratio of radius to thickness. Next, a large number of finite element analysis considering the all typed dimensions of commercial pipe has been performed to find out the behavior of TES(Twice Elastic Slope) plastic load of elbows, which is based on evaluation of the structural safety factor. Finally performance based structural safety factor was investigated comparing with maximum allowable load by construction code.

    16. Investigating the effects of Iranian cultural factors on brand equity for strategic management of market share

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Maryam Jahandoost

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available Brand is a symbol, logo and indicator of the specific identity of a product manufacturer and the services they render which can create value for both the manufacturer itself and the customers of those products and services. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between Iranian cultural factors with those creating brand value in this industry. The proposed study chooses Philpa System Co. as statistical population and the subject for our case study. The study chooses 56 people who had some past purchase experience from Philpa System as samples. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among the participants. The validity of which was confirmed through depth interviews made with experts of the pertinent industry and its reliability was also calculated using Cronbach's alpha test and was shown to be 82.4 %, which indicated the good reliability of these questionnaires. The data obtained from these questionnaires were analyzed using path analysis and structural equation modeling methods. The results gained from the investigations showed that different aspects of Iranian cultural factors, specifically customer honoring, had the greatest effect on the quality of customers’ perception from the brand; it was also shown that promotion in any of the other aspects presented in Aaker’s brand equity model will directly influence and increase the perceived quality of the brand.

    17. Seminar Investigation of the effect of anthropogenic factors on water systems

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The present CD contains 59 presentations, presented on the seminar Investigation of the anthropogenic factors effect on water systems, held in Bratislava, Slovakia, 23-24 April 2003. The content of this Proceedings is divided into thematic groups: Precipitation, Global Climatic Changes, Rainfall-runoff Modelling, design Values; Quality of Water in Water streams; River Basin Management; Water Retention in River Basins, Effect of Forests, Urban Areas, River Training; Hydraulic Modelling of Flood Flow, Flood Plain Areas, Flood Maps; Sediment Transport in relation with Flood Discharges; Diffuse Sources of Pollution, Point Sources in River Basin; Surface Water and Groundwater Interaction; GIS Utilization for Problem Solution. Water management indirectly influences by its activities the social and economic development of Slovakia. Water as raw material for drinking water production as well as vital liquid and raw material enter almost all manufacturing processes. But water become also a destructive element that hit different locations of Slovak territory and cause damages on people and live animals as well as material damages. In economic utilizing of water and handling water, drainage and treatment, the principle of minimising negative impacts on the environment must be exercised having in mind sustaining, in for the future generations.Water management is struggling with a number of problems at the moment. The project Investigation of the anthropogenic factors effect on water systems is aiming to solve the most important issues like are surface and subsurface run, retention capacity of river basin. quality of surface and ground water, water interaction and other

    18. Accidents in radiotherapy: Lack of quality assurance?

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      About 150 radiological accidents, involving more than 3000 patients with adverse effects, 15 patient's fatalities and about 5000 staff and public exposures have been collected and analysed. Out of 67 analysed accidents in external beam therapy 22% has been caused by wrong calculation of the exposure time or monitor units, 13% by inadequate review of patient's chart, 12% by mistakes in the anatomical area to be treated. The remaining 35% can be attributed to 17 different causes. The most common mistakes in brachytherapy were wrong activities of sources used for treatment (20%), inadequate procedures for placement of sources applicators (14%), mistakes in calculating the treatment time (12%), etc. The direct and contributing causes of radiological accidents have been deduced from each event, when it was possible and categorized into 9 categories: mistakes in procedures (30%), professional mistakes (17%), communication mistakes (15%), lack of training (8.5%), interpretation mistakes (7%), lack of supervision (6%), mistakes in judgement (6%), hardware failures (5%), software and other mistakes (5.5%). Three types of direct and contributing causes responsible for almost 62% of all accidents are directly connected to the quality assurance of treatment. The lessons learnt from the accidents are related to frequencies of direct and contributing factors and show that most of the accident are caused by lack, non-application of quality assurance (QA) procedures or by underestimating of QA procedures. The international system for collection of accidents and dissemination of lessons learnt from the different accidents, proposed by IAEA, can contribute to better practice in many radiotherapy departments. Most of the accidents could have been avoided, had a comprehensive QA programme been established and properly applied in all radiotherapy departments, whatever the size. (author)

    19. An investigation into the determining factors of zoo visitor attendances in UK zoos.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Whitworth, Andrew William

      2012-01-01

      The debate as to which animals are most beneficial to keep in zoos in terms of financial and conservative value is readily disputed; however, demographic factors have also been shown to relate to visitor numbers on an international level. The main aims of this research were: (1) To observe the distribution and location of zoos across the UK, (2) to develop a way of calculating zoo popularity in terms of the species kept within a collection and (3) to investigate the factors related to visitor numbers regarding admission costs, popularity of the collection in terms of the species kept and local demographic factors. Zoo visitor numbers were positively correlated with generated popularity ratings for zoos based on the species kept within a collection and admission prices (Pearson correlation: n?=?34, r?=?0.268, P?=?0.126 and n?=?34, r?=?-0.430, P?=?0.011). Animal collections are aggregated around large cities and tourist regions, particularly coastal areas. No relationship between demographic variables and visitor numbers was found (Pearson correlation: n?=?34, r?=?0.268, P?=?0.126), which suggests that the popularity of a zoo's collection relative to the types and numbers of species kept is more indicative of a collection's visitor numbers than its surrounding demographic figures. Zoos should incorporate generating high popularity scores as part of their collection planning strategies, to ensure that they thrive in the future, not only as tourist attractions but also as major conservation organizations. PMID:22253799

    20. Factors Influencing Students’ Acceptance of M-Learning: An Investigation in Higher Education

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ahmad Abu-Al-Aish

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available M-learning will play an increasingly significant role in the development of teaching and learning methods for higher education. However, the successful implementation of m-learning in higher education will be based on users’ acceptance of this technology. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to study the factors that affect university students’ intentions to accept m-learning. Based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT (Venkatesh et al., 2003, this study proposes a model to identify the factors that influence the acceptance of m-learning in higher education and to investigate if prior experience of mobile devices affects the acceptance of m-learning. A structural equation model was used to analyse the data collected from 174 participants. The results indicate that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, influence of lecturers, quality of service, and personal innovativeness were all significant factors that affect behavioural intention to use m-learning. Prior experience of mobile devices was also found to moderate the effect of these constructs on behavioural intention. The results of this research extend the UTAUT in the context of m-learning acceptance by adding quality of service and personal innovativeness to the structure of UTAUT and provide practitioners and educators with useful guidelines for designing a successful m-learning system.

    1. Investigation of Particle-Size Distribution and Friction Factor for a Gravel-Bed river: Marbar

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Oreizi Z

      2014-03-01

      Full Text Available The study of flow and sediment size distribution in gravel –bed Rivers has been the pivotal attention of many researchers for more than three decades. The surface grain size of gravel and cobble-bed rivers re?ects the caliber and volume of sediment that is supplied to the channel and magnitude of discharge events that are capable of moving sediment. Also, defining friction factor, the relationship between the mean shear velocity and the mean flow velocity in rivers, has been a central problem in river studies for a very long time, but it continues to defy a complete analytical solution. Most of rivers in Zagros Mountains located in the central Iran consist of gravel and cobble-bed Rivers showing very difficult flow measurements and various grain size distributions. In this paper, two reaches were selected to investigate the particle-size distribution and friction factor estimation of Marbar River. The results showed that particles stability in pools is due to their larger median diameter in comparison to riffles. The contribution of form friction factor is more important than skin friction in Marbar river.

    2. Fatores associados ao uso de serviço de atenção pré-hospitalar por vítimas de acidentes de trânsito / Factors associated with pre-hospital care in victims of traffic accidents

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Roberto Marini, Ladeira; Sandhi Maria, Barreto.

      2008-02-01

      Full Text Available Em um estudo de corte transversal foram avaliadas as características das vítimas de acidentes de trânsito ocorridos em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de conhecer as características dos acidentes e das vítimas que usaram o serviço de atendimento pré-hospitalar, e investigar se o [...] uso deste serviço está associado a um menor tempo até o atendimento hospitalar. Participaram do estudo todas as 1.564 vítimas de acidente de trânsito atendidas nos três maiores hospitais públicos de referência para emergência na cidade entre 10 de novembro e 14 de dezembro de 2003. As associações foram investigadas utilizando-se razões de prevalência obtidas por regressão de Poisson. Os resultados mostraram que 49,7% das vítimas usaram o serviço de atendimento pré-hospitalar, sendo a utilização menor entre ocupantes de bicicleta e pedestres. A gravidade (AIS = 2 e AIS ³ 3), idade (30-39 anos, 40-49, ³ 50 anos), relato de uso de álcool e tempo de admissão hospitalar Abstract in english This was a cross-sectional study of all victims of traffic accidents in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, admitted to the three largest public hospitals in the city from November 10 to December 14, 2003, to identify characteristics associated with the use of pre-hospital emergency treatmen [...] t and investigate whether the time between the accident and hospital admission was shorter among these victims. The association between pre-hospital treatment and target variables was assessed by prevalence ratios obtained from Poisson regression. Among 1,564 victims, 778 (49.7%) were transported in vehicles with pre-hospital treatment. Pre-hospital treatment was less common for bicyclists and pedestrians. The prevalence ratio was higher among victims with more severe injuries (AIS = 2 and AIS ³ 3), older victims (30-39 years, 40-49 years, ³ 50 years), those who reported alcohol use, and when the time between accident and hospital admission was less than 60 minutes. According to the results, pre-hospital treatment is more frequent among severely injured victims and helps reduce the time between the accident and hospital admission.

    3. Fatores associados ao uso de serviço de atenção pré-hospitalar por vítimas de acidentes de trânsito Factors associated with pre-hospital care in victims of traffic accidents

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Roberto Marini Ladeira

      2008-02-01

      Full Text Available Em um estudo de corte transversal foram avaliadas as características das vítimas de acidentes de trânsito ocorridos em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de conhecer as características dos acidentes e das vítimas que usaram o serviço de atendimento pré-hospitalar, e investigar se o uso deste serviço está associado a um menor tempo até o atendimento hospitalar. Participaram do estudo todas as 1.564 vítimas de acidente de trânsito atendidas nos três maiores hospitais públicos de referência para emergência na cidade entre 10 de novembro e 14 de dezembro de 2003. As associações foram investigadas utilizando-se razões de prevalência obtidas por regressão de Poisson. Os resultados mostraram que 49,7% das vítimas usaram o serviço de atendimento pré-hospitalar, sendo a utilização menor entre ocupantes de bicicleta e pedestres. A gravidade (AIS = 2 e AIS ³ 3, idade (30-39 anos, 40-49, ³ 50 anos, relato de uso de álcool e tempo de admissão hospitalar This was a cross-sectional study of all victims of traffic accidents in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, admitted to the three largest public hospitals in the city from November 10 to December 14, 2003, to identify characteristics associated with the use of pre-hospital emergency treatment and investigate whether the time between the accident and hospital admission was shorter among these victims. The association between pre-hospital treatment and target variables was assessed by prevalence ratios obtained from Poisson regression. Among 1,564 victims, 778 (49.7% were transported in vehicles with pre-hospital treatment. Pre-hospital treatment was less common for bicyclists and pedestrians. The prevalence ratio was higher among victims with more severe injuries (AIS = 2 and AIS ³ 3, older victims (30-39 years, 40-49 years, ³ 50 years, those who reported alcohol use, and when the time between accident and hospital admission was less than 60 minutes. According to the results, pre-hospital treatment is more frequent among severely injured victims and helps reduce the time between the accident and hospital admission.

    4. Investigations on transient distribution of hydrogen and vapor in single spaces of the containment in case of high pressure failure of the reactor pressure vessel passing a core meltdown accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      For the investigation of the sequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident, the primary interest is directed towards the integrity of the containment. In case of insecurity, the valid interests become then the probable time period of failure and the type of failure of the containment (SB). Within the scope of investigations on possible loads exerted on containment during the process of core meltdown under high system pressure, the following question has to be answered. The question was whether an overlapping of the loads caused by possible local H2-burning or detonation occurred in addition to the loads (due to spontaneous release of mass and energy) exerted on the steel shell of the containment by the failure of primary circuit in the region of the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Therefore during the process of core meltdown after the failure the propagation behavior of stored masses of hydrogen in regions surrounding the reactor cavity was examined and the formed concentration ratios of hydrogen, steam and air at 22 different rooms during the transient relief phase were investigated. Under the assumption of homogeneous distribution of gaseous fractions in the individual rooms, no flammable gas mixtures were confirmed within the time range given for investigation. Therefore the load exerted following the spontaneous release of masses and energy due to failure of RPV (stem spike) cannot be overlapped with the same resulting due to process of H2-burning. (orig.)

    5. Radiological accidents in medical practice

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Different radiological accidents that may occur in medical practice are shown. The following topics are focused: accident statistics for medical exposure, accidental medical exposures, radiotherapy accidents and potential accidental scenarios

    6. Criticality accident in Argentina

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      A recent criticality type accident, ocurred in Argetina, is commented. Considerations about the nature of the facility where this accident took place, its genesis, type of operation carried out on the day of the event, and the medical aspects involved are done. (Author)

    7. Chapter 6: Accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The chapter 6 talks about the accidents with radiators all over the world, specifically, the Stimos, in Italy, 1975, San Salvador, in El Salvador, 1989, Soreq, in Israel, 1990, Nesvizh, in Byelorussian, 1991, in Illinois, US, 1965, in Maryland, US, 1991, Hanoi, Vietnam, 1992, Fleurus, in Belgium, 2006. Comments on the accidents and mainly the learned lessons

    8. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

    9. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

    10. An Investigation of Factors Influencing Design Team Attributes in Green Buildings

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mohamed S. Elforgani

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Problem statement: Buildings contribute significantly global environmental problems. Better design can minimize these impacts. Design Green Building (DGB aims to reduce buildings' impact on the environment. However, the green design performance depends on design team attributes. In addition, the Governance System (GS and Client Quality (CQ as external factors have influence on Design Team Attributes (DTA of green building. Approach: To identify mentioned factors questionnaire survey was conducted to collect dada required. A sample of 277 respondents has been covered under the study, including architects and engineers practicing design and consultancy building sectors. Analysis data includes descriptive and quantitative analysis by using SSPS software version 16 was carried out. A correlation and regression models was established to explore the relationship between identified factors. Results: Architect is most involved one during the design process of green buildings with mean 4.82 followed by mechanical and electrical engineers with mean 4.52 and 4.44 respectively, while structural and civil engineers, interior designers and quantity survivors were 3.71, 3.29 and 2.88 respectively. The most design team attributes were investigated have a significance degree of influence except design team reputation. On the other hand, the other hand, the Governance system and client quality have major influence on these attributes. Conclusion: Involvement and participation of a ll project stakeholders are required. Design team attributes are the key factors to improve green design performance. Governance system and client quality play major role to enhance design team attributes. Therefore, effective regulations and policies may increase performance of the green Effective design team management device should be applied to implement Design team attributes effectively in order to improve green design team performance.

    11. Injury rates and injury risk factors among federal bureau of investigation new agent trainees

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Knapik Joseph J

      2011-12-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors were acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire and existing data at the FBI Academy. Results A total of 426 men and 105 women participated in the project. Thirty-five percent of men and 42% of women experienced one or more injuries during training. The injury incidence rate was 2.5 and 3.2 injuries/1,000 person-days for men and women, respectively (risk ratio (women/men = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.7. The activities most commonly associated with injuries (% of total were defensive tactics training (58%, physical fitness training (20%, physical fitness testing (5%, and firearms training (3%. Among the men, higher injury risk was associated with older age, slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the physical fitness test (PFT, lower self-rated physical activity, lower frequency of aerobic exercise, a prior upper or lower limb injury, and prior foot or knee pain that limited activity. Among the women higher injury risk was associated with slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the PFT, and prior back pain that limited activity. Conclusion The results of this investigation supported those of a previous retrospective investigation emphasizing that lower fitness and self-reported pain limiting activity were associated with higher injury risk among FBI new agents.

    12. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      1989-07-01

      An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

    13. O espectro da neuropatia auditiva pode contribuir para acidente de trabalho? o relato de uma investigação clínica / Can auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder contribute to work accidents? a clinical investigation report

      Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

      Marta Regueira Dias, Prestes; Maria Angela Guimarães, Feitosa; André Luiz Lopes, Sampaio; Maria de Fátima Coelho, Carvalho; Elienai de Alencar, Meneses.

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available Considerando a possível insuficiência do exame admissional legalmente preconizado para avaliação auditiva no que se refere à identificação de comprometimento da habilidade para reconhecer fala em ambiente ruidoso, este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar o processo de uma investigação clínica, conduz [...] ida em 2010, de um trabalhador que sofreu acidente de trabalho, visando identificar possíveis elementos clínicos não previamente considerados, mas que poderiam ter contribuído para a ocorrência do acidente. Utilizou-se a escala Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit para comparar a habilidade de reconhecimento da fala em ambiente ruidoso do trabalhador acidentado com a de ouvintes normais e realizaram-se exames de audiometria, imitanciometria, emissões otoacústicas, potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico e teste de reconhecimento de sentenças no silêncio e no ruído. Identificou-se que o trabalhador apresentava espectro da neuropatia auditiva (ENA) e que a alteração neural prejudicava de forma relevante a compreensão da fala em presença de ruído. A avaliação da sensibilidade auditiva no exame admissional se mostrou insuficiente para identificar a real situação auditiva do trabalhador com ENA, que compromete o reconhecimento de sinais de advertência, levando a um aumento no risco de ocorrência de acidente em ambientes ruidosos. Abstract in english Considering that the hearing assessment test legally recommended for job admission exams is not adequate to identify impaired ability to recognize speech in noisy environments, this paper reports a clinical investigation conducted in 2010 for a worker who suffered a work accident due to noise. It ai [...] med at identifying clinical elements which were not previously taken into consideration, but that could have contributed to the accident. Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit Scale was used to measure the injured worker's ability to recognize speech in a noisy environment and to compare it with the hearing skill of normal adults. Audiometry, tympanometry, otoacoustic emissions, auditory evoked brainstem potential, and sentence recognition in quiet and in noisy environments were also carried out. They showed that the worker had an Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) and that the neural disorder significantly impaired speech understanding in noisy surroundings. Hearing sensitivity assessment during job admission exams was not enough to identify the actual hearing ability of the worker with ANSD, as the disorder prevents warning signs from being noticed and increases risk of accidents in noisy environments.

    14. [Accidents and injuries at work].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Standke, W

      2014-06-01

      In the case of an accident at work, the person concerned is insured by law according to the guidelines of the Sozialgesetzbuch VII as far as the injuries have been caused by this accident. The most important source of information on the incident in question is the accident report that has to be sent to the responsible institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention by the employer, if the accident of the injured person is fatal or leads to an incapacity to work for more than 3 days (= reportable accident). Data concerning accidents like these are sent to the Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung (DGUV) as part of a random sample survey by the institutions for statutory accident insurance and prevention and are analyzed statistically. Thus the key issues of accidents can be established and used for effective prevention. Although the success of effective accident prevention is undisputed, there were still 919,025 occupational accidents in 2011, with clear gender-related differences. Most occupational accidents involve the upper and lower extremities. Accidents are analyzed comprehensively and the results are published and made available to all interested parties in an effort to improve public awareness of possible accidents. Apart from reportable accidents, data on the new occupational accident pensions are also gathered and analyzed statistically. Thus, additional information is gained on accidents with extremely serious consequences and partly permanent injuries for the accident victims. PMID:24863704

    15. Accident report 1975/76

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The statistics previously published on the development of accidents were completed. It is the purpose of this accident report: 1) to present a survey of the development of the number of accidents (no radiation accidents) for the years 1960 - 1976, 2) to break down the accidents by different characteristics in order to be able to recognize the preventive measures to be taken so as to avoid further accidents, 3) to report about accidents experienced and to indicate activities performed with respect to accident prevention and health protection. (orig.)

    16. An Investigation of the Factor Structure and Convergent and Discriminant Validity of the Five-Factor Model Rating Form

      Science.gov (United States)

      Samuel, Douglas B.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N.; Widiger, Thomas A.

      2013-01-01

      The Five-Factor Model Rating Form (FFMRF) is a one-page measure designed to provide an efficient assessment of the higher order domains of the Five Factor Model (FFM) as well as the more specific, lower order facets proposed by McCrae and Costa. Although previous research has suggested that the FFMRF's assessment of the lower order facets converge…

    17. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on insurance issued by export guarantee funds

      OpenAIRE

      Naser Azad; Reza Nasiri Savadkouhi

      2013-01-01

      This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on insurance issued by export guarantee funds. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire in Likert scale. The study has determined four factors including risk management, customer oriented, quality management and trade management. The first factor is associated with risk management and it includes four sub-factors. The factors include being responsive, reliability, service quality and customer ...

    18. Dosimetric management during a criticality accident

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      A working group from health occupational and clinical biochemistry services on French sites has issued essential data sheets on the guidelines to follow in managing the victims of a criticality accident. Since the priority of the medical management after a criticality accident is to assess the dose and the distribution of dose, some dosimetric investigations have been selected in order to provide a prompt response and to anticipate the final dose reconstruction. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories on French sites were carried out to confirm that each laboratory maintained the required operational methods for hair treatment and the appropriate equipment for 32P activity in hair and 24Na activity in blood measurements, and to demonstrate its ability to rapidly provide neutron dose estimates after a criticality accident. As a result, a relation has been assessed to estimate the dose and the distribution of dose according to the neutron spectrum following a criticality accident. (authors)

    19. Containment leakage during severe accident conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      An alternate to the THRESHOLD model used in most severe accident risk assessments has been investigated. One reference plant for each of six containment types has been studied to determine the magnitude of containment leakage that would result from the pressures and temperatures associated with severe accident conditions. Containment penetrations having the greatest potential for early containment leakage are identified. The studies indicate that containment leakage through penetrations prior to reaching containment threshold pressures (currently reported containment shell failure pressures) should be considered in severe accident risk assessments. Failure of non-metallic seals for containment penetrations can be a significant source of containment leakage under severe accident pressure and temperature conditions. Although studies of containment types are useful in identifying sources of containment leakage, final conclusions may need to be plant specific. Recommendations concerning future studies to better develop the use of continuous leakage models are provided. 9 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

    20. An investigation on important factors influencing on forecasted earnings adjustment: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Fatemeh Babakhani

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing earning adjustment on firms selected on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2011. There are four independent variables associated with the proposed study of this paper including Proportion of shares owned by institutional investors, Return on assets, Profit change and Market value to book value. In addition, Investment restructuring is considered as control variable. The results of the implementation of regression analysis indicate that there was a reverse relationship between earning forecasted adjustment and two independent variables including size of firm as well as the ratio of market value to book value. However, Net profit has a direct and positive relationship with earning forecast adjustment.

    1. Studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In this paper, we review studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics, making special emphasis on the policy framework in the European Union. We find several conclusions, among which the following should be emphasized. First, this review highlights the existence of different methodologies to build up models to identify the effects of policy reforms affecting land use and desertification. Second, use of micro data to set up an econometric-process simulation model of land use has already been used with success. Third, in the geographical distribution of land use, prices drive all short and long-rung processes. Finally, logistic models have recently been used to study micro decisions at the agricultural sector to identify relative rents and land characteristics such as location and soil fertility as main determinants of land use patters. (Author) 8 refs.

    2. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Utilization of Information Technology (IT by Agricultural Students

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Masoud Rezaei

      2012-03-01

      Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the aim of investigating factors affecting utilization of information technology by students of agriculture. A survey approach was used in this study and a questionnaire was developed to gather the data. The study population was postgraduate students (MS and PhD of economic and agricultural development faculty in Tehran University who were selected by applying random sampling technique. Sample size for students was 61 persons. Data was analyzed by using SPSS/WIN software. The results of the research indicated that there was a positive significant relationship between using of information technology by students and their age, average, prior experience, information technology skills, innovativeness, perceived ease of use, attitude and self-efficacy. The relationship between computer anxiety and using of IT was negative. Stepwise Regression Analysis showed that innovativeness and attitude predict 53.2 percent of variations of IT use by students.

    3. FACTORS INFLUENCING MOBILE-LEARNING ADOPTION INTENTION: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION IN HIGH EDUCATION

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ngo Tan Vu Khanh

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available This study investigates the use of mobile phones and tablets for learning purposes among university students in Vietnam. For this purpose, the research is based on relevant technology acceptance literature and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM is proposed to analyze the adoption of mobile devices and smart phones by Vietnam students for accessing course materials, searching the web for information related to their discipline, sharing knowledge, conducting assignments etc. Employing structural equation modeling (SEM technology, the model was assessed based on the data collected from 301 participants using a survey questionnaire. These results validate the power of TAM constructs and its appropriateness for predicting acceptance of mobile learning. Usefulness had the highest path coefficients and was a strong predictor of behavioral intention and attitude to use and thus actual use. The proposed TAM model also can improve the understanding of students’ motivation by suggesting what external factors are the most important in enhancing students acceptance of mobile learning.

    4. Investigation of the factors limiting the service life of a copper bromide vapor laser

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Astadzhov, D.A.; Vuchkov, N.K.; Petrash, G.G.; Sabotinov, N.V.

      1984-04-01

      An experimental study was made of the factors limiting the service life of a sealed pulsed copper bromide vapor laser. In the operating regime, the entire laser discharge tube was heated in such a way that the lowest temperature of 430 /sup 0/C was maintained in side arms containing the active substance. The discharge tube was operated for a period of 335 h, after which it was opened up and subjected to an investigation. During the operating period the laser output power fell from 3.6 to 2.0 W, mainly due to the deposition of copper on the exit windows. Gross discharge and lasing instabilities were observed toward the end of the operating period and these were explained by the observed increase in the bromine concentration in the tube during the laser operation.

    5. [Multicenter paragliding accident study 1990].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

      1992-01-01

      During the period from 1.1.90 until 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analyzed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. The injuries showed a mean score of over 2 and were classified as severe. Most frequent spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower ex