WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived. PMID:21571433

Wang, Yan Fu; Faghih Roohi, Shahrzad; Hu, Xiu Ming; Xie, Min

2011-07-15

2

Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? HFACS provides a systematic guideline in accident investigations. The hierarchal structure of HFACS forces investigators to seek out latent HOFs. ? Bayesian Network enhances the ability of the HFACS by allowing experts to quantify the degree of relationships among the HOFs. ? The fuzzy AHP helps to reduce the subjective biases by avoiding the need to give explicit probability values for the variables' states. - Abstract: This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived.

2011-07-15

3

Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} HFACS provides a systematic guideline in accident investigations. The hierarchal structure of HFACS forces investigators to seek out latent HOFs. {yields} Bayesian Network enhances the ability of the HFACS by allowing experts to quantify the degree of relationships among the HOFs. {yields} The fuzzy AHP helps to reduce the subjective biases by avoiding the need to give explicit probability values for the variables' states. - Abstract: This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived.

Wang Yanfu, E-mail: isewy@nus.edu.sg [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore); Department of Safety Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Dong ying 257061 (China); Faghih Roohi, Shahrzad; Hu Xiuming; Xie Min [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore)

2011-07-15

4

Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel

1980-10-16

5

Accident investigation reporting deficiencies related to organizational factors in machinery space fires and explosions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Careful accident investigation provides opportunities to review safety arrangements in socio-technical systems. There is consensus that human intervention is involved in the majority of accidents. Ever cautious of the consequences attributed to such a claim vis-à-vis the apportionment of blame, several authors have highlighted the importance of investigating organizational factors in this respect. Specific regulations to limit what were perceived as unsuitable organizational influences in shipping operations were adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Guidance is provided for the investigation of human and organizational factors involved in maritime accidents. This paper presents a review of 41 accident investigation reports related to machinery space fires and explosions. The objective was to find out if organizational factors are identified during maritime accident investigations. An adapted version of the Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) with minor modifications related to machinery space features was used for this review. The results of the review show that organizational factors were not identified by maritime accident investigators to the extent expected had the IMO guidelines been observed. Instead, contributing factors at the lower end of organizational echelons are over-represented. PMID:21376918

Schröder-Hinrichs, Jens U; Baldauf, Michael; Ghirxi, Kevin T

2011-05-01

6

Supervisor's accident investigation handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

1980-01-01

7

Contributive factors to aviation accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA) with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accidents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS identified 370 factors. It was concluded that CENIPA reports did not contemplate the organizational factors associated with aviation accidents. PMID:21344127

Fajer, Marcia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Fischer, Frida Marina

2011-04-01

8

An analysis on human factor issues in criticality accident at a uranium processing plant. Investigation on human behavior contributing to the criticality accident. Interim report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At 10:30 am, September 30th, 1999, a criticality accident occurred in a conversion building of a uranium processing plant in Tokai, Ibaraki prefecture. 69 people including 3 workers who then worked at the building, 3 fire fighters who dispatched to rescue them were exposed to the radiation. People with a 350 m-radius of the site were recommended to evacuate themselves from the region to a temporarily prepared evacuation center. And about one hundred thousand people within a 10 km-radius were also advised to stay inside of their home. Nuclear Safety Commission's Accident Investigation Committee is investigating causes of this accident and have been revealing that deviation from government-authorized processing method and negligence of its illegal procedure had contributed to the accident. The influence of this accident is expanding not only to the plant operating company, local people but also to Japanese nuclear power policy, the whole nuclear industry in Japan. Especially pervasion of 'Safety Culture' is strongly being required. This report analyses latent factors of some human behavior directly contributing to the criticality accident. It also mentions that 4 critical points on the poor climate for safety in the work place, the inadequate safety management, the unsuitable equipment and the production-biased company's policy are the latent factors of this accident. It also finds that the poor climate and the production-biased policy are the most important factors. It can be said that some people directly or indirectly having caused the accident are the victims of them. (author)

1999-11-01

9

Electrical shock accident investigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents results of the accident investigation of an electrical shock received by two subcontractor employees on May 13, 1994, at the Pinellas Plant. The direct cause of the electrical shock was worker contact with a cut ``hot`` wire and a grounded panelboard (PPA) enclosure. Workers presumed that all wires in the enclosure were dead at the time of the accident and did not perform thorough Lockout/Tagout (LO/TO). Three contributing causes were identified. First, lack of guidance in the drawing for the modification performed in 1987 allowed the PPA panel to be used as a junction box. The second contributing cause is that Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) procedures do not address multiple electrical sources in an enclosure. Finally, the workers did not consider the possibility of multiple electrical sources. The root cause of the electrical shock was the inadequacy of administrative controls, including construction requirement and LO/TO requirements, and subcontractor awareness regarding multiple electrical sources. Recommendations to prevent further reoccurrence of this type of accident include revision of ES&H Standard 2.00, Electrical Safety Program Manual, to document requirements for multiple electrical sources in a single enclosure to specify a thorough visual inspection as part of the voltage check process. In addition, the formality of LO/TO awareness training for subcontractor electricians should be increased.

1994-09-30

10

Lessons learned from accident investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

1998-12-01

11

Lessons learned from accidents investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

1997-10-26

12

Safety-critical human factors issues derived from analysis of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident investigation reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011 had a large impact both in and outside Japan, and is not yet concluded. After Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s (TEPCO's) Fukushima accident, electric power suppliers have taken measures to respond in the event that the same state of emergency occurs - deploying mobile generators, temporary pumps and hoses, and training employees in the use of this equipment. However, it is not only the “hard” problems including the design of equipment, but the “soft” problems such as organization and safety culture that have been highlighted as key contributors in this accident. Although a number of organizations have undertaken factor analysis of the accident and proposed issues to be reviewed and measures to be taken, a systematic overview about electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture has not yet been undertaken. This study is based on three major reports: the report by the national Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (the Diet report), the report by the Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company (Government report), and the report by the non-government committee supported by the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation (Non-government report). From these reports, the sections relevant to electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture were extracted. These sections were arranged to correspond with the prerequisites for the ideal organization, and 30 issues to be reviewed by electric power suppliers were extracted using brainstorming methods. It is expected that the identified issues will become a reference for every organization concerned to work on preventive measures hereafter. (author)

2013-08-01

13

Safety-critical human factors issues derived from analysis of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident investigation reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011 had a large impact both in and outside Japan, and is not yet concluded. After Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s (TEPCO's) Fukushima accident, electric power suppliers have taken measures to respond in the event that the same state of emergency occurs - deploying mobile generators, temporary pumps and hoses, and training employees in the use of this equipment. However, it is not only the 'hard' problems including the design of equipment, but the 'soft' problems such as organization and safety culture that have been highlighted as key contributors in this accident. Although a number of organizations have undertaken factor analysis of the accident and proposed issues to be reviewed and measures to be taken, a systematic overview about electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture has not yet been undertaken. This study is based on three major reports: the report by the national Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (the Diet report), the report by the Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company (Government report), and the report by the non-government committee supported by the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation (Non-government report). From these reports, the sections relevant to electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture were extracted. These sections were arranged to correspond with the prerequisites for the ideal organization, and 30 issues to be reviewed by electric power suppliers were extracted using brainstorming methods. It is expected that the identified issues will become a reference for every organization concerned to work on preventive measures hereafter. (author)

2013-10-01

14

Accidents and human factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his weak points, but also should make the best use of his strong points. (author)

1984-04-09

15

Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately from any investigation conducted by other companies involved in the accident, and it did not review its analyses, conclusions or recommendations with any other company or investigation team. Also, at the time this report was written, other investigations, such as the U.S. Coast Guard and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Joint Investigation and the President's National Commission were ongoing. While the understanding of this accident will continue to develop with time, the information in this report can support learning and the prevention of a recurrence. The accident on April 20, 2010, involved a well integrity failure, followed by a loss of hydrostatic control of the well. This was followed by a failure to control the flow from the well with the BOP equipment, which allowed the release and subsequent ignition of hydrocarbons. Ultimately, the BOP emergency functions failed to seal the well after the initial explosions. During the course of the investigation, the team used fault tree analysis to define and consider various scenarios, failure modes and possible contributing factors. Eight key findings related to the causes of the accident emerged: (1) The annulus cement barrier did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (2) The shoe track barriers did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (3) The negative-pressure test was accepted although well integrity had not been established; (4) Influx was not recognized until hydrocarbons were in the riser; (5) Well control response actions failed to regain control of the well; (6) Diversion to the mud gas separator resulted in gas venting onto the rig; (7) The fire and gas system did not prevent hydrocarbon ignition; (8) The BOP emergency mode did not seal the well.

2010-01-01

16

Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately from any investigation conducted by other companies involved in the accident, and it did not review its analyses, conclusions or recommendations with any other company or investigation team. Also, at the time this report was written, other investigations, such as the U.S. Coast Guard and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Joint Investigation and the President's National Commission were ongoing. While the understanding of this accident will continue to develop with time, the information in this report can support learning and the prevention of a recurrence. The accident on April 20, 2010, involved a well integrity failure, followed by a loss of hydrostatic control of the well. This was followed by a failure to control the flow from the well with the BOP equipment, which allowed the release and subsequent ignition of hydrocarbons. Ultimately, the BOP emergency functions failed to seal the well after the initial explosions. During the course of the investigation, the team used fault tree analysis to define and consider various scenarios, failure modes and possible contributing factors. Eight key findings related to the causes of the accident emerged: (1) The annulus cement barrier did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (2) The shoe track barriers did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (3) The negative-pressure test was accepted although well integrity had not been established; (4) Influx was not recognized until hydrocarbons were in the riser; (5) Well control response actions failed to regain control of the well; (6) Diversion to the mud gas separator resulted in gas venting onto the rig; (7) The fire and gas system did not prevent hydrocarbon ignition; (8) The BOP emergency mode did not seal the well.

NONE

2010-09-15

17

Severe accident investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) the Institute for Reactor Safety (IRS) performs accident analyses for the European Pressurised Water Reactor (EPR) by plant calculations with SCDAP/RELAP5 and RELAP5. S/R5 mod3.2 calculations have been performed for loss-of-offsite power (LOOP), surge line rupture (SL), and 46 cm2 small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA). LOOP reflood calculations were repeated for comparison with MAAP and S/R5 mod 3.1.irs. EPR input decks have been revised and upgraded by Siemens/KWU improvements. Model improvements for S/R5 covering clad failure and fragmentation based on FZK experiments are under test. LOWCOR2 calculations are ongoing. The validation of PSI reflood model including improved FZK-Chen correlation in RELAP5 mod 3.2.2? against integral experiments is finished mostly. The support on the QUENCH programme covering pre- and post test calculations for QUENCH-03 and -04 effectively enhances understanding of the experiment and separation of physical and facility based effects. (orig.)

2000-08-01

18

Investigating accidents and incidents effectively  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The UK coal mining industry has moved forward rapidly in recent years to reduce the risk of injury to its people and secure ever decreasing accident rates through effective safety management. The technique of thorough and professional accident and incident investigation has also been a powerful influence on its success. The future of the industry relies heavily on its ability to manage safety and in order to fulfil their responsibilities the managers and supervisors require the skills and the training to make this happen. This paper is based on a training programme specifically tailored for those people with responsibility for managing safety in mines to enable them to perform effective investigations. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Staley, B.G.; Foster, P.J.

1996-03-01

19

Estimating the Influence of Accident Related Factors on Motorcycle Fatal Accidents using Logistic Regression (Case Study: Denpasar-Bali)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Denpasar the capital of Bali Province, motorcycle accident contributes to about 80% of total road accidents. Out of those motorcycle accidents, 32% are fatal accidents. This study investigates the influence of accident related factors on motorcycle fatal accidents in the city of Denpasar during period 2006-2008 using a logistic regression model. The study found that the fatality of collision with pedestrians and right angle accidents were respectively about 0.44 and 0.40 times lower than c...

Wedagama D.M.P.

2010-01-01

20

What-You-Look-For-Is-What-You-Find - The consequences of underlying accident models in eight accident investigation manuals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accident investigation manuals are influential documents on various levels in a safety management system, and it is therefore important to appraise them in the light of what we currently know - or assume - about the nature of accidents. Investigation manuals necessarily embody or represent an accident model, i.e., a set of assumptions about how accidents happen and what the important factors are. In this paper we examine three aspects of accident investigation as described in a number of inve...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Research investigation report on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report was issued in February 2012 by Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation's Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, which consisted of six members from the private sector in independent positions and with no direct interest in the business of promoting nuclear power. Commission aimed to determine the truth behind the accident by clarifying the various problems and reveal systematic problems behind these issues so as to create a new starting point by identifying clear lessons learned. Report composed of four chapters; (1) progression of Fukushima accident and resulting damage (accident management after Fukushima accident, and effects and countermeasure of radioactive materials discharged into the environment), (2) response against Fukushima accident (emergency response of cabinet office against nuclear disaster, risk communication and on-site response against nuclear disaster), (3) analysis of historical and structural factors (technical philosophy of nuclear safety, problems of nuclear safety regulation of Fukushima accident, safety regulatory governance and social background of 'Safety Myth'), (4) Global Context (implication in nuclear security, Japan in nuclear safety regime, U.S.-Japan relations for response against Fukushima accident, lessons learned from Fukushima accident - aiming at creation of resilience). Report could identify causes of Fukushima accident and factors related to resulting damages, show the realities behind failure to prevent the spread of damage, and analyze the overall structural and historical background behind the accidents. (T. Tanaka)

2012-01-01

22

Influence of some demographic factors on miner accident rate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses results of investigations into human factors which influence the accident rate in underground black coal mines in the Ostrava-Karvina basin. The following factors are analyzed: age, service life, initial profession, and marital status. During the analyses occupational accidents which occurred in 3 coal mines are considered. Of 499 accidents 264 were non-serious accidents and 235 were serious. Miners in the age group 40 years and older had the highest number of non-serious accidents and miners less than 40 years of age had the highest number of serious accidents. The number of accidents experienced by miners with a service life below 10 years and exceeding 20 years is similar, and accident rate in the group with service life to 20 years is higher. The majority of non-serious accidents is caused by miners with an initial profession other than miner, whereas the majority of serious accidents is caused by miners with specialized 'miner' training. The majority of all accidents is caused by married miners, and the accident rate among single miners is far lower. Results are shown in 4 tables.

Duplinsky, J.; Nevrala, J.; Picalkova, H.

1982-04-01

23

A Serious Game for Traffic Accident Investigators  

Science.gov (United States)

In Dubai, traffic accidents kill one person every 37 hours and injure one person every 3 hours. Novice traffic accident investigators in the Dubai police force are expected to "learn by doing" in this intense environment. Currently, they use no alternative to the real world in order to practice. This paper argues for the use of an alternative…

Binsubaih, Ahmed; Maddock, Steve; Romano, Daniela

2006-01-01

24

Organizational root causes for human factor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accident prevention techniques and technologies have evolved significantly throughout this century from the earliest establishment of standards and procedures to the safety engineering improvements the fruits of which we enjoy today. Most of the recent prevention efforts focused on humans and defining human factor causes of accidents. This paper builds upon the remarkable successes of the past by looking beyond the human's action in accident causation to the organizational factors that put the human in the position to cause the accident. This organizational approach crosses all functions and all career fields

1997-11-16

25

Analytical HFACS for investigating human errors in shipping accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the innovative trends in marine technology and the implementation of safety-related regulations, shipping accidents are still a leading concern for global maritime interests. Ensuring the consistency of shipping accident investigation reports is recognized as a significant goal in order to clearly identify the root causes of these accidents. Hence, the goal of this paper is to generate an analytical Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), based on a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP), in order to identify the role of human errors in shipping accidents. Integration of FAHP improves the HFACS framework by providing an analytical foundation and group decision-making ability in order to ensure quantitative assessment of shipping accidents. PMID:19114139

Celik, Metin; Cebi, Selcuk

2009-01-01

26

The engineering investigation of aircraft accidents  

Science.gov (United States)

The organization and plan for an investigation, procedures used at the scene of the accident, engineering aspects covered in the main investigation, use of special analytical techniques and simulation tools, and use of flight recorder data are discussed. Examples of investigations are used to illustrate the processes used.

Anderson, S. B.

1982-01-01

27

CURRENT FACTORS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN ISFAHAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Introduction. Car accident mortality is the third order causes of death in the USA, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Given present survival and outcome Iranian data, more than 14,000 patients die annually in road accidents. Having a valid and reliable data could be useful in reduce mortality and morbidity reduction.
Methods. Twenty five percent of total traumatic patients in Isfahan were selected (N=2809 at the time of study (1997-1998. Forty five percent of them with car accident were asked about causes of accidents and risk factors for the severity and type of injuries were recorded based on International Classification of Disease 10.
Results. Most of the victims were young (10-20 years old, students and industrial workers. Statistically unreasonable numbers of cars without extension of roads and high ways, using old and unsafe cars will affects on accidents.
Discussion. In comparison with European and some Asian countries, Iran has unacceptable road accidents and it seems necessary to pay more attention to stop the current increasing data.

 

B AMINMAN SOUR

2000-06-01

28

Independent accident investigation: a modern safety tool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historically, safety has been subjected to a fragmented approach. In the past, every department has had its own responsibility towards safety, focusing either on working conditions, internal safety, external safety, rescue and emergency, public order or security. They each issued policy documents, which in their time were leading statements for elaboration and regulation. They also addressed safety issues with tools of various nature, often specifically developed within their domain. Due to a series of major accidents and disasters, the focus of attention is shifting from complying with quantitative risk standards towards intervention in primary operational processes, coping with systemic deficiencies and a more integrated assessment of safety in its societal context. In The Netherlands recognition of the importance of independent investigations has led to an expansion of this philosophy from the transport sector to other sectors. The philosophy now covers transport, industry, defense, natural disaster, environment and health and other major occurrences such as explosions, fires, and collapse of buildings or structures. In 2003 a multi-sector covering law will establish an independent safety board in The Netherlands. At a European level, mandatory investigation agencies are recognized as indispensable safety instruments for aviation, railways and the maritime sector, for which EU Directives are in place or being progressed [Transport accident and incident investigation in the European Union, European Transport Safety Council, ISBN 90-76024-10-3, Brussel, 2001]. Due to a series of major events, attention has been drawn to the consequences of disasters, highlighting the involvement of rescue and emergency services. They also have become subjected to investigative efforts, which in return, puts demands on investigation methodology. This paper comments on an evolutionary development in safety thinking and of safety boards, highlighting some consequences for strategic perspectives in a further development of independent accident investigation

2004-07-26

29

Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and four accident investigation commission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tokyo Electric Power Co. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused discharge of a large amount of radioactive materials into the atmosphere and outflow of contaminated water into the ocean by reactor core melt (meltdown) and harsh accident accompanied by a hydrogen explosion (severe accident). At reviewing a future nuclear power policy, it was extremely important to investigate this accident for inspection of cause investigation and correspondence, and further analyze the background of the accident. For this purpose, accident investigation commission was established in national Diet, government, private enterprise, Tokyo Electric Power Co. This report summarized outlines of these four accident investigation reports that were already announced and compared about main points at issue such as direct cause of accident, measures before accidents (against earthquake, tsunami and severe accident), correspondence at the time of accident (inside nuclear power plant emergency response and residents' evacuation), and proposals and problems. Four reports clarified deficiency, clumsiness and a lot of problems to be improved for preventive measures of a enterprise and the government (administration) against accidents, accident correspondence, disaster prevention and others. In other words, four reports were placed with the starting point to solve these concrete problems steadily. (T. Tanaka)

2012-08-01

30

Investigation on the causes and consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even smaller than that due to the car accidents in Japan. (M.N.)

1996-04-01

31

An Analysis of Construction Accident Factors Based on Bayesian Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we have an analysis of construction accident factors based on bayesian network. Firstly, accidents cases are analyzed to build Fault Tree method, which is available to find all the factors causing the accidents, then qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes the factors with Bayesian network method, finally determines the safety management program to guide the safety operations. The results of this study show that bad condition of geological environment has the largest posterior probability; therefore, it is the sensitive factor that might cause the objects striking accidents, so we should pay more attention to the geological environment when preventing accidents.

Yunsheng Zhao

2013-04-01

32

Eyewitness testimony in occupational accident investigations: towards a research agenda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accident investigation is frequently cited as the cornerstone of an effective occupational health and safety program. We suggest that the literature on accident investigation is based on a model of witnesses as neutral and accurate recording devices. The literature on eyewitness testimony and criminal investigation offers strikingly different conclusions. We review these findings and point to their implication for research on accident investigation in occupational health and safety contexts. PMID:15055344

Kelloway, E Kevin; Stinson, Veronica; MacLean, Carla

2004-02-01

33

49 CFR 837.3 - Published reports, material contained in the public accident investigation dockets, and accident...  

Science.gov (United States)

...investigation dockets, and accident database data. 837.3 Section... PRODUCTION OF RECORDS IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 837.3...investigation dockets, and accident database data. (a) Demands for...or its computerized accident database(s) shall be...

2009-10-01

34

An Analysis of Construction Accident Factors Based on Bayesian Network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, we have an analysis of construction accident factors based on bayesian network. Firstly, accidents cases are analyzed to build Fault Tree method, which is available to find all the factors causing the accidents, then qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes the factors with Bayesian network method, finally determines the safety management program to guide the safety operations. The results of this study show that bad condition of geological environment has the largest posterio...

2013-01-01

35

Application of a human error framework to conduct train accident/incident investigations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accident/incident investigations are an important qualitative approach to understanding and managing transportation safety. To better understand potential safety implications of recently introduced remote control locomotive (RCL) operations in railroad yard switching, researchers investigated six railroad accidents/incidents. To conduct the investigations, researchers first modified the human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS) to optimize its applicability to the railroad industry (HFACS-RR) and then developed accident/incident data collection and analysis tools based on HFACS-RR. A total of 36 probable contributing factors were identified among the six accidents/incidents investigated. Each accident/incident was associated with multiple contributing factors, and, for each accident/incident, active failures and latent conditions were identified. The application of HFACS-RR and a theoretically driven approach to investigating accidents/incidents involving human error ensured that all levels of the system were considered during data collection and analysis phases of the investigation and that investigations were systematic and thorough. Future work is underway to develop a handheld software tool that incorporates these data collection and analysis tools. PMID:16310153

Reinach, Stephen; Viale, Alex

2006-03-01

36

Aeromedical Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide presentation provides an update on the Columbia accident response presented in 2005 with additional information that was not available at that time. It will provide information on the following topics: (1) medical response and Search and Rescue, (2) medico-legal issues associated with the accident, (3) the Spacecraft Crew Survival Integrated Investigation Team Report published in 2008, and (4) future NASA flight surgeon spacecraft accident response training.

Chandler, Mike

2011-01-01

37

Motorcycle accidents in forensic pathology. Human factors, and injury and crash tipologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the main human factors, related to motorcycle accidents, and the accident configuration and the lesive pattern. The present study considers the 200 two-wheel crashes occurred in Italy in the Province of Pavia between 1999 and 2001. For all cases a revision of the injured people’s interviews and their clinical records has been made. All the accidents of the survey have been examined considering the traumatic lesion abscribed...

Annalisa Lanino; Anna Verri; Anna Morandi; Alessandra Marinoni

2008-01-01

38

Students’ driving behaviour as a risk factor of road accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionRoad accidents are considered to be a public health problem since they have been massively adverse consequences in demography. Since there is a human loss, especially of young people, the problem should be investigated extensively. The driving behaviour (either alone or in combination with other factors is the most important cause of road accidents for 80-90%.Purpose Investigating students’ driving behaviour (culture of a technological educational institute and how positively or negatively they take actions, preventing themselves of accidents.Material and Method400 questionnaires were supplemented. The questionnaire was consisted of 18 closed type questions, created by the research group using bibliographical sources. The data were analyzed using the x2 test, in all cases, statistical significant was considered the two-tailed P<0,05.Results A 21,7% of students has driven the previous 7 days having consumed alcohol while 57% has been passengers. Men’s alcohol consumption has showed increased infringement (93,3% in relation to women (6,7%. (x2=53,983; p <0,001. In other crucial provisions of road traffic regulation, violation was found which exceeds 50% (speeding, wrong lane driving, etc.. The highest percentage, without a safety belt or a helmet -never or and rarely - are male drivers (x2=12,074; P=0,017.It was found that a particularly large percentage of students (61% were involved in a traffic accident. From those, who have been involved in a traffic accident, as drivers (97 students, as guilty pleaded 26,8%, while non-guilty 73,2%. Statistically males were a high majority (x2=23,425; p <0,001. The traffic accident occurred during their student years in percentage of 47,5%. 18,8% of students have been transferred to hospital as a casualty of a traffic accident. ConclusionIt is confirmed once again that the concepts of 'dangerous driving behaviour" and "young" are compatible. Male students have increased risk behaviour, mainly as drivers. They also behave more dangerously during driving in relation to female, who behave significantly more maturely. Driving behaviour is a field which the academic community must consider taking specific actions in relation of primary health education either with printed or electronic information, or integrated seminars, or even by relevant film projections.

Zografakis-Sfakianakis M

2012-10-01

39

A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most workplace accidents that happen in enterprises are simple and seldom result in serious injuries. Very often these kinds of workplace accidents are not investigated, and if they are, then the investigation is very brief, with comments such as that it was the victimâ??s own fault or just an unfortunate situation which could not be helped. Most prevention analysis and investigation methods focus on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, etc. In the industrial world, such risks do give rise to disasters, albeit very seldom. Nevertheless, the fact is that simpler accidents normally caused by apparent banalities occur much more frequently and with a higher rate of fatalities, disablements and other serious injuries than the ostensibly most dangerous kinds of accidents. In 1999 a practical tool for use by safety officers was developed; this tool is based on the investigation methods applied in major accidents, but comprises a simpler and more user-friendly presentation. The tool involves three steps: Mapping the facts, analysing the events, and developing preventive solutions. Practical application of the tool has shown that it affords managers and workers a heightened insight into the cause of accidents, including those that seemed to be unavoidable, and that simple workplace accidents always have root causes on which preventive action can be focused. The problem is however that making a proper analysis is difficult and requires appropriate training, even in cases where the accidents seem to be very simple.

Jørgensen, Kirsten

2010-01-01

40

CIEMAT's Experimental Activity in the Investigation of Severe Accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CIEMAT has three medium and small scale experimental plants in the service of research into specific phenomena associated with severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Experimental investigation is supplemented with analytical type work for validating, improving and developing models which accurately estimate the phenomenology expected under severe accident conditions. (Author)

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Human Error Analysis of Commercial Aviation Accidents Using the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is a general human error framework originally developed and tested within the U.S. military as a tool for investigating and analyzing the human causes of aviation accidents. Based upon Reason's ...

D. A. Wiegmann S. A. Shappell

2001-01-01

42

A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most workplace accidents that happen in enterprises are simple and seldom result in serious injuries. Very often these kinds of workplace accidents are not investigated, and if they are, then the investigation is very brief, with comments such as that it was the victim’s own fault or just an unfortunate situation which could not be helped. Most prevention analysis and investigation methods focus on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, etc.

Jørgensen, Kirsten

2010-01-01

43

The study of method for calculating the accident atmospheric dispersion factor and accident washout factor for coastal nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model to estimate the accident probabilistic dispersion factor in which the effect of internal boundary layer is considered and a set of deterministic and probabilistic models to estimate the accident washout factor are set up based on the models of accident dispersion factor given by current guides. The accident probabilistic dispersion factor, the deterministic washout factor for different time interval after accident release, the accident probabilistic washout factor and the dose corresponding to various pathway are estimated based on the measured meteorological data on the site of a coastal nuclear power plant to be built in the east part of China. The result shows that: the value of accident probabilistic dispersion factor given by the proposed model are 5.9 times of those given by the common model; for the dose obtained during 0 to 8 h after accident release, the external exposure dose from washout deposition given by deterministic model is about 5.50 times of those from dry deposition; the ratio between external exposure dose from washout and dry deposition given by conservative probabilistic model with and without considering the effect from internal boundary layer is 9.56 and 56.7 respectively; for the realistic probabilistic model the value of above ratio is 1.93 and 11.4

1998-01-01

44

The use of flight test techniques in aircraft accident investigations  

Science.gov (United States)

Wind shear is a serious safety hazard to commercial aviation. Low level wind shear (downburst) was the cause of the takeoff accident in New Orleans, July 9, 1982, and the landing accident in Dallas, Aug. 2, 1985. Shear layer instability is a common cause of clear air turbulence (CAT) at cruising altitudes. A number of encounters with severe CAT, in which passengers were injured, have recently occurred (Hannibal, MO, April 1981; Morton, WY, July 1982; etc.). Improved accident investigation techniques can lead to a better understanding of the nature of the wind environment associated with downbursts and CAT and to better detection and avoidance procedures. For the past several years, NASA-Ames has worked closely with the National Transportation Safety Board in the investigation of wind related accidents.

Parks, E. K.; Bach, R. E., Jr.; Wingrove, R. C.

1986-01-01

45

Fatores contribuintes aos acidentes aeronáuticos Factores contribuyentes de accidentes aeronáuticos Contributive factors to aviation accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi comparar os resultados de investigações de acidentes aeronáuticos brasileiros do Centro de Investigação e Prevenção de Acidentes Aeronáuticos (Cenipa com os do sistema de análise e classificação de fatores humanos (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - HFACS. Foram analisados e comparados os relatórios finais de 36 investigações de acidentes aeronáuticos ocorridos entre 2000 e 2005, no estado de São Paulo. Foram mencionados 163 fatores contribuintes dos acidentes aeronáuticos nos relatórios do Cenipa, enquanto 370 foram identificados por meio do HFACS. Conclui-se que as análises do Cenipa não contemplaram fatores organizacionais associados aos acidentes aéreos.El objetivo del estudio fue comparar los resultados de investigaciones de accidentes aeronáuticos brasileños del Centro de Investigación y Prevención de Accidentes Aeronáuticos (CENIPA con los del sistema de análisis y clasificación de factores humanos (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - HFACS. Se analizaron y compararon los informes finales de 36 investigaciones de accidentes aeronáuticos ocurridos entre 2000 y 2005, en el estado de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil. Se mencionaron 163 factores contribuyentes de accidentes aeronáuticos en los informes del CENIPA, mientras que 370 fueron identificados por medio del HFACS. Se concluye que los análisis del CENIPA no contemplaron factores organizacionales asociados con los accidentes aéreos.The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS. The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accidents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS identified 370 factors. It was concluded that CENIPA reports did not contemplate the organizational factors associated with aviation accidents.

Marcia Fajer

2011-04-01

46

Risk factors for injury accidents among moped and motorcyle riders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To study and quantify the effect of factors related to the riders of powered two-wheelers on the risk of injury accident involvement. Based on national data held by the police from 1996 to 2005, we conducted a case–control study with responsibility for the accident as the event of interest. We estimated the odds ratios for accident responsibility. Making the hypothesis that the non-responsible riders in the study are representative of all the riders on the road, we thus identified risk fact...

Moskal, A.; Martin, Jl; Laumon, Bernard

2010-01-01

47

CURRENT FACTORS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN ISFAHAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. Car accident mortality is the third order causes of death in the USA, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Given present survival and outcome Iranian data, more than 14,000 patients die ann...

Aminman Sour, B.

2000-01-01

48

The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Work Accidents in Izmir Konak Municipality Cleaning Workers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors and work accidents among waste collector workers in Izmir Konak Municipality Cleaning Services Section. The study consisted 92 (%68) out of 135 workers of those accepted to participation. METHOD: face-to-face questionnaire were administered for data collection. Dependent variable was the work-related accident for previous six months. Independent variables were sociodemographic features,...

2010-01-01

49

Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure

1984-10-23

50

Accident investigation of the electrical shock incident at the PG and E PVUSA site Davis, California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the findings of the Accident Investigation Team (Team) assembled in response to a request from Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) to understand the events surrounding the electric shock of a worker at the PVUSA site in Davis, California and to provide recommendations to prevent such events from recurring. The report gives complete details on the sequence of events surrounding the accident and identifies 27 facts related to accident itself. Four technical deficiencies in the electrical systems which require further investigation were identified. The Team believes that the root cause of this accident was related to the absence of a proactive organizational entity responsible for overall health and safety on the site. Two contributing factors were identified. First, the prototype nature and associated operational difficulties of the electrical inverter resulted in large maintenance demands. Second, several of the injured employee`s co-workers noted that he occasionally failed to use appropriate personal protective equipment, but they never reported this practice to management. The direct cause of this accident was the failure of the injured employee to wear appropriate personal protective equipment (i.e., rubber gloves). Based on the review of the facts established in this investigation, five recommendations are presented to the funding agencies to reduce the possibility of future accidents at the PVUSA site.

Jacobson, L.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Garrett, J.O.; Tyler, R.

1992-02-01

51

The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Work Accidents in Izmir Konak Municipality Cleaning Workers.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors and work accidents among waste collector workers in Izmir Konak Municipality Cleaning Services Section. The study consisted 92 (%68 out of 135 workers of those accepted to participation. METHOD: face-to-face questionnaire were administered for data collection. Dependent variable was the work-related accident for previous six months. Independent variables were sociodemographic features, working conditions, mental health status, daytime sleepiness, workload and social support. The chi-square test and the logistic regression models used for data analysis. RESULTS: Work accident prevalence was 32.6% for the last 6 months. Age and workload were significantly affected work-related accidents (p=0.03; p=0.01 respectively. Social support, mental health status and daytime sleepiness status did not effect work-related accident prevalence (p=0.48; p=0.21; p=0.30 respectively. CONCLUSION: Results of the study indicated that work-related accident prevalence is high among workers in Izmir Konak Municipality. Workload was found important risk factor for the work accident among waste collector workers. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 623-632

Aysun Akgun

2010-12-01

52

Understanding the human factors contribution to railway accidents and incidents in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty rail safety investigation reports were reviewed and a theoretical framework (the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System; HFACS) adopted as a means of identifying errors associated with rail accidents/incidents in Australia. Overall, HFACS proved useful in categorising errors from existing investigation reports and in capturing the full range of relevant rail human factors data. It was revealed that nearly half the incidents resulted from an equipment failure, most of these the product of inadequate maintenance or monitoring programs. In the remaining cases, slips of attention (i.e. skilled-based errors), associated with decreased alertness and physical fatigue, were the most common unsafe acts leading to accidents and incidents. Inadequate equipment design (e.g. driver safety systems) was frequently identified as an organisational influence and possibly contributed to the relatively large number of incidents/accidents resulting from attention failures. Nearly all incidents were associated with at least one organisational influence, suggesting that improvements to resource management, organisational climate and organisational processes are critical for Australian accident and incident reduction. Future work will aim to modify HFACS to generate a rail-specific framework for future error identification, accident analysis and accident investigation. PMID:18760104

Baysari, Melissa T; McIntosh, Andrew S; Wilson, John R

2008-09-01

53

Natural factors of technological accidents: the case of Russia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The data base of technological accidents and disasters that have occurred in Russia has been created. More than 13 000 information units have been collected and analyzed. The proportion of accidents triggered by natural events (natural-technological accidents or NTA in the total number of technological accidents as well as a part of every NTA type in the total number of NTA was estimated. About 10 percent of all accidents registered in the data base were caused by natural events; among some types of accidents this proportion is even higher. Transmission facilities with more than 90 percent of overhead lines are the most vulnerable to the impact of natural hazards. The contribution of different natural hazards was evaluated. Regions with the greatest NTA risk were revealed. The influence of natural events on the technosphere is stronger in the South of the European Russia and in the Russian Far East, which are more exposed to hurricanes, snowstorms, rainfalls, icing and other natural hazards producing NTA. The critical infrastructure needs special protection and modernization in these regions. The problem of the relationship between natural hazards and the technosphere is very complicated and needs further investigation, especially taking the expected climate changes into consideration.

E. G. Petrova

2011-08-01

54

Report of investigation regarding accident in Tomsk reprocessing facilities in Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At 1258 on April 6, 1993, the explosion accident of a welded tank occurred in the military reprocessing facilities in Tomsk, Siberia District, Russia. Japan carried out the investigation of the effect on the environmental radiation in Japan, dispatched the investigation mission to Russia, and explained the way of thinking on securing the safety of Japanese reprocessing plants to local communities. Science and Technology Agency organized the working group for investigating the accident, which exerted efforts to collect the information, analyze and examine it. This report is the summary of its results. The explosion occurred in the tank for adjusting the acid concentration of the solution to be supplied to the solvent extraction shop, and the building was destructed. No one died or was injured. The results of the radioactivity examination are reported. The process of the accident was inferred, and described. The factors that caused the accident were the mixing of organic impurities the use of the diluting liquid containing aromatic hydrocarbon, the contact of nitric acid with organic substances at high temperature, in sufficient agitation at the time of pouring nitric acid and so on. The safety countermeasures in Japanese reprocessing plants and the response by Japan based on the accident are described. (K.I.)

1994-02-01

55

Human Error and Commercial Aviation Accidents: A Comprehensive, Fine-Grained Analysis Using HFACS (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is a theoretically based tool for investigating and analyzing human error associated with accidents and incidents. Previous research has shown that HFACS can be reliably used to identify general...

A. Boquet C. Detwiler C. Hackworth K. Holcomb S. Shappell

2006-01-01

56

Human Error and General Aviation Accidents: A Comprehensive, Fine-Grained Analysis Using HFACS (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is a theoretically based tool for investigating and analyzing human error associated with accidents and incidents. Previous research performed at both the University of Illinois and the Civil Ae...

A. Boquet C. Detwiler D. Wiegmann K. Holcomb T. Faaborg

2005-01-01

57

Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

1980-10-01

58

Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported.

Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.; Horak, H.L.; Idar, E.S.; Martin, R.A.; Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R.; Tang, P.K.

1980-01-01

59

Risk management: Role of societal factors in major industrial accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses factors influencing the occurrence of major accidents in complex technological systems. Societal factors are identified as most significant in this context. Important types of societal factors are pin-pointed and discussed. The safety situation in the former Soviet Union and in today's Russian is described. The calamities at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and partly also Bhopal are discussed, and the role of societal factors identified. A main point of view is that it is not surprising that these catastrophes happened in the then existing conditions. What is surprising is that they did not happen earlier exclamation point

1995-05-09

60

Risk management: Role of societal factors in major industrial accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper discusses factors influencing the occurrence of major accidents in complex technological systems. Societal factors are identified as most significant in this context. Important types of societal factors are pin-pointed and discussed. The safety situation in the former Soviet Union and in today`s Russian is described. The calamities at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and partly also Bhopal are discussed, and the role of societal factors identified. A main point of view is that it is not surprising that these catastrophes happened in the then existing conditions. What is surprising is that they did not happen earlier!

Hovden, J.; Rausand, M. [Norwegian Inst. of Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Sergeev, G.

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
61

Investigation on Nodalization for Analysis of SFR Channel Blockage Accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper demonstrates nodalization analysis results obtained in application of the MATRA-LMR/FB to channel blockage accidents for a SFR (Sodium cooled Fast Reactor), KALIMER-150. In the earlier study, a uniform node size over the total sub-channel length in a subassembly was used. The study was carried out not only for the radially different positions, i.e. central, medium between the center and the duct wall, and edge sub-channels in the assembly, but also for larger blockage sizes larger than 6 sub-channels, the blockage size of which was classified into a DBE(Design Basis Event) in the KALIMER-150 design. The present investigation focuses mainly on the identification of conservatism as well as consistency in the analyses of the maximum coolant temperature for the 6 sub-channels blockage accidents

2011-05-01

62

Risk Factors for Motorcyclist Traffic Accidents in Kashan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aim: Motorcyclists constitute a large and growing portion of the victims of traffic accidents in Iran. Reasons include high motorcycle production rates and relatively low prices. This case control study was conducted to look at the role of a number of presumed risk factors in Kashan, a city with high motorcyclist casualty rates.Material and Methods: Cases for this study were motorcyclists listed by the Traffic Police as either injured or killed over the period extending from 20...

Moradi, A.; Younesian, M.; Gilasi, H. R.

2007-01-01

63

Motorcycle accidents in forensic pathology. Human factors, and injury and crash tipologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the main human factors, related to motorcycle accidents, and the accident configuration and the lesive pattern. The present study considers the 200 two-wheel crashes occurred in Italy in the Province of Pavia between 1999 and 2001. For all cases a revision of the injured people’s interviews and their clinical records has been made. All the accidents of the survey have been examined considering the traumatic lesion abscribed to the accident to assess a direct causal link between human factors and the crash tipology and the injury pattern. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationship between the variables and a logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association of injury severity with some variables supposed to be predictive factors. Frontal-lateral impact collisions are about 6 times more likely to be caused by a traffic scan error of the other vehicle driver (no rider than other types of crashes (OR= 5,8; p < 0,0001; IC 95%: 2,875-11,736. Contusions-abrasions show the highest percentages in motorcyclists with no coverage worn (p < 0,001 and riders with no clothing have a higher risk to be severely injured than riders with coverage, but it is not statistically significant. Instead, there is not a statistical significant association between: rider’s gender, rider’s age, riding experience and accident configuration; damaged region of the helmet and cranium injury severity.

Alessandra Marinoni

2008-10-01

64

Indonesian railway accidents--utilizing Human Factors Analysis and Classification System in determining potential contributing factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of Indonesian railway accidents has not been declining, with hundreds of fatalities reported in the past decade. As an effort to help the National Transportation Safety Committee (NTSC), this study was conducted that aimed at understanding factors that might have contributed to the accidents. Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was utilized for this purpose. A total of nine accident reports (provided by the Indonesian NTSC) involving fatalities were studied using the technique. Results of this study indicated 72 factors that were closely related to the accidents. Of these, roughly 22% were considered as operator acts while about 39% were related to preconditions for operator acts. Supervisory represented 14% of the factors, and the remaining (about 25%) were associated with organizational factors. It was concluded that, while train drivers indeed played an important role in the accidents, interventions solely directed toward train drivers may not be adequate. A more comprehensive approach in minimizing the accidents should be conducted that addresses all the four aspects of HFACS. PMID:22317372

Iridiastadi, Hardianto; Ikatrinasari, Zulfa Fitri

2012-01-01

65

Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Cause analysis and teachings from a viewpoint of a human factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the JCO criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999, from relatively earlier time since its occurrence it was elucidated that it was formed not by accident and error operation of apparatus and instruments but by unsafe actions of operators beyond regular manual as its direct cause, and that an organizational factor on business managers and safety administration unable to control such unsafe actions of operators at its background. Then, it was judged to be essential to carry out an accident research from a viewpoint of the human factor (HF) for elucidation on essence of the accident, to establish a 'special workshop on the JCO accident research' to investigate elucidation of the accident cause and countermeasure of reoccurrence at a standpoint of HF. As a result, the essential cause of this accident was summarized that safety information such as ideals, information, teachings and so forth necessary for safety management were failed to share among different organizations. As a teaching of this accident, nuclear energy participants must recognize that safety culture is not finished only in specific organization and range but produced by protecting weathering of danger consciousness and effort of mutually exciting and learning by sharing a safety information beyond different organization, range and time. (G.K.)

2000-08-01

66

The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract: Background: Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. Results: The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001). Conclusions: Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental factors on road traffic accidents and underlines the implementation of appropriate preventive measures.

Lankarani, Kamran B.; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Moafian, Ghasem; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

2014-01-01

67

Human and organisational factors in maritime accidents: analysis of collisions at sea using the HFACS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade, the shipping industry has implemented a number of measures aimed at improving its safety level (such as new regulations or new forms of team training). Despite this evolution, shipping accidents, and particularly collisions, remain a major concern. This paper presents a modified version of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System, which has been adapted to the maritime context and used to analyse human and organisational factors in collisions reported by the Marine Accident and Investigation Branch (UK) and the Transportation Safety Board (Canada). The analysis shows that most collisions are due to decision errors. At the precondition level, it highlights the importance of the following factors: poor visibility and misuse of instruments (environmental factors), loss of situation awareness or deficit of attention (conditions of operators), deficits in inter-ship communications or Bridge Resource Management (personnel factors). At the leadership level, the analysis reveals the frequent planning of inappropriate operations and non-compliance with the Safety Management System (SMS). The Multiple Accident Analysis provides an important finding concerning three classes of accidents. Inter-ship communications problems and Bridge Resource Management deficiencies are closely linked to collisions occurring in restricted waters and involving pilot-carrying vessels. Another class of collisions is associated with situations of poor visibility, in open sea, and shows deficiencies at every level of the socio-technical system (technical environment, condition of operators, leadership level, and organisational level). The third class is characterised by non-compliance with the SMS. This study shows the importance of Bridge Resource Management for situations of navigation with a pilot on board in restricted waters. It also points out the necessity to investigate, for situations of navigation in open sea, the masters' decisions in critical conditions as well as the causes of non-compliance with SMS. PMID:23764875

Chauvin, Christine; Lardjane, Salim; Morel, Gaël; Clostermann, Jean-Pierre; Langard, Benoît

2013-10-01

68

Causal factors in accidents of high-speed craft and conventional ocean-going vessels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of 40 ocean-going commercial vessel accidents is compared with the study of a similar number of high-speed crafts (HSCs) accidents, using in both cases a methodology that highlights the sequence of events leading to the accident and identifies the associated latent or causal factors. The main objective of this study was to identify and understand the difference in the pattern of causal factors associated with HSC accidents, as compared with the more traditional ocean-going ships. From the analysis one can see that the HSC accidents are mainly related to bridge personnel and operations, where the human element is the key factor identified as being responsible for the majority of the accidents. When compared with ocean-going commercial vessels, it is clear that navigational equipment and procedures have a larger preponderance in terms of the occurrence of accidents of HSC and particular attention should be given to these issues

2008-09-01

69

Causal factors in accidents of high-speed craft and conventional ocean-going vessels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis of 40 ocean-going commercial vessel accidents is compared with the study of a similar number of high-speed crafts (HSCs) accidents, using in both cases a methodology that highlights the sequence of events leading to the accident and identifies the associated latent or causal factors. The main objective of this study was to identify and understand the difference in the pattern of causal factors associated with HSC accidents, as compared with the more traditional ocean-going ships. From the analysis one can see that the HSC accidents are mainly related to bridge personnel and operations, where the human element is the key factor identified as being responsible for the majority of the accidents. When compared with ocean-going commercial vessels, it is clear that navigational equipment and procedures have a larger preponderance in terms of the occurrence of accidents of HSC and particular attention should be given to these issues.

Antao, Pedro [Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisboa 1096 (Portugal); Guedes Soares, C. [Unit of Marine Technology and Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisboa 1096 (Portugal)], E-mail: guedess@mar.ist.utl.pt

2008-09-15

70

Development of Human Factor Management Requirements and Human Error Classification for the Prevention of Railway Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Railway accident analysis results show that accidents cased by human factors are not decreasing, whereas H/W related accidents are steadily decreasing. For the efficient management of human factors, many expertise on design, conditions, safety culture and staffing are required. But current safety management activities on safety critical works are focused on training, due to the limited resource and information. In order to improve railway safety, human factors management requirements for safety critical worker and human error classification is proposed in this report. For this accident analysis, status of safety measure on human factor, safety management system on safety critical worker, current safety planning is analysis

2008-01-01

71

Development of Human Factor Management Requirements and Human Error Classification for the Prevention of Railway Accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Railway accident analysis results show that accidents cased by human factors are not decreasing, whereas H/W related accidents are steadily decreasing. For the efficient management of human factors, many expertise on design, conditions, safety culture and staffing are required. But current safety management activities on safety critical works are focused on training, due to the limited resource and information. In order to improve railway safety, human factors management requirements for safety critical worker and human error classification is proposed in this report. For this accident analysis, status of safety measure on human factor, safety management system on safety critical worker, current safety planning is analysis.

Kwak, Sang Log; Park, Chan Woo; Shin, Seung Ryoung [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

2008-08-15

72

Investigation into information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report was prepared in response to a request from NRC Chairman Ahearne that directed the Office of Inspection and Enforcement to resume its investigation of information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) that occurred on March 28, 1979. This investigation was resumed on March 21, 1980. The transfer of information among individuals, agencies, and personnel from Metropolitan Edison was analyzed to ascertain what knowledge was held by various individuals of the specific events, parameters, and systems during the accident at TMI. Maximum use was made of existing records, and additional interviews were conducted to clarify areas that had not been pursued during earlier investigations. Although the passage of time between the accident and post-accident interviews hampered precise recollections of events and circumstances, the investigation revealed that information was not intentionally withheld during the accident and that the system for effective transfer of information was inadequate during the accident

1981-01-01

73

Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the "State-of-the-Art  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or “human error”. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability ...

2008-01-01

74

Investigations on in-vessel severe accident phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The in-vessel evolution of a severe accident in nuclear reactors is characterised by core uncovery and heat-up, core material oxidation and melting, molten material relocation, and debris behaviour in the lower plenum up to vessel failure. The report summarises recent results of FZK research on mitigation of severe accidents with emphasis on the reflood of an overheated reactor core for the purpose of early termination of the accident and fuel coolant interactions in the lower plenum of the pressure vessel and its consequences. (orig.)

2004-01-01

75

Investigation of a demand-controlled rebreather in connection with a diving accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the examination of a Halcyon RB80 semi-closed underwater breathing apparatus used in a diving accident in 2007. The apparatus was supplied with trimix (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) containing 31% oxygen. The duration of the dive was 105 minutes at 28 meters' average depth in fresh water, with a 19-minute oxygen decompression stop at 6 meters. Upon surfacing the diver experienced seizures and signs of severe neurological deficits. The apparatus was tested with regard to the oxygen fraction drop from the supply gas to the breathing loop--i.e., the oxygen fraction inhaled by the diver (FiO2) was investigated. The FiO2 was measured and found to be lower than the value stated on the manufacturer's web page at the time of the accident. This investigation suggests that during the dive, the actual FiO2% was 17.9-25.3%, which is considerably lower than the FiO2% used for decompression calculations (30%). The underestimation of FiO2 resulted in too short and/or too few decompression stops during ascent. The low FiO2 would also put a diver at risk of hypoxia at shallow depths. It is concluded that inadequate information on the performance of the rebreather was a major contributing factor to this accident. PMID:21384764

Frånberg, Oskar; Ericsson, Mikael; Larsson, Agneta; Lindholm, Peter

2011-01-01

76

Proposal for computer investigation of LMFBR core meltdown accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental consequences of an LMFBR accident involving breach of containment are so severe that such accidents must not be allowed to happen. Present methods for analyzing hypothetical core disruptive accidents like a loss of flow with failure to scram cannot show conclusively that such accidents do not lead to a rupture of the pressure vessel. A major deficiency of present methods is their inability to follow large motions of a molten LMFBR core. Such motions may lead to a secondary supercritical configuration with a subsequent energy release that is sufficient to rupture the pressure vessel. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory proposes to develop a computer program for describing the dynamics of hypothetical accidents. This computer program will utilize implicit Eulerian fluid dynamics methods coupled with a time-dependent transport theory description of the neutronic behavior. This program will be capable of following core motions until a stable coolable configuration is reached. Survey calculations of reactor accidents with a variety of initiating events will be performed for reactors under current design to assess the safety of such reactors

1974-01-01

77

Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania : A Case Study of Kibaha District  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district. In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk...

Komba, Deus Damian

2007-01-01

78

Investigation report on causes of radiation underexposure accident at Yamagata University Hospital and Prevention of Similar accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident in the title was announced on February 18, 2004 by the hospital, which asked its investigation immediately. The group based on 4 academic societies concerned, thereby started investigations of the in-house reports on the accident and of subsequent hospital visit in March, which involved hearing from personnel concerned, physical/technological examinations and clinical evaluation, with respect to the hospital system for radiation treatment, flow of the treatment, accident details, estimation of the actual expose dose and classification of patients. The investigational group found for the actual number of patients underexposed to be 36 (63, in the in-house report) in 1,377. The cause of the accident was thought essentially the input error for the correct power coefficient 1.032 to be a wrong one 1.320 for 15 x 15 cm 4 MV X-ray. The error had been overlooked by the contract operator from the introduction of the treatment planning equipment in 1999. For prevention, setting up of quality assurance (QA) program by the hospital, the user itself, was pointed out necessary. Making the guideline for introducing the new equipment was conceivably an important work of the trader. (N.I.)

2005-01-01

79

Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly

1984-01-01

80

Identification of test candidates for investigating the survivability of electrical equipment during severe accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Associated with the ongoing process of resolving nuclear power plant severe accident issues, an effort was recently completed that investigated the survivability of electrical equipment used to mitigate accidents during representative severe environments. The overall objective of the work was to provide information that could be used to reduce one of the uncertainties in severe accident analyses; i.e., whether electrical equipment used to mitigate accidents could be reasonably relied on while subject to a severe accident environment. This work centered on recommending electrical equipment within a boiling water reactor (BWR)-4 Mark I containment most worthy of survivability testing. The recommendation was based on the equipment's importance to mitigating severe accidents and the environments encountered relative to current equipment qualification requirements. A methodology was established to arrive at this recommendation. The methodology is described

1986-11-16

 
 
 
 
81

Investigations on pressure suppression system loads at accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For simulation of the integral behavior of pressure suppresion systems at accident conditions a mathematical model was developed which simulates a wide range of the loads occurring during a loss-of coolant accident. The multi-zone point model DRASYS serves for mathematical simulation of quasistatic (pressure and temperature build-up in the dry well and the suppression chamber) as well as dynamic loads (free-blowing process, water throw-up and condensing oscillations) in the course of a loss-of-coolant accident. For determination of the state variations with time in the individual pressure sections thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed between steam and water phases. Thermal non-equilibrium states are taken into account if phase separation interfaces between water and steam/air mixture exist. The flows between the individual pressure sections are treated as homogeneous, nonsteady, incompressible flows. For verification of the mathematical model recalculations were made of experiments performed at various test stands. Teh recalculations showed that the mathematical model has got a wide range of application and is suited for design and assessment of pressure suppression systems at accident conditions. (orig.)

1979-01-01

82

Investigations for Intrinsic Safety Againts Core Melt-down Accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large pool-type LMFBR present interesting safety features due to the big mass of sodium and to the possibility of using high pumping inertia. It would be possible to get intrinsic safety against core meltdown in the hypothetical case of heat removal accid...

G. Kayser R. Abdon M. Arslan P. Bergeonneau E. Gesi

1979-01-01

83

Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress

1996-01-01

84

The microburst: Common factor in recent aircraft accidents  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenomenology of one class of strong thunderstorm downdrafts, microbursts, is described. Several aircraft accidents are analyzed in which a microburst was involved and a concept for an early warning wind shear sensor is presented.

Caracena, F.

1980-01-01

85

Fatigue failure of metal components as a factor in civil aircraft accidents  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of records maintained by the National Transportation Safety Board showed that 16,054 civil aviation accidents occurred in the United States during the 3-year period ending December 31, 1969. Material failure was an important factor in the cause of 942 of these accidents. Fatigue was identified as the mode of the material failures associated with the cause of 155 accidents and in many other accidents the records indicated that fatigue failures might have been involved. There were 27 fatal accidents and 157 fatalities in accidents in which fatigue failures of metal components were definitely identified. Fatigue failures associated with accidents occurred most frequently in landing-gear components, followed in order by powerplant, propeller, and structural components in fixed-wing aircraft and tail-rotor and main-rotor components in rotorcraft. In a study of 230 laboratory reports on failed components associated with the cause of accidents, fatigue was identified as the mode of failure in more than 60 percent of the failed components. The most frequently identified cause of fatigue, as well as most other types of material failures, was improper maintenance (including inadequate inspection). Fabrication defects, design deficiencies, defective material, and abnormal service damage also caused many fatigue failures. Four case histories of major accidents are included in the paper as illustrations of some of the factors invovled in fatigue failures of aircraft components.

Holshouser, W. L.; Mayner, R. D.

1972-01-01

86

An analysis on human factor issues in criticality accident at a uranium processing plant. Pt. 2. A study on organizational factors contributing to the accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At 10:35 September 30th 1999, a criticality accident occurred in a uranium processing plant in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture, Japan during a job to make uranium solution. 150 people were exposed to the radiation. Two of three workers who have engaged in the job and were exposed to a massive dosage of radiation died of multi organ failures on 83 days and 210 days after the accident, respectively. The authors revealed in the former report (S99001) several latent factors contributing to pouring some 16 kg-U into the precipitation tank. It suggests some organizational factors played significant roles in this accident. Therefore, this report discusses organizational factors of this accident. As a result, this accident is heavily contributed by (1) company executives/managers' biased decision making giving emphasis on productivity or cost-effectiveness, (2) inappropriate process management, labor management and document management and (3) an organizational culture allowing them not to always follow rules. This report also proposes the directions of countermeasures to reestablish nuclear safety. (author)

2000-05-01

87

Investigation of alpha experiment by severe accident analysis code SAMPSON  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The severe accident analysis code SAMPSON is adopted in this work to evaluate its capability of reproducing the complex gap cooling phenomenon. The ALPHA experiment is adopted for validation, where molten aluminum oxide (Al2O3) produced by a thermite reaction is poured into a water filled hemispherical vessel at the ambient pressure of approximately 1.3 MPa. The spreading and cooling of the debris that has relocated into the pressure vessel lower plenum are simulated, including the analysis of the RPV failure. The model included in the core to mimic the water penetration inside the gap is evaluated and improvements are proposed. The importance of the introduction of some mechanistic approach to describe the gap formation and evolution is underlined, where the results show its necessity in order to correctly reproduce the experimental trends. (author)

2006-03-01

88

Investigations in deboration accidents during non-power operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Supplementary to the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) for power operation for several nuclear power plants PSA are performed for non-power operation (shutdown, inspection outage, fuel element changes). The considered initiating events include transients, loss of coolant accidents and deboration events. Deboration occurs as consequence of deionized water or coolant ingress with undervalued boron concentration into the primary circuit. The formation of relatively unmixed deionized water plugs might be transported into the reactor core initiating reactivity disturbances. The calculations of these phenomena were performed with the 3D flow calculation code ANSYS CFX. The mixing and neutronic simulations showed that a sufficient mixing of the deionized water plug and the reactor coolant takes place und the boron concentration includes sufficient margins with respect to the criticality.

2009-01-01

89

The crisis of investigative Journalism in Spain. The journalism practice in the Spanair accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The crash of the McDonnell Douglas plane operated by the Spanish airline Spanair, on 20 August 2008 at Barajas Airport, and the journalistic treatment it received undoubtedly represent a unique opportunity to address the current state of journalism in Spain. In particular, this article studies the use of information sources in a crisis situation, which requires a major effort to find the maximum number of primary and specialised sources to provide, in a short period of time, the audience with the key facts to understand the event. This accident also represents an excellent opportunity to study some practices within investigative journalism and the different factors that condition the media agenda. Finally, as in any other air tragedy, where millionaire compensations can be paid to the victims, it is important to examine the application of a series of ethical frameworks, which have been captured in deontological codes designed to assure fair journalistic practices.

José Vicente García-Santamaría, Ph.D.

2010-01-01

90

Real accidents involving vulnerable road users: in-depth investigation, numerical simulation and experimental reconstitution with PMHS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the methodology used to improve knowledge about vulnerable road users accidents and more specifically pedestrians or cyclists. This work is based on a complete analysis of real accidents from three different approaches: in-depth accident investigation, numerical simulation with multibody model and experimental reconstitution with PMHS subject. Accidents chosen from an in-depth multidisciplinary investigation are numerical modelled using a multibody software. Then, a parame...

Serre, T.; Masson, C.; Perrin, C.; Chalandon, S.; Llari, M.; Cavallero, C.; Py, M.; Cesari, D.

2006-01-01

91

The frequency and severity of road traffic accidents investigated on the basis of state space methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we investigate the frequency and severity of road traffic accidents in Belgium from January 1974 to December 1999. We describe the time series in order to discover the trend, quantify the impact of explanatory variables and predict the frequency and severity of accidents and casualties for 2000 and 2001. Laws, weather and economic conditions had a significant influence. The methodology used throughout the analysis is state space methods. The fourth objective is a comparison betw...

Hermans, Elke; Wets, Geert; Den Bossche, Filip

2005-01-01

92

Investigations of postulated accident sequences for the Fort St. Vrain HTGR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The systems analysis capability of the ORNL HTGR Safety analysis research program includes a family of computer codes - an overall plant NSSS simulation (ORTAP), and detailed component codes for investigating core neutronic accidents (CORTAP), shutdown emergency-cooling accidents via a 3-dimensional core model (ORECA), and once-through steam generator transients (BLAST). The component codes can either be run independently or in the overall NSSS code. Verification efforts have consisted primarily of using existing Fort St. Vrain reactor dynamics data to compare against code predictions. Comparisons of core thermal conditions made for reactor scrams from power levels between 30 and 50% showed good agreement. An optimization program was used to rationalize the differences between the predicted and measured refueling region outlet temperatures, and in general, excellent agreement was attained by adjustment of models and parameters within their uncertainty ranges. However, more work is required to establish a unique and valid set of models. Several postulated accident sequences have been analyzed, including rod pair withdrawal accidents, design basis depressurization accidents, and loss of forced-convection cooling accidents. Sensitivity studies are run in conjunction with each accident to determine the importance of both model and parameter uncertainties. (author)

1979-06-01

93

Initial investigations of SNS target facility accident source terms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a Department of Energy, accelerator-based neutron source proposed for construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The project is currently nearing the end of the conceptual design stage. The objective of the target facility is to provide beams of pulsed thermal and sub-thermal neutrons for research purposes. The neutrons are created by the action of highly energetic protons ({approximately} 1 GeV) on a mercury target. The proton beam power will be 1 MW with planned upgrades to 2 MW and, eventually, to 4 MW. Over the course of facility life, significant inventories of spallation and activation products will build up in the target mercury. Accordingly, the facility is being designed to prevent or minimize potential environmental source terms. The results of calculations of the SNS target mercury radionuclide inventories and the characteristics of the dominant radionuclides are presented. The effect of the activation/spallation product chemical and physical characteristics on dispersability is discussed. Energy sources that could drive potential releases, credible initiating events and facility preventive and mitigative features are described. The source term for the limiting extremely unlikely mercury spill accident scenario is presented. These results support the conclusion that the facility has a low hazard profile with regard to the accidental release of radioactive material.

Harrington, R.M.; Devore, J.R.; Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Johnson, J.O.

1998-07-01

94

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident`s causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62).

Gerton, R.E.

1997-08-07

95

Investigations on accidents with massive water ingress exemplified by the pebble bed reactor PNP-500  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computer code is used for analyses of massive water ingress accidents in the High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor concept PNP-500 with pebble bed core. The analyses are mainly focussed on graphite corrosion processes. For the investigated accidents a correct reactor shut down in assumed. The mass of water ingressing into the primary circuit is varied between 1000 and 7500 kg (i.e., up to hypothetical values). The dependence of accident consequences on parameters such as intensity and starting time of the afterheat removal system or kinetic values of the chemical processes is examined. The results show that even under pessimistic assumptions the extent of the graphite corrosion is relatively low; significant damaging of fuel elements or graphite components does not occur. A primary circuit depressurization, combined with local burning of water gas, would probably not affect the fission product retention potential of the (gastight) containment. Summing up, the risk caused by these accidents remains small. (orig.)

96

CFD investigating the air ingress accident for a HTGR simulation of graphite corrosion oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A CFD model is proposed to investigate graphite oxidation corrosion in the HTR-10. ? A postulated air ingress accident is assumed in this paper. ? Air ingress flowrate is the predicted result, instead of the preset one. ? O2 would react with graphite on pebble surface, causing the graphite corrosion. ? No fuel exposure is predicted to be occurred under the air ingress accident. - Abstract: Through a compressible multi-component CFD model, this paper investigates the characteristics of graphite oxidation corrosion in the HTR-10 core under the postulated accident of gas duct rupture. In this accident, air in the steam generator cavity would enter into the core after pressure equilibrium is achieved between the core and the cavity, which is also called as the air ingress accident. Oxygen in the air would react with graphite on pebble surface, subsequently resulting in oxidation corrosion and challenging fuel integrity. In this paper, characteristics of graphite oxidation corrosion during the air ingress accident can be reasonably captured, including distributions of graphite corrosion amount on the different cross-sections, time histories of local corrosion amount at the monitoring points and overall corrosion amount in the core, respectively. Based on the transient simulation results, the corrosion pattern and its corrosion rate would approach to the steady-state conditions as the accident continuously progresses. The total amount of graphite corrosion during a 3-day accident time is predicted to be about 31 kg with the predicted asymptotic corrosion rate. This predicted value is less than that from the previous work of Gao and Shi.

2012-07-01

97

Review of five investigation committees' reports on the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant severe accident. Focusing on accident progression and causes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On March 11, 2011, the Tohoku District-off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake and the subsequent tsunami resulted in the severe core damage at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Units 1-3, involving hydrogen explosions at Units 1, 3, and 4 and the large release of radioactive materials to the environment. Four independent committees were established by the Japanese government, the Diet of Japan, the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation, and TEPCO to investigate the accident and published their respective reports. Also, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency carried out an analysis of accident causes to obtain the lessons learned from the accident and made its report public. This article reviews the reports and clarifies the differences in their positions, from the technological point of view, focusing on the accident progression and causes. Moreover, the undiscussed issues are identified to provide insights useful for the near-term regulatory activities including accident investigation by the Nuclear Regulation Authority. (author)

2013-06-01

98

Preliminary thermal-hydraulic phenomena investigation during total instantaneous blockage accident for CEFR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chinese Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is under installation and commissioning right now. It is essential to investigate core disruptive accidents (CDAs) for the evaluation of CEFR's safety characteristic. As part-I preliminary investigation, accident of total instantaneous blockage (TIB) in single subassembly scale is modeled and analyzed. The degradation scenario has been calculated by a fluid-dynamics analysis code for liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs). For further investigation of accident process and influence to the neighboring bundles, seven subassembly domain is then simulated and calculated as part-II investigation. Total instantaneous blockage is assumed to occur in the center subassembly under normal operating conditions and consequences to neighboring assemblies are studied. The result shows that the key events, such as sodium boiling, clad melting, fuel particles relocation, hexcan melt-through and melt propagation into neighboring six assemblies symmetrically are adequately simulated. From comparison and discussion of the CEFR's results with the SCARABEE tests and Superphenix (SPX1)-type reactor simulation, it is concluded that all the key events appear in the same sequence whereas the propagation is limited in neighboring six assemblies. The discrepancy is probably due to less fuel inventory and better cooling capacity in CEFR subassembly design. TIB calculations help to give a better understanding and prediction of hypothetical accident scenario in subassembly blockage accidents for CEFR

2007-08-01

99

Review of the TMI-2 accident evaluation and vessel investigation projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Programme and the Vessel Investigation Project have been reviewed as part of a literature study on core meltdown and in-vessel coolability. The emphasis is placed on the late phase melt progression, which is of special relevance to the NKS-sponsored RAK-2.1 project on Severe Accident Phenomenology. The body of the report comprises three main sections, The TMI-2 Accident Scenario, Core Region and Relocation Path Investigations, and Lower Head Investigations. In the final discussion, the lower head gap formation mechanism is explained in terms of thermal contraction and fracturing of the debris crust. This model seems more plausible than the MAAP model based on creep expansion of the lower head. (au)

1998-01-01

100

Individual factors explain neighbourhood variations in accidents to children under 5 years of age.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have identified possible neighbourhood-level influences on the risk of injuries to preschool children, but none have had sufficient data at both household and area level to explain these neighbourhood effects. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, which recruited over 14,062 children at birth in the former county of Avon, UK, and collected information about accidents, as well as extensive social, health and developmental data throughout the first 5 years of life. This information was combined with census and geographical data in order to identify neighbourhood influences on accident risks and then attempt to explain these using multilevel regression modelling. A small but statistically significant amount of between-neighbourhood variance in accident risk was found, with neighbourhood intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.82% for any accident, and 0.84% for accidents resulting in injury requiring medical attention. This was entirely accounted for by a variety of child, parental and household level variables. Independent risk factors for both outcomes were children who were developmentally more advanced or displayed greater conduct and behavioural problems, mothers who were of younger age, who were without work, who were smokers, whose partners were unemployed or drank alcohol excessively, and households in which there had recently been adverse life events, or which were under financial stress. The mother's perceptions of neighbourhood quality also explained some of the risks for any accident, but not for medically attended accidents, and this was a variable that operated at the level of individual households rather than at the level of neighbourhoods. The implications of this study are that differences in accident risk between neighbourhoods are explained by geographical clustering of similar types of children, families and households. Interventions should focus more on parental factors and household social circumstances than on the physical environment or community based risks. However, many of these factors are those most resistant to modification without broader societal change. PMID:18573579

Reading, Richard; Jones, Andrew; Haynes, Robin; Daras, Konstantinos; Emond, Alan

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Importance Degree Evaluation of the Affecting Factors on Exhibition Security Accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of exhibition security accidents is the result of the mutual coupling factors of "man-machine-environment-management". This study is going to elaborate 11 influencing factors of exhibition security accidents from four aspects, i.e., man, mechanical equipment, environment and management. With the help of grey relational analysis, this study evaluates the importance degree of the affecting factors in exhibitions. The result shows that affecting factors of facilities and equipments failure is of the greatest importance degree and site maintenance personnel, site design, building material quality are the secondary important factors; another important factors are safety management body, social environment, activity organization management, safety management system, natural environment and event participant behavior which are considered as the third important ones. Evaluation of the importance degree of affecting factors on exhibition security incidents will provide a theoretical basis for exhibition security control.

Lin Wei-Ling

2013-01-01

102

[Risk factors associated with road accidents among young people in Tuscany (Italy): a cross sectional study].  

Science.gov (United States)

In most countries, national statistics institutes either do not measure or underestimate the impact of behavioral aspects as causes of road accidents. To bridge this gap, the Regional Health Agency of Tuscany (Italy) created the EDIT project, which evaluates driving behaviors and other lifestyle risk factors in a sample of secondary school students. Study results show that driving while under the influence of alcohol or drugs or while being distracted by cigarette smoking or the use of mobile phones are the risk factors most frequently associated with traffic accidents. PMID:23903036

Innocenti, Francesco; Voller, Fabio; Berti, Alice; Silvestri, Caterina

2013-01-01

103

'Hot particles' investigated 7 years after the Chernobylsk NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problems of nuclear pollution with products of the nuclear fuel division are analyzed. The particles are divided to following types: the first type includes the particles appearing nuclear fuel dispersion; the second one is presented by explosion gas clouds. The most unstudied domain is the interaction of the human being with the latter type of particles. The question about the estimation of the internal radiation is pointed. For true estimation of internal radiation doses it is necessary to evaluate the belonging of each radionuclide to specific class. That models were confirmed by results of the damage witnesses investigation. The necessity of the building of theory of the tumor development under influence of the 'hot particles' to obtain vital risk estimations of inhalation radionuclides entrance was emphasized

1993-01-01

104

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results are reviewed from investigations during 1980 into 68 cases of suspected overexposure to radiation. Of these, 37 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations and 20 with an institution of research, education or health. 55 of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0 - 0.09 Gy (0 - 9 rad) 5 in the range 0.1 - 0.29 Gy (10 - 29 rad) and for various reasons in 8 cases no biological assessment of dose was possible. The dose estimate for the case with the highest confirmed overexposure was 0.22 Gy (22 rads). The chromosome data are compared with information obtained from physical dosimetry and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each case. (author)

1981-01-01

105

Military Curricula for Vocational and Technical Education. Traffic Management and Accident Investigation, 17-8.  

Science.gov (United States)

This teaching guide and student workbook for a postsecondary level course in traffic management and accident investigation is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Purpose stated for the 132-hour course is to expose students to…

Air Force, Washington, DC.

106

Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

2011-01-01

107

Experimental investigations on vessel-hole ablation during severe accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents experimental results, and subsequent analyses, of scaled reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure site ablation tests conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Power Safety (RIT/NPS). The goal of the test program is to reduce the uncertainty level associated with the phase-change-ablation process, and, thus, improve the characterization of the melt discharge loading on the containment. In a series of moderate temperature experiments, the corium melt is simulated by the binary oxide CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} or the binary eutectic and non-eutectic salts NaNO{sub 3}-KNO{sub 3}, while the RPV head steel is represented by a Pb, Sn or metal alloys plate. A complementary set of experiments was conducted at lower temperatures, using water as melt and salted ice as plate material. These experiments scale well to the postulated prototypical conditions. The multidimensional code HAMISA, developed at RIT/NPS, is employed to analyze the experiments with good pre- and post-test predictions. The effects of melt viscosity and crust surface roughness, along with failure site entrance and exit frictional losses on the ablation characteristics are investigated. Theoretical concept was proposed to describe physical mechanisms which govern the vessel-hole ablation process during core melt discharge from RPV. Experimental data obtained from hole ablation tests and separate-effect tests performed at RIT/NPS were used to validate component physical models of the HAMISA code. It is believed that the hole ablation phenomenology is quite well understood. Detailed description of experiments and experimental data, as well as results of analyses are provided in the appendixes. 40 refs, 51 figs, 13 tabs.

Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Green, J.A.; Paladino, D. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

1997-12-01

108

On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

2013-11-24

109

Application of Electron Microscopy Techniques to the Investigation of Space Shuttle Columbia Accident  

Science.gov (United States)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the investigation into the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia, and addresses the importance of a failure analysis strategy for the investigation of the Columbia accident. The main focus of the presentation is on the usefulness of electron microscopy for analyzing slag deposits from the tiles and reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) wing panels of the Columbia orbiter.

Shah, Sandeep

2005-01-01

110

CFD investigating the air ingress accident occurred in a HTGRsimulation of thermal-hydraulic characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? 3-D compressible CFD model is proposed to study air ingress phenomena for a HTR-10. ? A LOCA with a double-ended rupture of gas duck tube is assumed. ? In LOCA, air in the SG cavity enters the core via diffusion and natural convection. ? O2 will react with graphite on pebble surface, causing the generation of CO2 and CO. ? Peak coolant temperature during air ingress is slightly higher than that in the normal condition. - Abstract: The majority of this paper investigates thermal-hydraulic characteristics in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) core under steady-state and accident conditions through a transient three-dimensional compressible CFD model. With the pebble-bed geometry, the HTR-10 core is selected for the present simulations. A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with double-ended rupture of a gas duct tube is assumed and the core power would decay following this accident. In this LOCA, air in the steam generator cavity would enter the core via diffusion and natural convection mechanisms. Following air ingress into the core, O2 would react with graphite on pebble surface, causing the generation of CO2 and CO. The main thermal-hydraulic characteristics during this air ingress accident include O2 ingress into the core, CO2 and CO production histories, He concentration variations, and coolant temperature transient behavior, etc. Based on the present simulation results, the peak coolant temperature during the air ingress accident is slightly higher than that under the steady-state condition, revealing the safety of HTR-10 core in this postulated accident from the thermal point of view. In addition, corrosion phenomena related to the fuel pebbles are discussed and presented in the next paper.

2012-04-01

111

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident's causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62)

1997-01-01

112

Guidance for implementing an environmental, safety and health assurance program. Volume 5. A model plan for institutional accident investigations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is 1 of 15 documents designed to illustrate how an Environmental, Safety and Health (ES and H) Assurance Program may be implemented. The generic definition of ES and H Assurance Programs is given in a companion document entitled An Environmental, Safety and Health Assurance Program Standard. The Standard specifies that the ES and H Staff of an institution shall establish policy and practices for accident investigation, and this document provides guidance for establishing an accident investigation program which provides such policy and practices. Unlike most other approaches, the scheme presented here utilizes a self-limiting tree to minimize investigative effort, permits no-fault accidents to have occurred, and does not automatically lead to the need for corrective action. The two appendixes include a standard ES andH audit checklist for use in the accident investigation program and an institutional routine accident investigation form.

Trauth, C.A. Jr.; Ellingson, A.C.

1982-01-01

113

Investigations into the air cleaning aspects of the Three Mile Island accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigative groups that have placed heavy emphasis on analysis of the air cleaning systems have included the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island (chaired by J. Kemeny), the Office of Inspection and Enforcement of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (two studies done independently, one by an Investigative Team, the other by a Special Review Group), internal USNRC Task Forces formed specifically for this purpose (termed Lessons Learned), and an independent USNRC Special Inquiry Group staffed primarily by USNRC but under the outside supervision of attorney M. Rogovin (the Rogovin Report). The efforts of these groups in the air cleaning area are described. The mechanisms whereby gaseous radioactive materials were released are discussed. The efforts of the various investigative groups for the Three Mile Island accident pertaining to air cleaning technology, the recommendations these groups have made, and the potential impact on the nuclear industry of the implementation of these recommendations are reviewed

1981-02-01

114

Critical review on what factors affected the evolution of the Fukushima accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses on why the Fukushima disaster caused such different outcomes at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS) and the Fukushima Daini NPS, although both NPSs were hit by the largest tsunami in Japanese historical records and are located only 10 km apart. First, the authors' study classifies the progression of the Fukushima accident into four phases: Phase I (between earthquake occurrence and tsunami inundation), Phase II (after tsunami inundation), Phase III (efforts at restoration) and Phase IV (recovery from harsh conditions), in order to clarify the difference in the accident progression in each unit of both NPSs. The course of the accident's evolution at each unit is compared to derive the differences of mechanical and human factors which affected the accident's progression. Second, the differences of both factors are reviewed from resilience engineering perspectives to know what factors are important to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. As the conclusions of this critical review, it can be said that: (1) the system, structures and components of NPS are systematically designed, manufactured and maintained to perform the intended functions for expected events, however they have limitations to cope with unexpected events, and (2) the plant personnel can respond to such situations successfully by changing their approach flexibly in a number of ways. (author)

2013-05-01

115

Soil contamination following an industrial accident : towards efficient investigations and assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When an industrial accident occurs, e.g. the explosion or the fire of a chemical facility, soil investigations and subsequent risk mitigation generally need to be decided and performed rapidly. This requires specific organisation and tools: Procedures for an immediate and coordinated intervention of relevant actors: industrials, administrations for industrial facilities, emergency and health, local authorities, environmental consultants and laboratories, NGOs. Models and input data on emissio...

Hazebrouck, Benoi?t; Blancher, P.; Verger, P.; Pirard, P.; Heyman, Christophe; Mosqueron, Luc; Motreff, Y.; Ricoux, C.; Pagnon, Ste?phane

2010-01-01

116

Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

2013-09-01

117

Investigation of Radionuclide Concentrations in Pine Needles in Vietnam after the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents the results of measurements concentrations in pine needles in Vietnam after the Chernobyl accident. Investigations were made since second half of 1986 to 1988. Increasing of concentration radionuclide levels in 1986 was not significant and was ended at the end of 1987. The concentrations of radionuclide Cs-137 in pine needles were compared with those in precipitations. The pine needles can be recommended as a useful and accessible material for supplementary monitoring of radioactive situation in the environment. The results obtained can contribute to the overall picture of studies on the dynamics of radioactive distribution and global fallouts formed by macro scale nuclear accidents. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

1994-01-01

118

PSB-VVER experimental and analytical investigation of station blackout accident in VVER-1000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In November 2003, an experiment simulating station blackout accident was carried out in the PSB-VVER integral test facility at the Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre (Russia). The purpose of the experiment was to provide missing data for code validation as well as to investigate the VVER thermohydraulics in the blackout conditions. The experiment covers a wide range of phenomena relating not only to transients but also to small break loss-of-coolant accidents. The data gained in the test has been used to assess the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. In this paper, a special attention has been paid to the code assessment regarding the mixture level and entrainment in steam generator secondary side. The analysis of the recorded transient has shown that the calculation of the heat transfer on the secondary side of steam generators is very sensitive to the steam generator nodalization. (authors)

2007-05-13

119

Resuspension factors of 137Cs in Hannover after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shortly after the Chernobyl accident, resuspension factors for 137Cs were determined in Hannover, Germany. In the first few weeks after deposition, a clear dependence of airborne 137Cs concentration (which ranged between 0.5 and 10 mBq m-3) on wind speed was observed. Best fit to the data was obtained for a power exponent close to unity. After a few months, even during strong wind periods with appreciable dust resuspension, radioactivity concentrations were below the detection limit. (author)

1994-01-01

120

Structural Analysis for the American Airlines Flight 587 Accident Investigation: Global Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) supported the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) in the American Airlines Flight 587 accident investigation due to LaRC's expertise in high-fidelity structural analysis and testing of composite structures and materials. A Global Analysis Team from LaRC reviewed the manufacturer s design and certification procedures, developed finite element models and conducted structural analyses, and participated jointly with the NTSB and Airbus in subcomponent tests conducted at Airbus in Hamburg, Germany. The Global Analysis Team identified no significant or obvious deficiencies in the Airbus certification and design methods. Analysis results from the LaRC team indicated that the most-likely failure scenario was failure initiation at the right rear main attachment fitting (lug), followed by an unstable progression of failure of all fin-to-fuselage attachments and separation of the VTP from the aircraft. Additionally, analysis results indicated that failure initiates at the final observed maximum fin loading condition in the accident, when the VTP was subjected to loads that were at minimum 1.92 times the design limit load condition for certification. For certification, the VTP is only required to support loads of 1.5 times design limit load without catastrophic failure. The maximum loading during the accident was shown to significantly exceed the certification requirement. Thus, the structure appeared to perform in a manner consistent with its design and certification, and failure is attributed to VTP loads greater than expected.

Young, Richard D.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Moore, David F.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Aircraft accident investigation: the decision-making in initial action scenario.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the complex aeronautical environment, the efforts in terms of operational safety involve the adoption of proactive and reactive measures. The process of investigation begins right after the occurrence of the aeronautical accident, through the initial action. Thus, it is in the crisis scenario, that the person responsible for the initial action makes decisions and gathers the necessary information for the subsequent phases of the investigation process. Within this scenario, which is a natural environment, researches have shown the fragility of rational models of decision making. The theoretical perspective of naturalistic decision making constitutes a breakthrough in the understanding of decision problems demanded by real world. The proposal of this study was to verify if the initial action, after the occurrence of an accident, and the decision-making strategies, used by the investigators responsible for this activity, are characteristic of the naturalistic decision making theoretical approach. To attend the proposed objective a descriptive research was undertaken with a sample of professionals that work in this activity. The data collected through individual interviews were analyzed and the results demonstrated that the initial action environment, which includes restricted time, dynamic conditions, the presence of multiple actors, stress and insufficient information is characteristic of the naturalistic decision making. They also demonstrated that, when the investigators make their decisions, they use their experience and the mental simulation, intuition, improvisation, metaphors and analogues cases, as strategies, all of them related to the naturalistic approach of decision making, in order to satisfy the needs of the situation and reach the objectives of the initial action in the accident scenario. PMID:22317482

Barreto, Marcia M; Ribeiro, Selma L O

2012-01-01

122

The Use of LS-DYNA in the Columbia Accident Investigation and Return to Flight Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

During the launch of the Space Shuttle Columbia on January 16, 2003, foam originating from the external tank impacted the shuttle's left wing 81 seconds after lift-off. Then on February 1st, Space Shuttle Columbia broke-up during re-entry. In the weeks that followed, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board had formed various teams to investigate every aspect of the tragedy. One of these teams was the Impact Analysis Team, which was asked to investigate the foam impact on the wing leading edge. This paper will describe the approach and methodology used by the team to support the accident investigation, and more specifically the use of LS-DYNA for analyzing the foam impact event. Due to the success of the analytical predictions, the impact analysis team has also been asked to support Return to Flight activities. These activities will analyze a far broader range of impact events, but not with just foam and not only on the wing leading edge. The debris list has expanded and so have the possible impact locations. This paper will discuss the Return to Flight activities and the use of LS-DYNA to support them.

Gabrys, Jonathan; Schatz, Josh; Carney, Kelly; Melis, Matthew; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.

2004-01-01

123

The role of social and psychological factors in radiation protection after accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inclusion of social and psychological factors in the justification and optimisation of intervention after an accident requires identification of the relevant factors and their appropriate quantification. Recent studies suggest a possible approach. Some social and psychological factors either influence the consequences of radiation protection countermeasures, or are direct consequences of those measures. Such factors can be grouped into those that alter the dose-effectiveness of a countermeasure, those that extend the need for countermeasures in time or space, and those that fall into neither of the first two categories. Factors of the first two types can be quantified in terms of changes to the anticipated averted dose and monetary cost of a countermeasure. Quantification of the third type is currently difficult, but the existence of structural models for applications in social psychology suggests that such models could be developed for radiation protection in the future. (author).

Morrey, M. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom); Allen, P. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Robens Inst.

1996-12-31

124

Investigations of design basis and severe accidents in light water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations on the course of design and beyond design basis accidents in light water reactors (LWR) are performed using sophisticated system codes. Their models are continuously validated based on a variety of integral experiments. Within the OECD International Standard Problem ISP-45 (QUENCH-06) the comparison of experimental results with results of various codes allow to assess user and code effects. The results of codes include uncertainties which magnitude can be determined applying the adjoint sensitivity analysis procedure (ASAP). The basis of this procedure is explained and some results are given and discussed. (orig.)

2004-01-01

125

The role of hematopoietic growth factors in nuclear and radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Molecularly cloned hematopoietic growth factors are likely to be useful in treating persons with bone marrow failure resulting from radiation exposure. Some effects, such as increased granulocytes or platelets, are of clear therapeutic benefit. Other effects, such as a direct action on survival of hematopoietic stem cells and improved granulocyte function, may also increase survival. Many important areas remain to be studied, including which molecularly cloned hematopoietic growth factor(s) to use, optimal dose and timing, and others. Some of these issues can be studied in clinical trials; others require in vitro or animal models. Despite the limited data currently available, it is clear that the availability of molecularly cloned hematopoietic growth factors heralds a new era in treating radiation and nuclear accidents.70 references

1990-01-01

126

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at the plutonium reclamation facility, Hanford site, Richland, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m., a chemical explosion occurred in Tank A-109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility on the Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington. The Facility, also known as Building 236-Z, is an inactive processing facility located at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The explosion occurred when a highly concentrated solution of hydroxylamine nitrate (HN) and nitric acid (HNO3) auto-catalytically reacted inside Tank A-109. On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225.1, Accident Investigations. The scope of the Boards investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. This paper describes the accident, gives the three root causes of the accident and also six contributing causes, and discusses the major conclusions and judgments of need identified by the Board

1998-04-16

127

Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control  

Science.gov (United States)

The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

2010-01-01

128

Investigation of Safety Margins Associated with the KALIMER Station Blackout Accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The station blackout accident is one of the most concerning scenarios for the KALIMER design. It is a limiting scenario in a loss of heat removal, and the scenario also provides a measure for the effectiveness of the passive safety system which ultimately secures the KALIMER safety. When the accident occurs, all the pumps in both the primary and intermediate systems are tripped, and thereby the normal heat removal path through the IHX is not available. The path for the heat removal, therefore, is made only through the PDRC (Passive Decay Heat Removal Circuit), while the core cooling becomes solely dependent on the natural circulation in the primary system. Since the PDRC does not come into normal operation before sodium begins over-flowing from the hot pool into the cold poor, the safety analysis in the early stage before the PDRC activation is of great concern in order to assess the timing of the PDRC engagement. The most dominant factor affecting the transient is natural circulation, and the core flow is determined from the friction and heat transfer of the core wire-wrapped rods. For this reason, they should be evaluation objects in this study. The safety margins obtained in the study will provide a quantitative basis for the KALIMER safety assurance.

Chang, Won Pyo; Lee, Yong Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-15

129

Fukushima nuclear accident independent investigation commission by the National Diet of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Fukushima nuclear accident, Independent Investigation Commission (IIC) was firstly established in constitutional government by the National Diet of Japan. This article described recognition of its necessity, its setup process, its framework with start from almost zero and about 6 months period and time, its basic way to proceed investigation and several obstacles and hardships, significance of openness to the public, web's communication and simultaneous interpretation (transparency) and basic philosophy of the report. Further significance of Diet's IIC in the democratic system and evaluation of the report were added. As a problem of separation of three powers in Japan, specific recommendations to the legislation of IIC and their future evaluation, nation's governance system problem and social responsibility of scientists and others were also discussed. If Japan were not to be changed after the disaster, Japanese future might be unreliable. (T. Tanaka)

2013-03-01

130

The Analysis of the Contribution of Human Factors to the In-Flight Loss of Control Accidents  

Science.gov (United States)

In-flight loss of control (LOC) is currently the leading cause of fatal accidents based on various commercial aircraft accident statistics. As the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) emerges, new contributing factors leading to LOC are anticipated. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), along with other aviation agencies and communities are actively developing safety products to mitigate the LOC risk. This paper discusses the approach used to construct a generic integrated LOC accident framework (LOCAF) model based on a detailed review of LOC accidents over the past two decades. The LOCAF model is comprised of causal factors from the domain of human factors, aircraft system component failures, and atmospheric environment. The multiple interdependent causal factors are expressed in an Object-Oriented Bayesian belief network. In addition to predicting the likelihood of LOC accident occurrence, the system-level integrated LOCAF model is able to evaluate the impact of new safety technology products developed in AvSP. This provides valuable information to decision makers in strategizing NASA's aviation safety technology portfolio. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of human causal factors in the model, including the contributions from flight crew and maintenance workers. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) taxonomy was used to develop human related causal factors. The preliminary results from the baseline LOCAF model are also presented.

Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

2012-01-01

131

Test Plans for Investigating Molten Fuel Behavior in Coolant Channel during SFR Core Melting Accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The metal-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor system is expected to accommodate all credible malfunctions or accident initiators passively without damage to the core. However, the evaluation of the safety performance and the containment requirements for this system will most likely require consideration of postulated low-probability accident sequences that result in partial or whole core melting. For these sequences, some phenomenological uncertainties exist and experimental data are needed for modeling purposes. One such data need is concerned with the potential for freezing and plugging of molten metallic fuel in above-and below-core structures and possibly in inter subassembly spaces. The first basic data need is the properties for metallic fuel/steel mixtures such as liquidus/solidus and mobilization temperatures, as part of measurement of phenomenological data describing the relocation and freezing behavior of molten metallic fuel. Accordingly, plans for two different tests, one for determination of the liquidus/solidus temperature and another for determination of the mobilization temperature, are described in this report. Test plans are then described in the report for the investigations of the relocation and freezing behavior of molten metallic fuel in coolant channels, including possible chemical interactions of molten fuel with the channel steel structure.

Suk, Soo Dong; Hahn, Doo Hee; Lee, Yong Bum

2006-09-15

132

Test Plans for Investigating Molten Fuel Behavior in Coolant Channel during SFR Core Melting Accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metal-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor system is expected to accommodate all credible malfunctions or accident initiators passively without damage to the core. However, the evaluation of the safety performance and the containment requirements for this system will most likely require consideration of postulated low-probability accident sequences that result in partial or whole core melting. For these sequences, some phenomenological uncertainties exist and experimental data are needed for modeling purposes. One such data need is concerned with the potential for freezing and plugging of molten metallic fuel in above-and below-core structures and possibly in inter subassembly spaces. The first basic data need is the properties for metallic fuel/steel mixtures such as liquidus/solidus and mobilization temperatures, as part of measurement of phenomenological data describing the relocation and freezing behavior of molten metallic fuel. Accordingly, plans for two different tests, one for determination of the liquidus/solidus temperature and another for determination of the mobilization temperature, are described in this report. Test plans are then described in the report for the investigations of the relocation and freezing behavior of molten metallic fuel in coolant channels, including possible chemical interactions of molten fuel with the channel steel structure

2006-01-01

133

Routes to failure: analysis of 41 civil aviation accidents from the Republic of China using the human factors analysis and classification system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS) is based upon Reason's organizational model of human error. HFACS was developed as an analytical framework for the investigation of the role of human error in aviation accidents, however, there is little empirical work formally describing the relationship between the components in the model. This research analyses 41 civil aviation accidents occurring to aircraft registered in the Republic of China (ROC) between 1999 and 2006 using the HFACS framework. The results show statistically significant relationships between errors at the operational level and organizational inadequacies at both the immediately adjacent level (preconditions for unsafe acts) and higher levels in the organization (unsafe supervision and organizational influences). The pattern of the 'routes to failure' observed in the data from this analysis of civil aircraft accidents show great similarities to that observed in the analysis of military accidents. This research lends further support to Reason's model that suggests that active failures are promoted by latent conditions in the organization. Statistical relationships linking fallible decisions in upper management levels were found to directly affect supervisory practices, thereby creating the psychological preconditions for unsafe acts and hence indirectly impairing the performance of pilots, ultimately leading to accidents. PMID:18329391

Li, Wen-Chin; Harris, Don; Yu, Chung-San

2008-03-01

134

Doses in Radiation Accidents Investigated by Chromosome Aberration Analysis. 8. A Review of Cases Investigated, 1977.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from cytogenetic investigations into 55 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1977 are reviewed. This report is the seventh in an annual series (previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35, R41 and R57) which together ...

D. C. Lloyd R. J. Purrott J. S. Prosser

1978-01-01

135

An outline of the interim report of the investigation committee on the accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interim report of the Investigation Committee of the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations (NPSs) was published in December 26, 2011. The Japanese cabinet approved ten committee members including the author in May 2011. The committee interviewed more than 400 people over a total of 900 hours of hearings with about 40 staffs consisting of administrative team and three investigation teams of social system, root causes of the accident and countermeasures to prevent damage expansion of the accident. Interim report concluded 'the accident at Fukushima NPSs was caused by failures of every provision against reactor severe accident'. The failures appeared on (1) function of supervisory system for emergency response, (2) Fukushima Daiichi NPSs on-site disaster response especially related with operation of isolation condenser of unit 1 and high-pressure coolant injection system of unit 3, (3) Fukushima Daiichi NPSs off-site disaster response such the government failed to make use of data on the radioactive plumes released from the plant for evacuations, and (4) preparedness against tsunami and severe accident management. Possible worst or best simulation cases were also discussed. With no human support available on-site, workers might not have been able to prevent the meltdowns. Final report was due at the end of July 2012. (T. Tanaka)

2012-05-01

136

Investigations of the removal efficiency of particulate filters at high temperatures under accident conditions using TiO_2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to measure removal efficiency under accident conditions at high temperatures and high humidity a test material is required which does not change under stresses of this kind. In the newly developed TiO_2 process a water-insoluble, thermally stable solid condensation aerosol, produced with the aid of a plasma is used. The investigation involves removal of aerosol samples by means of Nuclepore filters and subsequent analysis by means of absorption spectroscopy. The high sensitivity of the process permits reliable determination of decontamination factors of the order of 10"5. In comparative tests using the standard test aerosols Dop, Nacl and Uranin under ambient conditions, the TiO_2 process yielded decontamination factors which were on average greater by a factor of 2 than the corresponding values obtained with the various other processes. Initial tests at temperatures up to 180"0C were carried out on the 'Taifun' test rig. No major variations in removal efficiency were observed with the trade high-temperature particulate filters used; nor was any structural damage resulting from the temperature stress detected. (author)

1986-01-01

137

Investigation of molten fuel relocation dynamics with applications to LMFBR post-accident fuel relocation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process of solidification of a single-phase flowing hot fluid in a cylindrical tube has been investigated analytically and experimentally. A series of tests were performed, using paraffin wax and Wood's metal as flowing hot fluids. These data verified the existing quasistatic numerical analysis model of freezing process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In addition, experimental results provided information regarding the effects of various parameters on the process of transient flowing and freezing through a vertical channel. The experimental apparatus and techniques are described. Comparison of experimental data with predictions of mathematical models for transient molten fluid displacement are presented in graphical form. In addition, the mathematical model is applied to LMFBR post-accident conditions. (author)

1980-01-01

138

Investigation of the radiological impact of reactor accidents under probabilistic aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis and conceptional investigation have been performed for the accident consequence model of the German reactor risk study. A dynamic atmospheric diffusion model is developed, which is applied in the first stage of the study to all distance ranges, and will be restricted finally to the long distance range. The wind direction and its variations are not taken into account in this model. The program set UFO-BAS calculates the time integrated nuclide concentration in air at any location downwind of the source. A further model which takes into account wind direction variations is being developed. On the basis of the proposals for the calculation of the health effects in the German risk study considerations on the storage requirements were accomplished. By means of these assessments a revised grid of parameters was evaluated. Furthermore, considerations were made for the implementation of an evaluation model, which will be developed by the Institut fuer Unfallforschung. (orig./RW)

1977-04-01

139

NASA-ONERA Collaboration on Human Factors in Aviation Accidents and Incidents  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first annual report jointly prepared by NASA and ONERA on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the human factors entailed in aviation accidents and incidents, particularly focused on the consequences of decreases in human performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this agreement is to generate reliable, automated procedures that improve understanding of the levels and characteristics of flight-crew fatigue factors whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and ONERA are collaborating on the development and assessment of automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases; much larger than can be handled practically by human experts.

Srivastava, Ashok N.; Fabiani, Patrick

2012-01-01

140

Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and intractable, and methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. The number of methods in each group were four, three, zero, and two, respectively. Faced with the need to investigate an accident it is essential that the chosen method is appropriate for the system and the situation. Nuclear power plants considered as systems are tightly coupled and more or less intractable and therefore require accident models and accident investigation methods that are capable of accounting for these features. If an accident concerns the NPP operation as a whole, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. If an accident only concerns the operation of a subsystem or a component, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, or possible loosely coupled and tractable. The report provides a proposal for how these characteristics can be determined. The conclusion is that no specific method is the overall best in the sense that it can be used for all conditions. While it may be convenient, or even necessary, for an organisation to adopt a specific method as its standard, this should always be done knowingly and with a willingness to reconsider the choice when the conditions so demand it. In five or ten years we must expect that the methods developed today will have been partly obsolete, not because the methods change but because the nature of socio-technical systems, and therefore the nature of accidents, do

Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine (Ecole des Mines de Paris, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France))

2008-01-15

 
 
 
 
141

Investigation program on PWR-steel-containment behavior under accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a first documentation of the KfK/PNS activities and plans to investigate the behaviour of steel containments under accident conditions. The investigations will deal with a free standing spherical containment shell built for the latest type of a German pressurized water reactor. The diameter of the containment shell is 56 m. The minimum wall thickness is 38 mm. The material used is the ferritic steel 15MnNi63. According to the actual planning the program is concerned with four different problems which are beyond the common design and licensing practice: Containment behavior under quasi-static pressure increase up to containment failure. Containment behavior under high transient pressures. Containment oscillations due to earthquake loadings; consideration of shell imperfections. Containment buckling due to earthquake loadings. The investigation program consists of both theoretical and experimental activities including membrane tests allowing for very high plastic strains and oscillation tests with a thin-walled, high-accurate spherical shell. (orig.)

1983-01-01

142

Learning lessons from accidents with a human and organisational factors perspective: deficiencies and failures of operating experience feedback systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper aims at reminding the failures of operating experience feedback (OEF) systems through the lessons of accidents and provides a framework for improving the efficiency of OEF processes. The risk is for example to miss lessons from other companies and industrial sectors, or to miss the implementation of adequate corrective actions with the risk to repeat accidents. Most of major accidents have been caused by a learning failure or other organisational factors as a contributing cause among several root causes. Some of the recurring organisational factors are: -) poor recognition of critical components, of critical activities or deficiency in anticipation and detection of errors, -) excessive production pressure, -) deficiency of communication or lack of quality of dialogue, -) Excessive formalism, -) organisational complexity, -) learning deficiencies (OEF, closing feedback loops, lack of listening of whistle-blowers). Some major accidents occurred in the nuclear industry. Although the Three Mile Island accident has multiple causes, in particular, an inappropriate design of the man-machine interface, it is a striking example of the loss of external lessons from incidents. As for Fukushima it is too early to have established evidence on learning failures. The systematic study and organisational analysis of OEF failures in industrial accidents whatever their sector has enabled us to provide a framework for OEF improvements. Five key OEF issues to improve in priority: 1) human and organisational factors analysis of the root causes of the events, 2) listening to the field staff, dissenting voices and whistle-blowers, 3) monitoring of the external events that provide generic lessons, 4) building an alive memory through a culture of accidents with people who become experiences pillars, and 5) the setting of external audit or organisational analysis of the OEF system by independent experts. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

2011-11-07

143

The Role of Materials Degradation and Analysis in the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

The efforts following the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia included debris recovery, reconstruction, and analysis. The debris was subjected to myriad quantitative and semiquantitative chemical analysis techniques, ranging from examination via the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The results from the work with the debris helped the investigators determine the location where a breach likely occurred in the leading edge of the left wing during lift off of the Orbiter from the Kennedy Space Center. Likewise, the information evidenced by the debris was also crucial in ascertaining the path of impinging plasma flow once it had breached the wing. After the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) issued its findings, the major portion of the investigation was concluded. However, additional work remained to be done on many pieces of debris from portions of the Orbiter which were not directly related to the initial impact during ascent. This subsequent work was not only performed in the laboratory, but was also performed with portable equipment, including examination via portable X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Likewise, acetate and silicon-rubber replicas of various fracture surfaces were obtained for later macroscopic and fractographic examination. This paper will detail the efforts and findings from the initial investigation, as well as present results obtained by the later examination and analysis of debris from the Orbiter including its windows, bulkhead structures, and other components which had not been examined during the primary investigation.

McDanels, Steven J.

2006-01-01

144

Intensive development of surface coal mining - a significant factor in reducing accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper compares underground and surface coal mining. In comparison to underground coal mining, surface mining involves 1.5 to 2.0 times less investment, the average labor productivity of a miner is four times higher, mining cost is reduced by 2 times and the accident rate calculated for 1 megatonne of coal decreases by 22 times. The accident rate in the Kemerovougol' surface mine in the Kuzbass, the largest coal mine association of the basin, is analyzed. In 1981 the Kemerovougol' mines produced 45.7 megatonnes of coal. The accident rate in two 5 year periods is compared: from 1966 to 1970 and from 1976 to 1980. In this period the accident rate in the Kemerovougol' mines decreased by 2.1 times, rate of serious accidents declined by 1.3 times and the rate of fatal accidents by 1.1 times. From 1976 to 1980 the number of accidents decreased by 20 to 25%, the accident rate calculatd for 1 megatonne of coal decreased by 27%, the accident rate for 1000 miners decreased by 22%, the rate of serious accidents decreased by 1.3 times and the rate of fatal accidents fell by 1.1 times.

Reznikov, L.M.

1982-06-01

145

Daytime sleepiness and sleep habits as risk factors of traffic accidents in a group of Turkish public transport drivers  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: To explore the association of daytime sleepiness, sleep complaints and sleep habits with self-reported car crashes among public transport drivers. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on male professional public drivers in two different cities using a validated, self-administered sleep questionnaire which comprised of symptoms suggesting sleep disorders, a subjective report of daytime sleepiness and driving characteristics. The subjects (mean age±SD, 40±11 years) were divided into two groups: (1) accident group and (2) no accident group. Results: Forty nine (15.3%) of the 320 public drivers reported that they had at least one sleepiness related motor vehicle accident and/or near-missed accident (Group 1). The mean age, body mass index and annual distance driven were similar in both groups. Although Group 1 reported less sleep time per night, more witnessed apneas, abnormal sleep, alcohol use and had higher mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores than Group 2, multivariate analysis of risk factors revealed that only daytime sleepiness increase the risk of traffic accidents [OR: 1.32 (1.19-1.47)]. Conclusion: These results suggest that self-reported sleepiness is a predictive sign of traffic accidents due to driver sleepiness.

Ozer, Cahit; Etcibas?, Seref; Ozturk, Levent

2014-01-01

146

Main investigation results on the forest radioecology in the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accident zones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the long-term studies of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in zones of radioactive contamination after the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents, the following trends were revealed: (1) High retention capacity of stand canopy with respect to radioactive fallout. This leads to high doses absorbed by apical and leaf meristems, ?-radiation giving the main part of the dose; (2) Fast self-decontamination of crowns during the growth period and relatively slow decontamination in the phase of physiological rest, regardless of amount of atmospheric precipitation. The rate of crown decontamination determines the value and duration of radiation stress on woody plants; (3) Accumulation not less than 95% of the total radionuclide amount in the forest litter 1-2 years after the cessation of radioactive fallout; (4) Relatively slow migration of strontium and cesium radionuclides along the forest soil profile; (5) High capacity of the forest when serving as a biogeochemical barrier to the routes of horizontal and vertical radionuclide migration and export out of the zone of initial contamination, including migration into the river water; (6) Considerable difference between strontium and cesium when migrating in forest soils and in the soil-plant system; (7) Broad variations in transfer factors for uptake of cesium-137 from soil into forest plants depending on the plant species and soil type. The primary radiobiological effects connected with irradiation of organisms are considered and secondary disturbances due to changes of ecological bonds between the components of irradiated forest ecosystem are discussed

1994-10-14

147

Investigations on in-vessel severe accident phenomena; Untersuchung der Phaenomene schwerer Stoerfaelle innerhalb des Druckbehaelters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The in-vessel evolution of a severe accident in nuclear reactors is characterised by core uncovery and heat-up, core material oxidation and melting, molten material relocation, and debris behaviour in the lower plenum up to vessel failure. The report summarises recent results of FZK research on mitigation of severe accidents with emphasis on the reflood of an overheated reactor core for the purpose of early termination of the accident and fuel coolant interactions in the lower plenum of the pressure vessel and its consequences. (orig.)

Steinbrueck, M.; Sepold, L. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Institut fuer Materialforschung; Jacobs, H.; Miassoedov, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik; Hering, W.; Krieg, R.; Schuetz, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Institut fuer Reaktorsicherheit

2004-07-01

148

First Annual Report: NASA-ONERA Collaboration on Human Factors in Aviation Accidents and Incidents  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first annual report jointly prepared by NASA and ONERA on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the human factors entailed in aviation accidents and incidents particularly focused on consequences of decreases in human performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this Agreement is to generate reliable, automated procedures that improve understanding of the levels and characteristics of flight-crew fatigue factors whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and ONERA are collaborating on the development and assessment of automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases much larger than can be handled practically by human experts. This report presents the approach that is currently expected to be used in processing and analyzing the data for identifying decrements in aircraft performance and examining their relationships to decrements in crewmember performance due to fatigue. The decisions on the approach were based on samples of both the numerical and textual data that will be collected during the four studies planned under the Human Factors Monitoring Program (HFMP). Results of preliminary analyses of these sample data are presented in this report.

Srivastava, Ashok; Fabiani, Patrick

2012-01-01

149

Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, sedentariness, metabolic syndrome

Rodrigues AN

2013-03-01

150

Experimental investigation of symmetric and asymmetric heating of pressure tube under accident conditions for Indian PHWR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Circumferential temperature gradient for asymmetric heat-up was 400 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At same pressure ballooning initiates at lower temperature in asymmetrical heat-up. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 1 MPa ballooning initiated at 408 Degree-Sign C and with expansion rate of 0.005 mm/s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 2 MPa ballooning initiation at 330 Degree-Sign C and with expansion rate of 0.0056 mm/s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For symmetrical heat-up strain rate was 10 times faster than asymmetric heat-up. - Abstract: In pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), under postulated scenario of small break Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) coincident with the failure of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), a situation may arise under which reduction in mass flow rate of coolant through individual reactor channel can lead to stratified flow. Such stratified flow condition creates partial uncover of fuel bundle, which creates a circumferential temperature gradient over PT. The present investigation has been carried out to study thermo-mechanical behaviour of PT under asymmetric heating conditions for a 220 MWe PHWR. A 19-pin fuel simulator has been developed in which preferential heating of elements could be done by supplying power to the selected pins. The asymmetric heating of PT has been carried out at pressure 2 MPa and 1 MPa, respectively, by supplying power to upper region heating elements thus creating an half filled stratified flow conditions. The temperature difference up to 425 Degree-Sign C has been observed along top to bottom periphery of PT. A comparison is made between thermo-mechanical behaviour of PT under asymmetrical and symmetrical heat-up, expected from a large break LOCA condition. The radial expansion rate during symmetrical heating is found to be much faster as compared to that for asymmetric ballooning of PT at the same internal pressure. Integrity of PT is found to be maintained under both loading conditions. Heat sink around of test section, simulating moderator is found to be helpful in arresting the rise in temperature for both fuel pins and PT, thus establishing moderator as an effective heat sink under accident conditions.

Yadav, Ashwini K., E-mail: ashwinikumaryadav@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Majumdar, P., E-mail: pmajum@barc.gov.in [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Kumar, Ravi, E-mail: ravikfme@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Chatterjee, B., E-mail: barun@barc.gov.in [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Gupta, Akhilesh, E-mail: akhilfme@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Lele, H.G., E-mail: hglele@barc.gov.in [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

2013-01-15

151

Tools for local safety management with special focus on accident investigations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Municipalities have a unique position in safety work by being close to both the citizens and the accidents and injuries that affect the population. Despite far-reaching advances in technology and an established welfare state, injuries resulting from accidents constitute a significant public health problem in Sweden as well as in other Nordic countries. Swedish municipalities are subjected to wide-ranging responsibilities and are expected to take action in a number of societal areas to safegua...

2013-01-01

152

Investigating Accidents Related to Errors of Aeronautical Decision-Making in Flight Operations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aeronautical decision-making (ADM) is defined by the FAA (1991) as ‘a systematic approach to the mental process used by aircraft pilots to consistently determine the best course of action in response to a given set of circumstances’. Jensen and Benel (1977) found that decision errors contributed to 35% of all nonfatal and 52% of all fatal general aviation accidents in the United States. Diehl (1991) proposed that decision errors contributed to 56% of airline accidents and 53% of military ...

2010-01-01

153

Contributing Factors Among Fatal Loss of Control Accidents in Multiengine Turbine Aircraft  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aircraft accidents resulting from an in-flight loss of control have been the leading killer in aviation for more than a decade, but have only recently become a topic of serious concern in the aviation industry. There is a current trend of highly-trained and experienced pilots losing control of large, advanced multiengine turbine aircraft, resulting in catastrophic accidents, with many casualties. Utilizing an analysis of all National Transportation Safety Board accident reports involving mult...

2012-01-01

154

Human factors review for nuclear power plant severe accident sequence analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses work conducted to: (1) support the severe accident sequence analysis of a nuclear power plant transient based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) develop a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Operator actions during the transient are assessed using qualitative and quantitative methods. A function-oriented accident management model provides a structure for developing technical operator guidance on mitigating core damage preventing radiological release

1985-10-04

155

Investigations of radiocaesium in the natural terrestrial environment in Norway following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident affected parts of central Norway to a considerable extent, in particular the 134Cs + 137Cs deposition had a significant impact on the natural environment. When this became apparent, a comprehensive radioecological research programme was initiated in order to study the behaviour of radiocaesium in boreal and alpine ecosystems, with emphasis on food-chains leading to exposure of species used for human consumption, i.e., reindeer and freshwater fish. In this paper results from the terrestrial part of this research programme during the period 1986-1990 are presented. The work was mainly confined to the mountain areas of Dovre and Rondane. Parallel studies were performed in eutrophic and strongly oligotrophic communities. The influence of local variations in topography and microclimate on the observed radiocaesium levels in topsoils, lichens and vascular plants was studied in detail. Currently a significant re-distribution of radiocaesium from the originally strongly exposed surfaces to those that were less exposed is observed. In the soil, radiocaesium is strongly retained in the litter and raw humus layers. Current levels in lichens are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in vascular plants. This strongly affects the seasonal variation of radiocaesium in reindeer, showing winter maxima of about 5 times higher than the August levels. The radiocaesium levels in reindeer showed a decline of approximately a factor of 3 during the period 1987-1990. Other animal species studied in the programme exhibited substantially lower radiocaesium levels than reindeer, but a considerable interspecies variation was observed. (author)

1992-03-01

156

Investigations of radiocaesium in the natural terrestrial environment in Norway following the Chernobyl accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident affected parts of central Norway to a considerable extent, in particular the 134Cs+137Cs deposition had a significant impact on the natural environment. When this became apparent, a comprehensive radioecological research programme was initiated in order to study the behaviour of radiocaesium in boreal and alpine ecosystems, with emphasis on food-chains leading to exposure of species used for human consumption, i.e., reindeer and freshwater fish. In this paper results from the terrestrial part of this research programme during the period 1986-1990 are presented. The work was mainly confined to the mountain areas of Dovre and Rondane. Parallel studies were performed in eutrophic and strongly oligotrophic communities. The influence of local variations in topography and microclimate on the observed radiocaesium levels in topsoils, lichens and vascular plants was studied in detail. Currently a significant re-distribution of radiocaesium from the originally strongly exposed surfaces to those that were less exposed is observed. In the soil, radiocaesium is strongly retained in the litter and raw humus layers. Current levels in lichens are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in vascular plants. This strongly affects the seasonal variation of radiocaesium in reindeer, showing winter maxima of about 5 times higher than the August levels. The radiocaesium levels in reindeer showed a decline of approximately a factor of 3 during the period 1987-1990. Other animal species studied in the programme exhibited substantially lower radiocaesium levels than reindeer, but a considerable interspecies variation was observed. PMID:1580389

Bretten, S; Gaare, E; Skogland, T; Steinnes, E

1992-03-01

157

Investigations of radiocaesium in the natural terrestrial environment in Norway following the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident affected parts of central Norway to a considerable extent, in particular the {sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs deposition had a significant impact on the natural environment. When this became apparent, a comprehensive radioecological research programme was initiated in order to study the behaviour of radiocaesium in boreal and alpine ecosystems, with emphasis on food-chains leading to exposure of species used for human consumption, i.e., reindeer and freshwater fish. In this paper results from the terrestrial part of this research programme during the period 1986-1990 are presented. The work was mainly confined to the mountain areas of Dovre and Rondane. Parallel studies were performed in eutrophic and strongly oligotrophic communities. The influence of local variations in topography and microclimate on the observed radiocaesium levels in topsoils, lichens and vascular plants was studied in detail. Currently a significant re-distribution of radiocaesium from the originally strongly exposed surfaces to those that were less exposed is observed. In the soil, radiocaesium is strongly retained in the litter and raw humus layers. Current levels in lichens are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in vascular plants. This strongly affects the seasonal variation of radiocaesium in reindeer, showing winter maxima of about 5 times higher than the August levels. The radiocaesium levels in reindeer showed a decline of approximately a factor of 3 during the period 1987-1990. Other animal species studied in the programme exhibited substantially lower radiocaesium levels than reindeer, but a considerable interspecies variation was observed. (author).

Bretten, S. (Trondheim Univ. (Norway). Museum of Natural Sciences and Archaeology); Gaare, E.; Skogland, T. (Norwegian Inst. for Nature Research, Trondheim (Norway)); Steinnes, E. (Trondheim Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry)

1992-03-01

158

Investigation into the March 28, 1979 Three Mile Island accident by Office of Inspection and Enforcement (Investigative Report No. 50-320/79-10)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant experienced the most severe accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant operating history. This report sets forth the facts concerning the events of the accident determined as a result of an investigation by the NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement. The IE investigation is limited to two aspects of the accident: (1) Those related operational actions by the licensee during the period from before the initiating event until approximately 8:00 p.m., March 28, when primary coolant flow was re-established by starting a reactor coolant pump, and (2) Those steps taken by the licensee to control the release of radioactive material to the off-site environs, and to implement his emergency plan during the period from the initiation of the event to midnight, March 30. These investigation periods were selected because they include the licensee actions which most significantly affected the accident sequence and its results

1979-01-01

159

Análise e classificação dos fatores humanos nos acidentes industriais Analysis and classification of the human factors in industrial accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente texto apresenta a evolução do conhecimento do fenômeno "acidente", mostrando a mudança do conceito do acidente como obra do destino para um componente do processo produtivo de qualquer segmento - industrial, aeronáutico, serviços, transporte dentre outros. O método de análise e classificação dos fatores humanos nos acidentes é apresentado e discutido quanto à viabilidade de implementação. Finalmente, conclui-se que a forma atual e moderna para prevenção de acidentes está baseada na identificação antecipada das falhas latentes da organização e do sistema, e que a ferramenta apresentada contribui para a gestão proativa e conseqüentemente para a diminuição do impacto dos acidentes do trabalho no processo produtivo.The present text presents the evolution of the knowledge of the phenomenon "accident", showing the change of the concept of the accident as workmanship of the destination for one component of the productive process of any segment - industrial, aeronautical, services, transports amongst others. The method of analysis and classification of the human factors in the accidents is presented and argued how much to the implementation viability. Finally one concludes that the current and modern form for prevention of accidents is based on the anticipated identification of the latent failures of the organization and the system, and that the presented tool contributes consequently for the pro-active management and in the reduction of the impact of the employment-related accidents in the productive process.

Cármen Regina Pereira Correa

2007-04-01

160

Comparison of different estimation methods of accident atmospheric dispersion factors for a representative inland nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of atmospheric diffusion models in complex terrains and low wind speed conditions was discussed in this paper. The accident atmospheric dispersion factors (ATFs) of Taohuajiang nuclear power plant were calculated by using two methods: the probabilistic method recommended by the U.S. Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC) and the three dimensional objective diagnostic wind field model coupled with Lagrangian trajectory puff model to simulate the 8760 hourly emissions of radioactive nuclides. The results indicate that the maximum hourly accident ATFs calculated by the probabilistic method are conservative in exclusion area boundary (EAB). However, in some directions, accident ATFs calculated using probabilistic method is smaller than that using Lagrangian puff model, as well as some accident ATFs in remote sectors are larger than those in close sectors. Moreover, results calculated by probabilistic method are smaller in long-term release situation. Therefore, accident ATFs obtained according to the regulatory guides may not conservative in some cases, and atmospheric diffusion model should be selected carefully when a nuclear plant is located at a site with complex environmental conditions. (authors)

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Associated factors to the occurrence of motorcycle accident in the perception of hospitalized motorcyclist  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To describe the social demographic characteristics of injured motorcyclists admitted into an emergency hospital and their perception about the accident. Methods: Across-sectional study conducted between October and December 2007 with a sample of 209 patients who were victims of motorcycle accidents. A form was applied for data collection and the data were submitted to frequency analysis. The studied variables comprised social demographic data; conditions of the accident; the use of alcohol and the perception of the victim in relation to the accident. Results: Out of 209 interviewed patients, 183 (88% were male, 88 (42% were aged 21 to 30 years; 147 (65.9% were from different counties of the accident site, 89 (53.9% were not licensed riders; 93 (56.3% did not wear a helmet and 113 (54.4% reported drinking alcohol before the accident. Regarding the perception of the victims about the cause of the accident, 90 (43% highlighted the inappropriate behavior of their own rider. Conclusion: The study revealed that among injured motorcyclists, prevailed males, young and single, who did not wear helmet at the time of the accident, who were not legally qualified to drive a motorcycle and who recognize as the main cause of theseaccidents their own inadequate behavior.

Augediva Maria Jucá Pordeus

2010-09-01

162

Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity to fragment. The molten fuel-coolant mixtures with a binary oxidic core melt (UO_2-ZrO_2) may feature low triggerability and low explosivity. The mechanical-to-thermal conversion ratio may be very low. The presence of metallic component in the melt may significantly enhance triggerability and explosivity of molten corium. The characteristics of melt spreading into 2-D channel are much different from those into 1-D channel. The evaluations of spreading parameters in reactor accident situations would be strongly affected by the uncertainties in the boundary conditions of the melt spreading process, such as downward heat removal and of upward heat removal in case of core melt spreading under water. Computer codes were developed and validated against the data obtained in the MSWI Project. The Multiphase Eulerian Lagrangian Transport code (MELT-313) was validated to investigate the hydrodynamics during the premixing process of jet penetrating into a water pool. The FlowLab code employing the multi-fluid multi-phase Lattice-Boltzmann method was developed and validated. In the Lattice-Boltzmann approach, no special treatment is needed to track the interface. A scaling technology was developed to describe the spreading efficiency of melt into I -D channel. The melt vessel interaction thermal analysis (MVITA) code describes the process of melt pool formation, melt pool convection and the resulting vessel thermal loadings. A gap cooling model and model representing penetrations were incorporated into this code. The code was coupled with ANSYS code, which performs structure analysis. Thus a coupled thermal and mechanical analysis of the loadings of a pressure vessel during the melt-vessel interaction, could be performed

1999-01-01

163

Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity to fragment. The molten fuel-coolant mixtures with a binary oxidic core melt (UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}) may feature low triggerability and low explosivity. The mechanical-to-thermal conversion ratio may be very low. The presence of metallic component in the melt may significantly enhance triggerability and explosivity of molten corium. The characteristics of melt spreading into 2-D channel are much different from those into 1-D channel. The evaluations of spreading parameters in reactor accident situations would be strongly affected by the uncertainties in the boundary conditions of the melt spreading process, such as downward heat removal and of upward heat removal in case of core melt spreading under water. Computer codes were developed and validated against the data obtained in the MSWI Project. The Multiphase Eulerian Lagrangian Transport code (MELT-313) was validated to investigate the hydrodynamics during the premixing process of jet penetrating into a water pool. The FlowLab code employing the multi-fluid multi-phase Lattice-Boltzmann method was developed and validated. In the Lattice-Boltzmann approach, no special treatment is needed to track the interface. A scaling technology was developed to describe the spreading efficiency of melt into I -D channel. The melt vessel interaction thermal analysis (MVITA) code describes the process of melt pool formation, melt pool convection and the resulting vessel thermal loadings. A gap cooling model and model representing penetrations were incorporated into this code. The code was coupled with ANSYS code, which performs structure analysis. Thus a coupled thermal and mechanical analysis of the loadings of a pressure vessel during the melt-vessel interaction, could be performed.

Sehgal, B.R.; Yang, Z.L.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Bui, V.A.; Haraldsson, H.O.; Li, H.X.; Konovakhin, M.; Paladino, D.; Leung, W.H [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

1999-08-01

164

Experiments to investigate flow transfer and graphite corrosion in case of air ingress accidents in a high-temperature reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future world economy will require a substantial contribution of energy delivered by nuclear power plants to reduce the CO2-output. But a new quality of safety, a so called catastrophe-free nuclear technology is necessary for making world-wide increase of nuclear energy possible. Producing energy is a catastrophe-free way means, that the consequences of largest accidents have no major impact on the environment of the power plant. Even in case of extreme accidents there must be no realise of unallowable amounts of radioactive fission products. A high-temperature reactor is able to reach this objective by construction. For example the power plant can be designed to remove decay heat without using any active system. However, during operation a break in the primary circuit of the HTR is principally possible. This accident is called an air ingress accident into the hot graphite reactor core. The leakage causes a pressure drop in the helium filled system, a lost of inert helium and after some time an air mass flow may be able to stream through the core according to free natural convection. If the ingress of air is not stopped this accident finally ends with a dangerous damage of the graphite fuel elements and reflector structures according to graphite corrosion with oxygen. The destroyed fuel elements will release fission products. With the large-scale NACOC experiment a testing device is currently in operation at the Institute of Safety Research and Reactor Technology in the Research Centre Juelich. This set-up allows to investigate the sequence of events and consequences of air ingress accidents. This report treats following points which finally lead to a better understanding of the air ingress accident. First: the effect of helium at rest in the upper part of the pressure vessel after pressure drop is demonstrated. Second: the onset of air flow transfer according to free natural convection is shown and the conditions of natural convection flow in a vertical tube system is described. Third: the amount of air mass flow is fixed by an experimental program. Forth: the effect on the mass flow according to different amounts of helium is investigated. Fifth: the DIREKT code was validated by using the experimental results. Sixth: DIREKT calculations deliver results for the HTR - Modul reactor. Seventh: experiments with graphite pebbles and bottom reflectors were done to get an idea about the mechanism acting in the upper part of the bottom reflector and in the lowest pebble layers. Finally possible concepts are described for counteracting the damage and safeguarding the chemical and mechanical stability to the reactor. (orig.)

2002-01-01

165

The Columbia Accident Investigation and The NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Laboratory Contributions Supporting NASA's Return to Flight  

Science.gov (United States)

On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry, resulting in loss of the vehicle and its seven crewmembers. For the next several months, an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA, concluded in August, 2003 that the most likely cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the mission's launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing, which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. The findings of the CAIB were supported by ballistic impact tests, which simulated the physics of External Tank Foam impact on the RCC wing leading edge material. These tests ranged from fundamental material characterization tests to full-scale Orbiter Wing Leading Edge tests. Following the accident investigation, NASA spent the next 18 months focused on returning the shuttle safely to flight. In order to fully evaluate all potential impact threats from the many debris sources on the Space Shuttle during ascent, NASA instituted a significant impact testing program. The results from these tests led to the validation of high-fidelity computer models, capable of predicting actual or potential Shuttle impact events, were used in the certification of STS-114, NASA s Return to Flight Mission, as safe to fly. This presentation will provide a look into the inner workings of the Space Shuttle and a behind the scenes perspective on the impact analysis and testing done for the Columbia Accident Investigation and NASA's Return to Flight programs. In addition, highlights from recent Shuttle missions are presented.

Melis, Matthew E.

2007-01-01

166

Investigation of fuel and clad relocation during LMFBR initiation phase accidents: the STAR experiment program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactivity effects of fuel and clad motion during Unprotected Loss of Flow accidents (ULOFs) strongly influence the accident progression in LMFBRs. To study these phenomena, a series of in-pile experiments (the STAR experiments) are being performed in which clad motion and fuel dispersal are observed in small pin bundles with high-speed cinematography. The major parameters varied in the series are power level, fuel type (fresh versus preirradiated), and number of pins. Results of the first four experiments are presented in the report. The irradiated fuel tests show early fuel disruption caused by fission products followed by rapid fuel sweep out and axial clad relocation

1985-04-21

167

Investigation of fuel and clad relocation during LMFBR initiation phase accidents: the STAR experiment program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reactivity effects of fuel and clad motion during Unprotected Loss of Flow accidents (ULOFs) strongly influence the accident progression in LMFBRs. To study these phenomena, a series of in-pile experiments (the STAR experiments) are being performed in which clad motion and fuel dispersal are observed in small pin bundles with high-speed cinematography. The major parameters varied in the series are power level, fuel type (fresh versus preirradiated), and number of pins. Results of the first four experiments are presented in the report. The irradiated fuel tests show early fuel disruption caused by fission products followed by rapid fuel sweep out and axial clad relocation.

Wright, S.A.; Schumacher, G.; Henkel, P.R.

1985-01-01

168

Investigation of fuel and clad relocation during LMFBR initiation phase accidents. The STAR experiment program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactivity effects of fuel and clad motion during unprotected loss of flow accidents stronglyu influence the accident progression in LMFBRs. To study these phenomena, a series of in-pile experiments (the STAR experiments) are being performed in which clad motion and fuel dispersal are observed in small pin bundles with high-speed cinematography. The major parameters varied in the series are power level, fuel type (fresh versus preirradiation), and number of pins. The results of the first four experiments are presented in the report. The irradiated fuel tests show early fuel disruption caused by fission products followed by rapid fuel sweep out and axial clad relocation

1985-07-01

169

Investigations on the behaviour of UO2 particles and sodium aerosols in SNR accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium is evaporated from hot (400-9000C) sodium pools into an inert gas atmosphere in the NALA experiments. Mixtures of Cs, NaI, SrO and UO2 simulate traces of fuel and fission products as can occur in a hypothetical SNR accident in the coolant sodium. Apart from the evaporation rate of the substrate itself, the whereabouts of these mixtures, whose release in the case of an accident is a source of radiological burden in the containment, is of interest. (orig./RW)

1980-10-24

170

Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

NONE

2004-07-01

171

Long term effects of Minks of the radiation factors from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of small radiation dose influence on human and animal reproductive functions becomes more and more topical after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident. In the number of cases, animals that reside in continues internal, as well as external exposure zone, have pregnancy interruption in its early stages (up to 30 days). This, without any doubts testifies for reproductive process disorder as a whole (hypophysis-ovary-uterus system) and also, as its separate links. The important thing is that a break in any one of those links leads to pregnancy interruption. Hence, in order to determine any disorders in reproductive system functional state, profound and detailed morphofunctional study of the system links (accounting for radiation exposure factors) needs to be done. Because research in this field has just started, we were unable to find any material on this topic. There are, however, some references for morphofunctional changes of endocrine glands, hypophysis in particular and sex glands, refereed to small radiation doses

1997-09-01

172

Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

1993-01-01

173

Contribution of activation products to fusion accident risk: part 1. A preliminary investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Release of neutron-activation products in severe hypothetical fusion-reactor accidents may constitute a larger health hazard than that of the tritium released at the same time. Significant escape of activation products could result from lithium fires hot enough to melt and partly vaporize activated first-wall materials, or from other accident sequences that bring air into contact with activated structure hot enough to cause the formation of volatile metal oxides. Analysis of three combinations of structural materials and severe accident scenarios has been undertaken for an early conceptual tokamak reactor, using a simple consequence model based on that of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Reactor Safety Study (the Rasmussen report) to determine conceivable radiation doses near the plant boundary. No attempt was made to estimate probabilities for such severe events. In the cases of stainless-steel and molybdenum structures subject to massive lithium fires, the boundary doses far exceed those that would be produced by release of the entire plant inventory of tritium and are comparable to the doses similarly calculated for ''worst case'' light water reactor accidents. The case of niobium fusion reactor structure is more favorable. These results, based on an early fusion-reactor design not optimized with respect to safety characteristics, may well portray a worst case picture of fusion accident consequences. They suggest, however, that the large potential safety advantages of fusion compared to fission are not necessarily inherent for all designs and choices of materials, and they motivate attention to the several available strategies for greatly reducing the potential for activation-product release from fusion reactors

1981-01-01

174

Highchair accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to establish guidelines for highchair accident prevention we investigated causes, mode and complications of highchair accidents by the following methods: The charts of 103 children attending our Accident & Emergency department for highchair related injuries were studied retrospectively. Questionnaires were sent to the parents to obtain detailed information about the mode of accident. They were also asked to suggest preventive measures. In addition, a random sample survey was performed with 163 families inquiring about the rate of highchair use and the incidence of highchair related accidents. Of the 103 infants, 15.5% had sustained a skull fracture, 13.6% a brain concussion, 2.0% limb fractures and 68.9% a simple contusion of the head or lacerations to the scalp or face. The questionnaires were fully completed by 61.2% of parents. Every second family reported that their infant had tried to stand up in the highchair before falling off (only one child had been wearing a restraint). In a further 14.3% of accidents the highchair tipped over. Eighty-seven percent of parents would appreciate a pre-installation of restraints, 54.0% requested more informative instructions for users, and 33.3% asked for products with better stability. The random sample survey revealed a highchair use rate of 92%; 18% of families used highchairs equipped with restraints, and 6% reported highchair accidents sustained by their children. We conclude that most highchair accidents occur when unrestrained infants try to stand up. Pre-installed child restraints, better manuals for users and increased highchair stability should be recommended as promising accident prevention strategies. PMID:10229045

Mayr, J M; Seebacher, U; Schimpl, G; Fiala, F

1999-03-01

175

Light water reactor capacity factor investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the internationally accepted measurements of an electrical generating station's productivity is the capacity factor. Comparison of the United States (U.S.) nuclear power plants' average cumulative capacity factors to those of other Western world countries shows that the U.S., while leading the western world in number of operating nuclear power plants, ranks near the bottom in average cumulative capacity factor. This paper identifies the institutional and technological factors that adversely or favorably affect the domestic nuclear power plants capacity factors. A literature search, data analysis, and industry survey were performed to identify institutional and technological factors affecting the capacity factor of light water reactors

1985-01-01

176

Investigation of the behavior of the technological channels of a RBMK reactor under conditions of heating during an accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technological channels in an RBMK reactor must remain intact for accident-free operation and for the prevention of radioactivity from escaping outside the first loop. To develop a computational model of the pipes inside these channels under certain accident conditions, the bulging of pipes was investigated experimentally on Zr + 2.5% Nb alloy model quarter-scale pipes, with and without a graphite-column simulator under conditions of free deformation and segments of a standard pipe with natural split graphite rings and graphite blocks. The models and the standard pipes were heated indirectly from within and the graphite was heated externally, and the temperatures of the pipes and graphite, the channel pressure, and the radial deformation of the channel piping was recorded. In addition, at the end of each experiment, the zone of rupture of the sample was measured in order to determine the relative tangential rupture deformation.

Novosel`skii, O.Yu.; Filinov, V.N.; Kryuchkov, I.I.

1995-09-01

177

Evaluation of total loss of feedwater accident/recovery phase and investigation of the associated EOP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the sequence of event and the thermohydraulic behavior during total loss of feedwater accident and recovery procedure, a RELAP5/MOD3 calculation is performed and compared with the LOFT L9-1/L3-3 experiment. Also, the predictability of the code for the major thermohydraulic phenomena following the accident is assessed. As a result, it is found that a pressure control using the spray until the time the water level reaches the top of the pressurizer, an overpressure protection by pressurizer PORV, a recovery of the secondary heat removal capability by refilling steam generator, and an effective cooldown by the continued natural circulation can be perfomed without core uncovery. It is also found that the plantspecific evaluation is necessary to confirm the effectiveness of the current symptom-oriented emergency operating procedure, especially in an overpressure protection performance and steam generator recovery performance. (Author)

1993-03-01

178

Investigation of Two-Wheeled Road Traffic Accidents using Explicit FE Techniques.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the increase of road traffic accidents increasing due to motorised traffic in the developing world growing alongside the more traditional bicycles and light motorcycles there is good reason to re-examine the two-wheeler case. In addition, if you include the large congestion charge scheme now underway in London and similar projects being considered in other cities globally, there is an even stronger case. These schemes encourage commuters to get back onto two wheels but ...

Mclundie, W. M.

2007-01-01

179

Prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales y factores relacionados en estudiantes de odontología / Prevalence of occupational accidents and related factors in students of dentistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Describir la prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales en estudiantes de Odontología y asociarla con factores propios de su práctica clínica. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal, desarrollado en una universidad pública de la ciudad de Cartagena en 2010. Participaron 213 estudiantes que se en [...] contraban en prácticas pre-clínicas y clínicas de odontología, que corresponden al 96,8 % de la población de referencia. Se aplicó un cuestionario auto-administrado para evaluar la ocurrencia de accidentes al igual que factores asociados. Los datos fueron analizados mediante prevalencias con intervalos de confianza al 95 %, usando la prueba chi², con nivel de significancia (p Abstract in english Objective Describe the prevalence of occupational accidents students of dentistry and associate it with factors of their clinical practice. Methods Cross-sectional study, developed in a public university in the city of Cartagena in 2010. Participants included 213 students in l pre-clinics and clinic [...] s practice of dentistry, selected by simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to evaluate the occurrence of accidents as well as the associated factors. The data were analyzed by prevalence rates with confidence intervals of 95 %, using the chi² test, with significance levels of 0.05. The Association Strength was estimated by OR and the multivariate analysis through nominal logistic regression. Results The prevalence of occupational accidents is 46 %, the type of accident most often is prick (48.7 %), caused mainly by the Explorer (28.9 %). 58.1 % of the accidents are reported and continue care protocol. 87.7 % of the students enfold the needle after use. At bivariate level, only statistically significant association between occupational accidents and semester was presented, being more frequent for the more advanced semesters (p=0.004). Conclusions because of high prevalence of occupational accidents, it is necessary to insist on the implementation of strategies for safe and appropriate environments for the development of educational practices for students.

Katherine M, Arrieta-Vergara; Shyrley, Díaz-Cárdenas; Farith D., González-Martínez.

180

Investigation of Depth Distribution of Radionuclides in Soil Contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident  

Science.gov (United States)

This work was conducted as one of the researches relating to distribution maps of radiation dose rate etc. which the government has promoted as one of the counter-measures to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, and the 2nd investigation on the depth distribution of radionuclides (RNs) in soil was conducted after about 1 year from the accident, succeedingly to the 1st investigation which was conducted after about 3 months from the accident. Soil core samples to about 50cm deep were taken at 11 locations in Nihonmatsu-city, Kawamata-town and Namie-town. Sorption-desorption experiments of Cs-137 and I-131, CEC and AEC measurements and mineralogical analyses by XRD were conducted for 3 types of soils (sandy, clayey, organic) and those elutriated components (clay, silt, sand). Radiocaesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) and Ag-110m were detected at all locations investigated and only at locations where radiation dose rate is high, respectively. Radiocaesium more than 95% and 99% of the inventory distributed within 5cm and 10cm deep in soil in the surface layer (mainly sandy soil), respectively, and distributed within 16cm and 20cm deep in organic soil and soil at locations where are supposed to have been used as farmland, respectively. Radiocaesium tended to extend to deeper parts in soil that organic and clayey soils are the support layer, particularly in organic soil, compared with the 1st investigation. Distribution coefficients of Cs-137 onto organic soil and its elutriated components were also lower than that onto other soils. This is consistent with trend of penetration profile.

Sato, Haruo; Niizato, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Shingo; Abe, Hironobu; Aoki, Kazuhiro

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

Trends in state-level freight accident rates: An enhancement of risk factor development for RADTRAN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is concerned with understanding and managing risk as it applies to the shipment of spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Understanding risk in relation to mode and geography may provide opportunities to minimize radiological and non-radiological risks of transportation. To enhance such an understanding, a set of state-or waterway-specific accident, fatality, and injury rates (expressed as rates per shipment kilometer) by transportation mode and highway administrative class was developed, using publicly-available data bases. Adjustments made to accommodate miscoded or incomplete information in accident data are described, as well as the procedures for estimating state-level flow data. Results indicate that the shipping conditions under which spent fuel is likely to be transported should be less subject to accidents than the average'' shipment within mode. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

Saricks, C.; Kvitek, T.

1991-01-01

182

Investigations on the behaviour of ruthenium nuclides under accident conditions. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compared to the existing conceptions of abnormally high release rates had been observed in the Tschernobyl accident. A working hypothesis is presented by means of which this phenomenon can be explained. It is based on the in-situ formation of highly volatile carbonyl-compounds of ruthenium, which are converted to aerosol aggregation particles within the saturation range of water vapour. By a comparative consideration of the reaction model for the core-meltdown-concrete-interaction of different reactor types the dominant influence of carbon monoxied and consequently of the carbonate content in concrete is shown. To support this theory an enlargement of these investiagions is proposed (orig./HP)

1994-01-01

183

Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

Naser Azad

2012-04-01

184

Investigation of FP paths during hypothetical severe accident as a result of Small Break LOCA of WWER-1000 reactor type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modelling the behaviour of fission product (FP) in a nuclear reactor coolant system (RCS) undergoing a hypothetical severe accident is an important step in the evaluation of radioactive release outside a nuclear power plant. This paper scrutinize Small Break LOCA sequence for WWER1000 reactor in order to investigate the possible paths for release of FP from fuel pallets to the reactor containment. Contemporaneous computer code for simulation of RCS will be use for the analysis. The results from analysis of fuel damage and release of FP trough the break of cold leg are present. (author)

2009-10-02

185

Investigation of Quality Factor of Resonators  

CERN Document Server

This document provides different methods of determining the quality factor Q of a resonator. Results obtained by a measurement are compared to an analytical calculation and a simulation model is elaborated.

Eberhardt, J

2014-01-01

186

Investigation into motorcycle, driver and passenger safety in motorcycle accidents with two motorcycle riders. Pt. 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the first part of this article, the authors described the objectives of their experiments, the test rigs used and how the experiments were carried out; the experiments involved crashing motorcycles carrying two dummies in most cases against the side of stationary passenger cars. Drawing on findings gained from earlier experiments, the authors were able to explain many of the movements executed by the motorcycle and its riders after the beginning of the collision and to correlate them with time. The detailed study done on trajetories and measured rider decelerations covered right-angle motorcycle impact both with a driver only and with a driver plus a passenger on the motorcycle. In this second part, the kinetic study is continued to cover two 45-degree impacts, and the authors describe their findings on the strength of the door-side-panel assembly and on reconstructing motorcycle-passenger-car accidents. (orig.)

Grandel, J.; Schaper, D.; Berg, F.A.

1987-12-01

187

Investigations of the behaviour of coated fuel particles and spherical fuel elements at accident temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A post irradiation annealing test apparature was constructed for the measurement of fission gas release at temperatures similar to those to be reached in a HTR during a hypothetical accident. From examinations with existing apparatures up to temperatures of 1800"0C results were available about the load capacity of coated particles as well as knowledges about fission gas release and defect behaviour. These results were used to plan a series of annealing tests with spherical fuel elements up to 2500"0C. It could be shown that the (U,Th)O_2-particles with high burn up will fail during maximum core heat up of a HTR only after some hours at temperatures above 2400"0C. (orig.)

1978-01-01

188

Human factors contributing to groundfall accidents in underground coal mines workers' views  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents findings from a Bureau of Mines study on barriers that may prevent miners from correcting and avoiding groundfall hazards. Such barriers stem from four basic types of problems: 1) inability to recognize groundfall hazards; 2) inability to correct groundfall hazards; 3) lack of motivation to search for groundfall hazards; and 4) lack of motivation to correct groundfall hazards. Data are presented that summarize the views of miners, section supervisors, and mine inspectors about the contribution of these barriers to groundfall accidents and what they think should be done to reduce the frequency of injuries sustained by falls of roof and rib. The paper also includes a summary of miners' responses concerning their recent experiences with groundfall accidents. 2 refs., 5 tabs.

Peters, R.H.; Wiehagen, W.J.

1988-10-01

189

Latent Conditions, Safety Barriers and Situational Factors for Maritime Accidents in the Sound Area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Sound Area, located between Sweden and Denmark, is one of the most intensely trafficked waters in the world with complex traffic patterns and a bridge/tunnel under construction, which will link the two countries. This high level of complexity increases the probability of both maritime accidents and very negative consequences of them. This paper presents the ergonomic part of an ongoing multidisciplinary pilot project with the objective of identifying and describing maritime risks in the S...

Ek, A?sa; Olsson, Ulf; Akselsson, Roland

1999-01-01

190

Asthma is a risk factor for acute chest syndrome and cerebral vascular accidents in children with sickle cell disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and sickle cell disease are common conditions that both may result in pulmonary complications. We hypothesized that children with sickle cell disease with concomitant asthma have an increased incidence of vaso-occlusive crises that are complicated by episodes of acute chest syndrome. Methods A 5-year retrospective chart analysis was performed investigating 48 children ages 3–18 years with asthma and sickle cell disease and 48 children with sickle cell disease alone. Children were matched for age, gender, and type of sickle cell defect. Hospital admissions were recorded for acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accident, vaso-occlusive pain crises, and blood transfusions (total, exchange and chronic. Mann-Whitney test and Chi square analysis were used to assess differences between the groups. Results Children with sickle cell disease and asthma had significantly more episodes of acute chest syndrome (p = 0.03 and cerebral vascular accidents (p = 0.05 compared to children with sickle cell disease without asthma. As expected, these children received more total blood transfusions (p = 0.01 and chronic transfusions (p = 0.04. Admissions for vasoocclusive pain crises and exchange transfusions were not statistically different between cases and controls. SS disease is more severe than SC disease. Conclusions Children with concomitant asthma and sickle cell disease have increased episodes of acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accidents and the need for blood transfusions. Whether aggressive asthma therapy can reduce these complications in this subset of children is unknown and requires further studies.

Scott Paul J

2005-01-01

191

Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" / Risk factors for accidents in children: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: Casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de [...] Referencia Nacional. Participantes: Se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos) y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles). Mediciones principales: El instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: La edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite) OR 15,04 (IC 95% 5,47 - 44,48), productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina) OR 14,19 (IC 95% 0,72 - 276,33), instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7,82 (IC 95% 5,22 - 11,73 ), cohetillos OR 5,26 (IC 95% 2,49 - 11,95), presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3,30 (IC 95% 2,02 - 5,25), cosméticos OR 2,06 (IC 95% 1,36 - 3,10), productos de limpieza OR 1,20 (IC 95% 0,22 - 5,82), medicamentos OR 1,12 (IC 95% 0,73 - 1,70). Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4,62 (IC 95% 2,61 - 8,20), trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2,04 (IC 95% 1,42 - 2,93) y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1,65 (IC 95% 1,15 - 2,36). Conclusiones: Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sope todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niños Abstract in english Objectives: To identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: Case and control incidents. Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uria, a third-level paediatric hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and [...] 400 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, persons responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumstances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5.4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR 7,82, firecrackers OR 5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR 2,06, house cleaner products OR 1,20, medicines OR 1,12, previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2,04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1,65. Conclusions: The main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by paediatricians or family practitioners

Kurt, Paulsen S.; Hector, Mejia S..

192

Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" Risk factors for accidents in children: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: Casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de Referencia Nacional. Participantes: Se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles. Mediciones principales: El instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: La edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite OR 15,04 (IC 95% 5,47 - 44,48, productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina OR 14,19 (IC 95% 0,72 - 276,33, instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7,82 (IC 95% 5,22 - 11,73 , cohetillos OR 5,26 (IC 95% 2,49 - 11,95, presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3,30 (IC 95% 2,02 - 5,25, cosméticos OR 2,06 (IC 95% 1,36 - 3,10, productos de limpieza OR 1,20 (IC 95% 0,22 - 5,82, medicamentos OR 1,12 (IC 95% 0,73 - 1,70. Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4,62 (IC 95% 2,61 - 8,20, trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2,04 (IC 95% 1,42 - 2,93 y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1,65 (IC 95% 1,15 - 2,36. Conclusiones: Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sope todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niñosObjectives: To identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: Case and control incidents. Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uria, a third-level paediatric hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and 400 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, persons responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumstances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5.4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR 7,82, firecrackers OR 5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR 2,06, house cleaner products OR 1,20, medicines OR 1,12, previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2,04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1,65. Conclusions: The main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by paediatricians or family practitioners

Kurt Paulsen S.

2005-01-01

193

Causal factors guide for the evaluation of accidents in research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the field of radiological and nuclear safety, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina controls three research reactors and three critical assemblies, by means of evaluations, audits and inspections, in order to ensure the fulfilment of the requirements established in the Licenses, in the regulatory standards and in the mandatory documentation in general. From the Nuclear Regulatory Authority's point of view, within the general process of research reactors safety management, the management of operating experience plays an outstanding role. In this aspect the ARN has established specific requirements in the Operation Licences in relation to the communication, evaluation, investigation of causes, and adoption of corrective measures, for the events that occurred. From the experience collected in the analysis of the reports sent by the operators it has been verified some weaknesses in relation to the methodology of analysis of events and in the determination of the causal factors. In such sense, with the purpose of establishing some help for the appraisers and to homogenize the treatment of the events, two reference guides were designed: a guide for the evaluation of events and the other with a grid of causal factors This paper describes the main aspects of the operating management system established for research reactors and critical assemblies in Argentina, and the guides developed for the event analysis and determination of causal factors. (author)

2008-11-01

194

Investigation of accidents with decrease of boric acid concentration in the primary coolant of VVER-1000/model 91 reactor plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of recent investigations on the problem of inhomogeneous boron dilution for the VVER-1000/model 91 reactor are summarized in the paper. The studies have been performed in cooperation by Russian and Finnish experts. The phenomena related to the formation of diluted slugs, their transport and mixing in the reactor coolant system, and the potential consequences in the core are discussed. The potential external sources of pure condensate in various reactor operating conditions have been investigated. Thermal hydraulic analyses for identification of accidents having an inherent mechanism for boron dilution in the primary circuit have been performed using computer codes APROS, SMABRE, and DINAMIKA. The results allow to determine the location and potential size of diluted slugs. Steady-state and transient analyses of the core response have been performed using computer codes HEXBU-3D and HEXTRAN to model the core in three dimensions. The results allow to draw conclusions on the potential for severe core damage

1996-03-10

195

Accidents - Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

2004-01-01

196

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board`s investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63).

Gerton, R.E.

1997-07-25

197

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board's investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63)

1997-01-01

198

Investigation on the sodium leak accident of Monju. Sodium leak test simulating the Monju leak  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium fire experiments were carried out two times using the Sodium Fire Test Rig (SOFT-1) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp (PNC) as a part of works to research the cause of the accident in secondary main cooling system of Monju. The purposes of these experiments are to confirm the leak rate and leakage form of sodium from damaged thermometer, to confirm the damage to the piping insulating structure around the thermometer and to the flexible tube, and to compare the temperature history of the signal from the thermometer between the experiments and Monju. In the experiments 56({+-}2)g/sec was obtained as the leak rate under the condition of ensuring the leakage pass in the simulated thermometer. This leak rate was corrected to 53g/sec to take account of manufacturing error of the thermometer between the experiment and Monju. In calculation of this leak rate, it is assumed that the annulus size of thermometer well tip is a nominal distance and pressure value to the leakage sodium is 1.65kg/cm{sup 2}G, which was the maximum one during the leakage of Monju. The behavior of signal from the simulated thermometer was very similar to that of the damaged thermometer in Monju and it was confirmed this temperature history could be sufficiently explained by moving of the temperature contact position of the thermocouple following the runoff of leakage sodium. (J.P.N.)

Shimoyama, Kazuhito; Nishimura, Masahiro; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Usami, Masayuki

1996-11-01

199

Investigation of relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks of nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the main control room (MCR) of a nuclear power plant (NPP), there are lots of dynamic information sources for MCR operator's situation awareness. As the human-machine interface in MCR is advanced, operator's information acquisition, information gathering and decision-making is becoming an important part to maintain the effective and safe operation of NPPs. Diagnostic task in complex and huge systems like NPP is the most difficult and mental effort-demanding for operators. This research investigates the relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks. The amount of information flow is quantified, using information flow model and Conant's model, a kind of information theory. For the mental workload measure, eye blink rate, blink duration, fixation time, number of fixation, and gaze direction are measured during accident diagnosis tasks. Subjective methods such as NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) method are also used in the experiment. It is shown that the operator's mental workload has significant relation to information flow of diagnosis task. It makes possible to predict the mental workload through the quantity of the information flow of a system

2004-10-28

200

SIMBATH 1976-1992, seventeen years of experimental investigation of key issues concerned with severe reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The course of the initiating phase of severe fast reactor accidents is determined by early material motion. In simulation experiments (SIMBATH, simulation experiments in fuel element mock-ups with thermite) the behavior of single pin, 7 pin, 19 pin, 37 pin bundles undergoing meltdown was investigated. Thermite (Al + Fe2O3) filled tubes were used to simulate fuel rods, while exothermal heat of the thermite reaction simulated the nuclear heat. The energy of 3.4 kJ per centimeter of pin length resulted in melting temperature of about 3200 K. SIMBATH is an out-of-pile experimental program with non-radioactive materials which provided the possibility to perform numerous experiments. The x-ray high speed photography used in the test enabled to visualise material motion and relocation qualitatively, and furthermore to gain quantitative results by additionally installed photodiodes. The results of the experiment serve as a database to evaluate physical phenomena relevant to be modelled by computer codes (SIMMER) and to verify the codes. The experiments were carried out either in stagnant sodium with an axial temperature gradient, or in flowing sodium, simulating unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) or unprotected transient overpower accidents (UTOP) conditions, respectively

1994-06-06

 
 
 
 
201

Postulated accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture on 'Postulated Accidents' is the first of a series of lectures on the dynamic and transient behaviour of nuclear power plants, especially pressurized water reactors. The main points covered will be: Reactivity Accidents, Transients (Intact Loop) and Loss of Cooland Accidents (LOCA) including small leak. This lecture will discuss the accident analysis in general, the definition of the various operational phases, the accident classification, and, as an example, an accident sequence analysis on the basis of 'Postulated Accidents'. (orig./RW)

1980-10-15

202

Time dependence of the {sup 137}Cs resuspension factor on the Romanian territory after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the basis of the radioactivity levels in aerosol and atmospheric deposition samples due to the Chernobyl accident, the resuspension factor of {sup 137}Cs as a four-parameter function has been inferred. The standard procedure to derive the dependence of resuspension on time assumes that the initial deposit is instantaneous. A simple method assuming a constant deposition rate over a fixed period has been proposed. Also, based on existing experimental data, an attempt was made to consider a realistic time dependence of the deposition rate to cope with the particular case of the Chernobyl accident. The differences between the two models are outlined. The Chernobyl direct deposit has been assumed to be the deposit measured between 30 April and 30 June 1986. The calculated values of the resuspension factor are consistent with the IAEA`s recommended model and depend on the rainfall that occurred in June 1986 and the site-specific disturbance conditions during the first 100 d following 1 July 1986 and only on artificial disturbance by humans and vehicles after that. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Mihaila, B. [Institute of Environmental Research and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cuculeanu, V. [National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bucharest (Romania)

1994-08-01

203

Time dependence of the "1"3"7Cs resuspension factor on the Romanian territory after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the radioactivity levels in aerosol and atmospheric deposition samples due to the Chernobyl accident, the resuspension factor of "1"3"7Cs as a four-parameter function has been inferred. The standard procedure to derive the dependence of resuspension on time assumes that the initial deposit is instantaneous. A simple method assuming a constant deposition rate over a fixed period has been proposed. Also, based on existing experimental data, an attempt was made to consider a realistic time dependence of the deposition rate to cope with the particular case of the Chernobyl accident. The differences between the two models are outlined. The Chernobyl direct deposit has been assumed to be the deposit measured between 30 April and 30 June 1986. The calculated values of the resuspension factor are consistent with the IAEA's recommended model and depend on the rainfall that occurred in June 1986 and the site-specific disturbance conditions during the first 100 d following 1 July 1986 and only on artificial disturbance by humans and vehicles after that. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

1994-08-01

204

El Cuerpo Militar de Sanidad en la Investigación de Accidentes Aéreos / The role of Military Health Service in Aircraft Accident Investigation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La investigación de un accidente o incidente aéreo puede ser simple o enormemente compleja. El proceso de investigación puede conducir a la elaboración de un informe directo y conciso o lo más frecuente, significa un largo camino de recopilación, análisis, estudio y finalmente la elaboración de posi [...] bles conclusiones. En este proceso, los aspectos médicos, psicológicos, ambientales, psicosociales o ergonómicos englobados en el término genérico de factores humanos cobran una especial relevancia, atribuyéndose hasta un 60-80% de causas directas o coadyuvantes al mismo. En este trabajo se revisan los antecedentes jurídicos y base legal en la que se apoya la Comisión para la investigación técnica de accidentes de aeronaves militares (CITAAM), así como sus atribuciones, organización y composición, sus funciones generales y más concretamente las encomendadas al vocal médico de la misma. Desde su creación en 1994, la experiencia acumulada ha sido enorme, haciéndose mención de algunos datos de interés estadístico pero señalando también la labor de formación realizada y su proyección nacional e internacional, sobre todo en el marco de la OTAN. Abstract in english Aircraft Accident Investigation means a complex task in order to identify the major causes which lead to the mishap. Investigation process end in a technical report, which encloses a large amount of information and data gathering documentation, to be studied, analyzed and lines of inquiry establishe [...] d to finally produce the appropriate conclusions. Medical, psychological, environmental, psychosocial and ergonomic faces of the investigation are framed in the so called human factors, which actually leads to 60-80% of the causal factors of accidents. In this report we have reviewed the legal basis in which the CITAAM is supported, competencies, organization and composition, general functions and specifically responsibilities of the medical representative in the board. Since the establishment of the CITAAM in 1994 the experience accumulated has been very wide-ranged and we show some statistical data and work produced in education and instruction, as well as the national and international relationships mostly in the NATO frame.

Rios Tejada, F.; Puente Espada, B..

205

A limited investigation of the sensitivity of the containment source term to certain primary circuit parameters under PWR severe accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitivity of the source term to the containment for a limited number of primary circuit parameters and phenomena has been investigated for three hypothetical PWR severe accident sequences. These sequences are: a large hot leg break with failure of electric power to engineered safety features (AB hot leg); a small cold leg break with failure of pumped ECCS (S2D) and a transient initiated sequence with failure of secondary system relief valves, power conversion and auxiliary feedwater systems and loss of on and off-site power for at least 3 hours (TMLB'). All of these are substantially beyond the design basis. The investigation is a direct continuation of the PWR Severe Accident Containment Study. Results are discussed in terms of the effect of a given parameter or phenomenon on the retention in the primary circuit, the physical form of the source to the containment and finally the parameters describing the aerosol size distribution entering the containment. For an AB hot leg large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) sequence the retention within the primary circuit is generally small and largely insensitive to most of the parameters considered. However, the particle size distribution of released aerosol material is sensitive to many of the parameters studied, and variations greater than a factor of 3 are predicted. The circuit residence time for a S2D small break LOCA sequence is higher than for a large break, and this results in increased retention. The size distribution and quantity of aerosols reaching the containment show strong sensitivities to many of the parameters studied. During a transient-initiated TLMB' sequence the residence times within the primary circuit are even longer than for the small break LOCA sequence. Calculations predict almost complete retention of the aerosol species and very high retention of volatile fission products. The retention of fission products is dominated by the rise in circuit temperatures following core slump, and this results in high vapour fractions being released into the containment. Fission product vapour fractions have been overlooked in containment behaviour calculations and may give rise to aerosol nucleation at the circuit breach. This could result in a bi-modal size distribution that would require careful assessment. The timing, and physical characteristics of the aerosol and fission product sources to the containment are sensitive to most of the parameters studied. (author)

1989-01-01

206

Investigation of Countercurrent Helium-Air Flows in Air-ingress Accidents for VHTRs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this research is to develop an extensive experimental database for the air- ingress phenomenon for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This research is intended to be a separate-effects experimental study. However, the project team will perform a careful scaling analysis prior to designing a scaled-down test facility in order to closely tie this research with the real application. As a reference design in this study, the team will use the 600 MWth gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) developed by General Atomic. In the test matrix of the experiments, researchers will vary the temperature and pressure of the helium— along with break size, location, shape, and orientation—to simulate deferent scenarios and to identify potential mitigation strategies. Under support of the Department of Energy, a high-temperature helium test facility has been designed and is currently being constructed at Ohio State University, primarily for high- temperature compact heat exchanger testing for the VHTR program. Once the facility is in operation (expected April 2009), this study will utilize high-temperature helium up to 900°C and 3 MPa for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) depressurization and air-ingress experiments. The project team will first conduct a scaling study and then design an air-ingress test facility. The major parameter to be measured in the experiments is oxygen (or nitrogen) concentration history at various locations following a LOCA scenario. The team will use two measurement techniques: 1) oxygen (or similar type) sensors employed in the flow field, which will introduce some undesirable intrusiveness, disturbing the flow, and 2) a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging technique, which has no physical intrusiveness to the flow but requires a transparent window or test section that the laser beam can penetrate. The team will construct two test facilities, one for high-temperature helium tests with local sensors and the other for low- temperature helium tests with the PLIF technique. The results from the two instruments will provide a means to cross-calibrate the measurement techniques.

Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Oh, Chang

2013-10-31

207

Human factors issues in severe accident management: Training for decision-making under stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, there is a growing awareness that the decision-making tasks required for selecting appropriate control actions, in addition to guidance from formal procedures, also involve cognitive activities commonly referred to as judgment or reasoning. A project was completed to address the nature of the cognitive skills that may be important to decision-making in the nuclear power plant environment, especially during severe accident management. The project identified a model of decision-making that could account for both rule-based and knowledge-based decision-making and used it to identify cognitive skills for both individuals and operational crews. This analysis was then used to identify existing training techniques for cognitive skills and the general characteristics of successful training techniques

1994-04-01

208

PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

Jovica Jovanovic

2004-01-01

209

Exercise (effort) tolerance and factors affecting this tolerance for liquidators of consequences of the ChNPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physical efficiency and factors affecting it for persons exposed to irradiation (the radiation dose being in the range up to 0.75 Gy) has been studied. 670 participants of liquidating the consequences of ChNPP accident have been examined. Depending on the radiation doses to which the people have been exposed the liquidators have been subdivided into 4 groups: for the 1st group the radiation doses ranging from 0.25 to 0.75 Gy; for the 2nd group the radiation doses ranging from 0.10 to 0.24 Gy; for the 3rd group the radiation doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.10 Gy; for the 4th group the radiation dose being up to 0.05 Gy. The physical load was ensured with veloergometer. The results have made it possible to estimate one of the basic health criterion for liquidators of consequences of ChNPP accident (i.e. exercise (effort) tolerance). No direct relationship of the exercise magnitude and the radiation dose within the range up to 0.75 Gy and the irradiation time have been observed. The correlation of the exercise magnitude with due account to age has been provided. 15 refs.; 2 tabs

1992-05-15

210

A Look at Aircraft Accident Analysis in the Early Days: Do Early 20th Century Accident Investigation Techniques Have Any Lessons for Today?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the early years of powered flight, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics in the United States produced three reports describing a method of analysis of aircraft accidents. The first report was published in 1928; the second, which was a revision of the first, was published in 1930; and the third, which was a revision and update of the second, was published in 1936. This paper describes the contents of these reports, and compares the method of analysis proposed therein to the methods used today.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

2007-01-01

211

Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

Naser Azad

2013-03-01

212

Evaluation and Learning after Major Railway Accidents : Various perspectives of accident research theories in evaluation reports and their implications for learning after accidents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accident causation has been differently approached and evaluated in the last decades. This thesis studies four large accidents in the Norwegian railway organization, i.e. the Tretten accident, the Nordstrand accident, the Åsta accident and the Alnabru/Sjursøya accident. Accident causation was investigated by systematically reviewing and comparing the respective accidents? evaluation reports to three dominant accident research theories: The Energy and Barrier theory, the Man-made Disaster ...

Storsveen, Silje

2012-01-01

213

Large Break LOCA Accident Management Strategies for Accidents With Large Containment Leaks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this work is the investigation of the influence of different accident management strategies on the thermal-hydraulics in the containment during a Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident with a large containment leak from the beginning of the accident. The increasing relevance of terrorism suggests a closer look at this kind of severe accidents. Normally the course of severe accidents and their associated phenomena are investigated with the assumption of an intact containment from the beginning of the accident. This intact containment has the ability to retain a large part of the radioactive inventory. In these cases there is only a release via a very small leakage due to the un-tightness of the containment up to cavity bottom melt through. This paper represents the last part of a comprehensive study on the influence of accident management strategies on the source term of VVER-1000 reactors. Basically two different accident sequences were investigated: the 'Station Blackout'- sequence and the 'Large Break LOCA'. In a first step the source term calculations were performed assuming an intact containment from the beginning of the accident and no accident management action. In a further step the influence of different accident management strategies was studied. The last part of the project was a repetition of the calculations with the assumption of a damaged containment from the beginning of the accident. This paper concentrates on the last step in the case of a Large Break LOCA. To be able to compare the results with calculations performed years ago the calculations were performed using the Source Term Code Package (STCP), hydrogen explosions are not considered. In this study four different scenarios have been investigated. The main parameter was the switch on time of the spray systems. One of the results is the influence of different accident management strategies on the source term. In the comparison with the sequence with intact containment it was demonstrated that the accident management measures have quite lower consequences. In addition it was shown that in the case of a 'Large Break LOCA'-sequence the intact containment retains the nuclides up to a factor of 20 000. This is much more than in the case of a 'Station Blackout'-sequence. Within the frame of the study 17 source terms have been generated to evaluate in detail accident management strategies for VVER-1000 reactors. (authors)

2006-07-17

214

The Application of Electron Microscopy Techniques to the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

The Space Shuttle Columbia was returning from a 16-day research mission, STS- 107, with nominal system performance prior to the beginning of the entry interface into earth's upper atmosphere. Approximately one minute and twenty four seconds into the peak heating region of the entry interface, an off-nominal temperature rise was observed in the left main landing gear brake line. Nearly seven minutes later, all contact was lost with Columbia. Debris was observed periodically exiting the Shuttle's flight path throughout the reentry profile over California, Nevada, and New Mexico, until its final breakup over Texas. During the subsequent investigation, electron microscopy techniques were crucial in revealing the location of the fatal damage that resulted in the loss of Columbia and her crew.

Shah, Sandeep; Jerman, Greg

2005-01-01

215

49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The...S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49...inspection in the NTSB's public reference room and/or on the...

2010-10-01

216

Experimental investigation of material chemical effects on emergency core cooling pump suction filter performance after loss of coolant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Integral tests of head loss through an emergency core cooling filter screen are conducted, simulating reactor building environmental conditions for 30 days after a loss of coolant accident. A test rig with five individual loops each of whose chamber is established to test chemical product formation and measure the head loss through a sample filter. The screen area at each chamber and the amounts of reactor building materials are scaled down according to specific plant condition. A series of tests have been performed to investigate the effects of calcium-silicate, reactor building spray, existence of calcium-silicate with tri-sodium phosphate (TSP), and composition of materials. The results showed that head loss across the chemical bed with even a small amount of calcium-silicate insulation instantaneously increased as soon as TSP was added to the test solution. Also, the head loss across the filter screen is strongly affected by spray duration and the head loss increase is rapid at the early stage, because of high dissolution and precipitation of aluminum and zinc. After passivation of aluminum and zinc by corrosion, the head loss increase is much slowed down and is mainly induced by materials such as calcium, silicon, and magnesium leached from NUKONTM and concrete. Furthermore, it is newly found that the spay buffer agent, tri-sodium phosphate, to form protective coating on the aluminum surface and reduce aluminum leaching is not effective for a large amount of aluminum and a long spray.

2009-12-01

217

Risk factors to cerebrovascular accident users in Hospital Geral Prado Valadares  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the main risk factors for stroke in users of the General Hospital Prado Valadares, in Jequié / BA. We performed a descriptive analysis of observational retrospective approach, in 327 records of patients suffering from stroke in hospitalized HGPV from March 2003 to December 2005, since data collection occurred late in the second half of 2006. Of the records analyzed, 50.7% corresponded to females, and 26.9% of patients died and most developed only a characteristic sign or symptom of stroke (57.8%. 64.2% had a history of only one modifiable risk factor, and high blood pressure as found in the records reviewed (79.8%. It was found in this study that most patients with stroke were female, the presence of only one symptom, and only one modifiable risk factor, hypertension being the most common risk factor. From this perspective there is the immediate need for wider dissemination in the society about the risk factors for this pathology, as a means of preventing their consequences on the individual and the high costs to staying in hospital bed.

Carla Virginia Souza Santos

2011-01-01

218

Investigation regarding the long-term security developments in the Swedish nuclear power and the response to the accident at Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Swedish nuclear plants need to continue to work on analysis and actions in the plants, partly to meet the demands of legislation and agreed action plans, and partly due to additional security requirements on account of experiences from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, stress tests, security investigations and investigations relating to physical protection. It is also essential to continue with safety improvements to gradually increase margins against unforeseen events in aging plants during long-term operation

2012-01-01

219

On the results of investigating cause of sodium leak accident in prototype fast breeder reactor 'Monju' in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sodium leak accident in the secondary system of Monju occurred on December 8, 1995. The task force for investigating the accident was established in Nuclear Safety Bureau, and on May 23, 1996, the May report on the results of investigation was published. In order to elucidate the details of the fact that only one thermometer in the secondary system was broken and the reaction of leaked sodium with steel materials, the investigation was continued. In this report, also the results of these additional investigations are included. First, the accident of this time is outlined. As for the cause of the occurrence of sodium leak, the examination of the fracture surface of the broken thermometer, the high cycle fatigue due to hydrodynamic vibration, the investigation of the design, manufacture and installation of the thermometer, and the evaluation of secondary system thermometers which were not broken are reported. The cause that only one thermometer was broken was the way of its insertion which made the restraint of vibration amplitude ineffective. As the effects of sodium leak, the pile of sodium compound on floor liner, the damage of ducts and gratings, and the color change of concrete walls were observed. The burning experiment due to sodium leak was carried out to confirm the effects. (K.I.)

1997-07-01

220

A Summary of the Space Shuttle Columbia Tragedy and the Use of LS Dyna in the Accident Investigation and Return to Flight Efforts  

Science.gov (United States)

On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry resulting in loss of 7 crewmembers and craft. For the next several months an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA concluded in August, 2003 that the cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the missions launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. In order to gain a better understanding the foam impact on the orbiters RCC wing leading edge, a multi-center team of NASA and Boeing impact experts was formed to characterize the foam and RCC materials for impact analysis using LS Dyna. Dyna predictions were validated with sub-component and full scale tests. LS Dyna proved to be a valuable asset in supporting both the Columbia Accident Investigation and NASA s return to flight efforts. This paper summarizes Columbia Accident and the nearly seven month long investigation that followed. The use of LS-DYNA in this effort is highlighted. Contributions to the investigation and return to flight efforts of the multicenter team consisting of members from NASA Glenn, NASA Langley, and Boeing Philadelphia are introduced and covered in detail in papers to follow in these proceedings.

Melis, Matthew; Carney, Kelly; Gabrys, Jonathan; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Characterization of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials for Return-to-Flight following the Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

During the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation, it was determined that a large chunk of polyurethane insulating foam (= 1.67 lbs) on the External Tank (ET) came loose during Columbia's ascent on 2-1-03. The foam piece struck some of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the leading edge of Columbia's left wing in the mid-wing area. This impact damaged Columbia to the extent that upon re-entry to Earth, superheGed air approaching 3,000 F caused the vehicle to break up, killing all seven astronauts on board. A paper after the Columbia Accident Investigation highlighted thermal analysis testing performed on External Tank TPS materials (1). These materials included BX-250 (now BX-265) rigid polyurethane foam and SLA-561 Super Lightweight Ablator (highly-filled silicone rubber). The large chunk of foam from Columbia originated fiom the left bipod ramp of the ET. The foam in this ramp area was hand-sprayed over the SLA material and various fittings, allowed to dry, and manually shaved into a ramp shape. In Return-to-Flight (RTF) efforts following Columbia, the decision was made to remove the foam in the bipod ramp areas. During RTF efforts, further thermal analysis testing was performed on BX-265 foam by DSC and DMA. Flat panels of foam about 2-in. thick were sprayed on ET tank material (aluminum alloys). The DSC testing showed that foam material very close to the metal substrate cured more slowly than bulk foam material. All of the foam used on the ET is considered fully cured about 21 days after it is sprayed. The RTF culminated in the successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on 7-26-05. Although the flight was a success, there was another serious incident of foam loss fiom the ET during Shuttle ascent. This time, a rather large chunk of BX-265 foam (= 0.9 lbs) came loose from the liquid hydrogen (LH2) PAL ramp, although the foam did not strike the Shuttle Orbiter containing the crew. DMA testing was performed on foam samples taken fiom a simulated PAL ramp panel. It was found that the smooth rind on the foam facing the cable tray did significantly affect the properties of foam at the PAL ramp surface. The smooth rind increased the storage modulus E' of the foam as much as 20- 40% over a temperature range of -145 to 95 C. Because of foam loss fiom the PAL ramp, future Shuttle flights were grounded indefinitely to allow further testing to better understand foam properties. The decision was also made to remove foam from the LH2 PAL, ramp. Other RTF efforts prior to the launch of Discovery included

Wingard, Doug

2006-01-01

222

Investigating Effective Factors on Iran’s Pistachio Exportation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problem of Iran’s economic is depending on oil’s incomes, therefore to increase non oil exportation like
agricultural products is the main goal of country’s economic development program. The goal of this paper is to investigate effective factors in pistachio exportation and mentioned goal will be consider by variable factors such as export’s principle, aflatoxin poison, and packaging. The type of this paper is descriptive–cognition and the related information for this...

Seyed fathollah Amiri Aghdaie

2009-01-01

223

Lessons learned - the Columbia Space Shuttle accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 2003 February 01, the Columbia space shuttle broke apart during re-entry with the loss of all crew-members. An accident investigation board undertook a comprehensive examination of the spacecraft design, performance, and NASA design and operational practices to uncover direct and contributory accident causal factors; and recommend the improvements required for return of the shuttle program to flight status. This paper will summarize the investigative approach taken, the findings and recommendations that resulted, and the lessons of relevance to the nuclear industry. The paper will also outline a suggested 'road-map' for deriving the main lessons learned from the full board report. (author)

2004-06-06

224

Lessons learned - the Columbia Space Shuttle accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On 2003 February 01, the Columbia space shuttle broke apart during re-entry with the loss of all crew-members. An accident investigation board undertook a comprehensive examination of the spacecraft design, performance, and NASA design and operational practices to uncover direct and contributory accident causal factors; and recommend the improvements required for return of the shuttle program to flight status. This paper will summarize the investigative approach taken, the findings and recommendations that resulted, and the lessons of relevance to the nuclear industry. The paper will also outline a suggested 'road-map' for deriving the main lessons learned from the full board report. (author)

Davey, E. [Crew Systems Solutions, Deep River, Ontario (Canada); Patterson, B. [Human Factors Practical, Dipper Harbour, New Brunswick (Canada)

2004-07-01

225

Analysis Fukushima 11032011 -- Extended analysis of the Fukushima accident on 11 March 2011 under special consideration of human and organisational factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the reactor accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi on 11 March 2011, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) launched an extended analysis of the accident with the following goals: a) a comprehensive understanding of the accident unrolling and of the contributing factors; b) the identification of resulting short-, mean- and long-term requirements for the operators of Swiss nuclear power plants; c) considerations on the own surveillance activity; d) the verification of the reports delivered by the Swiss plant operators, who have to check their own plant after each incident declared as of INES 2 level or higher, whichever the location in the whole world. Undoubtedly, the design of the nuclear power plants at Fukushima Dai-ichi was inappropriate in what regards the tsunami induced by the earthquake, and that this was a key factor that led to the accident. The questions here are rather how it came to this clear design insufficiency and why the accident developed in the way it did. According to ENSI, answers to these questions require both technical as well as human and organisational considerations. ENSI had no direct access to information sources and, therefore, had to check the reliability of information obtained from public sources, especially from authorities, plant operators, expert organisations and, last but not least, media reports. The understanding gained in this way should enable a better evaluation of the situation in Switzerland and lead to the definition of the most urgent measures to be implemented. Since the principal cause of the Fukushima accident is a failure in the plant design, it is necessary to critically reconsider the design of the Swiss reactors to make sure that no such mistake has been done here. Another question is why this evident design failure was not identified earlier in the course of the decades of operation, and why no improvement has been made. In this context, human and organisational factors seem to play an important role. But the responsibility cannot be put only on a few decision makers; on the contrary some human and organisational mechanisms play a fundamental role. Such mechanisms and external conditions can lead to situations in which facts are not recognized or even rejected, although they appear evident after the events. It is the responsibility of all actors in the nuclear industry: plant operators, governments, regulatory authorities, expert organisations, to understand the potential and actual consequences of these mechanisms and to consider them within an appropriate safety culture. It is not sufficient to implement new regulations; the safety organisations must be able to respond to unforeseen situations, and this requires flexibility and adaptation ability. In this sense the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident will be helpful for the Swiss conditions

2011-03-11

226

Statistical analysis of sudden chemical leakage accidents reported in China between 2006 and 2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the data from authoritative sources, 1,400 sudden leakage accidents occurred in China during 2006 to 2011 were investigated, in which, 666 accidents were used for statistical characteristic abstracted with no or little damage. The research results were as follows: (1) Time fluctuation: the yearly number of sudden leakage accidents is shown to be decreasing from 2006 to 2010, and a slightly increase in 2011. Sudden leakage accidents occur mainly in summer, and more than half of the accidents occur from May to September. (2) Regional distribution: the accidents are highly concentrated in the coastal area, in which accidents result from small and medium-sized enterprises more easily than that of the larger ones. (3) Pollutants: hazardous chemicals are up to 95 % of sudden leakage accidents. (4) Steps: transportation represents almost half of the accidents, followed by production, usage, storage, and discard. (5) Pollution and casualties: it is easy to cause environmental pollution and casualties. (6) Causes: more than half of the cases were caused by human factor, followed by management reason, and equipment failure. However, sudden chemical leakage may also be caused by high temperature, rain, wet road, and terrain. (7) The results of principal component analysis: five factors are extracted by the principal component analysis, including pollution, casualties, regional distribution, steps, and month. According to the analysis of the accident, the characteristics, causes, and damages of the sudden leakage accident will be investigated. Therefore, advices for prevention and rescue should be acquired. PMID:24407779

Li, Yang; Ping, Hua; Ma, Zhi-Hong; Pan, Li-Gang

2014-04-01

227

Theoretical and Experimental Investigations on Gas Flow in LWR Fuel Rods During Loss-of-Coolant Accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the course of a loss-of-coolant accident in a light-water reactor, a number of fuel rods may suffer cladding deformation in the form of local swelling caused by the internal overpressure and the temporarily elevated cladding temperatures. For the analy...

E. Karb G. Harbauer W. Legner L. Sepold K. Wagner

1976-01-01

228

Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. The study also provides several suggestions for marketers seeking to use viral marketing to position brands or to change a brand’s image, to encourage new product trials and to increase product uptake rates. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use product on virtual marketing. In addition, the study considers internal factors such as inclusion (the need to be part of a group, the need to be different and affection on viral marketing. The survey has been accomplished among 140 Iranian people, who were familiar with virtual marketing and they are selected, randomly. Using Pearson correlation as well as regression analysis, the study provides some evidences that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between some internal/external factors and virtual marketing.

Nina Ghane

2014-04-01

229

Investigating knowledge management critical success factors in carpet industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical study to learn more about challenges in carpet industry using factor analysis. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of 51 questions in Likert scale and distribute it among experts in Carpet industry. We have analyzed the data using factor analysis and deleted 10 most redundant questions. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.88 for the remaining questions, which is well above the minimum desirable limit. We have also managed to remove six more questions using principal axis factoring leaving 8 basic components including 35 different questions. The proposed study of this paper has categorized eight factors including specialized relationships, knowledge coordinator, knowledge tool, knowledge organization, knowledge processes, knowledge chain, knowledge hardware and Knowledge feasibility study. Investigating details of the results of each eight items could help us build better strategies to help this industry grow faster and more reliable in today's business world.

Mehdi Ansari

2012-09-01

230

On the bad reputation of Fukushima's nuclear accident. A risk-economic approach to distance and price factors of processed food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2011, a big earthquake hit Japan and tsunami and nuclear power plant accident followed. Various discussions have been made on economical, ecological and psychological impacts of this disaster. Its bad reputation effect has not been much discussed, however. This paper deals with the relationship between the following two factors. They are: the distance from the nuclear power plant to the production place and the price of seemingly homogeneous processed food. (author)

2012-11-01

231

Investigation of steam line break accident during the development of emergency operating procedures for WWER440/V230  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of thermal-hydraulic analyses of Steam Line Break (SLB) accident in supporting of symptom based emergency operating procedures are presented. This kind of analyses are designed to provide the response of monitored plant parameters to identify symptoms available to the operators, timing of the loss of critical safety functions and timing of operator actions to avoid the loss of critical safety functions or core damage. RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been used to simulate the SLB accident in a WWER 440 NPP model. This model was developed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy for analyses of operational occurrences, abnormal events, and design bases scenarios. The model provides a significant analytical capability for the specialists working in the field of NPP safety. (authors)

2002-06-14

232

A pharmacokinetic approach to investigate the uptake of 137Cs by children after the reactor accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The course of 137Cs content of children after the reactor accident of Chernobyl measured by means of a whole-body counter could be reconstructed theoretically by a pharmacokinetic model. The children of the kindergarten of the hospital of the University of Cologne accumulated during the vegetation periods 1986/87 (I) 86.9, 1987/88 (II) 114.4 and 1988/89 (III) 24.4 Bq 137Cs per kg body weight. (orig.)

1989-01-01

233

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our study, Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.815 and there are eight influencing factors including flexibility in offering various services, building good relationship with customers, technology and processes, customers’ experiences, brand identity in continuous advertisement, organization size, customer perception on reputation of brand and customers’ tendency to build better brand loyalty. In our survey, flexibility in offering various services received the highest rank followed by building good relationship with customers.

Naser Azad

2013-07-01

234

An investigation on different factors influencing on competitive advantage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors influencing on getting competitive advantage on two construction firms, namely Keyson and Sazeh consultants in Iran. In this study, four variables of internal resources, personal characteristics of decision makers, demand conditions and market strategies/services are investigated. The study prepares a questionnaire consists of 19 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 145 regular employees who work for these two firms. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.93, which was well above the minimum acceptable limit. The results of the survey have confirmed that while four issues influence on the success of the firms on getting competitive advantage, there were some meaningful difference between the effects of the factors.

Yasaman Ramezan

2014-06-01

235

Utilization of the IAIA (Investigation and Analysis of Incidents and Accidents) method in the investigation of the P-36 platform accident; Utilizacao do metodo IAIA (Investigacao e Analise de Acidentes e Incidentes) na investigacao do acidente ocorrido na plataforma P-36  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the beginning of XXI century the Brazilian oil industry report a big accident involving that which was the biggest petroleum platform of the world. With capacity production of 180.000 barrels a day and capacity compression of 7,2 million cubic meter a day of natural gas, the off-shore platform P-36 was situated on Roncador field, in Campos basin, operating in 1360 meters of water. As consequences, eleven deaths with irreparable traumas to the families, friends and worker partners, one billion dollars in prejudices to brazilian country, environmental damages by oil leak and injuries to PETROBRAS reputation in Brazil and in the world. The method of investigation and analysis of incidents and accidents - IAIA is very wide and its philosophy contain a lot of topics, since basic concepts, investigation actions, analysis action and diagnosis by the general kind of fail. Using this method and taking advantage from the report elaborated by the commission organized by ANP - Agencia Nacional do Petroleo and DPC - Diretoria de Portos e Costas, responsible for the investigation and analysis of the accident occurred with P-36, this paper identify the direct and indirect causes of the accident, in attempt to avoid new similar situations. (author)

Teles, Marcus de Barros [ARCE - Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

2004-07-01

236

Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra *  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra, confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course, and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method, the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisandra under different heating temperature, decocting time, soaking time, processing methods and treatment with different solvents before decocting the Schisandra were measured by RP-HPLC method. The ...

Xu, Qing; Li, Ying-hua; Lu?, Xiu-yang

2007-01-01

237

Analysis methodology for RBMK-1500 core safety and investigations on corium coolability during a LWR severe accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis presents the work involving two broad aspects within the field of nuclear reactor analysis and safety. These are: - development of a fully independent reactor dynamics and safety analysis methodology of the RBMK-1500 core transient accidents and - experiments on the enhancement of coolability of a particulate bed or a melt pool due to heat removal through the control rod guide tubes. The first part of the thesis focuses on the development of the RBMK-1500 analysis methodology based on the CORETRAN code package. The second part investigates the issue of coolability during severe accidents in LWR type reactors: the coolability of debris bed and melt pool for in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. The first chapter briefly presents the status of developments in both the RBMK-1500 core analysis and the corium coolability areas. The second chapter describes the generation of the RBMK-1500 neutron cross section data library with the HELIOS code. The cross section library was developed for the whole range of the reactor conditions. The results of the benchmarking with the WIMS-D4 code and validation against the RBMK Critical Facility experiments is also presented here. The HELIOS generated neutron cross section data library provides a close agreement with the WIMS-D4 code results. The validation against the data from the Critical Experiments shows that the HELIOS generated neutron cross section library provides excellent predictions for the criticality, axial and radial power distribution, control rod reactivity worths and coolant reactivity effects, etc. The reactivity effects of voiding for the system, fuel assembly and additional absorber channel are underpredicted in the calculations using the HELIOS code generated neutron cross sections. The underprediction, however, is much less than that obtained when the WIMS-D4 code generated cross sections are employed. The third chapter describes the work, performed towards the accurate prediction, assessment and validation of the CHF and post-CHF heat transfer for the RBMK-1500 reactor fuel assemblies employing the VIPRE-02 code. This chapter describes the experiments, which were used for validating the CHF correlations, appropriate for the RBMK-1500 type reactors. These correlations after validation were added to the standard version of the VIPRE-02 code. The VIPRE-02 calculations were benchmarked against the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. It was found that these user-coded additional CHF correlations developed for the RBMK type reactors (Osmachkin, RRC KI and Khabenski correlations) and implemented into the code by the author, provide a good prediction of the CHF occurrence at the RBMK reactor nominal pressure range (at about 7 MPa). Transition and film boiling are also predicted well with the VIPRE-02 code for this pressure range. It was found, that for the RBMK-1500 reactor applications, EPRI CHF correlation should be used for the CHF predictions for the lower fuel assemblies of the reactor in the subchannel model of the RBMK-1500 fuel assembly. RRC KI and Bowring CHF correlations may be used for the upper fuel assemblies. For a single-channel model of the RBMK-1500 fuel channel, Osmachkin, RRC KI and Bowring correlations provide the closest predictions and may be used for the CHF estimation. For the low coolant mass fluxes in the fuel channel, Khabenski correlation can be applied. The fourth chapter presents the verification of the CORETRAN code for the RBMK-1500 core analysis. The model was verified against a number of RBMK-1500 plant data and transient calculations. The new RBMK-1500 core model was successfully applied in several safety assessment applications. A series of transient calculations, considered within the scope of the RBMK-type reactor Safety Analysis Report (SAR), were performed. Several cases of the transient calculations are presented in this chapter. The HELIOS/CORETRAN/VIPRE-02 core model for the RBMK-1500 is fully functional. The RBMK-1500 CPS logic, added into the CORETRAN provides an adequate response to the changes in the reactor parameters. Chapters 5 and

2003-01-01

238

Lack of safety culture as a contributing factor in major radiation accidents reported in Latin and South America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last decades, the issue of improving safety culture to reduce the upward trend of radiation accidents have received considerable attention from scientific organizations. After the Chernobyl accident, IAEA invited worldwide experts in nuclear safety and formed a working group called 'International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group'. The Safety Culture concept has been developed by the Working Group and published in the Safety Series collection of IAEA in 1986 as No 75-INSAG-4 which provided a logical framework for establishing safety culture policy at individual and organisational level. The aim of this paper is to review the role of insufficient safety culture in the occurrence of 5 major radiation accidents reported in Latin and South America and the remedial action taken by competent authority and oriented towards improvement of basic principle of safety culture. (author)

2004-10-18

239

Radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation accidents may be viewed as unusual exposure event which provide possible high exposure to a few people and, in the case of nuclear plants events, low exposure to large population. A number of radiation accidents have occurred over the past 50 years, involving radiation machines, radioactive materials and uncontrolled nuclear reactors. These accidents have resulted in number of people have been exposed to a range of internal and external radiation doses and those involving radioactive materials have involved multiple routs of exposure. Some of the more important accidents involving significant radiation doses or releases of radioactive materials, including any known health effects involves in it. An analysis of the common characteristics of accidents is useful resolving overarching issues, as has been done following nuclear power, industrial radiography and medical accidents. Success in avoiding accidents and responding when they do occur requires planning in order to have adequately trained and prepared health physics organization; well defined and developed instrument program; close cooperation among radiation protection experts, local and state authorities. Focus is given to the successful avoidance of accidents and response in the events they do occur. Palomares, spain in late 1960, Goiania, Brazil in 1987, Thule, Greenland in 1968, Rocky flats, Colorado in 1957 and 1969, Three mile island, Pennsylvania in 1979, Chernobyl Ukraine in april 1986, Kyshtym, former Soviet Union in 1957, Windscale, UK in Oct. 1957 Tomsk, Russian Federation in 1993, and many others are the important examples of major radiation accidents. (author)

2012-01-01

240

Analysis of the temporal properties in car accident time series  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we study the time-clustering behaviour of sequences of car accidents, using data from an internet freely available database. The Allan Factor analysis, which is a well suited method to investigate time-dynamical behaviours in point processes, has revealed that the car accident sequences are characterized by a general time-scaling behaviour, with the presence of cyclic components. These results indicates that the time dynamics of the events is not Poissonian but long-range cor...

Telesca, L.; Lovallo, M.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Investigating internal and external factors influencing profitability of banking industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to learn the impact of some internal and external factors on profitability in banking system. The proposed model of this paper introduces three econometrics methods to study the behavior of internal, external and a combination of both factors on return on assets. The proposed study of this paper uses Vector Auto- Regressive (VAR and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM to provide estimation of the proposed model and we use historical data over the period of 1989-2010. The results of the first model for internal factors, we consider some independent variables including ratio of total revenue on total assets (TR and ratio of total equities on total assets (TE. The second model considers the effects of external variables on ROA such as growth domestic product (GDP and market share (MS and the last model includes a combination of both internal and external factors. The results indicates that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between logarithm of growth domestic product and return on equities, which means as we expect one unit increase in LGDP, there is an increase of 0.012 on ROA. In addition, when the market share increase by one percent, there will be an increase 0.025% increase on ROA and an increase of one percent in the ratio of TR will yield to an increase of one percent in ROA.

Mehdi Taghavi

2012-09-01

242

Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur  

Science.gov (United States)

The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.

2014-05-01

243

Investigating Effective Factors on Iran’s Pistachio Exportation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of Iran’s economic is depending on oil’s incomes, therefore to increase non oil exportation likeagricultural products is the main goal of country’s economic development program. The goal of this paper is to investigate effective factors in pistachio exportation and mentioned goal will be consider by variable factors such as export’s principle, aflatoxin poison, and packaging. The type of this paper is descriptive–cognition and the related information for this scope have been collected by usinglibrary resources such as books, scientific journals, moreover for collecting necessary data in order to confirm or rejectresearch hypotheses a questionnaire designed by researcher have been used . Statistical society for this research includesthe pistachio exporter in Kerman city, the method being used has been random sampling. Results of this investigationshows that the principles of exporting, aflatoxin poison and packaging have great influence in exporting Iran’spistachio.

Seyed fathollah Amiri Aghdaie

2009-10-01

244

Tri-Level Study of the Causes of Traffic Accidents. Volume I: Casual Factor Tabulations and Assessments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data were collected on three levels of detail. Police reports and other baseline data on the Monroe County, Indiana study area were collected on Level A. On Level B, teams of technicians responded to accidents at the time of their occurrence to conduct on...

D. Shinar J. R. Treat N. S. Tumbas R. D. Hume S. T. McDonald

1977-01-01

245

Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result of this study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs

1999-01-01

246

Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result ofthis study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs.

Kim, Jae Whan; Jung, Won Dae; Kang, Dae Il; Ha, Jae Joo

1999-06-01

247

Sports Accidents  

CERN Document Server

Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

Kiebel

1972-01-01

248

Investigation of internal dose received by the Hungarian population due to cesium radionuclides as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hungary was one of the countries affected by radioactive environmental contamination due to the reactor accident at Chernobyl. The total ground deposition of radionuclides showed a non-uniform distribution over the country. According to a nationwide survey the activity surface concentration varied within about an order of magnitude from place to place. The most characteristic local averages for 137Cs ranged from 1 to 5 kBq m-2. An extended internal contamination monitoring program was introduced by whole body counting very soon after the accident. The subjects to be measured systematically were selected from Budapest's residents representing both sexes and different age groups. The total number of subjects monitored regularly (control group) was 44. The representativity of the control group for adults was checked by comparing the results with those obtained for large number of subjects measured occasionally. The program was later extended also to other parts of Hungary by single reference measurements. Six weeks average monitoring interval was chosen for following the whole body activities due to 134Cs and 137Cs radionuclides, which are responsible for the long term internal dose received by the population. The results obtained for adults are presented

1988-01-01

249

Investigations of sloshing fluid motions in pools related to recriticalities in liquid-metal fast breeder reactor core meltdown accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that analyses of unprotected loss-of-flow accidents for medium-size cores of current liquid-metal fast breeder reactors have shown that the accident proceeds into a transition phase where further meltdown is accompanied by recriticalities and secondary excursions. Assuming very pessimistic conditions concerning fuel discharge and blockage formation, a neutronically active whole-core pool of molten m material can form. Neutronic or thermohydraulic disturbances may initiate a special motion pattern in these pools, called centralized sloshing, which can lead to energetic power excursions. If such a whole-core pool is formed, its energetic potential must be adequately assessed. This requires sufficiently correct theoretical tools (codes) and proper consideration of the fluid-dynamic and thermo-hydraulic conditions for these pools. A series of experiments has been performed that serves as a benchmark for the SIMMER-II and the AFDM codes in assessing their adequacy in modeling such sloshing motions. Additional phenomenologically oriented experiments provide deeper insight into general motion patterns of sloshing fluids while taking special notice of asymmetries and obstacles that exist in such pools

1992-01-01

250

Investigation of the Factors Affecting Real Exchange Rate in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available his paper intends to investigate the factors affecting the real exchange rate in Iran in the period of 1978-2008. In this part, the econometric methodology and vector autoregressive model that is known as VAR is used to investigate the effect of proper variables on the real exchange rate. The results of Johansson-Jousilious test confirmed co-integration between variables, and thus long-run equilibrium relationship was confirmed among proper variables. Overall, the impulse and response functions showed that the shocking of variables, oil price and volume of money flows, has a positive impact on the real exchange rate and put it above its permanent level in the whole period of study. The results of variance decomposition showed that the most effects belonged to oil price and then volume of money flow that in fact represents greater relative importance of these variables in comparison with other variables among all model variables.

Komeil Khanarinejad

2012-08-01

251

Multivariate approach to investigating prognostic factors in deep neck infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deep neck infections (DNI) spread along fascial planes and involve neck spaces. Very few studies have investigated potentially prognostic factors using multivariate statistical models. Our aim was to analyze 282 consecutive cases of DNI using multivariate (logistic) statistical models to identify independent significant factors influencing prognosis in terms of complications and long-term hospitalization (>6 days). In our series, only involvement of more than one neck space was independently significant in prognosticating complications of DNI (odds ratio [OR] 2.46). The presence of comorbidities (OR 2.13), non-odontogenic sites of origin (OR 1.88), leukocyte counts above 11.0 cells × 10(9)/L at presentation (OR 3.57), and the need for both medical and surgical treatments (OR 4.66) was significantly and independently prognostic of long hospital stays. Multivariate analysis can distinguish between risk factors and their relative contribution to outcome. The few published studies using multivariate models to analyze DNI prognosis considered quite large cohorts, but no clinical variables persistently revealed an independent significant prognostic role. This evidence seems to underscore the complex interdependence of several clinical variables in contributing to DNI prognosis, and the heterogeneity of the diagnostic/therapeutic approaches adopted. PMID:24522964

Staffieri, Claudia; Fasanaro, Elena; Favaretto, Niccolo'; La Torre, Fabio Biagio; Sanguin, Saverio; Giacomelli, Luciano; Marino, Filippo; Ottaviano, Giancarlo; Staffieri, Alberto; Marioni, Gino

2014-07-01

252

Status and results of the theoretical and experimental investigations on the LWR fuel rod behavior under accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the status of knowledge is described which has been gathered up to the end of 1977 of the LWR fuel rod behavior in loss-of-coolant accidents. The majority of results indicated have been derived from studies on the fuel rod behavior performed within the framework of the Nuclear Safety Project (PNS); partly, also the results of cooperating research establishments and fm international exchange of experience are referred to. The report has been subdivided into two complete parts: Part I provides a survey of the most significant results of the theoretical and experimental research projects on fuel rod behavior. Part II describes by detailed individual presentations the status as well as the results with respect to the major central subjects. (orig.) 891 RW 892 AP

1978-01-01

253

Typical accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analyzes causes of two fatal acccidents in underground coal mines in Poland in 1988. A coal miner was killed by blasted rock in a mine roadway driven by explosive fracturing. The fatal accident was caused by negligence (the blasting zone was not clearly marked, blasting was not signalled to other miners, a miner responsible for safety had left the blasting area, etc.). In another mine a coal miner entered railway tracks and was killed by an approaching locomotive. That accident was also caused by negligence and disregard for regulations covering mine haulage by locomotives. An analysis of each incident is presented. Recommendations for preventing similar accidents are made.

1989-01-01

254

Normal accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP)

1989-01-01

255

The Goiania accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Goiania accident was one of the most serious radiological accidents that has occurred. This paper describes the background to the accident, the accident itself, and the subsequent responses. Finally the main lessons from the accident are summarised. (author).

Croft, J.R. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

256

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

CERN Document Server

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

Franic, Z

2007-01-01

257

Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting from the disintegration of the former Soviet Union. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has given particular attention to the accident. Estimates of average doses in separate regions of countries and for the population of the northern hemisphere as a whole were presented in Annex D of the UNSCEAR 1988 Report. The experience gained in treating the immediate radiation injuries of workers and fire fighters involved in controlling the accident were also reviewed in the UNSCEAR 1988 Report (Annex G). The UNSCEAR Committee is currently involved in the final phase of preparation of a further assessment of the exposures and effects of the accident. During the last several years, considerable attention has been devoted to investigating possible associations between health effects in the populations and the exposure to radionuclides released and dispersed following the Chernobyl accident. Of particular note has been the occurrence of numerous thyroid cancers in children. The number of thyroid cancers in individuals exposed in childhood, particularly in the severely contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is considerably greater than expected based on previous knowledge. The high incidence and the short induction period have not been experienced in other populations, and other factors are most certainly influencing the risk. If the current trend continues, further thyroid cancers can be expected to occur, especially in those exposed at young ages. The most recent findings indicate that the thyroid cancer risk for those older than 10 years of age at the time of the accident is leveling off, while the increase continues for those younger than 4-5 years in 1986. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer after childhood exposure, there is no evidence of a major public health impact 14 years after the Chernobyl accident. No increases in overall cancer incidence or mortality have been observed that could be attributed to ionizing radiation. Risk of leukaemia, one of the major concerns after radiation exposure, do

2000-05-01

258

AN INVESTIGATION OF FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE BLOG ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 2000, blogs have rapidly become a cyberspace phenomenon. The new medium has createda growing trend: blog advertising. Blogs offer unique advantages over other types of advertising,such as reader coverage and low cost. In addition, blogs generally contain customer comments,which new customers can use to evaluate the advertised products. As a result, blog advertising isvery successful. A recent survey showed that 40% of the customers that read blog advertisingmade a purchase. This study investigates factors that affect blog advertising effectiveness. Alaboratory experiment was designed to determine the effects of appeal strategies, quantity andquality of negative comments, and customer involvement with the advertised product. Theexperiment was designed to test informational and. emotional appeal strategies, high and lowproportions of negative comments, high and low qualities of negative comments, and high andlow levels of customer involvement with the advertised product. Study results show thatinformational appeals match customer needs, for customers with high levels of customerinvolvement. Study results show that emotional appeals match customer needs, for customerswith low levels of customer involvement. Study results show that proportion of negativecomments has an effect, for any type of customer. Study results show that high-quality negativecomments affect customer attitudes more than low-quality negative comments, for customerswith high levels of customer involvement. Study results extend theoretical and practicalknowledge concerning factors that effect blog advertising effectiveness.

Jen-Ruei Fu1

2012-10-01

259

Investigation and risk factor analysis of hyperuricemia in pilots  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the incidence of hyperuricemia in military pilots and the relationship between hyperuricemia and other related risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Methods  A total of 2563 pilots, who had undergone a regular physical examination in the Air Force General Hospital from 2005 to 2010, participated in the current study. The participants were divided into high serum uric acid (UA group (hyperuricemia group, UA >420µmol/L, n=294 and normal UA group (n=2269. The incidence rates of hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipemia were compared between these two groups. The dependent variable was serum UA level of the pilots. Other indices included the total cholesterol (CHO, triglycerides (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, fasting blood glucose (FBG, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, smoking, body weight, and flight time as independent variable. Logistic multivariate regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between UA level and these indexes. Results  The incidence rates of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, and high LDL were significantly higher in hyperuricemia group than in normal UA group (POR=1.637, POR=1.025, POR=1.046, PConclusion  The serum UA of pilots is closely related to the risk factors of other cardiovascular diseases.

Hong-yu MA

2012-01-01

260

Nuclear accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A nuclear accident with radioactive contamination can happen anywhere in the world. Because expert nuclear emergency teams may take several hours to arrive at the scene, local authorities must have a plan of action for the hours immediately following an accident. The site should be left untouched except to remove casualties. Treatment of victims includes decontamination and meticulous wound debridement. Acute radiation syndrome may be an overwhelming sequela.

Mobley, J.A.

1982-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Accidents and disasters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluates accidents that occurred in underground black coal mining in Poland. The following accidents were analyzed: a rock burst in the Porabka coal mine on 1 June 1992 (rock burst energy was 1.0x10[sup 10]J, failure of a longwall face zone 23 m long, death of 4 miners, 13 miners injured, the rock burst was associated with a 90 m thick sandstone layer in the roof and considerable mining depth of 550 m in a fault area); an accident in the Polska mine in Swietochlowice on 20 June 1992 (death of a miner in a mine roadway with carbon dioxide content of 16%, accident caused by negligence of personnel responsible for measuring composition of mine air and proper emergency signalling); a fatal accident of a miner in the Marcel mine on 20 July 1992 (during mine haulage by a suspended monorail); an accident caused a rock fall in the Wujek mine on 3 August 1992. The results of investigations into causes of a methane explosion in the Slask mine (4 deaths, 44 seriously wounded miners) on 18 December 1990 were inconclusive.

1992-01-01

262

Experimental investigation of depressurization wave propagation in a horizontal channel during a simulated loss-of-coolant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model of the WWER-440 pressure vessel in a scale of 1:8 was built for experimental research of loss-of-coolant accidents. The model was modified for the study of the characteristics of the depressurization wave produced as a result of the rapid pressure drop within 10 and 40 GPa/s. The results show that for initial temperatures above 240 degC, pressure falls considerably below the saturation limit. Thus, thermodynamic imbalance of the process should be taken into consideration. The pressure drop below the saturation limit is mainly affected by the initial temperature and the pressure drop rate. Rapid pressure drop in hot water is halted by explosive generation of the steam phase in the overheated liquid. This causes a short-time pressure increase followed by a relatively long interval of quasistatic pressure. It was also confirmed that the velocity of depressurization wave propagation in a liquid approximately equals the velocity of sound. (Z.M.). 7 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs

1990-01-01

263

Theoretical and experimental investigations on gas flow in LWR fuel rods during loss-of-coolant accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the course of a loss-of-coolant accident in a light-water reactor, a number of fuel rods may suffer cladding deformation in the form of local swelling caused by the internal overpressure and the temporarily elevated cladding temperatures. For the analytical treatment of this fuel failure mechanism, the space dependant history of the internal fuel rod pressure must be determined, which means that the gas flow between the fission gas plena and the swelling section must be quantified. In this report models to calculate the gas flow in a fuel rod are compiled and the results of own gas flow experiments are given; these results were used for verification of the theoretical models. Two basic cases must be distinguished: (a) the fuel has the form of cylindrical pellets, and (b) the pellets have disintegrated into fragments by cracking. In the first case the common relations for fluid flow in gaps may be used. For the second case it is shown that a reasonably good assessment of the gas mass flow can be made with models developed for packed particle beds. In both cases knowledge or proper assumption of geometric parameters, which influence the gas flow exponentially, is required. (orig.)

1976-01-01

264

Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) accident. A final report on the investigation of fission product chemical forms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In September of 1965, an intentionally defective fuel rod failed in the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), causing the rupture of the surrounding pressure tube and the release of superheated cooling water into a region of the reactor core. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has reviewed the PRTR incident to assemble and update all the available information regarding the incident. A principal goal of the review was to analyze any remaining clues that may indicate the stoichiometry or most probable chemical and physical forms of the released fission products. The review confirmed the role of water in limiting iodine release. About 97% of the iodine released during the accident was subsequently found in tanks containing the reactor/rupture-loop coolant. Although the chemical form of the released radioiodine cannot be stated unambiguously, the available evidence suggests that it was released in the form of cesium iodide. Most of the remaining 3% was found in the condensate collected from air cooling systems. The chemical form of this scrubbed iodine remains undefined

1984-01-01

265

Investigation of relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks of nuclear power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the main control room (MCR) of a nuclear power plant (NPP), there are lots of dynamic information sources for MCR operator's situation awareness. As the human-machine interface in MCR is advanced, operator's information acquisition, information gathering and decision-making is becoming an important part to maintain the effective and safe operation of NPPs. Diagnostic task in complex and huge systems like NPP is the most difficult and mental effort-demanding for operators. This research investigates the relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks. The amount of information flow is quantified, using information flow model and Conant's model, a kind of information theory. For the mental workload measure, eye blink rate, blink duration, fixation time, number of fixation, and gaze direction are measured during accident diagnosis tasks. Subjective methods such as NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) method are also used in the experiment. It is shown that the operator's mental workload has significant relation to information flow of diagnosis task. It makes possible to predict the mental workload through the quantity of the information flow of a system.

Ha, Chang Hoon; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

2004-07-01

266

Development of severe accident evaluation technology (level 2 PSA) for sodium-cooled fast reactors. (2) Identification of dominant factors in initiating phase of unprotected events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of establishing level-2 PSA evaluation method, Initiating Phase of the unprotected loss-of-flow accident was studied with theoretical investigation focusing on reactivity balance during the transient and SAS4A code analysis. Based on the knowledge accumulated in the past and present work, key parameters to be considered in the event-tree quantification were clarified. Through the SAS4A code analysis adopting the JSFR design parameters as the reference, importance of the identified items was confirmed. Within the parametric cases covered in this study, all the cases resulted in non-energetic transients demonstrating that IP energetics is highly unlikely with the JSFR design. (author)

2009-05-10

267

Measures against nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

1992-01-01

268

Experimental investigation on the chemical precipitation generation under the loss of coolant accident of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PWR containment buildings are designed to facilitate core cooling in the event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The cooling process requires water discharged from the break and containment spray to be collected in a sump for recirculation. The containment sump contains screens to protect the components of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) and Containment Spray System (CSS) from debris. Since the containment materials may dissolve or corrode when exposed to the reactor coolant and spray solutions, various chemical precipitations can be generated in a post-LOCA environment. These chemical precipitations may become another source of debris loading to be considered in sump screen performance and downstream effects. In this study, new experimental methodology to predict the type and quantity of chemical precipitations has been developed. To generate the plant-specific chemical precipitation in a post-LOCA environment, the plant specific chemical condition of the recirculation sump during post-LOCA is simulated with the experimental reactor for the chemical effect. The plant-specific containment materials are used in the present experiment such as glass fibers, concrete blocks, aluminum specimens, and chemical reagent - boric acid, spray additives or buffering chemicals (sodium hydroxide, Tri-Sodium Phosphate (TSP), or others). The inside temperature of the reactor is controlled to simulate the plant-specific temperature profile of the recirculation sump. The total amount of aluminum released from aluminum specimens is evaluated by ICP-AES analysis to determine the amount of AlOOH and NaAlSi3O8 which induce very adverse effect on the head loss across the sump screens. The amount of these precipitations generated in the present experimental study is compared with the results of WCAP-16530-NP-A. (authors)

2012-06-24

269

Prospective study of intellectual development, mental and behavioral disorders in children in uteroexposed to radioecological and psychosocial factors associated with the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prospective study of the parameters characterizing the mental status of children in utero exposed to radioecological factors associated with the Chernobyl accident. 197 children born from May 1986 to February 1987 whose mothers lived in the period of pregnancy at contaminated territory were examined. Control group was formed by random sampling. It is shown that the children of the group under study aged 6-7 years were characterized by relative predominance of cases with border-line level of intellectual functioning (13.2 % vs. 9.2 % in the control group). By 10-12 years this difference practically smoothed over. Average group intellectual parameters of children aged 6-7 and 10-12 years in the main group were similar and did not depend on pregnancy term at the moment of exposure. Unfavorable physiological and social-demographic factors were mainly responsible for the intellectual development and emotional disordered in prenatally exposed children

1999-01-01

270

Infant siblings and the investigation of autism risk factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Infant sibling studies have been at the vanguard of autism spectrum disorders (ASD research over the past decade, providing important new knowledge about the earliest emerging signs of ASD and expanding our understanding of the developmental course of this complex disorder. Studies focused on siblings of children with ASD also have unrealized potential for contributing to ASD etiologic research. Moving targeted time of enrollment back from infancy toward conception creates tremendous opportunities for optimally studying risk factors and risk biomarkers during the pre-, peri- and neonatal periods. By doing so, a traditional sibling study, which already incorporates close developmental follow-up of at-risk infants through the third year of life, is essentially reconfigured as an enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study. This review considers the enriched-risk pregnancy cohort approach of studying infant siblings in the context of current thinking on ASD etiologic mechanisms. It then discusses the key features of this approach and provides a description of the design and implementation strategy of one major ASD enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study: the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI.

Newschaffer Craig J

2012-04-01

271

Investigations to environmental factors on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The discussions on noxious environmental factors concerning SIDS was a motive for systematically postmortal chemical-toxicological investigations on 54 SIDS-cases and 2 controlcases of the same age. Tissue levels of arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury and pentachlorphenol as well as other organic noxes were measured in several organs. Furthermore COHb-concentrations were determined. Inspite of the wide scattering values the measured extreme levels as well as the arithmetic mean- and the median averages of As, Pb, Cd, Hg, PCP and COHb ranged in concentration sizes which - according to present knowledge - can't be supposed of toxic effects. It was observed that infants from an urban environment didn't show a higher degree of the examined noxes than infants from rural regions. Also there were neither differences between SIDS-cases and controls, nor correlations between often morphologically detected infections of the respiratory system, including laryngitis - and superior concentrations of these noxes in the organs of SIDS-cases.

Althoff, H.; Wehr, K.; Michels, S.; Prajsnar, D.; Einbrodt, H.J.

1987-05-01

272

Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management.

Jang, S. H.; Kim, H. G.; Jang, H. S.; Moon, S. K.; Park, J. U. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

1993-12-15

273

Safety culture and the accident at Three Mile Island  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prior to the accident at Three Mile Island, little attention was being paid to the human role in the safe operation of civilian nuclear power plants. The investigation of the TMI accident showed that its root causes were primarily human-related. The Kemeny Report on the TMI accident does not use the term 'safety culture'; however, it fully identifies all relevant aspects of safety culture. It was only after the accident at Chernobyl that the term 'safety culture' came into widespread use. However, it should be noted that, during the years after TMI and before Chernobyl, already major changes had been instituted concerning human factors and human reliability in the civilian nuclear energy programs of many countries. Greater credit should be given to the remarkable insights developed by the Kemeny Commission as contained in the Kemeny Report. (author)

2002-12-02

274

Standardization of drift investigations of microorganisms in the cooling water inflow of large power plants on the Upper Rhine with a view to quantifying the impact of accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project developed a method for recognizing and evaluating damage to the populations of the macrozoobenthos of the Rhine river in the case of accidents. It is based on regular samplings by means of the sieve belts in the cooling water take-off of the Karlsruhe Rheinhafendampfkraftwerk (RDK) and Mannheim Grosskraftwerk (GKM). Investigated is the normal drift of the individual taxa in their daily and seasonal distribution. The emphasis is on the minimum and maximum numbers of individuals and the normal rate of damage of organisms as a function of the water table.- On the basis of the results so far obtained, the range of variation of the ordinary drift can be determined. Any value exceeding the established ones is a measure of the damage sustained by the biocoenosis or the individual taxa.- Further opportunities for exploiting the power plant method for the benefit of nature conservation, the protection of species, and fishery are pointed out. (orig.)

1994-06-01

275

[Injury pattern and identification after airplane catastrophies. Cooperation between forensic medicine and federal criminal investigations. An airplane accident in Mühlheim/Ruhr 8 February 1988].  

Science.gov (United States)

On February 8th 1988, a two-motor passenger aircraft of Metroliner type with 21 people on board entered a front of heavy weather at an altitude of 900 m and crashed after being struck by lightning which led to complete breakdown of the electrical systems on board. The site of the crash was in the marshy Ruhr meadows. The formation of the terrain enabled a subdivision into plan squares for rescue. The identification of the 21 bodies was carried out in the Essen Institute of Forensic Medicine in collaboration with the identification commission of the Federal Criminal Investigation Office. The experience and recommendations for future (possibly larger-scale) disasters derived from this are described. Furthermore, the accident pattern in the casualties typical for this air crash is discussed. PMID:2818481

Weiler, G; Risse, M

1989-01-01

276

Nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the Chernobyl accident, several publications were made by national and international organizations in relation to the consequences of the accident. Although this was the worst of all nuclear accidents we find that they have been numerous, although with the exception of three or four, without major consequences. The article was prepared, based on different published documents. I want to remind the readers that nuclear weapon states developed their capability before generating electricity from a nuclear reactor, and that in these days when there is much talk about a moratorium in nuclear testing, if we are successful, it is possible that many countries not party to the treaty of non-proliferation will be favourable toward signing it

1986-01-01

277

Car Sales: Investigation into Factors Determining Consumer Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article examines customer behaviour in general and discusses factors determining customer behaviour in car industry. The paper describes a concept of consumer behaviour and the importance of factors influencing the situation. Empirical study about factors determining car industry in consumer-made decisions is carried out. In addition, statistical factor analysis is performed. The key sets of factors helping the user with choosing a new car are iden­tified and analysed at the level of the groups of factors (factor. The conducted analysis shows that car price, ergonomics, image, dynamic and user-friendliness as well as environmental groups are the main points that assist in buying a new car.Article in Lithuanian

Aurelija Samoškien?

2011-07-01

278

Preventing accidents at intake towers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))

1994-03-01

279

Clinical investigation of risk factors in ectopic pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective ?To discuss the relative and independent risk factors in ectopic pregnancy. Methods ?The clinical data of 870 patients with ectopic pregnancy, admitted from 2005 to 2012, were retrospectively analyzed, with 800 cases of normal pregnancy serving as control. Monofactorial correlation analysis was used to analyze the related risk factor, and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the independent risk factor. Results ?Pelvic adhesion, previous operation, cesarean section delivery, number of pregnancy, artificial abortion, medical abortion, in vitrofertilization and embryo replacement (IVF-ER, and placement of intrauterine device (IUD are the risk factors of ectopic pregnancy, pelvic adhesion, artificial abortion, operation, number of pregnancies and IUD are the independent risk factors, and pelvic adhesion is the major risk factor. Conclusion ?Avoidance of unexpected pregnancy as possible, reduction of the number of artificial abortion, prevention and treatment of genital duct inflammation, and standardization of pelvic operation may reduce the incidence of ectopic pregnancy.

Ling-yun HU

2013-05-01

280

Normal accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book examines the ways in which complex technological systems fail and argues that people are intrinsically unable to build, manage and maintain modern technologies. Accidents in several different types of activities are examined in detail as support for this conclusion. (orig./HSCH)

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

A Factor Analytic Investigation of Career Decision-Making Styles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the factorial validity of the decision-making style scales of the Assessment of Career Decision Making (ACDM-DMS). The responses of 819 undergraduate students were subjected to an exploratory iterative principal components factor analysis. Three factors were retained as the most clearly defined, interpretable solution. (BH)

Phillips, Susan D.; And Others

1985-01-01

282

Investigation of the influence of accident conditions on the performance of HEPA filter and iodine trapping systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The removal efficiency obtained in operation of a perchlorvinyl-based fibrous HEPA filter was investigated at higher temperatures and relative humidities. A reduced performance relationship was determined due primarily to high relative humidity at low air flowrates and to high temperature at high flowrates. The applicability of potassium carbonate aerosol produced by nozzle type atomisation was investigated for in-situ HEPA filter testing. Particle sizing by cascade impactor and centrifugal aerosol spectrometer was developed. Theoretical and experimental investigations were made into mechanisms for radioiodine removal on carbon-based adsorbents at higher temperatures and humidities and included the use of specially developed continuous airflow apparatus. (author). 9 refs, 32 figs, 9 tabs

1989-09-01

283

An investigation on different factors influencing perceived organizational change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies the impacts of different factors influencing on perceived organization change in municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of five factors including partnership, communication, training, believe in change and organization commitment and the other for organizational change in Likert scale. The study has been implemented among 147 regular employees of municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. Using simple regression analysis, the study has detected that all mentioned factors influence organizational change, positively. In addition, Freedman test indicates that partnership maintains the highest impact followed by believe in change, communication, organizational commitment and training.

Abbas Saleh Ardestani

2014-06-01

284

The weakening of cell protection as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident recovery factors affect on liquidator's organism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The markers of oxidative stress as well as intracellular antioxidants (enzymatic and non- enzymatic) were studied in 100 Chernobyl accident recovery workers(liquidators). Hormone screening tests were carried out in 250 liquidators. All persons (mean age - 35 years) have got external irradiation dose from 2 to 30 cGr. Control group was selected from persons of same age having not participated in accident liquidation. The significant antioxidant imbalance was found. ROS inactivating enzymes deficiency was revealed in neutrofils, lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM). For instance, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity in liquidator's AM was 2,8±0,3 U/mg protein (4,1-±1,8 U/mg protein in controls, P<0,05). Catalase activity was also lower than in control group (P<0,05). The significant disorder of the thiol-disulfide turnover was revealed: depression of reduced glutathione by 1,71-±0,46 ?mol/l (control: 3,15±-0,34 ?tmol/l, P<0,05). The oxidative stress destructive action realized in the conditions of excessive production of ROS, while the antioxidant potential was diminished(P<0,05). The oxidative destruction of lipids and proteins was found to be induced by free radical action. TBARS level in alveolar macrophages of liquidators was more than three times higher compared to controls. Enhanced levels of protein carbonyl groups were found as well. The decrease of TT3 in liquidators was detected most frequently. In 19% liquidators examined, TT3 was below the reference value (0,8 ng/ml). The TT3 level was registered at the low limit of the reference range (0,8 ng/ml) in 18% of liquidators. ''Low T3'' syndrome may be considered as a cell protection weakening. All the cellular protective mechanisms take part in processes of DNA synthesis and repair, transcription and translation, cell respiration and metabolism. Significant impairment of the cellular protective systems in liquidators could be regarded as a base of persistent ''chromosomal pathology'' and imbalance of metabolism complicated by the various diseases including oncology. (author)

1997-11-01

285

Factores Asociados a Accidentes, Enfermedades y Ausentismo Laboral: Análisis de una Cohorte de Trabajadores Formales en Chile / Factors Associated with Accidents, Illness and Absenteeism: Analysis of a Cohort of Formal Workers in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Estimar la asociación entre factores de riesgo y la ocurrencia de enfermedades, accidentes y ausentismo laboral en trabajadores formales. Método: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva usando dos fuentes de información: registro de evaluaciones ocupacionales preventivas y de episodios de acciden [...] tes y enfermedades laborales (2009-2012). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de variables de salud y de factores de riesgo. Regresiones logísticas para la ocurrencia de enfermedades y accidentes. Se usó una regresión Poisson-cero-inflado para el ausentismo laboral. Resultados: los > 60 años tienen un exceso de riesgo de enfermedad laboral (OR-ajustada 19,18 respecto a 60 años (IRR 2,69), trabajar en actividades inmobiliarias (IRR 2,37) y en explotación de minas (IRR 2,38), tienen una probabilidad mayor de más días de ausentismo. Conclusiones: Factores no modificables (sexo y edad), junto con factores modificables, como el sedentarismo y el estado nutricional, contribuyen a eventos laborales no deseados. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the association among lifestyle-related risk factors and the occurrence of occupational diseases, accidents and absenteeism in a cohort of formal workers. Method: A retrospective cohort study was carried out by using two information sources: a registry of preventive occupatio [...] nal evaluations and another registry of episodes of occupational accidents and diseases (2009-2012). A descriptive analysis was performed of health variables and risk factors. Logistic regressions were used to calculate the likelihood of occupational accidents and diseases and a zero-inflated Poisson regression was used to model occupational absenteeism. Results: A total of 47.221 workers were included, of which 86,3% were men. The mean follow-up was 1,96 years. Workers aged >60 years had an excess risk of occupational diseases, with an OR of 19.18 compared with workers aged 60 years (IRR 2,69), and working in the property sector (IRR 2,37) and in mining (IRR 2,38) conferred a higher probability of absenteeism. Conclusions: Unmodifiable factors (age and sex), as well as modifiable factors, such as sedentariness and nutritional status, contribute to undesired occupational events.

Lorena, Hoffmeister; Carolina, Vidal; Clelia, Vallebuona; Nelly, Ferrer; Pamela, Vásquez; Gabriela, Núñez.

286

Expert meeting with the Belgoprocess Inc. on the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. Search and investigation on cause elucidation and reoccurrence control for the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. A visiting report on abroad  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to investigate in detail on fire cause materials, test results of thermal analysis on waste liquids, and flow of affairs relating to the fire accident (15th December, 1981) of the Euro Bitum Plant (an asphalt solidification facility of the middle level wastes) settled at the Eurochemic reprocessing work in the Kingdom of Belgium, resemble to the present accident, 4 members of the Cause Elucidation Group and Mr. Kaneko, director of the Paris Office of PNC visited to Belgium to hold a meeting with experts of the Belgoprocess Inc. for 4 days. In this meeting, after exchanging mutual detail informations on accident occurred at the Euro Bitum Plant and fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility, some discussions on cause supposition of the present accident. For cause of the fire, mutual differences were found. As a state at occurring fires was much resemble, their followed states seemed to be extremely different on responses of operators to fire-extinguishing action, filter exchanging and so forth. As finishing to recover the plant after 1 month passed from the accident to restart its operation, the Belgoprocess, Inc. has conducted some improvements of the facility such as sufficiency of fire extinguishing apparatus, addition and improvements of fire detecting means, direct measurement of solid temperature and so on, as well as reinforcement of thermal analysis procedure and renewal to new apparatus. Although no special supposition on cause of the fire at this meeting, a lot of items to learn such as operation system, responses after accident, and so forth were acquired. (G.K.)

Funasaka, Hideyuki; Fujita, Hideto; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Koyama, Tomozo

1997-11-01

287

The management of accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: This author’s experiences in investigating well over a hundred accident occurrences has led to questioning how such events can be managed - - - while immediately recognising that the idea of managing accidents is an oxymoron, we don’t want to manage them, we don’t want not to manage them, what we desire is not to have to manage not-them, that is, manage matters so they don’t happen and then we don’t have to manage the consequences.Design/methodology/approach: The research will begin by defining some common classes of accidents in manufacturing industry, with examples taken from cases investigated, and by working backwards (too late, of course show how those involved could have managed these sample events so they didn’t happen, finishing with the question whether any of that can be applied to other situations.Findings: As shown that the management actions needed to prevent accidents are control of design and application of technology, and control and integration of people.Research limitations/implications: This paper has shown in some of the examples provided, management actions have been know to lead to accidents being committed by others, lower in the organization.Originality/value: Today’s management activities involve, generally, the use of technology in many forms, varying from simple tools (such as knives to the use of heavy equipment, electric power, and explosives. Against these we commit, in control of those items, the comparatively frail human mind and body, which, again generally, does succeed in controlling these resources, with (another generality by appropriate management. However, sometimes the control slips and an accident occurs.

R. B. Ward

2009-01-01

288

Human error risk management for engineering systems: a methodology for design, safety assessment, accident investigation and training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to tackle methodological issues associated with the inclusion of cognitive and dynamic considerations into Human Reliability methods. A methodology called Human Error Risk Management for Engineering Systems is presented that offers a 'roadmap' for selecting and consistently applying Human Factors approaches in different areas of application and contains also a 'body' of possible methods and techniques of its own. Two types of possible application are discussed to demonstrate practical applications of the methodology. Specific attention is dedicated to the issue of data collection and definition from specific field assessment

2004-02-01

289

Factores asociados a los accidentes por exposición percutánea en personal de enfermería en un hospital de tercer nivel / Factors associated with accidents resulting from percutaneousexposure in nursing staff at a tertiary level hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: Los accidentes por exposición percutánea suponen aproximadamente un tercio de los accidentes laborales del personal sanitario hospitalario. Su importancia estriba en las enfermedades causadas por patógenos transmisibles por esta vía (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, infección VIH). Objetivos: d [...] escribir los accidentes de este tipo notificados en un hospital de tercer nivel; identificar factores asociados a estos accidentes en personal de enfermería; construir un modelo predictivo del riesgo individual de accidentarse. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo de una cohorte retrospectiva compuesta por todas las personas que notificaron un accidente entre el 1-1-93 y el 30-6-96. Estudio de casos y controles en el personal de enfermería durante el período 1-1-95 al 30-6-96, analizado mediante regresión logística múltiple. RESULTADOS: La incidencia acumulada de accidentes en un año fue de 0,078 para las/-os enfermeras/-os. En el 57,3% de los casos estuvieron implicadas agujas de jeringas desechables o precargadas. La incidencia acumulada en un año fue mayor para las agujas de cateterismo intravenoso (8,5 por 100.000). El riesgo de accidentabilidad, ajustado por variables confundentes, fue mayor para las/-os enfermeras/-os (OR=3,22; I.C.95%=1,96-5,27), para los trabajadores de la Unidad de Hemodiálisis (OR=35,21; I.C.95%=3,74-331,16) y para aquéllos con contrato eventual (OR=4,50; I.C.95%=2,24-9,04). CONCLUSIONES: Los accidentes por exposición percutánea en este hospital son más frecuentes entre el personal de enfermería y se producen, fundamentalmente, con algún tipo de aguja hueca. Se han identificado factores asociados a estos accidentes, lo que permite dirigir programas preventivos específicos sobre trabajadores con más riesgo. El modelo obtenido es válido para estimar el grado de accidentabilidad individual en los sujetos estudiados. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Accidents resulting from percutaneous exposure account for approximately one third of all accidents suffered at work by health workers in hospitals. Their importance lies in the illnesses caused by pathogens that can be transmitted in this way (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV virus). The a [...] ims are to describe accidents of this type notified in a tertiary level hospital, identify factors associated with these accidents in nursing staff and build a predictive model for the individual risk of having an accident. METHODS: A descriptive study of a retrospective cohort made up of all the people who notified having suffered an accident between 1-1-93 and 30-6-96. A study of cases and controls in nursing staff during the period 1-1-95 to 30-6-96, analysed through multiple logistical regression. RESULTS: The cumulative number of cases of accidents in one year was 0.078 for male and female nurses. In 57.3% of cases, disposable or pre-loaded syringes were involved. The cumulative number of cases in one year was greater for intravenous catheterisation (8.5% per 100,000). The risk of having an accident, adjusted on account of confusing variables, was greater for female and male nurses (OR=3.22; I.C.95%=1.96-5.27), for workers in the Haemodialysis Unit (OR=35.21; I.C.95%=3.74-331.16) and for those employed on a temporary contract (OR=4.50; I.C.95%=2.24-9.04). CONCLUSIONS: Accidents resulting from percutaneous exposure at this hospital are more frequent among nursing staff and are basically caused by some type of needle used for injections. Factors associated with these accidents were identified, allowing specific prevention programmes to be targeted at those workers at greater risk. The model obtained is valid to estimate the degree of individual accident probability for the subjects studied.

Mª Teresa, Gallardo López; Josefa, Masá Calles; Rafael, Fernández-Creuet Navajas; nmaculada, Salcedo Leal; Jokin de, Irala Estévez; Diego, Martínez de la Concha; Carmen, Díaz Molina.

290

Factores asociados a los accidentes por exposición percutánea en personal de enfermería en un hospital de tercer nivel / Factors associated with accidents resulting from percutaneousexposure in nursing staff at a tertiary level hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: Los accidentes por exposición percutánea suponen aproximadamente un tercio de los accidentes laborales del personal sanitario hospitalario. Su importancia estriba en las enfermedades causadas por patógenos transmisibles por esta vía (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, infección VIH). Objetivos: d [...] escribir los accidentes de este tipo notificados en un hospital de tercer nivel; identificar factores asociados a estos accidentes en personal de enfermería; construir un modelo predictivo del riesgo individual de accidentarse. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo de una cohorte retrospectiva compuesta por todas las personas que notificaron un accidente entre el 1-1-93 y el 30-6-96. Estudio de casos y controles en el personal de enfermería durante el período 1-1-95 al 30-6-96, analizado mediante regresión logística múltiple. RESULTADOS: La incidencia acumulada de accidentes en un año fue de 0,078 para las/-os enfermeras/-os. En el 57,3% de los casos estuvieron implicadas agujas de jeringas desechables o precargadas. La incidencia acumulada en un año fue mayor para las agujas de cateterismo intravenoso (8,5 por 100.000). El riesgo de accidentabilidad, ajustado por variables confundentes, fue mayor para las/-os enfermeras/-os (OR=3,22; I.C.95%=1,96-5,27), para los trabajadores de la Unidad de Hemodiálisis (OR=35,21; I.C.95%=3,74-331,16) y para aquéllos con contrato eventual (OR=4,50; I.C.95%=2,24-9,04). CONCLUSIONES: Los accidentes por exposición percutánea en este hospital son más frecuentes entre el personal de enfermería y se producen, fundamentalmente, con algún tipo de aguja hueca. Se han identificado factores asociados a estos accidentes, lo que permite dirigir programas preventivos específicos sobre trabajadores con más riesgo. El modelo obtenido es válido para estimar el grado de accidentabilidad individual en los sujetos estudiados. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Accidents resulting from percutaneous exposure account for approximately one third of all accidents suffered at work by health workers in hospitals. Their importance lies in the illnesses caused by pathogens that can be transmitted in this way (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV virus). The a [...] ims are to describe accidents of this type notified in a tertiary level hospital, identify factors associated with these accidents in nursing staff and build a predictive model for the individual risk of having an accident. METHODS: A descriptive study of a retrospective cohort made up of all the people who notified having suffered an accident between 1-1-93 and 30-6-96. A study of cases and controls in nursing staff during the period 1-1-95 to 30-6-96, analysed through multiple logistical regression. RESULTS: The cumulative number of cases of accidents in one year was 0.078 for male and female nurses. In 57.3% of cases, disposable or pre-loaded syringes were involved. The cumulative number of cases in one year was greater for intravenous catheterisation (8.5% per 100,000). The risk of having an accident, adjusted on account of confusing variables, was greater for female and male nurses (OR=3.22; I.C.95%=1.96-5.27), for workers in the Haemodialysis Unit (OR=35.21; I.C.95%=3.74-331.16) and for those employed on a temporary contract (OR=4.50; I.C.95%=2.24-9.04). CONCLUSIONS: Accidents resulting from percutaneous exposure at this hospital are more frequent among nursing staff and are basically caused by some type of needle used for injections. Factors associated with these accidents were identified, allowing specific prevention programmes to be targeted at those workers at greater risk. The model obtained is valid to estimate the degree of individual accident probability for the subjects studied.

Mª Teresa, Gallardo López; Josefa, Masá Calles; Rafael, Fernández-Creuet Navajas; nmaculada, Salcedo Leal; Jokin de, Irala Estévez; Diego, Martínez de la Concha; Carmen, Díaz Molina.

291

Investigating Human Factors in Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Manufacturing industries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to present the work carried out in a European Commission-funded project to adapt an existing Aircraft Maintenance Human Factors (HF) training program (STAMINA) to the Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Manufacturing industries (BPM). The STAMINA approach has been successfully built into a global human factors training business recognized internationally as a quality benchmark. The Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries have a similar need for hu...

Corrigan, Siobhan

2011-01-01

292

Integrated Road Accident And Cost Prediction Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of an integrated road accidents and its cost prediction model for Chennai city using system dynamics approach. In this case, the simulation road accident prediction model was developed from the base year 2010 using road accident data collected from 2006 to 2010. In this research an attempt is made to establish relationship between road accident with factors of human behaviors, vehicle factors and road factors. STELLA software is a powerful tool for making a simulation model instead of stock and flow diagram, graphical interface, table and graph view, causal relational diagrams and build in functions. The system dynamics road accident prediction model was developed using STELLA software. The main objective of the studies is to establish simple, practicable simulation road accident and its cost models that can predict the expected number of accidents from 2010 to 2020. The predicted number of accident in 2010 was 5255 and accident for the year 2020 will be 21612. The model was also validated by comparing the predicted accident values of the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 with actual accident values. Add results of cost how much you predicted here.

K. Nachimuthu

2013-12-01

293

An empirical investigation on factors influencing sales force  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today's competitive business environment, consumers are exposed to make their choice from different alternatives. Customer loyalty has never been an easy task and many business owners may lose their customer as soon as new products appear on the market. This paper presents a study to find important factors influencing on sales force using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire and distributed among 180 customers of a well-known food chain named Shahrvand in different regions in city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 156 filled ones. The questionnaire consists of 68 questions Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.847, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of our survey indicate that five major factors including.

Naser Azad

2013-06-01

294

Tchernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given

1986-01-01

295

Numerical investigation of the reactor pressure vessel behaviour under severe accident conditions taking into account the combined processes of the vessel creep and the molten pool natural convection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the WWER lower head behaviour and its failure has been performed for several molten pool structures and internal overpressure levels in a reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The different types of the molten pools (homogeneous, conventionally homogeneous, conventionally stratified, stratified) cover the bounding scenarios during a hypothetical severe accident. The parametric investigations of the failure mode and RPV behaviour for various molten pool types, its heights and internal overpressure levels are presented herein. A coupled treatment in this investigation includes: (i) a 2-D thermohydraulic analysis of a molten pool natural convection. Domestic NARAUFEM code has been used in this detailed analysis for prediction of the heat flux from the molten pool to the RPV inner surface; and (ii) a detailed 3-D transient thermal analysis of the RPV lower head. Domestic 3-D ASHTER-VVR finite element code has been used for the numerical simulations of the high temperature creep and failure of the lower head. The effect of an external RPV cooling, temperature-dependent physical properties of the molten pool and vessel steel, the hydrostatic forces and vessel dead-weight were taken into account in this study. The obtained results show that lower head failure occurs as a result of the vessel creep process which is significantly dependent on both an internal overpressure level and the type of molten pool structure. In particular, it was found that there were combinations of 'overpressure-molten pool structure' when the vessel failure started at the 'hot' layers of the vessel. (orig.)

1999-07-01

296

Acidentes e violências na infância e adolescência: fatores de risco e de proteção / Accidents and violence in childhood and adolescence: risk and protective factors / Accidentes y violencias en la infancia y adolescencia: factores de riesgo y de protección  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Apontada pelas estatísticas como a terceira causa de mortalidade em nosso país, as causas externas (acidentes e violências) ocasionam um grande impacto com repercussão econômica, social e emocional. Conhecer os fatores relacionados a este evento torna-se essencial, pois possibilita identificar e que [...] brar a teia que determina a morbimortalidade por causas externas. O estudo busca analisar as publicações existentes sobre os fatores associados aos acidentes e violências, a fim de proporcionar subsídios teóricos para os profissionais em suas práticas. Trata-se de estudo bibliográfico nas bases de dados Lilacs, Medline e Scielo. O conhecimento dos fatores de risco e proteção discutidos ao longo deste texto possibilita subsidiar a prática dos atores sociais engajados na transformação das condições geradoras de acidentes e violências. Abstract in spanish Señalada por las estadísticas como la tercera causa de mortalidad en nuestro país las causas externas (accidentes y violencias) producen un gran impacto en el ámbito económico, social y emocional. Conocer los factores relacionados con ese fenómeno se torna esencial, para que puedan ser identificadas [...] las causas y quebrada la secuencia que determina la morbimortalidad por causas externas. En el presente estudio se realizó una búsqueda de las publicaciones existentes sobre los factores asociados a los accidentes y violencias, con la finalidad de ofrecer subsidios teóricos para las prácticas de los profesionales. Se trata de un estudio bibliográfico según las bases de datos Lilacs, Medline y Scielo. El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo y protección discutidos a lo largo de este texto permite auxiliar la práctica de los actores sociales comprometidos en la transformación de las condiciones que generan accidentes y violencias. Abstract in english Singled out by statistics as the third leading cause of mortality in our country, external causes (accidents and violence) entail a great impact with economic, social and emotional rebound. Knowing the factors related to the event is essential, because it allows identifying and breaking the web that [...] determines morbidity and mortality from external causes. The study aims to analyze the existing publications on the factors associated with accidents and violence, in order to provide theoretical support for professionals in their practices. This is a bibliographical study of the Liliacs, Medline and Scielo databanks. The knowledge of the risk and protection factors discussed in the present study enables subsidize the practice of social actors engaged in transforming the conditions that lead to accidents and violence.

Christine Baccarat de Godoy, Martins.

297

Investigating power factor compensation capacity calculation in medium sized industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are a variety of techniques developed in order to improve the efficiency of electrical systems and reduce cost of providing electricity to the consumer. This paper presents a new technique for power-factor capacity calculation in medium-sized industrial/ commercial setups. Various loads of similar nominal power-factor are categorized and demand-factor of loads is so selected that it has engineering justifications. The developed system works on the principle of low-voltage power-factor correction, which substantially reduces electricity bill and increases loading-capacity of the electrical system. It allows commercial and industrial consumers to save on their power cost appreciably. This work utilizes software, which takes few inputs and produces numerous useful results. Adoption of this system can help the user in computing compensation-capacity, system KVA (size of transformer) and cost of compensation. A feature of this system is prediction of low PF penalty. Moreover, it also suggests the tentative payback period. (author)

2008-01-01

298

Accidents of bus drivers : an epidemiological approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the history of accident research much emphasis has been laid on general statistics, different types of case studies concentrating on various personal factor-s, circumstantial influences etc. Often, in certain waves, the unequal initial liability theory (the accident proneness concept; Greenwood and Woods, 1919), the search for personality traits, determining a personal vulnerability for accidents, dominated the research programs. Apart from methodological criticism (e....

Pokorny, M. L. I.; Blom, D. H. J.

1985-01-01

299

How to reduce the number of accidents  

CERN Multimedia

Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

2012-01-01

300

Long term reduction of Caesium and Strontium transfer factors from soil in foodstuff and dynamics of internal doses for a russian population after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The model of the formation of the internal doses for the population living on the territory contaminated after the Chernobyl accident is described. Model parameters were obtained on the base of natural measurements results implemented in the different terms after the accident. The data on the caesium radionuclides content in the bodies of the inhabitants measurements were priority for the internal exposure dose estimation. In the case of the absence of such information, the results of the radionuclides content in the food products analysis or the data on the soil types prevailing in the areas of settlements, were used for the calculations. The data were obtained during 1986-2001 as a result of monitoring of contaminated areas in Russia that considerably differ in their soil and climate conditions, the levels of 137Cs and 90Sr surface activity on soil and types of countermeasures applied. A summary of effective half-lives (T1/2) of 137Cs and 90Sr aggregated transfer factors (Tag) from soil into agricultural and natural products observed after the Chernobyl fallout is given. The short term decrease of 137Cs Tag from soil into milk and beef during two months after fallout were observed - T1/2 varied from 13 d to 36 d in depend on the part of dry and wet fallout. The studies between autumn 1986 and 1991 suggest a decrease in the 137Cs Tag with T1/2/2 =1-2 years. From 5-6 years after deposition onwards T1/2/2 of 137Cs and 90Sr Tag's in the range of 8 to 21 years were observed. Effective half-lives of 137Cs Tag's for foods from semi-natural ecosystems (mushrooms, berries, game, fish) are longer (up to tens years). On at least for some natural products the decrease seems to be only to radioactive decay. Comparison of the data on the dynamics of 137Cs content in agricultural and natural food products indicates that the contribution of the latter in the internal dose of population grows with each year after fallout, and can reach in the remote period up to 70 %. The influence of the actually applied measures for radiation protection of the population living in different zones of radioactively contaminated territories was taken into account. The results of the internal exposure doses estimations for the population in the different terms after the accident in condition of the countermeasures absence are given for a comparison. On the most contaminated territories these doses could exceeded actual in 5-7 times

2002-10-08

 
 
 
 
301

Factores predisponentes y repercusión del accidente hipoglucémico en embarazadas diabéticas pre-gestacionales bajo tratamiento insulínico intensivo / Predisposing factors and impact of the hypoglycaemic accident on pregnant women with pregestational diabetes under intensive insulin treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: analizar los factores que predisponen al accidente hipoglucémico durante el embarazo en diabéticas pre-gestacionales y su repercusión materna y perinatal. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron retrospectivamente 175 embarazadas diabéticas pre-gestacionales (73 B, 22 C, 66 D, 4 F, 1 H, 5 R, y 4 F-R) en el [...] período 2001-2006, todas estuvieron sometidas a tratamiento dietético e insulínico y este último aplicado según el método descrito por los profesores Valdés Amador y Márquez Guillén. Los resultados maternos y perinatales se analizan comparativamente entre las que sufrieron del accidente y las que no, para lo cual utilizamos el test X² de Fisher con un significado de p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to analyze the factors predisposing the hypoglycaemic accident during pregnancy in pregestational diabetic women and its maternal and perinatal repercussion. METHODS: 175 pregnant women affected by pregestational diabetes (73 B, 22 C, 66 D, 4 F, 1 H, 5 R, y 4 F-R) were retrospectively stu [...] died from 2001 to 2006. All of them were under dietetic and insulin treatment. The latter was applied by the method described by professors Valdés Amador and Márquez Guillén. The maternal and perinatal results were comparatively analyzed among those who suffered the accident and those who did not, for which we used Fisher's chi square test with a significance of p

Amador, Lemay Valdés; Magdalena, Copello Veublen; Osvaldo, Santana Bacallao; Bertha, Rodríguez Anzardo; Jacinto, Lang Prieto; Blanca Elena, Herrera; Antonio, Santurio Gil.

302

Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

1991-01-01

303

Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au).

Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

1991-08-01

304

Investigating important factors influencing electronic banking for export development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Export is one of the most important indicators of a growing economy and it is the primary source of reaching sustainable growth on the market. This paper presents an empirical study to determine important factors influencing electronic banking in export development of Iranian organizations. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some regular customers who do internet banking with Parsian bank in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.82, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.71 and 1955 with Sig. = 0.000, respectively. Using principal component analysis, the study has detected six factors including customer’s information, building trust, secure internet access, having good internet infrastructure and internet users.

Vahid Abbas Zadeh

2014-01-01

305

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was als...

2013-01-01

306

Investigation of factors responsible for cell line cytoplasmic expression differences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work has described a novel cytoplasmic expression system that results in a 20-fold increase in the levels of gene expression over a standard CMV-based nuclear expression system, as compared with a 2–3 fold increase seen with previous similar systems. While this increase was seen with BHK and Neuro-2a cells, further studies revealed that some cell lines, such as COS-7, demonstrated relatively poor levels of cytoplasmic expression. The objective of this study was to determine what factors were responsible for the different expression levels between BHK (a high expressing cell line and COS-7 (a low expressing cell line. Results The main findings of this work are that the individual elements of the cytoplasmic expression system (such as the T7 RNAP gene and Internal Ribosome Entry Sequence are functioning similarly in both cell types. Both cell types were found to have the same amount of cytosolic nuclease activity, and that the cells appeared to have differences in the intra-cellular processing of DNA -cationic lipid complexes. Conclusion After exploring many factors, it was found that differences in the intra-cellular processing of the DNA-cationic lipid complex was the most probable factor responsible for the difference in cytoplasmic gene expression.

Finn Jonathan D

2005-05-01

307

INVESTIGATING THE FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE BLOG ATTITUDE SCALE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the wide application of advanced technology in education, many attitude scales have been developed to evaluate learners’ attitudes toward educational tools. However, with the rapid development of emerging technologies, using blogs as one of the Web 2.0 tools is still in its infancy and few blog attitude scales have been developed yet. In view of this need, a lot of researchers like to design a new scale based on their conceptual and theoretical framework of their own study rather than using available scales. The present study reports the design and development of a blog attitude scale (BAS. The researchers developed a pool of items to capture the complexity of the blog attitude trait, selected 29 items in the content analysis, and assigned the scale comprising 29 items to 216 undergraduate students to explore the underlying structure of the BAS. In exploratory factor analysis, three factors were discovered: blog anxiety, blog desirability, and blog self-efficacy; 14 items were excluded. The extracted items were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis which lent further support to the BAS underpinning structure.

Zahra SHAHSAVAR

2010-10-01

308

Prevention of pedestrian accidents.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Child pedestrian accidents are the most common road traffic accident resulting in injury. Much of the existing work on road traffic accidents is based on analysing clusters of accidents despite evidence that child pedestrian accidents tend to be more dispersed than this. This paper analyses pedestrian accidents in 573 children aged 0-11 years by a locally derived deprivation score for the years 1988-90. The analysis shows a significantly higher accident rate in deprived areas and a dose respo...

Kendrick, D.

1993-01-01

309

[Occupational accidents in temporary work].  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2000 in Italy about 470,000 workers found jobs provided by Temporary Work Agencies, i.e., more than twice the number in 1999. Temporary Work is an expanding phenomenon since it well suits the flexibility requirements of business: 77% of Temporary Work is in the manufacturing industry, involving mostly unskilled workers. The young age, low level of qualification, poor training, and lack of knowledge of the working environment are factors that can favour occupational accidents. There are studies that relate the frequency of labour accidents to the level of training and job experience. There are no data in the literature about occupational accidents during temporary work. Our study concerns sixteen temporary work Agencies that employed more than 250,000 manual workers in 2000. From the occupational accident registers of these agencies, we analysed all accidents concerning manual workers employed during 2000, with reference to: the number of accidents with up to three days prognosis, age, sex, nationality, prognosis pattern and cause. The agencies supplied data regarding the number of hours worked during 2000. We considered 5259 accidents: the overall frequency index (FI) was 92.1, with a considerable difference between the three main agencies (87.5) and the others. The mean age accident was 27.8 years, mean duration of sick leave 13.7 days, and the main causes were work tools (51.5%); 76% of the accidents concerned unskilled manual workers. The above indexes are definitely higher than those provided by INAIL (italian compulsory insurances) for the metalworking (38.1), construction (47.7) and mining (58.8) sectors during 1997. There is evidence that temporary work is related to an increased risk of occupational accidents. Further studies are required to confirm this evidence. PMID:11676190

Nola, A; Cattaneo, G; Maiocchi, A; Gariboldi, C; Rocchi, R; Cavallaro, S; Loreto, B; Lanfredini, L; Bassino, P

2001-01-01

310

Study of the Severity of Accidents in Tehran Using Statistical Modeling and Data Mining Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractBackgrounds and Aims: The Tehran province was subject to the second highest incidence of fatalities due to traffic accidents in 1390. Most studies in this field examine rural traffic accidents, but this study is based on the use of logit models and artificial neural networks to evaluate the factors that affect the severity of accidents within the city of Tehran.Materials and Methods: Among the various types of crashes, head-on collisions are specified as the most serious type, which is investigated in this study with the use of Tehran’s accident data. In the modeling process, the severity of the accident is the dependent variable and defined as a binary covariate, which are non-injury accidents and injury accidents. The independent variables are parameters such as the characteristics of the driver, time of the accident, traffic and environmental characteristics. In addition to the prediction accuracy comparison of the two models, the elasticity of the logit model is compared with a sensitivity analysis of the neural network.Results: The results show that the proposed model provides a good estimate of an accident's severity. The explanatory variables that have been determined to be significant in the final models are the driver’s gender, age and education, along with negligence of the traffic rules, inappropriate acceleration, deviation to the left, type of vehicle, pavement conditions, time of the crash and street width.Conclusion: An artificial neural network model can be useful as a statistical model in the analysis of factors that affect the severity of accidents. According to the results, human errors and illiteracy of drivers increase the severity of crashes, and therefore, educating drivers is the main strategy that will reduce accident severity in Iran. Special attention should be given to a driver’s age group, with particular care taken when they are very young.

Hesamaldin Razi

2013-01-01

311

Investigation of power factor controller applications. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was conducted to evaluate the power factor controller (PFC) as a potential energy conservation device for Army applications and to develop guidelines for its use. An examination of studies conducted on the PFC showed that it can be an effective energy conservation device when properly applied, cutting motor energy consumption by at least 10 percent on low-efficiency motors. However, the use of high efficiency motors is almost always more energy conservative, and PFCs do not improve the performance of motors whose efficiency is already high over the load range.

Chionis, M.B.; Sliwinski, B.J.

1984-07-01

312

Variation in transfer factor of radiocaesium in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in clear cut and mature forest sites after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bank voles that were collected between 1986 and 2004 at sites in Chernobyl fallout areas of northern Sweden showed higher 137Cs activity concentrations at the mature forest sites compared to clear cuts. This difference was not attributed to differences in ground deposition between sites but to differences in aggregated transfer rates to voles. Differences in transfer between forest types were evident for all years 1986-2004 but the change occurred at different rates in the two habitats. The apparent transfer factor between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and voles was positively related and indicated that a biomagnification was about 1.5 from vegetation to these small mammalian herbivores. The aggregated transfer factor to bank voles measured in the forest habitat, although starting at higher levels declined faster with time than clear cut sites and the differences between the forest habitat and the clear cut areas diminished with time. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the mean level in bank vole was 514 Bq/kg fresh mass (SD = 505) that increased to 1485 Bq/kg (SD = 881) in 1988. The activity concentration declined thereafter. The bank voles collected in similar habitats in 2004 contained on average 1022 Bq/kg (SD = 723). Still 18 years after the radionuclide fallout over Sweden high activity concentrations in voles could be found

2007-01-01

313

Reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the issues involved in the public health measures and the use of KI in a reactor accident have been reviewed. It is suggested that the widely applied risk estimates for induction of human thyroid cancer by radioiodine are probably too high since they are generally derived from x-radiation of children and since 131I seems less carcinogenic per gray than external radiation. The adult protective action guideline currently recommended by the FDA of 0.25 Gy (25 rad) for KI administration may be overly conservative. If KI is to be used, 1 Gy (100 rad) to the thyroid for adults and .50 Gy (50 rad) for children may be a more appropriate action level. For maximum effectiveness, KI must be taken immediately before or at the time of exposure, a requirement producing major distribution problems. The logistics of KI distribution are complex and seem to limit its use to special situations. Significant side effects can occur from iodide ingestion, although they are not likely to be frequent with the KI dose proposed. In most accident scenarios, the overall gain from KI use seems to be marginal. In considering KI use as public health measure, the authors are confronted with the problem of establishing sound public policy in the absence of sufficient scientific information and in the face of conflicting and often unrealistic perceptions. It is hoped that new and useful information can be obtained from the study of the effects of the Chernobyl accident where KI was used for a few days in the population in the immediate vicinity of the reactor

1986-11-19

314

Transportation accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Predicting the possible consequences of transportation accidents provides a severe challenge to an analyst who must make a judgment of the likely consequences of a release event at an unpredictable time and place. Since it is impractical to try to obtain detailed knowledge of the meteorology and terrain for every potential accident location on a route or to obtain accurate descriptions of population distributions or sensitive property to be protected (data which are more likely to be more readily available when one deals with fixed-site problems), he is constrained to make conservative assumptions in response to a demanding public audience. These conservative assumptions are frequently offset by very small source terms (relative to a fixed site) created when a transport vehicle is involved in an accident. For radioactive materials, which are the principal interest of the authors, only the most elementary models have been used for assessing the consequences of release of these materials in the transportation setting. Risk analysis and environmental impact statements frequently have used the Pasquill-Gifford/gaussian techniques for releases of short duration, which are both simple and easy to apply and require a minimum amount of detailed information. However, after deciding to use such a model, the problem of selecting what specific parameters to use in specific transportation situations still presents itself. Additional complications arise because source terms are not well characterized, release rates can be variable over short and long time periods, and mechanisms by which source aerosols become entrained in air are not always obvious. Some approaches that have been used to address these problems will be reviewed with emphasis on guidelines to avoid the Worst-Case Scenario Syndrome.

Luna, R.E.; Wilmot, E.L.

1981-01-01

315

A Technique for Showing Causal Arguments in Accident Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

In the prototypical accident report, specific findings, particularly those related to causes and contributing factors, are usually written out explicitly and clearly. Also, the evidence upon which these findings are based is typically explained in detail. Often lacking, however, is any explicit discussion, description, or depiction of the arguments that connect the findings and the evidence. That is, the reports do not make clear why the investigators believe that the specific evidence they found necessarily leads to the particular findings they enumerated. This paper shows how graphical techniques can be used to depict relevant arguments supporting alternate positions on the causes of a complex road-traffic accident.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

2005-01-01

316

Investigating tooth loss and associated factors among older Taiwanese adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with tooth loss in older Taiwanese adults with different numbers of remaining teeth. This study evaluated oral health status and tooth loss among 2286 adults aged over 65. Subjects were classified according to number of teeth (Group 1 Tooth loss and oral health data were collected from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), compared between groups and analyzed by multivariate modeling. Group 1 subjects were older and had more partial dentures. Tooth loss was associated with self-limited food choices due to oral health status, and malnutrition. Tooth loss in Group 2 subjects was significantly associated with lower mental status. Tooth loss may predict cognitive status (odds ratio (OR) 1.30) and physical-disability (OR 1.79). Our results suggested that tooth loss was associated with age, more partial dentures, self-limited food choices, malnutrition, and lower mental and cognitive status and physical disability. PMID:24568967

Wang, Tze-Fang; Chen, Ying-Yu; Liou, Yiing-Mei; Chou, Chyuan

2014-01-01

317

Psychological aspects of risk appraisal in asphyxiation accidents: a review of the factors influencing children’s perception and behaviour  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Psychological aspects determining children’s behaviour in response to asphyxiation risk due to ingestion of foreign matter have been rarely and non-systematically examined in the literature. Aim of this report is to highlight – through a review of the most significant psychological research in the literature – which factors influence the behaviour, perception and assessments of children 0 to 14 years of age, in a risk situation. In particular, attention is focused on the direct experien...

Zigon, G.; Corradetti, R.; Morra, B.; Snidero, S.; Gregori, D.; Passali, D.

2005-01-01

318

Investigation regarding the long-term security developments in the Swedish nuclear power and the response to the accident at Fukushima; Utredning avseende den laangsiktiga saekerhetsutvecklingen i den svenska kaernkraften och aatgaerder med anledning av olyckan i Fukushima  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Swedish nuclear plants need to continue to work on analysis and actions in the plants, partly to meet the demands of legislation and agreed action plans, and partly due to additional security requirements on account of experiences from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, stress tests, security investigations and investigations relating to physical protection. It is also essential to continue with safety improvements to gradually increase margins against unforeseen events in aging plants during long-term operation.

Skaanberg, Lars

2012-07-01

319

Radiation accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

Saenger, E.L.

1986-09-01

320

Investigating the effective factors on the duration of breast feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: A balanced and proper diet is an essential factor in maintaining individual’s health. The improvement of feeding in different age groups, especially children, is considered a significant step in primary health care. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive and analytic study. A sample of 225 mothers whose babies were between 0-24 months and who were referred to selected centers were chosen, using random sampling. The tool was a questionnaire. To analyze the data, the descriptive statistical, frequency distribution charts, the mean and central tendency as well as inferential statistics (?2 test and Pearson correlation were applied. Results: The findings of the research showed that there is a meaningful relation between variables of age, occupation, the method of the last delivery, inclination of mother to the breast feeding, age of fetus at the time of birth, hospitalization of the neonate, the time of first breast feeding after the childbirth, the quality of baby’s nutrition while he is hospitalized, the quality of the baby’s first nutrition, the time of starting aid-feeding, using the aid-milk and using the pacifier by the baby with the duration of breast feeding. Such a relationship was also found between husband’s idea about the breast feeding, examination of the breast during the pregnancy, teaching the advantages of the breast feeding and its correct method during the pregnancy, the place of the last childbirth, teaching the importance and the correct method of breast feeding after the childbirth, an encouraging and supporting husband concerning breast feeding, presence of the mother and the baby in a same-room after the childbirth, manner of arranging the intervals and times of the breast feeding, breast feeding during the night, renewed pregnancy and the duration of breast feeding in each session with the duration of breast feeding. Conclusion: According to the findings of the research, different factors affect duration of the breast feeding. Necessity of the midwife’s attempt to instruct mothers during pregnancy and after childbirth was affirmed. The necessity of instruction of the medical groups about breast feeding is also made clear more than before.

Jamshidi Evanaki

2004-08-01

 
 
 
 
321

Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

2010-01-01

322

Investigation of Framingham Risk Factors in Turkish adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine 10-year risk for development of cardiovascular diseases usingFramingham risk scoring as a tool for the estimationof coronary risk and renew the blood lipid levels.Materials and methods: Samples from fasting 3169healthy donors declaring as having no cardiovasculardisease and diabetes (1800 women, mean age 46.8±9.2years and 1369 men, mean age 46.03±8.4 years weretested and scored according to risk factors in both genders.Results: When average values were considered, totalcholesterol level was higher (204±42 mg/dL accordingto reactive insert reference values. High total kolesteroland low HDL-C levels were seen in 20% and 19.5% ofmen and 32.6% and 1.1% of women, respectively. Thenumber of participants having systolic blood pressure?130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure ? 85 mmHgwere 775 (24.5% and the distribution of those valueswas 10.6 % in men and 13.9% in women. The mean 10-year cardiovascular disease risks were 9.4 % in men and4.6% in women among 3169 participants.Conclusion: A 10-year risk of coronary disease, in Turkishmales was 2-fold higher than in Turkish females. Useof Framingham study in clinical assessments maintains tobe a valid method in preventive approaches for developmentof cardiovascular diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(1: 42-49

Arda ?anl? Ökmen

2011-03-01

323

The ultimate nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

1988-01-01

324

Investigating important factors influencing on strategic marketing planning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most important methods for building good marketing strategy is to learn more about existing competitors, suppliers, etc. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between wholesalers, bargaining pricing, new rivals and pricing strategy on preparing appropriate marketing strategy in meat market in city of shiraz, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 200 experts in this market. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 97.3%, which validates the overall survey. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation ratio indicate that there were some positive and meaningful relationships between all components of the survey with marketing strategy.

Davood Salmani

2014-02-01

325

Investigation of factors associated with paternal nondisjunction of chromosome 21.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies on relatively small samples of individuals with trisomy 21 caused by paternally derived errors have shown that: (1) advanced paternal age is not a risk factor for chromosome 21 nondisjunction (NDJ), (2) absence of recombination, but not the location of recombination is associated with paternal NDJ and (3) there is an excess of males among live-births with paternally derived trisomy 21. An excess of males is also observed among all individuals with trisomy 21. Using 128 families that had a child with trisomy 21 due to a paternally derived error, we examined: paternal age, recombination and the male/female sex ratio. We genotyped STRs along 21q to identify the origin of the error and the location of recombination on the paternal chromosome. Results showed that 32% of paternal meiotic errors occurred in meiosis I (MI) and 68% in meiosis II (MII). We confirmed the lack of a paternal age association with either type of error (mean paternal age for controls, MI, and MII errors: 31.3 +/- 6.6, 32.2 +/- 6.3, 30.6 +/- 6.5, respectively). However, contrary to previous findings, we did not find altered patterns of recombination among paternal MI or MII errors. We found an increased male/female sex ratio among paternal (1.28, 95% CI: 0.68-1.91) and maternal (1.16, 95% CI: 1.02-1.33) meiotic errors. While the sex ratio among individuals with paternal errors was not statistically significant, these findings suggest that selection against female fetuses with trisomy 21 may contribute to the excess of males observed among all individuals with trisomy 21. PMID:19606484

Oliver, Tiffany Renee; Bhise, Archit; Feingold, Eleanor; Tinker, Stuart; Masse, Nirupama; Sherman, Stephanie L

2009-08-01

326

ACR-1000 severe accident program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) developed the Advanced CANDU ReactorTM-1000 (ACR-1000TM) as an evolutionary advancement of the current CANDU 6 reactor. The ACR-1000 is a Generation III+ plant aimed at producing electrical power for a capital cost and a unit-energy cost significantly less than that of the current generation of operating nuclear plants, while achieving shorter construction schedule, high plant capacity factor, improved operations and maintenance, increased operating life, and enhanced safety features. This paper presents an overview of the ACR-1000 severe accident program. This program has the following objectives: to ensure public safety from severe accidents, to achieve a robust design with respect to severe accidents, and to meet international guidelines and practice with respect to the severe accident design of advanced reactors. (author)

2007-04-22

327

Nuclear accidents; Acidentes nucleares  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the authors made a review about nuclear accidents, describing the different kinds of accidents and the principal nuclear accidents. They described too the radiation syndrome and the measures must be taken 8 refs., 5 charts

Cervo, Marco Antonio Cadorna [Hospital Naval Marcilio Dias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

1996-12-31

328

Fast armatures must limit accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After pipe ruptures in the primary system of a nuclear power plants, quick-action stop armatures have the task to prevent the consequences of the accident by immediately stopping the volume flow in pipes, thus preventing the radioactive medium from flowing to the point of rupture. The article reports on the simulation of such accidents in the Karlstein superheated-steam reactor (HDR) as well as on the investigation procedure and results. (orig./UA) 891 UA 892 EKI

1978-01-01

329

An experimental investigation of factors affecting arc-cathode erosion  

Science.gov (United States)

A specially designed thermal plasma reactor system for the investigation of arc-cathode erosion has been set up. By using an OMA-spectrometer system, emission spectroscopic measurements of electron temperature and electron number density in the cathode region have been performed, together with single-colour and two-colour pyrometry of cathode temperature distributions. Observation of cathode spot behaviour has been carried out simultaneously by employing a telemicroscope and a high-speed vision system. Cathodes have been examined by SEM and EDX after arcing. For pure tungsten cathodes, the initial cathode geometry has almost no effect on the cathode spot's behaviour due to the molten state of the cathode spot. The major erosion mechanism is the ejection of liquid droplets from the cathode spot. However, the initial cathode geometry has a certain influence on the cathode's erosion for 2% thoriated tungsten cathodes. A highly non-uniform erosion pattern will occur if the cathode is overcooled, probably due to ion bombardment in the low-temperature regions of the arc-attachment spot.

Zhou, X.; Heberlein, J.

1998-10-01

330

Investigating different factors influencing on return of private banks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Return of Investment has always been an interesting area of research among academics as well as investors. Although capital asset pricing model (CAPM is capable of estimating risk of investment, many people argue that CAPM is not able to predict long-term return, properly. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effects of different financial figures including systematic risk (Beta, size of firm, ratio of book value to market share, volume of trade and the ratio of price/earnings (P/E on return of private banks in Iran. The study gathers the necessary information over the period 2005-2011 from private banks in Iran. The study uses multiple regression technique to find the effects of mentioned variables on return of private banks. The results indicate that there are some meaningful and positive relationship between return of banks and systematic risk (Beta, size, volume of trade and P/E. The study also finds some meaningful and reverse relationship between bank return and book value on market value.

Pegah Motamedi

2013-09-01

331

Accident Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a general feeling that decommissioning is an activity involving limited risks, compared to NPP operation, and in particular risks involving the general public. This is technically confirmed by licensing analysis and evaluations, where, once the spent fuel has been removed from the plant, the radioactivity inventory available to be released to the environment is very limited. Decommissioning activities performed so far in the world have also confirmed the first assumptions and no specific issue has been identified, in this field, to justify a completely new approach. Commercial interests in international harmonization, which could drive an in-depth discussion about the bases of this approach, are weak at the moment. However, there are several reasons why a discussion in an international framework about the Safety Case for decommissioning (and, in particular, about Accident Assessment) may be considered necessary and important, and why it may show some specific and peculiar aspects. An effort for a comprehensive and systematic D and D accident safety assessment of the decommissioning process is justified. It is necessary also to explore in a holistic way the aspects of industrial safety, and develop tools for the decision-making process optimization. The expected results are the implementation of appropriate and optimized protective measures in any event and of adequate on/off-site emergency plans for optimal public and workers protection. The experience from other decommissioning projects and large-scale industrial activities is essential to balance provisions and an Operating Experience review process (specific for decommissioning) should help to focus on real issues

2002-07-05

332

Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis. PMID:21819835

Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

2011-11-01

333

An investigation of hydrogen stratification and its application for the assessment of containment failure modes for a BWR Mark III containment during core meltdown accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The BNL staff have performed an extensive assessment of potential failure modes for core meltdown accidents in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) with a Mark III containment. The particular Mark III containment under consideration did not initially include provision for any system to control H/sub 2/ burning, so that H/sub 2/ phenomena were found to be dominant contributors to containment failure. However, all Mark III containments will now have provisions for the control of H/sub 2/ burning, which will influence the current assessment of H/sub 2/ phenomena. During core meltdown accidents, hydrogen may accumulate inside the reactor containment

1985-01-01

334

Some characteristics of drivers having caused traffic accidents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. Traffic accidents are caused by road, vehicle and human factors, the latter one causing, either by itself or associated with other factors, more than 90% of car accidents. There are three types of human errors: errors in perception, attention and memory. Material and Methods. The study included thirty healthy drivers, aged 28-40, with 500 km driven per a week, who had caused at least one traffic accident, but not being intoxicated by alcohol or drugs during the accident. The sam...

?uri? Predrag; Miladinov-Mikov Marica

2008-01-01

335

Hand injuries in agricultural accidents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of hand injuries due to farming accidents in a defined population with a representative mixture of agricultural activities. During a 12-month period all agricultural accidents treated at the five hospitals in the County of Ringkøbing, Denmark were prospectively registered. Follow-up was done by telephone interview 4 months after the accident. Of the 260 persons injured in agricultural accidents, 117 (45%) had lesions of the upper extremity and 73 persons (28%) had hand injuries. The most common injuries were lacerations and amputations (45%) followed by fractures (36%). Mean sick leave was 25 days, and mean work impairment was 31 days in patients with hand injuries.

Hansen, Torben Bæk; Carstensen, O

1999-01-01

336

Consequences of radioactive releases into the sea resulting from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant - Evolution of expert investigation according to the data available  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 led to an unprecedented direct input of artificial radioactivity into the marine environment. The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety was requested by the French authorities to investigate the radioecological impact of this input, in particular the potential contamination of products of marine origin used for human consumption. This article describes the close link between the responses provided and ...

Laguionie, Philippe; Bailly-du-bois, Pascal; Boust, D.; Fievet, B.; Garreau, Pierre; Connan, O.; Charmasson, Sabine; Arnaud, M.; Duffa, Celine; Champion, D.

2012-01-01

337

The handling of radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The symposium was attended by 204 participants from 39 countries and 5 international organizations. Forty-two papers were presented in 8 sessions. The purpose of the meeting was to foster an exchange of experiences gained in establishing and exercising plans for mitigating the effects of radiation accidents and in the handling of actual accident situations. Only a small number of accidents were reported at the symposium, and this reflects the very high standards of safety that has been achieved by the nuclear industry. No accidents of radiological significance were reported to have occurred at commercial nuclear power plants. Of the accidents reported, industrial radiography continues to be the area in which most of the radiation accidents occur. The experience gained in the reported accident situations served to confirm the crucial importance of the prompt availability of medical and radiological services, particularly in the case of uptake of radioactive material, and emphasized the importance of detailed investigation into the causes of the accident in order to improve preventative measures. One of the principal themes of the symposium involved emergency procedures related to nuclear power plant accidents, and several papers defining the scope, progression and consequences of design base accidents for both thermal and fast reactor systems were presented. These were complemented by papers defining the resultant protection requirements that should be satisfied in the establishment of plans designed to mitigate the effects of the postulated accident situations. Several papers were presented describing existing emergency organizational arrangements relating both to specific nuclear power plants and to comprehensive national schemes, and a particularly informative session was devoted to the topic of training of personnel in the practical conduct of emergency arrangements. The general feeling of the participants was one of studied confidence in the competence and capability of the nuclear power industry to cope adequately in the unlikely event of a serious radiation accident occurring at a nuclear power plant; however, the active interest shown in the continued refinement of emergency procedures demonstrated the absence of complacency. (author)

1977-06-01

338

Persistence in Airline Accidents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses airline accident data from 1927-2006, through fractional integration. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. There exists a negative relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events.

Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joa?o Ricardo; Gil-alana, Luis A.

2008-01-01

339

Fatores associados ao óbito de motociclistas nas ocorrências de trânsito Factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclista en accidentes de tránsito Factors associated with the death of motorcyclists in traffic accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para identificar fatores associados ao óbito em motociclistas envolvidos em ocorrências de trânsito, em Maringá-PR, foi realizado estudo retrospectivo incluindo os motociclistas envolvidos em acidentes no ano de 2004. As fontes de dados foram os registros da Polícia Militar, do SIATE e do Instituto Médico Legal. Foram realizadas análises bivariadas e regressão logística binária. Identificaram-se 2.362 motociclistas nos Boletins de Ocorrência e, destes, 1.743 tinham registros nos Relatórios de Atendimento do Socorrista. As vítimas fatais diferiram das demais quanto à faixa etária, ao local de residência, ao tempo de habilitação e as suas condições fisiológicas na cena da ocorrência. No modelo final permaneceram as seguintes variáveis: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, pulso e saturação de O2 no sangue. As condições fisiológicas das vítimas na cena do acidente se destacaram no modelo final e a ECGl superou o RTS na associação com óbito.Para identificar factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclistas involucrados en accidentes de tránsito, en Maringá-PR se realizó estudio retrospectivo incluyendo a los motociclistas involucrados en accidentes durante 2004. Datos recolectados de registros de Policía Militar, SIATE e Instituto Médico Legal. Se identificaron 2362 motociclistas en las Actas de Accidentes; de ellos, 1743 tenían registro en los Informes de Atención del Socorrista. Las víctimas fatales difirieron del resto en lo referente a faja etaria, lugar de residencia, tiempo de habilitación y condiciones fisiológicas en la escena del accidente. En el modelo final permanecen las variables: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, pulso y saturación de O2 en sangre. Las condiciones fisiológicas de las víctimas en la escena del accidente se destacan en el modelo final, y la ECGl superó al RTS en la asociación con fallecimiento.In order to identify the factors associated with death among motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents in Maringá - PR, a retrospective study was performed, including motorcyclists involved in accidents in the year 2004. Data were collected from the Military Police records, the Integrated System for Emergency Trauma Care (Sistema Integrado de Atendimento ao Trauma em Emergência -SIATE and the Institute of Legal Medicine. Bivariate analyses and binary logistical regression were performed. A total of 2,362 motorcyclists were identified in the Police Reports, 1,743 of whom also had records in the Emergency Responders reports. Victims who succumbed to their injuries differed from victims who survived in terms of age, place of residence, time elapsed since obtaining a driver's license, and their physiological condition at the scene of the accident. The following variables were maintained in the final model: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, pulse, and blood oxygen saturation. The physiological conditions of the victims at the scene of the accidents were highlighted in the final model, with GCS surpassing RTS in regards to association with death.

Nelson Luiz Batista de Oliveira

2012-12-01

340

The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Characterisation techniques of simulated accident aerosols  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At ENEA an intensive programme aimed at the measurement of the DF (decontamination factor) as a function of gas composition, water vapor content, aerosol composition and size, has been undertaken in connection with possible LWR accidents. A description is given of the characterisation techniques of the simulated accident aerosols. (author)

1988-09-02

342

Hull loss accident model for narrow body commercial aircraft  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accidents with narrow body aircraft were statistically evaluated covering six families of commercial aircraft includingBoeing B737, Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD80, Tupolev TU134/TU154 and Antonov AN124. A risk indicator for eachflight phase was developed based on motion characteristics, duration time, and the presence of adverse weather conditions.The estimated risk levels based on these risk indicators then developed from the risk indicator. Regression analysis indicatedvery good agreement between the estimated risk level and the accident ratio of hull loss cases per number of delivered aircraft.The effect of time on the hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft was assessed for B737, A320 and MD80. Equationsrepresenting the effect of time on hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were proposed for B737, A320, and MD80,while average values of hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were found for TU134, TU154, and AN 124. Accidentprobability equations were then developed for each family of aircraft that the probability of an aircraft in a hull loss accidentcould be estimated for any aircraft family, flight phase, presence of adverse weather factor, hour of day, day of week, monthof year, pilot age, and pilot flight hour experience. A simplified relationship between estimated hull loss accident probabilityand unsafe acts by human was proposed. Numerical investigation of the relationship between unsafe acts by human andfatality ratio suggested that the fatality ratio in hull loss accident was dominated primarily by the flight phase media.

Somchanok Tiabtiamrat

2010-10-01

343

76 FR 589 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Mine Accident, Injury, Illness, Mine...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Collection; Mine Accident, Injury, Illness, Mine...investigation, and reporting of accidents, injuries, illnesses, and...Report Form 7000-1--Mine Accident, Injury, and Illness Report...the request for Office of Management and Budget approval of...

2011-01-05

344

The Prevalence and Pattern of Accidents in Yazd Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To examine the prevalence of accidents a cross-sectional study for 6494 retrieved randomly from the Yazd province. Data was gathered via a questionnaire filled by referring personally to their residential premises. Generally, the prevalence of accidents in this study was 3.54% of in which motor vehicle accidents accounted for the majority of accidents (39.1% followed by falls (29.1%, burns and poisonings (13%. In conclusion, age, sex and literacy levels are the main determining factors of accidents. This study, therefore, provides sufficient evidence to support the need for an aggressive campaign to reduce accidents in this area.

S.S. Mazloomi

2005-01-01

345

Approach to accident management in RBMK-1500  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to ensure the safe operation of the nuclear power plants accident management programs are being developed around the world. These accident management programs cover the whole spectrum of accidents, including severe accidents. A lot of work is done to investigate the severe accident phenomena and implement severe accident management in NPPs with vessel-type reactors, while less attention is paid to channel-type reactors CANDU and RBMK. Ignalina NPP with RBMK-1500 reactor has implemented symptom based emergency operation procedures, which cover management of accidents until the core damage and do not extend to core damage region. In order to ensure coverage of the whole spectrum of accidents and meet the requirements of IAEA the severe accident management guidelines have to be developed. This paper presents the basic principles and approach to management of beyond design basis accidents at Ignalina NPP. In general, this approach could be applied to NPPs with RBMK-1000 reactors that are available in Russia, but the design differences should be taken into account.

Kaliatka, A. [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos g. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); Urbonavicius, E. [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos g. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania)], E-mail: egis@mail.lei.lt; Uspuras, E. [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos g. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania)

2008-01-15

346

Theoretical and experimental investigations into the filtration of the atmosphere within the containments of pressurized water reactors after serious reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For serious accidents in nuclear power stations equipped with pressurized water reactors and with boundary conditions assumed, a conservative evaluation was made of the condition of the atmosphere within the reactor containment, particularly referring to pressure, temperature, air humidity and activity release. Based on these data the loads were calculated of accident filter systems of different designs as a function of parameters such as the course of releases and the volume flow through the filter systems. A number of experimental results are indicated on the behaviour of iodine sorption materials under extreme conditions including the least favorable temperature, humidity and pressure derived from the calculations above. Reference is made to the targets of future R and D work on aerosol removal

1981-02-01

347

The influence of accident measures on accident scenarios for VVER-1000-Type reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For VVER-1000-type reactors severe accident scenarios and possible mitigation strategies are investigated. The Station blackout sequence is chosen as reference case. At first a comparison between the cases with and without working spray systems is discussed. Afterwards the results of a parametric study investigating the influence of different water volumes on the course of the accident are presented. It can be shown that most of these accident mitigation measures will maintain the containment integrity and reduce the source term. (author)

1995-09-11

348

The effect of retention factors on organisational commitment : an investigation of high technology employees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the present study was to investigate specific retention factors that induced the organisational commitment of high technology employees. A sample of 94 professional technicians from a South African owned telecommunications company based in the Gauteng province participated. The Organisational Commitment Scale and a retention factor measurement scale were administered. The most relevant explanatory factors were compensation, job characteristics, supervisor support, and work/li...

2006-01-01

349

The Effect Of Retention Factors On Organisational Commitment: An Investigation Of High Technology Employees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the present study was to investigate specific retention factors that induced the organisational commitment of high technology employees. A sample of 94 professional technicians from a South African owned telecommunications company based in the Gauteng province participated. The Organisational Commitment Scale and a retention factor measurement scale were administered. The most relevant explanatory factors were compensation, job characteristics, supervisor support, and work/li...

2006-01-01

350

Investigating Web impact factors of type 1, type 2 and type 3 medical universities in Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Investigation of the web impact factor and analysis of the web links belong to webometric studies. A high impact factor, accompanied by more frequent links to a particular website, can indicate greater influence and better accessibility of that particular site. In this regard, bearing in mind the significance of medical universities' web sites for education and research, the current study compared and analyzed their impact factors, their web links and web pages, using AltaVista search engine....

2010-01-01

351

Investigating critical success factors in agile systems development projects / Ruhan Wagener.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates the critical success factors involved in agile systems development projects. Various systems development methodologies and project management methodologies are presented with their underlying principles, strengths and weaknesses. Thereafter the critical success factors adopted from the work of Chow and Cao (2007) are presented.

Wagener, Ruhan Pieter

2012-01-01

352

A study on people's awareness of the causal factors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident and measures to ensure nuclear power plants safety. Questionnaire survey conducted in the Kansai area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, we conducted three questionnaire surveys targeting a total of 808 respondents living in the cities of Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe, in order to elucidate people's awareness of the following 1) the causal factors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, 2) measures taken by electric power companies to ensure nuclear power plants safety, 3) management measures for earthquake and tsunami disaster. The results revealed that 1) the causal factors of the accident the respondents were aware of were a) a mega earthquake and tsunami disaster, b) insufficient preparations for an earthquake and tsunami disaster, c) failure to take adequate management decisions and insufficient preparations to prevent severe nuclear power plant accidents, d) high confidence in nuclear power plants safety, 2) most respondents knew about the information concerning the measures taken by electric power companies from television and newspapers, and only a few respondents sought additional information, 3) respondents were anxious about a) the uncertainty of pre-disaster hazard assumptions and management measures, b) limitations of technological countermeasures against the natural disasters, c) the tendency to overvalue the safety measures. (author)

2013-10-01

353

Applicability of simplified methods to evaluate consequences of criticality accident using past accident data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Applicability of four simplified methods to evaluate the consequences of criticality accident was investigated. Fissions in the initial burst and total fissions were evaluated using the simplified methods and those results were compared with the past accident data. The simplified methods give the number of fissions in the initial burst as a function of solution volume; however the accident data did not show such tendency. This would be caused by the lack of accident data for the initial burst with high accuracy. For total fissions, simplified almost reproduced the upper envelope of the accidents. However several accidents, which were beyond the applicable conditions, resulted in the larger total fissions than the evaluations. In particular, the Tokai-mura accident in 1999 gave in the largest total specific fissions, because the activation of cooling system brought the relatively high power for a long time. (author)

2003-10-01

354

The fungous infection of human organs by resistant melanin-synthesizing species is one of pathogenic factor and one of valid consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nature of melanin-containing components and sources of their appearance in bronchoalveolar washout by the accident liquidators at the Chernobyl NPP is studied. The appearance of mutant melanin containing fungal forms in the zones with increased radioactive contamination is conditioned by their adaptation to changed conditions of their existence. the conclusion is made that fungal infection of the mans organs through radio- and chemi-resistant melanin-synthesizing species at the background of radiation-induced weakening of immune reaction of the man's body is one of the most dangerous and real effects of the Chernobyl NPP accident

1997-10-14

355

Historical Survey Of Flight-Testing Accidents  

Science.gov (United States)

Report presents study of flight-testing accidents, with emphasis on limitations imposed by human factors. Covers history of flight testing from early lighter-than-air craft (including balloons) to vertical take-off airplanes to space shuttle.

Anderson, Seth B.

1995-01-01

356

Movilidad, accidentalidad por tránsito y sus factores asociados en estudiantes universitarios de Guatemala / Mobility, traffic accidents, and associated factors among Guatemalan university students / Mobilidade, acidentes de trânsito e fatores associados entre estudantes universitários da Guatemala  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O objetivo foi identificar e quantificar a associação entre a intensidade de exposição (km/anos percorridos), a acidentalidade e os seus fatores em universitários da Guatemala. Realizou-se um estudo transversal durante o curso 2010-2011 sobre uma amostra de 1.016 condutores de veículos, que responde [...] ram a um questionário autoadministrado que valorizava: padrões de mobilidade, uso de dispositivos de segurança, maneira de condução e acidentalidade. Obtiveram-se associações positivas entre intensidade de exposição e maior implicância em circunstâncias de risco ao conduzir (coeficiente de regressão ajustado a 3,25; IC95%: 2,23-4,27, para as maiores exposições). Tanto a maior implicância em ditas circunstâncias como uma maioridade foram as variáveis mais fortemente associadas com a maior acidentalidade. Apesar de a intensidade de exposição ser associada positivamente com uma maior acidentalidade, estabelecemos que a maior parte da dita associação está mediada pela maior implicância em circunstâncias de risco ao conduzir. Abstract in spanish El objetivo fue identificar y cuantificar la asociación entre la intensidad de exposición (km/año recorridos), la accidentalidad y sus factores asociados en universitarios de Guatemala. Se realizó un estudio trasversal durante el curso 2010-2011, sobre una muestra de 1.016 conductores, quienes cumpl [...] imentaron un cuestionario autoadministrado que valoraba: patrones de movilidad, uso de dispositivos de seguridad, estilos de conducción y accidentalidad. Se obtuvieron asociaciones positivas entre la intensidad de exposición y la mayor implicación en circunstancias de riesgo al volante (coeficiente de regresión ajustado de 3,25, IC95%: 2,23-4,27, para las mayores exposiciones). Tanto una mayor implicación en tales circunstancias, como una mayor edad, fueron las variables más fuertemente asociadas con la mayor accidentalidad. Pese a que la intensidad de exposición se asocia positivamente con una mayor accidentalidad, se constató que la mayor parte de dicha asociación está mediada por una mayor implicación en circunstancias de riesgo al volante. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the association between the amount of driving (km/year), traffic accidents, and other factors among university students in Guatemala. A cross-sectional study was performed during the 2010-2011 school year in a sample of 1,016 drivers who completed a [...] self-administered questionnaire that assessed mobility patterns, use of safety accessories, driving style, and automobile crashes. The results showed a positive association between amount of driving and greater involvement in risky driving (adjusted regression coefficient 3.25, 95%CI: 2.23-4.27, for the highest level of exposure). More frequent involvement in risky driving and older age showed the strongest associations with traffic accidents. Although the amount of driving was positively associated with a higher accident rate, most of this association was found to be mediated by involvement in risky driving practices.

Sandra, Rodríguez-Guzmán; Eladio, Jiménez-Mejías; Virginia, Martínez-Ruiz; Fernando, Lupiáñez-Tapia; Pablo, Lardelli-Claret; José Juan, Jiménez-Moleón.

357

Movilidad, accidentalidad por tránsito y sus factores asociados en estudiantes universitarios de Guatemala / Mobility, traffic accidents, and associated factors among Guatemalan university students / Mobilidade, acidentes de trânsito e fatores associados entre estudantes universitários da Guatemala  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O objetivo foi identificar e quantificar a associação entre a intensidade de exposição (km/anos percorridos), a acidentalidade e os seus fatores em universitários da Guatemala. Realizou-se um estudo transversal durante o curso 2010-2011 sobre uma amostra de 1.016 condutores de veículos, que responde [...] ram a um questionário autoadministrado que valorizava: padrões de mobilidade, uso de dispositivos de segurança, maneira de condução e acidentalidade. Obtiveram-se associações positivas entre intensidade de exposição e maior implicância em circunstâncias de risco ao conduzir (coeficiente de regressão ajustado a 3,25; IC95%: 2,23-4,27, para as maiores exposições). Tanto a maior implicância em ditas circunstâncias como uma maioridade foram as variáveis mais fortemente associadas com a maior acidentalidade. Apesar de a intensidade de exposição ser associada positivamente com uma maior acidentalidade, estabelecemos que a maior parte da dita associação está mediada pela maior implicância em circunstâncias de risco ao conduzir. Abstract in spanish El objetivo fue identificar y cuantificar la asociación entre la intensidad de exposición (km/año recorridos), la accidentalidad y sus factores asociados en universitarios de Guatemala. Se realizó un estudio trasversal durante el curso 2010-2011, sobre una muestra de 1.016 conductores, quienes cumpl [...] imentaron un cuestionario autoadministrado que valoraba: patrones de movilidad, uso de dispositivos de seguridad, estilos de conducción y accidentalidad. Se obtuvieron asociaciones positivas entre la intensidad de exposición y la mayor implicación en circunstancias de riesgo al volante (coeficiente de regresión ajustado de 3,25, IC95%: 2,23-4,27, para las mayores exposiciones). Tanto una mayor implicación en tales circunstancias, como una mayor edad, fueron las variables más fuertemente asociadas con la mayor accidentalidad. Pese a que la intensidad de exposición se asocia positivamente con una mayor accidentalidad, se constató que la mayor parte de dicha asociación está mediada por una mayor implicación en circunstancias de riesgo al volante. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the association between the amount of driving (km/year), traffic accidents, and other factors among university students in Guatemala. A cross-sectional study was performed during the 2010-2011 school year in a sample of 1,016 drivers who completed a [...] self-administered questionnaire that assessed mobility patterns, use of safety accessories, driving style, and automobile crashes. The results showed a positive association between amount of driving and greater involvement in risky driving (adjusted regression coefficient 3.25, 95%CI: 2.23-4.27, for the highest level of exposure). More frequent involvement in risky driving and older age showed the strongest associations with traffic accidents. Although the amount of driving was positively associated with a higher accident rate, most of this association was found to be mediated by involvement in risky driving practices.

Sandra, Rodríguez-Guzmán; Eladio, Jiménez-Mejías; Virginia, Martínez-Ruiz; Fernando, Lupiáñez-Tapia; Pablo, Lardelli-Claret; José Juan, Jiménez-Moleón.

358

Informal Parental Traffic Training and Children's Traffic Accidents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aims of the present study were (a) to assess the relationship between informal traffic training by parents and their childrens involvement in traffic accidents and (b) to identify factors contributing to this relationship. The first two studies involved questionnaires on informal parental traffic education, the childs exposure to traffic and traffic-related accidents. Both studies showed that rate of accidents increased with training, particularly for outdoor training. An accident analysi...

Drott, Peder; Johansson, Bo S.; A?stro?m, Bo

2008-01-01

359

The Prevalence and Pattern of Accidents in Yazd Province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To examine the prevalence of accidents a cross-sectional study for 6494 retrieved randomly from the Yazd province. Data was gathered via a questionnaire filled by referring personally to their residential premises. Generally, the prevalence of accidents in this study was 3.54% of in which motor vehicle accidents accounted for the majority of accidents (39.1%) followed by falls (29.1%), burns and poisonings (13%). In conclusion, age, sex and literacy levels are the main determining factors of ...

Mazloomi, S. S.; Zareh, M.; Barkhordari, A.; Aminipour, M. R.

2005-01-01

360

Road accidents caused by drivers falling asleep.  

Science.gov (United States)

About 29600 Norwegian accident-involved drivers received a questionnaire about the last accident reported to their insurance company. About 9200 drivers (31%) returned the questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about sleep or fatigue as contributing factors to the accident. In addition, the drivers reported whether or not they had fallen asleep some time whilst driving. and what the consequences had been. Sleep or drowsiness was a contributing factor in 3.9% of all accidents, as reported by drivers who were at fault for the accident. This factor was strongly over-represented in night-time accidents (18.6%), in running-off-the-road accidents (8.3%), accidents after driving more than 150 km on one trip (8.1%), and personal injury accidents (7.3%). A logistic regression analysis showed that the following additional factors made significant and independent contributions to increasing the odds of sleep involvement in an accident: dry road, high speed limit, driving one's own car, not driving the car daily, high education, and few years of driving experience. More male than female drivers were involved in sleep-related accidents, but this seems largely to be explained by males driving relatively more than females on roads with high speed limits. A total of 10% of male drivers and 4% of females reported to have fallen asleep while driving during the last 12 months. A total of 4% of these events resulted in an accident. The most frequent consequence of falling asleep--amounting to more than 40% of the reported incidents--was crossing of the right edge-line before awaking, whereas crossing of the centreline was reported by 16%. Drivers' lack of awareness of important precursors of falling asleep--like highway hypnosis, driving without awareness, and similar phenomena--as well as a reluctance to discontinue driving despite feeling tired are pointed out as likely contributors to sleep-related accidents. More knowledge about the drivers' experiences immediately preceding such accidents may give a better background for implementing effective driver warning systems and other countermeasures. PMID:10487339

Sagberg, F

1999-11-01

 
 
 
 
361

Perspective on post-Fukushima severe accident research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Fukushima Daiichi accident in March 2011 several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident, in which some recommendations on severe accident research are included. The review of specific severe accident research items had already started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation started after the Fukushima accident in this working group to cover additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality. The review results are categorized in nine major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. In January 2012, in collaboration with this working group, Research Expert Committee on Evaluation of Severe Accident was established in AESJ in order to investigate severe accident related issues for future LWR development. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the seven important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. They are (1) investigation of damaged core and components, (2) advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, (3) development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, (4) analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, (5) enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, (6) advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and (7) assessment of advanced containment design which exchides long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations. Lastly severe accident research conducted at Kyoto University is briefly introduced. (author)

2013-11-01

362

Human Factors and Safety Culture in Maritime Safety (revised)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As in every industry at risk, the human and organizational factors constitute the main stakes for maritime safety. Furthermore, several events at sea have been used to develop appropriate risk models. The investigation on maritime accidents is, nowadays, a very important tool to identify the problems related to human factor and can support accident prevention and the improvement of maritime safety. Part of this investigation should in future also be near misses. Operation of ships is full of ...

Heinz Peter Berg

2013-01-01

363

Investigação de acidentes biológicos entre profissionais de saúde / Investigation of biological accidents among health care workers / Investigación de accidentes biológicos entre los trabajadores de la salud  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar a principal categoria profissional exposta a risco biológico e os principais tipos de acidentes ocorridos entre trabalhadores da área de saúde, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. A partir da análise das fichas de notificação de acidentes biológicos dos 183 pr [...] ofissionais acidentados entre janeiro de 2005 e setembro de 2005, observamos que a categoria profissional mais exposta foi a dos auxiliares/técnicos de enfermagem (54,1%), seguida pela dos acadêmicos de medicina e odontologia (10,4%). A ocorrência de acidentes com materiais perfurocortantes foi relacionada à manipulação frequente desses objetos e ao comportamento dos profissionais que utilizam práticas que oferecem riscos de acidentes com agulhas, tais como o descarte inadequado de objetos perfurocortantes. Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las principales categorías profesional expuestas a riesgos biológicos y el principal tipo de accidentes producidos entre los profesionales del área de la salud en Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Del análisis de 183 archivos de los trabajadores que sufren accide [...] ntes con material biológico, de enero a septiembre de 2005, se observó que la categoría profesional más expuesta a sufrir accidentes fue el de los auxiliares de enfermería (54,1%), seguido por los estudiantes de odontología y medicina (10,4%). La de accidentes se relacionó con la manipulación frecuente de agujas, y con el comportamiento de los trabajadores, que mantienen prácticas que ofrecen riesgos, como la eliminación inadecuada de agujas. Abstract in english The aims of this study were to identify the major professional category exposed to biological risk and the principal type of accident occurred among health care workers in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Based on the analysis of 183 records filled out by the workers who suffered biohazardous accidents be [...] tween January 2005 and September 2005, we found the nursing auxiliaries and technicians as the professional category more exposed to biohazardous accidents (54.1%), followed by undergraduate medical and dental students (10.4%). The occurence of acidents with piercing-cutting materials was related to frequent handling of these instruments, and to the behavior of workers who maintain practices providing risks of needlestick injuries, such as inappropriate disposal of piercing-cutting materials.

Juliana Azevedo da, Silva; Vanessa Salete de, Paula; Adilson José de, Almeida; Livia Melo, Villar.

364

SEVERE ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT TRAINING  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is (a) to define the International Atomic Energy Agency's role in the area of severe accident management training, (b) to briefly describe the status of representative severe accident analysis tools designed to support development and validation of accident management guidelines, and more recently, simulate the accident with sufficient accuracy to support the training of technical support and reactor operator staff, and (c) provide an overview of representative design-specific accident management guidelines and training. Since accident management and the development of accident management validation and training software is a rapidly evolving area, this paper is also intended to evolve as accident management guidelines and training programs are developed to meet different reactor design requirements and individual national requirements

1997-06-16

365

Investigations on bubble behaviour and aerosol retention in case of a LMFBR core disruptive accident: The KfK-FAUST tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

FAUST is a KfK program to give contributions to the assessment of the primary source term. Correlations between bubble and aerosol behaviour, especially the aerosol transport into the cover gas, are investigated by simulation tests. In the first phase, experiments with rupture disk discharge of gas-particle-mixtures into a water pool at two geometries are performed. In the second phase, the water pool is replaced by a sodium pool. Important quantities to be measured are: 1) the period of the pressure pulses in bubble and cover gas, 2) the retention factor RF, defined as the ratio of the amount of particles discharged and trapped in the cover gas 3) the entrained coolant liquid in bubble and cover gas, and 4) the coolant and particle mass escaping through defined openings in the cover plate. In the paper, experimental details, parameters, and results are presented, as well as theoretical onsets to understand bubble and cover gas behaviour and particle removal. The bubble oscillation period is usually small compared to the bubble rise time. The retention factors are > 104 in most cases, indicating the existence of very efficient particle removal processes. The overall process may, in first order, be described by the assumption of a coolant piston performing linear and adiabatic oscillations between two gas volumes. Important particle removal mechanisms are impaction during the heavy bubble oscillation and wash-out by sedimentation of the entrained coolant. (orig.)

1985-02-01

366

Accident knowledge and emergency management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

1997-03-01

367

The radiological accident in Cochabamba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In April 2002 an accident involving an industrial radiography source containing 192Ir occurred in Cochabamba, Bolivia, some 400 km from the capital, La Paz. A faulty radiography source container had been sent back to the headquarters of the company concerned in La Paz together with other equipment as cargo on a passenger bus. This gave rise to a potential for serious exposure for the bus passengers as well as for the company employees who were using and transporting the source. The Government of Bolivia requested the assistance of the IAEA under the terms of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The IAEA in response assembled and sent to Bolivia a team composed of senior radiation safety experts and radiation pathology experts from Brazil, the United Kingdom and the IAEA to investigate the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Government of Bolivia for the opportunity to report on this accident in order to disseminate the valuable lessons learned and help prevent similar accidents in the future

2004-01-01

368

Emergency response to transportation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a policy statement regarding its role in transportation accidents involving the release of radiation. Each State has the primary responsibility for protecting the health and safety of its citizens. States have chartered certain agencies with the responsibility of responding to radiological emergencies. When informed of a transportation accident, the NRC will notify the designated state agency to ensure that they have been informed of the incident and will offer NRC assistance. The NRC also will notify the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Transportation (DOT) and any other affected agency to ensure a coordinated Federal response. Under an existing NRC/DOT Memorandum of Understanding, NRC is responsible for investigating any accidents involving packages regulated by the NRC. NRC staff may be dispatched to an accident scene involving packages not regulated by NRC whenever significant amounts of radioactive material were or might be released and NRC activities will generally be limited to information collection unless assistance is requested. DOE would be available to assist State and local responders in monitoring and decontamination of affected areas. In an accident in which Federal assistance was being provided to the State, portions of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan would be activated to coordinate the provision of that assistance. An example of recent experience in responding to a transportation event will be discussed

1987-03-01

369

Accident knowledge and emergency management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

1997-01-01

370

SAS3D investigations about the influence of the neutron streaming for the hypothetical loss of flow accident in SNR-300  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) accident neutron streaming causes additional neutron leakage from the core during core voiding. This leakage can be cut off after closure of the coolant channels due to fuel break-up. If this closure is not going together with axial fuel expansion or dispersal effects, such streaming cut-off can produce driving ramp rates for a short time period. This report summarizes the results of pessimistic SAS3D simulations which superimposed negative streaming reactivities due to core voiding and which were cut off node wise according to the transient fuel break-up propagation. The analyses started from the conservative ULOF bound case of the burnt Mark-Ia core of SNR-300. The integral effect of the neutron streaming in the initiating phase of the ULOF accident is shown to be rather small. In particular, there is no superposition of the streaming cut-off and the fuel-sodium interaction as positive driving mechanisms because of their different time scales. The mechanical energy determined with the nominal streaming worth distribution is 30 % below the bound case value of 98 MJ

1982-01-01

371

Investigation of Local Effects Influence on Results of Design Basis Accident Analysis of WWER-440 Reactor Using RELAP5-3D Code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most important tasks in today's nuclear power plant safety analysis is a simulation of physical processes at nuclear facilities which accounts for 3-dimensional effects in the core and downcomer of reactor. System coupled thermo-hydraulic/neutron-kinetic code RELAP5-3D, which is a modeling tool provided to University of Kyiv by US DOE in a frame of International Nuclear Safety Program, allows simulation of variable in time spatial distribution of neutron flux in a core and also includes special components for 3D modeling of thermo-hydraulics. A model of Rivne NPP Unit 1 with WWER-440/V-213 type reactor has been developed for RELAP5-3D code. A scenario of 'Main steam line break' design basis accident has been calculated using this model. Such a problem can be characterized by intensive overcooling of a primary coolant in affected loop and, taking into account partial mixing of coolant from different primary loops, a non-uniform cooling of reactor core. Obtained results have been compared with the results obtained by model, which has been used at Design Based Accidents analysis, performed at specified unit.(author)

2008-05-25

372

The nuclear accidents: Causes and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author discussed and compared the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents and cited their consequences. To better understand how these accidents occurred, a brief description of PWR type (reactor type of T.M.I.) and of RBMK type (reactor type of Chernobyl) has been presented. The author has also set out briefly the safety analysis objectives and the three barriers established to protect the public against the radiological consequences. To distinguish failures that cause severe accidents and to analyze them in details, it is necessary to classify the accidents. There are many ways to do it according to their initiator event, or to their frequency, or to their degree of gravity. The safety criteria adopted by nuclear industry have been explained. These criteria specify the limits of certain physical parameters that should not be exceeded in case of incidents or accidents. To compare the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents, the events that led to both have been presented. As observed the main common contributing factors in both cases are that the operators did not pay attention to warnings and signals that were available to them and that they were not trained to handle these accident sequences. The essential conclusions derived from these severe accidents are: -The improvement of operators competence contribute to reduce the accident risks; -The rapid and correct diagnosis of real conditions at each point of the accidents permits an appropriate behavior that would bring the plant to a stable state; -Competent technical teams have to intervene and to assist the operators in case of emergency; -Emergency plans and an international collaboration are necessary to limit the accident risks. 11 figs. (author)

1988-01-01

373

Consequences and effectiveness of relocation after nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive parameter studies have been performed with the program package COSYMA for probabilistic accident consequence assessments to quantify by means of PRA methods the interdependence of those quantities, which influence the extent, the duration, the efficiency and the monetary costs of relocation. As most important quantities, the amount of radionuclides released, the dose intervention levels for relocation, the (avoided) radiation doses in the population and the associated costs have been identified. Decontamination measures have also been included in the investigations, since they reduce the duration of relocation. The expression of all relevant accident consequences in monetary units allowed to investigate the applicability of cost/benefit analysis for deriving the most favourable intervention levels. It could be shown that weighting with different factors of collective doses calculated from different individual dose bands, and thus incorporating subjective judgements, significantly extends and improves the method. (orig./HP)

1992-01-01

374

Injury rates and injury risk factors among federal bureau of investigation new agent trainees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors</