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1

Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} HFACS provides a systematic guideline in accident investigations. The hierarchal structure of HFACS forces investigators to seek out latent HOFs. {yields} Bayesian Network enhances the ability of the HFACS by allowing experts to quantify the degree of relationships among the HOFs. {yields} The fuzzy AHP helps to reduce the subjective biases by avoiding the need to give explicit probability values for the variables' states. - Abstract: This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived.

Wang Yanfu, E-mail: isewy@nus.edu.sg [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore); Department of Safety Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Dong ying 257061 (China); Faghih Roohi, Shahrzad; Hu Xiuming; Xie Min [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore)

2011-07-15

2

Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel

3

Credible investigation of air accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the United Kingdom the Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) has been used as a model for the other transport modes accident investigation bodies. Government Ministers considered that the AAIB's approach had established the trust of the public and the aviation industry in its ability to conduct independent and objective investigations. The paper will examine the factors that are involved in establishing this trust. They include: the investigation framework; the actual and perceived independence of the accident investigating body; the aviation industry's safety culture; the qualities of the investigators and the quality of their liaison with bereaved families those directly affected by the accidents they investigate.

Smart, K

2004-07-26

4

Credible investigation of air accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the United Kingdom the Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) has been used as a model for the other transport modes accident investigation bodies. Government Ministers considered that the AAIB's approach had established the trust of the public and the aviation industry in its ability to conduct independent and objective investigations. The paper will examine the factors that are involved in establishing this trust. They include: the investigation framework; the actual and perceived independence of the accident investigating body; the aviation industry's safety culture; the qualities of the investigators and the quality of their liaison with bereaved families those directly affected by the accidents they investigate

5

Supervisor's accident investigation handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

6

Medical Factors and Road Accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

A review is given of some of the more relevant published and unpublished information relating to medical factors in road accidents. Three further investigations undertaken at the Road Research Laboratory are reported upon, an investigation into 811 seriou...

E. Grattan, G. O. Jeffcoate

1967-01-01

7

An analysis on human factor issues in criticality accident at a uranium processing plant. Investigation on human behavior contributing to the criticality accident. Interim report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At 10:30 am, September 30th, 1999, a criticality accident occurred in a conversion building of a uranium processing plant in Tokai, Ibaraki prefecture. 69 people including 3 workers who then worked at the building, 3 fire fighters who dispatched to rescue them were exposed to the radiation. People with a 350 m-radius of the site were recommended to evacuate themselves from the region to a temporarily prepared evacuation center. And about one hundred thousand people within a 10 km-radius were also advised to stay inside of their home. Nuclear Safety Commission's Accident Investigation Committee is investigating causes of this accident and have been revealing that deviation from government-authorized processing method and negligence of its illegal procedure had contributed to the accident. The influence of this accident is expanding not only to the plant operating company, local people but also to Japanese nuclear power policy, the whole nuclear industry in Japan. Especially pervasion of 'Safety Culture' is strongly being required. This report analyses latent factors of some human behavior directly contributing to the criticality accident. It also mentions that 4 critical points on the poor climate for safety in the work place, the inadequate safety management, the unsuitable equipment and the production-biased company's policy are the latent factors of this accident. It also finds that the poor climate and the production-biased policy are the most important factors. It can be said that some people directly or indirectly having caused the accident are the victims of them. (author)

8

Safety-critical human factors issues derived from analysis of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident investigation reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011 had a large impact both in and outside Japan, and is not yet concluded. After Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s (TEPCO's) Fukushima accident, electric power suppliers have taken measures to respond in the event that the same state of emergency occurs - deploying mobile generators, temporary pumps and hoses, and training employees in the use of this equipment. However, it is not only the “hard” problems including the design of equipment, but the “soft” problems such as organization and safety culture that have been highlighted as key contributors in this accident. Although a number of organizations have undertaken factor analysis of the accident and proposed issues to be reviewed and measures to be taken, a systematic overview about electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture has not yet been undertaken. This study is based on three major reports: the report by the national Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (the Diet report), the report by the Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company (Government report), and the report by the non-government committee supported by the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation (Non-government report). From these reports, the sections relevant to electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture were extracted. These sections were arranged to correspond with the prerequisites for the ideal organization, and 30 issues to be reviewed by electric power suppliers were extracted using brainstorming methods. It is expected that the identified issues will become a reference for every organization concerned to work on preventive measures hereafter. (author)

9

Safety-critical human factors issues derived from analysis of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident investigation reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011 had a large impact both in and outside Japan, and is not yet concluded. After Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s (TEPCO's) Fukushima accident, electric power suppliers have taken measures to respond in the event that the same state of emergency occurs - deploying mobile generators, temporary pumps and hoses, and training employees in the use of this equipment. However, it is not only the 'hard' problems including the design of equipment, but the 'soft' problems such as organization and safety culture that have been highlighted as key contributors in this accident. Although a number of organizations have undertaken factor analysis of the accident and proposed issues to be reviewed and measures to be taken, a systematic overview about electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture has not yet been undertaken. This study is based on three major reports: the report by the national Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (the Diet report), the report by the Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company (Government report), and the report by the non-government committee supported by the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation (Non-government report). From these reports, the sections relevant to electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture were extracted. These sections were arranged to correspond with the prerequisites for the ideal organization, and 30 issues to be reviewed by electric power suppliers were extracted using brainstorming methods. It is expected that the identified issues will become a reference for every organization concerned to work on preventive measures hereafter. (author)

10

Lessons learned from accident investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

11

Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Ca, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately from any investigation conducted by other companies involved in the accident, and it did not review its analyses, conclusions or recommendations with any other company or investigation team. Also, at the time this report was written, other investigations, such as the U.S. Coast Guard and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Joint Investigation and the President's National Commission were ongoing. While the understanding of this accident will continue to develop with time, the information in this report can support learning and the prevention of a recurrence. The accident on April 20, 2010, involved a well integrity failure, followed by a loss of hydrostatic control of the well. This was followed by a failure to control the flow from the well with the BOP equipment, which allowed the release and subsequent ignition of hydrocarbons. Ultimately, the BOP emergency functions failed to seal the well after the initial explosions. During the course of the investigation, the team used fault tree analysis to define and consider various scenarios, failure modes and possible contributing factors. Eight key findings related to the causes of the accident emerged: (1) The annulus cement barrier did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (2) The shoe track barriers did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (3) The negative-pressure test was accepted although well integrity had not been established; (4) Influx was not recognized until hydrocarbons were in the riser; (5) Well control response actions failed to regain control of the well; (6) Diversion to the mud gas separator resulted in gas venting onto the rig; (7) The fire and gas system did not prevent hydrocarbon ignition; (8) The BOP emergency mode did not seal the well.

12

Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately from any investigation conducted by other companies involved in the accident, and it did not review its analyses, conclusions or recommendations with any other company or investigation team. Also, at the time this report was written, other investigations, such as the U.S. Coast Guard and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Joint Investigation and the President's National Commission were ongoing. While the understanding of this accident will continue to develop with time, the information in this report can support learning and the prevention of a recurrence. The accident on April 20, 2010, involved a well integrity failure, followed by a loss of hydrostatic control of the well. This was followed by a failure to control the flow from the well with the BOP equipment, which allowed the release and subsequent ignition of hydrocarbons. Ultimately, the BOP emergency functions failed to seal the well after the initial explosions. During the course of the investigation, the team used fault tree analysis to define and consider various scenarios, failure modes and possible contributing factors. Eight key findings related to the causes of the accident emerged: (1) The annulus cement barrier did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (2) The shoe track barriers did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (3) The negative-pressure test was accepted although well integrity had not been established; (4) Influx was not recognized until hydrocarbons were in the riser; (5) Well control response actions failed to regain control of the well; (6) Diversion to the mud gas separator resulted in gas venting onto the rig; (7) The fire and gas system did not prevent hydrocarbon ignition; (8) The BOP emergency mode did not seal the well.

NONE

2010-09-15

13

Accidents and human factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

istic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his weak points, but also should make the best use of his strong points. (author)

14

A New Accident Investigation Approach Based on Data Mining Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study some data mining techniques for accident investigation and risk analysis is proposed. Function of most of accident investigation and risk analysis methodologies have been based on establishment of different scenarios of accident occurrence and simulation of accidents situation and so far no fundamental action for the analysis of remained data from accident has taken place. This study with the approach of data analysis and using different techniques of data mining can eliminate deficiencies of other techniques therewith covers theirs advantages. In this study factor analysis utilized to identify effective factors on occurrence of accidents. Cluster analysis utilized to classify accidents. A case study in a petrochemical company has been done in order to execute and investigate proposed methodology. The results show four different factors effecting on accident`s occurrence and ten different clusters of accidents recognized. Also association rules exposed to discover all patterns and rules that cause occurrence of accidents.

Sh. Parhizi

2009-01-01

15

Multidisciplinary perspective on accident investigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increasing complexity of many computer-controlled application processes is placing increasing demands on the investigation of adverse events. At the same time, there is a growing realisation that accident investigators must consider a wider range of contributory and contextual factors that help to shape human behaviour in the causes of safety-related incidents. A range of techniques have been developed to address these issues. For example (as we show in this paper), task modelling techniques have been extended from human computer interaction and systems design to analyse the causes and consequences of operator 'error'. Similarly, barrier analysis has been widely used to identify the way in which defences either protected or failed to protect a target system from potential hazards. Many barriers fail from common causes, including misconceptions that can be traced back to early stages in the development of a safety-critical system. For instance, unwarranted assumptions can be made about the impact of training on operator behaviour in emergency situations. Similarly, barrier analysis can also be used before a system has been designed to inform the system model and make it more tolerant to errors by incorporating human and technical barriers into the design. Task models often uncover deep-rooted problems, for instance, in workload allocation across many different aspects of an interactive control system. It can be difficult to use barrier and task analysis to trace these common causes that lie behind the failure of many different defences. In order to deal with this complex combination of contributory factors and systems, we promote the use of abstraction (via models) as a way of representing these components and their interrelations whether it is design, construction or investigation. We use, to formally model an abstraction of the system. Additionally, the system model (described using a dialect of high-level Petri-nets) allows to reason about the system and to check conformance with the other models (task model, safety case and barriers). This paper, therefore, shows how an analysis of safety case arguments can be used to support the application of barrier, task, error and system analysis during the investigation of a command and control failure. The intention, in this paper, is to show that if an accident involved the failure of multiple barriers, it is also possible to trace the common causes of those failures back to the assumptions and arguments that are embodied within a safety case. Many countries require that safety cases demonstrate a system is 'acceptably safe' before they grant regulatory approval. These documents and the associated analytical techniques, therefore, provide a rich source of information about why command and control failures occurred. We demonstrate our approach on a fatal mining accident case study.

Basnyat, S. [LIIHS-IRIT, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: basnyat@irit.fr; Chozos, N. [Dept. of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nick@dcs.gla.ac.uk; Palanque, P. [LIIHS-IRIT, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: palanque@irit.fr

2006-12-15

16

Accident/Mishap Investigation System  

Science.gov (United States)

InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian

2007-01-01

17

Traffic accident investigation in Klaipeda district  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traffic accidents investigation is very topical so in theoretical and utilitarian attitude. Lithuania according to number of road traffic accidents is leading European Union state. View Lithuanian extent, Klaipeda district is in leading posture with number of road traffic accidents. Just Vilnius and Kaunas district overtake Klaipeda district with it’s number of road traffic accidents. In this work is criticizing criminal by judicial investigation, experimented because of traffic accidents, ...

Katkauskas, Alvydas

2008-01-01

18

Research investigation report on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report was issued in February 2012 by Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation's Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, which consisted of six members from the private sector in independent positions and with no direct interest in the business of promoting nuclear power. Commission aimed to determine the truth behind the accident by clarifying the various problems and reveal systematic problems behind these issues so as to create a new starting point by identifying clear lessons learned. Report composed of four chapters; (1) progression of Fukushima accident and resulting damage (accident management after Fukushima accident, and effects and countermeasure of radioactive materials discharged into the environment), (2) response against Fukushima accident (emergency response of cabinet office against nuclear disaster, risk communication and on-site response against nuclear disaster), (3) analysis of historical and structural factors (technical philosophy of nuclear safety, problems of nuclear safety regulation of Fukushima accident, safety regulatory governance and social background of 'Safety Myth'), (4) Global Context (implication in nuclear security, Japan in nuclear safety regime, U.S.-Japan relations for response against Fukushima accident, lessons learned from Fukushima accident - aiming at creation of resilience). Report could identify causes of Fukushima accident and factors related to resulting damages, show the realities behind failure to prevent the spread of damage, and analyze the overall structural and historical background behind the accidents. (T. Tanaka)

19

Estimating the Influence of Accident Related Factors on Motorcycle Fatal Accidents using Logistic Regression (Case Study: Denpasar-Bali  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Denpasar the capital of Bali Province, motorcycle accident contributes to about 80% of total road accidents. Out of those motorcycle accidents, 32% are fatal accidents. This study investigates the influence of accident related factors on motorcycle fatal accidents in the city of Denpasar during period 2006-2008 using a logistic regression model. The study found that the fatality of collision with pedestrians and right angle accidents were respectively about 0.44 and 0.40 times lower than collision with other vehicles and accidents due to other factors. In contrast, the odds that a motorcycle accident will be fatal due to collision with heavy and light vehicles were 1.67 times more likely than with other motorcycles. Collision with pedestrians, right angle accidents, and heavy and light vehicles were respectively accounted for 31%, 29%, and 63% of motorcycle fatal accidents.

Wedagama D.M.P.

2010-01-01

20

A Serious Game for Traffic Accident Investigators  

Science.gov (United States)

In Dubai, traffic accidents kill one person every 37 hours and injure one person every 3 hours. Novice traffic accident investigators in the Dubai police force are expected to "learn by doing" in this intense environment. Currently, they use no alternative to the real world in order to practice. This paper argues for the use of an alternative…

Binsubaih, Ahmed; Maddock, Steve; Romano, Daniela

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

32 CFR 636.13 - Traffic accident investigation reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation reports. 636...Stewart, Georgia § 636.13 Traffic accident investigation reports. In...Airfield installations will record traffic accident investigations on DA Form...

2010-07-01

22

32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation reports. 634...Traffic Supervision § 634.29 Traffic accident investigation reports. ...enforcement officials will record traffic accident investigations on...

2010-07-01

23

Independent accident investigation: a modern safety tool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ansport accident and incident investigation in the European Union, European Transport Safety Council, ISBN 90-76024-10-3, Brussel, 2001]. Due to a series of major events, attention has been drawn to the consequences of disasters, highlighting the involvement of rescue and emergency services. They also have become subjected to investigative efforts, which in return, puts demands on investigation methodology. This paper comments on an evolutionary development in safety thinking and of safety boards, highlighting some consequences for strategic perspectives in a further development of independent accident investigation

24

32 CFR 634.28 - Traffic accident investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...detailed investigations of accidents described in this section: (a) Accidents involving Government...installation commander; Navy and Marine Corps, $500.) The...Investigations of off-installation accidents involving Government...

2010-07-01

25

Lockout/tagout accident investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

When I was in boot camp, our drill instructor told us that assume makes an ass out of u and me. It was true then, and it is true today. In this instance, assumptions came into play several times, both by the worker and by the companies involved. The good news is that it did not result in a fatality, but that does not relieve the pain and suffering that the employee had to endure. This same type of scenario is likely repeated at many job sites throughout the United States. Multiple contractors, dozens--maybe hundreds--of workers, power system equipment and devices; all of these have to be taken into consideration when performing maintenance activities. It can become a blur. People are people, and people make mistakes. That is why we have OSHA regulations, NFPA 70E, company procedures, policies, etc. Most if not all of us have either been involved in accidents or know people who have been. It's not like it's a secret that people make mistakes, but talk to some and they seem to think only others have that failing. Safety is not about just any one procedure or rule. It's about slowing down, making a plan, and executing that plan. There are plenty of tools available to help us: policies, procedures, codes, standards, federal regulations, and state and local laws. I am not about to say that the worker involved in this incident was not taking safety seriously, but he failed to follow some fundamental safety rules like test-before-touch. If he had taken just that one step, there would be nothing to write about. PMID:25188988

White, James R

2014-08-01

26

Psychological factors of radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

27

Factors associated with road accidents among Brazilian motorcycle couriers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with reports of road accidents, among motorcycle couriers in two medium-sized municipalities in southern Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire was answered by motorcycle couriers that had worked for at least 12 months in this profession. The outcomes analyzed were reports on accidents and serious accidents over the 12 months prior to the survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses by means of logistic regression were carried out to investigate factors that were independently associated with the outcomes. Seven hundred and fifty motorcycle couriers, of mean age 29.5 years (standard deviation = 8.1 ), were included in the study. Young age (18 to 24 years compared to ? 25 years, odds ratio [OR] = 1.77) speeding (OR = 1.48), and use of cell phones while driving (OR = 1.43) were factors independently associated with reports of accidents. For serious accidents, there was an association with alternation of work shifts (OR = 1.91) and speeding (OR = 1.67). The characteristics associated with accidents-personal (young age), behavioral (use of cell phones while driving and speeding), and professional (speeding and alternation of work shifts)-reveal the need to adopt wide-ranging strategies to reduce these accidents, including better work conditions for these motorcyclists. PMID:22629158

da Silva, Daniela Wosiack; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Soares, Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas; Matsuo, Tiemi; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno

2012-01-01

28

The Tchernobyl enigma or: the human factors in severe accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the analysis of many documents published after the Tchernobyl accident, we attempt to distinguish the main human factors aspects in severe accidents that come out, and the causes the most frequently quoted to ''explain'' it. But the Tchernobyl accident keeps its ''enigmatic'' feature, like any other accident. The need to make a deeper investigation concerning safety leads to look for various research paths that go beyond the usual normative positions, based on a too much mechanistic model of man. It is to the functioning of groups in work situations that we suggest to devote part of the research and thinking effort. We attempt to show briefly how two theories, the theory of ''groupthink'' and the theory of ''trade defensive ideologies'', can throw a light on the problem of human factors in nuclear power plants

29

CURRENT FACTORS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN ISFAHAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Introduction. Car accident mortality is the third order causes of death in the USA, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Given present survival and outcome Iranian data, more than 14,000 patients die annually in road accidents. Having a valid and reliable data could be useful in reduce mortality and morbidity reduction.
Methods. Twenty five percent of total traumatic patients in Isfahan were selected (N=2809 at the time of study (1997-1998. Forty five percent of them with car accident were asked about causes of accidents and risk factors for the severity and type of injuries were recorded based on International Classification of Disease 10.
Results. Most of the victims were young (10-20 years old, students and industrial workers. Statistically unreasonable numbers of cars without extension of roads and high ways, using old and unsafe cars will affects on accidents.
Discussion. In comparison with European and some Asian countries, Iran has unacceptable road accidents and it seems necessary to pay more attention to stop the current increasing data.

 

B AMINMAN SOUR

2000-06-01

30

32 CFR 636.12 - Traffic accident investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation. 636.12 ...INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS...Stewart, Georgia § 636.12 Traffic accident investigation. In...

2010-07-01

31

32 CFR 634.28 - Traffic accident investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation. 634.28 Section 634...INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.28 Traffic accident investigation. Installation law...

2010-07-01

32

49 CFR 837.3 - Published reports, material contained in the public accident investigation dockets, and accident...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Published reports, material contained in the public accident investigation dockets, and accident database data. 837.3 Section 837.3...Published reports, material contained in the public accident investigation dockets, and accident...

2010-10-01

33

Additional investigations on the consequences of accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a first step to improve the accident consequence model of the German Risk Study within the Phase B, additional investigations on special problems and questions were performed. In detail attention is given to the following topics: emergency protective actions in the vicinity of the site; latent cancer fatalities - allocated to the population living during the nuclear accident and to persons born afterwards, within and beyond a distance of 540 km from the site, caused by radiation doses below the dose limits of the German radiation protection regulations estimated assuming a nonlinear dose response function; risk assessments of nuclear power plants with lower capacities; loss of life expectancy after accidental radiation exposure. All results are presented separately for the 8 release categories of the German Risk Study. (orig.)

34

Independent accident investigation: a modern safety tool  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Historically, safety has been subjected to a fragmented approach. In the past, every department has had its own responsibility towards safety, focusing either on working conditions, internal safety, external safety, rescue and emergency, public order or security. They each issued policy documents, which in their time were leading statements for elaboration and regulation. They also addressed safety issues with tools of various nature, often specifically developed within their domain. Due to a series of major accidents and disasters, the focus of attention is shifting from complying with quantitative risk standards towards intervention in primary operational processes, coping with systemic deficiencies and a more integrated assessment of safety in its societal context. In The Netherlands recognition of the importance of independent investigations has led to an expansion of this philosophy from the transport sector to other sectors. The philosophy now covers transport, industry, defense, natural disaster, environment and health and other major occurrences such as explosions, fires, and collapse of buildings or structures. In 2003 a multi-sector covering law will establish an independent safety board in The Netherlands. At a European level, mandatory investigation agencies are recognized as indispensable safety instruments for aviation, railways and the maritime sector, for which EU Directives are in place or being progressed [Transport accident and incident investigation in the European Union, European Transport Safety Council, ISBN 90-76024-10-3, Brussel, 2001]. Due to a series of major events, attention has been drawn to the consequences of disasters, highlighting the involvement of rescue and emergency services. They also have become subjected to investigative efforts, which in return, puts demands on investigation methodology. This paper comments on an evolutionary development in safety thinking and of safety boards, highlighting some consequences for strategic perspectives in a further development of independent accident investigation.

Stoop, John A

2004-07-26

35

Introduction of the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident, Investigation Details, Findings and Crew Survival Investigation Report  

Science.gov (United States)

As the Space Shuttle Program comes to an end, it is important that the lessons learned from the Columbia accident be captured and understood by those who will be developing future aerospace programs and supporting current programs. Aeromedical lessons learned from the Accident were presented at AsMA in 2005. This Panel will update that information, closeout the lessons learned, provide additional information on the accident and provide suggestions for the future. To set the stage, an overview of the accident is required. The Space Shuttle Columbia was returning to Earth with a crew of seven astronauts on 1Feb, 2003. It disintegrated along a track extending from California to Louisiana and observers along part of the track filmed the breakup of Columbia. Debris was recovered from Littlefield, Texas to Fort Polk, Louisiana, along a 567 statute mile track; the largest ever recorded debris field. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) concluded its investigation in August 2003, and released their findings in a report published in February 2004. NASA recognized the importance of capturing the lessons learned from the loss of Columbia and her crew and the Space Shuttle Program managers commissioned the Spacecraft Crew Survival Integrated Investigation Team (SCSIIT) to accomplish this. Their task was to perform a comprehensive analysis of the accident, focusing on factors and events affecting crew survival, and to develop recommendations for improving crew survival, including the design features, equipment, training and procedures intended to protect the crew. NASA released the Columbia Crew Survival Investigation Report in December 2008. Key personnel have been assembled to give you an overview of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, the medical response, the medico-legal issues, the SCSIIT findings and recommendations and future NASA flight surgeon spacecraft accident response training. Educational Objectives: Set the stage for the Panel to address the investigation, medico-legal issues, the Spacecraft Crew Survival Integrated Investigation Team report and training for accident response.

Chandler, Michael

2010-01-01

36

Factors associated with the severity of construction accidents: The case of South Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While the causes of accidents in the construction industry have been extensively studied, severity remains an understudied area. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on severity, this study analysed 24,764 construction accidents reported during 2002-11 in South Australia. A conceptual model developed through literature uses personal characteristics such as age, experience, gender and language. It also employs work-related factors such as size of organization, project size and location, mechanism of accident and body location of the injury. These were shown to discriminate why some accidents result in only a minor severity while others are fatal. Factors such as time of accident, day of the week and season were not strongly associated with accident severity. When the factors affecting severity of an accident are well understood, preventive measures could be developed specifically to those factors that are at high risk.

Jantanee Dumrak

2013-12-01

37

Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lundberg, J.; Rollenhagen, C.

2012-01-01

38

Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. PMID:22269530

Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik; Rankin, Amy

2012-03-01

39

Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. Volume Two  

Science.gov (United States)

Volume II of the Report contains appendices that were cited in Volume I. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board produced many of these appendices as working papers during the investigation into the February 1, 2003 destruction of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Other appendices were produced by other organizations (mainly NASA) in support of the Board investigation. In the case of documents that have been published by others, they are included here in the interest of establishing a complete record, but often at less than full page size. Contents include: CAIB Technical Documents Cited in the Report: Reader's Guide to Volume II; Appendix D. a Supplement to the Report; Appendix D.b Corrections to Volume I of the Report; Appendix D.1 STS-107 Training Investigation; Appendix D.2 Payload Operations Checklist 3; Appendix D.3 Fault Tree Closure Summary; Appendix D.4 Fault Tree Elements - Not Closed; Appendix D.5 Space Weather Conditions; Appendix D.6 Payload and Payload Integration; Appendix D.7 Working Scenario; Appendix D.8 Debris Transport Analysis; Appendix D.9 Data Review and Timeline Reconstruction Report; Appendix D.10 Debris Recovery; Appendix D.11 STS-107 Columbia Reconstruction Report; Appendix D.12 Impact Modeling; Appendix D.13 STS-107 In-Flight Options Assessment; Appendix D.14 Orbiter Major Modification (OMM) Review; Appendix D.15 Maintenance, Material, and Management Inputs; Appendix D.16 Public Safety Analysis; Appendix D.17 MER Manager's Tiger Team Checklist; Appendix D.18 Past Reports Review; Appendix D.19 Qualification and Interpretation of Sensor Data from STS-107; Appendix D.20 Bolt Catcher Debris Analysis.

Barry, J. R.; Jenkins, D. R.; White, D. J.; Goodman, P. A.; Reingold, L. A.

2003-01-01

40

Understanding accident investigators : a study of the required skills and behaviours for effective UK impectors of accidents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the UK, accidents associated with maritime, aviation and rail transport are conducted by the Inspectors of Accidents at the Marine, Air and Rail Accident Investigation Branches. A review of current academic literature provides little insight into the qualities and attributes essential for the role of accident investigator. A wealth of material exists about accidents themselves but as yet, a study into the profile of the accident investigator has not been conducted. This research soug...

Flaherty, Sarah

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Investigation on the causes and consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even smccident was found to be similar or even smaller than that due to the car accidents in Japan. (M.N.)

42

Aeromedical Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide presentation provides an update on the Columbia accident response presented in 2005 with additional information that was not available at that time. It will provide information on the following topics: (1) medical response and Search and Rescue, (2) medico-legal issues associated with the accident, (3) the Spacecraft Crew Survival Integrated Investigation Team Report published in 2008, and (4) future NASA flight surgeon spacecraft accident response training.

Chandler, Mike

2011-01-01

43

The medical investigation of airship accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of the autopsy reports for 18 of 21 victims in 3 of the 4 nonrigid Navy airship accidents during the period 1955 to 1966 revealed that the patterns of injury, complicated by postcrash entrapment, immersion, or fire, are similar to the injuries observed in the low-speed, low-altitude crashes of rigid airships and of light aircraft. With the renewed interest in the development of airships for military purposes, there is a need for improved design related to crashworthiness and to aircrew habitability, safety, restraint, and egress in order to enhance the chance for survival in the event of an accident. PMID:3171506

Stahl, C J; McMeekin, R R; Ruehle, C J; Canik, J J

1988-07-01

44

Traffic Accident Investigation: A Suitable Theme for Teaching Mechanics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggests the development of curriculum materials on the applications of physics to traffic accident investigations as a theme for teaching mechanics. Describes several standard investigation techniques and the physics principles involved, along with some sample exercises. (TW)

Tao, P. K.

1987-01-01

45

Students’ driving behaviour as a risk factor of road accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionRoad accidents are considered to be a public health problem since they have been massively adverse consequences in demography. Since there is a human loss, especially of young people, the problem should be investigated extensively. The driving behaviour (either alone or in combination with other factors is the most important cause of road accidents for 80-90%.Purpose Investigating students’ driving behaviour (culture of a technological educational institute and how positively or negatively they take actions, preventing themselves of accidents.Material and Method400 questionnaires were supplemented. The questionnaire was consisted of 18 closed type questions, created by the research group using bibliographical sources. The data were analyzed using the x2 test, in all cases, statistical significant was considered the two-tailed P<0,05.Results A 21,7% of students has driven the previous 7 days having consumed alcohol while 57% has been passengers. Men’s alcohol consumption has showed increased infringement (93,3% in relation to women (6,7%. (x2=53,983; p <0,001. In other crucial provisions of road traffic regulation, violation was found which exceeds 50% (speeding, wrong lane driving, etc.. The highest percentage, without a safety belt or a helmet -never or and rarely - are male drivers (x2=12,074; P=0,017.It was found that a particularly large percentage of students (61% were involved in a traffic accident. From those, who have been involved in a traffic accident, as drivers (97 students, as guilty pleaded 26,8%, while non-guilty 73,2%. Statistically males were a high majority (x2=23,425; p <0,001. The traffic accident occurred during their student years in percentage of 47,5%. 18,8% of students have been transferred to hospital as a casualty of a traffic accident. ConclusionIt is confirmed once again that the concepts of 'dangerous driving behaviour" and "young" are compatible. Male students have increased risk behaviour, mainly as drivers. They also behave more dangerously during driving in relation to female, who behave significantly more maturely. Driving behaviour is a field which the academic community must consider taking specific actions in relation of primary health education either with printed or electronic information, or integrated seminars, or even by relevant film projections.

Zografakis-Sfakianakis M

2012-10-01

46

A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most workplace accidents that happen in enterprises are simple and seldom result in serious injuries. Very often these kinds of workplace accidents are not investigated, and if they are, then the investigation is very brief, with comments such as that it was the victim’s own fault or just an unfortunate situation which could not be helped. Most prevention analysis and investigation methods focus on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, etc. In the industrial world, such risks do give rise to disasters, albeit very seldom. Nevertheless, the fact is that simpler accidents normally caused by apparent banalities occur much more frequently and with a higher rate of fatalities, disablements and other serious injuries than the ostensibly most dangerous kinds of accidents. In 1999 a practical tool for use by safety officers was developed; this tool is based on the investigation methods applied in major accidents, but comprises a simpler and more user-friendly presentation. The tool involves three steps: Mapping the facts, analysing the events, and developing preventive solutions. Practical application of the tool has shown that it affords managers and workers a heightened insight into the cause of accidents, including those that seemed to be unavoidable, and that simple workplace accidents always have root causes on which preventive action can be focused. The problem is however that making a proper analysis is difficult and requires appropriate training, even in cases where the accidents seem to be very simple.

JØrgensen, Kirsten

2010-01-01

47

The application of the triboluminescence method for the investigation of air condensates, exhaled by children, affected by a complex of ecological factors after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of tribolumnescence for an integral estimation of the functional condition of the children's respiratory system affected by a complex of ecological factors after Chernobyl katastrophe was applied. The non-respiratory function of the lungs was investigated by analysing the air condensates exhaled by 36 children at the age of 7-15 years. It was found that the kinetic parameters of triboluminescence of the condensates exhaled by the children, living in ecologically unequal areas may be different. The changes of these parameters may be caused by the activisation of the free oxygen radicals of the condensate components due to the radiation factors discovered in the zones exposed to the irradiation after Chernobyl katastrophe

48

The study of method for calculating the accident atmospheric dispersion factor and accident washout factor for coastal nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model to estimate the accident probabilistic dispersion factor in which the effect of internal boundary layer is considered and a set of deterministic and probabilistic models to estimate the accident washout factor are set up based on the models of accident dispersion factor given by current guides. The accident probabilistic dispersion factor, the deterministic washout factor for different time interval after accident release, the accident probabilistic washout factor and the dose corresponding to various pathway are estimated based on the measured meteorological data on the site of a coastal nuclear power plant to be built in the east part of China. The result shows that: the value of accident probabilistic dispersion factor given by the proposed model are 5.9 times of those given by the common model; for the dose obtained during 0 to 8 h after accident release, the external exposure dose from washout deposition given by deterministic model is about 5.50 times of those from dry deposition; the ratio between external exposure dose from washout and dry deposition given by conservative probabilistic model with and without considering the effect from internal boundary layer is 9.56 and 56.7 respectively; for the realistic probabilistic model the value of above ratio is 1.93 and 11.4

49

Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

Cookson, Simon

2009-01-01

50

32 CFR 634.30 - Use of traffic accident investigation report data.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 true Use of traffic accident investigation report data...Supervision § 634.30 Use of traffic accident investigation report data. (a) Data derived from traffic accident investigation reports and...

2010-07-01

51

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident final report of the AESJ investigation committee  

CERN Document Server

The Magnitude 9 Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, followed by a massive tsunami struck  TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and triggered an unprecedented core melt/severe accident in Units 1 – 3. The radioactivity release led to the evacuation of local residents, many of whom still have not been able to return to their homes. As a group of nuclear experts, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to investigate and analyze the accident from scientific and technical perspectives for clarifying the underlying and fundamental causes, and to make recommendations. The results of the investigation by the AESJ Investigation Committee has been compiled herewith as the Final Report. Direct contributing factors of the catastrophic nuclear incident at Fukushima Daiichi NPP initiated by an unprecedented massive earthquake/ tsunami – inadequacies in tsunami measures, severe accident ma...

Atomic Energy Society of Japan

2015-01-01

52

Fatores contribuintes aos acidentes aeronáuticos / Contributive factors to aviation accidents / Factores contribuyentes de accidentes aeronáuticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do estudo foi comparar os resultados de investigações de acidentes aeronáuticos brasileiros do Centro de Investigação e Prevenção de Acidentes Aeronáuticos (Cenipa) com os do sistema de análise e classificação de fatores humanos (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - HFACS). [...] Foram analisados e comparados os relatórios finais de 36 investigações de acidentes aeronáuticos ocorridos entre 2000 e 2005, no estado de São Paulo. Foram mencionados 163 fatores contribuintes dos acidentes aeronáuticos nos relatórios do Cenipa, enquanto 370 foram identificados por meio do HFACS. Conclui-se que as análises do Cenipa não contemplaram fatores organizacionais associados aos acidentes aéreos. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue comparar los resultados de investigaciones de accidentes aeronáuticos brasileños del Centro de Investigación y Prevención de Accidentes Aeronáuticos (CENIPA) con los del sistema de análisis y clasificación de factores humanos (Human Factors Analysis and Classification Sys [...] tem - HFACS). Se analizaron y compararon los informes finales de 36 investigaciones de accidentes aeronáuticos ocurridos entre 2000 y 2005, en el estado de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil. Se mencionaron 163 factores contribuyentes de accidentes aeronáuticos en los informes del CENIPA, mientras que 370 fueron identificados por medio del HFACS. Se concluye que los análisis del CENIPA no contemplaron factores organizacionales asociados con los accidentes aéreos. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA) with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accid [...] ents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS identified 370 factors. It was concluded that CENIPA reports did not contemplate the organizational factors associated with aviation accidents.

Marcia, Fajer; Ildeberto Muniz de, Almeida; Frida Marina, Fischer.

53

Fatores contribuintes aos acidentes aeronáuticos / Contributive factors to aviation accidents / Factores contribuyentes de accidentes aeronáuticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do estudo foi comparar os resultados de investigações de acidentes aeronáuticos brasileiros do Centro de Investigação e Prevenção de Acidentes Aeronáuticos (Cenipa) com os do sistema de análise e classificação de fatores humanos (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - HFACS). [...] Foram analisados e comparados os relatórios finais de 36 investigações de acidentes aeronáuticos ocorridos entre 2000 e 2005, no estado de São Paulo. Foram mencionados 163 fatores contribuintes dos acidentes aeronáuticos nos relatórios do Cenipa, enquanto 370 foram identificados por meio do HFACS. Conclui-se que as análises do Cenipa não contemplaram fatores organizacionais associados aos acidentes aéreos. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue comparar los resultados de investigaciones de accidentes aeronáuticos brasileños del Centro de Investigación y Prevención de Accidentes Aeronáuticos (CENIPA) con los del sistema de análisis y clasificación de factores humanos (Human Factors Analysis and Classification Sys [...] tem - HFACS). Se analizaron y compararon los informes finales de 36 investigaciones de accidentes aeronáuticos ocurridos entre 2000 y 2005, en el estado de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil. Se mencionaron 163 factores contribuyentes de accidentes aeronáuticos en los informes del CENIPA, mientras que 370 fueron identificados por medio del HFACS. Se concluye que los análisis del CENIPA no contemplaron factores organizacionales asociados con los accidentes aéreos. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA) with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accid [...] ents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS identified 370 factors. It was concluded that CENIPA reports did not contemplate the organizational factors associated with aviation accidents.

Marcia, Fajer; Ildeberto Muniz de, Almeida; Frida Marina, Fischer.

54

Comparing the Identification of Recommendations by Different Accident Investigators Using a Common Methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

Accident reports play a key role in the safety of complex systems. These reports present the recommendations that are intended to help avoid any recurrence of past failures. However, the value of these findings depends upon the causal analysis that helps to identify the reasons why an accident occurred. Various techniques have been developed to help investigators distinguish root causes from contributory factors and contextual information. This paper presents the results from a study into the individual differences that can arise when a group of investigators independently apply the same technique to identify the causes of an accident. This work is important if we are to increase the consistency and coherence of investigations following major accidents.

Johnson, Chris W.; Oltedal, H. A.; Holloway, C. M.

2012-01-01

55

Aeromedical Lessons from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation. The contents include: 1) Introduction and Mission Response Team (MRT); 2) Primary Disaster Field Office (DFO); 3) Mishap Investigation Team (MIT); 4) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mishap Response Plan; 5) Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP); and 6) STS-107 Crew Surgeon.

Pool, Sam L.

2005-01-01

56

Work-related accidents in hospital environment: associated factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hospital environment is characterized by large numbers of risks from chemical, biological, physical, psychosocial, that if strengthen to affecting the health of workers, both those of direct patient care as the support services to provide care, exposing them to favourable conditions for the occurrence of accidents at work. To analyse the factors associated with accidents at work in a hospital unit of Lisbon and Tagus Valley between 2001 and 2010. Retrospective cross-sectional long...

Martins, Matilde; Barbie?ri, Maria Do Ce?u; Correia, Teresa

2012-01-01

57

Use of casual tree method for investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many methodologies used for investigation of accidents to facilitate the search of the factors that cause these events in different areas of industry. These can be called proactive methods, if they are used before the occurrence of the events, or reactive methods that are applied after the occurrence of the incident or accident, and are used as a basis of information to prevent further events. One of these methods is the Causal Tree Method (CTM). The basic idea of this technique is that incidents and accidents result from variations in usual processes. These variations can be related to the individual, the task, the material or the environment. The tree starts with the end event (incident or accident) and works backwards. The facts relating to the end event are used in the construction of the causal tree. The end event is the starting point and only the facts that contributed to the incident or accident should be selected. The analyst has to identify and list the variations and then display them in the analytic tree, showing causal relations. The objective of this paper is to test the application of the CTM method in investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials, in order to evaluate its efficiency on finding the typical factors causing these events. (author)

58

Investigation on accident management measures for VVER-1000 reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A consequence of a total loss of AC power supply (station blackout) leading to unavailability of major active safety systems which could not perform their safety functions is that the safety criteria ensuring a secure operation of the nuclear power plant would be violated and a consequent core heat-up with possible core degradation would occur. Currently, a study which examines the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the plant during the early phase of the scenario is being performed. This paper focuses on the possibilities for delay or mitigation of the accident sequence to progress into a severe one by applying Accident Management Measures (AMM). The strategy 'Primary circuit depressurization' as a basic strategy, which is realized in the management of severe accidents is being investigated. By reducing the load over the vessel under severe accident conditions, prerequisites for maintaining the integrity of the primary circuit are being created. The time-margins for operators' intervention as key issues are being also assessed. The task is accomplished by applying the GRS thermal-hydraulic system code ATHLET. In addition, a comparative analysis of the accident progression for a station blackout event for both a reference German PWR and a reference VVER-1000, taking into account the plant specifics, is being performed. (authors)

59

Accident investigation of the electrical shock incident at the PG and E PVUSA site Davis, California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the findings of the Accident Investigation Team (Team) assembled in response to a request from Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) to understand the events surrounding the electric shock of a worker at the PVUSA site in Davis, California and to provide recommendations to prevent such events from recurring. The report gives complete details on the sequence of events surrounding the accident and identifies 27 facts related to accident itself. Four technical deficiencies in the electrical systems which require further investigation were identified. The Team believes that the root cause of this accident was related to the absence of a proactive organizational entity responsible for overall health and safety on the site. Two contributing factors were identified. First, the prototype nature and associated operational difficulties of the electrical inverter resulted in large maintenance demands. Second, several of the injured employee`s co-workers noted that he occasionally failed to use appropriate personal protective equipment, but they never reported this practice to management. The direct cause of this accident was the failure of the injured employee to wear appropriate personal protective equipment (i.e., rubber gloves). Based on the review of the facts established in this investigation, five recommendations are presented to the funding agencies to reduce the possibility of future accidents at the PVUSA site.

Jacobson, L.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Garrett, J.O.; Tyler, R.

1992-02-01

60

The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Work Accidents in Izmir Konak Municipality Cleaning Workers.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors and work accidents among waste collector workers in Izmir Konak Municipality Cleaning Services Section. The study consisted 92 (%68 out of 135 workers of those accepted to participation. METHOD: face-to-face questionnaire were administered for data collection. Dependent variable was the work-related accident for previous six months. Independent variables were sociodemographic features, working conditions, mental health status, daytime sleepiness, workload and social support. The chi-square test and the logistic regression models used for data analysis. RESULTS: Work accident prevalence was 32.6% for the last 6 months. Age and workload were significantly affected work-related accidents (p=0.03; p=0.01 respectively. Social support, mental health status and daytime sleepiness status did not effect work-related accident prevalence (p=0.48; p=0.21; p=0.30 respectively. CONCLUSION: Results of the study indicated that work-related accident prevalence is high among workers in Izmir Konak Municipality. Workload was found important risk factor for the work accident among waste collector workers. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 623-632

Aysun Akgun

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Natural factors of technological accidents: the case of Russia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The data base of technological accidents and disasters that have occurred in Russia has been created. More than 13 000 information units have been collected and analyzed. The proportion of accidents triggered by natural events (natural-technological accidents or NTA in the total number of technological accidents as well as a part of every NTA type in the total number of NTA was estimated. About 10 percent of all accidents registered in the data base were caused by natural events; among some types of accidents this proportion is even higher. Transmission facilities with more than 90 percent of overhead lines are the most vulnerable to the impact of natural hazards. The contribution of different natural hazards was evaluated. Regions with the greatest NTA risk were revealed. The influence of natural events on the technosphere is stronger in the South of the European Russia and in the Russian Far East, which are more exposed to hurricanes, snowstorms, rainfalls, icing and other natural hazards producing NTA. The critical infrastructure needs special protection and modernization in these regions. The problem of the relationship between natural hazards and the technosphere is very complicated and needs further investigation, especially taking the expected climate changes into consideration.

E. G. Petrova

2011-08-01

62

Integral Test Facility PKL: Experimental PWR Accident Investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations of the thermal-hydraulic behavior of pressurized water reactors under accident conditions have been carried out in the PKL test facility at AREVA NP in Erlangen, Germany for many years. The PKL facility models the entire primary side and significant parts of the secondary side of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) at a height scale of 1:1. Volumes, power ratings and mass flows are scaled with a ratio of 1:145. The experimental facility consists of 4 primary loops with circulation pumps and steam generators (SGs) arranged symmetrically around the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The investigations carried out encompass a very broad spectrum from accident scenario simulations with large, medium, and small breaks, over the investigation of shutdown procedures after a wide variety of accidents, to the systematic investigation of complex thermal-hydraulic phenomena. This paper presents a survey of test objectives and programs carried out to date. It also describes the test facility in its present state. Some important results obtained over the years with focus on investigations carried out since the beginning of the international cooperation are exemplarily discussed.

63

Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

64

An investigation of glider winch launch accidents utilizing multipoint aerodynamics models in flight simulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presented thesis investigated the mechanisms leading to accidents during the winch launch of gliders. Initially, data from the accident database of the German Federal Bureau of Aircraft Accident Investigation was studied. Critical phases of the launch were identied along with the associated probabilities and risks of accidents. From this data requirements to an aerodynamics model suitable for accident reconstruction were formulated. An instationary multipoint aerodynamics approach, based ...

Santel, Christoph

2010-01-01

65

Report of investigation regarding accident in Tomsk reprocessing facilities in Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At 1258 on April 6, 1993, the explosion accident of a welded tank occurred in the military reprocessing facilities in Tomsk, Siberia District, Russia. Japan carried out the investigation of the effect on the environmental radiation in Japan, dispatched the investigation mission to Russia, and explained the way of thinking on securing the safety of Japanese reprocessing plants to local communities. Science and Technology Agency organized the working group for investigating the accident, which exerted efforts to collect the information, analyze and examine it. This report is the summary of its results. The explosion occurred in the tank for adjusting the acid concentration of the solution to be supplied to the solvent extraction shop, and the building was destructed. No one died or was injured. The results of the radioactivity examination are reported. The process of the accident was inferred, and described. The factors that caused the accident were the mixing of organic impurities the use of the diluting liquid containing aromatic hydrocarbon, the contact of nitric acid with organic substances at high temperature, in sufficient agitation at the time of pouring nitric acid and so on. The safety countermeasures in Japanese reprocessing plants and the response by Japan based on the accident are described. (K.I.)

66

Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Influence of the critical accident seen to consciousness investigation of the public  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Here was introduced a consciousness investigation result carried out at Fukui prefecture and Osaka city after about two months of the JCO criticality accident. Peoples were disturbed by the accident, and not a little changed their individual estimations on items relating to energy. However, peoples lived in Fukui prefecture did not increase rate of opposition against nuclear energy promotion and nuclear power plant construction to their living area on comparison with a year before the accident. This reason might be understood by that the accident was not an accident of a nuclear power plant directly, and that their living area was much distant from place of the accident and was not suffered any danger. On the other hand, public opinion in Osaka city made worse on comparison with that before a year, and if such worse public opinion was thought to be due to the accident, its effect could be said to be different in each area even with no direct relation to the accident to shown a result dependent upon its various conditions. As a rough tendency on psychological disturbance due to the accident, it could be said that peoples became to have feelings of avoiding hard nuclear energy technology at a chance of the accident and to direct thoughts of soft natural energy and environment respect. (G.K.)

Onishi, Teruaki [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

2000-08-01

67

Motorcycle accidents in forensic pathology. Human factors, and injury and crash tipologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the main human factors, related to motorcycle accidents, and the accident configuration and the lesive pattern. The present study considers the 200 two-wheel crashes occurred in Italy in the Province of Pavia between 1999 and 2001. For all cases a revision of the injured people’s interviews and their clinical records has been made. All the accidents of the survey have been examined considering the traumatic lesion abscribed to the accident to assess a direct causal link between human factors and the crash tipology and the injury pattern. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationship between the variables and a logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association of injury severity with some variables supposed to be predictive factors. Frontal-lateral impact collisions are about 6 times more likely to be caused by a traffic scan error of the other vehicle driver (no rider than other types of crashes (OR= 5,8; p < 0,0001; IC 95%: 2,875-11,736. Contusions-abrasions show the highest percentages in motorcyclists with no coverage worn (p < 0,001 and riders with no clothing have a higher risk to be severely injured than riders with coverage, but it is not statistically significant. Instead, there is not a statistical significant association between: rider’s gender, rider’s age, riding experience and accident configuration; damaged region of the helmet and cranium injury severity.

Alessandra Marinoni

2008-10-01

68

48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reporting and investigation involving...Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7005 Accident reporting and investigation involving...d), use the following clause: Accident Reporting and Investigation...

2010-10-01

69

Investigation of indoor-inhalation exposure due to nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report provides an improved data base with respect to indoor inhalation eposure after severe accidents in nuclear facilities. The improvement was achieved by an extensive exploration of the related literature, both in the nuclear and in the field of chemical toxicants. The results in terms of dose reduction factors due to inhalation of indoor instead of outdoor air is presented for two cases: without any emergency-related counter measures and for a case with protection measures, such as closing of all doors and windows and switching air conditioning equipments to recirculation during cloud passage, and intensive airing afterwards. Depending on the physico-chemical form of the radionuclides and specific room categories, reduction factors show a range between 0.004 and 1. (orig./HP)

70

Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011. Method: The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States by estimating a generalized ordered logit model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005–2009. Results: Results show that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because of inattentive and risky driving.

Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

2012-01-01

71

Relationships between accident investigations, risk analysis, and safety management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several different approaches to achieve safety are in common use, and examples are accident investigations (AI), risk analysis (RA), and safety management systems (SMS). The meaning of these concepts and their practical applications vary quite a lot, which might cause confusion. A summary of definitions is presented. A general comparison is made of application areas and methodology. A proposal is made how to indicate parameters of variation. At one end of the scale there are organisations, which are highly organised in respect to safety. At the other end are small companies with informal safety routines. Although the three concepts differ in a number of respects, there are many links between them which is illustrated in a model. A number of relations have been described mainly concerned with more advanced organisations. Behind the practical safety work, there are varying sets of more or less explicit explanations and theories on safety and accident causation. Depending on the theory applied, the relations between approaches can be more or less clear and essential

72

A human factor analysis of a radiotherapy accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since September 2005, I.R.S.N. studies activities of radiotherapy treatment from the angle of the human and organizational factors to improve the reliability of treatment in radiotherapy. Experienced in nuclear industry incidents analysis, I.R.S.N. analysed and diffused in March 2008, for the first time in France, the detailed study of a radiotherapy accident from the angle of the human and organizational factors. The method used for analysis is based on interviews and documents kept by the hospital. This analysis aimed at identifying the causes of the difference recorded between the dose prescribed by the radiotherapist and the dose effectively received by the patient. Neither verbal nor written communication (intra-service meetings and protocols of treatment) allowed information to be transmitted correctly in order to permit radiographers to adjust the irradiation zones correctly. This analysis highlighted the fact that during the preparation and the carrying out of the treatment, various factors led planned controls to not be performed. Finally, this analysis highlighted the fact that unsolved areas persist in the report over this accident. This is due to a lack of traceability of a certain number of key actions. The article concluded that there must be improvement in three areas: cooperation between the practitioners, control of the actions and traceability of the actions. (author)

73

Natural factors of technological accidents: the case of Russia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The data base of technological accidents and disasters that have occurred in Russia has been created. More than 13 000 information units have been collected and analyzed. The proportion of accidents triggered by natural events (natural-technological accidents or NTA) in the total number of technological accidents as well as a part of every NTA type in the total number of NTA was estimated. About 10 percent of all accidents registered in the data base were caused by natural events; among some ...

Petrova, E. G.

2011-01-01

74

Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Cause analysis and teachings from a viewpoint of a human factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the JCO criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999, from relatively earlier time since its occurrence it was elucidated that it was formed not by accident and error operation of apparatus and instruments but by unsafe actions of operators beyond regular manual as its direct cause, and that an organizational factor on business managers and safety administration unable to control such unsafe actions of operators at its background. Then, it was judged to be essential to carry out an accident research from a viewpoint of the human factor (HF) for elucidation on essence of the accident, to establish a 'special workshop on the JCO accident research' to investigate elucidation of the accident cause and countermeasure of reoccurrence at a standpoint of HF. As a result, the essential cause of this accident was summarized that safety information such as ideals, information, teachings and so forth necessary for safety management were failed to share among different organizations. As a teaching of this accident, nuclear energy participants must recognize that safety culture is not finished only in specific organization and range but produced by protecting weathering of danger consciousness and effort of mutually exciting and learning by sharing a safety information beyond different organization, range and time. (G.K.)

75

The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. Results: The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001. The highest rate of death (5.07% was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001. The highest mortality rate (3.45% occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001. The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 % and highest (3.09% proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001. Conclusions: Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental factors on road traffic accidents and underlines the implementation of appropriate preventive measures.

Kamran B. Lankarani

2014-07-01

76

Human and organisational factors in maritime accidents: analysis of collisions at sea using the HFACS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade, the shipping industry has implemented a number of measures aimed at improving its safety level (such as new regulations or new forms of team training). Despite this evolution, shipping accidents, and particularly collisions, remain a major concern. This paper presents a modified version of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System, which has been adapted to the maritime context and used to analyse human and organisational factors in collisions reported by the Marine Accident and Investigation Branch (UK) and the Transportation Safety Board (Canada). The analysis shows that most collisions are due to decision errors. At the precondition level, it highlights the importance of the following factors: poor visibility and misuse of instruments (environmental factors), loss of situation awareness or deficit of attention (conditions of operators), deficits in inter-ship communications or Bridge Resource Management (personnel factors). At the leadership level, the analysis reveals the frequent planning of inappropriate operations and non-compliance with the Safety Management System (SMS). The Multiple Accident Analysis provides an important finding concerning three classes of accidents. Inter-ship communications problems and Bridge Resource Management deficiencies are closely linked to collisions occurring in restricted waters and involving pilot-carrying vessels. Another class of collisions is associated with situations of poor visibility, in open sea, and shows deficiencies at every level of the socio-technical system (technical environment, condition of operators, leadership level, and organisational level). The third class is characterised by non-compliance with the SMS. This study shows the importance of Bridge Resource Management for situations of navigation with a pilot on board in restricted waters. It also points out the necessity to investigate, for situations of navigation in open sea, the masters' decisions in critical conditions as well as the causes of non-compliance with SMS. PMID:23764875

Chauvin, Christine; Lardjane, Salim; Morel, Gaël; Clostermann, Jean-Pierre; Langard, Benoît

2013-10-01

77

Cavity Heating Experiments Supporting Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

The two-color thermographic phosphor method has been used to map the local heating augmentation of scaled idealized cavities at conditions simulating the windward surface of the Shuttle Orbiter Columbia during flight STS-107. Two experiments initiated in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation were conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Generally, the first test series evaluated open (length-to-depth less than 10) rectangular cavity geometries proposed as possible damage scenarios resulting from foam and ice impact during launch at several discrete locations on the vehicle windward surface, though some closed (length-to-depth greater than 13) geometries were briefly examined. The second test series was designed to parametrically evaluate heating augmentation in closed rectangular cavities. The tests were conducted under laminar cavity entry conditions over a range of local boundary layer edge-flow parameters typical of re-entry. Cavity design parameters were developed using laminar computational predictions, while the experimental boundary layer state conditions were inferred from the heating measurements. An analysis of the aeroheating caused by cavities allowed exclusion of non-breeching damage from the possible loss scenarios being considered during the investigation.

Everhart, Joel L.; Berger, Karen T.; Bey, Kim S.; Merski, N. Ronald; Wood, William A.

2011-01-01

78

Causal factors in accidents of high-speed craft and conventional ocean-going vessels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of 40 ocean-going commercial vessel accidents is compared with the study of a similar number of high-speed crafts (HSCs) accidents, using in both cases a methodology that highlights the sequence of events leading to the accident and identifies the associated latent or causal factors. The main objective of this study was to identify and understand the difference in the pattern of causal factors associated with HSC accidents, as compared with the more traditional ocean-going ships. From the analysis one can see that the HSC accidents are mainly related to bridge personnel and operations, where the human element is the key factor identified as being responsible for the majority of the accidents. When compared with ocean-going commercial vessels, it is clear that navigational equipment and procedures have a larger preponderance in terms of the occurrence of accidents of HSC and particular attention should be given to these issues

79

Development of Human Factor Management Requirements and Human Error Classification for the Prevention of Railway Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Railway accident analysis results show that accidents cased by human factors are not decreasing, whereas H/W related accidents are steadily decreasing. For the efficient management of human factors, many expertise on design, conditions, safety culture and staffing are required. But current safety management activities on safety critical works are focused on training, due to the limited resource and information. In order to improve railway safety, human factors management requirements for safety critical worker and human error classification is proposed in this report. For this accident analysis, status of safety measure on human factor, safety management system on safety critical worker, current safety planning is analysis

80

Investigation into information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report was prepared in response to a request from NRC Chairman Ahearne that directed the Office of Inspection and Enforcement to resume its investigation of information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) that occurred on March 28, 1979. This investigation was resumed on March 21, 1980. The transfer of information among individuals, agencies, and personnel from Metropolitan Edison was analyzed to ascertain what knowledge was held by various individuals of the specific events, parameters, and systems during the accident at TMI. Maximum use was made of existing records, and additional interviews were conducted to clarify areas that had not been pursued during earlier investigations. Although the passage of time between the accident and post-accident interviews hampered precise recollections of events and circumstances, the investigation revealed that information was not intentionally withheld during the accident and that the system for effective transfer of information was inadequate during the accident

 
 
 
 
81

Suicide, accident? The importance of the scene investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the as yet unresolved case of the death by gunshot wound of a 21-year-old student from a recent local inspection. It was reported that the daughter of the house had been shot through the window while she was washing the dishes. Slight discrepancies were noted in the statements of the family, who are very religious. The firearm, projectile and cartridge have not been found despite an intensive search. The daughter and the mother tested positive for traces of gunpowder on their hands, while in the case of the son traces were found on his hands and on his vest. That the trajectory of the projectile was from the kitchen outwards was established on the basis of a small hole in the inner pane of the kitchen window and a larger hole in the outer pane. The shot passed through the victim's cheek and the neck. The entrance wound (aditus) on the right cheek had complementary features characteristic of a gunshot from a short-barrelled firearm at relative proximity. The shot passed through the left jugular vein and the left internal carotid artery. The exit wound (exitus) was slightly larger and of irregular shape. The family chose a traditional burial. The mother and son did not present themselves for polygraph testing. A charge was filed against the mother of the deceased. Emphasis was placed on the scene investigation. A covered-up suicide? An accident (a scuffle when trying to prevent suicide)? PMID:15694721

Ermenc, B; Prijon, T

2005-01-17

82

Proposal for computer investigation of LMFBR core meltdown accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental consequences of an LMFBR accident involving breach of containment are so severe that such accidents must not be allowed to happen. Present methods for analyzing hypothetical core disruptive accidents like a loss of flow with failure to scram cannot show conclusively that such accidents do not lead to a rupture of the pressure vessel. A major deficiency of present methods is their inability to follow large motions of a molten LMFBR core. Such motions may lead to a secondary supercritical configuration with a subsequent energy release that is sufficient to rupture the pressure vessel. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory proposes to develop a computer program for describing the dynamics of hypothetical accidents. This computer program will utilize implicit Eulerian fluid dynamics methods coupled with a time-dependent transport theory description of the neutronic behavior. This program will be capable of following core motions until a stable coolable configuration is reached. Survey calculations of reactor accidents with a variety of initiating events will be performed for reactors under current design to assess the safety of such reactors

83

An analysis on human factor issues in criticality accident at a uranium processing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report analyses latent factors of a human behavior directly contributing to the criticality accident. It is pouring some 16 kg-U with an enrichment of 18.8% into the precipitation tank. It is the fact that the direct cause of this accident is the workers' unsafe act. However, the authors find lots of latent factors relating to the production-biased company's policy, the poor climate for safety in the work place, the inadequate safety management and the unsuitable equipment. This accident was caused by many organizational factors. This paper also discusses lessons learned from this accident. (author)

84

Accident Journalism and Traffic Safety Education: A Three-Phase Investigation of Accident Reporting in the Canadian Daily Press.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined the potential for development of a traffic accident-reporting form in the Canadian daily press that strengthens concern for road safety in the general population and enhances knowledge, attitudes, and behavior leading to greater safety. The investigation was conducted on three levels: a content analysis, a readership analysis, and…

Wilde, Gerald J. S.; Ackersviller, Melody J.

85

Investigation report on causes of radiation underexposure accident at Yamagata University Hospital and Prevention of Similar accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident in the title was announced on February 18, 2004 by the hospital, which asked its investigation immediately. The group based on 4 academic societies concerned, thereby started investigations of the in-house reports on the accident and of subsequent hospital visit in March, which involved hearing from personnel concerned, physical/technological examinations and clinical evaluation, with respect to the hospital system for radiation treatment, flow of the treatment, accident details, estimation of the actual expose dose and classification of patients. The investigational group found for the actual number of patients underexposed to be 36 (63, in the in-house report) in 1,377. The cause of the accident was thought essentially the input error for the correct power coefficient 1.032 to be a wrong one 1.320 for 15 x 15 cm 4 MV X-ray. The error had been overlooked by the contract operator from the introduction of the treatment planning equipment in 1999. For prevention, setting up of quality assurance (QA) program by the hospital, the user itself, was pointed out necessary. Making the guideline for introducing the new equipment was conceivably an important work of the trader. (N.I.)

86

Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly

87

The contribution of human factors to accidents in the offshore oil industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accidents such as the Piper Alpha disaster illustrate that the performance of a highly complex socio-technical system, is dependent upon the interaction of technical, human, social, organisational, managerial and environmental factors and that these factors can be important co-contributors that could potentially lead to a catastrophic event. The purpose of this article is to give readers an overview of how human factors contribute to accidents in the offshore oil industry. An introduction to human errors and how they relate to human factors in general terms is given. From here the article discusses some of the human factors which were found to influence safety in other industries and describes the human factors codes used in accident reporting forms in the aviation, nuclear and marine industries. Analysis of 25 accident reporting forms from offshore oil companies in the UK sector of the North Sea was undertaken in relation to the human factors. Suggestions on how these accident reporting forms could be improved are given. Finally, this article describes the methods by which accidents can be reduced by focusing on the human factors, such as feedback from accident reporting in the oil industry, auditing of unsafe acts and auditing of latent failures

88

Methane asphyxia. Coal mine accident investigation of distribution of gas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Death from asphyxia due to substitution of air by methane gas may occur in coal mine by gas outburst. In such a case, it is required to determine methane gas contents from cadaveric blood and tissues for diagnosing cause of death and estimating conditions of the accident. The methane concentration in blood and tissue samples of 22 male victims by a gas outburst accident was measured by gas chromatography. The level of methane in the cardiac blood was in the range of 6.8-26.8 microliters/g. As a model of gas outburst in coal mine, rats were exposed experimentally to various concentrations of methane. Their course of death and methane distribution in the bodies were observed. From these findings, diagnostic criteria for asphyxia from substitution of air by methane are also discussed. PMID:3870672

Terazawa, K; Takatori, T; Tomii, S; Nakano, K

1985-09-01

89

Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress.

NONE

1996-04-01

90

A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Accidents Caused by the Motorcycle Aspect in Urban Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traffic safety should be given the highest priority in order to reduce accidents. It seems that motorcycles give the most contribution to accidents than other vehicles, especially in urban area. The accidents are caused by poor condition factors of the motorcycles. Therefore, it is important to know the motorcycle aspect as a base to implement an action program to reduce accident risks. The objectives of this research were to analyze motorcycle aspect on accident risks including tires, brakes, lamps, engines, chassis, mirrors, conspicuity, and equipments for riding. This was a perceptional research where the victims are as respondents, and questionnaire forms were given to 50 respondents. The method of analysis used in this research was Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results of this research indicate that tires, brakes and equipments, did not give significant influence on factors causing the accidents. However, the other variables namely lamps, engines, chassis, mirrors and conspicuity gave significant influence on traffic accident risks. Final modeling results that were obtained showed that the factors that cause motorcycle accidents are the following: lamps, engine, chassis, mirrors, and conspicuity.

Aji Suraji

2012-03-01

91

Investigation of ALPHA experiment by severe accident analysis code SAMPSON  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The severe accident analysis code SAMPSON is adopted in this work to evaluate its capability of reproducing the complex gap cooling phenomenon. The ALPHA experiment is adopted for validation, where molten aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) produced by a thermite reaction is poured into a water filled hemispherical vessel at the ambient pressure of approximately 1.3 MPa. The spreading and cooling of the debris that has relocated into the pressure vessel lower plenum are simulated, including the analysis of the RPV failure. The model included in the code to simulate the water penetration inside the gap is evaluated and improvements are proposed. The importance of the introduction of some mechanistic approach to describe the gap formation and evolution is underlined where the results show its necessity in order to correctly reproduce the experimental trends.

Baglietto, Emilio [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-Okayama, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)], E-mail: emilio.baglietto@us.cd-adapco.com; Ninokata, Hisashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-Okayama, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Naitoh, Masanori [Safety Analysis Department, NUPEC, Toranomon Building, 4-1-8 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)

2008-07-15

92

Investigations for intrinsic safety againts core melt-down accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large pool-type LMFBR present interesting safety features due to the big mass of sodium and to the possibility of using high pumping inertia. It would be possible to get intrinsic safety against core melt-down in the hypothetical case of heat removal accidents without scram, in the case either of loss of pumping power or of loss of secondary loops. As well boiling at the outlet of the core as well long term failure of the vessel by temperature rise could be avoided by favorable feed-back coefficients. We show the influence of the performances and the location of an emergency cooling system, and the interest of an intrinsic shut-down system

93

Safety and Health Standard 110: Incident/accident reporting and investigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Incident/accident reporting requirements in effect at West Kootenay Power are discussed. Details provided include definitions of low risk, high risk, and critical events, the incidents to be reported, the nature of the reports, the timelines, the investigation to be undertaken for each type of incident/accident, counselling services available to employees involved in serious incidents, and the procedures to be followed in accidents involving serious injury to non-employees. The emphasis is on the `critical five` high risk events and the procedures relating to them.

Sones, K. [West Kootenay Power, BC (Canada)

1999-10-01

94

Factors influencing deformation and wall thickness of fuel rods under a loss-of-coolant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The deformation of fuel rods during a loss-of-coolant accident is investigated extensively, it, however, is difficult to estimate it by LOCA analysis. In order to study experimentally the deformation of fuel rods, four types of pre-pressurized sham fuel rods filled with Al2O3 pellets to simulate UO2 were heated in steam or vacuum under hypothetical LOCA cinditions. The effects of various factors are described, including heating method, heating rate, atomosphere and the presence of pre-oxidixed film in normal operation. Deformation data in the literatures are also presented. The maximum circumferential strain of sham fuel rods is related to the burst temperature, and influences of the other factors become apparent. The average wall thickness of cladding varying with the deformation depends on the heating method and the atomosphere. It is found that the average wall thickness of fuel rods by induction heating is smaller than that by electric resistance furnace. (auth.)

95

Use of CCTV to determine road accident factors in urban areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper sets out to assess whether there is a potential use for images collected through the increasingly ubiquitous use of CCTV cameras in urban areas as a means of increasing understanding of the causes of road traffic accidents. Information on causation and contributory factors is essential as a means of understanding why accidents occurred and how the occurrence of similar events may be prevented in the future. CCTV records of accidents could provide an independent perspective on an accident and have the potential to increase both the quality and quantity of information available to the safety researcher. This study focuses on an area of central Leeds in the UK and shows that an existing CCTV camera system used for urban traffic management reasons has the potential to record around a quarter of the accidents which occur in the area, based on patterns of past occurrence. Most city centres in the UK will have similar camera systems set-up. By the introduction of additional strategically placed cameras and replacement of existing cameras with ones dedicated to accident recording, this figure could be increased substantially. The paper also considers how effective cameras and video records will be as a means of identifying contributory factor information once an accident is recorded. The contributory factor classification used by a recently introduced system in Britain is assessed in terms of how visible each of the factors is likely to be on video and their relative frequency of occurrence. It is concluded that CCTV has a high potential to provide corroborative evidence about many of the most commonly occurring factors, and to throw further light on accident causation. PMID:16824454

Conche, Florence; Tight, Miles

2006-11-01

96

Investigations on accidents with massive water ingress exemplified by the pebble bed reactor PNP-500  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computer code is used for analyses of massive water ingress accidents in the High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor concept PNP-500 with pebble bed core. The analyses are mainly focussed on graphite corrosion processes. For the investigated accidents a correct reactor shut down in assumed. The mass of water ingressing into the primary circuit is varied between 1000 and 7500 kg (i.e., up to hypothetical values). The dependence of accident consequences on parameters such as intensity and starting time of the afterheat removal system or kinetic values of the chemical processes is examined. The results show that even under pessimistic assumptions the extent of the graphite corrosion is relatively low; significant damaging of fuel elements or graphite components does not occur. A primary circuit depressurization, combined with local burning of water gas, would probably not affect the fission product retention potential of the (gastight) containment. Summing up, the risk caused by these accidents remains small. (orig.)

97

Psychological and social factors influencing the choice of strategy after a nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of the post-accident situation in Chernobyl provides information that focuses on social and psychological factors in the management of nuclear accidents. This paper concentrates on the short term countermeasures. It presents the main conclusions of a field survey carried out in Ukraine. The issues talked are the concern about extend of post-response in Chernobyl, the worries over health, contamination, the concern over the future and the complexity of post-accident situation. In a second part, the paper analyses and models the factors that caused the 1993 post-accident situation. Finally, several advices are given concerning the public information and behaviour focusing on the social and psychological aspect of short-term decisions (a constant effort should always be, for example, limiting the element of surprise in order to reduce the stress of population). (TEC). 3 figs

98

Accident reduction factors and causal inference in traffic safety studies: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accident reduction factors are used to predict the change in accident occurrence which a countermeasure can be expected to cause. Since ethical and legal obstacles preclude the use of randomized experiments when evaluating traffic safety improvements, empirical support for the causal effectiveness of accident countermeasures comes entirely from observational studies. Drawing on developments in causal inference initiated by Donald Rubin, it is argued here that the mechanism by which sites are selected for application of a countermeasure should be included as part of a study's data model, and that when important features of the selection mechanism are neglected, existing methods for estimating accident reduction factors become inconsistent. A promising, but neglected, way out of these difficulties lies in developing rational countermeasure selection methods which also support valid causal inference of countermeasure effects. PMID:10576680

Davis, G A

2000-01-01

99

Ontology Development and Evolution in the Accident Investigation Domain  

Science.gov (United States)

InvestiigationOrganizer (IO) is a collaborative semantic web system designed to support the conduct of mishap investigations. IO provides a common repository for a wide range of mishap related information, allowing investigators to integrate evidence, causal models, and investigation results. IO has been used to support investigations ranging from a small property damage case to the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Through IO'S use in these investigations, we have learned significant lessons? about the application of ontologies and semantic systems to solving real-world problems. This paper will describe the development of the ontology within IO, from the initial development, its growth in response to user requests during use in investigations, and the recent work that was done to control the results of that growth. This paper will also describe the lessons learned from this experience and how they may apply to the implementaton of future ontologies and semantic systems.

Carvalho, Robert; Berrios, Dan; Williams, James

2004-01-01

100

Preliminary thermal-hydraulic phenomena investigation during total instantaneous blockage accident for CEFR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chinese Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is under installation and commissioning right now. It is essential to investigate core disruptive accidents (CDAs) for the evaluation of CEFR's safety characteristic. As part-I preliminary investigation, accident of total instantaneous blockage (TIB) in single subassembly scale is modeled and analyzed. The degradation scenario has been calculated by a fluid-dynamics analysis code for liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs). For further investigation of accident process and influence to the neighboring bundles, seven subassembly domain is then simulated and calculated as part-II investigation. Total instantaneous blockage is assumed to occur in the center subassembly under normal operating conditions and consequences to neighboring assemblies are studied. The result shows that the key events, such as sodium boiling, clad melting, fuel particles relocation, hexcan melt-through and melt propagation into neighboring six assemblies symmetrically are adequately simulated. From comparison and discussion of the CEFR's results with the SCARABEE tests and Superphenix (SPX1)-type reactor simulation, it is concluded that all the key events appear in the same sequence whereas the propagation is limited in neighboring six assemblies. The discrepancy is probably due to less fuel inventory and better cooling capacity in CEFR subassembly design. TIB calculations help to give a better understanding and prediction of hypothetical accident scenario in subassembly blockage accidents for CEFR

 
 
 
 
101

Review of five investigation committees' reports on the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant severe accident. Focusing on accident progression and causes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On March 11, 2011, the Tohoku District-off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake and the subsequent tsunami resulted in the severe core damage at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Units 1-3, involving hydrogen explosions at Units 1, 3, and 4 and the large release of radioactive materials to the environment. Four independent committees were established by the Japanese government, the Diet of Japan, the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation, and TEPCO to investigate the accident and published their respective reports. Also, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency carried out an analysis of accident causes to obtain the lessons learned from the accident and made its report public. This article reviews the reports and clarifies the differences in their positions, from the technological point of view, focusing on the accident progression and causes. Moreover, the undiscussed issues are identified to provide insights useful for the near-term regulatory activities including accident investigation by the Nuclear Regulation Authority. (author)

102

Review of the TMI-2 accident evaluation and vessel investigation projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Programme and the Vessel Investigation Project have been reviewed as part of a literature study on core meltdown and in-vessel coolability. The emphasis is placed on the late phase melt progression, which is of special relevance to the NKS-sponsored RAK-2.1 project on Severe Accident Phenomenology. The body of the report comprises three main sections, The TMI-2 Accident Scenario, Core Region and Relocation Path Investigations, and Lower Head Investigations. In the final discussion, the lower head gap formation mechanism is explained in terms of thermal contraction and fracturing of the debris crust. This model seems more plausible than the MAAP model based on creep expansion of the lower head. (au) 1 tab., 33 ills., 31 refs.

Ladekarl Thomsen, Knud

1998-03-01

103

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results from cytogenetic investigations into 63 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1978 are reviewed. This report is the eighth in an annual series which together contain data on 390 studies. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given, in an appendix, of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. One case is described in more detail. It concerns a young man who deliberately irradiated himself with several sources of iridium-192 and received a dose of about 1.5 Gy as a fairly uniform whole body exposure. (author)

104

A Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Factors in Major Maritime Accidents in the USA and Canada (1996-2006)  

Science.gov (United States)

Accident reports provide important insights into the causes and contributory factors leading to particular adverse events. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis that extends across the findings presented over ten years investigations into maritime accidents by both the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and Canadian Transportation Safety Board (TSB). The purpose of the study was to assess the comparative frequency of a range of causal factors in the reporting of adverse events. In order to communicate our findings, we introduce J-H graphs as a means of representing the proportion of causes and contributory factors associated with human error, equipment failure and other high level classifications in longitudinal studies of accident reports. Our results suggest the proportion of causal and contributory factors attributable to direct human error may be very much smaller than has been suggested elsewhere in the human factors literature. In contrast, more attention should be paid to wider systemic issues, including the managerial and regulatory context of maritime operations.

Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C, M.

2007-01-01

105

A Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Factors in Major Maritime Accidents in the USA and Canada (1996-2006)  

Science.gov (United States)

Accident reports provide important insights into the causes and contributory factors leading to particular adverse events. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis that extends across the findings presented over ten years investigations into maritime accidents by both the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and Canadian Transportation Safety Board (TSB). The purpose of the study was to assess the comparative frequency of a range of causal factors in the reporting of adverse events. In order to communicate our findings, we introduce J-H graphs as a means of representing the proportion of causes and contributory factors associated with human error, equipment failure and other high level classifications in longitudinal studies of accident reports. Our results suggest the proportion of causal and contributory factors attributable to direct human error may be very much smaller than has been suggested elsewhere in the human factors literature. In contrast, more attention should be paid to wider systemic issues, including the managerial and regulatory context of maritime operations.

Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C. M.

106

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results from cytogenetic investigations into 55 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1977 are reviewed. This report is the seventh in an annual series (previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35, R41 and R57) which together contain data on 327 studies. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. Two cases are described in more detail: the first concerned a non-classified worker who put an iridium-192 source in his pocket and took it home; and the second involved the accidental contamination of two people with tritium gas. In a second appendix, the confidence limits on cytogenetic dosimetry for X- and ?-ray over-exposures are given and the derivation of these limits is discussed. (author)

107

Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and intractable, and methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. The number of methods in each group were four, three, zero, and two, respectively. Faced with the need to investigate an accident it is essential that the chosen method is appropriate for the system and the situation. Nuclear power plants considered as systems are tightly coupled and more or less intractable and therefore require accident models and accident investigation methods that are capable of accounting for these features. If an accident concerns the NPP operation as a whole, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. If an accident only concerns the operation of a subsystem or a component, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, or possible loosely coupled and tractable. The report provides a proposal for how these characteristics can be determined. The conclusion is that no specific method is the overall best in the sense that it can be used for all conditions. While it may be convenient, or even necessary, for an organisation to adopt a specific method as its standard, this should always be done knowingly and with a willingness to reconsider the choice when the conditions so demand it. In five or ten years we must expect that the methods developed today will have been partly obsolete, not because the methods change but because the nature of socio-technical systems, and therefore the nature of accidents, do

108

Analysis of the Monju's sodium leak accident and investigation of the cause  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As to the sodium leak accident in the secondary main cooling system of Monju that occurred on December 8, 1995, based on the analysis of the course of plant operation, the operation parameters and others, and the investigations of the state of damage of the machinery and equipment due to leaked sodium, the state of diffusion of sodium aerosol and so on, the operational handling at the time of accident was analyzed and evaluated. As to the investigation of the cause of accident, the study on the vibration mechanism of the broken thermometer sheath due to fluid force has been advanced, and the vibration characteristics were quantitatively evaluated by the analysis of the coupled vibration of the sheath and fluid. The occurrence and development of high cycle fatigue cracks were analyzed along the actual operation history, and the process of phenomena with time lapse was clarified in the corresponding relation to the results of fractography. Moreover, the leak and burning experiment of sodium was carried out, and the speed of leaking and the mode of leaking, the burning behavior of sodium, the effect on machinery, equipment and structures and so on were grasped. The situation at the time of the accident, the state of confirmation after the accident, the condition of the plant at the time of leak, the cause of sodium leak and the behavior of leaked sodium are reported. (K.I.)

109

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results from cytogenetic investigations into 66 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1976 are reviewed. This report is the sixth in an annual series which together contain data on 272 studies. Previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35 and R41. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. A short review is given of the laboratory's recently published dose response data for several energies of neutron radiation. A description is also given of the group's collaboration in an international experiment in which comparisons were made between a variety of dosemeters exposed to a controlled criticality pulse. In a second appendix two experiments are described in which inter- and intra-donor effects on chromosome aberration yields were examined. It was found that differences in dicentric yields were small whereas acentric aberrations were more variable. (author)

110

Importance Degree Evaluation of the Affecting Factors on Exhibition Security Accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of exhibition security accidents is the result of the mutual coupling factors of "man-machine-environment-management". This study is going to elaborate 11 influencing factors of exhibition security accidents from four aspects, i.e., man, mechanical equipment, environment and management. With the help of grey relational analysis, this study evaluates the importance degree of the affecting factors in exhibitions. The result shows that affecting factors of facilities and equipments failure is of the greatest importance degree and site maintenance personnel, site design, building material quality are the secondary important factors; another important factors are safety management body, social environment, activity organization management, safety management system, natural environment and event participant behavior which are considered as the third important ones. Evaluation of the importance degree of affecting factors on exhibition security incidents will provide a theoretical basis for exhibition security control.

Lin Wei-Ling

2013-01-01

111

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results are reviewed from investigations during 1979 into 82 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation. Of these 45 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations, and 26 with an institution of research, education or health. 83% of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0-0.09 Gy (0-9 rad), and 17% in the range 0.1-0.29 Gy (10-29 rad). These data are compared with data obtained by physical dosimetry, and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each over-exposure, or suspected over-exposure. (author)

112

Office of Inspector General report on inspection of selected issues regarding the Department of Energy accident investigation program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One method used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to promote worker safety is through the Department`s accident investigation program. The objectives of the program are, among other things, to enhance safety and health of employees, to prevent the recurrence of accidents, and to reduce accident fatality rates and promote a downward trend in the number and severity of accidents. The Assistant Secretary, Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH), through the EH Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oversight, is responsible for implementation of the Department`s accident investigation program. As part of the inspection, the authors reviewed an April 1997 EH accident investigation report regarding an accident involving a Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) welder, who suffered fatal burns when his clothing caught fire while he was using a cutting torch at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. They also reviewed reports of other accident investigations conducted by EH and DOE field organizations. Based on the review of these reports, the authors identified issues concerning the adequacy of the examination and reporting by accident investigation boards of specific management systems and organizations as a possible accident root cause. The inspection also identified issues concerning worker safety that they determined required immediate management attention, such as whether occurrences were being reported in the appropriate management systems and whether prompt consideration was being given to implementing revisions of national standards when the revisions increased worker safety.

NONE

1999-04-01

113

Investigations of radiological impact of accidents under probabilistic aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new concept of atmospheric dispersion modelling of UFOMOD has been developed. The new code consists of two parts: the near range model using MUSEMET or RIMPUFF to calculate emergency actions and early fatalities and the far range model using MESOS (ICST, UK) to assess late health effects and long term countermeasures. An important part of work has been focussed on updating the computer code UFOMOD with respect to the dose calculations for external exposure and for internal exposure from ingestion. To assess the stochastic somatic health effects, new age- and sex-dependent dose-risk conversion factors are now being implemented in UFOMOD. The data were provided by the GSF and are based on either a relative or an absolute risk model, dependent on the type of the effect. Linear and linear-quadratic dose-risk dependencies will be applied for leukemia and cancers of the bone surface, thyroid, lung, GI-tract and other organs. The revision of the foodchain part of UFOMOD has been almost completed in the reporting period. (orig./DG)

114

[Risk factors associated with road accidents among young people in Tuscany (Italy): a cross sectional study].  

Science.gov (United States)

In most countries, national statistics institutes either do not measure or underestimate the impact of behavioral aspects as causes of road accidents. To bridge this gap, the Regional Health Agency of Tuscany (Italy) created the EDIT project, which evaluates driving behaviors and other lifestyle risk factors in a sample of secondary school students. Study results show that driving while under the influence of alcohol or drugs or while being distracted by cigarette smoking or the use of mobile phones are the risk factors most frequently associated with traffic accidents. PMID:23903036

Innocenti, Francesco; Voller, Fabio; Berti, Alice; Silvestri, Caterina

2013-01-01

115

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results are reviewed from investigations during 1980 into 68 cases of suspected overexposure to radiation. Of these, 37 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations and 20 with an institution of research, education or health. 55 of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0 - 0.09 Gy (0 - 9 rad) 5 in the range 0.1 - 0.29 Gy (10 - 29 rad) and for various reasons in 8 cases no biological assessment of dose was possible. The dose estimate for the case with the highest confirmed overexposure was 0.22 Gy (22 rads). The chromosome data are compared with information obtained from physical dosimetry and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each case. (author)

116

Military Curricula for Vocational and Technical Education. Traffic Management and Accident Investigation, 17-8.  

Science.gov (United States)

This teaching guide and student workbook for a postsecondary level course in traffic management and accident investigation is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Purpose stated for the 132-hour course is to expose students to…

Air Force, Washington, DC.

117

Cytogenetic investigation of population 3 year and more after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Materials on investigation in 1989-1992 of three population groups in various regions of Russia, affected by radioactive fallouts after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Evaluation of method for recording chromosome aberrations in human lymphocites culture for identification of population effects of low-dose chronical irradiation is carried out. 13 refs.; 2 tabs

118

Factores de riesgo de accidentes en la edad geriátrica Risk factors for accidents in geriatric age  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, longitudinal y descriptivo con elementos analíticos, para evaluar los factores de riesgo de accidentes en los ancianos, durante el período de julio 2000 a junio 2001. La muestra quedó conformada por un universo de 101 gerontes, de los consultorios médicos 13 y 32, del municipio Mantua. Se aplicó el cálculo porcentual y X2 con nivel de ajuste ed a = 0,01 y a = 0,05. Dentro de los factores ambientales, en el área urbana predominaron: piso del baño deslizante (pA prospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted with analytical elements to evaluate the risk factors for accidents in the elderly from July 2000 to June 2001.The sample was composed of 101 aged individuals from the family physicians' offices 13 and 32, in Mantua municipality. The percentage calculation and X2 with a level of adjustment of a = 0.01 and a = 0.05 were applied. The following environmental factors predominated in the urban area: slipping bathroom floor (p 0.01, cooker of an inadequate height (p 0.05, polished floors, changing furniture, propping, filtrations and inadequate shoes (p 0.01. Lamp or switch away from the bed, bathroom away from the bedroom and absence of shower curtains, unlevel/irregular floor, furniture in bad state, deficient lighting, poorly protected electrical sources and circulation of pets (p 0.01 prevailed in the rural area. The most common physiological risks were: pluripathology/polypharmacy and degenerative arthropathy as a cause of balance alterations and walking, respectively. They prevailed in females (p 0.05. Congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease and cervical osteoarthritits predominated among the most frequent diseases in the females (p 0.05. 43.5 % of the males took only one drug. Sedatives (50-59 % were the most used drugs. 59.40 % of the elderly were evaluated as low risk for accidentality.

Manolo Gómez Juanola

2004-12-01

119

Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

2011-01-01

120

Links between accidents and lifestyle factors among Lithuanian schoolchildren.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to evaluate associations of some lifestyle factors with injuries among schoolchildren. Analysis was performed using data from the survey conducted in 2002 according to the methods of World Health Organization Cross-National Study on Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC). Using stratified random sampling, the representative sample of 5645 schoolchildren aged 11, 13, and 15 years from 104 schools of Lithuania was drawn and surveyed. Associations between potential risk factors and injuries among schoolchildren were evaluated calculating odds ratio and its 95% confidence intervals. For the evaluation of the impact of explanatory variables on analyzed event, logistic regression analysis was performed. Behavioral, psychological, and social integration factors were associated with the risk to sustain injuries among school-aged children. The impact of these factors varied within subgroups of schoolchildren by grade and sex. The most significant factors were: risk-taking behavior (smoking, alcohol and drug consumption, premature sexual activity), frequent participation in sport activities, involvement in physical fight, longer time spent away from home with friends, experienced bullying, poor self-assessed health and academic achievement, unhappiness, feeling unsafe at school, and high suicidal risk. Analysis failed to identify an expected association between lower socio-economic status and risk for injury. Integrated approach to injury etiology is essential in planning injury prevention and safety promotion activities among schoolchildren, paying particular attention to lifestyle factors, which can have the potential influence on risk to sustain injuries. PMID:15687754

Starkuviene, Skirmante; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Risk factors for traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis: a case-reference study.  

Science.gov (United States)

It was aimed to study injures from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis and identify patients' characteristics as well as to search for risk factors for traffic accidents leading to hospitalization. The study included 346 in-patient cases suffering injuries from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis. The patients were recruited during a period of 4 months of the year 1992 from five hospitals in various areas of Bangkok which were judged to be representative for Bangkok Metropolis. Using the method of case-reference, relative risk could be estimated for various exposure factors. Most of the patients drove a motorcycle, had their license for only a short period, and drove more than 5 hours a day. About one third of the patients were under the influence of alcohol. The traffic accident characteristics were that they occurred mainly at night time with the peak between 21.00 and 24.00 hours. About 90% of all traffic accidents occurred during the rainy season and most of them occurred near to road junctions. Reference data was available for some variables and the following risk group could be identified: RR (male-age 20-24) = 17.06 (8.8-33.9), RR (single-marital status) = 2.25 (1.7-3.1), RR (primary-education) = 6.2 (2.9-12.6), RR (unskilled labourer-occupation) = 3.91 (2.7-5.9), RR (salesperson-occupation) = 3.34 (2.2-5.0). PMID:9656420

Na Ayuthya, R S; Böhning, D

1997-12-01

122

Application of Electron Microscopy Techniques to the Investigation of Space Shuttle Columbia Accident  

Science.gov (United States)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the investigation into the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia, and addresses the importance of a failure analysis strategy for the investigation of the Columbia accident. The main focus of the presentation is on the usefulness of electron microscopy for analyzing slag deposits from the tiles and reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) wing panels of the Columbia orbiter.

Shah, Sandeep

2005-01-01

123

Risk factors and musculoskeletal injuries associated with all-terrain vehicle accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accidents, injuries, and deaths sustained via all-terrain vehicle (ATV) use are on the rise. In addition to safe and proper ATV operation, accident-related risk factors include operator controllable behaviors such as helmet use, alcohol use, and deciding whether or not to carry a passenger. What the operator has little or no control over, however, is the inherently unstable ATV design with its narrow wheelbase, short turning radius, and high center of gravity, in addition to common use of low tire pressure to maximize maneuverability. These factors lead to musculoskeletal injuries that consist predominantly of extremity fractures, primarily through rollover events. There is a need for improved ATV operator safety education and more stringent regulations. The purpose of this review is to identify the accident and injury risk factors associated with ATV operation and to compare them with bicycle and motorcycle accident and injury risk factors to enable emergency medical professionals to develop better patient management and injury prevention strategies. PMID:17933478

Balthrop, Paul M; Nyland, John; Roberts, Craig S

2009-02-01

124

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident's causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62)

125

Guidance for implementing an environmental, safety and health assurance program. Volume 5. A model plan for institutional accident investigations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is 1 of 15 documents designed to illustrate how an Environmental, Safety and Health (ES and H) Assurance Program may be implemented. The generic definition of ES and H Assurance Programs is given in a companion document entitled An Environmental, Safety and Health Assurance Program Standard. The Standard specifies that the ES and H Staff of an institution shall establish policy and practices for accident investigation, and this document provides guidance for establishing an accident investigation program which provides such policy and practices. Unlike most other approaches, the scheme presented here utilizes a self-limiting tree to minimize investigative effort, permits no-fault accidents to have occurred, and does not automatically lead to the need for corrective action. The two appendixes include a standard ES andH audit checklist for use in the accident investigation program and an institutional routine accident investigation form.

Trauth, C.A. Jr.; Ellingson, A.C.

1982-01-01

126

Investigations into the air cleaning aspects of the Three Mile Island accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigative groups that have placed heavy emphasis on analysis of the air cleaning systems have included the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island (chaired by J. Kemeny), the Office of Inspection and Enforcement of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (two studies done independently, one by an Investigative Team, the other by a Special Review Group), internal USNRC Task Forces formed specifically for this purpose (termed Lessons Learned), and an independent USNRC Special Inquiry Group staffed primarily by USNRC but under the outside supervision of attorney M. Rogovin (the Rogovin Report). The efforts of these groups in the air cleaning area are described. The mechanisms whereby gaseous radioactive materials were released are discussed. The efforts of the various investigative groups for the Three Mile Island accident pertaining to air cleaning technology, the recommendations these groups have made, and the potential impact on the nuclear industry of the implementation of these recommendations are reviewed

127

Critical review on what factors affected the evolution of the Fukushima accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses on why the Fukushima disaster caused such different outcomes at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS) and the Fukushima Daini NPS, although both NPSs were hit by the largest tsunami in Japanese historical records and are located only 10 km apart. First, the authors' study classifies the progression of the Fukushima accident into four phases: Phase I (between earthquake occurrence and tsunami inundation), Phase II (after tsunami inundation), Phase III (efforts at restoration) and Phase IV (recovery from harsh conditions), in order to clarify the difference in the accident progression in each unit of both NPSs. The course of the accident's evolution at each unit is compared to derive the differences of mechanical and human factors which affected the accident's progression. Second, the differences of both factors are reviewed from resilience engineering perspectives to know what factors are important to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. As the conclusions of this critical review, it can be said that: (1) the system, structures and components of NPS are systematically designed, manufactured and maintained to perform the intended functions for expected events, however they have limitations to cope with unexpected events, and (2) the plant personnel can respond to such situations successfully by changing their approach flexibly in a number of ways. (author)

128

Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1?) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author)

129

Factores de riesgo de accidentes en la edad geriátrica / Risk factors for accidents in geriatric age  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, longitudinal y descriptivo con elementos analíticos, para evaluar los factores de riesgo de accidentes en los ancianos, durante el período de julio 2000 a junio 2001. La muestra quedó conformada por un universo de 101 gerontes, de los consultorios médicos 13 y 32, [...] del municipio Mantua. Se aplicó el cálculo porcentual y X2 con nivel de ajuste ed a = 0,01 y a = 0,05. Dentro de los factores ambientales, en el área urbana predominaron: piso del baño deslizante (p Abstract in english A prospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted with analytical elements to evaluate the risk factors for accidents in the elderly from July 2000 to June 2001.The sample was composed of 101 aged individuals from the family physicians' offices 13 and 32, in Mantua municipality. The pe [...] rcentage calculation and X2 with a level of adjustment of a = 0.01 and a = 0.05 were applied. The following environmental factors predominated in the urban area: slipping bathroom floor (p 0.01), cooker of an inadequate height (p 0.05), polished floors, changing furniture, propping, filtrations and inadequate shoes (p 0.01). Lamp or switch away from the bed, bathroom away from the bedroom and absence of shower curtains, unlevel/irregular floor, furniture in bad state, deficient lighting, poorly protected electrical sources and circulation of pets (p 0.01) prevailed in the rural area. The most common physiological risks were: pluripathology/polypharmacy and degenerative arthropathy as a cause of balance alterations and walking, respectively. They prevailed in females (p 0.05). Congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease and cervical osteoarthritits predominated among the most frequent diseases in the females (p 0.05). 43.5 % of the males took only one drug. Sedatives (50-59 %) were the most used drugs. 59.40 % of the elderly were evaluated as low risk for accidentality.

Manolo, Gómez Juanola; Jorge Luis, Conill Godoy; Juan César, Pulido Ramos; Alexis, Pérez Carvajal; Idalmis, Cantún.

130

Investigations of postulated accident sequences for the Fort St. Vrain HTGR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The systems analysis capability of the ORNL HTGR Safety analysis research program includes a family of computer codes: an overall plant NSSS simulation (ORTAP), and detailed component codes for investigating core neutronic accidents (CORTAP), shutdown emergency-cooling accidents via a 3-dimensional core model (ORECA), and once-through steam generator transients (BLAST). The component codes can either be run independently or in the overall NSSS code. Verification efforts have consisted primarily of using existing Fort St. Vrain reactor dynamics data to compare against code predictions. Comparisons of core thermal conditions made for reactor scrams from power levels between 30 and 50% showed good agreement. An optimization program was used to rationalize the difference between the predicted and measured refueling region outlet temperatures, and, in general, excellent agreement was attained by adjustment of models and parameters within their uncertainty ranges. However, more work is required to establish a unique and valid set of models

131

Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

2013-09-01

132

PSB-VVER experimental and analytical investigation of station blackout accident in VVER-1000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In November 2003, an experiment simulating station blackout accident was carried out in the PSB-VVER integral test facility at the Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre (Russia). The purpose of the experiment was to provide missing data for code validation as well as to investigate the VVER thermohydraulics in the blackout conditions. The experiment covers a wide range of phenomena relating not only to transients but also to small break loss-of-coolant accidents. The data gained in the test has been used to assess the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. In this paper, a special attention has been paid to the code assessment regarding the mixture level and entrainment in steam generator secondary side. The analysis of the recorded transient has shown that the calculation of the heat transfer on the secondary side of steam generators is very sensitive to the steam generator nodalization. (authors)

Lipatov, I.A.; Kapustin, A.V.; Nikonov, S.M.; Rovnov, A.A.; Basov, A.V. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre (EREC), Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Elkin, I.V. [NSI RRC, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

133

Investigations of postulated accident sequences for the Fort St. Vrain HTGR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The systems analysis capability of the ORNL HTGR Safety analysis research program includes a family of computer codes: an overall plant NSSS simulation (ORTAP), and detailed component codes for investigating core neutronic accidents (CORTAP), shutdown emergency-cooling accidents via a 3-dimensional core model (ORECA), and once-through steam generator transients (BLAST). The component codes can either be run independently or in the overall NSSS code. Verification efforts have consisted primarily of using existing Fort St. Vrain reactor dynamics data to compare against code predictions. Comparisons of core thermal conditions made for reactor scrams from power levels between 30 and 50% showed good agreement. An optimization program was used to rationalize the difference between the predicted and measured refueling region outlet temperatures, and, in general, excellent agreement was attained by adjustment of models and parameters within their uncertainty ranges. However, more work is required to establish a unique and valid set of models.

Ball, S.J.; Cleveland, J.C.; Conklin, J.C.; Hatta, M.; Sanders, J.P.

1978-01-01

134

Development of a bespoke human factors taxonomy for gliding accident analysis and its revelations about highly inexperienced UK glider pilots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low-hours solo glider pilots have a high risk of accidents compared to more experienced pilots. Numerous taxonomies for causal accident analysis have been produced for powered aviation but none of these is suitable for gliding, so a new taxonomy was required. A human factors taxonomy specifically for glider operations was developed and used to analyse all UK gliding accidents from 2002 to 2006 for their overall causes as well as factors specific to low hours pilots. Fifty-nine categories of pilot-related accident causation emerged, which were formed into progressively larger categories until four overall human factors groups were arrived at: 'judgement'; 'handling'; 'strategy'; 'attention'. 'Handling' accounted for a significantly higher proportion of injuries than other categories. Inexperienced pilots had considerably more accidents in all categories except 'strategy'. Approach control (path judgement, airbrake and speed handling) as well as landing flare misjudgement were chiefly responsible for the high accident rate in early solo glider pilots. Statement of Relevance: This paper uses extant accident data to produce a taxonomy of underlying human factors causes to analyse gliding accidents and identify the specific causes associated with low hours pilots. From this specific, well-targeted remedial measures can be identified. PMID:20099182

Jarvis, Steve; Harris, Don

2010-02-01

135

Ergonomic (human factors) problems in design of NPPs. A review of TMI and Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs

136

Factors contributing to anxious driving behavior: The role of stress history and accident severity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although fear and travel avoidance among anxious drivers are well documented, relatively little is known about the behavior of anxious individuals who continue to drive. Previous research has identified three broad domains of anxious driving behavior: exaggerated safety/caution behaviors, anxiety-based performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive driving behaviors. In an effort to explicate factors associated with the development of anxious driving behaviors, associations with objective accid...

Clapp, Joshua D.; Olsen, Shira A.; Danoff-burg, Sharon; Hagewood, J. Houston; Hickling, Edward J.; Hwang, Vivian S.; Beck, J. Gayle

2011-01-01

137

Factors affecting the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has provided little insight into factors that influence the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents. In this study, an analysis was conducted on accident data compiled by a bus company that include an assessment on whether the bus driver was deemed by the company to hold primary responsibility for accident occurrence. Using a mixed logit modelling approach, roadway/environmental, vehicle and driver related variables that were identified to be influential were road type, speed limit, traffic/lighting conditions, bus priority, bus age/length and driver's age/gender/experience/historic at-fault accident record. Results were indicative of possible confined road-space issues that bus drivers face along routes with roadside traffic friction and point to the provision of exclusive right of way for buses as a possible way to address this. Results also suggest benefits in assigning routes comprising mainly divided roads as well as newer and shorter buses to less experienced drivers. PMID:24486771

Goh, Kelvin; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

2014-05-01

138

Severe human factor accidents and their management in a in-service nuclear Power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is an important part of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in a nuclear power plant (NPP). It can be used to evaluate and quantify the behaviors of the operators in a post-accident response. The paper picks up the serious human factor event sequences that contribute more than 5% to the overall Core Damage Frequency (CDF) involved in PSA through a HRA analysis on a domestic PWR. The basic human error probabilities (BHEPs) of these human factor event sequences are resulted, on the basis of which the actions of the operators within the main control room (MCR) after the accidents are analyzed and their criticalities are arranged in order. The paper, from the point of engineering management,puts forward the measures to improve the corresponding emergency operating procedures (EOPs) and the MCR surroundings through analyzing serious human factor event sequence arrangement and the actions of operators in the post-accident interferences. With regard to the operator's interferences of high criticality the NPP should enforce training and improve its ability of interferences. (authors)

139

The role of social and psychological factors in radiation protection after accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inclusion of social and psychological factors in the justification and optimisation of intervention after an accident requires identification of the relevant factors and their appropriate quantification. Recent studies suggest a possible approach. Some social and psychological factors either influence the consequences of radiation protection countermeasures, or are direct consequences of those measures. Such factors can be grouped into those that alter the dose-effectiveness of a countermeasure, those that extend the need for countermeasures in time or space, and those that fall into neither of the first two categories. Factors of the first two types can be quantified in terms of changes to the anticipated averted dose and monetary cost of a countermeasure. Quantification of the third type is currently difficult, but the existence of structural models for applications in social psychology suggests that such models could be developed for radiation protection in the future. (author)

140

Limitations of risk analysis in the determination of medical factors in road vehicle accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of risk analysis in the determination of medical factors in road vehicle accidents is to evaluate the risks that are associated with different strategies for accident reduction, so that the subsequent decision making process can be based on a best assessment of the likely benefits. However, it is vital to appreciate the limitations of such an approach, especially where the conclusions depend heavily on the accuracy of the assumptions made. In this paper the assumptions used in some recent analyses concerned with incapacitation, epilepsy, hypoglycaemia and psycho-active medication are explored, and the additional information required to reduce the uncertainty in the estimation of risk indicated. The conclusions from this analysis do not invalidate the use of risk assessment, but draw attention to its limitations and show how a sensitivity analysis can help to identify those areas where more precise information is needed before such an approach can be used confidently in a policy setting. PMID:14998267

Spencer, Michael B; Carter, Tim; Nicholson, Anthony N

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at the plutonium reclamation facility, Hanford site, Richland, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m., a chemical explosion occurred in Tank A-109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility on the Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington. The Facility, also known as Building 236-Z, is an inactive processing facility located at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The explosion occurred when a highly concentrated solution of hydroxylamine nitrate (HN) and nitric acid (HNO3) auto-catalytically reacted inside Tank A-109. On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225.1, Accident Investigations. The scope of the Boards investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. This paper describes the accident, gives the three root causes of the accident and also six contributing causes, and discusses the major conclusions and judgments of need identified by the Board

142

Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control  

Science.gov (United States)

The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

2010-01-01

143

Fukushima nuclear accident independent investigation commission by the National Diet of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Fukushima nuclear accident, Independent Investigation Commission (IIC) was firstly established in constitutional government by the National Diet of Japan. This article described recognition of its necessity, its setup process, its framework with start from almost zero and about 6 months period and time, its basic way to proceed investigation and several obstacles and hardships, significance of openness to the public, web's communication and simultaneous interpretation (transparency) and basic philosophy of the report. Further significance of Diet's IIC in the democratic system and evaluation of the report were added. As a problem of separation of three powers in Japan, specific recommendations to the legislation of IIC and their future evaluation, nation's governance system problem and social responsibility of scientists and others were also discussed. If Japan were not to be changed after the disaster, Japanese future might be unreliable. (T. Tanaka)

144

The Analysis of the Contribution of Human Factors to the In-Flight Loss of Control Accidents  

Science.gov (United States)

In-flight loss of control (LOC) is currently the leading cause of fatal accidents based on various commercial aircraft accident statistics. As the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) emerges, new contributing factors leading to LOC are anticipated. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), along with other aviation agencies and communities are actively developing safety products to mitigate the LOC risk. This paper discusses the approach used to construct a generic integrated LOC accident framework (LOCAF) model based on a detailed review of LOC accidents over the past two decades. The LOCAF model is comprised of causal factors from the domain of human factors, aircraft system component failures, and atmospheric environment. The multiple interdependent causal factors are expressed in an Object-Oriented Bayesian belief network. In addition to predicting the likelihood of LOC accident occurrence, the system-level integrated LOCAF model is able to evaluate the impact of new safety technology products developed in AvSP. This provides valuable information to decision makers in strategizing NASA's aviation safety technology portfolio. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of human causal factors in the model, including the contributions from flight crew and maintenance workers. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) taxonomy was used to develop human related causal factors. The preliminary results from the baseline LOCAF model are also presented.

Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

2012-01-01

145

Routes to failure: analysis of 41 civil aviation accidents from the Republic of China using the human factors analysis and classification system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS) is based upon Reason's organizational model of human error. HFACS was developed as an analytical framework for the investigation of the role of human error in aviation accidents, however, there is little empirical work formally describing the relationship between the components in the model. This research analyses 41 civil aviation accidents occurring to aircraft registered in the Republic of China (ROC) between 1999 and 2006 using the HFACS framework. The results show statistically significant relationships between errors at the operational level and organizational inadequacies at both the immediately adjacent level (preconditions for unsafe acts) and higher levels in the organization (unsafe supervision and organizational influences). The pattern of the 'routes to failure' observed in the data from this analysis of civil aircraft accidents show great similarities to that observed in the analysis of military accidents. This research lends further support to Reason's model that suggests that active failures are promoted by latent conditions in the organization. Statistical relationships linking fallible decisions in upper management levels were found to directly affect supervisory practices, thereby creating the psychological preconditions for unsafe acts and hence indirectly impairing the performance of pilots, ultimately leading to accidents. PMID:18329391

Li, Wen-Chin; Harris, Don; Yu, Chung-San

2008-03-01

146

Investigation of Occupational Accidents Induce Sever Injury in Fars, Iran from 2005 to 2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Occupational accidents and incidents are increased in parallel of growth and expansion of industries. Implementation of preventive measures requires detailed analysis of accidents. So, the major goal of this study was analyze data on occupational accidents induced sever injury in Fars province, in the period 2005-2007 in order to use clues that would support political definition of priorities and strategies for prevention.Data were collected from 200 accidents registered in the Fars Labor Organization. Inclusion criteria were having an occupational accident during 2005-2007 and availability of the events records.Analysis was done using SPSS software (version 16.0 and descriptive analysis was used.The majority of injured workers (98% were male. Of the accidents, 79% were occurred in Fars’ capital. The most frequent occupational accidents and injuries occurred in private industries (97.5%. Most commonly affected workers were aged group 21 - 35. Results also shown that,84% of workers had low education under diplomalevel. Workers with experience less than one year (12 month had more accident (52.5% than others. The most frequent occupational accidents occurred in construction activities (construction building. Of the accident, 24.13% were occurred due to neglect of regulations and lack of supervision. Unsafe act and unsafe condition were causes of 21.68% accidents.Accidents analysis and assessment could be used to identify component causing accidents and to give recommendations for accident prevention. Some considerations should be regarding for preventive measures which included: implementing and evaluating training program and establishment of OHS system, as well as insurance position

Mojtaba Kamalinia

2012-09-01

147

An outline of the interim report of the investigation committee on the accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interim report of the Investigation Committee of the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations (NPSs) was published in December 26, 2011. The Japanese cabinet approved ten committee members including the author in May 2011. The committee interviewed more than 400 people over a total of 900 hours of hearings with about 40 staffs consisting of administrative team and three investigation teams of social system, root causes of the accident and countermeasures to prevent damage expansion of the accident. Interim report concluded 'the accident at Fukushima NPSs was caused by failures of every provision against reactor severe accident'. The failures appeared on (1) function of supervisory system for emergency response, (2) Fukushima Daiichi NPSs on-site disaster response especially related with operation of isolation condenser of unit 1 and high-pressure coolant injection system of unit 3, (3) Fukushima Daiichi NPSs off-site disaster response such the government failed to make use of data on the radioactive plumes released from the plant for evacuations, and (4) preparedness against tsunami and severe accident management. Possible worst or best simulation cases were also discussed. With no human support available on-site, workers might not have been able to prevent the meltdowns. Final report was due at the end of July 2012. (T. Tanaka)

148

An investigation of coastal fumigation effects on nuclear accident consequences in Hong Kong  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A time/space dependent fumigation model FUMGAT has been developed to investigate the dispersion of radionuclides and their concentration distributions within a Thermal Internal Boundary Layer in the coastal region of Hong Kong for nuclear accident consequence analysis. By incorporating the dispersion coefficients resulting from Lamb's Lagrangian Particle Model, the present study removes the assumption of instantaneous mixing in the vertical direction and obtained more realistic calculational results for radiation doses and exposure received by the population on the ground surface. The calculational results indicate that the inclusion of the fumigation effects tends to increase the ground surface exposure for those population directly under or near the puff trajectory and decreases the exposure for those population farther away from the path of the puff

149

Investigation of the radiological impact of reactor accidents under probabilistic aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis and conceptional investigation have been performed for the accident consequence model of the German reactor risk study. A dynamic atmospheric diffusion model is developed, which is applied in the first stage of the study to all distance ranges, and will be restricted finally to the long distance range. The wind direction and its variations are not taken into account in this model. The program set UFO-BAS calculates the time integrated nuclide concentration in air at any location downwind of the source. A further model which takes into account wind direction variations is being developed. On the basis of the proposals for the calculation of the health effects in the German risk study considerations on the storage requirements were accomplished. By means of these assessments a revised grid of parameters was evaluated. Furthermore, considerations were made for the implementation of an evaluation model, which will be developed by the Institut fuer Unfallforschung. (orig./RW)

150

NASA-ONERA Collaboration on Human Factors in Aviation Accidents and Incidents  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first annual report jointly prepared by NASA and ONERA on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the human factors entailed in aviation accidents and incidents, particularly focused on the consequences of decreases in human performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this agreement is to generate reliable, automated procedures that improve understanding of the levels and characteristics of flight-crew fatigue factors whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and ONERA are collaborating on the development and assessment of automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases; much larger than can be handled practically by human experts.

Srivastava, Ashok N.; Fabiani, Patrick

2012-01-01

151

Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, sedentariness, metabolic syndrome

Rodrigues AN

2013-03-01

152

Characteristic accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analyzes causes of two fatal accidents that occurred in underground coal mines in Poland in 1989. The 991.10 m deep main shaft of the K-2 mine is drained by a system of pumps situated at the shaft bottom and at one level. A pump operator was lowered in a bucket in spite of the fact that the communication system was out of order. At the 540 m level an inrush of quicksand occurred. The shaft was filled with sand and water from the bottom to the 760 m level. The operator, who could not alarm the hoist operator and report the quicksand inrush, drowned. In the Niwka-Modrzejow mine in Silesia a fatal accident occurred in a roadway used for mine haulage. Roadway inclination ranged from 13 to 19.7 degrees. The Grot chain conveyor and the PTG-50/1,000 belt conveyors were used for mine haulage. The PCW-3x1,000 belt was made of PVC. A miner was killed by a large piece of coal which fell from a belt conveyor. Investigations showed that conveyor inclination exceeded the maximum permissible amount. The PVC belt was characterized by an extremely low friction coefficient. These two factors caused the fatal accident.

1989-01-01

153

Study of Factors Related to Accidents Occuring during the Construction Phase of Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Construction phase in industries is a dynamic process that is naturally and intrinsically dangerous and as it becomes more complicated, the accidents rate also increases. One should note that without considering a model, one could not obtain useful and reliable information and method to prevent accidents. Therefore, to achieve useful methods for preventing accidents, it is desirable to consider a model. The general goal of this study was presentation of a model. A model is the reflection of a fact. In other words, it should be said that the model represents a system or process whose behavior can be predicted. Models are therefore used for understanding the behavior of actual terminals and show a theory in the way that covers important variables for describing phenomena and instead, ignore factors of low importance in the expression of those phenomena. Methods: This study was a research article conducted in 2004-2005 in the Assaluyeh region. Data was gathered from accident reports present in security and health records of the projects and also statistics present at the treatment centers. In this study, an analytical model (multi-regression was presented to describe the impact of effective and deep factors on the possibility of an increase in accidents leading to death, through measurement of the effects of independent variables on the dependent variables. For this purpose, the structure of 50 accidents that led to death were studied along with another 2700 accidents, and after studying the accident reports and related documents, observing operations and equipment, counseling with accident observers and an expert team of managers, supervisors and engineers, and simulation of some accidents, unsafe conditions and functions, mismanagement and use of worn out and defective tools, equipment, devices and machinery were considered as the four independent variables and the job accidents leading to death were considered as dependent variables. The relationship between independent and dependent variables, evaluation of regression coefficients and the test of different models were based on multi-regression analytical model and analyzed using Eviews software program. Results: The final findings of this study, while specifying the possibility of occurrence of accidents leading to death with the existence of any of the independent variables showed that among the independent variables, unsafe conditions and mismanagement have relatively more important roles to play in the occurrence of accidents leading to death such that in conclusion, these factors have been defined as root causes in the model. Conclusion: Since the adjusted coefficient determined for the model in this research was 0.99; that is, the specified model could describe 99 percent of changes related to the number of job accidents leading to death and it is only for one percent of other accidents that there was no justified answer. In another words, those causes were not seen in the model. Therefore, it could be concluded that this research as compared to similar researches gained more useful results. Thus, by omitting or lowering unsafe conditions and mismanagement factors, accidents resulting in deaths can be reduced.

H Asilian Mahabadi

2008-01-01

154

Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and intractable, and methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. The number of methods in each group were four, three, zero, and two, respectively. Faced with the need to investigate an accident it is essential that the chosen method is appropriate for the system and the situation. Nuclear power plants considered as systems are tightly coupled and more or less intractable and therefore require accident models and accident investigation methods that are capable of accounting for these features. If an accident concerns the NPP operation as a whole, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. If an accident only concerns the operation of a subsystem or a component, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, or possible loosely coupled and tractable. The report provides a proposal for how these characteristics can be determined. The conclusion is that no specific method is the overall best in the sense that it can be used for all conditions. While it may be convenient, or even necessary, for an organisation to adopt a specific method as its standard, this should always be done knowingly and with a willingness to reconsider the choice when the conditions so demand it. In five or ten years we must expect that the methods developed today will have been partly obsolete, not because the methods change but because the nature of socio-technical systems, and therefore the nature of accidents, do

Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine (Ecole des Mines de Paris, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France))

2008-01-15

155

Investigation program on PWR-steel-containment behavior under accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a first documentation of the KfK/PNS activities and plans to investigate the behaviour of steel containments under accident conditions. The investigations will deal with a free standing spherical containment shell built for the latest type of a German pressurized water reactor. The diameter of the containment shell is 56 m. The minimum wall thickness is 38 mm. The material used is the ferritic steel 15MnNi63. According to the actual planning the program is concerned with four different problems which are beyond the common design and licensing practice: Containment behavior under quasi-static pressure increase up to containment failure. Containment behavior under high transient pressures. Containment oscillations due to earthquake loadings; consideration of shell imperfections. Containment buckling due to earthquake loadings. The investigation program consists of both theoretical and experimental activities including membrane tests allowing for very high plastic strains and oscillation tests with a thin-walled, high-accurate spherical shell. (orig.)

156

32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated (32)P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a (32)P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between (32)P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The (32)P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67±0.15 and 0.59±0.06 Gy (Bq g(-1))(-1) at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. PMID:24516187

Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Park, Seyoung; Shin, Seongwook; Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung-Sook

2014-10-01

157

The investigation on the mass media reports on the JCO accident in the major atomic energy countries and Asian countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JCO (Japan Conversion Organization) accident is the worst one in the history of the atomic energy developments in Japan. The many reports about the accident appeared in the 44 mass media in the world from Sep. 30 to Oct. 14, 1999. Chronological statistics of issued 522 articles are listed under particular criteria. Some of them were based on wrong knowledge and/or overestimations about the accident based on delivered articles by the news agency. Some of others gave critics over the total atomic energy industries of Japan, especially on safety managements and so-called similar Japan syndromes. This investigation gives emphasis on the articles based on wrong knowledge. We identified the countries and the newspaper publishers and the news agencies those gave wrong descriptions. Total 25 articles used the words [explosion] and [fire], which were delivered from the Kyodo News Service. Some of the Asian newspaper wrote that a large quantity of radioactivity, radioactive material and/or nuclear fuels was released. Some other news publishers said the accident was happened at fuel reprocessing facilities, when the waste fuel rods were under cutting. Critics delivered in the individual countries were summarized, i.e. USA, Canada, France, UK, German, Russia, Australia, China, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Taiwan and the news agencies. One of the key issues is the exact information release for the press corps on the early stage of the accidents. The second point is to of the accidents. The second point is to recognize the different status on atomic energy in the individual countries, when Japan want to explain their domestic situations. Accidents of atomic energy gave many impacts on various aspects to other countries. Japan should understand the neighborhood by collecting world information on atomic energy and analyzing them. Summaries of 522 articles appeared in the mass media were attached in this investigation among the report of 180 pages. (Tanaka, Y.)

158

Investigation of accidents and sharing information : an expert point of view  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For long, very large accidents occurred in explosive factories. Later, accidents were reported in flour mills (end of 18th Century), in mines (coal dust and firedamp explosions), in chemical plants, during the transportation of dangerous goods such as fertilizers, explosives ... or even with very common substances such as fuels or grain.

Masson, Fre?de?ric; Pineau, Jean-philippe

1998-01-01

159

Results of the reliability investigations for the design basis accident 'Rupture of a cold primary coolant system'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives a comprehensive presentation of the detailed reliability investigation carried out for the engineered safety features installed to cope with the design basis accident 'Large LOCA' of a German nuclear power plant with pressurized water reactor. The investigation is based on the engineered safety features of the Biblis Nuclear Power Plant, Unit A. The reliability investigation is carried out by means of a fault tree analysis. The influence of common-mode failures is assessed. (orig.)

160

Main investigation results on the forest radioecology in the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accident zones.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a result of the long-term studies of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in zones of radioactive contamination after the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents, the following trends were revealed: (1) High retention capacity of stand canopy with respect to radioactive fallout. This leads to high doses absorbed by apical and leaf meristems, beta-radiation giving the main part of the dose; (2) Fast self-decontamination of crowns during the growth period and relatively slow decontamination in the phase of physiological rest, regardless of amount of atmospheric precipitation. The rate of crown decontamination determines the value and duration of radiation stress on woody plants; (3) Accumulation not less than 95% of the total radionuclide amount in the forest litter 1-2 years after the cessation of radioactive fallout; (4) Relatively slow migration of strontium and cesium radionuclides along the forest soil profile; (5) High capacity of the forest when serving as a biogeochemical barrier to the routes of horizontal and vertical radionuclide migration and export out of the zone of initial contamination, including migration into the river water; (6) Considerable difference between strontium and cesium when migrating in forest soils and in the soil-plant system; (7) Broad variations in transfer factors for uptake of cesium-137 from soil into forest plants depending on the plant species and soil type. The primary radiobiological effects connected with irradiation of organisms are considered and secondary disturbances due to changes of ecological bonds between the components of irradiated forest ecosystem are discussed. PMID:7839123

Tikhomirov, F A; Shcheglov, A I

1994-12-11

 
 
 
 
161

Main investigation results on the forest radioecology in the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accident zones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the long-term studies of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in zones of radioactive contamination after the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents, the following trends were revealed: (1) High retention capacity of stand canopy with respect to radioactive fallout. This leads to high doses absorbed by apical and leaf meristems, ?-radiation giving the main part of the dose; (2) Fast self-decontamination of crowns during the growth period and relatively slow decontamination in the phase of physiological rest, regardless of amount of atmospheric precipitation. The rate of crown decontamination determines the value and duration of radiation stress on woody plants; (3) Accumulation not less than 95% of the total radionuclide amount in the forest litter 1-2 years after the cessation of radioactive fallout; (4) Relatively slow migration of strontium and cesium radionuclides along the forest soil profile; (5) High capacity of the forest when serving as a biogeochemical barrier to the routes of horizontal and vertical radionuclide migration and export out of the zone of initial contamination, including migration into the river water; (6) Considerable difference between strontium and cesium when migrating in forest soils and in the soil-plant system; (7) Broad variations in transfer factors for uptake of cesium-137 from soil into forest plants depending on the plant species and soil type. The primary radiobiological effects connected with irradiation of organisms are considered and secondary disturbances due to changes of ecological bonds between the components of irradiated forest ecosystem are discussed

162

Factors contributing to driver’s condition after fatal and injury vehicle accidents in North Khorasan province- New Year 1391  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim: Injuries from traffic accidents are a major public health problem, and the third leading cause of mortality in people aged 1 to 40 years. Each year 31.8 persons per hundred thousands of Iranians are killed in car accidents. Neighboring of North Khorasan province with Razavi Khorasan, a province with a lot of pilgrims caused a large number of passengers travel via North Khorasan province. This study aimed to evaluate the road accidents and its related factors in the city of bojnurd in March 2012. Materials and Methods: this cross-sectional study was done from … to … 2012(the New Year vacation in Iran. All injured or victims from car accidents who referred to the emergency department of the Imam Ali Hospital formed the research community. Data was gathered by a questionnaire consisting vehicle specification, driver and injured characteristics. For victims and those were not able to answer, we used the family members or relatives for gathering the data. All data analysis was done in SPSS version 19.Results: during the study period, 148 injured people were admitted to the hospital. Drivers’ mean age were 33.9 with the SD of 11.9 years; among them 43.2% were used seat belt. One driver and three passengers were killed immediately, and two drivers and three passengers died in the first 24 hours of admission. Fastening seat belt by drivers reduce the hospitalization rate significantly (p-value<0.0001. 50.7% of the accidents were head-on collisions. Violation from the speed limit (41.3%, indiscretions (25.4% and drowsiness were the most common causes of accident respectively. Conclusion: training the drivers, obligation for using seat belt by driver and passengers, rest after long hours driving , and more control of traffic police especially in two way roads could reduce the car accident or in case of accident help to prevent severe damage and injury.

Javad Rezazadeh

2013-01-01

163

Derivation of Accident-Specific Material-at-Risk Equivalency Factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel method for calculating material at risk (MAR) dose equivalency developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) now allows for increased utilization of dose equivalency for facility MAR control. This method involves near-real time accounting for the use of accident and material specific release and transport. It utilizes all information from the committed effective dose equation and the five factor source term equation to derive dose equivalency factors which can be used to establish an overall facility or process MAR limit. The equivalency factors allow different nuclide spectrums to be compared for their respective dose consequences by relating them to a specific quantity of an identified reference nuclide. The ability to compare spectrums to a reference limit ensures that MAR limits are in fact bounding instead of attempting to establish a representative or bounding spectrum which may lead to unintended or unanalyzed configurations. This methodology is then coupled with a near real time material tracking system which allows for accurate and timely material composition information and corresponding MAR equivalency values. The development of this approach was driven by the complex nature of processing operations in some INL facilities. This type of approach is ideally suited for facilities and processes where the composition of the MAR and possible release mechanisms change frequently but in well defined fashions and in a batch-type nature.

Jason P. Andrus; Dr. Chad L. Pope

2012-05-01

164

The PKL test facility of Framatome ANP - 25 years experimental accident investigation for pressurized water reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For 25 years experimental investigations into the thermal-hydraulic system response of nuclear power plants (pressurised water reactors, PWR) under accident conditions have been conducted at the PKL (from the German abbreviation for Primaerkreislauf) large-scale test facility at Framatome ANP (formerly: Siemens/KWU) in Erlangen, Germany. This extensively instrumented test rig models the entire primary side and major elements of the secondary side (without turbine and condenser), inclusive of the associated supporting systems of the 1300 MW class PWR. Since the commencement of experiments at the PKL Test Facility in 1977, the various phases of the experiments have always reflected and given priority to current safety issues. (orig.) [German] Seit nun 25 Jahren werden in der Grossversuchsanlage PKL bei Framatome ANP in Erlangen experimentelle Untersuchungen zum thermohydraulischen Systemverhalten von Kernkraftwerken (DWR) bei Stoerfallsituationen durchgefuehrt. Die umfangreich instrumentierte Versuchsanlage bildet die gesamte Primaerseite und wesentliche Teile der Sekundaerseite einschliesslich der zugehoerigen Systemtechnik eines DWR der 1300-MW-Klasse nach. (orig.)

Umminger, K.; Brand, B.; Kastner, W. [Framatome ANP, Erlangen (Germany)

2002-07-01

165

Investigation on droplet impingement erosion during steam generator tube failure accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Sodium droplet impingement is regarded as one of the mechanisms causing secondary tube failure in case of steam generator tube rupture accident. ? The moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method is applied to simulate the sodium droplet impingement. ? The erosion rate correlation for water impingement is extended for application in the sodium impingement. - Abstract: Droplet impingement erosion is one of the reasons causing the secondary heat transfer tube damage in case of the heat transfer tube failure in the steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor. This paper has been dedicated to investigate the impingement phenomena, pressure load and the damage rate by impingement. Single droplet impingement on the rigid wall was first simulated with MPS-AS (moving particle semi-implicit method for all speeds) method for water and sodium. The shockwave propagation during the impingement has been well captured. The pressure load by water impingement can be characterized with . A correlation for pressure load by sodium impingement is proposed based on the water hammer theory. The new correlation shows to be consistent with the simulation result. For prediction of erosion rate by sodium droplet impingement, were extended by including the effects of liquid properties, i.e. density, sound speed and viscosity. The extended correlations show similar prediction accuracy to the original ones.

166

Investigations related to the chemical behaviour of methyl iodide at severe PWR-accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decomposition velocity of methyl iodide in aqueous solutions of boric acid has been measured at temperatures up to 423 K and at chemical conditions which are expected to exist in the sumpwater pool during a severe reactor accident. The decomposition was due only to hydrolysis which increased by the expected amount at high temperature. No influence of the cooling water additives was observed. Treatment of the available kinetic data indicated that the influence of polluting material expectedly present in the sump is likely to be negligible too. A possible exception may be the enhancement of the decomposition rate by particulate and dissolved silver. The resistance of methyl iodide to gas phase decomposition by steam and oxygen at 423 K was investigated and only slow decomposition in the order of 10-7/s observed which is explained by reaction with steel surfaces. Neither gas phase oxidation nor hydrolysis occur at this temperature. The resistance to oxidation is of kinetic nature. Gas phase hydrolysis is not possible due to thermodynamics. This was confirmed by the observed gas phase formation of methyl iodide from hydrogen iodide and methanol at 423 K. The kinetics of this reaction are best explained by two parallel reactions, one of second order with a kinetic constant of 1.25 x 10-5/kPa s, and one of third order under action of steam with a constant of 2 x 10-6/kPa2 s. (orig./HP)

167

Investigations on Hydrogen Distribution and Mitigation Measures in the Containment Under Severe Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During severe accident oxidation of the metallic components of the reactor core and the core-concrete interaction will produce hydrogen which may threaten the integrity of the containment. It is important to predict hydrogen transport and mixing in the containment, in order to determine whether the mixture can locally reach flammability limits, and install the hydrogen mitigation devices at a reasonable and suitable position. Several turbulence models in FLUENT and GASFLOW were adopted in this paper to investigate hydrogen transport and mixing in the containment, and the results were compared. The study indicates that RNG k -- ? model can obtain better simulation in parameter fluctuation, velocity field, and hydrogen concentration field than the other models'. The results calculated by algebraic model in GASFLOW are largely different from the other results in the simulation of mass diffusion, momentum diffusion, and parameter fluctuation. The results of k -- ? model in GASFLOW have the similar trend as the results of FLUENT in velocity field and concentration field. Three hydrogen mitigation measures were also studied in a simple closed room using the code GASFLOW. The results indicate that the combination of recombiners and igniters is a safe and effective way to reduce the risk of hydrogen combustion. (authors)

168

Post-test investigation result on the WWER-1000 fuel tested under severe accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The model bundle of WWER-type were tested under SFD condition in the out-of-pile CORA installation. The objective of the test was to provide an information on the WWER-type fuel bundles behaviour under severe fuel damage accident conditions. Also it was assumed to compare the WWER-type bundle damage mechanisms with these experienced in the PWR-type bundle tests with aim to confirm a possibility to use the various code systems, worked our for PWR as applied to WWER. In order to ensure the possibility of the comparison of the calculated core degradation parameters with the real state of the tested bundle, some parameters have been measured on the bundle cross-sections under examination. Quantitative parameters of the bundle degradation have been evaluated by digital image processing of the bundle cross-sections. The obtained results are shown together with corresponding results obtained by the other participants of this investigation. (author). 3 refs, 13 figs

169

Commuting accidents in the German chemical industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to accident severity and the extent of claim payments commuting accidents are a significant expense factor in the German industry. Therefore the aim of the present study was the identification of risk factors for commuting accidents in a German chemical company. A retrospective analysis of commuting accidents recorded between 1990 and 2003 was conducted in a major chemical company in Germany. A logistic regression-model was calculated in order to determine factors influencing the duration of work inability as a result of commuting accidents. The analysed data included 5,484 employees with commuting accidents. Cars (33.1%) and bicycles (30.5%) were the most common types of vehicles used by commuters who had an accident. The highest number of commuting accidents was observed in the age group under 26 yr. Accidents on the route from the work site to the worker's residence were less frequently observed, but they caused longer periods of work inability than accidents on the way to the work site. The longest periods of work inability were found in the groups of motorcyclists and older employees. The present study identifies specific groups at risk for commuting accidents. The data of the present investigation also underline the need for developing group specific prevention strategies. PMID:20424346

Zepf, Kirsten Isabel; Letzel, Stephan; Voelter-Mahlknecht, Susanne; Wriede, Ulrich; Husemann, Britta; Escobar Pinzón, Luis Carlos

2010-01-01

170

Investigations of radiocaesium in the natural terrestrial environment in Norway following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident affected parts of central Norway to a considerable extent, in particular the 134Cs + 137Cs deposition had a significant impact on the natural environment. When this became apparent, a comprehensive radioecological research programme was initiated in order to study the behaviour of radiocaesium in boreal and alpine ecosystems, with emphasis on food-chains leading to exposure of species used for human consumption, i.e., reindeer and freshwater fish. In this paper results from the terrestrial part of this research programme during the period 1986-1990 are presented. The work was mainly confined to the mountain areas of Dovre and Rondane. Parallel studies were performed in eutrophic and strongly oligotrophic communities. The influence of local variations in topography and microclimate on the observed radiocaesium levels in topsoils, lichens and vascular plants was studied in detail. Currently a significant re-distribution of radiocaesium from the originally strongly exposed surfaces to those that were less exposed is observed. In the soil, radiocaesium is strongly retained in the litter and raw humus layers. Current levels in lichens are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in vascular plants. This strongly affects the seasonal variation of radiocaesium in reindeer, showing winter maxima of about 5 times higher than the August levels. The radiocaesium levels in reindeer showed a decline of approximately eindeer showed a decline of approximately a factor of 3 during the period 1987-1990. Other animal species studied in the programme exhibited substantially lower radiocaesium levels than reindeer, but a considerable interspecies variation was observed. (author)

171

Investigation into the March 28, 1979 Three Mile Island accident by Office of Inspection and Enforcement (Investigative Report No. 50-320/79-10)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant experienced the most severe accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant operating history. This report sets forth the facts concerning the events of the accident determined as a result of an investigation by the NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement. The IE investigation is limited to two aspects of the accident: (1) Those related operational actions by the licensee during the period from before the initiating event until approximately 8:00 p.m., March 28, when primary coolant flow was re-established by starting a reactor coolant pump, and (2) Those steps taken by the licensee to control the release of radioactive material to the off-site environs, and to implement his emergency plan during the period from the initiation of the event to midnight, March 30. These investigation periods were selected because they include the licensee actions which most significantly affected the accident sequence and its results

172

Accumulation factors and biogeochemical aspects of migration of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems in the areas impacted by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accumulation factors of radionuclides, such as 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr, 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 140Ru, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce and 144Ce, in fish, mollusks and aquatic plants of the water bodies in the near and distant areas of the Chernobyl accident ''footprint'' were estimated. The dynamics of changes in the factors of accumulation by the organisms of radioisotopes of iodine, cesium and strontium was analyzed. (orig.)

173

RISK FACTORS AFFECTING FATAL VERSUS NON-FATAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS: THE CASE OF KARS PROVINCE, TURKEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine risk factors affecting the fatal versus non-fatal accidents in a rural region of Turkey, during 2008-2012, considering variables associated with the individual, the environment, and the motor vehicle. A retrospective study was conducted by obtaining the data from the traffic police road accident reports between 2008 and 2012. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the data and critical factors that contributed significantly to fatal versus non-fatal traffic accidents. The results revealed that the driver’s age (OR = 1.09; 90% CI = 1.05 – 1.14, clear weather (OR = 0.11; 90% CI = 0.02 – 0.65, winter season (OR = 0.16; 90% CI = 0.03 – 0.75, straight (OR = 0.22; 90% CI = 0.05 – 0.91 or slight road curve/bend (OR = 0.17; 90% CI = 0.04 – 0.83, the driver’s education (OR = 0.18; 90% CI = 0.04 – 0.85 and the purpose of the vehicle (OR = 0.20; 90% CI = 0.04 – 0.94 were the significant factors affecting road traffic accidents over the sample period.

Ali Kemal Çelik

2014-09-01

174

A abordagem sociotécnica na investigação e na prevenção de acidentes aéreos: o caso do vôo RG-254 / Sociotechnical approach to investigation and prevention of aircraft accidents: the case of flight RG-254  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta estudo de caso do acidente ocorrido com o vôo RG-254 da Varig, em setembro de 1989. Partindo de informações de investigações oficiais, publicações, material audiovisual, entrevistas com envolvidos no acidente e especialistas em segurança de vôo, os autores re-analisam o acident [...] e com enfoque sociotécnico referenciado na teoria ator-rede e no conceito de acidente "normal". O texto apresenta novo entendimento para a investigação de acidentes na aviação criticando a tradicional repartição de causas entre os chamados fatores "humanos", "técnicos" e "operacionais" e sugere aplicação do conceito de multicausalidade que não se restringe à mera listagem de "fatores contribuintes", mas que analisa as relações entre atores-redes envolvidos no sistema de aviação em que ocorreu o acidente. O acidente do RG-254 é descrito como sintoma do rompimento de relações entre os atores que atuam no sistema. Abstract in english This article presents a case study of the accident with Varig flight RG-254 in September 1989. Using as starting point the official investigation data, publications, audiovisual material and interviews with those involved in the accident as well as flight safety specialists, the authors re-analyze t [...] he accident through a sociotechnical focus, which is based on the actor-network theory and concepts of "normal" accident. The text presents a new understanding of aviation accident investigation and it reviews the traditional terms of investigation based on a rigid division between "human", "technical" and "operational" factors. It also suggests the application of the multi-causality concept, which is not restricted to a mere list of "contributing factors", but which analyzes the relationships among the actor-networks involved in the aviation system where the accident occurred. The RG-254 accident is described as a symptom of the rupture of relationship among those acting in the system.

Vitor Alexandre de Freitas, Cardoso; Henrique Luiz, Cukierman.

2007-06-01

175

A abordagem sociotécnica na investigação e na prevenção de acidentes aéreos: o caso do vôo RG-254 / Sociotechnical approach to investigation and prevention of aircraft accidents: the case of flight RG-254  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta estudo de caso do acidente ocorrido com o vôo RG-254 da Varig, em setembro de 1989. Partindo de informações de investigações oficiais, publicações, material audiovisual, entrevistas com envolvidos no acidente e especialistas em segurança de vôo, os autores re-analisam o acident [...] e com enfoque sociotécnico referenciado na teoria ator-rede e no conceito de acidente "normal". O texto apresenta novo entendimento para a investigação de acidentes na aviação criticando a tradicional repartição de causas entre os chamados fatores "humanos", "técnicos" e "operacionais" e sugere aplicação do conceito de multicausalidade que não se restringe à mera listagem de "fatores contribuintes", mas que analisa as relações entre atores-redes envolvidos no sistema de aviação em que ocorreu o acidente. O acidente do RG-254 é descrito como sintoma do rompimento de relações entre os atores que atuam no sistema. Abstract in english This article presents a case study of the accident with Varig flight RG-254 in September 1989. Using as starting point the official investigation data, publications, audiovisual material and interviews with those involved in the accident as well as flight safety specialists, the authors re-analyze t [...] he accident through a sociotechnical focus, which is based on the actor-network theory and concepts of "normal" accident. The text presents a new understanding of aviation accident investigation and it reviews the traditional terms of investigation based on a rigid division between "human", "technical" and "operational" factors. It also suggests the application of the multi-causality concept, which is not restricted to a mere list of "contributing factors", but which analyzes the relationships among the actor-networks involved in the aviation system where the accident occurred. The RG-254 accident is described as a symptom of the rupture of relationship among those acting in the system.

Vitor Alexandre de Freitas, Cardoso; Henrique Luiz, Cukierman.

176

Comparison of different estimation methods of accident atmospheric dispersion factors for a representative inland nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of atmospheric diffusion models in complex terrains and low wind speed conditions was discussed in this paper. The accident atmospheric dispersion factors (ATFs) of Taohuajiang nuclear power plant were calculated by using two methods: the probabilistic method recommended by the U.S. Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC) and the three dimensional objective diagnostic wind field model coupled with Lagrangian trajectory puff model to simulate the 8760 hourly emissions of radioactive nuclides. The results indicate that the maximum hourly accident ATFs calculated by the probabilistic method are conservative in exclusion area boundary (EAB). However, in some directions, accident ATFs calculated using probabilistic method is smaller than that using Lagrangian puff model, as well as some accident ATFs in remote sectors are larger than those in close sectors. Moreover, results calculated by probabilistic method are smaller in long-term release situation. Therefore, accident ATFs obtained according to the regulatory guides may not conservative in some cases, and atmospheric diffusion model should be selected carefully when a nuclear plant is located at a site with complex environmental conditions. (authors)

177

Análise e classificação dos fatores humanos nos acidentes industriais / Analysis and classification of the human factors in industrial accidents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente texto apresenta a evolução do conhecimento do fenômeno "acidente", mostrando a mudança do conceito do acidente como obra do destino para um componente do processo produtivo de qualquer segmento - industrial, aeronáutico, serviços, transporte dentre outros. O método de análise e classifica [...] ção dos fatores humanos nos acidentes é apresentado e discutido quanto à viabilidade de implementação. Finalmente, conclui-se que a forma atual e moderna para prevenção de acidentes está baseada na identificação antecipada das falhas latentes da organização e do sistema, e que a ferramenta apresentada contribui para a gestão proativa e conseqüentemente para a diminuição do impacto dos acidentes do trabalho no processo produtivo. Abstract in english The present text presents the evolution of the knowledge of the phenomenon "accident", showing the change of the concept of the accident as workmanship of the destination for one component of the productive process of any segment - industrial, aeronautical, services, transports amongst others. The m [...] ethod of analysis and classification of the human factors in the accidents is presented and argued how much to the implementation viability. Finally one concludes that the current and modern form for prevention of accidents is based on the anticipated identification of the latent failures of the organization and the system, and that the presented tool contributes consequently for the pro-active management and in the reduction of the impact of the employment-related accidents in the productive process.

Cármen Regina Pereira, Correa; Moacyr Machado, Cardoso Junior.

178

Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity to fragment. The molten fuel-coolant mixtures with a binary oxidic core melt (UO2-ZrO2) may feature low triggerability and low explosivity. The mechanical-to-thermal conversion ratio may be very low. The presence of metallic component in the melt may significantly enhance triggerability and explosivity of molten corium. The characteristics of melt spreading into 2-D channel are much different from those into 1-D channel. The evaluations of spreading parameters in reactor accident situations would be strongly affected by the uncertainties in the boundary conditions of the melt spreading process, such as downward heat removal and of upward heat removal in case of core melt spreading under water. Computer codes were developed and validated against the data obtained in the MSWI Project. The Multiphase Eulerian Lagrangian Transport code (MELT-313) was validated to investigate the hydrodynamics during the premixing process of jet penetrating into a water pool. The FlowLab code employing the multi-fluid multi-phase Lattice-Boltzmann method was developed and validated. In the Lattice-Boltzmann approach, no special treatment is needed to track the interface. A scaling technology was developed to describe the spreading efficiency of melt into I -D channel. The melt vessel interaction thermal analysis (MVITA) code describes the process of melt pool formation, melt pool convection and the resulting vessel thermal loadings. A gap cooling model and model representing penetrations were incorporated into this code. The code was coupled with ANSYS code, which performs structure analysis. Thus a coupled thermal and mechanical analysis of the loadings of a pressure vessel during the melt-vessel interaction, could be performed

179

Associated factors to the occurrence of motorcycle accident in the perception of hospitalized motorcyclist  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To describe the social demographic characteristics of injured motorcyclists admitted into an emergency hospital and their perception about the accident. Methods: Across-sectional study conducted between October and December 2007 with a sample of 209 patients who were victims of motorcycle accidents. A form was applied for data collection and the data were submitted to frequency analysis. The studied variables comprised social demographic data; conditions of the accident; the use of alcohol and the perception of the victim in relation to the accident. Results: Out of 209 interviewed patients, 183 (88% were male, 88 (42% were aged 21 to 30 years; 147 (65.9% were from different counties of the accident site, 89 (53.9% were not licensed riders; 93 (56.3% did not wear a helmet and 113 (54.4% reported drinking alcohol before the accident. Regarding the perception of the victims about the cause of the accident, 90 (43% highlighted the inappropriate behavior of their own rider. Conclusion: The study revealed that among injured motorcyclists, prevailed males, young and single, who did not wear helmet at the time of the accident, who were not legally qualified to drive a motorcycle and who recognize as the main cause of theseaccidents their own inadequate behavior.

Augediva Maria Jucá Pordeus

2010-09-01

180

The Columbia Accident Investigation and The NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Laboratory Contributions Supporting NASA's Return to Flight  

Science.gov (United States)

On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry, resulting in loss of the vehicle and its seven crewmembers. For the next several months, an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA, concluded in August, 2003 that the most likely cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the mission's launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing, which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. The findings of the CAIB were supported by ballistic impact tests, which simulated the physics of External Tank Foam impact on the RCC wing leading edge material. These tests ranged from fundamental material characterization tests to full-scale Orbiter Wing Leading Edge tests. Following the accident investigation, NASA spent the next 18 months focused on returning the shuttle safely to flight. In order to fully evaluate all potential impact threats from the many debris sources on the Space Shuttle during ascent, NASA instituted a significant impact testing program. The results from these tests led to the validation of high-fidelity computer models, capable of predicting actual or potential Shuttle impact events, were used in the certification of STS-114, NASA s Return to Flight Mission, as safe to fly. This presentation will provide a look into the inner workings of the Space Shuttle and a behind the scenes perspective on the impact analysis and testing done for the Columbia Accident Investigation and NASA's Return to Flight programs. In addition, highlights from recent Shuttle missions are presented.

Melis, Matthew E.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Experiments to investigate flow transfer and graphite corrosion in case of air ingress accidents in a high-temperature reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future world economy will require a substantial contribution of energy delivered by nuclear power plants to reduce the CO2-output. But a new quality of safety, a so called catastrophe-free nuclear technology is necessary for making world-wide increase of nuclear energy possible. Producing energy is a catastrophe-free way means, that the consequences of largest accidents have no major impact on the environment of the power plant. Even in case of extreme accidents there must be no realise of unallowable amounts of radioactive fission products. A high-temperature reactor is able to reach this objective by construction. For example the power plant can be designed to remove decay heat without using any active system. However, during operation a break in the primary circuit of the HTR is principally possible. This accident is called an air ingress accident into the hot graphite reactor core. The leakage causes a pressure drop in the helium filled system, a lost of inert helium and after some time an air mass flow may be able to stream through the core according to free natural convection. If the ingress of air is not stopped this accident finally ends with a dangerous damage of the graphite fuel elements and reflector structures according to graphite corrosion with oxygen. The destroyed fuel elements will release fission products. With the large-scale NACOC experiment a testing device is currently in operation at the Institute of Safety Research and Reactor TInstitute of Safety Research and Reactor Technology in the Research Centre Juelich. This set-up allows to investigate the sequence of events and consequences of air ingress accidents. This report treats following points which finally lead to a better understanding of the air ingress accident. First: the effect of helium at rest in the upper part of the pressure vessel after pressure drop is demonstrated. Second: the onset of air flow transfer according to free natural convection is shown and the conditions of natural convection flow in a vertical tube system is described. Third: the amount of air mass flow is fixed by an experimental program. Forth: the effect on the mass flow according to different amounts of helium is investigated. Fifth: the DIREKT code was validated by using the experimental results. Sixth: DIREKT calculations deliver results for the HTR - Modul reactor. Seventh: experiments with graphite pebbles and bottom reflectors were done to get an idea about the mechanism acting in the upper part of the bottom reflector and in the lowest pebble layers. Finally possible concepts are described for counteracting the damage and safeguarding the chemical and mechanical stability to the reactor. (orig.)

182

Investigations on the behaviour of UO2 particles and sodium aerosols in SNR accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium is evaporated from hot (400-9000C) sodium pools into an inert gas atmosphere in the NALA experiments. Mixtures of Cs, NaI, SrO and UO2 simulate traces of fuel and fission products as can occur in a hypothetical SNR accident in the coolant sodium. Apart from the evaporation rate of the substrate itself, the whereabouts of these mixtures, whose release in the case of an accident is a source of radiological burden in the containment, is of interest. (orig./RW)

183

CFD investigating the air ingress accident for a HTGR simulation of graphite corrosion oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

rogresses. The total amount of graphite corrosion during a 3-day accident time is predicted to be about 31 kg with the predicted asymptotic corrosion rate. This predicted value is less than that from the previous work of Gao and Shi.

184

Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

Naser Azad

2012-04-01

185

Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

NONE

2004-07-01

186

Investigate sequence of Fukushima accident without prediction. Why isolation condenser of unit 1 was manually stopped promptly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author insisted on investigating sequence of Fukushima Daiichi accident Unit 1 without prediction to confirm whether pipe failures occurred or not due to ground motion, which could be checked by later inspection of containment inside. At 2:52 pm in March 11, pressure drop 2.4 MPa from 7 MPa to 4.6 MPa within about 10 minutes was abnormal compared to 1.4 MPa obtained by simulation without pipe rapture assumed. At 3.3 pm, isolation condensers(ICs) were manually stopped and that of system B was not operated again, which was told to follow operating manual requesting cooling rate less than 55degC/hr. Pressure was thought to be adjusted by steam relief valve (SRV), but was told by operation of system A of IC. SRV operation was recorded as not usable. Flow sheet of IC used for accident explanation was different from that submitted for application. (T. Tanaka)

187

Evaluación de factores de riesgo en accidentes oculares graves infantiles / Assessment of the risk factors for severe ocular accidents in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar factores de riesgo en accidentes oculares graves infantiles. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación aplicada, epidemiológica, descriptiva, longitudinal y prospectiva sobre accidentes oculares graves en el Servicio de Oftalmología del Hospital Pediátrico Provincial de Pinar del Río ( [...] 2006-2007). El universo y muestra estuvo constituido por dos grupos de niños de 1- 20 años, ambos sexos y todas las etnias. Primer Grupo: Niños con accidente ocular grave, Segundo Grupo: Niños sin accidente ocular; determinándose una muestra total de 130 seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio simple. Fueron utilizados métodos empíricos y teóricos de investigación científica. Resultados: El trauma ocular representó el 87,8% de los ingresos de urgencia durante el período. Se encontró que el grupo etáreo de 9-12 años (40%), y sexo masculino (89,2%) fueron los más afectados. Un 76,9% de los accidentados residía en zona rural. El 96,9% se encontraba fuera de la casa y sin compañía de adultos en el momento del trauma. Predominaron las familias con conocimientos y actitudes evaluados de regulares en relación a los accidentes oculares con un 57,7 % y 60,8% respectivamente. Conclusiones: Se constató elevada frecuencia de traumas oculares infantiles graves en Pinar del Río, precisando sus factores causales de riesgo y dificultades en la prevención de los mismos. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the risk factors for severe ocular accidents in children. Methods: An applied, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and prospective research of the severe ocular accidents was conducted in the Ophthalmologic Service at "Pepe Portilla" Provincial Children Hospital, Pinar de [...] l Rio. The target group and the sample were comprised of two groups of children from 1 to 16 years old of both sexes and all ethnics. First group: children and adolescents suffering from severe ocular accidents. Second group: children and adolescents without ocular accidents; a total sample of 130 patients were chosen by means of a simple sampling at random. Empiric and theoretical scientific research methods were used. Results: The ocular trauma represented 87, 8% of the admissions in the emergency service during the period. The group of ages between 9-12 and male sex (89, 2%) were the most affected; 76, 9% lived in rural zones and 96, 9% of the accidents occurred out of the house without adult company; knowledge and attitudes towards ocular accidents were evaluated as fair in families (57,7% and 60,8% respectively). Conclusions: a high frequency of severe ocular traumas in children was verified in Pinar del Rio, specifying causal risk factors and difficulties to prevent these accidents

Sahely, Sixto Fuentes; Acela, Boffill Corrales; Sandra María, Jalilo Hernández; Dayamí de la Caridad, González Pérez.

2010-09-01

188

Prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales y factores relacionados en estudiantes de odontología / Prevalence of occupational accidents and related factors in students of dentistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Describir la prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales en estudiantes de Odontología y asociarla con factores propios de su práctica clínica. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal, desarrollado en una universidad pública de la ciudad de Cartagena en 2010. Participaron 213 estudiantes que se en [...] contraban en prácticas pre-clínicas y clínicas de odontología, que corresponden al 96,8 % de la población de referencia. Se aplicó un cuestionario auto-administrado para evaluar la ocurrencia de accidentes al igual que factores asociados. Los datos fueron analizados mediante prevalencias con intervalos de confianza al 95 %, usando la prueba chi², con nivel de significancia (p Abstract in english Objective Describe the prevalence of occupational accidents students of dentistry and associate it with factors of their clinical practice. Methods Cross-sectional study, developed in a public university in the city of Cartagena in 2010. Participants included 213 students in l pre-clinics and clinic [...] s practice of dentistry, selected by simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to evaluate the occurrence of accidents as well as the associated factors. The data were analyzed by prevalence rates with confidence intervals of 95 %, using the chi² test, with significance levels of 0.05. The Association Strength was estimated by OR and the multivariate analysis through nominal logistic regression. Results The prevalence of occupational accidents is 46 %, the type of accident most often is prick (48.7 %), caused mainly by the Explorer (28.9 %). 58.1 % of the accidents are reported and continue care protocol. 87.7 % of the students enfold the needle after use. At bivariate level, only statistically significant association between occupational accidents and semester was presented, being more frequent for the more advanced semesters (p=0.004). Conclusions because of high prevalence of occupational accidents, it is necessary to insist on the implementation of strategies for safe and appropriate environments for the development of educational practices for students.

Katherine M, Arrieta-Vergara; Shyrley, Díaz-Cárdenas; Farith D., González-Martínez.

189

Prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales y factores relacionados en estudiantes de odontología / Prevalence of occupational accidents and related factors in students of dentistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Describir la prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales en estudiantes de Odontología y asociarla con factores propios de su práctica clínica. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal, desarrollado en una universidad pública de la ciudad de Cartagena en 2010. Participaron 213 estudiantes que se en [...] contraban en prácticas pre-clínicas y clínicas de odontología, que corresponden al 96,8 % de la población de referencia. Se aplicó un cuestionario auto-administrado para evaluar la ocurrencia de accidentes al igual que factores asociados. Los datos fueron analizados mediante prevalencias con intervalos de confianza al 95 %, usando la prueba chi², con nivel de significancia (p Abstract in english Objective Describe the prevalence of occupational accidents students of dentistry and associate it with factors of their clinical practice. Methods Cross-sectional study, developed in a public university in the city of Cartagena in 2010. Participants included 213 students in l pre-clinics and clinic [...] s practice of dentistry, selected by simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to evaluate the occurrence of accidents as well as the associated factors. The data were analyzed by prevalence rates with confidence intervals of 95 %, using the chi² test, with significance levels of 0.05. The Association Strength was estimated by OR and the multivariate analysis through nominal logistic regression. Results The prevalence of occupational accidents is 46 %, the type of accident most often is prick (48.7 %), caused mainly by the Explorer (28.9 %). 58.1 % of the accidents are reported and continue care protocol. 87.7 % of the students enfold the needle after use. At bivariate level, only statistically significant association between occupational accidents and semester was presented, being more frequent for the more advanced semesters (p=0.004). Conclusions because of high prevalence of occupational accidents, it is necessary to insist on the implementation of strategies for safe and appropriate environments for the development of educational practices for students.

Katherine M, Arrieta-Vergara; Shyrley, Díaz-Cárdenas; Farith D., González-Martínez.

190

Investigation of hydro accumulators behaviour during severe accident with ASTEC V2 computer code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to present the results obtained for severe accidents calculation with the latest version of computer code ASTEC v2. The performed calculations are for 'Station Blackout' transient. The performed analysis evaluates the work of the hydraulic accumulator. The beginning of the active zone degradation and subsequent fuel relocalization till the reactor vessel failure were also assessed. The results were performed within the project SARNET2 in 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission 'EURATOM'

191

Immunological and epidemiological investigations in regions contaminated by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have carried out in Novozybkov district of Bryansk region, Russia, immunologic inspection of residents with simultaneous evaluation of radionuclides content in the body and individual dose burden. We have not found any correlation between the dose and immune characteristics: amount of T and B lymphocytes, antibodies level. Only 3 months after the accident increased level of antibodies against thyroid antigens, thyroglobulin and microsomes was found at thyroid doses over 75 cGy. 3 tabs

192

An investigative report concerning safety and management in the magnetic resonance environment. There are more accidents than expected  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a questionnaire, we surveyed 2,500 facilities in Japan to clarify medical accidents concerning the magnetic resonance device and its environment. Data derived from 1,319 valid responses (52.8%), allowed us to analyze the situation of (or the reason for) the occurrence of the accidents and their environmental factors. Five hundred and nine facilities (39% of all facilities) had the experience of magnetically induced displacement of the large ferromagnetic material. Intravenous (I.V.) drip stands were involved the largest number of them: 31% (228 cases). Oxygen bottles had the second largest number of incidents: 20%. There were also many incidents involving various materials brought in by non-medical staff (exempli gratia (e.g.) stepladder for construction). About 20% of the accidents occurred outside of working hours. Patients in 12% of the facilities (154 facilities) experienced burns. In 39 of the cases, burns were received to the inside of the thighs. In 38 of the cases, patients received burns from an electrical cable touching the skin. There were also frequent incidents of burning regarding the boa. We received reports of burns and pain from the halo vest even though it's required to be worn for MR safety. Regarding incidents of contraindications, 280 patients with pacemakers were brought into the magnetic resonance (MR) inspection room. Twelve percent of the facilities experienced natural quench. Lack of training for the staff who introduce and operate highr the staff who introduce and operate high magnetic field devices are considered involving frequently occurring accidents of attractions and burns at hospitals with over 500 beds caused by carrying in materials. (author)

193

Reliability based investigation of design factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Second-moment probabilistic techniques are used to formulate structural resistances and loads and to derive reliability-based safety, load, and strength factors for design. Existing concepts of the second-moment reliability theory have been extended to the practical case of multiple load combinations. This development consistently includes the stochastic character of loads and the unpredictable nature of their combinations. For this purpose, a new technique for the evaluation of load combinations is presented, whereby the moments of the extreme of combined loads is obtained in terms of the moments of individual loads and parameters describing their random fluctuations in time. Reliability-based safety, load, and strength factors are derived in terms of the acceptable level of risk, the coefficients of variation of the loads and resistance, uncertainties associated with errors in modeling and estimation, and a set of parameters describing the stochastic nature of loads and their combinations.

1978-06-30

194

Investigation of Depth Distribution of Radionuclides in Soil Contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident  

Science.gov (United States)

This work was conducted as one of the researches relating to distribution maps of radiation dose rate etc. which the government has promoted as one of the counter-measures to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, and the 2nd investigation on the depth distribution of radionuclides (RNs) in soil was conducted after about 1 year from the accident, succeedingly to the 1st investigation which was conducted after about 3 months from the accident. Soil core samples to about 50cm deep were taken at 11 locations in Nihonmatsu-city, Kawamata-town and Namie-town. Sorption-desorption experiments of Cs-137 and I-131, CEC and AEC measurements and mineralogical analyses by XRD were conducted for 3 types of soils (sandy, clayey, organic) and those elutriated components (clay, silt, sand). Radiocaesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) and Ag-110m were detected at all locations investigated and only at locations where radiation dose rate is high, respectively. Radiocaesium more than 95% and 99% of the inventory distributed within 5cm and 10cm deep in soil in the surface layer (mainly sandy soil), respectively, and distributed within 16cm and 20cm deep in organic soil and soil at locations where are supposed to have been used as farmland, respectively. Radiocaesium tended to extend to deeper parts in soil that organic and clayey soils are the support layer, particularly in organic soil, compared with the 1st investigation. Distribution coefficients of Cs-137 onto organic soil and its elutriated components were also lower than that onto other soils. This is consistent with trend of penetration profile.

Sato, Haruo; Niizato, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Shingo; Abe, Hironobu; Aoki, Kazuhiro

2014-05-01

195

Trends in state-level freight accident rates: An enhancement of risk factor development for RADTRAN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is concerned with understanding and managing risk as it applies to the shipment of spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Understanding risk in relation to mode and geography may provide opportunities to minimize radiological and non-radiological risks of transportation. To enhance such an understanding, a set of state-or waterway-specific accident, fatality, and injury rates (expressed as rates per shipment kilometer) by transportation mode and highway administrative class was developed, using publicly-available data bases. Adjustments made to accommodate miscoded or incomplete information in accident data are described, as well as the procedures for estimating state-level flow data. Results indicate that the shipping conditions under which spent fuel is likely to be transported should be less subject to accidents than the ''average'' shipment within mode. 10 refs., 3 tabs

196

Factors affecting the integrity of PWR pressure vessels during overcooling accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor pressure vessel in a pressurized water reactor is normally subjected to temperatures and pressures that preclude propagation of sharp, crack-like defects that might exist in the wall of the vessel. However, if certain postulated accidents, referred to as overcooling accidents, were to occur, the pressure vessel could be subjected to severe thermal shock while the pressure is substantial. As a result, vessels containing high concentrations of copper and nickel, which enhance radiation embrittlement, may possess a potential for extensive propagation of preexistent inner-surface flaws prior to the vessel's normal end of life. A fracture-mechanics analysis for a typical postulated accident and also related thermal-shock experiments indicate that very shallow surface flaws that extend through the cladding into the base material could propagate. This is of particular concern because shallow flaws appear to be the most probable and presumably are the most difficult to detect

197

Modeling of the corium cooling and loading factor analysis for containment during severe accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper is devoted to the development and study of the mathematical model for corium melt interaction with low-temperature melting blocks in the passive protection systems (PPS) against severe accidents at the NPP, and learning the peculiarities of construction and operation of the PPS. The configurations of cooling blocks' distributions considered and the results of their work in the corium cooling pool are compared to the data of other PPS's conceptions. The conclusion is made that the models developed and the results obtained may be useful for constructing the PPS against severe accidents

198

Effect of different diffusion parameters and meteorological data on the accident probability atmospheric dispersion factor at Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the hourly observing meteorological data by 100 m high tower at Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site during 1997 to 1999, the effect is estimated of different diffusion parameters (i.e. on-site measuring values and values recommended by IAEA) on the maximum value of 99.5% cumulative probability level accident dispersion factor of 16 different wind directions at the boundary of an area of no residences (500 m). The analysis shows that the ratio between diffusion parameters based on on-site measurement and that recommended by IAEA is about 3.0. Hence, in order to estimate the environmental consequences of release accident from NPP with varied terrain as Tianwan NPP, measured on-site atmospheric diffusion parameters must be adopted

199

Causal factors guide for the evaluation of accidents in research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the field of radiological and nuclear safety, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina controls three research reactors and three critical assemblies, by means of evaluations, audits and inspections, in order to ensure the fulfilment of the requirements established in the Licenses, in the regulatory standards and in the mandatory documentation in general. From the Nuclear Regulatory Authority's point of view, within the general process of research reactors safety management, the management of operating experience plays an outstanding role. In this aspect the ARN has established specific requirements in the Operation Licences in relation to the communication, evaluation, investigation of causes, and adoption of corrective measures, for the events that occurred. From the experience collected in the analysis of the reports sent by the operators it has been verified some weaknesses in relation to the methodology of analysis of events and in the determination of the causal factors. In such sense, with the purpose of establishing some help for the appraisers and to homogenize the treatment of the events, two reference guides were designed: a guide for the evaluation of events and the other with a grid of causal factors This paper describes the main aspects of the operating management system established for research reactors and critical assemblies in Argentina, and the guides developed for the event analysis and determination of causal factors. (author)ination of causal factors. (author)

200

Investigation of alternative solutions for severe accident management in future reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1991, the CEA/DRN 'Innovations-Future Reactors' Program (IFRP) has been developed in order to elaborate, to evaluate and validate technical options which can be of interest for future reactors. The main objectives of this program are: to improve both the safety and cost of future nuclear power plants, to optimize the fuel cycle and the management of nuclear materials. The present paper is focused on the third R and D theme, i.e., on the 'Innovation-Severe Accident Research Program' (ISARP). This specific CEA long-term program is developed in addition to shorter-term studies conducted in collaboration with the CEA partners (EDF and FRAMATOME), more particularly, for the future European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR). (J.P.N.)

 
 
 
 
201

Latent Conditions, Safety Barriers and Situational Factors for Maritime Accidents in the Sound Area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Sound Area, located between Sweden and Denmark, is one of the most intensely trafficked waters in the world with complex traffic patterns and a bridge/tunnel under construction, which will link the two countries. This high level of complexity increases the probability of both maritime accidents and very negative consequences of them. This paper presents the ergonomic part of an ongoing multidisciplinary pilot project with the objective of identifying and describing maritime risks in the S...

Ek, A?sa; Olsson, Ulf; Akselsson, Roland

1999-01-01

202

Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" Risk factors for accidents in children: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: Casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de Referencia Nacional. Participantes: Se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles. Mediciones principales: El instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: La edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite OR 15,04 (IC 95% 5,47 - 44,48, productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina OR 14,19 (IC 95% 0,72 - 276,33, instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7,82 (IC 95% 5,22 - 11,73 , cohetillos OR 5,26 (IC 95% 2,49 - 11,95, presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3,30 (IC 95% 2,02 - 5,25, cosméticos OR 2,06 (IC 95% 1,36 - 3,10, productos de limpieza OR 1,20 (IC 95% 0,22 - 5,82, medicamentos OR 1,12 (IC 95% 0,73 - 1,70. Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4,62 (IC 95% 2,61 - 8,20, trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2,04 (IC 95% 1,42 - 2,93 y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1,65 (IC 95% 1,15 - 2,36. Conclusiones: Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sope todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niñosObjectives: To identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: Case and control incidents. Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uria, a third-level paediatric hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and 400 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, persons responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumstances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5.4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR 7,82, firecrackers OR 5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR 2,06, house cleaner products OR 1,20, medicines OR 1,12, previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2,04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1,65. Conclusions: The main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by paediatricians or family practitioners

Kurt Paulsen S.

2005-01-01

203

Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" / Risk factors for accidents in children: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: Casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de [...] Referencia Nacional. Participantes: Se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos) y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles). Mediciones principales: El instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: La edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite) OR 15,04 (IC 95% 5,47 - 44,48), productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina) OR 14,19 (IC 95% 0,72 - 276,33), instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7,82 (IC 95% 5,22 - 11,73 ), cohetillos OR 5,26 (IC 95% 2,49 - 11,95), presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3,30 (IC 95% 2,02 - 5,25), cosméticos OR 2,06 (IC 95% 1,36 - 3,10), productos de limpieza OR 1,20 (IC 95% 0,22 - 5,82), medicamentos OR 1,12 (IC 95% 0,73 - 1,70). Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4,62 (IC 95% 2,61 - 8,20), trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2,04 (IC 95% 1,42 - 2,93) y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1,65 (IC 95% 1,15 - 2,36). Conclusiones: Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sope todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niños Abstract in english Objectives: To identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: Case and control incidents. Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uria, a third-level paediatric hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and [...] 400 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, persons responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumstances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5.4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR 7,82, firecrackers OR 5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR 2,06, house cleaner products OR 1,20, medicines OR 1,12, previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2,04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1,65. Conclusions: The main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by paediatricians or family practitioners

Kurt, Paulsen S.; Hector, Mejia S..

2005-01-01

204

Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" / Risk factors for accidents in children: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: Casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de [...] Referencia Nacional. Participantes: Se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos) y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles). Mediciones principales: El instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: La edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite) OR 15,04 (IC 95% 5,47 - 44,48), productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina) OR 14,19 (IC 95% 0,72 - 276,33), instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7,82 (IC 95% 5,22 - 11,73 ), cohetillos OR 5,26 (IC 95% 2,49 - 11,95), presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3,30 (IC 95% 2,02 - 5,25), cosméticos OR 2,06 (IC 95% 1,36 - 3,10), productos de limpieza OR 1,20 (IC 95% 0,22 - 5,82), medicamentos OR 1,12 (IC 95% 0,73 - 1,70). Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4,62 (IC 95% 2,61 - 8,20), trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2,04 (IC 95% 1,42 - 2,93) y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1,65 (IC 95% 1,15 - 2,36). Conclusiones: Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sope todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niños Abstract in english Objectives: To identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: Case and control incidents. Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uria, a third-level paediatric hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and [...] 400 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, persons responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumstances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5.4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR 7,82, firecrackers OR 5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR 2,06, house cleaner products OR 1,20, medicines OR 1,12, previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2,04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1,65. Conclusions: The main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by paediatricians or family practitioners

Kurt, Paulsen S.; Hector, Mejia S..

205

Bases epidemiológicas do Fator Acidentário Previdenciário Epidemiological foundations of the Accident Insurance Factor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES: O Conselho Nacional de Previdência Social, por meio da Resolução No. 1.236 de 28/4/2004, aprovou uma nova metodologia para definição do valor das alíquotas de contribuição devidas por empresas para o financiamento de benefícios previdenciários relacionados aos riscos do trabalho. Esta metodologia baseia-se em um indicador denominado de Fator Acidentário Previdenciário, FAP, construído a partir do risco epidemiológico, estimado para cada ramo de atividade econômica. Como parte da sua estratégia de validação, o Ministério da Previdência Social decidiu pela avaliação da sua consistência epidemiológica. OBJETIVOS: Nesse estudo analisaram-se os propósitos, as fontes de informação, a natureza das medidas epidemiológicas empregadas e a metodologia da construção desse indicador, identificando-se as suas vantagens e limitações, aplicabilidade e impactos potenciais futuros. MÉTODOS: Análise documental da Resolução No. 1236 e do documento anexo. RESULTADOS: O FAP avança ao se pautar por critérios científicos transparentes que poderão permitir a redução das alíquotas quando houver efetiva melhoria das condições de trabalho, e conseqüentemente, da morbimortalidade entre trabalhadores. Supera as dificuldades relacionadas à definição e registro do nexo causal das doenças do trabalho ao considerá-las em sua totalidade, não se restringido às ocupacionais. Como prevê a redução de alíquotas com a melhoria das condições de saúde dos trabalhadores poderá contribuir para uma mais efetiva atuação dos empregadores na prevenção. CONCLUSÕES: É necessário o acompanhamento contínuo e sistemático da aplicação do FAP, com ampla participação da sociedade, revisando-o e ajustando-o aos diferentes cenários econômicos, sociais e de saúde do País, atentando-se para o seu impacto sobre a arrecadação e contas da Previdência Social.BACKGROUND: The Brazilian National Social Insurance Counsel of the Ministry of Social Insurance approved the Resolution N. 1.236 of 28/4/2004 that defines a new methodology to assess the value of taxes to be paid by firms, for occupational health related insurance costs. This methodology utilizes the Accident Insurance Factor, (Fator Acidentário Previdenciário FAP, based on relative risks estimated for each industry trade. As part of its validation strategy, the Social Insurance Ministry decided to evaluate the epidemiological consistency of FAP. OBJECTIVE: The FAP purposes, data sources, the nature of the overall methodology, its advantages and limitations are all discussed, as well as its applicability and potential future impact on the Social Insurance Ministry budget and on the workers' health and safety. METHODS: A documental analysis was conducted with the Resolution text and its attached essay. RESULTS: The FAP represents an advance because of its transparent scientific criteria that may allows reduction of taxes, when improvement in work conditions and the resulting decrease in diseases or injuries are observed. It also overcomes problems of definition and assessment of occupational causal relationships because overall diseases and injuries will be considered regardless of their causal relation to occupational exposures. Since taxes can be reduced as work and health conditions improve, it may contribute to a more effective participation of employers in prevention. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to systematically and continuously monitor the application of FAP, with extensive society participation, reviewing and adjusting it to the distinct economic, social and health scenarios in the country, considering its impact on the Social Insurance budget.

Vilma Sousa Santana

2005-12-01

206

Bases epidemiológicas do Fator Acidentário Previdenciário / Epidemiological foundations of the Accident Insurance Factor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese ANTECEDENTES: O Conselho Nacional de Previdência Social, por meio da Resolução No. 1.236 de 28/4/2004, aprovou uma nova metodologia para definição do valor das alíquotas de contribuição devidas por empresas para o financiamento de benefícios previdenciários relacionados aos riscos do trabalho. Esta [...] metodologia baseia-se em um indicador denominado de Fator Acidentário Previdenciário, FAP, construído a partir do risco epidemiológico, estimado para cada ramo de atividade econômica. Como parte da sua estratégia de validação, o Ministério da Previdência Social decidiu pela avaliação da sua consistência epidemiológica. OBJETIVOS: Nesse estudo analisaram-se os propósitos, as fontes de informação, a natureza das medidas epidemiológicas empregadas e a metodologia da construção desse indicador, identificando-se as suas vantagens e limitações, aplicabilidade e impactos potenciais futuros. MÉTODOS: Análise documental da Resolução No. 1236 e do documento anexo. RESULTADOS: O FAP avança ao se pautar por critérios científicos transparentes que poderão permitir a redução das alíquotas quando houver efetiva melhoria das condições de trabalho, e conseqüentemente, da morbimortalidade entre trabalhadores. Supera as dificuldades relacionadas à definição e registro do nexo causal das doenças do trabalho ao considerá-las em sua totalidade, não se restringido às ocupacionais. Como prevê a redução de alíquotas com a melhoria das condições de saúde dos trabalhadores poderá contribuir para uma mais efetiva atuação dos empregadores na prevenção. CONCLUSÕES: É necessário o acompanhamento contínuo e sistemático da aplicação do FAP, com ampla participação da sociedade, revisando-o e ajustando-o aos diferentes cenários econômicos, sociais e de saúde do País, atentando-se para o seu impacto sobre a arrecadação e contas da Previdência Social. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The Brazilian National Social Insurance Counsel of the Ministry of Social Insurance approved the Resolution N. 1.236 of 28/4/2004 that defines a new methodology to assess the value of taxes to be paid by firms, for occupational health related insurance costs. This methodology utilizes th [...] e Accident Insurance Factor, (Fator Acidentário Previdenciário) FAP, based on relative risks estimated for each industry trade. As part of its validation strategy, the Social Insurance Ministry decided to evaluate the epidemiological consistency of FAP. OBJECTIVE: The FAP purposes, data sources, the nature of the overall methodology, its advantages and limitations are all discussed, as well as its applicability and potential future impact on the Social Insurance Ministry budget and on the workers' health and safety. METHODS: A documental analysis was conducted with the Resolution text and its attached essay. RESULTS: The FAP represents an advance because of its transparent scientific criteria that may allows reduction of taxes, when improvement in work conditions and the resulting decrease in diseases or injuries are observed. It also overcomes problems of definition and assessment of occupational causal relationships because overall diseases and injuries will be considered regardless of their causal relation to occupational exposures. Since taxes can be reduced as work and health conditions improve, it may contribute to a more effective participation of employers in prevention. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to systematically and continuously monitor the application of FAP, with extensive society participation, reviewing and adjusting it to the distinct economic, social and health scenarios in the country, considering its impact on the Social Insurance budget.

Vilma Sousa, Santana.

207

Bases epidemiológicas do Fator Acidentário Previdenciário / Epidemiological foundations of the Accident Insurance Factor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese ANTECEDENTES: O Conselho Nacional de Previdência Social, por meio da Resolução No. 1.236 de 28/4/2004, aprovou uma nova metodologia para definição do valor das alíquotas de contribuição devidas por empresas para o financiamento de benefícios previdenciários relacionados aos riscos do trabalho. Esta [...] metodologia baseia-se em um indicador denominado de Fator Acidentário Previdenciário, FAP, construído a partir do risco epidemiológico, estimado para cada ramo de atividade econômica. Como parte da sua estratégia de validação, o Ministério da Previdência Social decidiu pela avaliação da sua consistência epidemiológica. OBJETIVOS: Nesse estudo analisaram-se os propósitos, as fontes de informação, a natureza das medidas epidemiológicas empregadas e a metodologia da construção desse indicador, identificando-se as suas vantagens e limitações, aplicabilidade e impactos potenciais futuros. MÉTODOS: Análise documental da Resolução No. 1236 e do documento anexo. RESULTADOS: O FAP avança ao se pautar por critérios científicos transparentes que poderão permitir a redução das alíquotas quando houver efetiva melhoria das condições de trabalho, e conseqüentemente, da morbimortalidade entre trabalhadores. Supera as dificuldades relacionadas à definição e registro do nexo causal das doenças do trabalho ao considerá-las em sua totalidade, não se restringido às ocupacionais. Como prevê a redução de alíquotas com a melhoria das condições de saúde dos trabalhadores poderá contribuir para uma mais efetiva atuação dos empregadores na prevenção. CONCLUSÕES: É necessário o acompanhamento contínuo e sistemático da aplicação do FAP, com ampla participação da sociedade, revisando-o e ajustando-o aos diferentes cenários econômicos, sociais e de saúde do País, atentando-se para o seu impacto sobre a arrecadação e contas da Previdência Social. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The Brazilian National Social Insurance Counsel of the Ministry of Social Insurance approved the Resolution N. 1.236 of 28/4/2004 that defines a new methodology to assess the value of taxes to be paid by firms, for occupational health related insurance costs. This methodology utilizes th [...] e Accident Insurance Factor, (Fator Acidentário Previdenciário) FAP, based on relative risks estimated for each industry trade. As part of its validation strategy, the Social Insurance Ministry decided to evaluate the epidemiological consistency of FAP. OBJECTIVE: The FAP purposes, data sources, the nature of the overall methodology, its advantages and limitations are all discussed, as well as its applicability and potential future impact on the Social Insurance Ministry budget and on the workers' health and safety. METHODS: A documental analysis was conducted with the Resolution text and its attached essay. RESULTS: The FAP represents an advance because of its transparent scientific criteria that may allows reduction of taxes, when improvement in work conditions and the resulting decrease in diseases or injuries are observed. It also overcomes problems of definition and assessment of occupational causal relationships because overall diseases and injuries will be considered regardless of their causal relation to occupational exposures. Since taxes can be reduced as work and health conditions improve, it may contribute to a more effective participation of employers in prevention. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to systematically and continuously monitor the application of FAP, with extensive society participation, reviewing and adjusting it to the distinct economic, social and health scenarios in the country, considering its impact on the Social Insurance budget.

Vilma Sousa, Santana.

208

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board`s investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63).

Gerton, R.E.

1997-07-25

209

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board's investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63)

210

Experimental investigations on the behaviour of main cooling pumps in loss-of-coolant accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For an analysis of loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors the stationary and transient behaviour of main cooling pumps at the flowing of a single- or two-phase medium has to be known. Therefore experiments in decisive parametric ranges were carried out on two axial, in contrast to the original in a scale of 1:4 and 1:5 scaled down model pumps. The stationary experimental results show that the valid laws of similarity for the description of the pump behaviour H/H0=f(Q/Q0; n/n0) und T/T0=f(Q/Q0; n/n0) at single-phase flow are also relevant at the two-phase flow, if the volumetric steam content as well as the pressure are taken into account as additional parameters. The results of the blowdown experiments correspond to the stationary measured values as long as no critical flow conditions occur in the experimental pump. The essay contains the following chapters: laws of similarity, model pumps, experimental set-up, measurement techniques, stationary experiments (experimental results), transient experiments (experimental results), conclusions. (orig.)

211

Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

Naser Azad

2013-03-01

212

Investigation of accident cases for high pressure, high temperature experimental helium loop using RELAP5-3D code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accident cases are investigated for the Helium Loop Karlsruhe (HELOKA) facility, a high pressure and high temperature experimental helium loop having the European Helium Cooled Pebble Beds (HCPB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) as test module. Two typical operation modes for the loop operation have been numerically modeled using RELAP5-3D code: a pulsed operation (ITER-like situation) and a steady state operation (very long pulse). In both situations a maximum heat load on the first wall of 500 kW/m2 has been considered. Using the generated RELAP-model for these two operating modes three accident cases are studied: failure of helium pressure control system (PCS), loss of helium flow and loss of cooling water flow. Simulation results show that the most critical case is the loss of helium flow. In this case failure of the TBM box is possible. By the loss of cooling water the integrity of the TBM box could be assured, if actions are taken in time. By the failure of the PCS the integrity of pressure barriers are not affected.

213

Factors affecting vertical distribution of Fukushima accident-derived radiocesium in soil under different land-use conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan, triggered by a big earthquake and the resulting tsunami on 11 March 2011, caused a substantial release of radiocesium (137Cs and 134Cs) and a subsequent contamination of soils in a range of terrestrial ecosystems. Identifying factors and processes affecting radiocesium retention in these soils is essential to predict how the deposited radiocesium will migrate through the soil profile and to other biological components. We investigated vertical distributions of radiocesium and physicochemical properties in soils (to 20 cm depth) at 15 locations under different land-use types (croplands, grasslands, and forests) within a 2 km × 2 km mesh area in Fukushima city. The total 137Cs inventory deposited onto and into soil was similar (58.4 ± 9.6 kBq m?2) between the three different land-use types. However, aboveground litter layer at the forest sites and herbaceous vegetation at the non-forested sites contributed differently to the total 137Cs inventory. At the forest sites, 50–91% of the total inventory was observed in the litter layer. The aboveground vegetation contribution was in contrast smaller (137Cs in mineral soil layers; 137Cs penetrated deeper in the forest soil profiles than in the non-forested soil profiles. We quantified 1 soil profiles. We quantified 137Cs retention at surface soil layers, and showed that higher 137Cs retention can be explained in part by larger amounts of silt- and clay-sized particles in the layers. More importantly, the 137Cs retention highly and negatively correlated with soil organic carbon content divided by clay content across all land-use types. The results suggest that organic matter inhibits strong adsorption of 137Cs on clay minerals in surface soil layers, and as a result affects the vertical distribution and thus the mobility of 137Cs in soil, particularly in the forest ecosystems. - Highlights: ? Vertical distribution of radiocesium was investigated for 15 soils. ? Forest litter layer held 50–91% of the total 137Cs inventory. ? 137Cs penetrated deeper in forest soils than in cropland and grassland soils. ? Stronger 137Cs retention was observed in soils rich in finer-sized particles. ? 137Cs retention was lower in soils rich in organic carbon relative to clay content.

214

Determination of transfer factors and effective half-times in several domestic animals for cesium 137 from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the wake of the Chernobyl accident contaminated fodder-hey and grass has been fed to cows, bulls, calves, lambs and swine (fed with whey). The problem was to decide if or not the animals could be slaughtered with confidence that their meat had contaminations below the legal limits. On the one hand, transfer factors fodder-to-meat and fodder-to-milk as well as the efficiency of radioactivity reducing additives had to be determined. On the other hand the correlation of live-animals measurements with the meat contamination was investigated. The correlation was satisfactory except with swine. The high-resolution Ge detectors have strong advantages as compared to Na detectors, though too expensive for general applications in slaughter-houses. 10 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs. (qui)

215

Accidents - Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

216

El Cuerpo Militar de Sanidad en la Investigación de Accidentes Aéreos / The role of Military Health Service in Aircraft Accident Investigation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La investigación de un accidente o incidente aéreo puede ser simple o enormemente compleja. El proceso de investigación puede conducir a la elaboración de un informe directo y conciso o lo más frecuente, significa un largo camino de recopilación, análisis, estudio y finalmente la elaboración de posi [...] bles conclusiones. En este proceso, los aspectos médicos, psicológicos, ambientales, psicosociales o ergonómicos englobados en el término genérico de factores humanos cobran una especial relevancia, atribuyéndose hasta un 60-80% de causas directas o coadyuvantes al mismo. En este trabajo se revisan los antecedentes jurídicos y base legal en la que se apoya la Comisión para la investigación técnica de accidentes de aeronaves militares (CITAAM), así como sus atribuciones, organización y composición, sus funciones generales y más concretamente las encomendadas al vocal médico de la misma. Desde su creación en 1994, la experiencia acumulada ha sido enorme, haciéndose mención de algunos datos de interés estadístico pero señalando también la labor de formación realizada y su proyección nacional e internacional, sobre todo en el marco de la OTAN. Abstract in english Aircraft Accident Investigation means a complex task in order to identify the major causes which lead to the mishap. Investigation process end in a technical report, which encloses a large amount of information and data gathering documentation, to be studied, analyzed and lines of inquiry establishe [...] d to finally produce the appropriate conclusions. Medical, psychological, environmental, psychosocial and ergonomic faces of the investigation are framed in the so called human factors, which actually leads to 60-80% of the causal factors of accidents. In this report we have reviewed the legal basis in which the CITAAM is supported, competencies, organization and composition, general functions and specifically responsibilities of the medical representative in the board. Since the establishment of the CITAAM in 1994 the experience accumulated has been very wide-ranged and we show some statistical data and work produced in education and instruction, as well as the national and international relationships mostly in the NATO frame.

F., Rios Tejada; B., Puente Espada.

217

El Cuerpo Militar de Sanidad en la Investigación de Accidentes Aéreos / The role of Military Health Service in Aircraft Accident Investigation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La investigación de un accidente o incidente aéreo puede ser simple o enormemente compleja. El proceso de investigación puede conducir a la elaboración de un informe directo y conciso o lo más frecuente, significa un largo camino de recopilación, análisis, estudio y finalmente la elaboración de posi [...] bles conclusiones. En este proceso, los aspectos médicos, psicológicos, ambientales, psicosociales o ergonómicos englobados en el término genérico de factores humanos cobran una especial relevancia, atribuyéndose hasta un 60-80% de causas directas o coadyuvantes al mismo. En este trabajo se revisan los antecedentes jurídicos y base legal en la que se apoya la Comisión para la investigación técnica de accidentes de aeronaves militares (CITAAM), así como sus atribuciones, organización y composición, sus funciones generales y más concretamente las encomendadas al vocal médico de la misma. Desde su creación en 1994, la experiencia acumulada ha sido enorme, haciéndose mención de algunos datos de interés estadístico pero señalando también la labor de formación realizada y su proyección nacional e internacional, sobre todo en el marco de la OTAN. Abstract in english Aircraft Accident Investigation means a complex task in order to identify the major causes which lead to the mishap. Investigation process end in a technical report, which encloses a large amount of information and data gathering documentation, to be studied, analyzed and lines of inquiry establishe [...] d to finally produce the appropriate conclusions. Medical, psychological, environmental, psychosocial and ergonomic faces of the investigation are framed in the so called human factors, which actually leads to 60-80% of the causal factors of accidents. In this report we have reviewed the legal basis in which the CITAAM is supported, competencies, organization and composition, general functions and specifically responsibilities of the medical representative in the board. Since the establishment of the CITAAM in 1994 the experience accumulated has been very wide-ranged and we show some statistical data and work produced in education and instruction, as well as the national and international relationships mostly in the NATO frame.

F., Rios Tejada; B., Puente Espada.

2012-12-01

218

A limited investigation of the sensitivity of the containment source term to certain primary circuit parameters under PWR severe accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitivity of the source term to the containment for a limited number of primary circuit parameters and phenomena has been investigated for three hypothetical PWR severe accident sequences. These sequences are: a large hot leg break with failure of electric power to engineered safety features (AB hot leg); a small cold leg break with failure of pumped ECCS (S2D) and a transient initiated sequence with failure of secondary system relief valves, power conversion and auxiliary feedwater systems and loss of on and off-site power for at least 3 hours (TMLB'). All of these are substantially beyond the design basis. The investigation is a direct continuation of the PWR Severe Accident Containment Study. Results are discussed in terms of the effect of a given parameter or phenomenon on the retention in the primary circuit, the physical form of the source to the containment and finally the parameters describing the aerosol size distribution entering the containment. For an AB hot leg large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) sequence the retention within the primary circuit is generally small and largely insensitive to most of the parameters considered. However, the particle size distribution of released aerosol material is sensitive to many of the parameters studied, and variations greater than a factor of 3 are predicted. The circuit residence time for a S2D small break LOCA sequence is higher than for a large break, and this results in increased retention. The size distribution and quantity of aerosols reaching the containment show strong sensitivities to many of the parameters studied. During a transient-initiated TLMB' sequence the residence times within the primary circuit are even longer than for the small break LOCA sequence. Calculations predict almost complete retention of the aerosol species and very high retention of volatile fission products. The retention of fission products is dominated by the rise in circuit temperatures following core slump, and this results in high vapour fractions being released into the containment. Fission product vapour fractions have been overlooked in containment behaviour calculations and may give rise to aerosol nucleation at the circuit breach. This could result in a bi-modal size distribution that would require careful assessment. The timing, and physical characteristics of the aerosol and fission product sources to the containment are sensitive to most of the parameters studied. (author)

219

Investigation of Countercurrent Helium-Air Flows in Air-ingress Accidents for VHTRs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this research is to develop an extensive experimental database for the air- ingress phenomenon for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This research is intended to be a separate-effects experimental study. However, the project team will perform a careful scaling analysis prior to designing a scaled-down test facility in order to closely tie this research with the real application. As a reference design in this study, the team will use the 600 MWth gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) developed by General Atomic. In the test matrix of the experiments, researchers will vary the temperature and pressure of the helium— along with break size, location, shape, and orientation—to simulate deferent scenarios and to identify potential mitigation strategies. Under support of the Department of Energy, a high-temperature helium test facility has been designed and is currently being constructed at Ohio State University, primarily for high- temperature compact heat exchanger testing for the VHTR program. Once the facility is in operation (expected April 2009), this study will utilize high-temperature helium up to 900°C and 3 MPa for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) depressurization and air-ingress experiments. The project team will first conduct a scaling study and then design an air-ingress test facility. The major parameter to be measured in the experiments is oxygen (or nitrogen) concentration history at various locations following a LOCA scenario. The team will use two measurement techniques: 1) oxygen (or similar type) sensors employed in the flow field, which will introduce some undesirable intrusiveness, disturbing the flow, and 2) a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging technique, which has no physical intrusiveness to the flow but requires a transparent window or test section that the laser beam can penetrate. The team will construct two test facilities, one for high-temperature helium tests with local sensors and the other for low- temperature helium tests with the PLIF technique. The results from the two instruments will provide a means to cross-calibrate the measurement techniques.

Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Oh, Chang

2013-10-03

220

Investigating Factors that Influence Weathering of Monuments in a Cemetery  

Science.gov (United States)

In this field activity students will discover some of the factors that influence weathering of rock by making observations, asking questions and completing an investigation of their own design in a local cemetery.

 
 
 
 
221

Postulated accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture on 'Postulated Accidents' is the first of a series of lectures on the dynamic and transient behaviour of nuclear power plants, especially pressurized water reactors. The main points covered will be: Reactivity Accidents, Transients (Intact Loop) and Loss of Cooland Accidents (LOCA) including small leak. This lecture will discuss the accident analysis in general, the definition of the various operational phases, the accident classification, and, as an example, an accident sequence analysis on the basis of 'Postulated Accidents'. (orig./RW)

222

Human factors issues in severe accident management: Training for decision-making under stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, there is a growing awareness that the decision-making tasks required for selecting appropriate control actions, in addition to guidance from formal procedures, also involve cognitive activities commonly referred to as judgment or reasoning. A project was completed to address the nature of the cognitive skills that may be important to decision-making in the nuclear power plant environment, especially during severe accident management. The project identified a model of decision-making that could account for both rule-based and knowledge-based decision-making and used it to identify cognitive skills for both individuals and operational crews. This analysis was then used to identify existing training techniques for cognitive skills and the general characteristics of successful training techniques

223

Exercise (effort) tolerance and factors affecting this tolerance for liquidators of consequences of the ChNPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physical efficiency and factors affecting it for persons exposed to irradiation (the radiation dose being in the range up to 0.75 Gy) has been studied. 670 participants of liquidating the consequences of ChNPP accident have been examined. Depending on the radiation doses to which the people have been exposed the liquidators have been subdivided into 4 groups: for the 1st group the radiation doses ranging from 0.25 to 0.75 Gy; for the 2nd group the radiation doses ranging from 0.10 to 0.24 Gy; for the 3rd group the radiation doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.10 Gy; for the 4th group the radiation dose being up to 0.05 Gy. The physical load was ensured with veloergometer. The results have made it possible to estimate one of the basic health criterion for liquidators of consequences of ChNPP accident (i.e. exercise (effort) tolerance). No direct relationship of the exercise magnitude and the radiation dose within the range up to 0.75 Gy and the irradiation time have been observed. The correlation of the exercise magnitude with due account to age has been provided. 15 refs.; 2 tabs

224

Speed Variance and Its Influence on Accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to investigate the traffic engineering factors that influence speed variance and to determine to what extent speed variance affects accident rates. Detailed analyses were carried out to relate speed variance with posted speed limit, design speeds, and other traffic variables. The major factor identified was the difference…

Garber, Nicholas J.; Gadirau, Ravi

225

A Look at Aircraft Accident Analysis in the Early Days: Do Early 20th Century Accident Investigation Techniques Have Any Lessons for Today?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the early years of powered flight, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics in the United States produced three reports describing a method of analysis of aircraft accidents. The first report was published in 1928; the second, which was a revision of the first, was published in 1930; and the third, which was a revision and update of the second, was published in 1936. This paper describes the contents of these reports, and compares the method of analysis proposed therein to the methods used today.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

2007-01-01

226

PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

Jovica Jovanovic

2004-01-01

227

The Teenage Nonviolence Test: A Factor Analytic Investigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the use of nonviolent strategies by young adults in the United States when faced with conflict. To date, there has been little research on this topic anywhere. The factorial structure of the Teenage Nonviolence Test (TNT, an instrument designed to elicit information on teenagers’ stated tendencies toward nonviolence, was examined. Two hundred and twenty-eight college students from the United States participated in the project. A series of principle components factor analyses with varimax rotation were performed on TNT item responses. A three-factor solution comprised of 37 of the original 55-items best fit the data. Factor 1 seemed to represent acting violently toward others and was labeled, “Physical and Psychological Violence.” Factor 2 tapped an empathic response toward persons in need and was named, “Empathy.” The final factor was labeled “Satyagraha,” as this factor appeared to assess the discovery of truth. Implications for research and social justice interventions are presented.

Lawrence H. GERSTEIN

2014-03-01

228

Application of a Software tool for Evaluating Human Factors in Accident Sequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) includes the actions of the operator like elements in the set of the considered protection performances during accident sequences. Nevertheless, its impact throughout a sequence is not analyzed in a dynamic way. In this sense, it is convenient to make more detailed studies about its importance in the dynamics of the sequences, letting make studies of sensitivity respect to the human reliability and the response times. For this reason, the CSN is involved in several activities oriented to develop a new safety analysis methodology, the Integrated Safety Assessment (ISA), which must be able to incorporate operator actions in conventional thermo-hydraulic (TH) simulations. One of them is the collaboration project between CSN, HRP and the DSE-UPM that started in 2003. In the framework of this project, a software tool has been developed to incorporate operator actions in TH simulations. As a part of the ISA, this tool permits to quantify human error probabilities (HEP) and to evaluate its impact in the final state of the plant. Independently, it can be used for evaluating the impact of the execution by operators of procedures and guidelines in the final state of the plant and the evaluation of the allowable response times for the manual actions of the operator. The results obtained in the first pilot case are included in this paper. (authors)

229

Theoretical investigations of the meltoff and resolidification process of fuel claddings during accidents in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During loss-of-coolant-flow accidents in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors with failure to scram the fuel claddings will melt after boiling and evaporation of the coolant. The CMOT model presented here describes the subsequent process of relocation and resolidification of the molten claddings. The basic thermohydrodynamics equations of the two-phase flow of cladding material and sodium vapor are solved numerically by differential approximations in a Eulerian reference net. The results calculated by the model improved the insight into the dynamics of the cladding relocation process. Here are the main results: - Shortly after the onset of cladding relocation large waves of molten cladding material are generated. The motion of these waves contributes considerably to the material transport. - The dynamics of cladding relocation exhibits strong local incoherences. - The formation of cladding blockages observed at the ends of the fuel region is confirmed by the calculations. - In case of incoherent cladding meltoff less cladding material is transported upwards. - Cladding relocation strongly depends on the axial pressure drop and the underlying friction factor correlations. Recalculation of the R5 loss-of-coolant-flow experiment performed in the U.S. TREAT test reactor is in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig./HP) 891 HP

230

Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO{sup 1} and NISA{sup 2} that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident.

Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15

231

Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO1 and NISA2 that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident

232

Investigation of CET Effect as a SAMG Entry Condition under Severe Accidents of OPR1000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

If the reactor vessel failure (RPV) failure time is delayed, the probability of achieving this objective of management becomes higher. Also, that whether the entry to SAMG is too early or too late can be checked in the aspect of how much action time the operator can secure. For these reasons, Park et al. studied the effect of SAMG entry condition on operator action time for prevention of RPV failure in the OPR1000 using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 computer code in detail. In this study, various SAMG entry conditions from the points of view of delaying RPV failure time and available operator's action time were investigated for OPR1000 using level 2 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) code MELCOR. From the point of view of delaying RPV failure time, SAMG entry condition when CET is 923K is the best for SBLOCA without SI and TLOFW among selected CET conditions. However, for SBO, the best result follows when the SAMG entry condition CET is 838K. For available operator's action time's view, there was no significant difference between selected SAMG entry conditions. For these reasons, in future study, the standards of CET selection as SAMG entry conditions and the relationship between CET and quantity of oxidation heat should be researched. Also, more SAMG entry conditions should be tested which is far more different from selected conditions, such as EDF PWR standard, CET = 1100 .deg. C.

Seo, Seungwon; Jeun, Gyoodong; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwan Yeol; Ha, Kwang Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15

233

Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity score, 3-dimensional reconstructions of the PMCT, and an injury pattern analysis. We describe how, on basis ofthese data, we reached a conclusion about which of the two victims was the most likely to have been in control of the airplane at the time of accident. Furthermore, we argue that all victims of fatal airplane crashes should be subject to forensic autopsy, including PMCT and forensic chemical analysis. The continuous accumulation of knowledge about injury patterns from “simple” accidents is the foundation for the correct analysis of “difficult” accidents.

HØyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov

2012-01-01

234

Second report of the special committee on the investigation of the accident in a US nuclear power station, Nuclear Safety Commission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first report was published in May, 1979, by this special committee on the accident in Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. It was decided to publish the second report because the more detailed informations were obtained on the development of the accident regarding the operation of the reactor and the radiation control, and the technical evaluation became feasible. In this report, the features of the reactor and the background of the accident are described centering around the development of the accident in Chapter 1, and the matters to be examined in view of the safety measures in Japan are pointed out from the teachings obtained by the experiences of the accident in Chapter 2. However, the final technical evaluation of the reactor, the measures at the time of emergency, the problems of environment and location, the social and economic considerations and the plan of the repair are left as the subjects for the future, therefore the investigation will be continued hereafter to contribute to the improvement of safety in the nuclear power stations in Japan. The matters to be reflected to the measures for security in Japan concerning the standards and safety examination, the design of reactor plants, the operation control of reactor plants, the prevention of disasters and the study on safety are discussed. (Kako, I.)

235

Evaluation and Learning after Major Railway Accidents : Various perspectives of accident research theories in evaluation reports and their implications for learning after accidents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accident causation has been differently approached and evaluated in the last decades. This thesis studies four large accidents in the Norwegian railway organization, i.e. the Tretten accident, the Nordstrand accident, the Åsta accident and the Alnabru/Sjursøya accident. Accident causation was investigated by systematically reviewing and comparing the respective accidents? evaluation reports to three dominant accident research theories: The Energy and Barrier theory, the Man-made Disaster ...

Storsveen, Silje

2012-01-01

236

Experimental investigation of material chemical effects on emergency core cooling pump suction filter performance after loss of coolant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Integral tests of head loss through an emergency core cooling filter screen are conducted, simulating reactor building environmental conditions for 30 days after a loss of coolant accident. A test rig with five individual loops each of whose chamber is established to test chemical product formation and measure the head loss through a sample filter. The screen area at each chamber and the amounts of reactor building materials are scaled down according to specific plant condition. A series of tests have been performed to investigate the effects of calcium-silicate, reactor building spray, existence of calcium-silicate with tri-sodium phosphate (TSP), and composition of materials. The results showed that head loss across the chemical bed with even a small amount of calcium-silicate insulation instantaneously increased as soon as TSP was added to the test solution. Also, the head loss across the filter screen is strongly affected by spray duration and the head loss increase is rapid at the early stage, because of high dissolution and precipitation of aluminum and zinc. After passivation of aluminum and zinc by corrosion, the head loss increase is much slowed down and is mainly induced by materials such as calcium, silicon, and magnesium leached from NUKONTM and concrete. Furthermore, it is newly found that the spay buffer agent, tri-sodium phosphate, to form protective coating on the aluminum surface and reduce aluminum leaching is not effective for a large amo leaching is not effective for a large amount of aluminum and a long spray.

237

Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. The study also provides several suggestions for marketers seeking to use viral marketing to position brands or to change a brand’s image, to encourage new product trials and to increase product uptake rates. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use product on virtual marketing. In addition, the study considers internal factors such as inclusion (the need to be part of a group, the need to be different and affection on viral marketing. The survey has been accomplished among 140 Iranian people, who were familiar with virtual marketing and they are selected, randomly. Using Pearson correlation as well as regression analysis, the study provides some evidences that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between some internal/external factors and virtual marketing.

Nina Ghane

2014-04-01

238

Investigation regarding the long-term security developments in the Swedish nuclear power and the response to the accident at Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Swedish nuclear plants need to continue to work on analysis and actions in the plants, partly to meet the demands of legislation and agreed action plans, and partly due to additional security requirements on account of experiences from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, stress tests, security investigations and investigations relating to physical protection. It is also essential to continue with safety improvements to gradually increase margins against unforeseen events in aging plants during long-term operation

239

Investigating knowledge management critical success factors in carpet industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical study to learn more about challenges in carpet industry using factor analysis. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of 51 questions in Likert scale and distribute it among experts in Carpet industry. We have analyzed the data using factor analysis and deleted 10 most redundant questions. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.88 for the remaining questions, which is well above the minimum desirable limit. We have also managed to remove six more questions using principal axis factoring leaving 8 basic components including 35 different questions. The proposed study of this paper has categorized eight factors including specialized relationships, knowledge coordinator, knowledge tool, knowledge organization, knowledge processes, knowledge chain, knowledge hardware and Knowledge feasibility study. Investigating details of the results of each eight items could help us build better strategies to help this industry grow faster and more reliable in today's business world.

Mehdi Ansari

2012-09-01

240

Accidentes vasculares cerebrales en la comarca de Osona: Factores de riesgo cardiovascular / Cerebrovascular accidents in Osona borough: Cardiovascular risk factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: La enfermedad vascular cerebral (EVC) es la segunda causa de ingreso en orden de frecuencia en nuestro servicio, esto refleja la alta incidencia de esta patología en nuestra comarca. En este estudio se analizan las características clínicas, biológicas, factores de riesgo cardiovasculares [...] (FRCV) y actuación sobre los mismos al alta hospitalaria en un servicio de Medicina Interna de un hospital comarcal; hospital de referencia de la comarca de Osona, así como otras características, de los pacientes ingresados de enero de 2001 a diciembre de 2001 por EVC. Método: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo revisando los informes de alta hospitalaria de cada paciente. Ingresaron 277 pacientes con EVC. Resultados: Las características biológicas, demográficas así como los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares analizados (hipertensión arterial, diabetes, tabaquismo, dislipemia entre otros) fueron similares respecto a otras series. La incidencia de EVC hemorrágica y cardioembólica, fue algo menor, se ha de tener en cuenta que se excluyen aquellos episodios hemorrágicos que necesitaron intervención neuroquirúrgica, éstos fueron derivados a un centro de nivel superior que dispusiera de servicio de neurocirugía. La edad no fue un factor de mal pronóstico en cuanto a presentar más secuelas después del episodio ni más mortalidad, este dato discrepa de otras series. Conclusiones: La actuación al alta sobre los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y recomendaciones higiénico-dietéticas fueron deficientes. La estancia media fue superior si la comparamos con la estancia media de las unidades de ictus especializadas. Abstract in english Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the second cause of hospitalization in the order of frequency in our service, thus reflecting this pathology’s high incidence in our borough. This study analyzes clinical and biological characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and actions taken in h [...] ospital discharge in the internal medicine department of a borough hospital (the reference hospital in Osona borough), as well as other characteristics of the hospitalized CVD patients from January 2001 to December 2001. Method: This study was performed by revising each patient’s hospital discharge report. 277 patients were hospitalized for CVD. Results: Biological and demographic characteristics, as well as cardiovascular risk factors analyzed (arterial hypertension, diabetes, smoking, or dyslipidemy) were similar to other series. Incidence of hemorrhagic and cardio-embolic CVD was slightly lower, taken into account that hemorrhagic episodes that needed neurosurgical intervention were transferred to a higher-level center with a department of neurosurgery. Age was neither a factor for bad prediction leading to bad sequels after the episode nor a cause of an increased mortality. This data differs from others series. Conclusions: Actions taken on discharge, on cardiovascular risk factors and on hygienic-dietetic recommendations were deficient. Average stay was higher when compared to average stay in specialized ictus units.

C., Sanclemente Ansó; F., Alonso Valdés; E., Rovira Pujol; D., Vigil Martín; J., Vilaró Pujals.

 
 
 
 
241

Human factors engineering in healthcare systems: the problem of human error and accident management.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses some crucial issues associated with the exploitation of data and information about health care for the improvement of patient safety. In particular, the issues of human factors and safety management are analysed in relation to exploitation of reports about non-conformity events and field observations. A methodology for integrating field observation and theoretical approaches for safety studies is described. Two sample cases are discussed in detail: the first one makes ref...

Vella, Gioacchino

2010-01-01

242

CYCLIST ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is necessary for all road traffic participants that they respect the traffic rules. It is especially important for cyclists as weaker participants in traffic to be aware of the importance of abiding by the traffic rules and thus take care of their own safety and the safety of others. Consequently cyclists have to contribute a great deal for their own safety. They have to have all the security equipment and a roadworthy bicycle. With these security measurements and the abiding of traffic ru...

Majcen, Tomaz?

2012-01-01

243

Accidente vascular encefálico: Presentación clínica y factores de riesgo / Clinical presentation and risk factors of cerebrovascular accident  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La alteración focal aguda de la función cerebral en el adulto permite diagnosticar un accidente vascular encefálico (AVE) e iniciar precozmente el rescate de tejido cerebral. En los niños, las diferencias clínicas de esta patología en relación al adulto generan atraso, subdiagnóstico e [...] impiden el tratamiento en la etapa aguda. Objetivo: Describir la presentación clínica y factores de riesgo del AVE isquémico en 156 niños, comparar la presentación clínica según edad y tipo de AVE. Pacientes y Método: Se analiza un registro de AVE isquémico, confirmado con imágenes cerebrales, en población menor de 18 años, iniciado en Enero 2003. Resultados: La mediana de edad: 4,9 meses (33% recién nacidos, 46% menores 6 años y 21% mayor de 6 años), 64% fueron hombres. Los infartos arteriales correspondieron al 85% y el resto fueron trombosis de senos venosos. Predominaron los signos difusos (67%) en menores de 6 años (p = 0,001). Las convulsiones fueron observadas en el 61% de los niños menores de 6 años (p = 0,03), el 33% presentó signos focales. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron patologías sistémicas agudas y cardiopatías. En 14,7% no se encontraron factores de riesgo. Conclusiones: La búsqueda de signos focales agudos de AVE no tiene utilidad diagnóstica en el niño, a diferencia de los adultos, pues su ausencia no excluye patología vascular isquémica focal. La patología sistémica aguda fue el factor de riesgo más frecuente para AVE. Abstract in english Introduction: Acute focal brain dysfunction in adults serves to diagnose and to provide early rescue of the brain tissue. In children, the clinical differences of this condition compared to adults results in delayed diagnosis and treatment. Objective: To describe the clinical presentation and risk f [...] actors of CVA in 156 children and related to age and type of CVA. Patients and Method: A CVA registry of newborn to 18 years old was started in January 2003 were analized. Diagnosis was confirmed by brain imaging. Results: The median of age was 4.9 month (33% was newborn, 46% 6 years old); 64% were males. Arterial ischemic stroke represented 85%, the rest were cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. In the clinical manifestations the diffuse signs were more frequently seen (67%) in children

Marta, Hernández Ch; Catalina, Samsó Z; Raúl, Escobar H; Tomás, Mesa L.

2013-07-01

244

Accidente vascular encefálico: Presentación clínica y factores de riesgo / Clinical presentation and risk factors of cerebrovascular accident  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La alteración focal aguda de la función cerebral en el adulto permite diagnosticar un accidente vascular encefálico (AVE) e iniciar precozmente el rescate de tejido cerebral. En los niños, las diferencias clínicas de esta patología en relación al adulto generan atraso, subdiagnóstico e [...] impiden el tratamiento en la etapa aguda. Objetivo: Describir la presentación clínica y factores de riesgo del AVE isquémico en 156 niños, comparar la presentación clínica según edad y tipo de AVE. Pacientes y Método: Se analiza un registro de AVE isquémico, confirmado con imágenes cerebrales, en población menor de 18 años, iniciado en Enero 2003. Resultados: La mediana de edad: 4,9 meses (33% recién nacidos, 46% menores 6 años y 21% mayor de 6 años), 64% fueron hombres. Los infartos arteriales correspondieron al 85% y el resto fueron trombosis de senos venosos. Predominaron los signos difusos (67%) en menores de 6 años (p = 0,001). Las convulsiones fueron observadas en el 61% de los niños menores de 6 años (p = 0,03), el 33% presentó signos focales. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron patologías sistémicas agudas y cardiopatías. En 14,7% no se encontraron factores de riesgo. Conclusiones: La búsqueda de signos focales agudos de AVE no tiene utilidad diagnóstica en el niño, a diferencia de los adultos, pues su ausencia no excluye patología vascular isquémica focal. La patología sistémica aguda fue el factor de riesgo más frecuente para AVE. Abstract in english Introduction: Acute focal brain dysfunction in adults serves to diagnose and to provide early rescue of the brain tissue. In children, the clinical differences of this condition compared to adults results in delayed diagnosis and treatment. Objective: To describe the clinical presentation and risk f [...] actors of CVA in 156 children and related to age and type of CVA. Patients and Method: A CVA registry of newborn to 18 years old was started in January 2003 were analized. Diagnosis was confirmed by brain imaging. Results: The median of age was 4.9 month (33% was newborn, 46% 6 years old); 64% were males. Arterial ischemic stroke represented 85%, the rest were cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. In the clinical manifestations the diffuse signs were more frequently seen (67%) in children

Marta, Hernández Ch; Catalina, Samsó Z; Raúl, Escobar H; Tomás, Mesa L.

245

Investigations of the potential for accident mitigation of the conceptical design for a core retention device developed in SR 209  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential for accident mitigation of the conceptual design for the core retention device developed in SR 209, was estimated by core meltdown and containment analyses. Such a device should prevent late fission product release especially due to failure of the containment by overpressurization (according to release categories 5 and 6 of the German Risk Study, Phase A). Assuming ideal operation of the device, the long term course of a meltdown accident can be influenced in a positive sense including the prevention of overpressurization. However, functional operation of the design seems to be highly uncertain for several reasons, i.g. due to uncertainties in the behaviour of the melt in the retention device. The design does not or only insufficiently cover accident scenarios with high pressure in vessel melt, that means for sequences relevant for their high contribution to core melt frequency. The design may have strong negative impacts on the course of meltdown accidents, LOCA's, constructive details and operation of a plant. Implementation of the measure is expected to need extreme effort, without making sense from the technical point of view. The measure at all seems not to be recommendable for accident mitigation. (orig./HP)

246

An investigation on different factors influencing on competitive advantage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors influencing on getting competitive advantage on two construction firms, namely Keyson and Sazeh consultants in Iran. In this study, four variables of internal resources, personal characteristics of decision makers, demand conditions and market strategies/services are investigated. The study prepares a questionnaire consists of 19 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 145 regular employees who work for these two firms. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.93, which was well above the minimum acceptable limit. The results of the survey have confirmed that while four issues influence on the success of the firms on getting competitive advantage, there were some meaningful difference between the effects of the factors.

Yasaman Ramezan

2014-06-01

247

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our study, Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.815 and there are eight influencing factors including flexibility in offering various services, building good relationship with customers, technology and processes, customers’ experiences, brand identity in continuous advertisement, organization size, customer perception on reputation of brand and customers’ tendency to build better brand loyalty. In our survey, flexibility in offering various services received the highest rank followed by building good relationship with customers.

Naser Azad

2013-07-01

248

An empirical investigation on factors influencing export of herbal supplements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts who are professional in the area of production and distribution of herbal supplements and using factor analysis, the study detects eight factors including supportive laws and regulations, organizational atmosphere, marketing structure, knowledge oriented, feasibility study, research and development, competitive strategy and partnership strategies.

Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi

2014-02-01

249

Investigating the effect of different factors on profitability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on profitability of shares of petrochemical industry. The study gathers the information of three firms whose stock prices were listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2012. Using different regression analysis, the study has determined that while stock price, currency rate and material influence on profitability of these firms, energy price, liquidity and gold price had no impact on profitability in petrochemical industry.

Mohsen Hamidian

2014-11-01

250

Molecular-genetic damages of children immune system under influence of Chernobyl accident factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Longterm study of children immunity damage under low doses radiation exposure revealed dynamic immunoregulatory mechanisms impairment which resulted in hyper-IgE-emia syndrome, cellular immunity depression and allergy status development. Investigation of DNA damage and immune cells genome stability by new 'fast micromethod' showed a reliable increase of DNA damage in children from contaminated with Cs-137 areas. There was strong correlation between DNA breaks frequency and soil contamination level, age of children (term of exposure) and serum IgE concentration. The method may be useful for diagnostics and monitoring of hyper-IgE-emia syndrome (authors)

251

Intake of radionuclides through food chains as a factor in the exposure of the Soviet population after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the first few days after the accident, a standard (of 1x10-7 Ci/L) was established for the concentration of iodine in milk, calculated to ensure that the dose to the thyroid gland would not exceed 30 rem. Temporary permissible levels for the concentration of radioactive substances in 24 types of food, water and medical material were established and implemented on 30 May 1986. The highest concentrations of radiocaesium in milk recorded in 1986 were 3-5x10-7 Ci/L. Unrestricted consumption of that milk could have led to a daily intake of 3000-5000x10-10 Ci of radiocaesium. Those individuals who had consumed such milk were identified. The average levels of radiocaesium per region did not exceed the emergency standards. The actual concentrations of radiostrontium in food products did not exceed the temporary permissible levels calculated for this dose and in most cases were 10-100 times less as a result of the control measures which were implemented. Standards, monitoring and classification of foodstuffs were introduced to reduce the internal exposure dose by a factor of 10-30, down to levels which were not only in line with the temporary limits but also with the radiation safety standards (NRB-76). The concentration of strontium-90 in all the main food products studied was relatively insignificant - namely about 0.3-3% of the radiocaesium concentration. (author). 11 tabs

252

Estimating the causes of traffic accidents using logistic regression and discriminant analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors that affect traffic accidents have been analysed in various ways. In this study, we use the methods of logistic regression and discriminant analysis to determine the damages due to injury and non-injury accidents in the Eskisehir Province. Data were obtained from the accident reports of the General Directorate of Security in Eskisehir; 2552 traffic accidents between January and December 2009 were investigated regarding whether they resulted in injury. According to the results, the effects of traffic accidents were reflected in the variables. These results provide a wealth of information that may aid future measures toward the prevention of undesired results. PMID:23837801

Karacasu, Murat; Ergül, Bar??; Altin Yavuz, Arzu

2014-12-01

253

Investigation of NPP behavior in case of loss of coolant accident based on comparison of different ASTEC computer code versions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the work performed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India in the frame of SARNET2 project. The performed work continues the effort in the field of nuclear safety and cooperation between INRNE-BAS and BARC. The main target is development and validation of ASTEC (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code) at the further, a tool for level-2 PSA analysis for better understanding of accident progression during in-vessel phase until reactor vessel failure. (authors)

254

Applying hierarchical loglinear models to nonfatal underground coal mine accidents for safety management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Underground mining is considered to be one of the most dangerous industries and mining remains the most hazardous occupation. Categorical analysis of accident records may present valuable information for preventing accidents. In this study, hierarchical loglinear analysis was applied to occupational injuries that occurred in an underground coal mine. The main factors affecting the accidents were defined as occupation, area, reason, accident time and part of body affected. By considering subfactors of the main factors, multiway contingency tables were prepared and, thus, the probabilities that might affect nonfatal injuries were investigated. At the end of the study, important accident risk factors and job groups with a high probability of being exposed to those risk factors were determined. This article presents important information on decreasing the number accidents in underground coal mines. PMID:24934420

Onder, Mustafa; Onder, Seyhan; Adiguzel, Erhan

2014-01-01

255

The state of thyroid system in children born form the parents irradiated in the result of Chornobyl accident as a factor of dysmetabolic changes in the period of sexual development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the work was to reveal functional and structural changes in the thyroid gland in children of puberty age with clinical manifestations of metabolic syndrome born from the parents irradiated in the result of Chornobyl accident. The study involved 108 patients aged 12-17. The investigated parameters characterizing TG function and the state and the of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism became the diagnostic criteria of dyshormonal disorders revealed in children with puberty dyshormonal disorders revealed in children with puberty dispituitarism. The pathological changes in the TG can be a risk factor of metabolic syndrome development.

256

Factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el anciano en San Juan y Martínez / Socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly. San Juan y Martinez municipality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el estudio de la problemática del anciano constituye un elemento de primordial importancia y aparece como un factor decisivo en las investigaciones médicas. Esto se debe al incremento de la población mayor de 65 años, calculada en más de 290 millones de personas con un aumento crecient [...] e en las últimas décadas. Objetivo: identificar los factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el anciano en el municipio San Juan y Martínez durante el año 2011. Material y método: se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal, el universo estuvo constituido por 615 ancianos que sufrieron algún tipo de accidentes registrados en hojas de cargo y la muestra de 300 ancianos, seleccionados por el método aleatorio estratificado. Se utilizaron como métodos la encuesta y la observación científica lo que permitió obtener una información variada y directa. Resultados: se obtuvo un predominio del sexo masculino, con edades comprendidas entre 71 y 75 años, las enfermedades asociadas que predominaron en el hombre fueron las del sistema osteomioarticular y en las mujeres la hipertensión arterial. La alteración intrínseca más frecuente fue la ingestión de medicamentos con un 90.2 % y el factor extrínseco los desniveles del piso con el 70.3 %. Conclusiones: entre los factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el an ciano predominan las enfermedades del sistema osteomioarticular, así como la ingestión de medicamentos y las barreras arquitectónicas (desniveles del piso). Abstract in english Introduction: the study of the problem of the elderly constitutes an essential element and it appears as a crucial factor in medical investigations, because of the increase of population older than 65 years old, calculated in more than 290 millions of people which is on the increase during the last [...] decades. Objective: to identify the socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly in San Juan y Martinez municipality during 2011. Material and method: a descriptive and cross-sectional research was carried out which target group included 615 old people having different kinds of accidents recorded on worksheets; the sample was comprised of 300 old people chosen by means of a stratified at random method. Surveys and scientific observation were the methods used collecting varied and direct information. Results: male sex prevailed, 71-75 years old; the prevailing associated diseases in men were those of the osteomyoarticular system and hypertension in women. The ingestion of medications was the most frequent intrinsic alteration (90.2%) and difference in floor levels prevailed as extrinsic factor (70.3%). Conclusions: among the socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly were osteomyoarticular system disorders, ingestions of medications and architectural barriers (difference in floor levels).

Olga Lidia, Benítez Pozo; Bertha Rita, Castillo Edua; Marielvis, Calero Benítez; Ileana Rosa, Hernández Pérez; José Jesús, Arencibia Sánchez.

2013-04-01

257

Factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el anciano en San Juan y Martínez / Socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly. San Juan y Martinez municipality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el estudio de la problemática del anciano constituye un elemento de primordial importancia y aparece como un factor decisivo en las investigaciones médicas. Esto se debe al incremento de la población mayor de 65 años, calculada en más de 290 millones de personas con un aumento crecient [...] e en las últimas décadas. Objetivo: identificar los factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el anciano en el municipio San Juan y Martínez durante el año 2011. Material y método: se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal, el universo estuvo constituido por 615 ancianos que sufrieron algún tipo de accidentes registrados en hojas de cargo y la muestra de 300 ancianos, seleccionados por el método aleatorio estratificado. Se utilizaron como métodos la encuesta y la observación científica lo que permitió obtener una información variada y directa. Resultados: se obtuvo un predominio del sexo masculino, con edades comprendidas entre 71 y 75 años, las enfermedades asociadas que predominaron en el hombre fueron las del sistema osteomioarticular y en las mujeres la hipertensión arterial. La alteración intrínseca más frecuente fue la ingestión de medicamentos con un 90.2 % y el factor extrínseco los desniveles del piso con el 70.3 %. Conclusiones: entre los factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el an ciano predominan las enfermedades del sistema osteomioarticular, así como la ingestión de medicamentos y las barreras arquitectónicas (desniveles del piso). Abstract in english Introduction: the study of the problem of the elderly constitutes an essential element and it appears as a crucial factor in medical investigations, because of the increase of population older than 65 years old, calculated in more than 290 millions of people which is on the increase during the last [...] decades. Objective: to identify the socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly in San Juan y Martinez municipality during 2011. Material and method: a descriptive and cross-sectional research was carried out which target group included 615 old people having different kinds of accidents recorded on worksheets; the sample was comprised of 300 old people chosen by means of a stratified at random method. Surveys and scientific observation were the methods used collecting varied and direct information. Results: male sex prevailed, 71-75 years old; the prevailing associated diseases in men were those of the osteomyoarticular system and hypertension in women. The ingestion of medications was the most frequent intrinsic alteration (90.2%) and difference in floor levels prevailed as extrinsic factor (70.3%). Conclusions: among the socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly were osteomyoarticular system disorders, ingestions of medications and architectural barriers (difference in floor levels).

Olga Lidia, Benítez Pozo; Bertha Rita, Castillo Edua; Marielvis, Calero Benítez; Ileana Rosa, Hernández Pérez; José Jesús, Arencibia Sánchez.

258

Analysis Fukushima 11032011 -- Extended analysis of the Fukushima accident on 11 March 2011 under special consideration of human and organisational factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the reactor accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi on 11 March 2011, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) launched an extended analysis of the accident with the following goals: a) a comprehensive understanding of the accident unrolling and of the contributing factors; b) the identification of resulting short-, mean- and long-term requirements for the operators of Swiss nuclear power plants; c) considerations on the own surveillance activity; d) the verification of the reports delivered by the Swiss plant operators, who have to check their own plant after each incident declared as of INES 2 level or higher, whichever the location in the whole world. Undoubtedly, the design of the nuclear power plants at Fukushima Dai-ichi was inappropriate in what regards the tsunami induced by the earthquake, and that this was a key factor that led to the accident. The questions here are rather how it came to this clear design insufficiency and why the accident developed in the way it did. According to ENSI, answers to these questions require both technical as well as human and organisational considerations. ENSI had no direct access to information sources and, therefore, had to check the reliability of information obtained from public sources, especially from authorities, plant operators, expert organisations and, last but not least, media reports. The understanding gained in this way should enable a better evaluation of the situation in Switzerland and lead to the definition of the most urgent measures to be implemented. Since the principal cause of the Fukushima accident is a failure in the plant design, it is necessary to critically reconsider the design of the Swiss reactors to make sure that no such mistake has been done here. Another question is why this evident design failure was not identified earlier in the course of the decades of operation, and why no improvement has been made. In this context, human and organisational factors seem to play an important role. But the responsibility cannot be put only on a few decision makers; on the contrary some human and organisational mechanisms play a fundamental role. Such mechanisms and external conditions can lead to situations in which facts are not recognized or even rejected, although they appear evident after the events. It is the responsibility of all actors in the nuclear industry: plant operators, governments, regulatory authorities, expert organisations, to understand the potential and actual consequences of these mechanisms and to consider them within an appropriate safety culture. It is not sufficient to implement new regulations; the safety organisations must be able to respond to unforeseen situations, and this requires flexibility and adaptation ability. In this sense the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident will be helpful for the Swiss conditions

259

Recriticality, a Key Phenomenon to Investigate in Core Disruptive Accident Scenarios of Current and Future Fast Reactor Designs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Final comments and conclusions: • Modern plants, should have performed better under Fukushima type event. • In future fast reactor systems significantly higher active and passive safety features are installed, which should cope with events like Fukushima. • One important lesson: put a focus on rare initiators, accident routes and consequences that are neither expected nor have been observed, events that are categorized under ‘black swans’. • Importance of severe accident research demonstrated - both analytically and experimentally for assessing and interpreting accident scenarios and developments. Precondition for developing preventive & mitigative safety measures. Passive safety measures are in the focus of advanced design options and must work under conditions of multiple loads and aggravating events. • Fast reactor systems behavior as the SFR under severe accident conditions: – In fast spectrum systems as the SFR the core is not in its neutronically most reactive configuration and SFRs may be loaded with MAs for waste management; – Recriticalities have a high probability because of the higher enrichment levels; – Short time scales have to be envisioned for core melt-down; – Decay heat levels might be significantly higher, if MA bearing fuel is involved. • Improve design by measures for prevention and/or mitigation of recriticalities; – High reliability of simulations required for proof; • Assessment of fuel relocated on peripheral structures; • Preventive/mitigating measures should not replace containment measures

260

Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur  

Science.gov (United States)

The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011. Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

E. Mohammad-pajooh

2014-05-01

262

Investigating Effective Factors on Iran’s Pistachio Exportation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of Iran’s economic is depending on oil’s incomes, therefore to increase non oil exportation likeagricultural products is the main goal of country’s economic development program. The goal of this paper is to investigate effective factors in pistachio exportation and mentioned goal will be consider by variable factors such as export’s principle, aflatoxin poison, and packaging. The type of this paper is descriptive–cognition and the related information for this scope have been collected by usinglibrary resources such as books, scientific journals, moreover for collecting necessary data in order to confirm or rejectresearch hypotheses a questionnaire designed by researcher have been used . Statistical society for this research includesthe pistachio exporter in Kerman city, the method being used has been random sampling. Results of this investigationshows that the principles of exporting, aflatoxin poison and packaging have great influence in exporting Iran’spistachio.

Seyed fathollah Amiri Aghdaie

2009-10-01

263

On the bad reputation of Fukushima's nuclear accident. A risk-economic approach to distance and price factors of processed food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2011, a big earthquake hit Japan and tsunami and nuclear power plant accident followed. Various discussions have been made on economical, ecological and psychological impacts of this disaster. Its bad reputation effect has not been much discussed, however. This paper deals with the relationship between the following two factors. They are: the distance from the nuclear power plant to the production place and the price of seemingly homogeneous processed food. (author)

264

Bayes factor for investigative assessment of selected handwriting features.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper extends previous research [1] on the use of multivariate continuous data in comparative handwriting examinations, notably for gender classification. A database has been constructed by analyzing the contour shape of loop characters of type a and d by means of Fourier analysis, which allows characters to be described in a global way by a set of variables (e.g., Fourier descriptors). Sample handwritings were collected from right- and left-handed female and male writers. The results reported in this paper provide further arguments in support of the view that investigative settings in forensic science represent an area of application for which the Bayesian approach offers a logical framework. In particular, the Bayes factor is computed for settings that focus on inference of gender and handedness of the author of an incriminated handwritten text. An emphasis is placed on comparing the efficiency for investigative purposes of characters a and d. PMID:25117907

Taroni, F; Marquis, R; Schmittbuhl, M; Biedermann, A; Thiéry, A; Bozza, S

2014-09-01

265

Investigation of the factors responsible for burns during MRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous reported burn injuries have been sustained during clinical MRI procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible factors that may be responsible for such burns. Experiments were performed to investigate three possible mechanisms for causing heating in copper wire during MRI: direct electromagnetic induction in a conductive loop, induction in a resonant conducting loop, and electric field resonant coupling with a wire (the antenna effect). Maximum recorded temperature rises were 0.6 degrees C for the loop, 61.1 degrees C for the resonant loop, and 63.5 degrees C for the resonant antenna. These experimental findings suggest that, contrary to common belief, it is unlikely that direct induction in a conductive loop will result in thermal injury. Burn incidents are more likely to occur due to the formation of resonant conducting loops and from extended wires forming resonant antenna. The characteristics of resonance should be considered when formulating safety guidelines. PMID:11276109

Dempsey, M F; Condon, B; Hadley, D M

2001-04-01

266

Investigation of steam line break accident during the development of emergency operating procedures for WWER440/V230  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of thermal-hydraulic analyses of Steam Line Break (SLB) accident in supporting of symptom based emergency operating procedures are presented. This kind of analyses are designed to provide the response of monitored plant parameters to identify symptoms available to the operators, timing of the loss of critical safety functions and timing of operator actions to avoid the loss of critical safety functions or core damage. RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been used to simulate the SLB accident in a WWER 440 NPP model. This model was developed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy for analyses of operational occurrences, abnormal events, and design bases scenarios. The model provides a significant analytical capability for the specialists working in the field of NPP safety. (authors)

267

Utilization of the IAIA (Investigation and Analysis of Incidents and Accidents) method in the investigation of the P-36 platform accident; Utilizacao do metodo IAIA (Investigacao e Analise de Acidentes e Incidentes) na investigacao do acidente ocorrido na plataforma P-36  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the beginning of XXI century the Brazilian oil industry report a big accident involving that which was the biggest petroleum platform of the world. With capacity production of 180.000 barrels a day and capacity compression of 7,2 million cubic meter a day of natural gas, the off-shore platform P-36 was situated on Roncador field, in Campos basin, operating in 1360 meters of water. As consequences, eleven deaths with irreparable traumas to the families, friends and worker partners, one billion dollars in prejudices to brazilian country, environmental damages by oil leak and injuries to PETROBRAS reputation in Brazil and in the world. The method of investigation and analysis of incidents and accidents - IAIA is very wide and its philosophy contain a lot of topics, since basic concepts, investigation actions, analysis action and diagnosis by the general kind of fail. Using this method and taking advantage from the report elaborated by the commission organized by ANP - Agencia Nacional do Petroleo and DPC - Diretoria de Portos e Costas, responsible for the investigation and analysis of the accident occurred with P-36, this paper identify the direct and indirect causes of the accident, in attempt to avoid new similar situations. (author)

Teles, Marcus de Barros [ARCE - Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

2004-07-01

268

Analysis methodology for RBMK-1500 core safety and investigations on corium coolability during a LWR severe accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis presents the work involving two broad aspects within the field of nuclear reactor analysis and safety. These are: - development of a fully independent reactor dynamics and safety analysis methodology of the RBMK-1500 core transient accidents and - experiments on the enhancement of coolability of a particulate bed or a melt pool due to heat removal through the control rod guide tubes. The first part of the thesis focuses on the development of the RBMK-1500 analysis methodology based on the CORETRAN code package. The second part investigates the issue of coolability during severe accidents in LWR type reactors: the coolability of debris bed and melt pool for in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. The first chapter briefly presents the status of developments in both the RBMK-1500 core analysis and the corium coolability areas. The second chapter describes the generation of the RBMK-1500 neutron cross section data library with the HELIOS code. The cross section library was developed for the whole range of the reactor conditions. The results of the benchmarking with the WIMS-D4 code and validation against the RBMK Critical Facility experiments is also presented here. The HELIOS generated neutron cross section data library provides a close agreement with the WIMS-D4 code results. The validation against the data from the Critical Experiments shows that the HELIOS generated neutron cross section library provides excellent predictions for the criticality, axial and radial power distribution, control rod reactivity worths and coolant reactivity effects, etc. The reactivity effects of voiding for the system, fuel assembly and additional absorber channel are underpredicted in the calculations using the HELIOS code generated neutron cross sections. The underprediction, however, is much less than that obtained when the WIMS-D4 code generated cross sections are employed. The third chapter describes the work, performed towards the accurate prediction, assessment and validation of the CHF and post-CHF heat transfer for the RBMK-1500 reactor fuel assemblies employing the VIPRE-02 code. This chapter describes the experiments, which were used for validating the CHF correlations, appropriate for the RBMK-1500 type reactors. These correlations after validation were added to the standard version of the VIPRE-02 code. The VIPRE-02 calculations were benchmarked against the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. It was found that these user-coded additional CHF correlations developed for the RBMK type reactors (Osmachkin, RRC KI and Khabenski correlations) and implemented into the code by the author, provide a good prediction of the CHF occurrence at the RBMK reactor nominal pressure range (at about 7 MPa). Transition and film boiling are also predicted well with the VIPRE-02 code for this pressure range. It was found, that for the RBMK-1500 reactor applications, EPRI CHF correlation should be used for the CHF predictions for the lower fuel assemblies of the reactor in the subchannel model of the RBMK-1500 fuel assembly. RRC KI and Bowring CHF correlations may be used for the upper fuel assemblies. For a single-channel model of the RBMK-1500 fuel channel, Osmachkin, RRC KI and Bowring correlations provide the closest predictions and may be used for the CHF estimation. For the low coolant mass fluxes in the fuel channel, Khabenski correlation can be applied. The fourth chapter presents the verification of the CORETRAN code for the RBMK-1500 core analysis. The model was verified against a number of RBMK-1500 plant data and transient calculations. The new RBMK-1500 core model was successfully applied in several safety assessment applications. A series of transient calculations, considered within the scope of the RBMK-type reactor Safety Analysis Report (SAR), were performed. Several cases of the transient calculations are presented in this chapter. The HELIOS/CORETRAN/VIPRE-02 core model for the RBMK-1500 is fully functional. The RBMK-1500 CPS logic, added into the CORETRAN provides an adequate response to the changes in the reactor parameters. Chapters 5 and

269

Analysis methodology for RBMK-1500 core safety and investigations on corium coolability during a LWR severe accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents the work involving two broad aspects within the field of nuclear reactor analysis and safety. These are: - development of a fully independent reactor dynamics and safety analysis methodology of the RBMK-1500 core transient accidents and - experiments on the enhancement of coolability of a particulate bed or a melt pool due to heat removal through the control rod guide tubes. The first part of the thesis focuses on the development of the RBMK-1500 analysis methodology based on the CORETRAN code package. The second part investigates the issue of coolability during severe accidents in LWR type reactors: the coolability of debris bed and melt pool for in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. The first chapter briefly presents the status of developments in both the RBMK-1500 core analysis and the corium coolability areas. The second chapter describes the generation of the RBMK-1500 neutron cross section data library with the HELIOS code. The cross section library was developed for the whole range of the reactor conditions. The results of the benchmarking with the WIMS-D4 code and validation against the RBMK Critical Facility experiments is also presented here. The HELIOS generated neutron cross section data library provides a close agreement with the WIMS-D4 code results. The validation against the data from the Critical Experiments shows that the HELIOS generated neutron cross section library provides excellent predictions for the criticality, axial and radial power distribution, control rod reactivity worths and coolant reactivity effects, etc. The reactivity effects of voiding for the system, fuel assembly and additional absorber channel are underpredicted in the calculations using the HELIOS code generated neutron cross sections. The underprediction, however, is much less than that obtained when the WIMS-D4 code generated cross sections are employed. The third chapter describes the work, performed towards the accurate prediction, assessment and validation of the CHF and post-CHF heat transfer for the RBMK-1500 reactor fuel assemblies employing the VIPRE-02 code. This chapter describes the experiments, which were used for validating the CHF correlations, appropriate for the RBMK-1500 type reactors. These correlations after validation were added to the standard version of the VIPRE-02 code. The VIPRE-02 calculations were benchmarked against the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. It was found that these user-coded additional CHF correlations developed for the RBMK type reactors (Osmachkin, RRC KI and Khabenski correlations) and implemented into the code by the author, provide a good prediction of the CHF occurrence at the RBMK reactor nominal pressure range (at about 7 MPa). Transition and film boiling are also predicted well with the VIPRE-02 code for this pressure range. It was found, that for the RBMK-1500 reactor applications, EPRI CHF correlation should be used for the CHF predictions for the lower fuel assemblies of the reactor in the subchannel model of the RBMK-1500 fuel assembly. RRC KI and Bowring CHF correlations may be used for the upper fuel assemblies. For a single-channel model of the RBMK-1500 fuel channel, Osmachkin, RRC KI and Bowring correlations provide the closest predictions and may be used for the CHF estimation. For the low coolant mass fluxes in the fuel channel, Khabenski correlation can be applied. The fourth chapter presents the verification of the CORETRAN code for the RBMK-1500 core analysis. The model was verified against a number of RBMK-1500 plant data and transient calculations. The new RBMK-1500 core model was successfully applied in several safety assessment applications. A series of transient calculations, considered within the scope of the RBMK-type reactor Safety Analysis Report (SAR), were performed. Several cases of the transient calculations are presented in this chapter. The HELIOS/CORETRAN/VIPRE-02 core model for the RBMK-1500 is fully functional. The RBMK-1500 CPS logic, added into the CORETRAN provides an adequate response to the changes in the reactor parameters. Chapters 5 and

Jasiulevicius, Audrius

2003-07-01

270

Logistic Regression Approach in Road Defects Impact on Accident Severity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Safety and accident issues are considered as an important problem in the world. Road transportation issues would have a more conspicuous countenance in the country of Iran in which, over 94 percent of all transportations take place through roads. The roads’ contribution to the traffic accidents at mean is 24 percent however this value is 36 percent in Iran. Road traffic crashes exert a huge burden on Iran's economy and health care services. Many parameters, safety signs and equipment, Vertical and horizontal arc combination along the road and all the effective factors in decreasing the accidents, are considered when determining the safety level of the roads. Road defect is being considered as one of the essential factors causing accidents to happen.  This article investigates the severity factor of the accident according to the vehicle movability situation after the accident. The results of this research has shown that most  important factors reducing the safety on the suburban roads  in Iran is “insufficient road width” pertaining to frequency  and “Level difference between road & shoulder” pertaining  to accident severity.

Mohadeseh Khalili

2013-05-01

271

JCO criticality accident as POST-LOCA: Poor structure induced loss of organizational control accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some problems in operation and business management of JCO (Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Co.) have been studied as background factors of the criticality accident. Open information about business conditions of JCO suggests that the cause of the accident is not so simple as to be attributed only to economic pressure, but includes immanent problems in JCO. We investigate the problems from five viewpoints, organization of safety management, system of operation management, activities for business improvement, risk awareness, and restructuring of business, and discuss the effects and causality of background factors as well as remedies for them. (author)

272

Investigation and analysis of aircrew ametropia and related factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the refractive distribution and analysis risk factors for aircrew ametropia.METHODS: The number of 49 cases with ametropia from 1031 aircrew during May 2013 to May 2014 were reviewed. Various types of refraction composition, age, type, position, time of flight with the subjective assessment of aircrew were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Of 49 cases, 43 cases(88%were myopia, 6 cases(12%were hypermetropia.,Detection rates were higher in age over 50 years aircrew and flight time more than 3000h. Detection rates were lower in self-conscious symptom heavy aircrew, fighter aircrew and good habit of using eyes. CONCLUSION: The myopia incidence in aircrew with age >50 years and long flight time is higher, than that of fighter pilots and good habit of using eyes. We should pay attention to the increasing late-onset myopia of aviators and habit of using eyes, work intensity and time of using eyes about aircrew.

Li-Juan Zheng

2014-10-01

273

Investigation of 3D spatial effect on point kinetics estimation of the thermal hydraulics code RELAP for the analysis of MSLB accident of KK-NP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In general safety analyses of design basis accident of NPPs are being carried out using system thermal hydraulics code like RELAP. In RELAP, power is calculated based on point kinetics approximation, which virtually ignores the space and energy dependence of neutron flux. To include the space and energy dependence of neutron flux, three-dimensional neutronics code TRIHEXFA has been externally coupled with RELAP through interface program, TRIHEXFA-RELAP Interface Program (TRIP). Calculation methodology of TRIP program is based on adiabatic approximation. In the adiabatic approximation the neutron flux is being factored into spatial and amplitude part. Spatial part of flux is slowly varying with time whereas amplitude part is strongly varying function. The RELAP controls the transient time steps. Transient time is divided into several major and minor time steps. Minor time step is the sub-step of major time step. Thermal hydraulics and neutronics data are exchanged at each major time step. Spatial part of neutron flux has been updated at each major time step using TRIHEXFA code. But amplitude part of the neutron flux is calculated at each minor time step using RELAP code. Convergence of results of the coupled code, TRIP has been checked through coupling time step descritization study. This study determines the minimum coupling time step. Transient concerning VVER-1000 Main Steam Line Break, MSLB has been considered to investigate the space-time effect on point kinetics.e the space-time effect on point kinetics. MSLB occurs as a consequence of the rupture of one steam line upstream of main steam line isolation valves. Reference design and data from Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KK-NPP) are used for the analysis. From this investigation it is found that TRIP significantly overestimates the maximum reactor power against uncoupled RELAP result. The time of scram also occur six seconds earlier in TRIP calculation compared to the RELAP. This exercise has also shown a proof of principle that coupling 3D neutronics code TRIHEXFA with thermal hydraulics code RELAP is feasible and working. (author)

274

Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result of this study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs

275

Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result ofthis study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs.

Kim, Jae Whan; Jung, Won Dae; Kang, Dae Il; Ha, Jae Joo

1999-06-01

276

Some critical factors for engineering and environmental microgravity investigations  

Science.gov (United States)

The gravity method is one of the geophysical tools used for engineering and environmental investigations where the detection of cavities, karst phenomena, subsoil irregularities, or landfills is essential. In many cases, deep or small-scale heterogeneities generating low-amplitude anomalies have to be detected and the reliability of further interpretation requires highly accurate measurements, carefully corrected for any quantifiable disturbing effects. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors likely to limit measurement quality and how to make improvements. Calibrations of a Scintrex gravimeter were made between French relative and absolute base stations, and the relative uncertainties on the calibration factors were estimated for these links. Ranging from 10 -3, for calibration on an old gravity net, to 10 -4, for a high amplitude absolute base line, this accuracy will be generally sufficient for microgravity surveys. Continuous gravity recordings of Scintrex gravimeters, installed at the same stable site, enabled the estimation of the stability and accuracy of the instruments and revealed that some of the time variations of g measurements, such as instrumental drift, tidal effects and seismic noise, are not entirely removed by standard processing procedures. The accuracy of corrected gravity measurements is mainly limited by inadequate corrections of tidal effects and by a poor estimation of ocean loading effects. In comparison with residual defaults in tidal corrections, instrumental and seismic noises are taken more properly into account by statistical data processing. In field operation, residual tidal effects are generally integrated into an experimental terrain drift estimated on the basis of frequent repeated measurements. A differential gravity approach, based on a fixed gravimeter reference whose recordings are used to correct measurements made with a mobile gravimeter, has also been investigated at a test site. Compared to standard processing, this method can help improve repeatability of gravity measurements. Microgravity surveys in the urban environment require effective and accurate consideration of the effects of infrastructures, nearby buildings and basements, as well as those of topography, in the vicinity of a gravity station. Correction procedures, applied at the same experimental site, where gravity points are located close to buildings, walls and basement slope, appear to have almost totally eliminated these disturbances.

Debeglia, N.; Dupont, F.

2002-07-01

277

Road Traffic Accidents In Tamilnadu: A Historical Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the reasons for road traffic accidents in Tamil nadu. Also this study investigates the different causes of accidents occurred in past years in Tamilnadu. Tamilnadu was reported in one of the accident prone zone in India with having highest rate of road accidents. This study investigates why Tamilnadu reported in top number of accidents. What are the reasons for occurring accidents and how con resistance the accidents.

R. Manigandan

2013-08-01

278

Nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

279

Investigation of qualitative and quantitative factors related to radiological exposure to nursing staff during computed tomography examinations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiologists or nurses intermittently stay in computed tomography rooms during computed tomography examinations; these actions are defined as “entrance actions.” The qualitative and quantitative factors related to radiological exposure to computed tomography nursing staff were investigated to identify the protective measures against entrance actions. A questionnaire survey was used to investigate the frequency, motives, and causalities of entrance actions. Individual and area monitoring were simultaneously performed. The mean frequency of entrance actions was 1.2 times mo(?1). The primary motive for entrance actions was to dispel anxieties regarding collateral accidents during computed tomography. The nursing staff particularly engaged in close supervision to help the patients cope with contrast media extravasation. The average personal dose equivalent [Hp(10)] to the nurses was 0.21 mSv mo(?1). The ambient dose equivalent [H*(10)] rate was 1.4–3.7 mSv min(?1) at a distance of 1 m from CT gantry centre. Avoidance of entrance actions and collateral accidents would decrease the occupational exposures to nurses. PMID:25272031

Mori, Hiroshige; Koshida, Kichiro; Ishigamori, Osamu; Matsubara, Kosuke

2014-11-01

280

Report of the investigation of the accident at the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO Trailer Park on Rainier Mesa at Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fourteen persons were injured, one fatally, when the ground upon which they were working collapsed, forming a subsidence crater in the recording trailer park of the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO nuclear weapons effects test on Rainier Mesa at the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984. Those persons injured were contractor and laboratory employees from Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. (REECo), Pan American World Services, Inc. (PANAM), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report presents the results of an investigation into the causes, effects, and response to the accident. 42 figures

 
 
 
 
281

A limited investigation of the sensitivity of the containment source term to certain primary circuit parameters under PWR severe accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitivity of the source term to the containment for a limited number of primary circuit parameters and phenomena has been investigated for three hypothetical PWR severe accident sequences. These sequences are: a large hot leg break with failure of electric power to engineered safety features (AB hot leg); a small cold leg break with failure of pumped ECCS (S2D) and a transient initiated sequence with failure of secondary system relief valves, power conversion and auxiliary feedwater systems and loss of on and off-site power for at least 3 hours (TMLB'). (author)

282

Experimental investigation of capacity for work of protective outer skin of microfuel particles in reference of heavy accident conditions of lightwater reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One investigated into the service ability of the silicon carbide coated particle fuels as applied to the light-water reactor loss-of-coolant severe accidents. According to the tests performed in the synthetic steam-and-gas medium representing the products of propane combustion in oxygen within 730-1670 deg C range, the particle fuel coating under up to 1590 deg C temperature showed high corrosion resistance and integrity. The particle fuel essential vulnerability to damage up to 25% was observed under 1670 deg C. The particle fuels satisfied advantageously the tests with up to 800-1600 deg C heating in air followed by the abrupt cooling in water

283

Radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation accidents may be viewed as unusual exposure event which provide possible high exposure to a few people and, in the case of nuclear plants events, low exposure to large population. A number of radiation accidents have occurred over the past 50 years, involving radiation machines, radioactive materials and uncontrolled nuclear reactors. These accidents have resulted in number of people have been exposed to a range of internal and external radiation doses and those involving radioactive materials have involved multiple routs of exposure. Some of the more important accidents involving significant radiation doses or releases of radioactive materials, including any known health effects involves in it. An analysis of the common characteristics of accidents is useful resolving overarching issues, as has been done following nuclear power, industrial radiography and medical accidents. Success in avoiding accidents and responding when they do occur requires planning in order to have adequately trained and prepared health physics organization; well defined and developed instrument program; close cooperation among radiation protection experts, local and state authorities. Focus is given to the successful avoidance of accidents and response in the events they do occur. Palomares, spain in late 1960, Goiania, Brazil in 1987, Thule, Greenland in 1968, Rocky flats, Colorado in 1957 and 1969, Three mile island, Pennsylvania in 1979, Chernobyl Ukraine in april 1986, Kyshtym, former Soviet Union in 1957, Windscale, UK in Oct. 1957 Tomsk, Russian Federation in 1993, and many others are the important examples of major radiation accidents. (author)

284

Accident Monitoring During Severe Accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IAEA SSR 2/1 requires that ''Instrumentation shall be provided for determining the values of all the main variables that can affect the fission process, the integrity of the reactor core, the reactor coolant systems and the containment at the nuclear power plant, for obtaining essential information on the plant that is necessary for its safe and reliable operation, for determining the status of the plant in accident conditions, and for making decisions for the purposes of accident management.'' Current criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation are largely based upon experience from the Three Mile Island NPP in 1979 and are mostly limited to design basis events. The criteria have been provided by IEEE Std. 497 using a symptom based approach. The Fukushima Daiichi accident has highlighted a need to re-examine these criteria for instrumentation that is provided to fulfil this requirement. The goal of establishing accident monitoring criteria is to provide critical information (information on the critical safety functions) to the ultimate decision makers (in the control room, emergency operating facility, etc.) during whatever situation (internal or external initiation) may arise with a significant level of confidence (validated from an alternate source). Establishing functional and design criteria for accidents beyond design basis events present many unique issues and challenges such as defining the accident environment to consider. Due to the nature of severe accidents, past approaches for choosing and qualifying accident monitoring instruments will not fully prepare an operating plant to assess the condition of the critical safety functions of the plant. This lack of reliable information will inhibit the decision makers from effectively managing the accident. This paper will describe the issues to be considered when establishing the functional and design criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation to support operation under severe accident conditions in nuclear power plants.(author).

285

Motorcycle accidents, rider behaviour, and psychological models.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of the present study were to: (a) investigate the factor structure of the Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire (MRBQ) [Elliott, M.A., Baughan, B.J., Sexton, B.F., 2007. Errors and violations in relation to motorcyclists' crash risk. Accident Analysis and Prevention 39, 491-499] in among Turkish riders, and (b) study the relationships between different types of rider behaviour and motorcyclists' active and passive accidents and offences, and (c) investigate the usefulness of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Health Belief Model (HBM), and Locus of Control (T-LOC) in explaining rider behaviours. MRBQ was administered to a sample of motorcyclists (N=451). Principal components analysis yielded a 5-factor solution including traffic errors, control errors, speed violations, performance of stunts, and use of safety equipment. Annual mileage was related to higher number of active and passive accidents and offences whereas age was related to lower number of active and passive accidents. Stunts were the main predictors of active accidents and offences. Speeding violations predicted offences. Stunts and speeding violations were associated with the fate factor of the T-LOC, and with attitudes, subjective norms, and intention components of TPB, and cues to action and perceived severity components of the HBM. Use of safety equipment was related to the high level of perceived behavioural control and intention components of the TPB, the low score of perceived barriers component of the HBM, and the low fate factor of the T-LOC. While traffic errors were associated with the high score of perceived barriers and cues to action component of the HBM, control errors were related to the high score of vehicle and environment factor of the T-LOC. PMID:23036389

Özkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo; Do?ruyol, Burak; Y?ld?r?m, Zümrüt; Çoymak, Ahmet

2012-11-01

286

Sports Accidents  

CERN Document Server

Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

Kiebel

1972-01-01

287

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

CERN Document Server

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

Franic, Z

2007-01-01

288

An investigation of graphite dust and plateout fission product behavior under pipe rupture accident condition in primary cooling system of high temperature gas-cooled reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), a small amount of fission products are released from fuel elements during normal operation. Then condensable fission products plateout on the inner surface of primary cooling system components. In accident conditions such as rapid depressurization events, plated-out fission products would be re-entrained into the coolant by chemical and/or mechanical forces. The re-entrainment process is called liftoff. Since this process is very complicated phenomenon, a quantitative model for analysis has not been established. Therefore, experiments were carried out to investigate the behavior of fission products and graphite dusts under the rapid depressurization condition caused by large-scale pipe rupture accident. One experiment was focused on fission products plated-out on metal surface or on/in oxide film and another was focused on the graphite dusts behavior. In this paper, applicability of turbulent burst model to graphite dusts and fission products liftoff models to the experimental data was investigated. (author)

289

Car Sales: Investigation into Factors Determining Consumer Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article examines customer behaviour in general and discusses factors determining customer behaviour in car industry. The paper describes a concept of consumer behaviour and the importance of factors influencing the situation. Empirical study about factors determining car industry in consumer-made decisions is carried out. In addition, statistical factor analysis is performed. The key sets of factors helping the user with choosing a new car are iden­tified and analysed at the level of the groups of factors (factor. The conducted analysis shows that car price, ergonomics, image, dynamic and user-friendliness as well as environmental groups are the main points that assist in buying a new car.Article in Lithuanian

Aurelija Samoškien?

2011-07-01

290

Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

291

Epidemiology of Accident Deaths in Jos, Nigeria (1996-2000  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Accidents are common events in our society and have contributed significantly to causes of morbidity and mortality in most hospitals. In our environment accidents are fast becoming the commonest cause of death. Only few cases of these accidents are reported to the corona for investigation. Methods: Records of deaths from January 1996- December 2000 reported to the corona for autopsies from two major Hospitals in Jos city were analyzed. Those related to accidents were retrieved and studied. Information from the Police regarding causes of accidents was also extracted. Data on the deceased such as age, sex, and nature of injury were also collated. Police reports on the contributing factors to accidents were also analysed. Results: A total of 270 cases of deaths were reported to the corona for autopsies out of which 122 (45% were accident deaths. One hundred and three (86% cases were males while 19 cases were females. Two-thirds of deaths (60% were in the productive age group of 21— 40 years. Multiple fractures long bones without head injury accounted for 37.7% of deaths, followed by head/upper spinal injuries 24.6%, crushed body injuries 22%, while, intra-abdominal organ injuries which accounted for 15.6%. Analysis of types of accidents showed that vehicle, motorcycle, airplane crash and pedestrian accidents accounted for 59.8%, 20.5%, 10.7% and 9.0% respectively. Information from the Police on motor vehicle accidents, records showed that 50% of the accidental events were due to dangerous driving under the influence of alcohol. Conclusion: Accident death in our environment appears to affect mostly men in the productive and reproductive age groups. However measures that regulate vehicle speed on the road and alcohol intake by drivers may reduce more than half of such deaths.

Mandong B

2006-09-01

292

Clinical investigation of risk factors in ectopic pregnancy  

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Full Text Available Objective ?To discuss the relative and independent risk factors in ectopic pregnancy. Methods ?The clinical data of 870 patients with ectopic pregnancy, admitted from 2005 to 2012, were retrospectively analyzed, with 800 cases of normal pregnancy serving as control. Monofactorial correlation analysis was used to analyze the related risk factor, and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the independent risk factor. Results ?Pelvic adhesion, previous operation, cesarean section delivery, number of pregnancy, artificial abortion, medical abortion, in vitrofertilization and embryo replacement (IVF-ER, and placement of intrauterine device (IUD are the risk factors of ectopic pregnancy, pelvic adhesion, artificial abortion, operation, number of pregnancies and IUD are the independent risk factors, and pelvic adhesion is the major risk factor. Conclusion ?Avoidance of unexpected pregnancy as possible, reduction of the number of artificial abortion, prevention and treatment of genital duct inflammation, and standardization of pelvic operation may reduce the incidence of ectopic pregnancy.

Ling-yun HU

2013-05-01

293

Database on aircraft accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating probability of aircraft crash are considered to be 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 35 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 2 for large bladed aircraft and 30 for small bladed aircraft. (2) The data of SDF aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total of 45 accidents occurred, 24 of them are large fixed-wing aircrafts, 4 are small fixed-wing aircrafts and 17 are bladed aircrafts. 23 to 45 accidents fell into land. (3) The data of US aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total of 16 accidents occurred, 13 of which are fixed-wing aircrafts, 3 are bladed aircrafts. 6 of 16 accidents fell into land. (4) The instrument flight information on commercial aircrafts is based on 'Air transport statics' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The total number of takeoffs and landings is 29,971,662 and the total flight distance is 9,232,867,684 km. (author)

294

Normal accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP)

295

The Application of Social Marketing in Reducing Road Traffic Accidents among Young Male Drivers: An Investigation using Physical Fear Threat Appeals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There were 338 road fatalities on Irish roads in 2007. Research in 2007 by the Road Safety Authority in Ireland states that young male drivers (17 – 25 years are seven times more likely to be killed on Irish roads than other road users. The car driver fatality rate was found to be approximately 10 times higher for young male drivers than for female drivers in 2000.  Young male drivers in particular demonstrate a high proclivity for risky driving behaviours. These risky behaviours include drink driving, speeding, drug-driving and engaging in aggressive driving. Speed is the single largest contributing factor to road deaths in Ireland.  Approximately 40% of fatal accidents are caused by excessive or inappropriate speed. This study focuses on how dangerous driving behaviours may be addressed through social marketing. This study analyses the appropriate level of fear that needs to be induced in order to change young male driving behaviour.

Brian Harman

2009-02-01

296

An investigation on different factors influencing perceived organizational change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies the impacts of different factors influencing on perceived organization change in municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of five factors including partnership, communication, training, believe in change and organization commitment and the other for organizational change in Likert scale. The study has been implemented among 147 regular employees of municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. Using simple regression analysis, the study has detected that all mentioned factors influence organizational change, positively. In addition, Freedman test indicates that partnership maintains the highest impact followed by believe in change, communication, organizational commitment and training.

Abbas Saleh Ardestani

2014-06-01

297

Prospective study of intellectual development, mental and behavioral disorders in children in uteroexposed to radioecological and psychosocial factors associated with the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prospective study of the parameters characterizing the mental status of children in utero exposed to radioecological factors associated with the Chernobyl accident. 197 children born from May 1986 to February 1987 whose mothers lived in the period of pregnancy at contaminated territory were examined. Control group was formed by random sampling. It is shown that the children of the group under study aged 6-7 years were characterized by relative predominance of cases with border-line level of intellectual functioning (13.2 % vs. 9.2 % in the control group). By 10-12 years this difference practically smoothed over. Average group intellectual parameters of children aged 6-7 and 10-12 years in the main group were similar and did not depend on pregnancy term at the moment of exposure. Unfavorable physiological and social-demographic factors were mainly responsible for the intellectual development and emotional disordered in prenatally exposed children

298

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was also computed and it was about 0.66, which is above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.5. The study uses Scree plot to determine important factors and there are eight factors including environmental issues, export supportive issues, potentials for export, business plan, export plan, structural barriers, competition capability and strategy.

Hoda Nosouzi

2013-06-01

299

An empirical investigation on factors influencing sales force  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today's competitive business environment, consumers are exposed to make their choice from different alternatives. Customer loyalty has never been an easy task and many business owners may lose their customer as soon as new products appear on the market. This paper presents a study to find important factors influencing on sales force using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire and distributed among 180 customers of a well-known food chain named Shahrvand in different regions in city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 156 filled ones. The questionnaire consists of 68 questions Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.847, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of our survey indicate that five major factors including.

Naser Azad

2013-06-01

300

Measures against nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

 
 
 
 
301

Experimental investigations of the thermohydraulic behaviour of tubes in horizontal steam generators under accident conditions for nuclear power plants with VVER-reactors. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The final report documents the results of experiments performed at the HORUS I and II test facilities within the scope of the BMFT-project no. 1500857/9 'Experimental Investigations of the Thermohydraulic Behaviour of Tubes in Horizontal Steam Generators under accident conditions for NPP with VVER-Reactors'. The experiments aimed to investigate the integral condensate mass flow and it's flow direction in a heater tube of VVER-steam generators under decay heat conditions (two phase flow during SBLOCA). The scientific tasks, the construction of the HORUS test facilities, the instrumentation and the data acquisition system are described first followed by a general representation of the experimental conditions and the experimental run. The results of measured parameters are represented and discussed. The realized experiments turned out to be able to verify the condensation models in the ATHLET-computer code. The experiments were also able to prove the accident behaviour during the two phase flow natural circulation under SBLOCA conditions in the horizontal tubes. The results of the experiments demonstrated that no return flow of condensate occured into the inlet collector as soon as the heater tubes were totally filled with steam. In this case it can be assumed that the natural circulation continues in the primary system. Slightly raised U-tubes accelerated and slightly lowered U-tubes delayed the condensation process. When the U-tube was nearly completely filled with wattube was nearly completely filled with water a return flow into the hot collector was determined because of the small condensation length in the entry section of the U-tube. A refill of the hot loop seal may occur under these conditions. The dosage of nitrogen with small quantities (1.. 5%) deteriorated the heat transfer from the primary to the secondary side in the entry section of the heater tube. There wasn't noticed an influence of the heat transfer in the other tube sections. (orig.)

302

Investigating power factor compensation capacity calculation in medium sized industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are a variety of techniques developed in order to improve the efficiency of electrical systems and reduce cost of providing electricity to the consumer. This paper presents a new technique for power-factor capacity calculation in medium-sized industrial/ commercial setups. Various loads of similar nominal power-factor are categorized and demand-factor of loads is so selected that it has engineering justifications. The developed system works on the principle of low-voltage power-factor correction, which substantially reduces electricity bill and increases loading-capacity of the electrical system. It allows commercial and industrial consumers to save on their power cost appreciably. This work utilizes software, which takes few inputs and produces numerous useful results. Adoption of this system can help the user in computing compensation-capacity, system KVA (size of transformer) and cost of compensation. A feature of this system is prediction of low PF penalty. Moreover, it also suggests the tentative payback period. (author)

303

Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Gas Law Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

Undergraduate students were asked to complete gas law questions using a Web-based tool as a first step in our understanding of the role of cognitive load in chemistry word questions and in helping us assess student problem-solving. Each question contained five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by the tool so that a…

Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.; Tang, Hui

2012-01-01

304

Cognitive modeling and dynamic probabilistic simulation of operating crew response to complex system accidents. Part 2: IDAC performance influencing factors model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the second in a series of five papers describing the information, decision, and action in crew context (IDAC) model for human reliability analysis. An example application of this modeling technique is also discussed in this series. The model is developed to probabilistically predict the responses of the nuclear power plant control room operating crew in accident conditions. The operator response spectrum includes cognitive, psychological, and physical activities during the course of an accident. This paper identifies the IDAC set of performance influencing factors (PIFs), providing their definitions and causal organization in the form of a modular influence diagram. Fifty PIFs are identified to support the IDAC model to be implemented in a computer simulation environment. They are classified into eleven hierarchically structured groups. The PIFs within each group are independent to each other; however, dependencies may exist between PIFs within different groups. The supporting evidence for the selection and organization of the influence paths based on psychological literature, observations, and various human reliability analysis methodologies is also indicated

305

Investigation of high duty factor ISR RFQ-1000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two Integral Split Ring (ISR) RFQs with high duty factor of 16.7% have been designed for the application of heavy ion implantation and built in the past several years at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics (IHIP) in Peking University. Two kinds of PIG ion sources with permanent magnets and LEBT were installed and optimized for the injection into these two RFQs. The positive O+ and negative O- ions were extracted and accelerated separately as well as simultaneously. The output macro pulse O- beam current reached 660 ?A at a transmission efficiency of more than 82%. The N+ beam was also accelerated with similar transmission efficiency, but the output current intensity for positive ions were lower than the negative ions because of the extracted current limitation of ion sources. The improvements, especially for high duty factor and experimental results with the 1 MeV ISR RFQ will be presented in this paper

306

Investigation of high duty factor ISR RFQ-1000  

CERN Document Server

Two Integral Split Ring (ISR) RFQs with high duty factor of 16.7% have been designed for the application of heavy ion implantation and built in the past several years at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics (IHIP) in Peking University. Two kinds of PIG ion sources with permanent magnets and LEBT were installed and optimized for the injection into these two RFQs. The positive O**+ and negative O**- ions were extracted and accelerated separately as well as simultaneously. The output macro pulse O**- beam current reached 660muA at a transmission efficiency of more than 82%. The N**+ beam was also accelerated with similar transmission efficiency, but the output current intensity for positive ions were lower than the negative ions because of the extracted current limitation of ion sources. The improvements, especially for high duty factor and experimental results with the 1MeV ISR RFQ will be presented in this paper.

Lu, Y R; Fang, J X; Gao, S L; Guo, J F; Guo, Z Y; Li, D S; Li, W G; Pan, O J; Ren, X T; Wu, Y; Yan, X Q; Yu Jin Xiang; Yu, M L; Ratzinger, U; Deitinghoff, H; Klein, H; Schempp, A

2003-01-01

307

Qualitative Investigation of Object Oriented Frameworks Key Success Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software developers consider object-oriented frameworks as one of the most promising software development tools. Their use can shorten development time and improve productivity as well as quality of developed software. The number and the technological maturity of frameworks achieved a level, which provides to developers a reliable development environment. However, still many frameworks fail, and so do many framework based software development projects. This article presents basic knowledge needed for understanding success of frameworks and addresses key factors which impact their success. The main outcomes of the research described in the article are technological and sociological factors, for which we presume that positively influence developers’ attitude toward using frameworks and thus their success. The results of our exploratory study could help software practitioners and researchers in developing more successful frameworks and with evaluation of existing frameworks as presented in the practical application of the article’s findings.

Gregor Polan

2011-01-01

308

Investigating important factors influencing electronic banking for export development  

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Full Text Available Export is one of the most important indicators of a growing economy and it is the primary source of reaching sustainable growth on the market. This paper presents an empirical study to determine important factors influencing electronic banking in export development of Iranian organizations. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some regular customers who do internet banking with Parsian bank in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.82, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.71 and 1955 with Sig. = 0.000, respectively. Using principal component analysis, the study has detected six factors including customer’s information, building trust, secure internet access, having good internet infrastructure and internet users.

Vahid Abbas Zadeh

2014-01-01

309

Investigating important factors influencing electronic banking for export development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Export is one of the most important indicators of a growing economy and it is the primary source of reaching sustainable growth on the market. This paper presents an empirical study to determine important factors influencing electronic banking in export development of Iranian organizations. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some regular customers who do internet banking with Parsian bank in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.82, which is ...

Vahid Abbas Zadeh; Gholamreza Heydari Kord Zangeneh; Naser Azad

2014-01-01

310

Safety culture and the accident at Three Mile Island  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prior to the accident at Three Mile Island, little attention was being paid to the human role in the safe operation of civilian nuclear power plants. The investigation of the TMI accident showed that its root causes were primarily human-related. The Kemeny Report on the TMI accident does not use the term 'safety culture'; however, it fully identifies all relevant aspects of safety culture. It was only after the accident at Chernobyl that the term 'safety culture' came into widespread use. However, it should be noted that, during the years after TMI and before Chernobyl, already major changes had been instituted concerning human factors and human reliability in the civilian nuclear energy programs of many countries. Greater credit should be given to the remarkable insights developed by the Kemeny Commission as contained in the Kemeny Report. (author)

311

INVESTIGATING THE FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE BLOG ATTITUDE SCALE  

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Full Text Available Due to the wide application of advanced technology in education, many attitude scales have been developed to evaluate learners’ attitudes toward educational tools. However, with the rapid development of emerging technologies, using blogs as one of the Web 2.0 tools is still in its infancy and few blog attitude scales have been developed yet. In view of this need, a lot of researchers like to design a new scale based on their conceptual and theoretical framework of their own study rather than using available scales. The present study reports the design and development of a blog attitude scale (BAS. The researchers developed a pool of items to capture the complexity of the blog attitude trait, selected 29 items in the content analysis, and assigned the scale comprising 29 items to 216 undergraduate students to explore the underlying structure of the BAS. In exploratory factor analysis, three factors were discovered: blog anxiety, blog desirability, and blog self-efficacy; 14 items were excluded. The extracted items were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis which lent further support to the BAS underpinning structure.

Zahra SHAHSAVAR

2010-10-01

312

Investigation of factors affecting the quality of americium electroplating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four different electrolyte solutions were used in the electrodeposition of americium and their influences on the quality of the thin layer of deposited americium isotopes in combination with three different cathode disc materials were investigated. The relations between alpha spectral resolution and disc surface properties were established. PMID:22424746

Trdin, M; Benedik, L; Samardžija, Z; Pihlar, B

2012-09-01

313

COMPUTER PROGRAMS TO ANALYZE ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In road traffic, as one of the most widely spread forms of transportation, many accidents occur which are a result of various factors. Since every developed country's goal is to minimize the number of accidents and their consequences, different organizations are formed. Their goal is to prevent and analyze traffic accidents. Many insurance companies and judicial organs have the same goal. Using computer programs for analyzing traffic accidents simplifies the process and helps to get the resul...

Boz?ic?, Sebastjan

2013-01-01

314

Reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this book seven of the most significant accidents in the history of nuclear power are examined in detail, identifying root causes and looking for common features. In the cases analysed at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, Windscale, SL-1, NRX, Fermi and Lucens, it is shown that the root causes of these accidents were not design flaws or the mistakes of individual operators, however much these may have affected the accident sequence. The root causes were rather deep-seated failings in the institutions involved in the operation of the nuclear plant -failings which allowed the adoption of flawed designs, the provision of inadequate operator support and guidance, and a dangerous overconfidence in the technology. (author)

315

Criticality accident:  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A criticality accident occurred at 10:35 on September 30, 1999. It occurred in a precipitation tank in a Conversion Test Building at the JCO Tokai Works site in Tokaimura (Tokai Village) in the Ibaraki Prefecture of Japan. STA provisionally rated this accident a 4 on the seven-level, logarithmic International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The September 30, 1999 criticality accident at the JCO Tokai Works Site in Tokaimura, Japan in described in preliminary, technical detail. Information is based on preliminary presentations to technical groups by Japanese scientists and spokespersons, translations by technical and non-technical persons of technical web postings by various nuclear authorities, and English-language non-technical reports from various news media and nuclear-interest groups. (author)

316

Factores Asociados a Accidentes, Enfermedades y Ausentismo Laboral: Análisis de una Cohorte de Trabajadores Formales en Chile / Factors Associated with Accidents, Illness and Absenteeism: Analysis of a Cohort of Formal Workers in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Estimar la asociación entre factores de riesgo y la ocurrencia de enfermedades, accidentes y ausentismo laboral en trabajadores formales. Método: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva usando dos fuentes de información: registro de evaluaciones ocupacionales preventivas y de episodios de acciden [...] tes y enfermedades laborales (2009-2012). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de variables de salud y de factores de riesgo. Regresiones logísticas para la ocurrencia de enfermedades y accidentes. Se usó una regresión Poisson-cero-inflado para el ausentismo laboral. Resultados: los > 60 años tienen un exceso de riesgo de enfermedad laboral (OR-ajustada 19,18 respecto a 60 años (IRR 2,69), trabajar en actividades inmobiliarias (IRR 2,37) y en explotación de minas (IRR 2,38), tienen una probabilidad mayor de más días de ausentismo. Conclusiones: Factores no modificables (sexo y edad), junto con factores modificables, como el sedentarismo y el estado nutricional, contribuyen a eventos laborales no deseados. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the association among lifestyle-related risk factors and the occurrence of occupational diseases, accidents and absenteeism in a cohort of formal workers. Method: A retrospective cohort study was carried out by using two information sources: a registry of preventive occupatio [...] nal evaluations and another registry of episodes of occupational accidents and diseases (2009-2012). A descriptive analysis was performed of health variables and risk factors. Logistic regressions were used to calculate the likelihood of occupational accidents and diseases and a zero-inflated Poisson regression was used to model occupational absenteeism. Results: A total of 47.221 workers were included, of which 86,3% were men. The mean follow-up was 1,96 years. Workers aged >60 years had an excess risk of occupational diseases, with an OR of 19.18 compared with workers aged 60 years (IRR 2,69), and working in the property sector (IRR 2,37) and in mining (IRR 2,38) conferred a higher probability of absenteeism. Conclusions: Unmodifiable factors (age and sex), as well as modifiable factors, such as sedentariness and nutritional status, contribute to undesired occupational events.

Lorena, Hoffmeister; Carolina, Vidal; Clelia, Vallebuona; Nelly, Ferrer; Pamela, Vásquez; Gabriela, Núñez.

317

Factores Asociados a Accidentes, Enfermedades y Ausentismo Laboral: Análisis de una Cohorte de Trabajadores Formales en Chile / Factors Associated with Accidents, Illness and Absenteeism: Analysis of a Cohort of Formal Workers in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Estimar la asociación entre factores de riesgo y la ocurrencia de enfermedades, accidentes y ausentismo laboral en trabajadores formales. Método: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva usando dos fuentes de información: registro de evaluaciones ocupacionales preventivas y de episodios de acciden [...] tes y enfermedades laborales (2009-2012). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de variables de salud y de factores de riesgo. Regresiones logísticas para la ocurrencia de enfermedades y accidentes. Se usó una regresión Poisson-cero-inflado para el ausentismo laboral. Resultados: los > 60 años tienen un exceso de riesgo de enfermedad laboral (OR-ajustada 19,18 respecto a 60 años (IRR 2,69), trabajar en actividades inmobiliarias (IRR 2,37) y en explotación de minas (IRR 2,38), tienen una probabilidad mayor de más días de ausentismo. Conclusiones: Factores no modificables (sexo y edad), junto con factores modificables, como el sedentarismo y el estado nutricional, contribuyen a eventos laborales no deseados. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the association among lifestyle-related risk factors and the occurrence of occupational diseases, accidents and absenteeism in a cohort of formal workers. Method: A retrospective cohort study was carried out by using two information sources: a registry of preventive occupatio [...] nal evaluations and another registry of episodes of occupational accidents and diseases (2009-2012). A descriptive analysis was performed of health variables and risk factors. Logistic regressions were used to calculate the likelihood of occupational accidents and diseases and a zero-inflated Poisson regression was used to model occupational absenteeism. Results: A total of 47.221 workers were included, of which 86,3% were men. The mean follow-up was 1,96 years. Workers aged >60 years had an excess risk of occupational diseases, with an OR of 19.18 compared with workers aged 60 years (IRR 2,69), and working in the property sector (IRR 2,37) and in mining (IRR 2,38) conferred a higher probability of absenteeism. Conclusions: Unmodifiable factors (age and sex), as well as modifiable factors, such as sedentariness and nutritional status, contribute to undesired occupational events.

Lorena, Hoffmeister; Carolina, Vidal; Clelia, Vallebuona; Nelly, Ferrer; Pamela, Vásquez; Gabriela, Núñez.

2014-04-01

318

Monte Carlo investigation of electron beam relative output factors  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the tasks in commissioning an electron accelerator in cancer clinics is to measure relative output factors (ROFs) versus various parameters such as applicator size (called applicator factors), cutout size (cutout factors) and air-gap size (gap factors) for various electron beam energies and applicator sizes. This kind of measurement takes a lot of time and labour. This thesis shows that Monte Carlo simulation offers an alternative to this task. With BEAM (Med. Phys. 22(1995)503-524), an EGS4 user- code, clinical accelerator electron beams are simulated and ROFs for a Siemens MD2 linear accelerator and a Varian Clinac 2100C accelerator are calculate The study shows that the Monte Carlo method is not only practical in clinics but also powerful in analyzing the related physics. The calculated ROFs agree within 1% with the measurements for most cases and 2% for all cases that have been studied, which is more than acceptable in clinical practice. The details of each component of the dose, such as dose from particles scattered off the photon-jaws and the applicator, the dose from contaminant photon, the dose from direct electrons, etc., are also analyzed. The study also explains quantitatively why the effective SSD (Source to Phantom Surface Distance) is often not the nominal reference SSD. For ROF measurements for small fields using an ion chamber, this study discusses the stopping- power ratio corrections due to changes in the depth of dose maximum as a function of field size and versus various accelerators. Since it handles ROF calculations for arbitrary fields, including square, rectangular, circular and irregular fields, in the same way, Monte Carlo is the simplest method to get ROFs compared to other algorithms. As the first step towards implementing Monte Carlo methods in clinical treatment planning, Monte Carlo calculations for electron beam ROFs can replace measurements in clinical practice. It takes about 6 hours of CPU time on a single Pentium Pro 200MHz computer to simulate an accelerator and additional 2 hours for each ROF.

Zhang, Geoffrey G.

319

[Accidents and headache].  

Science.gov (United States)

Work accidents are a major cause of morbidity and mortality by creating a loss not only for the individual affected but also for society given the high number of absences from work that follows. Many have been efforts since the early 60 'to minimize the number of accidents but, although it is known a steady downward trend in recent years, in Italy in 2010 there were still 775,000 cases of accidents and 980 deaths. The study examined a population of 192 persons injured of which 41 have proven to be headache and data collected showed that the frequency of headache among the workers who suffer an injury is equal to 26.2%. Finally, it is conceivable that the reduction of attention, "disability" or the effect induced headache post-pharmacological risk factors are important in causing accidents at work and would therefore be appropriate to continue the study recorded the presence/absence of headache at the time of the event accidents. PMID:22452096

Pucci, Ennio; De Icco, Roberto; Imbriani, Paola; Sandrini, Giorgio; Nappi, Giuseppe

2011-01-01

320

The weakening of cell protection as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident recovery factors affect on liquidator's organism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The markers of oxidative stress as well as intracellular antioxidants (enzymatic and non- enzymatic) were studied in 100 Chernobyl accident recovery workers(liquidators). Hormone screening tests were carried out in 250 liquidators. All persons (mean age - 35 years) have got external irradiation dose from 2 to 30 cGr. Control group was selected from persons of same age having not participated in accident liquidation. The significant antioxidant imbalance was found. ROS inactivating enzymes deficiency was revealed in neutrofils, lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM). For instance, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity in liquidator's AM was 2,8±0,3 U/mg protein (4,1-±1,8 U/mg protein in controls, P<0,05). Catalase activity was also lower than in control group (P<0,05). The significant disorder of the thiol-disulfide turnover was revealed: depression of reduced glutathione by 1,71-±0,46 ?mol/l (control: 3,15±-0,34 ?tmol/l, P<0,05). The oxidative stress destructive action realized in the conditions of excessive production of ROS, while the antioxidant potential was diminished(P<0,05). The oxidative destruction of lipids and proteins was found to be induced by free radical action. TBARS level in alveolar macrophages of liquidators was more than three times higher compared to controls. Enhanced levels of protein carbonyl groups were found as well. The decrease of TT3 in liquidators was detected most frequently. In 19% liquidators examined, TT3 was below the reference value (0,8 ng/ml). The TT3 level was registered at the low limit of the reference range (0,8 ng/ml) in 18% of liquidators. ''Low T3'' syndrome may be considered as a cell protection weakening. All the cellular protective mechanisms take part in processes of DNA synthesis and repair, transcription and translation, cell respiration and metabolism. Significant impairment of the cellular protective systems in liquidators could be regarded as a base of persistent ''chromosomal pathology'' and imbalance of metabolism complicated by the various diseases including oncology. (author)

 
 
 
 
321

An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials. We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique study different hypotheses. All t-student values are statistically meaningful when the level of significance is ten percent and some of the parameters are even meaningful when the level of significance is five percent. The results indicate that the rate of bank deposit is negatively associated with commodity market growth rate (-.001995, US dollar exchange rate (-0.004167, banking industry growth rate (-0.278826 and moving average (-0.940418. In addition, dependent variable is positively associated with Euro exchange growth rate (0.005676.

Zahra Houshmand Neghabi

2013-01-01

322

MY NASA DATA: Investigating Factors that Influence Climate  

Science.gov (United States)

Latitude and longitude impact climate. Students will learn this first hand by researching the climate for a specific 10° x 10° quadrant of the country. Students will download data sets on both temperature and precipitation for their quadrant and will determine averages for each of those factors. Using that information, students will construct a climatogram (a climate diagram). After analyzing the climatogram, students will prepare a poster and give an oral presentation. The influence on their quadrant's climate of additional factors such as elevation, topography and solar intensity will also be considered. Note: This lesson involves several activities. Following the recommended sequence and timetable, the lesson could take six to ten 50-minute class periods. It is possible to reduce the time commitment by modifying the activities. This lesson uses student- and citizen science-friendly microsets of authentic NASA Earth system science data from the MY NASA DATA project. It also includes related links, extension, an online glossary, and a list of related AP Environmental Science topics.

323

An Investigation of Work Culture and Social Factors influencing it  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research examines work culture and social factors influencing it among employees of Islamic Azad University, the largest private organization in Iran. First, it has been tried to determine a rate for work culture and then relationships between work culture and participatory management, organizational justice, job satisfaction, and demographic variables have been examined. Research method is cross-sectional survey; research population is all personnel of the Islamic Azad Universities in three provinces: Fars, Boushehr and Kohkiloye-Boyerahmad. Overall, 481 subjects were selected by means of simple random sampling. Measurement tool is questionnaire, which includes four scales. Construct validity was obtained through factor analysis; Reliability test was also performed by means of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Research findings indicate that work culture is on average among subjects. Also, there are significant relationships between work culture and participatory management, organizational justice, job satisfaction, age and years of employment. Using regression analysis, it appears that of all independent variables, job satisfaction and years of employment are strongest predictors of work culture. Taken together, they explain 18% of the variance of work culture.

Siroos Ahmadi

2012-01-01

324

An investigation of factors influencing indoor radon concentrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Variations in indoor radon concentrations and some influencing factors have been studied during a two-year period (1986-1987) in 16 almost identical single-family houses.The annual average radon concentration in the houses varied from about 50 to about 400 Bq/m3. Variations in soil characteristics and radon concentration in soil gas could not be directly related to the variations of the average indoor radon concentrations. Most of the houses showed a ''normal'' seasonal variation of the radon concentration with a maximum in the winter and minimum in the summer. A deviating seasonal variation was found in three of the houses. Hourly data obtained in one unoccupied house during a period of 2-1/2 months showed no or only weak correlations between the indoor radon concentration and meteorological factors. However, for most of the houses, the seasonal variation of the indoor radon concentration was well correlated with the average indoor-outdoor temperature difference on a 2-month basis. It was demonstrated that the radon concentration can be strongly reduced in the Risoe houses if a district-heating duct, which is connected to all the houses, is ventilated, so that a slightly lowered pressure is maintained in the duct. 5 taps., 24 ill. (author)

325

Factores asociados a los accidentes por exposición percutánea en personal de enfermería en un hospital de tercer nivel / Factors associated with accidents resulting from percutaneousexposure in nursing staff at a tertiary level hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: Los accidentes por exposición percutánea suponen aproximadamente un tercio de los accidentes laborales del personal sanitario hospitalario. Su importancia estriba en las enfermedades causadas por patógenos transmisibles por esta vía (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, infección VIH). Objetivos: d [...] escribir los accidentes de este tipo notificados en un hospital de tercer nivel; identificar factores asociados a estos accidentes en personal de enfermería; construir un modelo predictivo del riesgo individual de accidentarse. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo de una cohorte retrospectiva compuesta por todas las personas que notificaron un accidente entre el 1-1-93 y el 30-6-96. Estudio de casos y controles en el personal de enfermería durante el período 1-1-95 al 30-6-96, analizado mediante regresión logística múltiple. RESULTADOS: La incidencia acumulada de accidentes en un año fue de 0,078 para las/-os enfermeras/-os. En el 57,3% de los casos estuvieron implicadas agujas de jeringas desechables o precargadas. La incidencia acumulada en un año fue mayor para las agujas de cateterismo intravenoso (8,5 por 100.000). El riesgo de accidentabilidad, ajustado por variables confundentes, fue mayor para las/-os enfermeras/-os (OR=3,22; I.C.95%=1,96-5,27), para los trabajadores de la Unidad de Hemodiálisis (OR=35,21; I.C.95%=3,74-331,16) y para aquéllos con contrato eventual (OR=4,50; I.C.95%=2,24-9,04). CONCLUSIONES: Los accidentes por exposición percutánea en este hospital son más frecuentes entre el personal de enfermería y se producen, fundamentalmente, con algún tipo de aguja hueca. Se han identificado factores asociados a estos accidentes, lo que permite dirigir programas preventivos específicos sobre trabajadores con más riesgo. El modelo obtenido es válido para estimar el grado de accidentabilidad individual en los sujetos estudiados. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Accidents resulting from percutaneous exposure account for approximately one third of all accidents suffered at work by health workers in hospitals. Their importance lies in the illnesses caused by pathogens that can be transmitted in this way (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV virus). The a [...] ims are to describe accidents of this type notified in a tertiary level hospital, identify factors associated with these accidents in nursing staff and build a predictive model for the individual risk of having an accident. METHODS: A descriptive study of a retrospective cohort made up of all the people who notified having suffered an accident between 1-1-93 and 30-6-96. A study of cases and controls in nursing staff during the period 1-1-95 to 30-6-96, analysed through multiple logistical regression. RESULTS: The cumulative number of cases of accidents in one year was 0.078 for male and female nurses. In 57.3% of cases, disposable or pre-loaded syringes were involved. The cumulative number of cases in one year was greater for intravenous catheterisation (8.5% per 100,000). The risk of having an accident, adjusted on account of confusing variables, was greater for female and male nurses (OR=3.22; I.C.95%=1.96-5.27), for workers in the Haemodialysis Unit (OR=35.21; I.C.95%=3.74-331.16) and for those employed on a temporary contract (OR=4.50; I.C.95%=2.24-9.04). CONCLUSIONS: Accidents resulting from percutaneous exposure at this hospital are more frequent among nursing staff and are basically caused by some type of needle used for injections. Factors associated with these accidents were identified, allowing specific prevention programmes to be targeted at those workers at greater risk. The model obtained is valid to estimate the degree of individual accident probability for the subjects studied.

Mª Teresa, Gallardo López; Josefa, Masá Calles; Rafael, Fernández-Creuet Navajas; nmaculada, Salcedo Leal; Jokin de, Irala Estévez; Diego, Martínez de la Concha; Carmen, Díaz Molina.

326

Factores asociados a los accidentes por exposición percutánea en personal de enfermería en un hospital de tercer nivel / Factors associated with accidents resulting from percutaneousexposure in nursing staff at a tertiary level hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: Los accidentes por exposición percutánea suponen aproximadamente un tercio de los accidentes laborales del personal sanitario hospitalario. Su importancia estriba en las enfermedades causadas por patógenos transmisibles por esta vía (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, infección VIH). Objetivos: d [...] escribir los accidentes de este tipo notificados en un hospital de tercer nivel; identificar factores asociados a estos accidentes en personal de enfermería; construir un modelo predictivo del riesgo individual de accidentarse. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo de una cohorte retrospectiva compuesta por todas las personas que notificaron un accidente entre el 1-1-93 y el 30-6-96. Estudio de casos y controles en el personal de enfermería durante el período 1-1-95 al 30-6-96, analizado mediante regresión logística múltiple. RESULTADOS: La incidencia acumulada de accidentes en un año fue de 0,078 para las/-os enfermeras/-os. En el 57,3% de los casos estuvieron implicadas agujas de jeringas desechables o precargadas. La incidencia acumulada en un año fue mayor para las agujas de cateterismo intravenoso (8,5 por 100.000). El riesgo de accidentabilidad, ajustado por variables confundentes, fue mayor para las/-os enfermeras/-os (OR=3,22; I.C.95%=1,96-5,27), para los trabajadores de la Unidad de Hemodiálisis (OR=35,21; I.C.95%=3,74-331,16) y para aquéllos con contrato eventual (OR=4,50; I.C.95%=2,24-9,04). CONCLUSIONES: Los accidentes por exposición percutánea en este hospital son más frecuentes entre el personal de enfermería y se producen, fundamentalmente, con algún tipo de aguja hueca. Se han identificado factores asociados a estos accidentes, lo que permite dirigir programas preventivos específicos sobre trabajadores con más riesgo. El modelo obtenido es válido para estimar el grado de accidentabilidad individual en los sujetos estudiados. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Accidents resulting from percutaneous exposure account for approximately one third of all accidents suffered at work by health workers in hospitals. Their importance lies in the illnesses caused by pathogens that can be transmitted in this way (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV virus). The a [...] ims are to describe accidents of this type notified in a tertiary level hospital, identify factors associated with these accidents in nursing staff and build a predictive model for the individual risk of having an accident. METHODS: A descriptive study of a retrospective cohort made up of all the people who notified having suffered an accident between 1-1-93 and 30-6-96. A study of cases and controls in nursing staff during the period 1-1-95 to 30-6-96, analysed through multiple logistical regression. RESULTS: The cumulative number of cases of accidents in one year was 0.078 for male and female nurses. In 57.3% of cases, disposable or pre-loaded syringes were involved. The cumulative number of cases in one year was greater for intravenous catheterisation (8.5% per 100,000). The risk of having an accident, adjusted on account of confusing variables, was greater for female and male nurses (OR=3.22; I.C.95%=1.96-5.27), for workers in the Haemodialysis Unit (OR=35.21; I.C.95%=3.74-331.16) and for those employed on a temporary contract (OR=4.50; I.C.95%=2.24-9.04). CONCLUSIONS: Accidents resulting from percutaneous exposure at this hospital are more frequent among nursing staff and are basically caused by some type of needle used for injections. Factors associated with these accidents were identified, allowing specific prevention programmes to be targeted at those workers at greater risk. The model obtained is valid to estimate the degree of individual accident probability for the subjects studied.

Mª Teresa, Gallardo López; Josefa, Masá Calles; Rafael, Fernández-Creuet Navajas; nmaculada, Salcedo Leal; Jokin de, Irala Estévez; Diego, Martínez de la Concha; Carmen, Díaz Molina.

327

In vitro investigation of the factors affecting pulse oximetry.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of a number of physiological parameters on pulse oximetry accuracy has been investigated in an in vitro model. We have found that above 50% saturation, pulse oximeters will not be affected by variations in haematocrit, blood flow rate, tissue blood content and pulse amplitude. At low saturations, however, it is known that the accuracy of pulse oximeters decreases and our in vitro results suggest how this may be corrected.

Kock, Jp; Tarassenko, L.

1991-01-01

328

Human error risk management for engineering systems: a methodology for design, safety assessment, accident investigation and training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to tackle methodological issues associated with the inclusion of cognitive and dynamic considerations into Human Reliability methods. A methodology called Human Error Risk Management for Engineering Systems is presented that offers a 'roadmap' for selecting and consistently applying Human Factors approaches in different areas of application and contains also a 'body' of possible methods and techniques of its own. Two types of possible application are discussed to demonstrate practical applications of the methodology. Specific attention is dedicated to the issue of data collection and definition from specific field assessment

329

Laboratory scale and technical scale investigations concerning iodine water-vapour phase partitioning under severe reactor accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental investigations have been performed to determine iodine water-vapour partitioning and iodine transport from boric acid solutions of iodide-iodine mixtures. Experiments were performed in open and closed glass equipment at 1000C and 1100C. High temperature tests were performed in a steel pressure vessel, at 1700C. The paper presents an overview of the experimental techniques and results obtained. The results will be used in the IMPAIR code. (UK)

330

Experimental investigations in the PKL test facility on thermal hydraulic system behavior of PWR under accident situations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a short overview on AREVA's thermal hydraulic platform, this presentation focused on the PKL project giving an survey of the different test programs and topics of investigation with emphasis on the current test program OECD-PKL 3. The presentation also includes a short description of the test facility, some typical results and findings derived from the PKL experiments will be exemplarily discussed in more detail

331

Factores psicoeducativos que determinan la propensión al accidente deportivo en escolares: diseño y validación de un cuestionario de evaluación / Psychoeducational factors that determine the propensity to school sports accidents: design and validation of an assessment questionnaire  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito de este estudio ha sido el diseño y validación de una escala de propensión al accidente deportivo en escolares. La muestra ha estado formada por 254 niños (M = 14.20, DT = 1.3). Las propiedades psicométricas de la escala se obtuvieron mediante un proceso de validez de contenido y un aná [...] lisis factorial de los componentes principales. Como resultados obtuvimos un cuestionario de 27 ítems formado por cinco factores y ajustado a los tópicos de validez y fiabilidad científica. Se encontraron diferencias en todos los factores de la escala entre niños y niñas y sólo en el factor búsqueda de sensaciones al considerar la edad de los sujetos. Como conclusión, esta escala es un instrumento inédito que permite la organización de los recursos materiales y didácticos en el deporte de acuerdo a aspectos psicoeducativos relacionados con la propensión al accidente de los niños, lo que es esencial en la prevención de lesiones. Abstract in english The purpose of this study has been the design and validation of a propensity scale of sports injuries in schools. The sample for the study has been formed of 254 children (M = 14.20, DT = 1.3). Psychometric properties of the scale were obtained through a process of content validity and a factorial a [...] nalysis of main components. As a result, we obtained a questionnaire of 27 items consisting of 5 factors and adjusted to validity topics and scientific reliability. Significant differences were found in all factors of the scale in relation to sex, whilst significant differences were only observed in relation to the sensation seeking factor when considering the age of the subjects. This scale is an essential tool for preventing accidents and injuries in school sport by allowing the identification of sports accident-prone students.

Pedro A., Latorre-Román; José C., Cámara-Pérez; Antonio, Pantoja-Vallejo; Tomás, Izquierdo-Rus.

332

Factores psicoeducativos que determinan la propensión al accidente deportivo en escolares: diseño y validación de un cuestionario de evaluación / Psychoeducational factors that determine the propensity to school sports accidents: design and validation of an assessment questionnaire  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito de este estudio ha sido el diseño y validación de una escala de propensión al accidente deportivo en escolares. La muestra ha estado formada por 254 niños (M = 14.20, DT = 1.3). Las propiedades psicométricas de la escala se obtuvieron mediante un proceso de validez de contenido y un aná [...] lisis factorial de los componentes principales. Como resultados obtuvimos un cuestionario de 27 ítems formado por cinco factores y ajustado a los tópicos de validez y fiabilidad científica. Se encontraron diferencias en todos los factores de la escala entre niños y niñas y sólo en el factor búsqueda de sensaciones al considerar la edad de los sujetos. Como conclusión, esta escala es un instrumento inédito que permite la organización de los recursos materiales y didácticos en el deporte de acuerdo a aspectos psicoeducativos relacionados con la propensión al accidente de los niños, lo que es esencial en la prevención de lesiones. Abstract in english The purpose of this study has been the design and validation of a propensity scale of sports injuries in schools. The sample for the study has been formed of 254 children (M = 14.20, DT = 1.3). Psychometric properties of the scale were obtained through a process of content validity and a factorial a [...] nalysis of main components. As a result, we obtained a questionnaire of 27 items consisting of 5 factors and adjusted to validity topics and scientific reliability. Significant differences were found in all factors of the scale in relation to sex, whilst significant differences were only observed in relation to the sensation seeking factor when considering the age of the subjects. This scale is an essential tool for preventing accidents and injuries in school sport by allowing the identification of sports accident-prone students.

Pedro A., Latorre-Román; José C., Cámara-Pérez; Antonio, Pantoja-Vallejo; Tomás, Izquierdo-Rus.

2013-05-01

333

Accidentes biológicos en estudiantes de medicina de una universidad peruana: prevalencia, mecanismos y factores de riesgo / Biological accidents in a Peruvian university medical students: prevalence, mechanisms and risk factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Una de las más serias amenazas que enfrentan los estudiantes de medicina durante su práctica clínica es la posibilidad de exposición a accidentes biológicos, debido en la mayoría de los casos a la inexperiencia y el escaso desarrollo de las habilidades manuales. Objetivos: Establecer l [...] a frecuencia, mecanismos, circunstancias y factores de riesgo de los accidentes biológicos ocurridos entre estudiantes de medicina. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo observacional de corte transversal. Institución: Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Estudiantes de medicina. Metodología: Se aplicó una encuesta estructurada anónima, voluntaria y autoadministrada. Principales medidas de resultados: Accidentes biológicos. Resultados: En total fueron 307 entrevistados. La prevalencia de accidentes biológicos en la población estudiada fue de 51,5% (158/307). La media de accidentes biológicos en el último año fue de 1,06. El 91,1% de los estudiantes del último año presentó al menos un accidente biológico, versus 11,9% en los estudiantes del primer año. Los estudiantes del último año informaron con más frecuencia accidentes de riesgo alto para transmisión de infecciones, siendo 47,6% por pinchazo con objeto punzocortante, y 80,6% tuvo exposición a sangre; los accidentes de riesgo alto son mucho más frecuentes en quirófanos y sala de partos (51,9%). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de accidentes biológicos fue 51,5%, siendo el pinchazo la forma más frecuente. Es necesario desarrollar estrategias que permitan velar por la bioseguridad de los estudiantes de medicina. Abstract in english Introduction: One of the most serious problems of medical students is occupational exposure during their clinical training as they lack experience and limited development of hand skills. Objectives: To establish the frequency, mechanisms, circumstances and risk factors of biological accidents report [...] ed in medical students. Design: Descriptive observational transversal type study. Setting: Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Participants: Medical students. Methodology: A retrospective anonymous and voluntary survey was conducted. Study participants were randomly chosen. Main outcome measures: Biological accidents. Results: In a sample of 307 students 51,5% had at least one accident (158/307); median of biological accidents in the last year was 1,06; 91,1% of senior students had at least one biological accident last year versus 11,9% of first-year students. Senior students inform more often about high-risk infection-transmission accidents, 47,6% caused by pinching with a sharp object while 80,6% were exposed to blood; high-risk accidents are far more often in surgical and delivery rooms (51,9%). Conclusions: It is necessary to develop strategies that allow medical students to enforce biosecurity concepts.

Elizabeth, Inga; Gregory, López; Carlos, Kamiya.

334

Investigating the effective factors on the duration of breast feeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: A balanced and proper diet is an essential factor in maintaining individual’s health. The improvement of feeding in different age groups, especially children, is considered a significant step in primary health care. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive and analytic study. A sample of 225 mothers whose babies were between 0-24 months and who were referred to selected centers were chosen, using random sampling. The tool was a questionnaire. To analyze the data, the descriptive statistical, frequency distribution charts, the mean and central tendency as well as inferential statistics (?2 test and Pearson correlation were applied. Results: The findings of the research showed that there is a meaningful relation between variables of age, occupation, the method of the last delivery, inclination of mother to the breast feeding, age of fetus at the time of birth, hospitalization of the neonate, the time of first breast feeding after the childbirth, the quality of baby’s nutrition while he is hospitalized, the quality of the baby’s first nutrition, the time of starting aid-feeding, using the aid-milk and using the pacifier by the baby with the duration of breast feeding. Such a relationship was also found between husband’s idea about the breast feeding, examination of the breast during the pregnancy, teaching the advantages of the breast feeding and its correct method during the pregnancy, the place of the last childbirth, teaching the importance and the correct method of breast feeding after the childbirth, an encouraging and supporting husband concerning breast feeding, presence of the mother and the baby in a same-room after the childbirth, manner of arranging the intervals and times of the breast feeding, breast feeding during the night, renewed pregnancy and the duration of breast feeding in each session with the duration of breast feeding. Conclusion: According to the findings of the research, different factors affect duration of the breast feeding. Necessity of the midwife’s attempt to instruct mothers during pregnancy and after childbirth was affirmed. The necessity of instruction of the medical groups about breast feeding is also made clear more than before.

Jamshidi Evanaki

2004-08-01

335

Investigating important factors influencing on strategic marketing planning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most important methods for building good marketing strategy is to learn more about existing competitors, suppliers, etc. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between wholesalers, bargaining pricing, new rivals and pricing strategy on preparing appropriate marketing strategy in meat market in city of shiraz, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 200 experts in this market. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 97.3%, which validates the overall survey. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation ratio indicate that there were some positive and meaningful relationships between all components of the survey with marketing strategy.

Davood Salmani

2014-02-01

336

Investigating the effects of various factors on bank deposits  

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Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation on the effects of seven variables including growth domestic product, financial deepening, inflation rate, dependency burden, the number of bank’s branches, inflation rates given/charged on bank deposit. The study has been performed on one of Iranian banks named Sina Bank over the period 2006-2011. The implementation of individual regression analysis has detected a positive and meaningful relationship between growth domestic product, financial deepening, inflation rate and the number of branches on one side and bank deposit on the other side. In addition, the study has confirmed a negative and meaningful relationship between two variables of dependency burden as well as interest charged on bank’s clients and bank deposit. However, the result of our survey does not indicate that there was any relationship between interest rate paid to customers and bank deposit.

Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

2014-04-01

337

Acidentes e violências na infância e adolescência: fatores de risco e de proteção / Accidents and violence in childhood and adolescence: risk and protective factors / Accidentes y violencias en la infancia y adolescencia: factores de riesgo y de protección  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Apontada pelas estatísticas como a terceira causa de mortalidade em nosso país, as causas externas (acidentes e violências) ocasionam um grande impacto com repercussão econômica, social e emocional. Conhecer os fatores relacionados a este evento torna-se essencial, pois possibilita identificar e que [...] brar a teia que determina a morbimortalidade por causas externas. O estudo busca analisar as publicações existentes sobre os fatores associados aos acidentes e violências, a fim de proporcionar subsídios teóricos para os profissionais em suas práticas. Trata-se de estudo bibliográfico nas bases de dados Lilacs, Medline e Scielo. O conhecimento dos fatores de risco e proteção discutidos ao longo deste texto possibilita subsidiar a prática dos atores sociais engajados na transformação das condições geradoras de acidentes e violências. Abstract in spanish Señalada por las estadísticas como la tercera causa de mortalidad en nuestro país las causas externas (accidentes y violencias) producen un gran impacto en el ámbito económico, social y emocional. Conocer los factores relacionados con ese fenómeno se torna esencial, para que puedan ser identificadas [...] las causas y quebrada la secuencia que determina la morbimortalidad por causas externas. En el presente estudio se realizó una búsqueda de las publicaciones existentes sobre los factores asociados a los accidentes y violencias, con la finalidad de ofrecer subsidios teóricos para las prácticas de los profesionales. Se trata de un estudio bibliográfico según las bases de datos Lilacs, Medline y Scielo. El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo y protección discutidos a lo largo de este texto permite auxiliar la práctica de los actores sociales comprometidos en la transformación de las condiciones que generan accidentes y violencias. Abstract in english Singled out by statistics as the third leading cause of mortality in our country, external causes (accidents and violence) entail a great impact with economic, social and emotional rebound. Knowing the factors related to the event is essential, because it allows identifying and breaking the web that [...] determines morbidity and mortality from external causes. The study aims to analyze the existing publications on the factors associated with accidents and violence, in order to provide theoretical support for professionals in their practices. This is a bibliographical study of the Liliacs, Medline and Scielo databanks. The knowledge of the risk and protection factors discussed in the present study enables subsidize the practice of social actors engaged in transforming the conditions that lead to accidents and violence.

Christine Baccarat de Godoy, Martins.

2013-08-01

338

Acidentes e violências na infância e adolescência: fatores de risco e de proteção / Accidents and violence in childhood and adolescence: risk and protective factors / Accidentes y violencias en la infancia y adolescencia: factores de riesgo y de protección  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Apontada pelas estatísticas como a terceira causa de mortalidade em nosso país, as causas externas (acidentes e violências) ocasionam um grande impacto com repercussão econômica, social e emocional. Conhecer os fatores relacionados a este evento torna-se essencial, pois possibilita identificar e que [...] brar a teia que determina a morbimortalidade por causas externas. O estudo busca analisar as publicações existentes sobre os fatores associados aos acidentes e violências, a fim de proporcionar subsídios teóricos para os profissionais em suas práticas. Trata-se de estudo bibliográfico nas bases de dados Lilacs, Medline e Scielo. O conhecimento dos fatores de risco e proteção discutidos ao longo deste texto possibilita subsidiar a prática dos atores sociais engajados na transformação das condições geradoras de acidentes e violências. Abstract in spanish Señalada por las estadísticas como la tercera causa de mortalidad en nuestro país las causas externas (accidentes y violencias) producen un gran impacto en el ámbito económico, social y emocional. Conocer los factores relacionados con ese fenómeno se torna esencial, para que puedan ser identificadas [...] las causas y quebrada la secuencia que determina la morbimortalidad por causas externas. En el presente estudio se realizó una búsqueda de las publicaciones existentes sobre los factores asociados a los accidentes y violencias, con la finalidad de ofrecer subsidios teóricos para las prácticas de los profesionales. Se trata de un estudio bibliográfico según las bases de datos Lilacs, Medline y Scielo. El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo y protección discutidos a lo largo de este texto permite auxiliar la práctica de los actores sociales comprometidos en la transformación de las condiciones que generan accidentes y violencias. Abstract in english Singled out by statistics as the third leading cause of mortality in our country, external causes (accidents and violence) entail a great impact with economic, social and emotional rebound. Knowing the factors related to the event is essential, because it allows identifying and breaking the web that [...] determines morbidity and mortality from external causes. The study aims to analyze the existing publications on the factors associated with accidents and violence, in order to provide theoretical support for professionals in their practices. This is a bibliographical study of the Liliacs, Medline and Scielo databanks. The knowledge of the risk and protection factors discussed in the present study enables subsidize the practice of social actors engaged in transforming the conditions that lead to accidents and violence.

Christine Baccarat de Godoy, Martins.

339

What you find is not always what you fix--how other aspects than causes of accidents decide recommendations for remedial actions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In accident investigation, the ideal is often to follow the principle "what-you-find-is-what-you-fix", an ideal reflecting that the investigation should be a rational process of first identifying causes, and then implement remedial actions to fix them. Previous research has however identified cognitive and political biases leading away from this ideal. Somewhat surprisingly, however, the same factors that often are highlighted in modern accident models are not perceived in a recursive manner to reflect how they influence the process of accident investigation in itself. Those factors are more extensive than the cognitive and political biases that are often highlighted in theory. Our purpose in this study was to reveal constraints affecting accident investigation practices that lead the investigation towards or away from the ideal of "what-you-find-is-what-you-fix". We conducted a qualitative interview study with 22 accident investigators from different domains in Sweden. We found a wide range of factors that led investigations away from the ideal, most which more resembled factors involved in organizational accidents, rather than reflecting flawed thinking. One particular limitation of investigation was that many investigations stop the analysis at the level of "preventable causes", the level where remedies that were currently practical to implement could be found. This could potentially limit the usefulness of using investigations to get a view on the "big picture" of causes of accidents as a basis for further remedial actions. PMID:20728672

Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik

2010-11-01

340

Intraarterial therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Investigation of prognostic factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intraarterial therapy (IAT) for acute cerebral infarction has been proven to be profitable. However, the criteria for the indications, the choice of the thrombolytic agents, and the use of adjunctive agents are controversial. We retrospectively analyzed the prognostic factors of IAT. From 1994 to 2003, 28 patients underwent IAT due to middle cerebral artery occlusion (17 women and 11 men; median age, 69 years old). We evaluated the following prognostic parameters: institution of treatment, degree of paralysis at visit, size of high-intensity area on diffusion-weighted images, dose of intraarterial urokinase administration, elapsed time from symptom onset to completion of IAT, presence of penetration of embolus by microcatheter and microguidewire, recanalization after IAT, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) within 24 hours after IAT, and intravenous heparin administration after IAT. The outcome was evaluated at discharge and was classified into the following categories according to the modified Rankin Scale: independence (0 to 2), dependence (3 to 5), and death (6). Seven patients were judged to be independent, 16 patients were judged to be dependent, and five patients died. Patients with recanalization after IAT had a better outcome than those without (p<0.05); patients with intracranial hemorrhage had a worse outcome than those without (p<0.05); and patients with intravenous heparin administration after IAT had a better outcome in activities of daily living than those wit activities of daily living than those without (p<0.05). In addition to ICH and recanalization, our results suggested that intravenous heparin administration after IAT had a favorable effect on patient outcome. (author)

 
 
 
 
341

Investigating different factors influencing women’s economic activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many studies on how to share women’s involvement in economic activities and what sectors of industries could contribute more to their job involvement. This paper presents an empirical investigation to learn how economic growth in service industry, agricultural industry as well as other industries could contribute on economic growth. The study uses vector error correction to study the relationship between value added and women’s job opportunities in Iran over the period 1951-2003. In industrial sector, the results of the survey indicate that an increase of one percent on growth domestic product (GDP and wage increases 4.47% and reduces 1.95 % of women’s employment, respectively. In addition, an increase of one percent on GDP and wage increases 0.24% and reduces 0.25 % of women’s employment in service industry, respectively. Finally, an increase of one percent in GDP increases wage by 4.47% and reduces women’s employment by 1.95%, respectively.

Mohammad Javad Ghasemi

2014-04-01

342

Investigating different factors influencing on return of private banks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Return of Investment has always been an interesting area of research among academics as well as investors. Although capital asset pricing model (CAPM is capable of estimating risk of investment, many people argue that CAPM is not able to predict long-term return, properly. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effects of different financial figures including systematic risk (Beta, size of firm, ratio of book value to market share, volume of trade and the ratio of price/earnings (P/E on return of private banks in Iran. The study gathers the necessary information over the period 2005-2011 from private banks in Iran. The study uses multiple regression technique to find the effects of mentioned variables on return of private banks. The results indicate that there are some meaningful and positive relationship between return of banks and systematic risk (Beta, size, volume of trade and P/E. The study also finds some meaningful and reverse relationship between bank return and book value on market value.

Pegah Motamedi

2013-09-01

343

Integrated Road Accident And Cost Prediction Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of an integrated road accidents and its cost prediction model for Chennai city using system dynamics approach. In this case, the simulation road accident prediction model was developed from the base year 2010 using road accident data collected from 2006 to 2010. In this research an attempt is made to establish relationship between road accident with factors of human behaviors, vehicle factors and road factors. STELLA software is a powerful tool for making a simulation model instead of stock and flow diagram, graphical interface, table and graph view, causal relational diagrams and build in functions. The system dynamics road accident prediction model was developed using STELLA software. The main objective of the studies is to establish simple, practicable simulation road accident and its cost models that can predict the expected number of accidents from 2010 to 2020. The predicted number of accident in 2010 was 5255 and accident for the year 2020 will be 21612. The model was also validated by comparing the predicted accident values of the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 with actual accident values. Add results of cost how much you predicted here.

K. Nachimuthu

2013-12-01

344

Tchernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given

345

Reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the issues involved in the public health measures and the use of KI in a reactor accident have been reviewed. It is suggested that the widely applied risk estimates for induction of human thyroid cancer by radioiodine are probably too high since they are generally derived from x-radiation of children and since 131I seems less carcinogenic per gray than external radiation. The adult protective action guideline currently recommended by the FDA of 0.25 Gy (25 rad) for KI administration may be overly conservative. If KI is to be used, 1 Gy (100 rad) to the thyroid for adults and .50 Gy (50 rad) for children may be a more appropriate action level. For maximum effectiveness, KI must be taken immediately before or at the time of exposure, a requirement producing major distribution problems. The logistics of KI distribution are complex and seem to limit its use to special situations. Significant side effects can occur from iodide ingestion, although they are not likely to be frequent with the KI dose proposed. In most accident scenarios, the overall gain from KI use seems to be marginal. In considering KI use as public health measure, the authors are confronted with the problem of establishing sound public policy in the absence of sufficient scientific information and in the face of conflicting and often unrealistic perceptions. It is hoped that new and useful information can be obtained from the study of the effects of the Chernobyl accident where KI was us of the Chernobyl accident where KI was used for a few days in the population in the immediate vicinity of the reactor

346

Accident: Reminder  

CERN Multimedia

There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

2003-01-01

347

Investigations into the temperature-transient steam oxidation of Zircaloy 4 cladding material under hypothetical PWR-loss-of-coolant accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The temperature-transient steam oxidation has been investigated by exposure to steam of inductively heated tube sections under realistic and pessimistic assumptions about the hypothetical accident at temperatures up to 12000C and durations of 3 min or less. Thus, a variety of complete and partial LOCA-transients could be simulated in a simplified shape of their time-temperature sequences and evaluated with respect to the extent of oxidative attack. In principle, also under temperature-transient conditions, the oxygen uptake was determined mainly by temperature and time. In all cases and due to the reduced time-at-temperature, the extent of transient oxidation was lower than under comparable isothermal conditions. The agreement of calculated and experimental results was acceptable. Deviations from this kind of predictable LOCA oxidation behaviour were found in many cases during exposure of metallic or preoxidized material. Essentially, they are related to the phase transformations of the oxide and metal lattice during the temperature transients and to changes in the oxidation rate determining defect structure. Thus, anomalous effects, as higher or lower extent of oxidation, are observed. The gravimetric results are complemented by metallographic evaluations, which concentrate also on the local pattern of oxidative attack. (orig./HP)

348

Cognitive Style Index: Further Investigation of the Factor Structure with an American Student Sample  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates the factor structure of the Cognitive Style Index (CSI), comparing the unitary, bipolar continuum of intuition-analysis, the theory upon which the CSI is predicated, with the two-factor theory of cognitive style. We conducted both confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses on data from a sample of 222 American…

Backhaus, Kristin; Liff, Joshua P.

2007-01-01

349

Variation in transfer factor of radiocaesium in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in clear cut and mature forest sites after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bank voles that were collected between 1986 and 2004 at sites in Chernobyl fallout areas of northern Sweden showed higher {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations at the mature forest sites compared to clear cuts. This difference was not attributed to differences in ground deposition between sites but to differences in aggregated transfer rates to voles. Differences in transfer between forest types were evident for all years 1986-2004 but the change occurred at different rates in the two habitats. The apparent transfer factor between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and voles was positively related and indicated that a biomagnification was about 1.5 from vegetation to these small mammalian herbivores. The aggregated transfer factor to bank voles measured in the forest habitat, although starting at higher levels declined faster with time than clear cut sites and the differences between the forest habitat and the clear cut areas diminished with time. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the mean level in bank vole was 514 Bq/kg fresh mass (SD = 505) that increased to 1485 Bq/kg (SD = 881) in 1988. The activity concentration declined thereafter. The bank voles collected in similar habitats in 2004 contained on average 1022 Bq/kg (SD = 723). Still 18 years after the radionuclide fallout over Sweden high activity concentrations in voles could be found.

Palo, Thomas R. [Mid-Sweden University, Department of Natural Sciences, Holmgatan 10, 85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)]. E-mail: thomas.palo@miun.se

2007-07-01

350

Variation in transfer factor of radiocaesium in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in clear cut and mature forest sites after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bank voles that were collected between 1986 and 2004 at sites in Chernobyl fallout areas of northern Sweden showed higher 137Cs activity concentrations at the mature forest sites compared to clear cuts. This difference was not attributed to differences in ground deposition between sites but to differences in aggregated transfer rates to voles. Differences in transfer between forest types were evident for all years 1986-2004 but the change occurred at different rates in the two habitats. The apparent transfer factor between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and voles was positively related and indicated that a biomagnification was about 1.5 from vegetation to these small mammalian herbivores. The aggregated transfer factor to bank voles measured in the forest habitat, although starting at higher levels declined faster with time than clear cut sites and the differences between the forest habitat and the clear cut areas diminished with time. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the mean level in bank vole was 514 Bq/kg fresh mass (SD = 505) that increased to 1485 Bq/kg (SD = 881) in 1988. The activity concentration declined thereafter. The bank voles collected in similar habitats in 2004 contained on average 1022 Bq/kg (SD = 723). Still 18 years after the radionuclide fallout over Sweden high activity concentrations in voles could be found

351

Radiation accidents with uneven exposure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: radiation accidents analysis in which there has been an uneven exposure of a human body. Material and Methods. The Burnazyan FMBC Radiation Accidents Register information and published data in other countries are investigated. Results. The Radiation Accidents Register of State Scientific Research Center n.a. A. I. Burnasyan consist the full information of radiation accidents in the former USSR (1949-1991 and the Russian Federation (1992-2012 territory. There is an evidence of 39 radiation accidents with 190 victims with a diagnosis of acute radiation syndrome and uneven exposure (incl. 4 episodes after 1991 in Russia, 62 people of which (incl. one in 1997 in Russia died in the acute phase. Conclusion^ Experience in the treatment of such victims, which are available from the State Scientific Research Center n.a. A. I. Burnazyan staff, is comparable with the total experiences in other developed countries.

Soloviev V.Yu.

2013-12-01

352

How to reduce the number of accidents  

CERN Multimedia

Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

2012-01-01

353

Severe accident management guidelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The events at Fukushima Daiichi have highlighted the importance of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs). As the world has learned from the catastrophe and countries are considering changes to their nuclear regulatory programs, the content of SAMGs and their regulatory control are being evaluated. This presentation highlights several factors that are being addressed in the United States as rulemaking is underway pertaining to SAMGs. The question of how to be prepared for the unexpected is discussed with specific insights gleaned from Fukushima. (author)

354

Investigation of stress concentration factor - Stress intensity factor interaction for flaws in filleted rods  

Science.gov (United States)

To predict the fatigue life of machine parts which contain flaws in regions of stress concentration, the engineer needs to treat a series of crack sizes and/or shapes quickly and economically. In this paper the stress intensity factor distributions for circular surface flaws in the roots of fillets in rods loaded by remote tension are presented and examined. The examination reveals insight into the interaction of cracks with other stress concentrating discontinuities, and based on this it is suggested that weight function methods used in conjunction with known crack solutions may provide needed, efficient stress intensity factor prediction methods for such three-dimensional geometries.

Springfield, C. W., Jr.; Jung, H. Y.

1988-01-01

355

Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

356

Investigation regarding the long-term security developments in the Swedish nuclear power and the response to the accident at Fukushima; Utredning avseende den laangsiktiga saekerhetsutvecklingen i den svenska kaernkraften och aatgaerder med anledning av olyckan i Fukushima  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Swedish nuclear plants need to continue to work on analysis and actions in the plants, partly to meet the demands of legislation and agreed action plans, and partly due to additional security requirements on account of experiences from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, stress tests, security investigations and investigations relating to physical protection. It is also essential to continue with safety improvements to gradually increase margins against unforeseen events in aging plants during long-term operation.

Skaanberg, Lars

2012-07-01

357

Study of the Severity of Accidents in Tehran Using Statistical Modeling and Data Mining Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractBackgrounds and Aims: The Tehran province was subject to the second highest incidence of fatalities due to traffic accidents in 1390. Most studies in this field examine rural traffic accidents, but this study is based on the use of logit models and artificial neural networks to evaluate the factors that affect the severity of accidents within the city of Tehran.Materials and Methods: Among the various types of crashes, head-on collisions are specified as the most serious type, which is investigated in this study with the use of Tehran’s accident data. In the modeling process, the severity of the accident is the dependent variable and defined as a binary covariate, which are non-injury accidents and injury accidents. The independent variables are parameters such as the characteristics of the driver, time of the accident, traffic and environmental characteristics. In addition to the prediction accuracy comparison of the two models, the elasticity of the logit model is compared with a sensitivity analysis of the neural network.Results: The results show that the proposed model provides a good estimate of an accident's severity. The explanatory variables that have been determined to be significant in the final models are the driver’s gender, age and education, along with negligence of the traffic rules, inappropriate acceleration, deviation to the left, type of vehicle, pavement conditions, time of the crash and street width.Conclusion: An artificial neural network model can be useful as a statistical model in the analysis of factors that affect the severity of accidents. According to the results, human errors and illiteracy of drivers increase the severity of crashes, and therefore, educating drivers is the main strategy that will reduce accident severity in Iran. Special attention should be given to a driver’s age group, with particular care taken when they are very young.

Hesamaldin Razi

2013-01-01

358

A Technique for Showing Causal Arguments in Accident Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

In the prototypical accident report, specific findings, particularly those related to causes and contributing factors, are usually written out explicitly and clearly. Also, the evidence upon which these findings are based is typically explained in detail. Often lacking, however, is any explicit discussion, description, or depiction of the arguments that connect the findings and the evidence. That is, the reports do not make clear why the investigators believe that the specific evidence they found necessarily leads to the particular findings they enumerated. This paper shows how graphical techniques can be used to depict relevant arguments supporting alternate positions on the causes of a complex road-traffic accident.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

2005-01-01

359

Nuclear accident emergency introduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear accident emergency is an action for controlling or reliving nuclear accident and relaxing accident result. It is different from normal order and normal work procedures, and it is also the last part of depth defense. The article introduces the main content of nuclear accident emergency management work and an example of nuclear accident emergency drill. (author)

360

Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

2010-01-01