WorldWideScience
1

Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived. PMID:21571433

Wang, Yan Fu; Faghih Roohi, Shahrzad; Hu, Xiu Ming; Xie, Min

2011-07-15

2

Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} HFACS provides a systematic guideline in accident investigations. The hierarchal structure of HFACS forces investigators to seek out latent HOFs. {yields} Bayesian Network enhances the ability of the HFACS by allowing experts to quantify the degree of relationships among the HOFs. {yields} The fuzzy AHP helps to reduce the subjective biases by avoiding the need to give explicit probability values for the variables' states. - Abstract: This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived.

Wang Yanfu, E-mail: isewy@nus.edu.sg [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore); Department of Safety Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Dong ying 257061 (China); Faghih Roohi, Shahrzad; Hu Xiuming; Xie Min [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore)

2011-07-15

3

Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? HFACS provides a systematic guideline in accident investigations. The hierarchal structure of HFACS forces investigators to seek out latent HOFs. ? Bayesian Network enhances the ability of the HFACS by allowing experts to quantify the degree of relationships among the HOFs. ? The fuzzy AHP helps to reduce the subjective biases by avoiding the need to give explicit probability values for the variables' states. - Abstract: This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived.

4

Investigation of Key Factors for Accident Severity at Railroad Grade Crossings by Using a Logit Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Although several studies have used logit or probit models and their variants to fit data of accident severity on roadway segments, few have investigated accident severity at a railroad grade crossing (RGC). Compared to accident risk analysis in terms of accident frequency and severity of a highway system, investigation of the factors contributing to traffic accidents at an RGC may be more complicated because of additional highway–railway interactions. Because the proportional odds assumption was violated while fitting cumulative logit modeled by the proportional odds models with stepwise variable selection to ordinal accident severity data collected at 592 RGCs in Taiwan, as suggested by Strokes et al. (2000, p. 249) a generalized logit model with stepwise variable selection was used instead to identify explanatory variables (factors or covariates) that were significantly associated with the severity of collisions. Hence, the fitted model was used to predict the level of accident severity, given a set of values in the explanatory variables. Number of daily trains, highway separation, number of daily trucks, obstacle detection device, and approaching crossing markings significantly affected levels of accident severity at an RGC (p-value = 0.0009, 0.0008, 0.0112, 0.0017, and 0.0003, respectively). Finally, marginal effect analysis on the number of daily trains and law enforcement camera was conducted to evaluate the effect of the number of daily trains and presence of a law enforcement camera on the potential accident severity. PMID:20161414

Hu, Shou-Ren; Li, Chin-Shang; Lee, Chi-Kang

2009-01-01

5

Supervisor's accident investigation handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

6

Safety-critical human factors issues derived from analysis of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident investigation reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011 had a large impact both in and outside Japan, and is not yet concluded. After Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s (TEPCO's) Fukushima accident, electric power suppliers have taken measures to respond in the event that the same state of emergency occurs - deploying mobile generators, temporary pumps and hoses, and training employees in the use of this equipment. However, it is not only the “hard” problems including the design of equipment, but the “soft” problems such as organization and safety culture that have been highlighted as key contributors in this accident. Although a number of organizations have undertaken factor analysis of the accident and proposed issues to be reviewed and measures to be taken, a systematic overview about electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture has not yet been undertaken. This study is based on three major reports: the report by the national Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (the Diet report), the report by the Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company (Government report), and the report by the non-government committee supported by the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation (Non-government report). From these reports, the sections relevant to electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture were extracted. These sections were arranged to correspond with the prerequisites for the ideal organization, and 30 issues to be reviewed by electric power suppliers were extracted using brainstorming methods. It is expected that the identified issues will become a reference for every organization concerned to work on preventive measures hereafter. (author)

7

Safety-critical human factors issues derived from analysis of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident investigation reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011 had a large impact both in and outside Japan, and is not yet concluded. After Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s (TEPCO's) Fukushima accident, electric power suppliers have taken measures to respond in the event that the same state of emergency occurs - deploying mobile generators, temporary pumps and hoses, and training employees in the use of this equipment. However, it is not only the 'hard' problems including the design of equipment, but the 'soft' problems such as organization and safety culture that have been highlighted as key contributors in this accident. Although a number of organizations have undertaken factor analysis of the accident and proposed issues to be reviewed and measures to be taken, a systematic overview about electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture has not yet been undertaken. This study is based on three major reports: the report by the national Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (the Diet report), the report by the Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company (Government report), and the report by the non-government committee supported by the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation (Non-government report). From these reports, the sections relevant to electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture were extracted. These sections were arranged to correspond with the prerequisites for the ideal organization, and 30 issues to be reviewed by electric power suppliers were extracted using brainstorming methods. It is expected that the identified issues will become a reference for every organization concerned to work on preventive measures hereafter. (author)

8

Lessons learned from accident investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

9

Multidisciplinary perspective on accident investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing complexity of many computer-controlled application processes is placing increasing demands on the investigation of adverse events. At the same time, there is a growing realisation that accident investigators must consider a wider range of contributory and contextual factors that help to shape human behaviour in the causes of safety-related incidents. A range of techniques have been developed to address these issues. For example (as we show in this paper), task modelling techniques have been extended from human computer interaction and systems design to analyse the causes and consequences of operator 'error'. Similarly, barrier analysis has been widely used to identify the way in which defences either protected or failed to protect a target system from potential hazards. Many barriers fail from common causes, including misconceptions that can be traced back to early stages in the development of a safety-critical system. For instance, unwarranted assumptions can be made about the impact of training on operator behaviour in emergency situations. Similarly, barrier analysis can also be used before a system has been designed to inform the system model and make it more tolerant to errors by incorporating human and technical barriers into the design. Task models often uncover deep-rooted problems, for instance, in workload allocation across many different aspects of an interactive control system. It can be difficult to use barrier and task analysis to trace th use barrier and task analysis to trace these common causes that lie behind the failure of many different defences. In order to deal with this complex combination of contributory factors and systems, we promote the use of abstraction (via models) as a way of representing these components and their interrelations whether it is design, construction or investigation. We use, to formally model an abstraction of the system. Additionally, the system model (described using a dialect of high-level Petri-nets) allows to reason about the system and to check conformance with the other models (task model, safety case and barriers). This paper, therefore, shows how an analysis of safety case arguments can be used to support the application of barrier, task, error and system analysis during the investigation of a command and control failure. The intention, in this paper, is to show that if an accident involved the failure of multiple barriers, it is also possible to trace the common causes of those failures back to the assumptions and arguments that are embodied within a safety case. Many countries require that safety cases demonstrate a system is 'acceptably safe' before they grant regulatory approval. These documents and the associated analytical techniques, therefore, provide a rich source of information about why command and control failures occurred. We demonstrate our approach on a fatal mining accident case study

10

Hazards awareness for aircraft accident investigators  

OpenAIRE

Hazards on accident sites are such that investigators must balance personal safety against the risks involved in collecting evidence intended to prevent future loss of life. Better knowledge of hazards and their mitigation could reconcile these conflicting objectives to a point at which risk might be no greater than in other workplaces. Nevertheless, the magnitude and nature of the hazards at any accident site cannot be determined in advance. The perceptions of novice accide...

Boston, Nathalie

2010-01-01

11

Organizational root causes for human factor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accident prevention techniques and technologies have evolved significantly throughout this century from the earliest establishment of standards and procedures to the safety engineering improvements the fruits of which we enjoy today. Most of the recent prevention efforts focused on humans and defining human factor causes of accidents. This paper builds upon the remarkable successes of the past by looking beyond the human's action in accident causation to the organizational factors that put the human in the position to cause the accident. This organizational approach crosses all functions and all career fields

12

Analytical HFACS for investigating human errors in shipping accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the innovative trends in marine technology and the implementation of safety-related regulations, shipping accidents are still a leading concern for global maritime interests. Ensuring the consistency of shipping accident investigation reports is recognized as a significant goal in order to clearly identify the root causes of these accidents. Hence, the goal of this paper is to generate an analytical Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), based on a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP), in order to identify the role of human errors in shipping accidents. Integration of FAHP improves the HFACS framework by providing an analytical foundation and group decision-making ability in order to ensure quantitative assessment of shipping accidents. PMID:19114139

Celik, Metin; Cebi, Selcuk

2009-01-01

13

Lockout/tagout accident investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

When I was in boot camp, our drill instructor told us that assume makes an ass out of u and me. It was true then, and it is true today. In this instance, assumptions came into play several times, both by the worker and by the companies involved. The good news is that it did not result in a fatality, but that does not relieve the pain and suffering that the employee had to endure. This same type of scenario is likely repeated at many job sites throughout the United States. Multiple contractors, dozens--maybe hundreds--of workers, power system equipment and devices; all of these have to be taken into consideration when performing maintenance activities. It can become a blur. People are people, and people make mistakes. That is why we have OSHA regulations, NFPA 70E, company procedures, policies, etc. Most if not all of us have either been involved in accidents or know people who have been. It's not like it's a secret that people make mistakes, but talk to some and they seem to think only others have that failing. Safety is not about just any one procedure or rule. It's about slowing down, making a plan, and executing that plan. There are plenty of tools available to help us: policies, procedures, codes, standards, federal regulations, and state and local laws. I am not about to say that the worker involved in this incident was not taking safety seriously, but he failed to follow some fundamental safety rules like test-before-touch. If he had taken just that one step, there would be nothing to write about. PMID:25188988

White, James R

2014-08-01

14

Psychological factors of radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

15

The Tchernobyl enigma or: the human factors in severe accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the analysis of many documents published after the Tchernobyl accident, we attempt to distinguish the main human factors aspects in severe accidents that come out, and the causes the most frequently quoted to ''explain'' it. But the Tchernobyl accident keeps its ''enigmatic'' feature, like any other accident. The need to make a deeper investigation concerning safety leads to look for various research paths that go beyond the usual normative positions, based on a too much mechanistic model of man. It is to the functioning of groups in work situations that we suggest to devote part of the research and thinking effort. We attempt to show briefly how two theories, the theory of ''groupthink'' and the theory of ''trade defensive ideologies'', can throw a light on the problem of human factors in nuclear power plants

16

CURRENT FACTORS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN ISFAHAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Introduction. Car accident mortality is the third order causes of death in the USA, following cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Given present survival and outcome Iranian data, more than 14,000 patients die annually in road accidents. Having a valid and reliable data could be useful in reduce mortality and morbidity reduction.
Methods. Twenty five percent of total traumatic patients in Isfahan were selected (N=2809 at the time of study (1997-1998. Forty five percent of them with car accident were asked about causes of accidents and risk factors for the severity and type of injuries were recorded based on International Classification of Disease 10.
Results. Most of the victims were young (10-20 years old, students and industrial workers. Statistically unreasonable numbers of cars without extension of roads and high ways, using old and unsafe cars will affects on accidents.
Discussion. In comparison with European and some Asian countries, Iran has unacceptable road accidents and it seems necessary to pay more attention to stop the current increasing data.

 

B AMINMAN SOUR

2000-06-01

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Independent accident investigation: a modern safety tool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historically, safety has been subjected to a fragmented approach. In the past, every department has had its own responsibility towards safety, focusing either on working conditions, internal safety, external safety, rescue and emergency, public order or security. They each issued policy documents, which in their time were leading statements for elaboration and regulation. They also addressed safety issues with tools of various nature, often specifically developed within their domain. Due to a series of major accidents and disasters, the focus of attention is shifting from complying with quantitative risk standards towards intervention in primary operational processes, coping with systemic deficiencies and a more integrated assessment of safety in its societal context. In The Netherlands recognition of the importance of independent investigations has led to an expansion of this philosophy from the transport sector to other sectors. The philosophy now covers transport, industry, defense, natural disaster, environment and health and other major occurrences such as explosions, fires, and collapse of buildings or structures. In 2003 a multi-sector covering law will establish an independent safety board in The Netherlands. At a European level, mandatory investigation agencies are recognized as indispensable safety instruments for aviation, railways and the maritime sector, for which EU Directives are in place or being progressed [Transport accident and incident investigatioansport accident and incident investigation in the European Union, European Transport Safety Council, ISBN 90-76024-10-3, Brussel, 2001]. Due to a series of major events, attention has been drawn to the consequences of disasters, highlighting the involvement of rescue and emergency services. They also have become subjected to investigative efforts, which in return, puts demands on investigation methodology. This paper comments on an evolutionary development in safety thinking and of safety boards, highlighting some consequences for strategic perspectives in a further development of independent accident investigation

18

32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

...enforcement officials will record traffic accident investigations on...local Safety Office copies of traffic accident investigation reports...given prior to any criminal traffic statements provided by violators...incident (weather, visibility, road surface condition, and...

2010-07-01

19

Factors associated with the severity of construction accidents: The case of South Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While the causes of accidents in the construction industry have been extensively studied, severity remains an understudied area. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on severity, this study analysed 24,764 construction accidents reported during 2002-11 in South Australia. A conceptual model developed through literature uses personal characteristics such as age, experience, gender and language. It also employs work-related factors such as size of organization, project size and location, mechanism of accident and body location of the injury. These were shown to discriminate why some accidents result in only a minor severity while others are fatal. Factors such as time of accident, day of the week and season were not strongly associated with accident severity. When the factors affecting severity of an accident are well understood, preventive measures could be developed specifically to those factors that are at high risk.

Jantanee Dumrak

2013-12-01

20

An Analysis of Construction Accident Factors Based on Bayesian Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we have an analysis of construction accident factors based on bayesian network. Firstly, accidents cases are analyzed to build Fault Tree method, which is available to find all the factors causing the accidents, then qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes the factors with Bayesian network method, finally determines the safety management program to guide the safety operations. The results of this study show that bad condition of geological environment has the largest posterior probability; therefore, it is the sensitive factor that might cause the objects striking accidents, so we should pay more attention to the geological environment when preventing accidents.

Yunsheng Zhao

2013-04-01

21

Safety investigation of team performance in accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the capacities of the performance evaluation of teamwork (PET) method. Its practicability and efficiency are illustrated by retrospective human reliability analyse of the famous nuclear and maritime accidents. A quantitative assessment of operators' performance on the base of thermo-hydraulic (T/H) calculations and full-scope simulator data for set of NPP design basic accidents with WWER is demonstrated. The last data are obtained on the 'WWER-1000' full-scope simulator of Kozloduy NPP during the regular practical training of the operators' teams. An outlook on the 'evaluation system of main control room (MCR) operators' reliability' project, based on simulator data of operators' training is given

22

A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most workplace accidents that happen in enterprises are simple and seldom result in serious injuries. Very often these kinds of workplace accidents are not investigated, and if they are, then the investigation is very brief, with comments such as that it was the victim’s own fault or just an unfortunate situation which could not be helped. Most prevention analysis and investigation methods focus on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, etc. In the industrial world, such risks do give rise to disasters, albeit very seldom. Nevertheless, the fact is that simpler accidents normally caused by apparent banalities occur much more frequently and with a higher rate of fatalities, disablements and other serious injuries than the ostensibly most dangerous kinds of accidents. In 1999 a practical tool for use by safety officers was developed; this tool is based on the investigation methods applied in major accidents, but comprises a simpler and more user-friendly presentation. The tool involves three steps: Mapping the facts, analysing the events, and developing preventive solutions. Practical application of the tool has shown that it affords managers and workers a heightened insight into the cause of accidents, including those that seemed to be unavoidable, and that simple workplace accidents always have root causes on which preventive action can be focused. The problem is however that making a proper analysis is difficult and requires appropriate training, even in cases where the accidents seem to be very simple.

JØrgensen, Kirsten

2010-01-01

23

Influence of social and economic factors on work accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyzes causes of work accidents in underground black coal mines. It is suggested that in a majority of cases work accidents are caused by numerous factors, and limiting the analysis to two or three causes is an oversimplification. Impact of the following social and economic factors on work accidents is analyzed: education, housing conditions (measured in m/sup 2/ of living surface per member of a household), average salary, and productivity of labor. It is suggested that the enumerated factors significantly influence such causes of work accidents as: lack of responsibility, lack of concentration, forgetfulness, underestimating safety hazards, carelessness, etc. The negative effects of personnel fluctuations on work safety and number of work accidents are also analyzed. (In Russian)

Bychkov, N.N.

1980-12-01

24

Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

Cookson, Simon

2009-01-01

25

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident final report of the AESJ investigation committee  

CERN Document Server

The Magnitude 9 Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, followed by a massive tsunami struck  TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and triggered an unprecedented core melt/severe accident in Units 1 – 3. The radioactivity release led to the evacuation of local residents, many of whom still have not been able to return to their homes. As a group of nuclear experts, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to investigate and analyze the accident from scientific and technical perspectives for clarifying the underlying and fundamental causes, and to make recommendations. The results of the investigation by the AESJ Investigation Committee has been compiled herewith as the Final Report. Direct contributing factors of the catastrophic nuclear incident at Fukushima Daiichi NPP initiated by an unprecedented massive earthquake/ tsunami – inadequacies in tsunami measures, severe accident ma...

Atomic Energy Society of Japan

2015-01-01

26

Directions in epidemiological investigations of the Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The after-Chernobyl irradiation doses of the Bulgarian population cause possible health consequences in the sphere of scholastic effects only. Different mental disturbances arise under certain conditions. There are plans for epidemiologic investigations of the kind 'case-control' which are aimed to clarify the role of the radiation factor (of medical, professional and Chernobyl origin) in the appearance of some neoplasms in hemopoietic system and thyroid. A selective analysis of the congenital malformations frequency is envisaged which will overcome the shortcomings of the current registration system. Screening study of children born in the end of 1986 is also under way which will detect possible disturbances in their cognitive functions. The specifying of individual radiation doses in all studies is based on data received by survey and on information for radiation conditions in Bulgaria prior and after the Chernobyl accident. 2 refs. (A.B.)

27

Human Factors in Accidents Involving Remotely Piloted Aircraft  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation examines human factors that contribute to RPA mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. RPA accident data from U.S. military and government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to identify human factors issues. Common contributors to RPA mishaps fell into several major categories: cognitive factors (pilot workload), physiological factors (fatigue and stress), environmental factors (situational awareness), staffing factors (training and crew coordination), and design factors (human machine interface).

Merlin, Peter William

2013-01-01

28

Human factors review for severe accident sequence analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes a human factors research project performed to: (1) support the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) program and (2) develop a descriptive model of operator response in accident management. The first goal was accomplished by working with SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) accident sequence to systematically assess critical operator actions and thereby demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. The second goal was accomplished by developing a model called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which provides both a conceptual structure linking off-normal safety functions with potential unconventional emergency responses and a method for developing technical guidance for those responses based on operations, engineering, and human factors data and expertise. The four components comprising the model are described and their use is shown through a table-top demonstration. 48 refs., 30 figs., 9 tabs

29

Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure

30

Use of casual tree method for investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many methodologies used for investigation of accidents to facilitate the search of the factors that cause these events in different areas of industry. These can be called proactive methods, if they are used before the occurrence of the events, or reactive methods that are applied after the occurrence of the incident or accident, and are used as a basis of information to prevent further events. One of these methods is the Causal Tree Method (CTM). The basic idea of this technique is that incidents and accidents result from variations in usual processes. These variations can be related to the individual, the task, the material or the environment. The tree starts with the end event (incident or accident) and works backwards. The facts relating to the end event are used in the construction of the causal tree. The end event is the starting point and only the facts that contributed to the incident or accident should be selected. The analyst has to identify and list the variations and then display them in the analytic tree, showing causal relations. The objective of this paper is to test the application of the CTM method in investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials, in order to evaluate its efficiency on finding the typical factors causing these events. (author)

31

Use of casual tree method for investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are many methodologies used for investigation of accidents to facilitate the search of the factors that cause these events in different areas of industry. These can be called proactive methods, if they are used before the occurrence of the events, or reactive methods that are applied after the occurrence of the incident or accident, and are used as a basis of information to prevent further events. One of these methods is the Causal Tree Method (CTM). The basic idea of this technique is that incidents and accidents result from variations in usual processes. These variations can be related to the individual, the task, the material or the environment. The tree starts with the end event (incident or accident) and works backwards. The facts relating to the end event are used in the construction of the causal tree. The end event is the starting point and only the facts that contributed to the incident or accident should be selected. The analyst has to identify and list the variations and then display them in the analytic tree, showing causal relations. The objective of this paper is to test the application of the CTM method in investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials, in order to evaluate its efficiency on finding the typical factors causing these events. (author)

Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Senne Junior, Murillo; Marques, Raissa Oliveira, E-mail: raissaomarques@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2013-07-01

32

Understanding the human factors contribution to railway accidents and incidents in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty rail safety investigation reports were reviewed and a theoretical framework (the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System; HFACS) adopted as a means of identifying errors associated with rail accidents/incidents in Australia. Overall, HFACS proved useful in categorising errors from existing investigation reports and in capturing the full range of relevant rail human factors data. It was revealed that nearly half the incidents resulted from an equipment failure, most of these the product of inadequate maintenance or monitoring programs. In the remaining cases, slips of attention (i.e. skilled-based errors), associated with decreased alertness and physical fatigue, were the most common unsafe acts leading to accidents and incidents. Inadequate equipment design (e.g. driver safety systems) was frequently identified as an organisational influence and possibly contributed to the relatively large number of incidents/accidents resulting from attention failures. Nearly all incidents were associated with at least one organisational influence, suggesting that improvements to resource management, organisational climate and organisational processes are critical for Australian accident and incident reduction. Future work will aim to modify HFACS to generate a rail-specific framework for future error identification, accident analysis and accident investigation. PMID:18760104

Baysari, Melissa T; McIntosh, Andrew S; Wilson, John R

2008-09-01

33

The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Work Accidents in Izmir Konak Municipality Cleaning Workers.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors and work accidents among waste collector workers in Izmir Konak Municipality Cleaning Services Section. The study consisted 92 (%68 out of 135 workers of those accepted to participation. METHOD: face-to-face questionnaire were administered for data collection. Dependent variable was the work-related accident for previous six months. Independent variables were sociodemographic features, working conditions, mental health status, daytime sleepiness, workload and social support. The chi-square test and the logistic regression models used for data analysis. RESULTS: Work accident prevalence was 32.6% for the last 6 months. Age and workload were significantly affected work-related accidents (p=0.03; p=0.01 respectively. Social support, mental health status and daytime sleepiness status did not effect work-related accident prevalence (p=0.48; p=0.21; p=0.30 respectively. CONCLUSION: Results of the study indicated that work-related accident prevalence is high among workers in Izmir Konak Municipality. Workload was found important risk factor for the work accident among waste collector workers. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 623-632

Aysun Akgun

2010-12-01

34

Investigation on accident management measures for WWER-1000 reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A consequence of a total loss of AC power supply (station blackout) leading to unavailability of major active safety systems which could not perform their safety functions is that the safety criteria ensuring a secure operation of the nuclear power plant would be violated and a consequent core heat-up with possible core degradation would occur. Currently, a study which examines the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the plant during the early phase of the scenario is being performed. This paper focuses on the possibilities for delay or mitigation of the accident sequence to progress into a severe one by applying accident management measures. The strategy 'Primary circuit depressurization' as a basic strategy, which is realized in the management of severe accidents is being investigated. By reducing the load over the vessel under severe accident conditions, prerequisites for maintaining the integrity of the primary circuit are being created. The time-margins for operators' intervention as key issues are being also assessed. The task is accomplished by applying the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH thermal-hydraulic system code ATHLET. In addition, a comparative analysis of the accident progression for a station blackout event for both a reference German PWR and a reference WWER-1000, taking into account the plant specifics, is being performed. (Authors)

35

Natural factors of technological accidents: the case of Russia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The data base of technological accidents and disasters that have occurred in Russia has been created. More than 13 000 information units have been collected and analyzed. The proportion of accidents triggered by natural events (natural-technological accidents or NTA in the total number of technological accidents as well as a part of every NTA type in the total number of NTA was estimated. About 10 percent of all accidents registered in the data base were caused by natural events; among some types of accidents this proportion is even higher. Transmission facilities with more than 90 percent of overhead lines are the most vulnerable to the impact of natural hazards. The contribution of different natural hazards was evaluated. Regions with the greatest NTA risk were revealed. The influence of natural events on the technosphere is stronger in the South of the European Russia and in the Russian Far East, which are more exposed to hurricanes, snowstorms, rainfalls, icing and other natural hazards producing NTA. The critical infrastructure needs special protection and modernization in these regions. The problem of the relationship between natural hazards and the technosphere is very complicated and needs further investigation, especially taking the expected climate changes into consideration.

E. G. Petrova

2011-08-01

36

[Mobility, traffic accidents, and associated factors among Guatemalan university students].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the association between the amount of driving (km/year), traffic accidents, and other factors among university students in Guatemala. A cross-sectional study was performed during the 2010-2011 school year in a sample of 1,016 drivers who completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed mobility patterns, use of safety accessories, driving style, and automobile crashes. The results showed a positive association between amount of driving and greater involvement in risky driving (adjusted regression coefficient 3.25, 95%CI: 2.23-4.27, for the highest level of exposure). More frequent involvement in risky driving and older age showed the strongest associations with traffic accidents. Although the amount of driving was positively associated with a higher accident rate, most of this association was found to be mediated by involvement in risky driving practices. PMID:24896049

Rodríguez-Guzmán, Sandra; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Lupiáñez-Tapia, Fernando; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

2014-04-01

37

Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We are investigating air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions. In this paper we present a program overview and highlight recent results of our investigations. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. We also describe the test facilities we use to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

38

Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

39

Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011. Method: The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States by estimating a generalized ordered logit model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005–2009. Results: Results show that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because of inattentive and risky driving.

Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

2012-01-01

40

Investigation of shipping accident injury severity and mortality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shipping movements are operated in a complex and high-risk environment. Fatal shipping accidents are the nightmares of seafarers. With ten years' worldwide ship accident data, this study develops a binary logistic regression model and a zero-truncated binomial regression model to predict the probability of fatal shipping accidents and corresponding mortalities. The model results show that both the probability of fatal accidents and mortalities are greater for collision, fire/explosion, contact, grounding, sinking accidents occurred in adverse weather conditions and darkness conditions. Sinking has the largest effects on the increment of fatal accident probability and mortalities. The results also show that the bigger number of mortalities is associated with shipping accidents occurred far away from the coastal area/harbor/port. In addition, cruise ships are found to have more mortalities than non-cruise ships. The results of this study are beneficial for policy-makers in proposing efficient strategies to prevent fatal shipping accidents. PMID:25617776

Weng, Jinxian; Yang, Dong

2015-03-01

41

Interim report of Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AESJ's Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station was decided to be established by board meeting in June 2011 and tried to identify and analyze root cause of the giant accident of complicated nuclear system, estimate reality and extract effective lessons learned for future nuclear safety activities as a conclusion judging from experiences and knowledge of experts and obtained information with no heating and experiments. Interim report was published for member's review and focused on risk of radioactive materials release with nuclear energy use and their environmental effects. Report mentioned six points to assure nuclear safety responding to several factors of accident initiation: (1) comprehensive safety assurance with risk assessment and defense-in-depth concept, (2) response to external events. (3) severe accident management and its effectiveness assurance, (4) emergency preparedness and its response, (5) environmental restoration and decontamination and (6) response of academia for needed reform. Based on above subjects and investigation of future response to specific individual points, comprehensive and logical proposals would be derived at the end of the year with reflecting member's frank opinions to be submitted. (T. Tanaka)

42

A human factor analysis of a radiotherapy accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since September 2005, I.R.S.N. studies activities of radiotherapy treatment from the angle of the human and organizational factors to improve the reliability of treatment in radiotherapy. Experienced in nuclear industry incidents analysis, I.R.S.N. analysed and diffused in March 2008, for the first time in France, the detailed study of a radiotherapy accident from the angle of the human and organizational factors. The method used for analysis is based on interviews and documents kept by the hospital. This analysis aimed at identifying the causes of the difference recorded between the dose prescribed by the radiotherapist and the dose effectively received by the patient. Neither verbal nor written communication (intra-service meetings and protocols of treatment) allowed information to be transmitted correctly in order to permit radiographers to adjust the irradiation zones correctly. This analysis highlighted the fact that during the preparation and the carrying out of the treatment, various factors led planned controls to not be performed. Finally, this analysis highlighted the fact that unsolved areas persist in the report over this accident. This is due to a lack of traceability of a certain number of key actions. The article concluded that there must be improvement in three areas: cooperation between the practitioners, control of the actions and traceability of the actions. (author)

43

Relationships between accident investigations, risk analysis, and safety management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several different approaches to achieve safety are in common use, and examples are accident investigations (AI), risk analysis (RA), and safety management systems (SMS). The meaning of these concepts and their practical applications vary quite a lot, which might cause confusion. A summary of definitions is presented. A general comparison is made of application areas and methodology. A proposal is made how to indicate parameters of variation. At one end of the scale there are organisations, which are highly organised in respect to safety. At the other end are small companies with informal safety routines. Although the three concepts differ in a number of respects, there are many links between them which is illustrated in a model. A number of relations have been described mainly concerned with more advanced organisations. Behind the practical safety work, there are varying sets of more or less explicit explanations and theories on safety and accident causation. Depending on the theory applied, the relations between approaches can be more or less clear and essential

44

Accident investigation practices in Europe--main responses from a recent study of accidents in industry and transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Europe has during recent years been shocked by disasters from natural events and technical breakdowns. The consequences have been comprehensive, measured by lost lives, injuries, and material and environmental damage. ESReDA wanted in 2000 - by setting up a special expert group on accident investigation - to clarify the state of art of accident investigation practices and to map the use of thoroughly accident investigation in order to learn lessons from past disasters and prevent new ones. The scope was to cover three sectors in the society: transport, production processes and storage of hazardous materials, and energy production. The main method used was a questionnaire, which was sent in 2001 to about 150 organisations. About 50 replies were analysed. The replies showed great variations but also similarities, among others in definition of accident and incident, the objectives of the investigation team, criteria used to start an investigation, the status of the investigation organisation, the flow of information, the composition of the investigation team, and the use of internal or international procedures or rules. Several methods (in total 14 different methods were mentioned) were used for carrying out accident /incident investigations. Most of the respondents were willing to co-operate in one or another way with ESReDA. Although there are important biases in the material, the results from questionnaire are important inputs to the future work of ESReDA Expert group to the future work of ESReDA Expert group in this field. 3 safety approaches have been identified

45

Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Cause analysis and teachings from a viewpoint of a human factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the JCO criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999, from relatively earlier time since its occurrence it was elucidated that it was formed not by accident and error operation of apparatus and instruments but by unsafe actions of operators beyond regular manual as its direct cause, and that an organizational factor on business managers and safety administration unable to control such unsafe actions of operators at its background. Then, it was judged to be essential to carry out an accident research from a viewpoint of the human factor (HF) for elucidation on essence of the accident, to establish a 'special workshop on the JCO accident research' to investigate elucidation of the accident cause and countermeasure of reoccurrence at a standpoint of HF. As a result, the essential cause of this accident was summarized that safety information such as ideals, information, teachings and so forth necessary for safety management were failed to share among different organizations. As a teaching of this accident, nuclear energy participants must recognize that safety culture is not finished only in specific organization and range but produced by protecting weathering of danger consciousness and effort of mutually exciting and learning by sharing a safety information beyond different organization, range and time. (G.K.)

46

Development of severe accident evaluation technology (level 2 PSA) for sodium-cooled fast reactors. (5) Identification of dominant factors in ex-vessel accident sequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evaluation of accident progression outside of a reactor vessel (ex-vessel) and subsequent transfer behavior of radioactive materials is of great importance from the viewpoint of Level 2 PSA. Hence typical ex-vessel accident sequences in the JAEA Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor are qualitatively discussed in this paper and dominant behaviors or factors in the sequences are investigated through parametric calculations using the CONTAIN/LMR code. Scenarios to be focused on are, 1) sodium vapor leakage from the reactor vessel and 2) sodium-concrete reaction, which are both to be considered in the accident category of LOHRS (loss of heat removal system) and might be followed by an early containment failure due to the thermal effect of sodium combustion and hydrogen burning respectively. The calculated results clarify that the sodium vapor leak rate and the scale of sodium-concrete reaction are the important factors to dominate the ex-vessel accident progression. In addition to the understandings of the dominant factors, the analyzed results also provide the specific information such as pressure loading value to the containment and the timing of pressurization, which is indispensable as technical base in Level 2 PSA for developing event trees and for quantifying the accident consequences. (author)

47

49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement...Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor...

2010-10-01

48

Causal factors in accidents of high-speed craft and conventional ocean-going vessels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of 40 ocean-going commercial vessel accidents is compared with the study of a similar number of high-speed crafts (HSCs) accidents, using in both cases a methodology that highlights the sequence of events leading to the accident and identifies the associated latent or causal factors. The main objective of this study was to identify and understand the difference in the pattern of causal factors associated with HSC accidents, as compared with the more traditional ocean-going ships. From the analysis one can see that the HSC accidents are mainly related to bridge personnel and operations, where the human element is the key factor identified as being responsible for the majority of the accidents. When compared with ocean-going commercial vessels, it is clear that navigational equipment and procedures have a larger preponderance in terms of the occurrence of accidents of HSC and particular attention should be given to these issues

49

Investigation into information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report was prepared in response to a request from NRC Chairman Ahearne that directed the Office of Inspection and Enforcement to resume its investigation of information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) that occurred on March 28, 1979. This investigation was resumed on March 21, 1980. The transfer of information among individuals, agencies, and personnel from Metropolitan Edison was analyzed to ascertain what knowledge was held by various individuals of the specific events, parameters, and systems during the accident at TMI. Maximum use was made of existing records, and additional interviews were conducted to clarify areas that had not been pursued during earlier investigations. Although the passage of time between the accident and post-accident interviews hampered precise recollections of events and circumstances, the investigation revealed that information was not intentionally withheld during the accident and that the system for effective transfer of information was inadequate during the accident

50

Cavity Heating Experiments Supporting Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

The two-color thermographic phosphor method has been used to map the local heating augmentation of scaled idealized cavities at conditions simulating the windward surface of the Shuttle Orbiter Columbia during flight STS-107. Two experiments initiated in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation were conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Generally, the first test series evaluated open (length-to-depth less than 10) rectangular cavity geometries proposed as possible damage scenarios resulting from foam and ice impact during launch at several discrete locations on the vehicle windward surface, though some closed (length-to-depth greater than 13) geometries were briefly examined. The second test series was designed to parametrically evaluate heating augmentation in closed rectangular cavities. The tests were conducted under laminar cavity entry conditions over a range of local boundary layer edge-flow parameters typical of re-entry. Cavity design parameters were developed using laminar computational predictions, while the experimental boundary layer state conditions were inferred from the heating measurements. An analysis of the aeroheating caused by cavities allowed exclusion of non-breeching damage from the possible loss scenarios being considered during the investigation.

Everhart, Joel L.; Berger, Karen T.; Bey, Kim S.; Merski, N. Ronald; Wood, William A.

2011-01-01

51

Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania : A Case Study of Kibaha District  

OpenAIRE

This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district. In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk...

Komba, Deus Damian

2007-01-01

52

Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania :A Case Study of Kibaha District  

OpenAIRE

This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district.In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk ...

Komba, Deus Damian

2007-01-01

53

Using logistic regression to estimate the influence of accident factors on accident severity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Logistic regression was applied to accident-related data collected from traffic police records in order to examine the contribution of several variables to accident severity. A total of 560 subjects involved in serious accidents were sampled. Accident severity (the dependent variable) in this study is a dichotomous variable with two categories, fatal and non-fatal. Therefore, each of the subjects sampled was classified as being in either a fatal or non-fatal accident. Because of the binary nature of this dependent variable, a logistic regression approach was found suitable. Of nine independent variables obtained from police accident reports, two were found most significantly associated with accident severity, namely, location and cause of accident. A statistical interpretation is given of the model-developed estimates in terms of the odds ratio concept. The findings show that logistic regression as used in this research is a promising tool in providing meaningful interpretations that can be used for future safety improvements in Riyadh. PMID:12371778

Al-Ghamdi, Ali S

2002-11-01

54

Aviation occupant survival factors: an empirical study of the SQ006 accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an empirical study of Singapore Airline (SIA) flight SQ006 to illustrate the critical factors that influence airplane occupant survivability. The Fuzzy Delphi Method was used to identify and rank the survival factors that may reduce injury and fatality in potentially survivable accidents. This is the first attempt by a group from both the public and private sectors in Taiwan to focus on cabin-safety issues related to survival factors. We designed a comprehensive survey based on our discussions with aviation safety experts. We next designed an array of important cabin-safety dimensions and then investigated and selected the critical survival factors for each dimension. Our findings reveal important cabin safety and survivability information that should provide a valuable reference for developing and evaluating aviation safety programs. We also believe that the results will be practical for designing cabin-safety education material for air travelers. Finally, the major contribution of this research is that it has identified 47 critical factors that influence accident survivability; therefore, it may encourage improvements that will promote more successful cabin-safety management. PMID:20159096

Chang, Yu-Hern; Yang, Hui-Hua

2010-03-01

55

Investigation of the management of the wastes from plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant discharged large amount of radio-nuclides and contaminated wide areas in and out of the site. The decontamination, storage, treatment and disposal of generated wastes are now under planning. Though regulations for the radioactive wastes arisen from normal operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities have been prepared, it is necessary to make amendment of those regulations to deal with wastes from the severe accident which may have much different features on nuclides contents, or possible accompanying hazardous chemical materials. Characteristics of wastes from accidents in foreign nuclear installations, and the treatment and the disposal of those wastes were surveyed by literature and radionuclide migration from the assumed temporally storage yards of the disaster debris was analyzed for consideration of future regulation. (author)

56

Investigations on pressure suppression system loads at accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For simulation of the integral behavior of pressure suppresion systems at accident conditions a mathematical model was developed which simulates a wide range of the loads occurring during a loss-of coolant accident. The multi-zone point model DRASYS serves for mathematical simulation of quasistatic (pressure and temperature build-up in the dry well and the suppression chamber) as well as dynamic loads (free-blowing process, water throw-up and condensing oscillations) in the course of a loss-of-coolant accident. For determination of the state variations with time in the individual pressure sections thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed between steam and water phases. Thermal non-equilibrium states are taken into account if phase separation interfaces between water and steam/air mixture exist. The flows between the individual pressure sections are treated as homogeneous, nonsteady, incompressible flows. For verification of the mathematical model recalculations were made of experiments performed at various test stands. Teh recalculations showed that the mathematical model has got a wide range of application and is suited for design and assessment of pressure suppression systems at accident conditions. (orig.)

57

Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress

58

Results of investigations of severe accidents involving water-cooled reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computational and experimental investigations of severe accidents were performed to create a knowledge base for substantiation of nuclear power plant designs involving light-water vessel reactors. Computational codes available for severe accident analysis were investigated for suitability and are summarized in the paper. Code selection criteria, recommended codes, and modifications to codes are discussed for several accident scenarios. Accident analyses discussed include thermohydraulic processes preceding destruction of the core, experimental study of the basic processes accompanying the destruction of fuel elements and fuel assemblies, release of fission products, interaction of core melt with the vessel bottom, interaction of core melt with concrete in the VVER reactor pit, hydrogen safety, and pressure relief systems and emissions filtering during severe accidents. 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Asmolov, V.G.

1994-10-01

59

Results of investigations of severe accidents involving water-cooled reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computational and experimental investigations of severe accidents were performed to create a knowledge base for substantiation of nuclear power plant designs involving light-water vessel reactors. Computational codes available for severe accident analysis were investigated for suitability and are summarized in the paper. Code selection criteria, recommended codes, and modifications to codes are discussed for several accident scenarios. Accident analyses discussed include thermohydraulic processes preceding destruction of the core, experimental study of the basic processes accompanying the destruction of fuel elements and fuel assemblies, release of fission products, interaction of core melt with the vessel bottom, interaction of core melt with concrete in the VVER reactor pit, hydrogen safety, and pressure relief systems and emissions filtering during severe accidents. 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

60

A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Accidents Caused by the Motorcycle Aspect in Urban Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traffic safety should be given the highest priority in order to reduce accidents. It seems that motorcycles give the most contribution to accidents than other vehicles, especially in urban area. The accidents are caused by poor condition factors of the motorcycles. Therefore, it is important to know the motorcycle aspect as a base to implement an action program to reduce accident risks. The objectives of this research were to analyze motorcycle aspect on accident risks including tires, brakes, lamps, engines, chassis, mirrors, conspicuity, and equipments for riding. This was a perceptional research where the victims are as respondents, and questionnaire forms were given to 50 respondents. The method of analysis used in this research was Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results of this research indicate that tires, brakes and equipments, did not give significant influence on factors causing the accidents. However, the other variables namely lamps, engines, chassis, mirrors and conspicuity gave significant influence on traffic accident risks. Final modeling results that were obtained showed that the factors that cause motorcycle accidents are the following: lamps, engine, chassis, mirrors, and conspicuity.

Aji Suraji

2012-03-01

61

Fatigue failure of metal components as a factor in civil aircraft accidents  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of records maintained by the National Transportation Safety Board showed that 16,054 civil aviation accidents occurred in the United States during the 3-year period ending December 31, 1969. Material failure was an important factor in the cause of 942 of these accidents. Fatigue was identified as the mode of the material failures associated with the cause of 155 accidents and in many other accidents the records indicated that fatigue failures might have been involved. There were 27 fatal accidents and 157 fatalities in accidents in which fatigue failures of metal components were definitely identified. Fatigue failures associated with accidents occurred most frequently in landing-gear components, followed in order by powerplant, propeller, and structural components in fixed-wing aircraft and tail-rotor and main-rotor components in rotorcraft. In a study of 230 laboratory reports on failed components associated with the cause of accidents, fatigue was identified as the mode of failure in more than 60 percent of the failed components. The most frequently identified cause of fatigue, as well as most other types of material failures, was improper maintenance (including inadequate inspection). Fabrication defects, design deficiencies, defective material, and abnormal service damage also caused many fatigue failures. Four case histories of major accidents are included in the paper as illustrations of some of the factors invovled in fatigue failures of aircraft components.

Holshouser, W. L.; Mayner, R. D.

1972-01-01

62

Investigation on the characteristics of criticality accident detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In nuclear fuel manufacturing and spent fuel reprocessing, a variety of safety devices must be prepared to prevent criticality accidents because it is very important for security. In order to examine the detection limits and the response time of criticality alarm systems, the tests have been carried out for simulating criticality accidents in unsteady state operation (prompt subcritical) and reactivity injection pulse operation (prompt critical) of the nuclear engineering research facility ''Yayoi'', in the Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo. The criticality accident detectors installed presently in the Tokai reprocessing facility of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel. Development Corp. are two types of ?-ray and neutron beam detectors. The ?-ray detector uses a plastic scintillator, and the neutron beam detector is an enriched uranium target coupled with a junction diode both wrapped with aluminum and inserted into the center of plexiglas (moderator). The ?-ray detector fully follows the reactor output change, and generates alarm in a complex radiation field of ?-ray and neutrons. In the tests of reactivity pulse operation mode, it generates alarm signal in the time lag of within 400 ?s after passing the alarm threshold, even for a spike as high as completely saturating it. This time lag causes no problem because it is sufficiently small as compared with the actual audio or visual alarm lag of 30 ms. The neutron detector causes counting loss in high count-rate, and thus it is found difficult to confirm the exact threshold point or time lag. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

63

32 CFR 634.30 - Use of traffic accident investigation report data.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Safety Coordinating Groups. The Navy will use Traffic Safety Councils per OPNAVINST 5100.12 Series...to inform and educate drivers and to conduct traffic engineering studies. (e) Army traffic accident investigation reports will...

2010-07-01

64

Investigación de accidentes y análisis de fallas de barreras preventivas; Accident’s Investigation and Preventive Barriers flaws analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En Cuba, como en el resto del mundo,  la existencia de leyes y regulaciones estatales, obligan a que lasempresas productivas y de servicios cuenten con un sistema de prevención de accidentes y enfermedadesprofesionales que, a partir del control de los riesgos existentes en cada puesto de trabajo, permita laboraren un ambiente seguro. En este artículo se explican las técnicas y procedimientos establecidos en la UNEpara la investigación de accidentes laborales. In Cuba, like in the rest of the world, the existence of Laws and state Regulations, they force to productivecompanies and services, they have a prevention system to avoid the accidents and professional illnessesthat, starting from the control of the existent risks in each work position, allow working in a sure atmosphere.In this article the techniques and procedures are explained, applied in the Electric Union (UNE, for thelabor accident investigation.

Jacinto B Hernández Lavín

2011-02-01

65

The official report of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In October 2011, the Act regarding Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission was enacted to investigate the Fukushima accident with the authority to request documents and request the legislative branch to use its investigative powers to obtain any necessary documents or evidence required. In December 2011, chairman and nine other members were appointed. After a six-month investigation, Commission had concluded. 'In order to prevent future disasters, fundamental reforms must take place covering both the structure of electric power industry and the structure of related government and regulatory agencies as well as operation processes, for both normal and emergency situations'. Main parts of report consisted of overview, conclusions and recommendations, and six findings; (1) was the accident preventable?, (2) Escalation of the accident, (3) Emergency response to the accident, (4) Spread of the damage, (5) Organizational issues in accident prevention and response and (6) the legal system. Based on the above findings, Commission made seven recommendations regarding (1) Monitoring of the nuclear regulatory body by the National Diet, (2) Reform the crisis management system, (3) Government responsibility for public health and welfare, (4) Monitoring the operators, (5) Criteria for the new regulatory body, (6) Reforming laws related to nuclear energy and (7) Develop a system of independent investigation commissions. National Diet's thorough debate and dels. National Diet's thorough debate and deliberate on these recommendation was highly encouraged for the future. (T. Tanaka)

66

The crisis of investigative Journalism in Spain. The journalism practice in the Spanair accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The crash of the McDonnell Douglas plane operated by the Spanish airline Spanair, on 20 August 2008 at Barajas Airport, and the journalistic treatment it received undoubtedly represent a unique opportunity to address the current state of journalism in Spain. In particular, this article studies the use of information sources in a crisis situation, which requires a major effort to find the maximum number of primary and specialised sources to provide, in a short period of time, the audience with the key facts to understand the event. This accident also represents an excellent opportunity to study some practices within investigative journalism and the different factors that condition the media agenda. Finally, as in any other air tragedy, where millionaire compensations can be paid to the victims, it is important to examine the application of a series of ethical frameworks, which have been captured in deontological codes designed to assure fair journalistic practices.

José Vicente García-Santamaría, Ph.D.

2010-01-01

67

Investigation of a diagnostic X-ray radiation accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An accidental radiation exposure of a patient and two X-ray technicians occured in a small community hospital, in the summer of 1977. After completion of a routine lower G.l. series, the primary relay that energizes the tube failed to open after an exposure causing the tube to remain energized at between 3 and 4 mA and about 130 kVp for about 10 min while the technicians cleaned and regowned the patient. Neither technician was wearing her film badge during the accident. Estimated radiation exposures, not including backscatter, were about 10 R to the patients eyes and less than 150 mR scattered radiation exposure to each of the technicians. Somewhat higher exposures probably were received by each technician to small body areas due to primary beam irradiation. (author)

68

Investigations on accidents with massive water ingress exemplified by the pebble bed reactor PNP-500  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computer code is used for analyses of massive water ingress accidents in the High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor concept PNP-500 with pebble bed core. The analyses are mainly focussed on graphite corrosion processes. For the investigated accidents a correct reactor shut down in assumed. The mass of water ingressing into the primary circuit is varied between 1000 and 7500 kg (i.e., up to hypothetical values). The dependence of accident consequences on parameters such as intensity and starting time of the afterheat removal system or kinetic values of the chemical processes is examined. The results show that even under pessimistic assumptions the extent of the graphite corrosion is relatively low; significant damaging of fuel elements or graphite components does not occur. A primary circuit depressurization, combined with local burning of water gas, would probably not affect the fission product retention potential of the (gastight) containment. Summing up, the risk caused by these accidents remains small. (orig.)

69

CFD investigating the air ingress accident for a HTGR simulation of graphite corrosion oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A CFD model is proposed to investigate graphite oxidation corrosion in the HTR-10. ? A postulated air ingress accident is assumed in this paper. ? Air ingress flowrate is the predicted result, instead of the preset one. ? O2 would react with graphite on pebble surface, causing the graphite corrosion. ? No fuel exposure is predicted to be occurred under the air ingress accident. - Abstract: Through a compressible multi-component CFD model, this paper investigates the characteristics of graphite oxidation corrosion in the HTR-10 core under the postulated accident of gas duct rupture. In this accident, air in the steam generator cavity would enter into the core after pressure equilibrium is achieved between the core and the cavity, which is also called as the air ingress accident. Oxygen in the air would react with graphite on pebble surface, subsequently resulting in oxidation corrosion and challenging fuel integrity. In this paper, characteristics of graphite oxidation corrosion during the air ingress accident can be reasonably captured, including distributions of graphite corrosion amount on the different cross-sections, time histories of local corrosion amount at the monitoring points and overall corrosion amount in the core, respectively. Based on the transient simulation results, the corrosion pattern and its corrosion rate would approach to the steady-state conditions as the accident continuously progresses. The total amount of grogresses. The total amount of graphite corrosion during a 3-day accident time is predicted to be about 31 kg with the predicted asymptotic corrosion rate. This predicted value is less than that from the previous work of Gao and Shi.

70

Review of the TMI-2 accident evaluation and vessel investigation projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Programme and the Vessel Investigation Project have been reviewed as part of a literature study on core meltdown and in-vessel coolability. The emphasis is placed on the late phase melt progression, which is of special relevance to the NKS-sponsored RAK-2.1 project on Severe Accident Phenomenology. The body of the report comprises three main sections, The TMI-2 Accident Scenario, Core Region and Relocation Path Investigations, and Lower Head Investigations. In the final discussion, the lower head gap formation mechanism is explained in terms of thermal contraction and fracturing of the debris crust. This model seems more plausible than the MAAP model based on creep expansion of the lower head. (au)

71

Review of the TMI-2 accident evaluation and vessel investigation projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Programme and the Vessel Investigation Project have been reviewed as part of a literature study on core meltdown and in-vessel coolability. The emphasis is placed on the late phase melt progression, which is of special relevance to the NKS-sponsored RAK-2.1 project on Severe Accident Phenomenology. The body of the report comprises three main sections, The TMI-2 Accident Scenario, Core Region and Relocation Path Investigations, and Lower Head Investigations. In the final discussion, the lower head gap formation mechanism is explained in terms of thermal contraction and fracturing of the debris crust. This model seems more plausible than the MAAP model based on creep expansion of the lower head. (au) 1 tab., 33 ills., 31 refs.

Ladekarl Thomsen, Knud

1998-03-01

72

Ontology Development and Evolution in the Accident Investigation Domain  

Science.gov (United States)

InvestiigationOrganizer (IO) is a collaborative semantic web system designed to support the conduct of mishap investigations. IO provides a common repository for a wide range of mishap related information, allowing investigators to integrate evidence, causal models, and investigation results. IO has been used to support investigations ranging from a small property damage case to the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Through IO'S use in these investigations, we have learned significant lessons? about the application of ontologies and semantic systems to solving real-world problems. This paper will describe the development of the ontology within IO, from the initial development, its growth in response to user requests during use in investigations, and the recent work that was done to control the results of that growth. This paper will also describe the lessons learned from this experience and how they may apply to the implementaton of future ontologies and semantic systems.

Carvalho, Robert; Berrios, Dan; Williams, James

2004-01-01

73

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results from cytogenetic investigations into 63 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1978 are reviewed. This report is the eighth in an annual series which together contain data on 390 studies. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given, in an appendix, of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. One case is described in more detail. It concerns a young man who deliberately irradiated himself with several sources of iridium-192 and received a dose of about 1.5 Gy as a fairly uniform whole body exposure. (author)

74

[A study of risk factors and the epidemiology of accidents in the child population].  

Science.gov (United States)

The medical social and economic consequences of motor vehicle accidents in the infant population represent a major problem in public health. The present study was conceived as a descriptive epidemiological survey carried out retrospectively over a six-year period on the basis of case records. Potential risk factors related to accidents were: sex, social origin, age group, calendar month, day of the week, circumstances of the accident, parental supervision, location of the injury. In order to get a clearer image of how injuries are produced in traffic accidents, the collision of vehicles and pedestrians was studied in terms of bio-mechanics with special emphasis on the specific impact forces affecting pedestrians. PMID:2799625

Ursoniu, C; Vlaicu, D; Doroftei, S; Brindeu, L; Ursoniu, S

1989-01-01

75

Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and intractable, and methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. The number of methods in each group were four, three, zero, and two, respectively. Faced with the need to investigate an accident it is essential that the chosen method is appropriate for the system and the situation. Nuclear power plants considered as systems are tightly coupled and more or less intractable and therefore require accident models and accident investigation methods that are capable of accounting for these features. If an accident concerns the NPP operation as a whole, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. If an accident only concerns the operation of a subsystem or a component, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, or possible loosely coupled and tractable. The report provides a proposal for how these characteristics can be determined. The conclusion is that no specific method is the overall best in the sense that it can be used for all conditions. While it may be convenient, or even necessary, for an organisation to adopt a specific method as its standard, this should always be done knowingly and with a willingness to reconsider the choice when the conditions so demand it. In five or ten years we must expect that the methods developed today will have been partly obsolete, not because the methods change but because the nature of socio-technical systems, and therefore the nature of accidents, do

76

Importance Degree Evaluation of the Affecting Factors on Exhibition Security Accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of exhibition security accidents is the result of the mutual coupling factors of "man-machine-environment-management". This study is going to elaborate 11 influencing factors of exhibition security accidents from four aspects, i.e., man, mechanical equipment, environment and management. With the help of grey relational analysis, this study evaluates the importance degree of the affecting factors in exhibitions. The result shows that affecting factors of facilities and equipments failure is of the greatest importance degree and site maintenance personnel, site design, building material quality are the secondary important factors; another important factors are safety management body, social environment, activity organization management, safety management system, natural environment and event participant behavior which are considered as the third important ones. Evaluation of the importance degree of affecting factors on exhibition security incidents will provide a theoretical basis for exhibition security control.

Lin Wei-Ling

2013-01-01

77

Synergistic interaction of detrimental factors can intensify the consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A lot of real efforts have been done over the past twenty years to estimate, understand and mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. This report deals with several groups of fundamental investigations, which can indicate to the possibilities of the intensification of medical radiological consequences of this accident. It was shown for cells of various origins that both the rate and the extent of recovery were decreased after the combined action of ionizing radiation with other detrimental physical factors or chemical agents. It was proved experimentally that both these observations are explained by a considerable increase in the yield of the irreversible damages, which cells incapable to recover. The rise of the irreversible component of radiation damage was accompanied by an increase of cell killing without postirradiation division, while the probability of recovery was identical for various conditions of the combined actions. It was concluded on this basis that the synergistic interaction could not be associated with the impairment of the recovery capacity itself and may be entirely attributed to the enhanced yield of irreversible damages. Basing on these new experimental data a generalized conception has been developed for the synergistic interaction of detrimental factors. The main idea of this conception is that the synergistic interaction is expected to result from additional effective damages arising from the interaction of sublesions inding from the interaction of sublesions induced by both agents. These sublesions are considered to be ineffective after each agent taken individually. The additional damage responsible for the synergistic effect seems to be irreversible, which cell is incapable to recover from. A novel mathematical model was suggested. The model predicts that the synergy can be observed only within a definite range of the ratio of damages produced by heat and another factor applied simultaneously with heat. It can optimize the synergy making a forecast of the greatest value of the synergy and condition under which it can be achieved. In addition, the model quantitatively describes and predicts the decrease in the cell recovery ability after the combined action of ionizing radiation. Finally, the model prognosticates the dependence of the synergistic effect on the dose rate of ionizing radiation, intensity of physical factor or concentration of chemical agent used simultaneously with ionizing radiation. To emphasize the importance of synergistic effects at low intensity of detrimental factors, existing in the biosphere and contaminating area, the dependence of synergistic interaction on the dose rate was carefully investigated. The predictions of the model have been tested with a number of experimental data obtained for simultaneous action of ionizing radiation with different detrimental factors on various cellular systems. The final conclusion was that the smaller dose rate of ionizing radiation the lesser intensity of physical factor or concentration of chemical agents has to be used to provide the highest or a definite level of synergistic interaction. On this basis, it is inferred that the synergism may take place at small intensities of harmful environmental factors existing in the biosphere and can intensify disaster consequences including the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Hence, the assessment of health or environmental risk both in normal and disaster conditions should take into account the synergistic interaction between harmful agents

78

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results from cytogenetic investigations into 55 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1977 are reviewed. This report is the seventh in an annual series (previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35, R41 and R57) which together contain data on 327 studies. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. Two cases are described in more detail: the first concerned a non-classified worker who put an iridium-192 source in his pocket and took it home; and the second involved the accidental contamination of two people with tritium gas. In a second appendix, the confidence limits on cytogenetic dosimetry for X- and ?-ray over-exposures are given and the derivation of these limits is discussed. (author)

79

Analysis of the Monju's sodium leak accident and investigation of the cause  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As to the sodium leak accident in the secondary main cooling system of Monju that occurred on December 8, 1995, based on the analysis of the course of plant operation, the operation parameters and others, and the investigations of the state of damage of the machinery and equipment due to leaked sodium, the state of diffusion of sodium aerosol and so on, the operational handling at the time of accident was analyzed and evaluated. As to the investigation of the cause of accident, the study on the vibration mechanism of the broken thermometer sheath due to fluid force has been advanced, and the vibration characteristics were quantitatively evaluated by the analysis of the coupled vibration of the sheath and fluid. The occurrence and development of high cycle fatigue cracks were analyzed along the actual operation history, and the process of phenomena with time lapse was clarified in the corresponding relation to the results of fractography. Moreover, the leak and burning experiment of sodium was carried out, and the speed of leaking and the mode of leaking, the burning behavior of sodium, the effect on machinery, equipment and structures and so on were grasped. The situation at the time of the accident, the state of confirmation after the accident, the condition of the plant at the time of leak, the cause of sodium leak and the behavior of leaked sodium are reported. (K.I.)

80

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results from cytogenetic investigations into 66 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1976 are reviewed. This report is the sixth in an annual series which together contain data on 272 studies. Previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35 and R41. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. A short review is given of the laboratory's recently published dose response data for several energies of neutron radiation. A description is also given of the group's collaboration in an international experiment in which comparisons were made between a variety of dosemeters exposed to a controlled criticality pulse. In a second appendix two experiments are described in which inter- and intra-donor effects on chromosome aberration yields were examined. It was found that differences in dicentric yields were small whereas acentric aberrations were more variable. (author)

81

Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

2011-01-01

82

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results are reviewed from investigations during 1979 into 82 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation. Of these 45 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations, and 26 with an institution of research, education or health. 83% of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0-0.09 Gy (0-9 rad), and 17% in the range 0.1-0.29 Gy (10-29 rad). These data are compared with data obtained by physical dosimetry, and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each over-exposure, or suspected over-exposure. (author)

83

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results are reviewed from investigations during 1980 into 68 cases of suspected overexposure to radiation. Of these, 37 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations and 20 with an institution of research, education or health. 55 of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0 - 0.09 Gy (0 - 9 rad) 5 in the range 0.1 - 0.29 Gy (10 - 29 rad) and for various reasons in 8 cases no biological assessment of dose was possible. The dose estimate for the case with the highest confirmed overexposure was 0.22 Gy (22 rads). The chromosome data are compared with information obtained from physical dosimetry and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each case. (author)

84

On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

85

On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

Sousa, A.L., E-mail: alsousa@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, A.C.O., E-mail: antonio.ribeiro@bayer.com [Bayer Crop Science Brasil S.A., Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, J.P., E-mail: julianapduarte@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F., E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COOPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

2013-07-01

86

Experimental investigations on vessel-hole ablation during severe accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents experimental results, and subsequent analyses, of scaled reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure site ablation tests conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Power Safety (RIT/NPS). The goal of the test program is to reduce the uncertainty level associated with the phase-change-ablation process, and, thus, improve the characterization of the melt discharge loading on the containment. In a series of moderate temperature experiments, the corium melt is simulated by the binary oxide CaO-B2O3 or the binary eutectic and non-eutectic salts NaNO3-KNO3, while the RPV head steel is represented by a Pb, Sn or metal alloys plate. A complementary set of experiments was conducted at lower temperatures, using water as melt and salted ice as plate material. These experiments scale well to the postulated prototypical conditions. The multidimensional code HAMISA, developed at RIT/NPS, is employed to analyze the experiments with good pre- and post-test predictions. The effects of melt viscosity and crust surface roughness, along with failure site entrance and exit frictional losses on the ablation characteristics are investigated. Theoretical concept was proposed to describe physical mechanisms which govern the vessel-hole ablation process during core melt discharge from RPV. Experimental data obtained from hole ablation tests and separate-effect tests performed at RIT/NPS were used to validate component physical models of the HAMISA code. It is believed that the hole ablation phenomenology is quite well understood. Detailed description of experiments and experimental data, as well as results of analyses are provided in the appendixes

87

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident's causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62)

88

CFD investigating the air ingress accident occurred in a HTGRsimulation of thermal-hydraulic characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? 3-D compressible CFD model is proposed to study air ingress phenomena for a HTR-10. ? A LOCA with a double-ended rupture of gas duck tube is assumed. ? In LOCA, air in the SG cavity enters the core via diffusion and natural convection. ? O2 will react with graphite on pebble surface, causing the generation of CO2 and CO. ? Peak coolant temperature during air ingress is slightly higher than that in the normal condition. - Abstract: The majority of this paper investigates thermal-hydraulic characteristics in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) core under steady-state and accident conditions through a transient three-dimensional compressible CFD model. With the pebble-bed geometry, the HTR-10 core is selected for the present simulations. A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with double-ended rupture of a gas duct tube is assumed and the core power would decay following this accident. In this LOCA, air in the steam generator cavity would enter the core via diffusion and natural convection mechanisms. Following air ingress into the core, O2 would react with graphite on pebble surface, causing the generation of CO2 and CO. The main thermal-hydraulic characteristics during this air ingress accident include O2 ingress into the core, CO2 and CO production histories, He concentration variations, and coolant temperature transient behavior, etc. Based on the present simulation results, the present simulation results, the peak coolant temperature during the air ingress accident is slightly higher than that under the steady-state condition, revealing the safety of HTR-10 core in this postulated accident from the thermal point of view. In addition, corrosion phenomena related to the fuel pebbles are discussed and presented in the next paper.

89

Investigations into the air cleaning aspects of the Three Mile Island accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigative groups that have placed heavy emphasis on analysis of the air cleaning systems have included the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island (chaired by J. Kemeny), the Office of Inspection and Enforcement of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (two studies done independently, one by an Investigative Team, the other by a Special Review Group), internal USNRC Task Forces formed specifically for this purpose (termed Lessons Learned), and an independent USNRC Special Inquiry Group staffed primarily by USNRC but under the outside supervision of attorney M. Rogovin (the Rogovin Report). The efforts of these groups in the air cleaning area are described. The mechanisms whereby gaseous radioactive materials were released are discussed. The efforts of the various investigative groups for the Three Mile Island accident pertaining to air cleaning technology, the recommendations these groups have made, and the potential impact on the nuclear industry of the implementation of these recommendations are reviewed

90

Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1?) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author)

91

Aetiological factors contributing to road traffic accidents in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study analysed 13,390 police records of road traffic accidents (RTAs) covering a three and a half year period according to different suspected aetiological factors. The majority of the accidents were recorded for vehicles in good condition on well-paved straight roads with well-operating traffic light systems. Adverse weather conditions such as precipitation, fog and dust were of minimal importance, with most of the accidents being reported during sunny days during the rush period of 12 noon to 3 pm. Driver's error was identified as the main contributing factor in about two thirds of all RTAs mainly as reckless driving and excess speeding. About 27% of the drivers were professional drivers and 41% were in the age group 25-35 years in good health with no alcohol or drug intake. Hence, human errors may be attributed to carelessness, experience, lack of knowledge or attention, over-exhaustion or fatigue. The effects of physical stressors on performance of drivers need to be further explored and clarified but this need not underestimate the importance of vehicle and environment since most accidents are multifactoral and a slight change in them may effectively enhance perception and minimise personal error. Recommendations for remedial measures adopting an interdisciplinary approach are presented. PMID:8936950

Nofal, F H; Saeed, A A; Anokute, C C

1996-10-01

92

Soil contamination following an industrial accident : towards efficient investigations and assessment  

OpenAIRE

When an industrial accident occurs, e.g. the explosion or the fire of a chemical facility, soil investigations and subsequent risk mitigation generally need to be decided and performed rapidly. This requires specific organisation and tools: Procedures for an immediate and coordinated intervention of relevant actors: industrials, administrations for industrial facilities, emergency and health, local authorities, environmental consultants and laboratories, NGOs. Models and input data on emissio...

Hazebrouck, Benoi?t; Blancher, P.; Verger, P.; Pirard, P.; Heyman, Christophe; Mosqueron, Luc; Motreff, Y.; Ricoux, C.; Pagnon, Ste?phane

2010-01-01

93

Investigations of soil-plant transfer of radiocesium after deposition from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the low deposition of radiocaesium in NRW after the Chernobyl accident of about 2500 Bq 137Cs/m2 and 720 Bq 134Cs/m2, radiocaesium was not detectable in cereals from NRW. A deposition of about 44,100 Bq 137Cs/m2 and 13,500 Bq 134Cs/m2 was calculated for the vicinity of Tannheim, a village in Upper Swabia. Nevertheless, the content of radiocaesium in grain from Upper Swabia was found to be more than one hundred times lower than that of natural 40K. Transferfactors (TF/SP) for radiocaesium were determined for cereals from the three investigated soil types: Kalkvega (FAO classification: Calcaric Fluvisol), Braunerde (Cambisol) and Parabraunerde-Pseudogley (Luvisol-Planosol). The total variation in TF(SP) from 54 sampling sites was a factor of 43 (grain) and 18 (straw). However, the values did not reach the calculation basis of the German Regulatory Guide of 0.05 (Allgemeine Berechnungsgrundlage). The maximum TF(SP) for 134/137Cs in grain of 0.026 is clearly below that limit. A drastic increase of radioactivity in sewage sludge was observed in Upper Swabia. In the Tannheim sewage plant a radiocaesium content of about 12,500 Bq/kg dry matter was measured. In order to obtain further information on the possible radioecological consequences of using this sewage sludge as fertilizer a lysimeter study was carried out with application of the contaminated sewage sludge. Radioactivity in soil and several crops was measured for the growing periods 1989 and 1990. Although the soil type ('worst-case model') could have led one to expect high TF(SP) the increase of radiocaesium in plants was quite small. A higher uptake of radiocaesium by plants is caused by varying the potassium contents of the soil rather than by the application of the contaminated sewage sludge. (orig./HP)

94

Analytical and experimental investigations of the passive heat transport in HTRs under severe accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermodynamic accident analyses have been performed with computer simulation models to investigate core heatup sequences, sensitivity analyses, power variations, anticipated transients without scram, and core displacement considerations for probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) of small gas-cooled high-temperature reactors (e.g. HTR-Module). In worst case considerations where not only a loss of the active heat removal system is assumed but also a loss of the vessel cooling system, the heat would be transported into the surrounding concrete structure. In such a case the concrete would act as a natural long-term intermediate heat storage dissipating the heat through the concrete surface. Large scale and reactor safety experiments have been performed to investigate passive heat transport mechanisms -- which can cooldown a HIR core during severe accident conditions -- for validation basis of computer simulation codes used for accident analyses. In general, the comparisons of experimental and analytical results with computer calculations of the heat transport codes are in good agreement

95

Investigations of postulated accident sequences for the Fort St. Vrain HTGR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The systems analysis capability of the ORNL HTGR Safety analysis research program includes a family of computer codes: an overall plant NSSS simulation (ORTAP), and detailed component codes for investigating core neutronic accidents (CORTAP), shutdown emergency-cooling accidents via a 3-dimensional core model (ORECA), and once-through steam generator transients (BLAST). The component codes can either be run independently or in the overall NSSS code. Verification efforts have consisted primarily of using existing Fort St. Vrain reactor dynamics data to compare against code predictions. Comparisons of core thermal conditions made for reactor scrams from power levels between 30 and 50% showed good agreement. An optimization program was used to rationalize the difference between the predicted and measured refueling region outlet temperatures, and, in general, excellent agreement was attained by adjustment of models and parameters within their uncertainty ranges. However, more work is required to establish a unique and valid set of models

96

Ergonomic (human factors) problems in design of NPPs. A review of TMI and Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs

97

Quantifying human and organizational factors in accident management using decision trees: the HORAAM method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the level 2 Probabilistic Safety Study (PSA 2) project, the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) has developed a method for taking into account Human and Organizational Reliability Aspects during accident management. Actions are taken during very degraded installation operations by teams of experts in the French framework of Crisis Organization (ONC). After describing the background of the framework of the Level 2 PSA, the French specific Crisis Organization and the characteristics of human actions in the Accident Progression Event Tree, this paper describes the method developed to introduce in PSA the Human and Organizational Reliability Analysis in Accident Management (HORAAM). This method is based on the Decision Tree method and has gone through a number of steps in its development. The first one was the observation of crisis center exercises, in order to identify the main influence factors (IFs) which affect human and organizational reliability. These IFs were used as headings in the Decision Tree method. Expert judgment was used in order to verify the IFs, to rank them, and to estimate the value of the aggregated factors to simplify the quantification of the tree. A tool based on Mathematica was developed to increase the flexibility and the efficiency of the study

98

The role of social and psychological factors in radiation protection after accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inclusion of social and psychological factors in the justification and optimisation of intervention after an accident requires identification of the relevant factors and their appropriate quantification. Recent studies suggest a possible approach. Some social and psychological factors either influence the consequences of radiation protection countermeasures, or are direct consequences of those measures. Such factors can be grouped into those that alter the dose-effectiveness of a countermeasure, those that extend the need for countermeasures in time or space, and those that fall into neither of the first two categories. Factors of the first two types can be quantified in terms of changes to the anticipated averted dose and monetary cost of a countermeasure. Quantification of the third type is currently difficult, but the existence of structural models for applications in social psychology suggests that such models could be developed for radiation protection in the future. (author)

99

Status of ANL out-of-pile investigations of severe accident phenomena for liquid metal reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research addressing LMFBR whole core accidents has been terminated, and there is now emphasis on quantifying reactivity feedbacks, and in particular enhancing negative feedback, so that advanced LMR designs will provide inherently safe operation. The status of recent HCDA-related laboratory research performed at ANL, up to the time that such activities were no longer needed to support CRBR licensing, is described. Included are descriptions of programs addressing sodium channel voiding, fuel sweepout, fuel dispersal and plugging, boiled-up pool, UO/sub 2//sodium FCI, and debris coolability. Descriptions of recent investigations involving the metal fuel/sodium system are also included.

Spencer, B.W.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.; Baker, L.; Cho, D.H.; Gabor, J.D.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sienicki, J.J.; Stein, R.P.

1986-01-01

100

Status of ANL out-of-pile investigations of severe accident phenomena for liquid metal reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research addressing LMFBR whole core accidents has been terminated, and there is now emphasis on quantifying reactivity feedbacks, and in particular enhancing negative feedback, so that advanced LMR designs will provide inherently safe operation. The status of recent HCDA-related laboratory research performed at ANL, up to the time that such activities were no longer needed to support CRBR licensing, is described. Included are descriptions of programs addressing sodium channel voiding, fuel sweepout, fuel dispersal and plugging, boiled-up pool, UO2/sodium FCI, and debris coolability. Descriptions of recent investigations involving the metal fuel/sodium system are also included

101

Investigations of design basis and severe accidents in light water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations on the course of design and beyond design basis accidents in light water reactors (LWR) are performed using sophisticated system codes. Their models are continuously validated based on a variety of integral experiments. Within the OECD International Standard Problem ISP-45 (QUENCH-06) the comparison of experimental results with results of various codes allow to assess user and code effects. The results of codes include uncertainties which magnitude can be determined applying the adjoint sensitivity analysis procedure (ASAP). The basis of this procedure is explained and some results are given and discussed. (orig.)

102

Investigation of primary-to-secondary leakage accident on the PSB-VVER integral test facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The full text follows. The paper presents the main results from the test on primary-to-secondary leakage of 100 mm in equivalent diameter. The test was performed on the PSB-VVER integral test facility. PSB-VVER is a 4-loops scaled down model of primary system of NPP with VVER-1000 Russian type reactor. Volume - power scale is about 1/300 while elevation scale is 1/1. All components of the primary system of the reference NPP are modeled on PSB-VVER. Both passive (accumulators) and active (high and low pressure) ECCSs, pressurizer spray and relief circuits, feed water system and atmospheric dumping system (ADS) as well as the primary circuit gas remove emergency system are also simulated. The primary-to-secondary leakage was simulated using an external break line which connects the upper part of the hot header to SG water volume. The break line included a break nozzle (a cylindrical channel d = 5.8 mm, l/d = 10 with sharp inlet edge), quick-acting valve and two-phase mass flow rate measurement system. In addition loss of off-site power at the moment when a scram-signal is generated was assumed in the experiment. Thus the accident is to be considered as a beyond-design-basic one. The loss of off-site power results in the following: -main circulation pump shutdown; -pressurizer heaters switching off; -HPIS water cooling flow rate and number of points of water injection are reduced The study focuses on the adequacy of the associated accident management (AM) procedure developed by EDO ''GIDROPRESS'' as a General Designer of VVER-type reactors. The AM-procedure was adopted to the PSB-VVER test facility conditions using CATHARE (France) and DINAMIKA (Russia) codes analysis. The AM-procedure in PSB-VVER is as follows: after about 30 min of the onset of the accident, when the accident type and the localization of the SG affected become evident for the operator, he closes all the main steam isolation valves, inhibits the ADS actuation in the affected SG and begins to remove the core residual heat by opening the ADS in one of the intact loop. The results show that AM-procedure related to the accident investigated is adequate to prevent core overheating. (authors)

Lipatov, I.A.; Dremin, G.I.; Galtchanskaya, S.A.; Chmal, I.I.; Moloshnikov, A.S.; Gorbunov, Y.S.; Antonova, A.I. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center, EREC, Moscow (Russian Federation); Elkin, I.V. [RRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2001-07-01

103

Investigation of primary-to-secondary leakage accident on the PSB-VVER integral test facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The full text follows. The paper presents the main results from the test on primary-to-secondary leakage of 100 mm in equivalent diameter. The test was performed on the PSB-VVER integral test facility. PSB-VVER is a 4-loops scaled down model of primary system of NPP with VVER-1000 Russian type reactor. Volume - power scale is about 1/300 while elevation scale is 1/1. All components of the primary system of the reference NPP are modeled on PSB-VVER. Both passive (accumulators) and active (high and low pressure) ECCSs, pressurizer spray and relief circuits, feed water system and atmospheric dumping system (ADS) as well as the primary circuit gas remove emergency system are also simulated. The primary-to-secondary leakage was simulated using an external break line which connects the upper part of the hot header to SG water volume. The break line included a break nozzle (a cylindrical channel d = 5.8 mm, l/d = 10 with sharp inlet edge), quick-acting valve and two-phase mass flow rate measurement system. In addition loss of off-site power at the moment when a scram-signal is generated was assumed in the experiment. Thus the accident is to be considered as a beyond-design-basic one. The loss of off-site power results in the following: -main circulation pump shutdown; -pressurizer heaters switching off; -HPIS water cooling flow rate and number of points of water injection are reduced The study focuses on the adequacy of the associated accident management (AM) procedure developed by EDO ''GIDROPRESS'' as a General Designer of VVER-type reactors. The AM-procedure was adopted to the PSB-VVER test facility conditions using CATHARE (France) and DINAMIKA (Russia) codes analysis. The AM-procedure in PSB-VVER is as follows: after about 30 min of the onset of the accident, when the accident type and the localization of the SG affected become evident for the operator, he closes all the main steam isolation valves, inhibits the ADS actuation in the affected SG and begins to remove the core residual heat by opening the ADS in one of the intact loop. The results show that AM-procedure related to the accident investigated is adequate to prevent core overheating. (authors)

104

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at the plutonium reclamation facility, Hanford site, Richland, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m., a chemical explosion occurred in Tank A-109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility on the Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington. The Facility, also known as Building 236-Z, is an inactive processing facility located at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The explosion occurred when a highly concentrated solution of hydroxylamine nitrate (HN) and nitric acid (HNO3) auto-catalytically reacted inside Tank A-109. On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225.1, Accident Investigations. The scope of the Boards investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. This paper describes the accident, gives the three root causes of the accident and also six contributing causes, and discusses the major conclusions and judgments of need identified by the Board

105

Investigating plutonium contamination in marine sediments off Fukushima coast following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident has caused large amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides to be released into the atmosphere as well as directly discharged into the sea. To obtain the vertical distribution of Pu isotopes in marine sediments and to better assess the possible contamination from the FDNPP accident in the marine environment, activities of 239+240Pu and 241Pu, as well as the atom ratios of 240Pu/239Pu and 241Pu/239Pu, were investigated in a sediment core collected from the western North Pacific in July 2011. The observed vertical profile of 239+240Pu activities and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios showed no extra injection of Pu from the accident, indicating no immediate Pu contamination from the FDNPP accident in the marine sediments in the region investigated. (author)

106

Causes and risk factors for fatal accidents in non-commercial twin engine piston general aviation aircraft.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accidents in twin-engine aircraft carry a higher risk of fatality compared with single engine aircraft and constitute 9% of all general aviation accidents. The different flight profile (higher airspeed, service ceiling, increased fuel load, and aircraft yaw in engine failure) may make comparable studies on single-engine aircraft accident causes less relevant. The objective of this study was to identify the accident causes for non-commercial operations in twin engine aircraft. A NTSB accident database query for accidents in twin piston engine airplanes of 4-8 seat capacity with a maximum certified weight of 3000-8000lbs. operating under 14CFR Part 91 for the period spanning 2002 and 2012 returned 376 accidents. Accident causes and contributing factors were as per the NTSB final report categories. Total annual flight hour data for the twin engine piston aircraft fleet were obtained from the FAA. Statistical analyses employed Chi Square, Fisher's Exact and logistic regression analysis. Neither the combined fatal/non-fatal accident nor the fatal accident rate declined over the period spanning 2002-2012. Under visual weather conditions, the largest number, n=27, (27%) of fatal accidents was attributed to malfunction with a failure to follow single engine procedures representing the most common contributing factor. In degraded visibility, poor instrument approach procedures resulted in the greatest proportion of fatal crashes. Encountering thunderstorms was the most lethal of all accident causes with all occupants sustaining fatal injuries. At night, a failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance was the most common accident cause leading to 36% of fatal crashes. The results of logistic regression showed that operations at night (OR 3.7), off airport landings (OR 14.8) and post-impact fire (OR 7.2) all carried an excess risk of a fatal flight. This study indicates training areas that should receive increased emphasis for twin-engine training/recency. First, increased training should be provided on single engine procedures in the event of an engine failure. Second, more focus should be placed on instrument approaches and recovery from unusual aircraft attitude where visibility is degraded. Third, pilots should be made aware of appropriate speed selection for inadvertent flights in convective weather. Finally, emphasizing the importance of conducting night operations under instrument flight rules with its altitude restrictions should lead to a diminished proportion of accidents attributed to failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance. PMID:25701648

Boyd, Douglas D

2015-04-01

107

The Analysis of the Contribution of Human Factors to the In-Flight Loss of Control Accidents  

Science.gov (United States)

In-flight loss of control (LOC) is currently the leading cause of fatal accidents based on various commercial aircraft accident statistics. As the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) emerges, new contributing factors leading to LOC are anticipated. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), along with other aviation agencies and communities are actively developing safety products to mitigate the LOC risk. This paper discusses the approach used to construct a generic integrated LOC accident framework (LOCAF) model based on a detailed review of LOC accidents over the past two decades. The LOCAF model is comprised of causal factors from the domain of human factors, aircraft system component failures, and atmospheric environment. The multiple interdependent causal factors are expressed in an Object-Oriented Bayesian belief network. In addition to predicting the likelihood of LOC accident occurrence, the system-level integrated LOCAF model is able to evaluate the impact of new safety technology products developed in AvSP. This provides valuable information to decision makers in strategizing NASA's aviation safety technology portfolio. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of human causal factors in the model, including the contributions from flight crew and maintenance workers. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) taxonomy was used to develop human related causal factors. The preliminary results from the baseline LOCAF model are also presented.

Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

2012-01-01

108

The Chernobyl accident as a factor of changes in radiation status of Kozloduj region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content of 134Cs + 137Cs and 90Sr in fallouts from Kozloduj region (6 torch-directed points and 2 control points in diverse direction) is measured. Four years period is covered (1985 - 1988) and the Chernobyl accidents is marked for May - December 1986. The values for radiocesium content in 1988 in all points are below the measuring limits of the used beta radiometric instruments (2 for a month). An increase connected with the Chernobyl accident is registered, but even till January 1989 the background values are not reached. In particular points during February and April 1987 (typical precipitation months) peak values are registered showing that the process of atmospheric purification continues. No significant changes between the minimal and maximal 90Sr-content are detected in all points for the investigated years, except for the accident period. The analysis confirms the fact that the normal operation of Koz loduj NPP does not cause noticeable contamination with the studied radionuclides. 3 tabs

109

Fukushima nuclear accident independent investigation commission by the National Diet of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Fukushima nuclear accident, Independent Investigation Commission (IIC) was firstly established in constitutional government by the National Diet of Japan. This article described recognition of its necessity, its setup process, its framework with start from almost zero and about 6 months period and time, its basic way to proceed investigation and several obstacles and hardships, significance of openness to the public, web's communication and simultaneous interpretation (transparency) and basic philosophy of the report. Further significance of Diet's IIC in the democratic system and evaluation of the report were added. As a problem of separation of three powers in Japan, specific recommendations to the legislation of IIC and their future evaluation, nation's governance system problem and social responsibility of scientists and others were also discussed. If Japan were not to be changed after the disaster, Japanese future might be unreliable. (T. Tanaka)

110

What factors are associated with the maintenance of PTSD after a motor vehicle accident? The role of sex differences in a help-seeking population  

OpenAIRE

To investigate potential sex differences in factors that are associated with chronic PTSD, data from 223 participants were examined using logistic regression analyses. Each participant had been involved in a serious motor vehicle accident (MVA), which had occurred at least 6 months earlier (range 6 mos - 37 years). Although men and women did not differ in the rate of diagnosed PTSD, four variables were found to interact significantly with sex in the prediction of chronic PTSD: peritraumatic e...

Beck, J. Gayle; Palyo, Sarah A.; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Canna, Mark A.; Blanchard, Edward B.

2006-01-01

111

Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-...

Afsane Zamanimoghadam; Karim Hamdi; Mandana Sediqi

2014-01-01

112

Test Plans for Investigating Molten Fuel Behavior in Coolant Channel during SFR Core Melting Accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metal-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor system is expected to accommodate all credible malfunctions or accident initiators passively without damage to the core. However, the evaluation of the safety performance and the containment requirements for this system will most likely require consideration of postulated low-probability accident sequences that result in partial or whole core melting. For these sequences, some phenomenological uncertainties exist and experimental data are needed for modeling purposes. One such data need is concerned with the potential for freezing and plugging of molten metallic fuel in above-and below-core structures and possibly in inter subassembly spaces. The first basic data need is the properties for metallic fuel/steel mixtures such as liquidus/solidus and mobilization temperatures, as part of measurement of phenomenological data describing the relocation and freezing behavior of molten metallic fuel. Accordingly, plans for two different tests, one for determination of the liquidus/solidus temperature and another for determination of the mobilization temperature, are described in this report. Test plans are then described in the report for the investigations of the relocation and freezing behavior of molten metallic fuel in coolant channels, including possible chemical interactions of molten fuel with the channel steel structure

113

?-Particle track investigation of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident region soil samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of ?-particle track studies (Radiat. Meas. 25(1-4) (1995) 413; Radionuclides and Heavy metals in Environment, Vol. 5, 2001, Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht) indicate that the surface (?5 cm) layer of the soil in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident region consists of thinly dispersed radionuclides and highly-radioactive 'hot' particles (HPs). The latter contain nearly 2/3rds of the total ?-activity of the contaminated soil. In the present report, the new results of continued HP ?-activity characteristics are presented. The chief attempt made was to investigate size-frequency vs. ?-activity distribution of HPs of size fraction ?10-100 ?m. For the Hp-aggregates with ?100-1000 ?m sizes, ?-radio-nuclide heterogeneity was established. This is probably the result of formation of HP-aggregates during the second stage of the NPP accident process: in these HPs the presence of not only U and fission products of 'fuel' origin has been revealed, but also of terrestrial matter components

114

Driving habits and risk factors for traffic accidents among sleep apnea patients--a European multi-centre cohort study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased motor vehicle accident risk, and improved detection of patients at risk is of importance. The present study addresses potential risk factors in the European Sleep Apnea Database and includes patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea [n = 8476, age 51.5 (12.5) years, body mass index 31.0 (6.6) kg m(-2) , 82.4% driver's licence holders]. Driving distance (km year(-1) ), driver's licence type, sleep apnea severity, sleepiness and comorbidities were assessed. Previously validated risk factors for accident history: Epworth Sleepiness Scale ?16; habitual sleep time ?5 h; use of hypnotics; and driving ?15 000 km year(-1) were analysed across European regions. At least one risk factor was identified in male and female drivers, 68.75 and 51.3%, respectively. The occurrence of the risk factors was similar across Europe, with only a lower rate in the eastern region (P = 0.001). The mean number of risk factors increased across classes of sleep apnea severity. Frequent driving was prevalent [14.0 (interquartile range 8.0-20.0) × 10(3)  km year(-1) ] and 32.7% of drivers had severe obstructive sleep apnea [apnea-hypopnea index 50.3 (38.8-66.0) n h(-1) ]. Obesity, shorter sleep time and younger age were associated with increased traffic exposure (P ? 0.03). In conclusion, the risk factors associated with accident history were common among European patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea, but varied between geographical regions. There was a weak covariation between occurrence of risk factors and clinically determined apnea severity but frequent driving, a strong risk factor for accidents, was over-represented. Systematic evaluation of accident-related risk factors is important to detect sleep apnea patients at risk for motor vehicle accidents. PMID:25040185

Karimi, Mahssa; Hedner, Jan; Lombardi, Carolina; Mcnicholas, Walter T; Penzel, Thomas; Riha, Renata L; Rodenstein, Daniel; Grote, Ludger

2014-12-01

115

Investigation of Occupational Accidents Induce Sever Injury in Fars, Iran from 2005 to 2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Occupational accidents and incidents are increased in parallel of growth and expansion of industries. Implementation of preventive measures requires detailed analysis of accidents. So, the major goal of this study was analyze data on occupational accidents induced sever injury in Fars province, in the period 2005-2007 in order to use clues that would support political definition of priorities and strategies for prevention.Data were collected from 200 accidents registered in the Fars Labor Organization. Inclusion criteria were having an occupational accident during 2005-2007 and availability of the events records.Analysis was done using SPSS software (version 16.0 and descriptive analysis was used.The majority of injured workers (98% were male. Of the accidents, 79% were occurred in Fars’ capital. The most frequent occupational accidents and injuries occurred in private industries (97.5%. Most commonly affected workers were aged group 21 - 35. Results also shown that,84% of workers had low education under diplomalevel. Workers with experience less than one year (12 month had more accident (52.5% than others. The most frequent occupational accidents occurred in construction activities (construction building. Of the accident, 24.13% were occurred due to neglect of regulations and lack of supervision. Unsafe act and unsafe condition were causes of 21.68% accidents.Accidents analysis and assessment could be used to identify component causing accidents and to give recommendations for accident prevention. Some considerations should be regarding for preventive measures which included: implementing and evaluating training program and establishment of OHS system, as well as insurance position

Mojtaba Kamalinia

2012-09-01

116

Investigation of relationship between mental workload and information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks in NPPs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the relationship between an operator's mental workload and the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and further to propose the information flow rate as an analytic method for measuring the mental workload. There are two types of mental workload in the advanced MCR of NPPs: the information processing workload, which is the processing that the human operator must actually perform in order to complete the diagnosis task, and emotional stress workload experienced by the operator. In this study, the focus is on the former. Three kinds of methods are used to measure the operator's workload: information flow rate, subjective methods, and physiological measures. Information flows for eight accident diagnosis tasks are modeled qualitatively using a stage model and are quantified using Conant's model. The eight accident cases are considered here are: Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), Steam Line Break (SLB), Feedwater Line Break (FLB), Pressurizer (PZR) spray and heater failure, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) trip, Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) failure, and PZR spray failure. The information flow rate is obtained for each diagnosis task by imposing time limit restrictions for the tasks. Subjective methods require the operators to respond to questionnaires to rate their level of mental effort. NASA-TLX and MCH scale are selected as subjective methods. NASA-TLX is a subjective method used in the various fields including the aviation, automobile, and nuclear industries. It has a multi-dimensional rating technique and provides an overall workload score based on a weighted average on six subscales using pair-wise comparison tests. MCH, on the other hand, is one-dimensional and uses a 10- point rating technique. As with NASA-TLX, the higher the score is, the higher the subjective workload is. For the physiological measurements, an eye tracking system analyzes eye movements related to the operator's blinking and fixation on Areas Of Interests (AOIs). AOIs in the simulator interface, FISA-2/WS, are defined to analyzed the eye movement data. Blink frequency, blink duration, eye closure fraction, number of fixations on AOIs, and fixation time on AOIs are analyzed as the physiological measures. The duration and the rate of blinking decrease when the mental demand of the task increases. Since visual input is unavailable during eye closure, reduced blink rates help to maintain continuous visual input when high levels of attention are required. With higher the mental workloads, the fixation time and the more the number of fixations for instrument observation both increase. Through the experiments, the relationship between the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and the selected measures is investigated. Results show that the information flow rate is significantly related to the subjective measures and physiological measures. In this study, the information flow rate of diagnosis tasks is in high agreement with both subjective rating scores and eye movements parameters related to blinking and fixation on AOIs. It appears, then, that information flow rate can be an alternative as an analytic approach for measuring mental workload. By using data on the information flow rate, we can predict the mental workload required for a task without performing experiments in advance

117

NASA-ONERA Collaboration on Human Factors in Aviation Accidents and Incidents  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first annual report jointly prepared by NASA and ONERA on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the human factors entailed in aviation accidents and incidents, particularly focused on the consequences of decreases in human performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this agreement is to generate reliable, automated procedures that improve understanding of the levels and characteristics of flight-crew fatigue factors whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and ONERA are collaborating on the development and assessment of automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases; much larger than can be handled practically by human experts.

Srivastava, Ashok N.; Fabiani, Patrick

2012-01-01

118

The investigation on the public panic caused from the Fukushima nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

March 11, 2011, a huge earthquake and tidal waves in Japan lead to dangerous levels of nuclear leakage at Fukushima nuclear plant, the nuclear accident also cause public panic m many countries. To investigate the reason of the public panic, we employ the theories of sociology and psychology, analyzed that the public panic come from Ignorant Panic. Herd Behavior, Primacy Effect, Stereotype Activation Effect, and the superposition of these effects. In addition, we proposed three measures to the public panic: First, we should emphasize the safety of nuclear power and establish the positive image of nuclear power Second, we should emphasize the popular science of nuclear power so that nu clear power can be accepted in the public; Third, we should enhance the psychological intervention system for nuclear safe emergency and improve the effect of psychological intervention

119

Investigation of the radiological impact of reactor accidents under probabilistic aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis and conceptional investigation have been performed for the accident consequence model of the German reactor risk study. A dynamic atmospheric diffusion model is developed, which is applied in the first stage of the study to all distance ranges, and will be restricted finally to the long distance range. The wind direction and its variations are not taken into account in this model. The program set UFO-BAS calculates the time integrated nuclide concentration in air at any location downwind of the source. A further model which takes into account wind direction variations is being developed. On the basis of the proposals for the calculation of the health effects in the German risk study considerations on the storage requirements were accomplished. By means of these assessments a revised grid of parameters was evaluated. Furthermore, considerations were made for the implementation of an evaluation model, which will be developed by the Institut fuer Unfallforschung. (orig./RW)

120

Investigation of molten fuel relocation dynamics with applications to LMFBR post-accident fuel relocation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process of solidification of a single-phase flowing hot fluid in a cylindrical tube has been investigated analytically and experimentally. A series of tests were performed, using paraffin wax and Wood's metal as flowing hot fluids. These data verified the existing quasistatic numerical analysis model of freezing process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In addition, experimental results provided information regarding the effects of various parameters on the process of transient flowing and freezing through a vertical channel. The experimental apparatus and techniques are described. Comparison of experimental data with predictions of mathematical models for transient molten fluid displacement are presented in graphical form. In addition, the mathematical model is applied to LMFBR post-accident conditions. (author)

121

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis XVI: A review of cases investigated, 1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1985, 28 cases of suspected overexposure to ionising radiation were referred to NRPB for investigation by cytogenetic analysis, and the results are presented in this report. Of the 28 cases, 17 were associated with industrial radiography, 9 from major nuclear organisations and 2 from research, education and health institutions. In 20 cases, no biological indication of overexposure was found. The remaining 8 cases all arose from industrial uses of radiation. The highest overexposure to a sealed source in 1985 ws about 0.4 Gy from an 192Ir source that became detached from its winding mechanism. Two serious incidents involving unsealed sources are also described; an accidental ingestion of 125I, for which cytogenetic analysis is of limited relevance, and an inhalation of droplets of tritiated water. The latter also produced a committed dose equivalent of about 0.4 Sv, the estimates from cytogenetic analysis and urine analysis being in good agreement. (author)

122

Study of Factors Related to Accidents Occuring during the Construction Phase of Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Construction phase in industries is a dynamic process that is naturally and intrinsically dangerous and as it becomes more complicated, the accidents rate also increases. One should note that without considering a model, one could not obtain useful and reliable information and method to prevent accidents. Therefore, to achieve useful methods for preventing accidents, it is desirable to consider a model. The general goal of this study was presentation of a model. A model is the reflection of a fact. In other words, it should be said that the model represents a system or process whose behavior can be predicted. Models are therefore used for understanding the behavior of actual terminals and show a theory in the way that covers important variables for describing phenomena and instead, ignore factors of low importance in the expression of those phenomena. Methods: This study was a research article conducted in 2004-2005 in the Assaluyeh region. Data was gathered from accident reports present in security and health records of the projects and also statistics present at the treatment centers. In this study, an analytical model (multi-regression was presented to describe the impact of effective and deep factors on the possibility of an increase in accidents leading to death, through measurement of the effects of independent variables on the dependent variables. For this purpose, the structure of 50 accidents that led to death were studied along with another 2700 accidents, and after studying the accident reports and related documents, observing operations and equipment, counseling with accident observers and an expert team of managers, supervisors and engineers, and simulation of some accidents, unsafe conditions and functions, mismanagement and use of worn out and defective tools, equipment, devices and machinery were considered as the four independent variables and the job accidents leading to death were considered as dependent variables. The relationship between independent and dependent variables, evaluation of regression coefficients and the test of different models were based on multi-regression analytical model and analyzed using Eviews software program. Results: The final findings of this study, while specifying the possibility of occurrence of accidents leading to death with the existence of any of the independent variables showed that among the independent variables, unsafe conditions and mismanagement have relatively more important roles to play in the occurrence of accidents leading to death such that in conclusion, these factors have been defined as root causes in the model. Conclusion: Since the adjusted coefficient determined for the model in this research was 0.99; that is, the specified model could describe 99 percent of changes related to the number of job accidents leading to death and it is only for one percent of other accidents that there was no justified answer. In another words, those causes were not seen in the model. Therefore, it could be concluded that this research as compared to similar researches gained more useful results. Thus, by omitting or lowering unsafe conditions and mismanagement factors, accidents resulting in deaths can be reduced.

H Asilian Mahabadi

2008-01-01

123

Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and intractable, and methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. The number of methods in each group were four, three, zero, and two, respectively. Faced with the need to investigate an accident it is essential that the chosen method is appropriate for the system and the situation. Nuclear power plants considered as systems are tightly coupled and more or less intractable and therefore require accident models and accident investigation methods that are capable of accounting for these features. If an accident concerns the NPP operation as a whole, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. If an accident only concerns the operation of a subsystem or a component, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, or possible loosely coupled and tractable. The report provides a proposal for how these characteristics can be determined. The conclusion is that no specific method is the overall best in the sense that it can be used for all conditions. While it may be convenient, or even necessary, for an organisation to adopt a specific method as its standard, this should always be done knowingly and with a willingness to reconsider the choice when the conditions so demand it. In five or ten years we must expect that the methods developed today will have been partly obsolete, not because the methods change but because the nature of socio-technical systems, and therefore the nature of accidents, do

Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine (Ecole des Mines de Paris, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France))

2008-01-15

124

32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated (32)P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a (32)P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between (32)P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The (32)P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67 ± 0.15 and 0.59 ± 0.06 Gy (Bq g(-1))(-1) at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. PMID:24516187

Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Park, Seyoung; Shin, Seongwook; Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung-Sook

2014-10-01

125

Investigation program on PWR-steel-containment behavior under accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a first documentation of the KfK/PNS activities and plans to investigate the behaviour of steel containments under accident conditions. The investigations will deal with a free standing spherical containment shell built for the latest type of a German pressurized water reactor. The diameter of the containment shell is 56 m. The minimum wall thickness is 38 mm. The material used is the ferritic steel 15MnNi63. According to the actual planning the program is concerned with four different problems which are beyond the common design and licensing practice: Containment behavior under quasi-static pressure increase up to containment failure. Containment behavior under high transient pressures. Containment oscillations due to earthquake loadings; consideration of shell imperfections. Containment buckling due to earthquake loadings. The investigation program consists of both theoretical and experimental activities including membrane tests allowing for very high plastic strains and oscillation tests with a thin-walled, high-accurate spherical shell. (orig.)

126

How to identify the key factors that affect driver perception of accident risk. A comparison between Italian and Spanish driver behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Road crashes can be caused by different factors, including infrastructure, vehicles, and human variables. Many research studies have focused solely on identifying the key factors that cause road crashes. From these studies, it emerged that human factors have the most relevant impact on accident severity. More specifically, accident severity depends on several factors related directly to the driver, i.e., driving experience, driver's socio-economic characteristics, and driving behavior and attitudes. In this paper, we investigate driver behaviors and attitudes while driving and specifically focus on different methods for identifying the factors that most affect the driver's perception of accident risk. To this end, we designed and conducted a survey in two different European contexts: the city of Cosenza, which is located in the south of Italy, and the city of Granada, which is located in the south of Spain. Samples of drivers were contacted for their opinions on certain aspects of driving rules and attitudes while driving, and different types of questions were addressed to the drivers to assess their judgments of these aspects. Consequently, different methods of data analysis were applied to determine the aspects that heavily influence driver perception of accident risk. An experiment based on the stated preferences (SP) was carried out with the drivers, and the SP data were analyzed using an ordered probit (OP) model. Interesting findings emerged from different analyses of the data and from the comparisons among the data collected in the two different territorial contexts. We found that both Italian and Spanish drivers consider driving in an altered psychophysical state and violating the overtaking rules to be the most risky behaviors. PMID:25247553

de Oña, Juan; de Oña, Rocio; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella

2014-12-01

127

Learning lessons from accidents with a human and organisational factors perspective: deficiencies and failures of operating experience feedback systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper aims at reminding the failures of operating experience feedback (OEF) systems through the lessons of accidents and provides a framework for improving the efficiency of OEF processes. The risk is for example to miss lessons from other companies and industrial sectors, or to miss the implementation of adequate corrective actions with the risk to repeat accidents. Most of major accidents have been caused by a learning failure or other organisational factors as a contributing cause among several root causes. Some of the recurring organisational factors are: -) poor recognition of critical components, of critical activities or deficiency in anticipation and detection of errors, -) excessive production pressure, -) deficiency of communication or lack of quality of dialogue, -) Excessive formalism, -) organisational complexity, -) learning deficiencies (OEF, closing feedback loops, lack of listening of whistle-blowers). Some major accidents occurred in the nuclear industry. Although the Three Mile Island accident has multiple causes, in particular, an inappropriate design of the man-machine interface, it is a striking example of the loss of external lessons from incidents. As for Fukushima it is too early to have established evidence on learning failures. The systematic study and organisational analysis of OEF failures in industrial accidents whatever their sector has enabled us to provide a framework for OEF improvements. Five key OEF issues to improve in priorit Five key OEF issues to improve in priority: 1) human and organisational factors analysis of the root causes of the events, 2) listening to the field staff, dissenting voices and whistle-blowers, 3) monitoring of the external events that provide generic lessons, 4) building an alive memory through a culture of accidents with people who become experiences pillars, and 5) the setting of external audit or organisational analysis of the OEF system by independent experts. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

128

Factors Associated with Nurses’ Intention to Leave Their Jobs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a survey among nurses who were working at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to clarify the factors associated with their intention to leave their jobs during the radiation emergency. We asked 345 nurses (17 men and 328 women) about their intention to leave their jobs after the accident. We also asked about relevant factors including the participants’ demographic factors, living situation, working status, and knowledge of radiation health effects. We found that living with preschoolers (OR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.02–3.44, p = 0.042), anxiety about life in Fukushima City after the accident (OR = 5.55, 95%CI: 1.18–26.13, p = 0.030), consideration of evacuation from Fukushima after the accident (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.45–4.06, p = 0.001), consideration of the possible radiation health effects in children (OR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.02–3.44, p = 0.042), and anxiety about relationships with colleagues in the hospital after the accident (OR = 3.23, p = 0.001) were independently associated with the nurses’ intention to leave their jobs after the accident. On the other hand, the percentage of nurses with knowledge on radiation health effects was relatively low among those who had the intention to leave the job and among those who did not have the intention to leave the job after the accident, with no significant differences between the two groups. Our results suggest the need for an education program for nurses regarding radiation health effects. PMID:25816345

Sato, Yoshinobu; Hayashida, Naomi; Orita, Makiko; Urata, Hideko; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Yumiko; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

2015-01-01

129

Factors associated with nurses' intention to leave their jobs after the fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a survey among nurses who were working at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to clarify the factors associated with their intention to leave their jobs during the radiation emergency. We asked 345 nurses (17 men and 328 women) about their intention to leave their jobs after the accident. We also asked about relevant factors including the participants' demographic factors, living situation, working status, and knowledge of radiation health effects. We found that living with preschoolers (OR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.02-3.44, p = 0.042), anxiety about life in Fukushima City after the accident (OR = 5.55, 95%CI: 1.18-26.13, p = 0.030), consideration of evacuation from Fukushima after the accident (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.45-4.06, p = 0.001), consideration of the possible radiation health effects in children (OR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.02-3.44, p = 0.042), and anxiety about relationships with colleagues in the hospital after the accident (OR = 3.23, p = 0.001) were independently associated with the nurses' intention to leave their jobs after the accident. On the other hand, the percentage of nurses with knowledge on radiation health effects was relatively low among those who had the intention to leave the job and among those who did not have the intention to leave the job after the accident, with no significant differences between the two groups. Our results suggest the need for an education program for nurses regarding radiation health effects. PMID:25816345

Sato, Yoshinobu; Hayashida, Naomi; Orita, Makiko; Urata, Hideko; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Yumiko; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

2015-01-01

130

Investigation of high temperature irradiated fuel-liquefied Zircaloy interactions in support of severe accident safety studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of irradiated fuel (both UO{sub 2} and Mixed Oxide Fuels) interactions with liquefied Zircaloy at high temperatures is central to the understanding of bundle degradation mechanisms during reactor power transients or severe accidents. These initial interactions of the cladding and the irradiated fuel result in a melt (corium) and then to a loss of bundle geometry and the corium accumulation in a pool. ITU investigated the interaction of irradiated fuel and compared it with non-irradiated fuel with its Zircaloy cladding at 2000 deg. C for various short times. This was its contribution to the COLOSS (Core Loss of Geometry) project carried out under an EC framework programme. The tests were investigated by optical microscopy with image analysis and then by SEM-EDS analysis. The dissolution of the irradiated fuel by the Zircaloy melt was very variable and heterogeneous, but for non-irradiated fuel was reasonably uniform and constant. The kinetics of the non-irradiated UO{sub 2}-liquefied Zircaloy interactions was shown in another work package of the project to follow diffusion-limited mechanisms that could be modelled. The large variation in the results with the irradiated fuel rods made it difficult to model these interactions, nevertheless, they appear to have similar parabolic kinetics seen in non-irradiated fuel. The cracked condition of the fuel and the fission gas release during these interactions are major factors for fuel break-up, dispersion and dissolution in the melt under temperature transients.

Bottomley, D; Papaioannou, D; Pellottiero, D; Rondinella, V V [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, PO Box 2340, DE-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Knoche, D, E-mail: paul.bottomley@ec.europa.eu [Westinghouse Electric Germany, Dudenstrasse 44, DE-68167 Mannheim (Germany)

2010-02-15

131

Public opinion about nuclear power generation and its formation factors after the JCO accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on public opinion about using nuclear power generation and its formation factors after the JCO accident. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to a sample of 4,000 citizens in Japan on Oct. 1999. A total of 2,985 citizens completed it. A causal model of the opinion about using nuclear power generation was examined using covariance structure analysis. The results suggested that trust in the government and the electric power companies contributed to an opinion about using nuclear power generation. The results also suggested that the person who had interest in and knowledge about nuclear power generation based his/her opinion on the perception of the risk and the trust in the government and the electric power companies, and the person who had no interest and knowledge based it only on the trust. (author)

132

Results of the reliability investigations for the design basis accident 'Rupture of a cold primary coolant system'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives a comprehensive presentation of the detailed reliability investigation carried out for the engineered safety features installed to cope with the design basis accident 'Large LOCA' of a German nuclear power plant with pressurized water reactor. The investigation is based on the engineered safety features of the Biblis Nuclear Power Plant, Unit A. The reliability investigation is carried out by means of a fault tree analysis. The influence of common-mode failures is assessed. (orig.)

133

The Role of Materials Degradation and Analysis in the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

The efforts following the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia included debris recovery, reconstruction, and analysis. The debris was subjected to myriad quantitative and semiquantitative chemical analysis techniques, ranging from examination via the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The results from the work with the debris helped the investigators determine the location where a breach likely occurred in the leading edge of the left wing during lift off of the Orbiter from the Kennedy Space Center. Likewise, the information evidenced by the debris was also crucial in ascertaining the path of impinging plasma flow once it had breached the wing. After the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) issued its findings, the major portion of the investigation was concluded. However, additional work remained to be done on many pieces of debris from portions of the Orbiter which were not directly related to the initial impact during ascent. This subsequent work was not only performed in the laboratory, but was also performed with portable equipment, including examination via portable X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Likewise, acetate and silicon-rubber replicas of various fracture surfaces were obtained for later macroscopic and fractographic examination. This paper will detail the efforts and findings from the initial investigation, as well as present results obtained by the later examination and analysis of debris from the Orbiter including its windows, bulkhead structures, and other components which had not been examined during the primary investigation.

McDanels, Steven J.

2006-01-01

134

Factors contributing to driver’s condition after fatal and injury vehicle accidents in North Khorasan province- New Year 1391  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim: Injuries from traffic accidents are a major public health problem, and the third leading cause of mortality in people aged 1 to 40 years. Each year 31.8 persons per hundred thousands of Iranians are killed in car accidents. Neighboring of North Khorasan province with Razavi Khorasan, a province with a lot of pilgrims caused a large number of passengers travel via North Khorasan province. This study aimed to evaluate the road accidents and its related factors in the city of bojnurd in March 2012. Materials and Methods: this cross-sectional study was done from … to … 2012(the New Year vacation in Iran. All injured or victims from car accidents who referred to the emergency department of the Imam Ali Hospital formed the research community. Data was gathered by a questionnaire consisting vehicle specification, driver and injured characteristics. For victims and those were not able to answer, we used the family members or relatives for gathering the data. All data analysis was done in SPSS version 19.Results: during the study period, 148 injured people were admitted to the hospital. Drivers’ mean age were 33.9 with the SD of 11.9 years; among them 43.2% were used seat belt. One driver and three passengers were killed immediately, and two drivers and three passengers died in the first 24 hours of admission. Fastening seat belt by drivers reduce the hospitalization rate significantly (p-value<0.0001. 50.7% of the accidents were head-on collisions. Violation from the speed limit (41.3%, indiscretions (25.4% and drowsiness were the most common causes of accident respectively. Conclusion: training the drivers, obligation for using seat belt by driver and passengers, rest after long hours driving , and more control of traffic police especially in two way roads could reduce the car accident or in case of accident help to prevent severe damage and injury.

Javad Rezazadeh

2013-01-01

135

Prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales y factores relacionados en estudiantes de odontología / Prevalence of occupational accidents and related factors in students of dentistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivo Describir la prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales en estudiantes de Odontología y asociarla con factores propios de su práctica clínica. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal, desarrollado en una universidad pública de la ciudad de Cartagena en 2010. Participaron 213 estudiantes que se en [...] contraban en prácticas pre-clínicas y clínicas de odontología, que corresponden al 96,8 % de la población de referencia. Se aplicó un cuestionario auto-administrado para evaluar la ocurrencia de accidentes al igual que factores asociados. Los datos fueron analizados mediante prevalencias con intervalos de confianza al 95 %, usando la prueba chi², con nivel de significancia (p Abstract in english Objective Describe the prevalence of occupational accidents students of dentistry and associate it with factors of their clinical practice. Methods Cross-sectional study, developed in a public university in the city of Cartagena in 2010. Participants included 213 students in l pre-clinics and clinic [...] s practice of dentistry, selected by simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to evaluate the occurrence of accidents as well as the associated factors. The data were analyzed by prevalence rates with confidence intervals of 95 %, using the chi² test, with significance levels of 0.05. The Association Strength was estimated by OR and the multivariate analysis through nominal logistic regression. Results The prevalence of occupational accidents is 46 %, the type of accident most often is prick (48.7 %), caused mainly by the Explorer (28.9 %). 58.1 % of the accidents are reported and continue care protocol. 87.7 % of the students enfold the needle after use. At bivariate level, only statistically significant association between occupational accidents and semester was presented, being more frequent for the more advanced semesters (p=0.004). Conclusions because of high prevalence of occupational accidents, it is necessary to insist on the implementation of strategies for safe and appropriate environments for the development of educational practices for students.

Katherine M, Arrieta-Vergara; Shyrley, Díaz-Cárdenas; Farith D., González-Martínez.

2013-02-01

136

Prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales y factores relacionados en estudiantes de odontología / Prevalence of occupational accidents and related factors in students of dentistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivo Describir la prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales en estudiantes de Odontología y asociarla con factores propios de su práctica clínica. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal, desarrollado en una universidad pública de la ciudad de Cartagena en 2010. Participaron 213 estudiantes que se en [...] contraban en prácticas pre-clínicas y clínicas de odontología, que corresponden al 96,8 % de la población de referencia. Se aplicó un cuestionario auto-administrado para evaluar la ocurrencia de accidentes al igual que factores asociados. Los datos fueron analizados mediante prevalencias con intervalos de confianza al 95 %, usando la prueba chi², con nivel de significancia (p Abstract in english Objective Describe the prevalence of occupational accidents students of dentistry and associate it with factors of their clinical practice. Methods Cross-sectional study, developed in a public university in the city of Cartagena in 2010. Participants included 213 students in l pre-clinics and clinic [...] s practice of dentistry, selected by simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to evaluate the occurrence of accidents as well as the associated factors. The data were analyzed by prevalence rates with confidence intervals of 95 %, using the chi² test, with significance levels of 0.05. The Association Strength was estimated by OR and the multivariate analysis through nominal logistic regression. Results The prevalence of occupational accidents is 46 %, the type of accident most often is prick (48.7 %), caused mainly by the Explorer (28.9 %). 58.1 % of the accidents are reported and continue care protocol. 87.7 % of the students enfold the needle after use. At bivariate level, only statistically significant association between occupational accidents and semester was presented, being more frequent for the more advanced semesters (p=0.004). Conclusions because of high prevalence of occupational accidents, it is necessary to insist on the implementation of strategies for safe and appropriate environments for the development of educational practices for students.

Katherine M, Arrieta-Vergara; Shyrley, Díaz-Cárdenas; Farith D., González-Martínez.

2013-01-01

137

A human factor analysis of a radiotherapy accident; Analyse d'un accident de radiotherapie sous l'angle des facteurs humains et organisationnels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since September 2005, I.R.S.N. studies activities of radiotherapy treatment from the angle of the human and organizational factors to improve the reliability of treatment in radiotherapy. Experienced in nuclear industry incidents analysis, I.R.S.N. analysed and diffused in March 2008, for the first time in France, the detailed study of a radiotherapy accident from the angle of the human and organizational factors. The method used for analysis is based on interviews and documents kept by the hospital. This analysis aimed at identifying the causes of the difference recorded between the dose prescribed by the radiotherapist and the dose effectively received by the patient. Neither verbal nor written communication (intra-service meetings and protocols of treatment) allowed information to be transmitted correctly in order to permit radiographers to adjust the irradiation zones correctly. This analysis highlighted the fact that during the preparation and the carrying out of the treatment, various factors led planned controls to not be performed. Finally, this analysis highlighted the fact that unsolved areas persist in the report over this accident. This is due to a lack of traceability of a certain number of key actions. The article concluded that there must be improvement in three areas: cooperation between the practitioners, control of the actions and traceability of the actions. (author)

Thellier, S. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Dir. de la Surete des Reacteurs, Service d' Etude des Facteurs Humains, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

2009-01-15

138

First Annual Report: NASA-ONERA Collaboration on Human Factors in Aviation Accidents and Incidents  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first annual report jointly prepared by NASA and ONERA on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the human factors entailed in aviation accidents and incidents particularly focused on consequences of decreases in human performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this Agreement is to generate reliable, automated procedures that improve understanding of the levels and characteristics of flight-crew fatigue factors whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and ONERA are collaborating on the development and assessment of automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases much larger than can be handled practically by human experts. This report presents the approach that is currently expected to be used in processing and analyzing the data for identifying decrements in aircraft performance and examining their relationships to decrements in crewmember performance due to fatigue. The decisions on the approach were based on samples of both the numerical and textual data that will be collected during the four studies planned under the Human Factors Monitoring Program (HFMP). Results of preliminary analyses of these sample data are presented in this report.

Srivastava, Ashok; Fabiani, Patrick

2012-01-01

139

Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

Afsane Zamanimoghadam

2014-07-01

140

Investigations related to the chemical behaviour of methyl iodide at severe PWR-accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decomposition velocity of methyl iodide in aqueous solutions of boric acid has been measured at temperatures up to 423 K and at chemical conditions which are expected to exist in the sumpwater pool during a severe reactor accident. The decomposition was due only to hydrolysis which increased by the expected amount at high temperature. No influence of the cooling water additives was observed. Treatment of the available kinetic data indicated that the influence of polluting material expectedly present in the sump is likely to be negligible too. A possible exception may be the enhancement of the decomposition rate by particulate and dissolved silver. The resistance of methyl iodide to gas phase decomposition by steam and oxygen at 423 K was investigated and only slow decomposition in the order of 10-7/s observed which is explained by reaction with steel surfaces. Neither gas phase oxidation nor hydrolysis occur at this temperature. The resistance to oxidation is of kinetic nature. Gas phase hydrolysis is not possible due to thermodynamics. This was confirmed by the observed gas phase formation of methyl iodide from hydrogen iodide and methanol at 423 K. The kinetics of this reaction are best explained by two parallel reactions, one of second order with a kinetic constant of 1.25 x 10-5/kPa s, and one of third order under action of steam with a constant of 2 x 10-6/kPa2 s. (orig./HP)

141

Investigation on droplet impingement erosion during steam generator tube failure accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Sodium droplet impingement is regarded as one of the mechanisms causing secondary tube failure in case of steam generator tube rupture accident. ? The moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method is applied to simulate the sodium droplet impingement. ? The erosion rate correlation for water impingement is extended for application in the sodium impingement. - Abstract: Droplet impingement erosion is one of the reasons causing the secondary heat transfer tube damage in case of the heat transfer tube failure in the steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor. This paper has been dedicated to investigate the impingement phenomena, pressure load and the damage rate by impingement. Single droplet impingement on the rigid wall was first simulated with MPS-AS (moving particle semi-implicit method for all speeds) method for water and sodium. The shockwave propagation during the impingement has been well captured. The pressure load by water impingement can be characterized with . A correlation for pressure load by sodium impingement is proposed based on the water hammer theory. The new correlation shows to be consistent with the simulation result. For prediction of erosion rate by sodium droplet impingement, were extended by including the effects of liquid properties, i.e. density, sound speed and viscosity. The extended correlations show similar prediction accuracy to the original ones.

142

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in North Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carp decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs was estimated to be about 1 year during 1987-2002 and 5 years during 1993-2005. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carp was found to be similar to the ratio observed in other environmental samples. The concentration factor for carp (wet weight) was estimated to be 128 ± 74 L kg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective dose received by adult members of the Croatian population due to consumption of carp contaminated with 134Cs and 137Cs are small: per capita dose from this source during 1987-2005 was estimated to be 0.5 ± 0.2 ?Sv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp, it can be concluded that carp consumption was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium from fallout to humans after the Chernobyl accident

143

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in North Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carp decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of {sup 137}Cs was estimated to be about 1 year during 1987-2002 and 5 years during 1993-2005. The observed {sup 134}Cs:{sup 137}Cs activity ratio in carp was found to be similar to the ratio observed in other environmental samples. The concentration factor for carp (wet weight) was estimated to be 128 {+-} 74 L kg{sup -1}, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K{sup +} concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective dose received by adult members of the Croatian population due to consumption of carp contaminated with {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs are small: per capita dose from this source during 1987-2005 was estimated to be 0.5 {+-} 0.2 {mu}Sv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp, it can be concluded that carp consumption was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium from fallout to humans after the Chernobyl accident.

Franic, Zdenko [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska cesta 2, PO Box 291, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)]. E-mail: franic@imi.hr; Marovic, Gordana [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska cesta 2, PO Box 291, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

2007-05-15

144

A abordagem sociotécnica na investigação e na prevenção de acidentes aéreos: o caso do vôo RG-254 / Sociotechnical approach to investigation and prevention of aircraft accidents: the case of flight RG-254  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta estudo de caso do acidente ocorrido com o vôo RG-254 da Varig, em setembro de 1989. Partindo de informações de investigações oficiais, publicações, material audiovisual, entrevistas com envolvidos no acidente e especialistas em segurança de vôo, os autores re-analisam o acident [...] e com enfoque sociotécnico referenciado na teoria ator-rede e no conceito de acidente "normal". O texto apresenta novo entendimento para a investigação de acidentes na aviação criticando a tradicional repartição de causas entre os chamados fatores "humanos", "técnicos" e "operacionais" e sugere aplicação do conceito de multicausalidade que não se restringe à mera listagem de "fatores contribuintes", mas que analisa as relações entre atores-redes envolvidos no sistema de aviação em que ocorreu o acidente. O acidente do RG-254 é descrito como sintoma do rompimento de relações entre os atores que atuam no sistema. Abstract in english This article presents a case study of the accident with Varig flight RG-254 in September 1989. Using as starting point the official investigation data, publications, audiovisual material and interviews with those involved in the accident as well as flight safety specialists, the authors re-analyze t [...] he accident through a sociotechnical focus, which is based on the actor-network theory and concepts of "normal" accident. The text presents a new understanding of aviation accident investigation and it reviews the traditional terms of investigation based on a rigid division between "human", "technical" and "operational" factors. It also suggests the application of the multi-causality concept, which is not restricted to a mere list of "contributing factors", but which analyzes the relationships among the actor-networks involved in the aviation system where the accident occurred. The RG-254 accident is described as a symptom of the rupture of relationship among those acting in the system.

Vitor Alexandre de Freitas, Cardoso; Henrique Luiz, Cukierman.

2007-06-01

145

Comparison of different estimation methods of accident atmospheric dispersion factors for a representative inland nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of atmospheric diffusion models in complex terrains and low wind speed conditions was discussed in this paper. The accident atmospheric dispersion factors (ATFs) of Taohuajiang nuclear power plant were calculated by using two methods: the probabilistic method recommended by the U.S. Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC) and the three dimensional objective diagnostic wind field model coupled with Lagrangian trajectory puff model to simulate the 8760 hourly emissions of radioactive nuclides. The results indicate that the maximum hourly accident ATFs calculated by the probabilistic method are conservative in exclusion area boundary (EAB). However, in some directions, accident ATFs calculated using probabilistic method is smaller than that using Lagrangian puff model, as well as some accident ATFs in remote sectors are larger than those in close sectors. Moreover, results calculated by probabilistic method are smaller in long-term release situation. Therefore, accident ATFs obtained according to the regulatory guides may not conservative in some cases, and atmospheric diffusion model should be selected carefully when a nuclear plant is located at a site with complex environmental conditions. (authors)

146

Investigations of radiocaesium in the natural terrestrial environment in Norway following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident affected parts of central Norway to a considerable extent, in particular the 134Cs + 137Cs deposition had a significant impact on the natural environment. When this became apparent, a comprehensive radioecological research programme was initiated in order to study the behaviour of radiocaesium in boreal and alpine ecosystems, with emphasis on food-chains leading to exposure of species used for human consumption, i.e., reindeer and freshwater fish. In this paper results from the terrestrial part of this research programme during the period 1986-1990 are presented. The work was mainly confined to the mountain areas of Dovre and Rondane. Parallel studies were performed in eutrophic and strongly oligotrophic communities. The influence of local variations in topography and microclimate on the observed radiocaesium levels in topsoils, lichens and vascular plants was studied in detail. Currently a significant re-distribution of radiocaesium from the originally strongly exposed surfaces to those that were less exposed is observed. In the soil, radiocaesium is strongly retained in the litter and raw humus layers. Current levels in lichens are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in vascular plants. This strongly affects the seasonal variation of radiocaesium in reindeer, showing winter maxima of about 5 times higher than the August levels. The radiocaesium levels in reindeer showed a decline of approximately eindeer showed a decline of approximately a factor of 3 during the period 1987-1990. Other animal species studied in the programme exhibited substantially lower radiocaesium levels than reindeer, but a considerable interspecies variation was observed. (author)

147

Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity to fragment. The molten fuel-coolant mixtures with a binary oxidic core melt (UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}) may feature low triggerability and low explosivity. The mechanical-to-thermal conversion ratio may be very low. The presence of metallic component in the melt may significantly enhance triggerability and explosivity of molten corium. The characteristics of melt spreading into 2-D channel are much different from those into 1-D channel. The evaluations of spreading parameters in reactor accident situations would be strongly affected by the uncertainties in the boundary conditions of the melt spreading process, such as downward heat removal and of upward heat removal in case of core melt spreading under water. Computer codes were developed and validated against the data obtained in the MSWI Project. The Multiphase Eulerian Lagrangian Transport code (MELT-313) was validated to investigate the hydrodynamics during the premixing process of jet penetrating into a water pool. The FlowLab code employing the multi-fluid multi-phase Lattice-Boltzmann method was developed and validated. In the Lattice-Boltzmann approach, no special treatment is needed to track the interface. A scaling technology was developed to describe the spreading efficiency of melt into I -D channel. The melt vessel interaction thermal analysis (MVITA) code describes the process of melt pool formation, melt pool convection and the resulting vessel thermal loadings. A gap cooling model and model representing penetrations were incorporated into this code. The code was coupled with ANSYS code, which performs structure analysis. Thus a coupled thermal and mechanical analysis of the loadings of a pressure vessel during the melt-vessel interaction, could be performed.

Sehgal, B.R.; Yang, Z.L.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Bui, V.A.; Haraldsson, H.O.; Li, H.X.; Konovakhin, M.; Paladino, D.; Leung, W.H [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

1999-08-01

148

Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity to fragment. The molten fuel-coolant mixtures with a binary oxidic core melt (UO2-ZrO2) may feature low triggerability and low explosivity. The mechanical-to-thermal conversion ratio may be very low. The presence of metallic component in the melt may significantly enhance triggerability and explosivity of molten corium. The characteristics of melt spreading into 2-D channel are much different from those into 1-D channel. The evaluations of spreading parameters in reactor accident situations would be strongly affected by the uncertainties in the boundary conditions of the melt spreading process, such as downward heat removal and of upward heat removal in case of core melt spreading under water. Computer codes were developed and validated against the data obtained in the MSWI Project. The Multiphase Eulerian Lagrangian Transport code (MELT-313) was validated to investigate the hydrodynamics during the premixing process of jet penetrating into a water pool. The FlowLab code employing the multi-fluid multi-phase Lattice-Boltzmann method was developed and validated. In the Lattice-Boltzmann approach, no special treatment is needed to track the interface. A scaling technology was developed to describe the spreading efficiency of melt into I -D channel. The melt vessel interaction thermal analysis (MVITA) code describes the process of melt pool formation, melt pool convection and the resulting vessel thermal loadings. A gap cooling model and model representing penetrations were incorporated into this code. The code was coupled with ANSYS code, which performs structure analysis. Thus a coupled thermal and mechanical analysis of the loadings of a pressure vessel during the melt-vessel interaction, could be performed

149

Experimental investigations of BWR pressure suppression pool behavior under loss of coolant accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiments discussed in this paper look into different processes which may occur during a loss-of-coolant accident in the pressure suppression pool of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). These processes include: a) development of a thermal stratification, b) bubble dynamics and related water flow during continuous release of air and c) air blowdown and associated water slug phenomenon in the water pool. The experiments have been performed in the THAI test facility, which is a cylindrical vessel of 9.2 m height, 3.2 m diameter and with a gas volume of 60 m3. The variation in the investigated test parameters included, steam and air mass flux, initial water pool temperature, blowdown pressures, downcomer submergence, etc. A systematic variation of the test parameters allowed better understanding of the phenomena. Experiments discussed in this paper were performed with a vertical downcomer of 0.1 m diameter and 2 m submergence depth in the water pool. For the blowdown experiments, a separate interconnecting vessel of 1 m3 volume was used to inject air at pressures between 3 bar and 10 bar. A high speed camera (1000 fps) was installed to visualize the formation and propagation of air bubbles in the suppression pool and the resulting pool swelling phenomena. Customized instrumentation applied during the tests included grids of densely spaced thermocouples and of pressure transducers at various locations in order to capture the temperature distribution r to capture the temperature distribution in the pool and the water slug induced pressure loadings, respectively. The present paper discusses the main outcome of the selected experiments. On the whole the experimental data may be very useful for code validation. (authors)

150

Investigation of an accident in a resins manufacturing site: The role of accelerator on polymerisation of methyl methacrylate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • The accelerator produces an increase in the initial rate of polymerisation. • The accelerator increases the extent of polymerisation in certain conditions. • The accelerator decreases the induction time due to the presence of inhibitor. • Runaway reaction is more likely to occur in presence of the accelerator. • The experimental data support the hypothesis about the accident. - Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of an accelerator on the polymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA). This study is based on the results of an investigation of an accident in a manufacturing site for resins located in the United Kingdom. As sequence of event to cause the accident the following was assumed: during an unattended batch process a runaway undesired polymerisation of methyl methacrylate occurred, generating rapid vaporisation of monomer, which in contact with an ignition source, led to an explosion followed by a fire. Since no initiator for the polymerisation reaction had been jet added to the blend, it was supposed that the accelerator contributed to the onset of the undesired polymerisation. The accelerator involved in the accident t has therefore been tested by differential scanning calorimetry and adiabatic calorimetry. The experimental data allowed the authors to prove the hypothesis made and to define safety ranges for the polymerisation reaction

151

Investigating critical success factors in tile industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine critical success factors influencing the success of tile industry in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among some experts in tile industry. Using Pearson correlation test, the study has detected that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between marketing planning and the success of tile industry (r = 0.312 Sig. = 0.001. However, there is not any meaningful relationship between low cost production and success of tile industry (r = 0.13 Sig. = 0.12 and, there is a positive and meaningful relationship between organizational capabilities and success of tile industry (r = 0.635 Sig. = 0.000. Finally, our investigation states that technology and distributing systems also influence on the success of tile industry, positively. The study has also used five regression analyses where the success of tile industry was the dependent variable and marketing planning, low cost production and organizational capabilities are independent variables and the results have confirmed some positive and meaningful relationship between the successes of tile industry with all independent variables.

Davood Salmani

2014-04-01

152

Radioecological investigations in the ecosystem of the Black Sea following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs measured in the Black Sea before and after the Chernobyl accident were compared. The majority of the radionuclides after the accident was brought to the Black Sea with precipitations in late April and in May 1986. The radioactivity of surface waters decreased appreciably from the North to the South and was rather nonuniform. In the years following the accident, radiostrontium in the northwestern part of the Black Sea was contributed to appreciably by water from the Dnieper river. The migration of the two radionuclides in the ecosystem of the Black Sea and the effect of wastes on the processes of radionuclide redistribution in the shelf zone of the sea were studied. (B.S.). 19 figs., 12 refs

153

Light water reactor capacity factor investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the internationally accepted measurements of an electrical generating station's productivity is the capacity factor. Comparison of the United States (U.S.) nuclear power plants' average cumulative capacity factors to those of other Western world countries shows that the U.S., while leading the western world in number of operating nuclear power plants, ranks near the bottom in average cumulative capacity factor. This paper identifies the institutional and technological factors that adversely or favorably affect the domestic nuclear power plants capacity factors. A literature search, data analysis, and industry survey were performed to identify institutional and technological factors affecting the capacity factor of light water reactors

154

Investigation of fuel and clad relocation during LMFBR initiation phase accidents. The STAR experiment program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactivity effects of fuel and clad motion during unprotected loss of flow accidents stronglyu influence the accident progression in LMFBRs. To study these phenomena, a series of in-pile experiments (the STAR experiments) are being performed in which clad motion and fuel dispersal are observed in small pin bundles with high-speed cinematography. The major parameters varied in the series are power level, fuel type (fresh versus preirradiation), and number of pins. The results of the first four experiments are presented in the report. The irradiated fuel tests show early fuel disruption caused by fission products followed by rapid fuel sweep out and axial clad relocation

155

Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

NONE

2004-07-01

156

Contribution of activation products to fusion accident risk: part 1. A preliminary investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Release of neutron-activation products in severe hypothetical fusion-reactor accidents may constitute a larger health hazard than that of the tritium released at the same time. Significant escape of activation products could result from lithium fires hot enough to melt and partly vaporize activated first-wall materials, or from other accident sequences that bring air into contact with activated structure hot enough to cause the formation of volatile metal oxides. Analysis of three combinations of structural materials and severe accident scenarios has been undertaken for an early conceptual tokamak reactor, using a simple consequence model based on that of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Reactor Safety Study (the Rasmussen report) to determine conceivable radiation doses near the plant boundary. No attempt was made to estimate probabilities for such severe events. In the cases of stainless-steel and molybdenum structures subject to massive lithium fires, the boundary doses far exceed those that would be produced by release of the entire plant inventory of tritium and are comparable to the doses similarly calculated for ''worst case'' light water reactor accidents. The case of niobium fusion reactor structure is more favorable. These results, based on an early fusion-reactor design not optimized with respect to safety characteristics, may well portray a worst case picture of fusion accident consequences. They suggest, however, that the large potential safety advantar, that the large potential safety advantages of fusion compared to fission are not necessarily inherent for all designs and choices of materials, and they motivate attention to the several available strategies for greatly reducing the potential for activation-product release from fusion reactors

157

Study of risc factors affecting the number of mental disorders and nervous system diseases for people who participated in liquidation of consequences of ChNPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interrelation of disease incidence for liquidators and factors affecting it has been studied. The diseases (mental disorders and nervous system diseases) have been taken into account provided more than 10% of people have suffered of the above diseases. Date of getting into the accident zone; duration of work within the zone; the radiation dose accumulated were considered to be risc factors. Getting into the accident zone and duration of work within the zone of accident have been though to be the main risc factors. 3 figs.; 2 tabs

158

Evaluación de factores de riesgo en accidentes oculares graves infantiles / Assessment of the risk factors for severe ocular accidents in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar factores de riesgo en accidentes oculares graves infantiles. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación aplicada, epidemiológica, descriptiva, longitudinal y prospectiva sobre accidentes oculares graves en el Servicio de Oftalmología del Hospital Pediátrico Provincial de Pinar del Río ( [...] 2006-2007). El universo y muestra estuvo constituido por dos grupos de niños de 1- 20 años, ambos sexos y todas las etnias. Primer Grupo: Niños con accidente ocular grave, Segundo Grupo: Niños sin accidente ocular; determinándose una muestra total de 130 seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio simple. Fueron utilizados métodos empíricos y teóricos de investigación científica. Resultados: El trauma ocular representó el 87,8% de los ingresos de urgencia durante el período. Se encontró que el grupo etáreo de 9-12 años (40%), y sexo masculino (89,2%) fueron los más afectados. Un 76,9% de los accidentados residía en zona rural. El 96,9% se encontraba fuera de la casa y sin compañía de adultos en el momento del trauma. Predominaron las familias con conocimientos y actitudes evaluados de regulares en relación a los accidentes oculares con un 57,7 % y 60,8% respectivamente. Conclusiones: Se constató elevada frecuencia de traumas oculares infantiles graves en Pinar del Río, precisando sus factores causales de riesgo y dificultades en la prevención de los mismos. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the risk factors for severe ocular accidents in children. Methods: An applied, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and prospective research of the severe ocular accidents was conducted in the Ophthalmologic Service at "Pepe Portilla" Provincial Children Hospital, Pinar de [...] l Rio. The target group and the sample were comprised of two groups of children from 1 to 16 years old of both sexes and all ethnics. First group: children and adolescents suffering from severe ocular accidents. Second group: children and adolescents without ocular accidents; a total sample of 130 patients were chosen by means of a simple sampling at random. Empiric and theoretical scientific research methods were used. Results: The ocular trauma represented 87, 8% of the admissions in the emergency service during the period. The group of ages between 9-12 and male sex (89, 2%) were the most affected; 76, 9% lived in rural zones and 96, 9% of the accidents occurred out of the house without adult company; knowledge and attitudes towards ocular accidents were evaluated as fair in families (57,7% and 60,8% respectively). Conclusions: a high frequency of severe ocular traumas in children was verified in Pinar del Rio, specifying causal risk factors and difficulties to prevent these accidents

Sahely, Sixto Fuentes; Acela, Boffill Corrales; Sandra María, Jalilo Hernández; Dayamí de la Caridad, González Pérez.

2010-09-01

159

Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. T...

Naser Azad

2012-01-01

160

Evaluation of total loss of feedwater accident/recovery phase and investigation of the associated EOP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the sequence of event and the thermohydraulic behavior during total loss of feedwater accident and recovery procedure, a RELAP5/MOD3 calculation is performed and compared with the LOFT L9-1/L3-3 experiment. Also, the predictability of the code for the major thermohydraulic phenomena following the accident is assessed. As a result, it is found that a pressure control using the spray until the time the water level reaches the top of the pressurizer, an overpressure protection by pressurizer PORV, a recovery of the secondary heat removal capability by refilling steam generator, and an effective cooldown by the continued natural circulation can be perfomed without core uncovery. It is also found that the plantspecific evaluation is necessary to confirm the effectiveness of the current symptom-oriented emergency operating procedure, especially in an overpressure protection performance and steam generator recovery performance. (Author)

161

Results and conclusions from the investigation of an accident with a display shell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tests to establish correct safety distances were carried out following a serious accident which occurred during a private fireworks display. Analysis carried out after the accident provided evidence of a manufacturing deficiency as well as evidence that the safety distances recommended by German explosive handling regulations were inadequate to protect either the operator or the spectators. It was shown that the Magnus force, produced by the rotation of the shell and its interaction with the boundary layer of air which rotates with the shell, was responsible for the lateral drift that caused the shell to land among the spectators. A computer program for estimating the correct distances was developed and tested successfully. Additional tests with live shells are planned to verify the results and to provide an opportunity for further measurements of the rotation of the shells using a directional microphone. 23 refs., 14 figs.

Eckhardt, D.; Andre, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -prufung (Germany)

2000-04-01

162

Immunological and epidemiological investigations in regions contaminated by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have carried out in Novozybkov district of Bryansk region, Russia, immunologic inspection of residents with simultaneous evaluation of radionuclides content in the body and individual dose burden. We have not found any correlation between the dose and immune characteristics: amount of T and B lymphocytes, antibodies level. Only 3 months after the accident increased level of antibodies against thyroid antigens, thyroglobulin and microsomes was found at thyroid doses over 75 cGy. 3 tabs

163

Investigation of Two-Wheeled Road Traffic Accidents using Explicit FE Techniques.  

OpenAIRE

With the increase of road traffic accidents increasing due to motorised traffic in the developing world growing alongside the more traditional bicycles and light motorcycles there is good reason to re-examine the two-wheeler case. In addition, if you include the large congestion charge scheme now underway in London and similar projects being considered in other cities globally, there is an even stronger case. These schemes encourage commuters to get back onto two wheels but ...

Mclundie, W. M.

2007-01-01

164

Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

Naser Azad

2012-04-01

165

Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

2015-02-01

167

Investigation of Depth Distribution of Radionuclides in Soil Contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident  

Science.gov (United States)

This work was conducted as one of the researches relating to distribution maps of radiation dose rate etc. which the government has promoted as one of the counter-measures to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, and the 2nd investigation on the depth distribution of radionuclides (RNs) in soil was conducted after about 1 year from the accident, succeedingly to the 1st investigation which was conducted after about 3 months from the accident. Soil core samples to about 50cm deep were taken at 11 locations in Nihonmatsu-city, Kawamata-town and Namie-town. Sorption-desorption experiments of Cs-137 and I-131, CEC and AEC measurements and mineralogical analyses by XRD were conducted for 3 types of soils (sandy, clayey, organic) and those elutriated components (clay, silt, sand). Radiocaesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) and Ag-110m were detected at all locations investigated and only at locations where radiation dose rate is high, respectively. Radiocaesium more than 95% and 99% of the inventory distributed within 5cm and 10cm deep in soil in the surface layer (mainly sandy soil), respectively, and distributed within 16cm and 20cm deep in organic soil and soil at locations where are supposed to have been used as farmland, respectively. Radiocaesium tended to extend to deeper parts in soil that organic and clayey soils are the support layer, particularly in organic soil, compared with the 1st investigation. Distribution coefficients of Cs-137 onto organic soil and its elutriated components were also lower than that onto other soils. This is consistent with trend of penetration profile.

Sato, Haruo; Niizato, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Shingo; Abe, Hironobu; Aoki, Kazuhiro

2014-05-01

168

Trends in state-level freight accident rates: An enhancement of risk factor development for RADTRAN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is concerned with understanding and managing risk as it applies to the shipment of spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Understanding risk in relation to mode and geography may provide opportunities to minimize radiological and non-radiological risks of transportation. To enhance such an understanding, a set of state-or waterway-specific accident, fatality, and injury rates (expressed as rates per shipment kilometer) by transportation mode and highway administrative class was developed, using publicly-available data bases. Adjustments made to accommodate miscoded or incomplete information in accident data are described, as well as the procedures for estimating state-level flow data. Results indicate that the shipping conditions under which spent fuel is likely to be transported should be less subject to accidents than the ''average'' shipment within mode. 10 refs., 3 tabs

169

Occupational accidents and affecting factors of metal industry in a factory in Ankara  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective:According to the statistics of the Social Security Institution, 18672 occupational accidents occurred in the metal industry in 2008 in Turkey. Whereas 78 of these accidents resulted in death, 252 people became permanently incapable of working. In 2008, 369677 working days were lost as a result of occupational accidents. Evaluating the reasons for and the results of accidents in the metal industry and contributing to the development of recommendations for prevention in accordance with the information obtained. Method: The study was conducted with 201 of 210 workers working in heavy metal manufacturing and construction in the building company between April 2008 and June 2008. Results: The frequency of occupational accidents among the metal workers was 22% between January 2007 and June 2008. The reasons for the workers’ accidents are listed as; insufficient use of personal protective equipment (44%, carelessness (37%, and personal reasons, not to be taken of security measures at machines and looms/ unsuitable machines (both 17%.Conclusion: The study demonstrates that the accidents mostly occur because of failure to use of personal protective equipment, insufficient vocational training. Key Words: Occupational, accident, metal industry, preventionAnkara’da bir metal sanayi fabrikas?nda i? kazalar? ve etkileyen faktörler Özet Amaç: 2008 y?l?nda Sosyal Güvenlik Kurumu’nun verilerine göre metal sanayisinde 18672 i? kazas? meydana gelmi? ve 369677 i?günü kayb? olmu?tur.  Bu kazalardan 78 tanesi ölümle sonuçlan?rken, 252 ki?i kal?c? olarak i?göremez hale gelmi?tir. Metal sanayisinde meydana gelen kazalar?n sebep ve sonuçlar?n? inceleyerek, elde edilen bilgiler do?rultusunda kazalar?n önlenmesine yönelik tavsiyelerin geli?tirilmesi amaçlanm??t?r. Yöntem: Ara?t?rma, Ankara’da faaliyet gösteren a??r metal imalat, konstrüksiyon ve in?aat sanayi ?irketinde 2008 Nisan-2008 Haziran döneminde çal??an 210 i?çinin 201’ine anket uygulanmas?yla yürütülmü?tür. Bulgular: Ocak 2007 ve Haziran 2008 tarihleri aras?nda metal i?çilerinin i? kazas? s?kl??? %22 bulunmu?tur. ?? kazalar?n?n nedenleri olarak yetersiz ki?sel koruyucu ekipman kullan?m? (%44, dikkatsizlik (%37, ki?isel nedenler (%17 ile makine ve tezgahlarda güvenlik önlemlerinin al?nmamas?/makinelerin uygun olmamas? (%17 belirtilmi?tir. Sonuç: Çal??ma, i? kazalar?n?n ço?unlukla ki?isel koruyucu ekipman?n kullan?m?ndaki eksiklikten ve yetersiz mesleki e?itimden kaynakland???n? ortaya koymu?tur. Anahtar Kelimeler: ??, kaza, metal sanayi, önleme 

Mustafa N. Ilhan

2012-08-01

170

Modeling of the corium cooling and loading factor analysis for containment during severe accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper is devoted to the development and study of the mathematical model for corium melt interaction with low-temperature melting blocks in the passive protection systems (PPS) against severe accidents at the NPP, and learning the peculiarities of construction and operation of the PPS. The configurations of cooling blocks' distributions considered and the results of their work in the corium cooling pool are compared to the data of other PPS's conceptions. The conclusion is made that the models developed and the results obtained may be useful for constructing the PPS against severe accidents

171

Reduction factors for wooden houses due to external ?-radiation based on in situ measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident  

Science.gov (United States)

For estimation of residents' exposure dose after a nuclear accident, the reduction factor, which is the ratio of the indoor dose to the outdoor dose is essential, as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we evaluated the median reduction factor with an interquartile range of 0.43 (0.34–0.53) based on 522 survey results for 69 detached wooden houses in two evacuation zones, Iitate village and Odaka district. The results indicated no statistically significant difference in the median reduction factor to the representative value of 0.4 given in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-TECDOC-225 and 1162. However, with regard to the representative range of the reduction factor, we recommend the wider range of 0.2 to 0.7 or at least 0.2 to 0.6, which covered 87.7% and 80.7% of the data, respectively, rather than 0.2 to 0.5 given in the IAEA document, which covered only 66.5% of the data. We found that the location of the room within the house and area topography, and the use of cement roof tiles had the greatest influence on the reduction factor. PMID:25519512

Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kanagami, Takashi; Uegaki, Masaki; Tashima, Hideo

2014-01-01

172

Theoretical and experimental investigations on the behaviour of iodine during severe accidents: volatile iodine. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the consequences of severe accidents in nuclear power plants requires knowledge of the behaviour of radionuclides relevant from the radiological viewpoint, especially the iodine. The current modelling of iodine behaviour is not conclusive, owing to insufficiently known data. This project is intended to eliminate some of these data gaps in critical areas. 350 tests on the radiation-induced oxidation of elemental iodine (I2) in the containment atmosphere were performed yielding an extended database. Moreover, irradiation tests were performed on the formation and decomposition of ozone which is a reaction partner for I2. The reaction with ozone converts volatile I2 into non-volatile iodine oxides or iodate. An improved kinetic modelling was developed for the iodine accident code IMPAIR. Now the model is valid also for steam-containing atmospheres and, additionally, considers dose rate and thus the actual ozone concentration. An assessment of the literature concludes that ? and ? radiation have no different impact on iodine chemistry and thus do not need to be modelled separately in iodine accident codes. An assessment of the literature shows a partly significant chemical interaction of volatile iodine with aerosols. Since such reactions lead to a faster decrease of volatile iodine at least at high aerosol concentrations, a modelling should be foreseen in the future. In the frame of the international ISP-41 project, calculati international ISP-41 project, calculations to an integral test in the Canadian Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) were performed with IMPAIR. The existing model of the radiation-induced I2 formation in the sump in IMPAIR is identified as a weakness requiring future improvement. A theoretical assessment on the iodine chemistry in the droplets of a spray system concludes that a modelling is necessary in case of spraying with fresh water, and that this is already contained in available spray models. During recirculation spraying in an examplary, hypothetical EPR case, no separate modelling is necessary to predict the removal of volatile iodine by sprays. (orig.)

173

Investigation of VVER 1000 Core Degradation During SBO Accident Scenario in Case of Pressurizer SV Stuck in Open Position  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the work performed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) in the frame of the SARNET2 project. The performed work continues the effort in modelling reactor core behaviour during severe accidents such as station blackout (SBO) sequence for VVER 1000 reactors based on parametric study. The work is oriented on investigation of overheated reactor core behaviour in case of reflooding by high pressure injection system (HPIS) at different stages and gives the preliminary results for the ASTEC V2 validation as well as analytical validation of severe accident management guidance (SAMG) for VVER 1000 reactors. An SBO scenario for investigation of VVER 1000 reactor core behaviour has been used with the assumption of opening the pressurizer safety valve and staying in open position, which induces additionally small break LOCA. Based on the previously performed work at the INRNE for the same scenarios a proper time for initiation has been chosen a proper time for initiation of HPP injection. For selected scenario consequently has been performed calculations vary the value of selected parameters. It has been selected the following parameters: porosity (PORO), velocity of molten mixture when crossing a grid (VGRI), etc. It has been investigated the influence of spherical and elliptical ''bottom head and lower plenum'' modelling on core degradation progression. (author)

174

Investigation of liner tearing near penetrations in a reinforced concrete containment under severe accident loads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inner surfaces of reinforced concrete containment buildings in the United States are lined with steel plate. During a severe accident, the liner plate serves as the main seal for preventing the leakage of radionuclides to the outside environment, while the reinforced concrete provides structural support for the linear. If the liner is torn or punctured during the accident, gases can easily escape through cracks in the reinforced concrete wall. An overpressurization test conducted on a 1:6-scale model of a reinforced concrete containment has demonstrated that the liner can tear before extensive structural failure occurs in the reinforced concrete. In the 1:6-scale model experiment, the pressure inside the model was increased to 145 psig. At this point, leakage from the model became so great that the model could not be pressurized further. Inspection of the model revealed that this leakage was due to tears that had formed in the liner at several locations around the building. All of the liner tears observed in the 1:6-scale model initiated next to studs that were used to anchor the liner to the wall of the containment. These tears were located near thickened sections of the liner that were placed around penetrations in the containment shell. Most of the leakage occurred through a single large tear that had grown along the edge of a thickened plate that surrounded a cluster of piping penetrations. This tear is shown

175

Investigation of liner tearing near penetrations in a reinforced concrete containment under severe accident loads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inner surfaces of reinforced concrete containment buildings in the United States are lined with steel plate. During a severe accident, the liner plate served as the main seal for preventing the leakage of radionuclides to the outside environment, while the reinforced concrete provides structural support for the liner. If the liner is torn or punctured during the accident, gases can easily escape through cracks in the reinforced concrete wall. An overpressurization test conducted on a 1:6-scale model of a reinforced concrete containment (Horschel, 1989) has demonstrated that the liner can tear before extensive structural failure occurs in the reinforced concrete. In the 1:6-scale model experiment, the pressure inside the model was increased to 145 psig. Leakage from the model became so great that the model could not be pressurized further. Inspection of the model revealed that this leakage was due to tears that had formed in the liner at several locations around the building. All of the liner tears observed in the 1:6-scale model initiated next to studs that were used to anchor the liner to the wall of the containment. Most of the leakage occurred through a single large tear that had grown along the edge of a thickened plate that surrounded a cluster of piping penetrations. Finite element analyses were conducted to determine the mechanisms that were the primary cause of the large liner breach. 3 refs., 7 figs

176

Experimental Investigation of Operation of VVER Steam Generator in Condensation Mode in the Event of the Severe Accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For new Russian nuclear power plants with VVER-1200 reactor in the event of a beyond design basis accident, provision is made for the use of passive safety systems for necessary core cooling. These safety systems include the passive heat removal system (PHRS). In the case of leakage in the primary circuit this system assures the transition of steam generators (SG) to operation in the mode of condensation of the primary circuit steam. As a result, the condensate from SG arrives at the core providing its additional cooling. To investigate the condensation mode of VVER SG operation, a large scale HA2M-SG test facility was constructed. The rig incorporates: buffer tank, SG model with scale is 1:46, PHRS heat exchanger. Experiments at the test facility have been performed to investigate condensation mode of operation of SG model at the pressure 0.4 MPa, correspond to VVER reactor pressure at the last stage of the beyond design basis accident. The report presents the test procedure and the basic obtained test results. (authors)

Morozov, Andrey [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering by A.I. Leypunsky, 1 Bondarenko sq. Obninsk, 249033 (Russian Federation)

2008-07-01

177

'The forefront' of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident investigation. 'Subject wise discussion' of technical committee of Niigata prefecture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technical committee of Niigata prefecture started' subject wise discussion of Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident investigation' since October 2013. Six subjects were chosen and discussion between committee members and TEPCO was coordinated by committee's staffs. First subject was 'seismic effects of main components caused by ground motion' and discussion was focused on problems of 'relation between station blackout (SBO) and tsunami' and also 'earthquakes and small size LOCA', which were identified by the report of National Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission. Tsunami photos might show tsunami arrival time at Unit 1 might be after 15:38 and later than emergency AC power losses of Unit 1 (SBO) around at 15:36. Real cause of SBO needed to be checked such as seawater pipe failures caused by ground motion. Hydrogen explosion might occur at fourth floor of reactor building of Unit 1 because the inside of the fourth floor was 'terribly damaged'. Maintenance hatch at fifth floor of reactor building was missing and white markings attached on metal cover of isolation condenser (IC) tank might be steam condensation marks, which might be checked by inspection. These suggested IC pipe failure at fourth floor of reactor building caused by earthquakes led to small size LOCA and hydrogen explosion. (T. Tanaka)

178

Fuel-element simulator for investigating thermal-hydraulic accidents in water-water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fuel-element simulator should provide the necessary environmental parameters (thermal flux, and temperature at the cladding surface) and satisfy the requirements of reliability and modeling an actual fuel element, according to a formulated research problem. A universal simulator design, which could be used in a wide range of research, does not exist up to now and it is hardly useful in general. In developing fuel-element simulators to study loss-of-coolant accidents in water-water reactors, the most important condition from the modeling point of view is that the overall heat capacity of the simulator should correspond to that of the fuel element. The overall heat capacity and the temperature distribution over the reactor cross section determine the reserve of accumulated energy, which cannot be modeled by simply increasing the supplied electrical power. Experiments showed the magnesium oxide, as compared to other materials, is the best model of uranium oxide due to the closeness of the heat transfer coefficient and the thermal conductivity of these materials. Moreover, MgO has a high coefficient of thermal expansion, close to that of stainless steel. The construction of fuel-element simulators often uses boron nitride powder, which is densified by one means or another. Boron nitride has the highest thermal conductivity (besides beryllium oxide), but it has a lower electrical conductivity than magnesium oxide. These materials simultaneously fulfill the function of el simultaneously fulfill the function of electrically insulating the heating element from the cladding. The basic disadvantage of this design is that the simulator has no gas gap; however, this is compensated by its simplicity, reliability, and long lifetime. This article presents several test designs for analysis and solving problems characteristic of loss-of-coolant accidents. Test results from VVER-440 fuel rod simulators using 19-rod assemblies an presented

179

Asthma is a risk factor for acute chest syndrome and cerebral vascular accidents in children with sickle cell disease  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and sickle cell disease are common conditions that both may result in pulmonary complications. We hypothesized that children with sickle cell disease with concomitant asthma have an increased incidence of vaso-occlusive crises that are complicated by episodes of acute chest syndrome. Methods A 5-year retrospective chart analysis was performed investigating 48 children ages 3–18 years with asthma and sickle cell disease and 48 children with sickle cell disease alone. Children were matched for age, gender, and type of sickle cell defect. Hospital admissions were recorded for acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accident, vaso-occlusive pain crises, and blood transfusions (total, exchange and chronic. Mann-Whitney test and Chi square analysis were used to assess differences between the groups. Results Children with sickle cell disease and asthma had significantly more episodes of acute chest syndrome (p = 0.03 and cerebral vascular accidents (p = 0.05 compared to children with sickle cell disease without asthma. As expected, these children received more total blood transfusions (p = 0.01 and chronic transfusions (p = 0.04. Admissions for vasoocclusive pain crises and exchange transfusions were not statistically different between cases and controls. SS disease is more severe than SC disease. Conclusions Children with concomitant asthma and sickle cell disease have increased episodes of acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accidents and the need for blood transfusions. Whether aggressive asthma therapy can reduce these complications in this subset of children is unknown and requires further studies.

Scott Paul J

2005-01-01

180

Bases epidemiológicas do Fator Acidentário Previdenciário Epidemiological foundations of the Accident Insurance Factor  

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Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES: O Conselho Nacional de Previdência Social, por meio da Resolução No. 1.236 de 28/4/2004, aprovou uma nova metodologia para definição do valor das alíquotas de contribuição devidas por empresas para o financiamento de benefícios previdenciários relacionados aos riscos do trabalho. Esta metodologia baseia-se em um indicador denominado de Fator Acidentário Previdenciário, FAP, construído a partir do risco epidemiológico, estimado para cada ramo de atividade econômica. Como parte da sua estratégia de validação, o Ministério da Previdência Social decidiu pela avaliação da sua consistência epidemiológica. OBJETIVOS: Nesse estudo analisaram-se os propósitos, as fontes de informação, a natureza das medidas epidemiológicas empregadas e a metodologia da construção desse indicador, identificando-se as suas vantagens e limitações, aplicabilidade e impactos potenciais futuros. MÉTODOS: Análise documental da Resolução No. 1236 e do documento anexo. RESULTADOS: O FAP avança ao se pautar por critérios científicos transparentes que poderão permitir a redução das alíquotas quando houver efetiva melhoria das condições de trabalho, e conseqüentemente, da morbimortalidade entre trabalhadores. Supera as dificuldades relacionadas à definição e registro do nexo causal das doenças do trabalho ao considerá-las em sua totalidade, não se restringido às ocupacionais. Como prevê a redução de alíquotas com a melhoria das condições de saúde dos trabalhadores poderá contribuir para uma mais efetiva atuação dos empregadores na prevenção. CONCLUSÕES: É necessário o acompanhamento contínuo e sistemático da aplicação do FAP, com ampla participação da sociedade, revisando-o e ajustando-o aos diferentes cenários econômicos, sociais e de saúde do País, atentando-se para o seu impacto sobre a arrecadação e contas da Previdência Social.BACKGROUND: The Brazilian National Social Insurance Counsel of the Ministry of Social Insurance approved the Resolution N. 1.236 of 28/4/2004 that defines a new methodology to assess the value of taxes to be paid by firms, for occupational health related insurance costs. This methodology utilizes the Accident Insurance Factor, (Fator Acidentário Previdenciário FAP, based on relative risks estimated for each industry trade. As part of its validation strategy, the Social Insurance Ministry decided to evaluate the epidemiological consistency of FAP. OBJECTIVE: The FAP purposes, data sources, the nature of the overall methodology, its advantages and limitations are all discussed, as well as its applicability and potential future impact on the Social Insurance Ministry budget and on the workers' health and safety. METHODS: A documental analysis was conducted with the Resolution text and its attached essay. RESULTS: The FAP represents an advance because of its transparent scientific criteria that may allows reduction of taxes, when improvement in work conditions and the resulting decrease in diseases or injuries are observed. It also overcomes problems of definition and assessment of occupational causal relationships because overall diseases and injuries will be considered regardless of their causal relation to occupational exposures. Since taxes can be reduced as work and health conditions improve, it may contribute to a more effective participation of employers in prevention. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to systematically and continuously monitor the application of FAP, with extensive society participation, reviewing and adjusting it to the distinct economic, social and health scenarios in the country, considering its impact on the Social Insurance budget.

Vilma Sousa Santana

2005-12-01

181

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board's investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63)

182

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board`s investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63).

Gerton, R.E.

1997-07-25

183

Investigation of accidents with decrease of boric acid concentration in the primary coolant of VVER-1000/model 91 reactor plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of recent investigations on the problem of inhomogeneous boron dilution for the VVER-1000/model 91 reactor are summarized in the paper. The studies have been performed in cooperation by Russian and Finnish experts. The phenomena related to the formation of diluted slugs, their transport and mixing in the reactor coolant system, and the potential consequences in the core are discussed. The potential external sources of pure condensate in various reactor operating conditions have been investigated. Thermal hydraulic analyses for identification of accidents having an inherent mechanism for boron dilution in the primary circuit have been performed using computer codes APROS, SMABRE, and DINAMIKA. The results allow to determine the location and potential size of diluted slugs. Steady-state and transient analyses of the core response have been performed using computer codes HEXBU-3D and HEXTRAN to model the core in three dimensions. The results allow to draw conclusions on the potential for severe core damage.

Gromov, A.; Kalugin, S.; Podshibyakin, A. [Gidropress EDO, Podolsk (Russian Federation); Siltanen, P. [IVO International Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

1996-07-01

184

Investigation of accidents with decrease of boric acid concentration in the primary coolant of VVER-1000/model 91 reactor plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of recent investigations on the problem of inhomogeneous boron dilution for the VVER-1000/model 91 reactor are summarized in the paper. The studies have been performed in cooperation by Russian and Finnish experts. The phenomena related to the formation of diluted slugs, their transport and mixing in the reactor coolant system, and the potential consequences in the core are discussed. The potential external sources of pure condensate in various reactor operating conditions have been investigated. Thermal hydraulic analyses for identification of accidents having an inherent mechanism for boron dilution in the primary circuit have been performed using computer codes APROS, SMABRE, and DINAMIKA. The results allow to determine the location and potential size of diluted slugs. Steady-state and transient analyses of the core response have been performed using computer codes HEXBU-3D and HEXTRAN to model the core in three dimensions. The results allow to draw conclusions on the potential for severe core damage

185

Investigation of biomechanical factors affecting rowing performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

It was hypothesized that a crew's rowing performance was predictable based on their total propulsive power, synchrony (a real-time comparison of rower propulsive force magnitudes) and total drag contribution (a measure of the rowers' effect on shell drag forces during the recovery), quantities calculated from individual rower's force-time profiles and recovery kinematics. A rowing pair was equipped with transducers to gather shell velocity, propulsive blade force, oar angular position and seat displacement. Eight subjects (four port, four starboard) participated in two rounds of data collection. The first round pairings were random, while the second round pairings were assigned based on Round 1 results. Regression analysis and ANCOVA were used to test the validity of assumptions inherent in the predictive model and, if applicable, explore a linear model predicting rowing performance based on total propulsive power, synchrony and total drag contribution. Total propulsive power, synchrony and total drag contribution were correlated and further were affected by pairing, violating assumptions inherent in the linear model. The original hypothesis was not supported based on these violations. Important findings include (1) performance cannot be predicted using the simple linear model proposed, (2) rowers' force-time profiles are repeatable between trials, with some but not all rowers adapting their force-time profile dependent on their pair partner, presumably in an effort to increase the level of synchrony between the two, and (3) subtle biomechanical factors may play a critical role in performance. PMID:15165867

Baudouin, Alexandre; Hawkins, David

2004-07-01

186

Factors affecting vertical distribution of Fukushima accident-derived radiocesium in soil under different land-use conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan, triggered by a big earthquake and the resulting tsunami on 11 March 2011, caused a substantial release of radiocesium (137Cs and 134Cs) and a subsequent contamination of soils in a range of terrestrial ecosystems. Identifying factors and processes affecting radiocesium retention in these soils is essential to predict how the deposited radiocesium will migrate through the soil profile and to other biological components. We investigated vertical distributions of radiocesium and physicochemical properties in soils (to 20 cm depth) at 15 locations under different land-use types (croplands, grasslands, and forests) within a 2 km × 2 km mesh area in Fukushima city. The total 137Cs inventory deposited onto and into soil was similar (58.4 ± 9.6 kBq m?2) between the three different land-use types. However, aboveground litter layer at the forest sites and herbaceous vegetation at the non-forested sites contributed differently to the total 137Cs inventory. At the forest sites, 50–91% of the total inventory was observed in the litter layer. The aboveground vegetation contribution was in contrast smaller (137Cs in mineral soil layers; 137Cs penetrated deeper in the forest soil profiles than in the non-forested soil profiles. We quantified 1 soil profiles. We quantified 137Cs retention at surface soil layers, and showed that higher 137Cs retention can be explained in part by larger amounts of silt- and clay-sized particles in the layers. More importantly, the 137Cs retention highly and negatively correlated with soil organic carbon content divided by clay content across all land-use types. The results suggest that organic matter inhibits strong adsorption of 137Cs on clay minerals in surface soil layers, and as a result affects the vertical distribution and thus the mobility of 137Cs in soil, particularly in the forest ecosystems. - Highlights: ? Vertical distribution of radiocesium was investigated for 15 soils. ? Forest litter layer held 50–91% of the total 137Cs inventory. ? 137Cs penetrated deeper in forest soils than in cropland and grassland soils. ? Stronger 137Cs retention was observed in soils rich in finer-sized particles. ? 137Cs retention was lower in soils rich in organic carbon relative to clay content.

187

Assessment of the Effects of Rehabilitation After Cerebrovascular Accident in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension as Risk Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of rehabilitation, to determine the prevalence of major risk factors in cerebrovascular accident and their consequences, as well as to propose measures and procedures that will affect the better rehabilitation. Methods: The survey analyzed: age, sex, duration of rehabilitation, activities in daily life through the Barthel index at admission and at discharge, presence of risk factors HTA and DM. The study included a total of 116 patients, the majority of patients are older than 61 years. We had 49% of male patients and 51% of female patients and they spent 31-40 days at the rehabilitation. Results: The most common risk factor is HTA (83%) and diabetes (33%). Most of the patients at admission had a BI from 0 to 4 (32.7%), and at discharge BI in the range 17-20 (36.2%). Statistical analysis shows that there is a statistically significant correlation between the BI at admission, BI at discharge and risk factors of HTA and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: the rehabilitation results in most patients is good results of rehabilitation. The most important risk factors in patients are HTA, DM and directly affect on results of rehabilitation. For the better results we should have energetic fight against risk factors for HTA and DM through primary and secondary prevention and patient education about early detection and treatment of these risk factors. PMID:24937938

Tanovic, Edina; Selimovic, Senad; Tanovic, Haris

2014-01-01

188

Accidents - Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

189

Determination of transfer factors and effective half-times in several domestic animals for cesium 137 from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the wake of the Chernobyl accident contaminated fodder-hey and grass has been fed to cows, bulls, calves, lambs and swine (fed with whey). The problem was to decide if or not the animals could be slaughtered with confidence that their meat had contaminations below the legal limits. On the one hand, transfer factors fodder-to-meat and fodder-to-milk as well as the efficiency of radioactivity reducing additives had to be determined. On the other hand the correlation of live-animals measurements with the meat contamination was investigated. The correlation was satisfactory except with swine. The high-resolution Ge detectors have strong advantages as compared to Na detectors, though too expensive for general applications in slaughter-houses. 10 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs. (qui)

190

Investigation on the sodium leak accident of Monju. Sodium leak test simulating the Monju leak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium fire experiments were carried out two times using the Sodium Fire Test Rig (SOFT-1) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp (PNC) as a part of works to research the cause of the accident in secondary main cooling system of Monju. The purposes of these experiments are to confirm the leak rate and leakage form of sodium from damaged thermometer, to confirm the damage to the piping insulating structure around the thermometer and to the flexible tube, and to compare the temperature history of the signal from the thermometer between the experiments and Monju. In the experiments 56(±2)g/sec was obtained as the leak rate under the condition of ensuring the leakage pass in the simulated thermometer. This leak rate was corrected to 53g/sec to take account of manufacturing error of the thermometer between the experiment and Monju. In calculation of this leak rate, it is assumed that the annulus size of thermometer well tip is a nominal distance and pressure value to the leakage sodium is 1.65kg/cm2G, which was the maximum one during the leakage of Monju. The behavior of signal from the simulated thermometer was very similar to that of the damaged thermometer in Monju and it was confirmed this temperature history could be sufficiently explained by moving of the temperature contact position of the thermocouple following the runoff of leakage sodium. (J.P.N.)

191

Investigation on the sodium leak accident of Monju. Sodium leak test simulating the Monju leak  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium fire experiments were carried out two times using the Sodium Fire Test Rig (SOFT-1) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp (PNC) as a part of works to research the cause of the accident in secondary main cooling system of Monju. The purposes of these experiments are to confirm the leak rate and leakage form of sodium from damaged thermometer, to confirm the damage to the piping insulating structure around the thermometer and to the flexible tube, and to compare the temperature history of the signal from the thermometer between the experiments and Monju. In the experiments 56({+-}2)g/sec was obtained as the leak rate under the condition of ensuring the leakage pass in the simulated thermometer. This leak rate was corrected to 53g/sec to take account of manufacturing error of the thermometer between the experiment and Monju. In calculation of this leak rate, it is assumed that the annulus size of thermometer well tip is a nominal distance and pressure value to the leakage sodium is 1.65kg/cm{sup 2}G, which was the maximum one during the leakage of Monju. The behavior of signal from the simulated thermometer was very similar to that of the damaged thermometer in Monju and it was confirmed this temperature history could be sufficiently explained by moving of the temperature contact position of the thermocouple following the runoff of leakage sodium. (J.P.N.)

Shimoyama, Kazuhito; Nishimura, Masahiro; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Usami, Masayuki

1996-11-01

192

Investigation of material relocation phenomena during severe accidents in fast breeder reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SIMBATH out-of-pile experiments simulate severe accidents in fast breeder reactors. In the tests the nulcear energy released is substituted by the exothermal energy of a thermite reaction. Single pin and small bundle experiments as well as freezing tests are performed. Material ejected from the fuel rod simulators in an early phase is finely dispersed. A portion penetrates the upper breeding zone without freezing. The bulk of molten material ejected afterwards leads to blockages in the colder zones of the bundle. Under these conditions bottled-up situations may occur in the SIMBATH experiments. Residual sodium may become entrapped. The current version of the computer code CALIPSO developed to interpret these experiments is verified by calculation of two single pin experiments. The computations show that the relocation mechanisms in the SIMBATH experiments are mainly controlled by expansion of noncondensible gases originally existing inside the pins. The contribution from fuel vapour pressure or from sodium evaporation due to fuel-coolant-interaction is of less importance during the first 100 ms after fuel pin failure. (orig.)

193

El Cuerpo Militar de Sanidad en la Investigación de Accidentes Aéreos / The role of Military Health Service in Aircraft Accident Investigation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La investigación de un accidente o incidente aéreo puede ser simple o enormemente compleja. El proceso de investigación puede conducir a la elaboración de un informe directo y conciso o lo más frecuente, significa un largo camino de recopilación, análisis, estudio y finalmente la elaboración de posi [...] bles conclusiones. En este proceso, los aspectos médicos, psicológicos, ambientales, psicosociales o ergonómicos englobados en el término genérico de factores humanos cobran una especial relevancia, atribuyéndose hasta un 60-80% de causas directas o coadyuvantes al mismo. En este trabajo se revisan los antecedentes jurídicos y base legal en la que se apoya la Comisión para la investigación técnica de accidentes de aeronaves militares (CITAAM), así como sus atribuciones, organización y composición, sus funciones generales y más concretamente las encomendadas al vocal médico de la misma. Desde su creación en 1994, la experiencia acumulada ha sido enorme, haciéndose mención de algunos datos de interés estadístico pero señalando también la labor de formación realizada y su proyección nacional e internacional, sobre todo en el marco de la OTAN. Abstract in english Aircraft Accident Investigation means a complex task in order to identify the major causes which lead to the mishap. Investigation process end in a technical report, which encloses a large amount of information and data gathering documentation, to be studied, analyzed and lines of inquiry establishe [...] d to finally produce the appropriate conclusions. Medical, psychological, environmental, psychosocial and ergonomic faces of the investigation are framed in the so called human factors, which actually leads to 60-80% of the causal factors of accidents. In this report we have reviewed the legal basis in which the CITAAM is supported, competencies, organization and composition, general functions and specifically responsibilities of the medical representative in the board. Since the establishment of the CITAAM in 1994 the experience accumulated has been very wide-ranged and we show some statistical data and work produced in education and instruction, as well as the national and international relationships mostly in the NATO frame.

F., Rios Tejada; B., Puente Espada.

2012-12-01

194

Investigation of hydrogen and fission product issues for containment safety assessment under severe accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The OECD-THAI (Thermal hydraulics, Hydrogen, Aerosols, and Iodine) project was commenced on 1st of January 2007 for duration of three years under the auspices of nine OECD countries. The project focuses on resolving outstanding issues concerning the hydrogen and fission products behaviour in case of a severe nuclear reactor accident. Experiments are performed in the enhanced-scale test facility THAI operated by Becker Technologies GmbH under the sponsorship of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology. The OECD-THAI experimental program contemplates a total of three test series and three additional independent tests, namely; He/H2 Material scaling (HM) tests, Hydrogen Deflagration (HD) tests, hydrogen Recombiner (HR) tests, one test on the interaction of metal iodides with Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner (PAR), one PAR poisoning test, and one aerosol material wash-down scoping test. The complete experimental program consists of more than 60 test runs performed in THAI test facility. The first three test series of the experimental program have been completed so far. In the frame of the project, experimental data have also been subjected to validation and further improvement of CFD and lumped parameter codes for containment safety analyses. The experimental data from HM test series have been analysed successfully with thermal-hydraulic system codes and 3D CFD codes. The results of this exercise has confirmed and extended the findings from the Iirmed and extended the findings from the International Standard Problem ISP-47. Test results from HD test series have also been provided for the recently launched International Standard Problem number 49 (ISP-49) on hydrogen deflagration. (author)

195

A limited investigation of the sensitivity of the containment source term to certain primary circuit parameters under PWR severe accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitivity of the source term to the containment for a limited number of primary circuit parameters and phenomena has been investigated for three hypothetical PWR severe accident sequences. These sequences are: a large hot leg break with failure of electric power to engineered safety features (AB hot leg); a small cold leg break with failure of pumped ECCS (S2D) and a transient initiated sequence with failure of secondary system relief valves, power conversion and auxiliary feedwater systems and loss of on and off-site power for at least 3 hours (TMLB'). All of these are substantially beyond the design basis. The investigation is a direct continuation of the PWR Severe Accident Containment Study. Results are discussed in terms of the effect of a given parameter or phenomenon on the retention in the primary circuit, the physical form of the source to the containment and finally the parameters describing the aerosol size distribution entering the containment. For an AB hot leg large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) sequence the retention within the primary circuit is generally small and largely insensitive to most of the parameters considered. However, the particle size distribution of released aerosol material is sensitive to many of the parameters studied, and variations greater than a factor of 3 are predicted. The circuit residence time for a S2D small break LOCA sequence is higher than for a large break, and this results in increased retention. The size distribution and quantity of aerosols reaching the containment show strong sensitivities to many of the parameters studied. During a transient-initiated TLMB' sequence the residence times within the primary circuit are even longer than for the small break LOCA sequence. Calculations predict almost complete retention of the aerosol species and very high retention of volatile fission products. The retention of fission products is dominated by the rise in circuit temperatures following core slump, and this results in high vapour fractions being released into the containment. Fission product vapour fractions have been overlooked in containment behaviour calculations and may give rise to aerosol nucleation at the circuit breach. This could result in a bi-modal size distribution that would require careful assessment. The timing, and physical characteristics of the aerosol and fission product sources to the containment are sensitive to most of the parameters studied. (author)

196

Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

Naser Azad

2013-03-01

197

Accidents, disasters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analyzes causes of 3 accidents that occurred in Polish coal mines. A fire caused by spontaneous combustion of coal occurred in the Porabka-Klimontow mine in Sosnowiec on 22 April 1992 in an abandoned working in a coal seam prone to spontaneous combustion, 17.5 m thick, with a dip angle of 18 degrees, and mined by slicing. Investigation showed that the fire was situated in an inclined roadway that should have been filled by stowing; detection of fire gases (carbon monoxide) in the air was inefficient and inaccurate. Mine rescue and fire fighting by a system of ventilation barriers and hydraulic stowing is discussed. A fatal accident to a young miner occurred on May 12, 1992 in an inclined roadway in the Rymer mine during repair of the Skat chain conveyor. The accident was caused by failure on the part of workers and management to adhere to safety regulations: miners in training should not have been working at a site with a considerable safety hazard. Another fatal accident occurred on 22 May 1992 in the Jowisz mine in Wojtkowice during transport of the Glinik powered support. Failure of the transport system was caused by failures of individual elements of the system.

Odrobina, M.

1992-01-01

198

An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.

Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

2014-05-01

199

Investigation of Countercurrent Helium-Air Flows in Air-ingress Accidents for VHTRs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this research is to develop an extensive experimental database for the air- ingress phenomenon for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This research is intended to be a separate-effects experimental study. However, the project team will perform a careful scaling analysis prior to designing a scaled-down test facility in order to closely tie this research with the real application. As a reference design in this study, the team will use the 600 MWth gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) developed by General Atomic. In the test matrix of the experiments, researchers will vary the temperature and pressure of the helium— along with break size, location, shape, and orientation—to simulate deferent scenarios and to identify potential mitigation strategies. Under support of the Department of Energy, a high-temperature helium test facility has been designed and is currently being constructed at Ohio State University, primarily for high- temperature compact heat exchanger testing for the VHTR program. Once the facility is in operation (expected April 2009), this study will utilize high-temperature helium up to 900°C and 3 MPa for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) depressurization and air-ingress experiments. The project team will first conduct a scaling study and then design an air-ingress test facility. The major parameter to be measured in the experiments is oxygen (or nitrogen) concentration history at various locations following a LOCA scenario. The team will use two measurement techniques: 1) oxygen (or similar type) sensors employed in the flow field, which will introduce some undesirable intrusiveness, disturbing the flow, and 2) a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging technique, which has no physical intrusiveness to the flow but requires a transparent window or test section that the laser beam can penetrate. The team will construct two test facilities, one for high-temperature helium tests with local sensors and the other for low- temperature helium tests with the PLIF technique. The results from the two instruments will provide a means to cross-calibrate the measurement techniques.

Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Oh, Chang

2013-10-03

200

Nuclear criticality accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Criticality occurs when a sufficient quantity of fissionable material is accumulated, and it results in the liberation of nuclear energy. All process accidents have involved plutonium or highly enriched uranium, as have most of the critical experiment accidents. Slightly enriched uranium systems require much larger quantities of material to achieve criticality. An appreciation of criticality accidents should be based on an understanding of factors that influence criticality, which are discussed in this article. PMID:1962246

Smith, D R

1991-01-01

201

Effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway : A long-term investigation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper reports the findings of two studies made eleven years apart in Norway (0035 and 0025) to evaluate effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway. The first study covered the period from 1991 to 2000, the second study covered the period from 2002 to 2009. In both these periods, large changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were found in the cities that were included in the study. There was, in most cities, a tendency for the use of studded tyres to go down. Effects of these changes on injury accidents were evaluated by means of negative binomial regression models, using city and day as the unit of analysis, and including more than twenty explanatory variables in order to control for confounding factors. The effects of changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were well described by an accident modification function (dose–response curve), relating the size of changes in the number of accident to the size of the change in the use of studded tyres. Accidents during the season when the use of studded tyres is permitted were found to increase by about 5 percent if the use of studded tyres was reduced by 25 percentage points (e.g. from 50 to 25 percent) and to decline by about 2 percent when the use of studded tyres increased by 20 percentage points.

Elvik, Rune; FridstrØm, Lasse

2013-01-01

202

Application of a Software tool for Evaluating Human Factors in Accident Sequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) includes the actions of the operator like elements in the set of the considered protection performances during accident sequences. Nevertheless, its impact throughout a sequence is not analyzed in a dynamic way. In this sense, it is convenient to make more detailed studies about its importance in the dynamics of the sequences, letting make studies of sensitivity respect to the human reliability and the response times. For this reason, the CSN is involved in several activities oriented to develop a new safety analysis methodology, the Integrated Safety Assessment (ISA), which must be able to incorporate operator actions in conventional thermo-hydraulic (TH) simulations. One of them is the collaboration project between CSN, HRP and the DSE-UPM that started in 2003. In the framework of this project, a software tool has been developed to incorporate operator actions in TH simulations. As a part of the ISA, this tool permits to quantify human error probabilities (HEP) and to evaluate its impact in the final state of the plant. Independently, it can be used for evaluating the impact of the execution by operators of procedures and guidelines in the final state of the plant and the evaluation of the allowable response times for the manual actions of the operator. The results obtained in the first pilot case are included in this paper. (authors)

203

Theoretical investigations of the meltoff and resolidification process of fuel claddings during accidents in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During loss-of-coolant-flow accidents in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors with failure to scram the fuel claddings will melt after boiling and evaporation of the coolant. The CMOT model presented here describes the subsequent process of relocation and resolidification of the molten claddings. The basic thermohydrodynamics equations of the two-phase flow of cladding material and sodium vapor are solved numerically by differential approximations in a Eulerian reference net. The results calculated by the model improved the insight into the dynamics of the cladding relocation process. Here are the main results: - Shortly after the onset of cladding relocation large waves of molten cladding material are generated. The motion of these waves contributes considerably to the material transport. - The dynamics of cladding relocation exhibits strong local incoherences. - The formation of cladding blockages observed at the ends of the fuel region is confirmed by the calculations. - In case of incoherent cladding meltoff less cladding material is transported upwards. - Cladding relocation strongly depends on the axial pressure drop and the underlying friction factor correlations. Recalculation of the R5 loss-of-coolant-flow experiment performed in the U.S. TREAT test reactor is in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig./HP) 891 HP

204

Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity score, 3-dimensional reconstructions of the PMCT, and an injury pattern analysis. We describe how, on basis ofthese data, we reached a conclusion about which of the two victims was the most likely to have been in control of the airplane at the time of accident. Furthermore, we argue that all victims of fatal airplane crashes should be subject to forensic autopsy, including PMCT and forensic chemical analysis. The continuous accumulation of knowledge about injury patterns from “simple” accidents is the foundation for the correct analysis of “difficult” accidents.

HØyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov

2012-01-01

205

Accident Prevention in the Cowshed*  

Science.gov (United States)

Work accidents were studied at two agricultural settlements in the Haifa area. Most of the accidents were caused by farm animals, particularly by cattle, a fact which is in agreement with a general statistical survey conducted by the Department for Occupational Health of the General Federation of Labour in Israel. However, in the present investigation it was found that the accident rate in cowsheds was more than 10 times higher among the members of a co-operative smallholders' village (Moshav Ovdim) than it was at a collective settlement (Moshav Shetufi) of the same numerical size. Searching for the basic factors involved, it was discovered that the main reason for this striking difference in accident frequency was the faulty design of the small cowshed at the individual farms of the co-operative settlement, which, lacking adequate protective measures, exposes the farmer to close contact with the animals throughout almost all stages of dealing with them. It is concluded that accidents from handling cattle can be prevented by adhering strictly to the principle of eliminating direct contact between man and animals in the construction of the cowshed and its annexes. Images PMID:5948271

Mainzer, W.

1966-01-01

206

Medical Response, Search and Recovery during the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during atmospheric re-entry on mission STS-107. After an event such as this, with high visibility and international interest, the operational challenge of recovering the crewmembers could not be underestimated. The Space Shuttle Program is organized to respond to a vehicle mishap using the resources of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT). On the afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale Air Force Base (AFB), Louisiana. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin, Texas Disaster Field Office (DFO). The Lufkin DFO served as the primary area for all operations, including staging assets and deploying field teams for search, recovery and security of crewmember remains. More than 2,000 people from numerous organizations were involved with the recovery of the crew. All seven crewmembers of STS-107 were recovered and ceremonial last rights were administered. Astronaut and military personnel escorted the crew with honor to the MIT at Barksdale AFB, Louisiana. At Barksdale AFB a temporary morgue was established in an aircraft hangar and operated for approximately two weeks during which time coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) medical personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. Families of crewmembers and NASA management were notified daily of the current findings. Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team developed and executed a short-term plan to identify and relocate the crew with a military honor guard and protocol to the medical examiner at the Armed Forces Port Mortuary, Dover AFB, Delaware. After operations at Barksdale AFB were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term plan was developed and implemented which involved the Air Force Mortuary Affairs at Randolph AFB, Texas. This plan was coordinated with search teams in the field, Barksdale AFB Mortuary Affairs, KSC security, AFIP, and the crew surgeons at JSC.

Stepaniak, Philip C.

2010-01-01

207

The Teenage Nonviolence Test: A Factor Analytic Investigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the use of nonviolent strategies by young adults in the United States when faced with conflict. To date, there has been little research on this topic anywhere. The factorial structure of the Teenage Nonviolence Test (TNT, an instrument designed to elicit information on teenagers’ stated tendencies toward nonviolence, was examined. Two hundred and twenty-eight college students from the United States participated in the project. A series of principle components factor analyses with varimax rotation were performed on TNT item responses. A three-factor solution comprised of 37 of the original 55-items best fit the data. Factor 1 seemed to represent acting violently toward others and was labeled, “Physical and Psychological Violence.” Factor 2 tapped an empathic response toward persons in need and was named, “Empathy.” The final factor was labeled “Satyagraha,” as this factor appeared to assess the discovery of truth. Implications for research and social justice interventions are presented.

Lawrence H. GERSTEIN

2014-03-01

208

Investigation of CET Effect as a SAMG Entry Condition under Severe Accidents of OPR1000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If the reactor vessel failure (RPV) failure time is delayed, the probability of achieving this objective of management becomes higher. Also, that whether the entry to SAMG is too early or too late can be checked in the aspect of how much action time the operator can secure. For these reasons, Park et al. studied the effect of SAMG entry condition on operator action time for prevention of RPV failure in the OPR1000 using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 computer code in detail. In this study, various SAMG entry conditions from the points of view of delaying RPV failure time and available operator's action time were investigated for OPR1000 using level 2 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) code MELCOR. From the point of view of delaying RPV failure time, SAMG entry condition when CET is 923K is the best for SBLOCA without SI and TLOFW among selected CET conditions. However, for SBO, the best result follows when the SAMG entry condition CET is 838K. For available operator's action time's view, there was no significant difference between selected SAMG entry conditions. For these reasons, in future study, the standards of CET selection as SAMG entry conditions and the relationship between CET and quantity of oxidation heat should be researched. Also, more SAMG entry conditions should be tested which is far more different from selected conditions, such as EDF PWR standard, CET = 1100 .deg. C

209

Experimental investigation of material chemical effects on emergency core cooling pump suction filter performance after loss of coolant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Integral tests of head loss through an emergency core cooling filter screen are conducted, simulating reactor building environmental conditions for 30 days after a loss of coolant accident. A test rig with five individual loops each of whose chamber is established to test chemical product formation and measure the head loss through a sample filter. The screen area at each chamber and the amounts of reactor building materials are scaled down according to specific plant condition. A series of tests have been performed to investigate the effects of calcium-silicate, reactor building spray, existence of calcium-silicate with tri-sodium phosphate (TSP), and composition of materials. The results showed that head loss across the chemical bed with even a small amount of calcium-silicate insulation instantaneously increased as soon as TSP was added to the test solution. Also, the head loss across the filter screen is strongly affected by spray duration and the head loss increase is rapid at the early stage, because of high dissolution and precipitation of aluminum and zinc. After passivation of aluminum and zinc by corrosion, the head loss increase is much slowed down and is mainly induced by materials such as calcium, silicon, and magnesium leached from NUKONTM and concrete. Furthermore, it is newly found that the spay buffer agent, tri-sodium phosphate, to form protective coating on the aluminum surface and reduce aluminum leaching is not effective for a large amo leaching is not effective for a large amount of aluminum and a long spray.

210

Investigation regarding the long-term security developments in the Swedish nuclear power and the response to the accident at Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Swedish nuclear plants need to continue to work on analysis and actions in the plants, partly to meet the demands of legislation and agreed action plans, and partly due to additional security requirements on account of experiences from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, stress tests, security investigations and investigations relating to physical protection. It is also essential to continue with safety improvements to gradually increase margins against unforeseen events in aging plants during long-term operation

211

Investigating Effective Factors on Iran’s Pistachio Exportation  

OpenAIRE

The problem of Iran’s economic is depending on oil’s incomes, therefore to increase non oil exportation likeagricultural products is the main goal of country’s economic development program. The goal of this paper is to investigate effective factors in pistachio exportation and mentioned goal will be consider by variable factors such as export’s principle, aflatoxin poison, and packaging. The type of this paper is descriptive–cognition and the related information for this scope have ...

Seyed fathollah Amiri Aghdaie

2009-01-01

212

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty  

OpenAIRE

Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our s...

Naser Azad; Masoud Hassanabadi

2013-01-01

213

Factors determining FDI to Nigeria: an empirical investigation  

OpenAIRE

This study empirically investigates the determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) to Nigeria during 1970-2006. This study suggests that the endowment of natural resources, trade intensity, macroeconomic risk factors like inflation and exchange rates are significant determinants of FDI flow to Nigeria. The findings also suggest that in long run market size is not the significant factor for attracting FDI to Nigeria, it contradicts the existing literature. Our results indicate that FDI fl...

Dinda, Soumyananda

2008-01-01

214

An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity  

OpenAIRE

Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to rank 17 important facto...

Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

2014-01-01

215

Factors Associated with Fatal Occupational Accidents among Mexican Workers: A National Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To identify the factors associated with fatal occupational injuries in Mexico in 2012 among workers affiliated with the Mexican Social Security Institute. Methods Analysis of secondary data using information from the National Occupational Risk Information System, with the consequence of the occupational injury (fatal versus non-fatal) as the response variable. The analysis included 406,222 non-fatal and 1,140 fatal injuries from 2012. The factors associated with the lethality of the injury were identified using a logistic regression model with the Firth approach. Results Being male (OR=5.86; CI95%: 4.22-8.14), age (OR=1.04; CI95%: 1.03-1.06), employed in the position for 1 to 10 years (versus less than 1 year) (OR=1.37; CI95%: 1.15-1.63), working as a facilities or machine operator or assembler (OR: 3.28; CI95%: 2.12- 5.07) and being a worker without qualifications (OR=1.96; CI95%: 1.18-3.24) (versus an office worker) were associated with fatality in the event of an injury. Additionally, companies classified as maximum risk (OR=1.90; CI 95%: 1.38-2.62), workplace conditions (OR=7.15; CI95%: 3.63-14.10) and factors related to the work environment (OR=9.18; CI95%:4.36-19.33) were identified as risk factors for fatality in the event of an occupational injury. Conclusions Fatality in the event of an occupational injury is associated with factors related to sociodemographics (age, sex and occupation), the work environment and workplace conditions. Worker protection policies should be created for groups with a higher risk of fatal occupational injuries in Mexico. PMID:25790063

Gonzalez-Delgado, Mery; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Robles, Eduardo; Borja, Víctor H.; Aguilar, Miriam

2015-01-01

216

Selection of the important performance influencing factors for the assessment of human error under accident management situations in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduces the process and final results of selection of the important Performance Influencing Factors (PIFs) under emergency operation and accident management situations in nuclear power plants for use in the assessment of human errors. We collected two types of PIF taxonomies, one is the full set PIF list mainly developed for human error analysis, and the other is the PIFs for human reliability analysis (HRA) in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). 5 PIF taxonomies among the full set PIF list and 10 PIF taxonomies among HRA methodologies (CREAM, SLIM, INTENT, were collected in this research. By reviewing and analyzing PIFs selected for HRA methodologies, the criterion could be established for the selection of appropriate PIFs under emergency operation and accident management situations. Based on this selection criteria, a new PIF taxonomy was proposed for the assessment of human error under emergency operation and accident management situations in nuclear power plants

217

The influence of cognitive factors on reported in-hospital fall accidents among elderly patients  

OpenAIRE

Background: In-hospital falls among elderly represent a major problem for both the patient and the hospital. It can lead to serious physical injuries requiring surgery, prolonged rehabilitation, psychological trauma, fear of new falls, dependency in daily activities, and even death. In-hospital falls are one of the most common adverse events reported by hospitals both internationally and nationally. One of the most prominent risk factors for falls is cognitive impairment. The incidence of fal...

Uleberg, Jorunn Kvalø

2013-01-01

218

Presence equation : An investigation into cognitive factors underlying presence  

OpenAIRE

The relationship between presence and cognitive factors such as absorption, creative imagination, empathy, and willingness to experience presence was investigated. Presence was defined, operationalized, and measured using a questionnaire that we devised. Absorption and creative imagination were measured using questionnaires developed in the area of hypnosis, and empathy was assessed through an interpersonal reactivity index. Results indicated significant correlations between presence and each...

Sas, Corina; O Hare, G. M. P.

2003-01-01

219

Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. The study also provides several suggestions for marketers seeking to use viral marketing to position brands or to change a brand’s image, to encourage new product trials and to increase product uptake rates. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use product on virtual marketing. In addition, the study considers internal factors such as inclusion (the need to be part of a group, the need to be different and affection on viral marketing. The survey has been accomplished among 140 Iranian people, who were familiar with virtual marketing and they are selected, randomly. Using Pearson correlation as well as regression analysis, the study provides some evidences that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between some internal/external factors and virtual marketing.

Nina Ghane

2014-04-01

220

Investigating knowledge management critical success factors in carpet industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical study to learn more about challenges in carpet industry using factor analysis. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of 51 questions in Likert scale and distribute it among experts in Carpet industry. We have analyzed the data using factor analysis and deleted 10 most redundant questions. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.88 for the remaining questions, which is well above the minimum desirable limit. We have also managed to remove six more questions using principal axis factoring leaving 8 basic components including 35 different questions. The proposed study of this paper has categorized eight factors including specialized relationships, knowledge coordinator, knowledge tool, knowledge organization, knowledge processes, knowledge chain, knowledge hardware and Knowledge feasibility study. Investigating details of the results of each eight items could help us build better strategies to help this industry grow faster and more reliable in today's business world.

Mehdi Ansari

2012-09-01

221

Evaluation of the population dose in relation to social and geographical factors after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For decision-making on settlement level, it is necessary to develop a reliable model for dose estimates which would take account of the whole range of local factors influencing the dose and enable the most reliable estimates based on only limited radiological data. For this aim a general concept of internal dose assessment has been designed. To implement this concept the authors suggested the cluster regression model. A comparison of different type of dose assessment models is demonstrated for a representative sample of settlements in the Gomel region. This work is the result of a three-year cooperation between the Scientific Research Institute for Radiation Medicine, Gomel Branch, Belarus, and the Research Centre Juelich, Germany. This cooperation was supported by the Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology. (orig.)

222

Internal Flow Thermal/Fluid Modeling of STS-107 Port Wing in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the aero-thermodynamics team supporting the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAB), the Marshall Space Flight Center was asked to perform engineering analyses of internal flows in the port wing. The aero-thermodynamics team was split into internal flow and external flow teams with the support being divided between shorter timeframe engineering methods and more complex computational fluid dynamics. In order to gain a rough order of magnitude type of knowledge of the internal flow in the port wing for various breach locations and sizes (as theorized by the CAB to have caused the Columbia re-entry failure), a bulk venting model was required to input boundary flow rates and pressures to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This paper summarizes the modeling that was done by MSFC in Thermal Desktop. A venting model of the entire Orbiter was constructed in FloCAD based on Rockwell International s flight substantiation analyses and the STS-107 reentry trajectory. Chemical equilibrium air thermodynamic properties were generated for SINDA/FLUINT s fluid property routines from a code provided by Langley Research Center. In parallel, a simplified thermal mathematical model of the port wing, including the Thermal Protection System (TPS), was based on more detailed Shuttle re-entry modeling previously done by the Dryden Flight Research Center. Once the venting model was coupled with the thermal model of the wing structure with chemical equilibrium air properties, various breach scenarios were assessed in support of the aero-thermodynamics team. The construction of the coupled model and results are presented herein.

Sharp, John R.; Kittredge, Ken; Schunk, Richard G.

2003-01-01

223

Molecular-genetic damages of children immune system under influence of Chernobyl accident factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Longterm study of children immunity damage under low doses radiation exposure revealed dynamic immunoregulatory mechanisms impairment which resulted in hyper-IgE-emia syndrome, cellular immunity depression and allergy status development. Investigation of DNA damage and immune cells genome stability by new 'fast micromethod' showed a reliable increase of DNA damage in children from contaminated with Cs-137 areas. There was strong correlation between DNA breaks frequency and soil contamination level, age of children (term of exposure) and serum IgE concentration. The method may be useful for diagnostics and monitoring of hyper-IgE-emia syndrome (authors)

224

Factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el anciano en San Juan y Martínez / Socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly. San Juan y Martinez municipality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el estudio de la problemática del anciano constituye un elemento de primordial importancia y aparece como un factor decisivo en las investigaciones médicas. Esto se debe al incremento de la población mayor de 65 años, calculada en más de 290 millones de personas con un aumento crecient [...] e en las últimas décadas. Objetivo: identificar los factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el anciano en el municipio San Juan y Martínez durante el año 2011. Material y método: se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal, el universo estuvo constituido por 615 ancianos que sufrieron algún tipo de accidentes registrados en hojas de cargo y la muestra de 300 ancianos, seleccionados por el método aleatorio estratificado. Se utilizaron como métodos la encuesta y la observación científica lo que permitió obtener una información variada y directa. Resultados: se obtuvo un predominio del sexo masculino, con edades comprendidas entre 71 y 75 años, las enfermedades asociadas que predominaron en el hombre fueron las del sistema osteomioarticular y en las mujeres la hipertensión arterial. La alteración intrínseca más frecuente fue la ingestión de medicamentos con un 90.2 % y el factor extrínseco los desniveles del piso con el 70.3 %. Conclusiones: entre los factores socio-epidemiológicos asociados a los accidentes en el an ciano predominan las enfermedades del sistema osteomioarticular, así como la ingestión de medicamentos y las barreras arquitectónicas (desniveles del piso). Abstract in english Introduction: the study of the problem of the elderly constitutes an essential element and it appears as a crucial factor in medical investigations, because of the increase of population older than 65 years old, calculated in more than 290 millions of people which is on the increase during the last [...] decades. Objective: to identify the socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly in San Juan y Martinez municipality during 2011. Material and method: a descriptive and cross-sectional research was carried out which target group included 615 old people having different kinds of accidents recorded on worksheets; the sample was comprised of 300 old people chosen by means of a stratified at random method. Surveys and scientific observation were the methods used collecting varied and direct information. Results: male sex prevailed, 71-75 years old; the prevailing associated diseases in men were those of the osteomyoarticular system and hypertension in women. The ingestion of medications was the most frequent intrinsic alteration (90.2%) and difference in floor levels prevailed as extrinsic factor (70.3%). Conclusions: among the socio-epidemiological factors associated with different kinds of accidents in the elderly were osteomyoarticular system disorders, ingestions of medications and architectural barriers (difference in floor levels).

Olga Lidia, Benítez Pozo; Bertha Rita, Castillo Edua; Marielvis, Calero Benítez; Ileana Rosa, Hernández Pérez; José Jesús, Arencibia Sánchez.

2013-04-01

225

Accidents with sulfuric acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

Rajkovi? Miloš B.

2006-01-01

226

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our study, Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.815 and there are eight influencing factors including flexibility in offering various services, building good relationship with customers, technology and processes, customers’ experiences, brand identity in continuous advertisement, organization size, customer perception on reputation of brand and customers’ tendency to build better brand loyalty. In our survey, flexibility in offering various services received the highest rank followed by building good relationship with customers.

Naser Azad

2013-07-01

227

On the bad reputation of Fukushima's nuclear accident. A risk-economic approach to distance and price factors of processed food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2011, a big earthquake hit Japan and tsunami and nuclear power plant accident followed. Various discussions have been made on economical, ecological and psychological impacts of this disaster. Its bad reputation effect has not been much discussed, however. This paper deals with the relationship between the following two factors. They are: the distance from the nuclear power plant to the production place and the price of seemingly homogeneous processed food. (author)

228

Home accidents in older people: role of primary health care team.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES--To determine the incidence and nature of unreported and reported home accidents in older people and to investigate associated environmental factors. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire requesting information on home accidents in the preceding month. SETTING--Inner London general practice. SUBJECTS--All registered patients aged over 65 years (n = 1662), of whom 120 were inappropriately registered and 1293 responded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Circumstances and consequences of accidents in the ...

Graham, H. J.; Firth, J.

1992-01-01

229

Logistic Regression Approach in Road Defects Impact on Accident Severity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Safety and accident issues are considered as an important problem in the world. Road transportation issues would have a more conspicuous countenance in the country of Iran in which, over 94 percent of all transportations take place through roads. The roads’ contribution to the traffic accidents at mean is 24 percent however this value is 36 percent in Iran. Road traffic crashes exert a huge burden on Iran's economy and health care services. Many parameters, safety signs and equipment, Vertical and horizontal arc combination along the road and all the effective factors in decreasing the accidents, are considered when determining the safety level of the roads. Road defect is being considered as one of the essential factors causing accidents to happen.  This article investigates the severity factor of the accident according to the vehicle movability situation after the accident. The results of this research has shown that most  important factors reducing the safety on the suburban roads  in Iran is “insufficient road width” pertaining to frequency  and “Level difference between road & shoulder” pertaining  to accident severity.

Mohadeseh Khalili

2013-05-01

230

Reactor accidents. 2nd ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report offers an overview of the discussion on the source term of reactor accidents. The magnitude of the source term in accident scenarios is the determining factor for the consequences. Several Dutch publications are summarized as well as American reports relevant to the Netherlands. An accident scenario is defined representative for a severe reactor accident. Consequences to public health as well as to long-term soil contamination are calculated. It is pointed out how safety standards with respect to site selection has been changed in comparison to the FRG and the US. The question of the liability for reactor accidents is also discussed. (G.J.P.)

231

The EPR investigation of tooth enamel for measurements of tooth enamel for measurements of absorbed gamma doses of people irradiated in Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EPR spectra of the tooth enamel of Chernobyl 'liquidators' were investigated. A lot of people were engaged in work at the Chernobyl area after the accident in 1986. A part of them is under regular medical control at the Ukrainian security service hospital. When patients lose the teeth for some reasons the EPR spectra of radiation centers in tooth enamel caused by emergency gamma radiation were investigated. The measurement of the intensities of the EPR spectra give the real individual absorbed doses of gamma radiation which are much higher than the official values registered in the medical cards of liquidators

232

Utilization of the IAIA (Investigation and Analysis of Incidents and Accidents) method in the investigation of the P-36 platform accident; Utilizacao do metodo IAIA (Investigacao e Analise de Acidentes e Incidentes) na investigacao do acidente ocorrido na plataforma P-36  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the beginning of XXI century the Brazilian oil industry report a big accident involving that which was the biggest petroleum platform of the world. With capacity production of 180.000 barrels a day and capacity compression of 7,2 million cubic meter a day of natural gas, the off-shore platform P-36 was situated on Roncador field, in Campos basin, operating in 1360 meters of water. As consequences, eleven deaths with irreparable traumas to the families, friends and worker partners, one billion dollars in prejudices to brazilian country, environmental damages by oil leak and injuries to PETROBRAS reputation in Brazil and in the world. The method of investigation and analysis of incidents and accidents - IAIA is very wide and its philosophy contain a lot of topics, since basic concepts, investigation actions, analysis action and diagnosis by the general kind of fail. Using this method and taking advantage from the report elaborated by the commission organized by ANP - Agencia Nacional do Petroleo and DPC - Diretoria de Portos e Costas, responsible for the investigation and analysis of the accident occurred with P-36, this paper identify the direct and indirect causes of the accident, in attempt to avoid new similar situations. (author)

Teles, Marcus de Barros [ARCE - Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

2004-07-01

233

Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur  

Science.gov (United States)

The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.

2014-05-01

234

A pharmacokinetic approach to investigate the uptake of 137Cs by children after the reactor accident in Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The course of 137Cs content of children after the reactor accident of Chernobyl measured by means of a whole-body counter could be reconstructed theoretically by a pharmacokinetic model. The children of the kindergarten of the hospital of the University of Cologne accumulated during the vegetation periods 1986/87 (I) 86.9, 1987/88 (II) 114.4 and 1988/89 (III) 24.4 Bq 137Cs per kg body weight. (orig.)

235

Investigating Effective Factors on Iran’s Pistachio Exportation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of Iran’s economic is depending on oil’s incomes, therefore to increase non oil exportation likeagricultural products is the main goal of country’s economic development program. The goal of this paper is to investigate effective factors in pistachio exportation and mentioned goal will be consider by variable factors such as export’s principle, aflatoxin poison, and packaging. The type of this paper is descriptive–cognition and the related information for this scope have been collected by usinglibrary resources such as books, scientific journals, moreover for collecting necessary data in order to confirm or rejectresearch hypotheses a questionnaire designed by researcher have been used . Statistical society for this research includesthe pistachio exporter in Kerman city, the method being used has been random sampling. Results of this investigationshows that the principles of exporting, aflatoxin poison and packaging have great influence in exporting Iran’spistachio.

Seyed fathollah Amiri Aghdaie

2009-10-01

236

Lack of safety culture as a contributing factor in major radiation accidents reported in Latin and South America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last decades, the issue of improving safety culture to reduce the upward trend of radiation accidents have received considerable attention from scientific organizations. After the Chernobyl accident, IAEA invited worldwide experts in nuclear safety and formed a working group called 'International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group'. The Safety Culture concept has been developed by the Working Group and published in the Safety Series collection of IAEA in 1986 as No 75-INSAG-4 which provided a logical framework for establishing safety culture policy at individual and organisational level. The aim of this paper is to review the role of insufficient safety culture in the occurrence of 5 major radiation accidents reported in Latin and South America and the remedial action taken by competent authority and oriented towards improvement of basic principle of safety culture. (author)

237

Analysis methodology for RBMK-1500 core safety and investigations on corium coolability during a LWR severe accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis presents the work involving two broad aspects within the field of nuclear reactor analysis and safety. These are: - development of a fully independent reactor dynamics and safety analysis methodology of the RBMK-1500 core transient accidents and - experiments on the enhancement of coolability of a particulate bed or a melt pool due to heat removal through the control rod guide tubes. The first part of the thesis focuses on the development of the RBMK-1500 analysis methodology based on the CORETRAN code package. The second part investigates the issue of coolability during severe accidents in LWR type reactors: the coolability of debris bed and melt pool for in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. The first chapter briefly presents the status of developments in both the RBMK-1500 core analysis and the corium coolability areas. The second chapter describes the generation of the RBMK-1500 neutron cross section data library with the HELIOS code. The cross section library was developed for the whole range of the reactor conditions. The results of the benchmarking with the WIMS-D4 code and validation against the RBMK Critical Facility experiments is also presented here. The HELIOS generated neutron cross section data library provides a close agreement with the WIMS-D4 code results. The validation against the data from the Critical Experiments shows that the HELIOS generated neutron cross section library provides excellent predictions for the criticality, axial and radial power distribution, control rod reactivity worths and coolant reactivity effects, etc. The reactivity effects of voiding for the system, fuel assembly and additional absorber channel are underpredicted in the calculations using the HELIOS code generated neutron cross sections. The underprediction, however, is much less than that obtained when the WIMS-D4 code generated cross sections are employed. The third chapter describes the work, performed towards the accurate prediction, assessment and validation of the CHF and post-CHF heat transfer for the RBMK-1500 reactor fuel assemblies employing the VIPRE-02 code. This chapter describes the experiments, which were used for validating the CHF correlations, appropriate for the RBMK-1500 type reactors. These correlations after validation were added to the standard version of the VIPRE-02 code. The VIPRE-02 calculations were benchmarked against the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. It was found that these user-coded additional CHF correlations developed for the RBMK type reactors (Osmachkin, RRC KI and Khabenski correlations) and implemented into the code by the author, provide a good prediction of the CHF occurrence at the RBMK reactor nominal pressure range (at about 7 MPa). Transition and film boiling are also predicted well with the VIPRE-02 code for this pressure range. It was found, that for the RBMK-1500 reactor applications, EPRI CHF correlation should be used for the CHF predictions for the lower fuel assemblies of the reactor in the subchannel model of the RBMK-1500 fuel assembly. RRC KI and Bowring CHF correlations may be used for the upper fuel assemblies. For a single-channel model of the RBMK-1500 fuel channel, Osmachkin, RRC KI and Bowring correlations provide the closest predictions and may be used for the CHF estimation. For the low coolant mass fluxes in the fuel channel, Khabenski correlation can be applied. The fourth chapter presents the verification of the CORETRAN code for the RBMK-1500 core analysis. The model was verified against a number of RBMK-1500 plant data and transient calculations. The new RBMK-1500 core model was successfully applied in several safety assessment applications. A series of transient calculations, considered within the scope of the RBMK-type reactor Safety Analysis Report (SAR), were performed. Several cases of the transient calculations are presented in this chapter. The HELIOS/CORETRAN/VIPRE-02 core model for the RBMK-1500 is fully functional. The RBMK-1500 CPS logic, added into the CORETRAN provides an adequate response to the changes in the reactor parameters. Chapters 5 and

238

Acidente do trabalho investigado pelo CEREST Piracicaba: confrontando a abordagem tradicional da segurança do trabalho / Work related accident investigated by CEREST Piracicaba: confronting the traditional approach of safety at work  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Partindo de exploração das diferentes concepções acerca dos acidentes do trabalho e pretendendo discutir suas implicações sobre a prevenção, este artigo apresenta o caso de investigação de acidente de trabalho (AT) realizado pelo Sistema de Vigilância de Acidentes do Trabalho (SIVAT) do Centro de Re [...] ferência em Saúde do Trabalhador (CEREST) de Piracicaba, que utiliza a notificação a partir de todos os pronto-socorros E hospitais do município. A metodologia de investigação do At utilizada pelo Cerest inclui entrevistas, análise de documentos, fotografias, observação e estudo da situação do trabalho. Por outro lado, a empresa, com auxílio de laudo do Instituto de Criminalística (IC), usando uma abordagem tradicional do ato inseguro, apresenta explicações simplistas das causas dos acidentes de trabalho, o que resulta na atribuição de culpa às vítimas desses eventos, deixando de identificar os aspectos da organização do trabalho, a concepção dos equipamentos; fatores que, explorados, apontariam caminhos para a melhoria da segurança e da confiabilidade dos sistemas. Concluiu-se pela necessidade de mudanças culturais na área de segurança com investimentos permanentes na capacitação e na difusão dos novos conceitos sobre acidentes junto aos atores sociais, aos profissionais e ao poder judiciário. Abstract in english Exploring different concepts of work-related accidents and intending to discuss their implications on prevention, this article presents a case-study on work related accident (WRA) investigation conducted by the System of Surveillance of Accidents at Work (SIVAT) at the Center of Reference on Worker' [...] s Health (CEREST) in Piracicaba, using cases notified by all emergency rooms and hospitals of the Municipal district. The methodology of investigation of Wra used by Cerest includes interviews, analysis of documents, pictures, observation, and investigation of the situation at worksite. On the other hand, companies present simplistic explanations of Wra occurrences, using the traditional approach based on individual unsafe action, facilitated by reports issued by the State Criminalistics Institute (IC). Consequently victims are blamed for the events, and aspects of work organization or equipment conception are ignored. Such factors, if properly analyzed, could point out solutions for improvements in safety and reliability of the systems. Authors concluded that cultural changes in the safety field are necessary, with continuous investments in training and diffusion of new concepts on accidents among social actors, professionals, and the Judiciary.

Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia, Vilela; Renata Wey Berti, Mendes; Carmen Aparecida H., Gonçalves.

2007-06-01

239

Gray Correlation Analysis of Coal Mine Accidents  

OpenAIRE

Based on the statistics of 2008-2012 State Administration of study safety coal mine accident,a grey relational analysis model of coal mine accidents was established,and the grey correlation matrixes were established according to the grey relevance degree of data series. The gas accident, roof accident and flood accident were considered as the main influential factors according to the advantage analysis method. The analysis method provides scientific basis for further prevention an...

Wen-Yan Tian; Zeng-Shou Dong; Ze-Min Li

2013-01-01

240

Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

2003-01-01

241

Factores asociados a los accidentes por exposición percutánea en personal de enfermería en un hospital de tercer nivel / Factors associated with accidents resulting from percutaneousexposure in nursing staff at a tertiary level hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Los accidentes por exposición percutánea suponen aproximadamente un tercio de los accidentes laborales del personal sanitario hospitalario. Su importancia estriba en las enfermedades causadas por patógenos transmisibles por esta vía (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, infección VIH). Objetivos: d [...] escribir los accidentes de este tipo notificados en un hospital de tercer nivel; identificar factores asociados a estos accidentes en personal de enfermería; construir un modelo predictivo del riesgo individual de accidentarse. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo de una cohorte retrospectiva compuesta por todas las personas que notificaron un accidente entre el 1-1-93 y el 30-6-96. Estudio de casos y controles en el personal de enfermería durante el período 1-1-95 al 30-6-96, analizado mediante regresión logística múltiple. RESULTADOS: La incidencia acumulada de accidentes en un año fue de 0,078 para las/-os enfermeras/-os. En el 57,3% de los casos estuvieron implicadas agujas de jeringas desechables o precargadas. La incidencia acumulada en un año fue mayor para las agujas de cateterismo intravenoso (8,5 por 100.000). El riesgo de accidentabilidad, ajustado por variables confundentes, fue mayor para las/-os enfermeras/-os (OR=3,22; I.C.95%=1,96-5,27), para los trabajadores de la Unidad de Hemodiálisis (OR=35,21; I.C.95%=3,74-331,16) y para aquéllos con contrato eventual (OR=4,50; I.C.95%=2,24-9,04). CONCLUSIONES: Los accidentes por exposición percutánea en este hospital son más frecuentes entre el personal de enfermería y se producen, fundamentalmente, con algún tipo de aguja hueca. Se han identificado factores asociados a estos accidentes, lo que permite dirigir programas preventivos específicos sobre trabajadores con más riesgo. El modelo obtenido es válido para estimar el grado de accidentabilidad individual en los sujetos estudiados. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Accidents resulting from percutaneous exposure account for approximately one third of all accidents suffered at work by health workers in hospitals. Their importance lies in the illnesses caused by pathogens that can be transmitted in this way (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV virus). The a [...] ims are to describe accidents of this type notified in a tertiary level hospital, identify factors associated with these accidents in nursing staff and build a predictive model for the individual risk of having an accident. METHODS: A descriptive study of a retrospective cohort made up of all the people who notified having suffered an accident between 1-1-93 and 30-6-96. A study of cases and controls in nursing staff during the period 1-1-95 to 30-6-96, analysed through multiple logistical regression. RESULTS: The cumulative number of cases of accidents in one year was 0.078 for male and female nurses. In 57.3% of cases, disposable or pre-loaded syringes were involved. The cumulative number of cases in one year was greater for intravenous catheterisation (8.5% per 100,000). The risk of having an accident, adjusted on account of confusing variables, was greater for female and male nurses (OR=3.22; I.C.95%=1.96-5.27), for workers in the Haemodialysis Unit (OR=35.21; I.C.95%=3.74-331.16) and for those employed on a temporary contract (OR=4.50; I.C.95%=2.24-9.04). CONCLUSIONS: Accidents resulting from percutaneous exposure at this hospital are more frequent among nursing staff and are basically caused by some type of needle used for injections. Factors associated with these accidents were identified, allowing specific prevention programmes to be targeted at those workers at greater risk. The model obtained is valid to estimate the degree of individual accident probability for the subjects studied.

Mª Teresa, Gallardo López; Josefa, Masá Calles; Rafael, Fernández-Creuet Navajas; nmaculada, Salcedo Leal; Jokin de, Irala Estévez; Diego, Martínez de la Concha; Carmen, Díaz Molina.

1997-07-01

242

Nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

243

Multivariate approach to investigating prognostic factors in deep neck infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deep neck infections (DNI) spread along fascial planes and involve neck spaces. Very few studies have investigated potentially prognostic factors using multivariate statistical models. Our aim was to analyze 282 consecutive cases of DNI using multivariate (logistic) statistical models to identify independent significant factors influencing prognosis in terms of complications and long-term hospitalization (>6 days). In our series, only involvement of more than one neck space was independently significant in prognosticating complications of DNI (odds ratio [OR] 2.46). The presence of comorbidities (OR 2.13), non-odontogenic sites of origin (OR 1.88), leukocyte counts above 11.0 cells × 10(9)/L at presentation (OR 3.57), and the need for both medical and surgical treatments (OR 4.66) was significantly and independently prognostic of long hospital stays. Multivariate analysis can distinguish between risk factors and their relative contribution to outcome. The few published studies using multivariate models to analyze DNI prognosis considered quite large cohorts, but no clinical variables persistently revealed an independent significant prognostic role. This evidence seems to underscore the complex interdependence of several clinical variables in contributing to DNI prognosis, and the heterogeneity of the diagnostic/therapeutic approaches adopted. PMID:24522964

Staffieri, Claudia; Fasanaro, Elena; Favaretto, Niccolo'; La Torre, Fabio Biagio; Sanguin, Saverio; Giacomelli, Luciano; Marino, Filippo; Ottaviano, Giancarlo; Staffieri, Alberto; Marioni, Gino

2014-07-01

244

Investigation of 3D spatial effect on point kinetics estimation of the thermal hydraulics code RELAP for the analysis of MSLB accident of KK-NP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In general safety analyses of design basis accident of NPPs are being carried out using system thermal hydraulics code like RELAP. In RELAP, power is calculated based on point kinetics approximation, which virtually ignores the space and energy dependence of neutron flux. To include the space and energy dependence of neutron flux, three-dimensional neutronics code TRIHEXFA has been externally coupled with RELAP through interface program, TRIHEXFA-RELAP Interface Program (TRIP). Calculation methodology of TRIP program is based on adiabatic approximation. In the adiabatic approximation the neutron flux is being factored into spatial and amplitude part. Spatial part of flux is slowly varying with time whereas amplitude part is strongly varying function. The RELAP controls the transient time steps. Transient time is divided into several major and minor time steps. Minor time step is the sub-step of major time step. Thermal hydraulics and neutronics data are exchanged at each major time step. Spatial part of neutron flux has been updated at each major time step using TRIHEXFA code. But amplitude part of the neutron flux is calculated at each minor time step using RELAP code. Convergence of results of the coupled code, TRIP has been checked through coupling time step descritization study. This study determines the minimum coupling time step. Transient concerning VVER-1000 Main Steam Line Break, MSLB has been considered to investigate the space-time effect on point kinetics.e the space-time effect on point kinetics. MSLB occurs as a consequence of the rupture of one steam line upstream of main steam line isolation valves. Reference design and data from Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KK-NPP) are used for the analysis. From this investigation it is found that TRIP significantly overestimates the maximum reactor power against uncoupled RELAP result. The time of scram also occur six seconds earlier in TRIP calculation compared to the RELAP. This exercise has also shown a proof of principle that coupling 3D neutronics code TRIHEXFA with thermal hydraulics code RELAP is feasible and working. (author)

245

Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result of this study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs

246

Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result ofthis study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs.

Kim, Jae Whan; Jung, Won Dae; Kang, Dae Il; Ha, Jae Joo

1999-06-01

247

Study of human factors, and its basic aspects focusing the IEA-R1 research reactor operators, aiming at the prevention of accidents caused by human failures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents a study of human factors and possible human failure reasons that can cause incidents, accidents and workers exposition, associated to risks intrinsic to the profession. The objective is to contribute with the operators of IEA-R1 reactor located at IPEN CNEN/S P. Accidents in the technological field, including the nuclear, have shown that the causes are much more connected to human failure than to system and equipment failures, what has led the regulatory bodies to consider studies on human failure. The research proposed in this work is quantitative/qualitative and also descriptive. Two questionnaires were used to collect data. The first of them was elaborated from the safety culture attributes which are described by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. The second considered individual and situational factors composing categories that could affect people in the work area. A carefully selected transcription of the theoretical basis according to the study of human factors was used. The methodology demonstrated a good reliability degree. Results lead to mediate factors which need direct actions concerning the needs of the group and of the individual. This research shows that it is necessary to have a really effective unit of planning and organization, not only to the physical and psychological health issues but also to the safety in the work. (author)

248

A limited investigation of the sensitivity of the containment source term to certain primary circuit parameters under PWR severe accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitivity of the source term to the containment for a limited number of primary circuit parameters and phenomena has been investigated for three hypothetical PWR severe accident sequences. These sequences are: a large hot leg break with failure of electric power to engineered safety features (AB hot leg); a small cold leg break with failure of pumped ECCS (S2D) and a transient initiated sequence with failure of secondary system relief valves, power conversion and auxiliary feedwater systems and loss of on and off-site power for at least 3 hours (TMLB'). (author)

249

Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

250

Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author).

Girard, P. [Caen Univ., 14 (France); Dubreuil, G.H. [Mutadis Consultants, Paris (France)

1996-09-01

251

Investigations of sloshing fluid motions in pools related to recriticalities in liquid-metal fast breeder reactor core meltdown accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that analyses of unprotected loss-of-flow accidents for medium-size cores of current liquid-metal fast breeder reactors have shown that the accident proceeds into a transition phase where further meltdown is accompanied by recriticalities and secondary excursions. Assuming very pessimistic conditions concerning fuel discharge and blockage formation, a neutronically active whole-core pool of molten m material can form. Neutronic or thermohydraulic disturbances may initiate a special motion pattern in these pools, called centralized sloshing, which can lead to energetic power excursions. If such a whole-core pool is formed, its energetic potential must be adequately assessed. This requires sufficiently correct theoretical tools (codes) and proper consideration of the fluid-dynamic and thermo-hydraulic conditions for these pools. A series of experiments has been performed that serves as a benchmark for the SIMMER-II and the AFDM codes in assessing their adequacy in modeling such sloshing motions. Additional phenomenologically oriented experiments provide deeper insight into general motion patterns of sloshing fluids while taking special notice of asymmetries and obstacles that exist in such pools

252

Nuclear accidents  

Science.gov (United States)

Accidents at nuclear power plants can be especially devastating to people and the environment. This article, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to nuclear accidents at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and Tokaimura. Students explore the incidents by examining possible causes, environmental impacts, and effects on life.

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

253

Investigation and analysis of aircrew ametropia and related factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the refractive distribution and analysis risk factors for aircrew ametropia.METHODS: The number of 49 cases with ametropia from 1031 aircrew during May 2013 to May 2014 were reviewed. Various types of refraction composition, age, type, position, time of flight with the subjective assessment of aircrew were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Of 49 cases, 43 cases(88%were myopia, 6 cases(12%were hypermetropia.,Detection rates were higher in age over 50 years aircrew and flight time more than 3000h. Detection rates were lower in self-conscious symptom heavy aircrew, fighter aircrew and good habit of using eyes. CONCLUSION: The myopia incidence in aircrew with age >50 years and long flight time is higher, than that of fighter pilots and good habit of using eyes. We should pay attention to the increasing late-onset myopia of aviators and habit of using eyes, work intensity and time of using eyes about aircrew.

Li-Juan Zheng

2014-10-01

254

Investigation and risk factor analysis of hyperuricemia in pilots  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the incidence of hyperuricemia in military pilots and the relationship between hyperuricemia and other related risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Methods  A total of 2563 pilots, who had undergone a regular physical examination in the Air Force General Hospital from 2005 to 2010, participated in the current study. The participants were divided into high serum uric acid (UA group (hyperuricemia group, UA >420µmol/L, n=294 and normal UA group (n=2269. The incidence rates of hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipemia were compared between these two groups. The dependent variable was serum UA level of the pilots. Other indices included the total cholesterol (CHO, triglycerides (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, fasting blood glucose (FBG, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, smoking, body weight, and flight time as independent variable. Logistic multivariate regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between UA level and these indexes. Results  The incidence rates of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, and high LDL were significantly higher in hyperuricemia group than in normal UA group (POR=1.637, POR=1.025, POR=1.046, PConclusion  The serum UA of pilots is closely related to the risk factors of other cardiovascular diseases.

Hong-yu MA

2012-01-01

255

AN INVESTIGATION OF FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE BLOG ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 2000, blogs have rapidly become a cyberspace phenomenon. The new medium has createda growing trend: blog advertising. Blogs offer unique advantages over other types of advertising,such as reader coverage and low cost. In addition, blogs generally contain customer comments,which new customers can use to evaluate the advertised products. As a result, blog advertising isvery successful. A recent survey showed that 40% of the customers that read blog advertisingmade a purchase. This study investigates factors that affect blog advertising effectiveness. Alaboratory experiment was designed to determine the effects of appeal strategies, quantity andquality of negative comments, and customer involvement with the advertised product. Theexperiment was designed to test informational and. emotional appeal strategies, high and lowproportions of negative comments, high and low qualities of negative comments, and high andlow levels of customer involvement with the advertised product. Study results show thatinformational appeals match customer needs, for customers with high levels of customerinvolvement. Study results show that emotional appeals match customer needs, for customerswith low levels of customer involvement. Study results show that proportion of negativecomments has an effect, for any type of customer. Study results show that high-quality negativecomments affect customer attitudes more than low-quality negative comments, for customerswith high levels of customer involvement. Study results extend theoretical and practicalknowledge concerning factors that effect blog advertising effectiveness.

Jen-Ruei Fu1

2012-10-01

256

An investigation of graphite dust and plateout fission product behavior under pipe rupture accident condition in primary cooling system of high temperature gas-cooled reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), a small amount of fission products are released from fuel elements during normal operation. Then condensable fission products plateout on the inner surface of primary cooling system components. In accident conditions such as rapid depressurization events, plated-out fission products would be re-entrained into the coolant by chemical and/or mechanical forces. The re-entrainment process is called liftoff. Since this process is very complicated phenomenon, a quantitative model for analysis has not been established. Therefore, experiments were carried out to investigate the behavior of fission products and graphite dusts under the rapid depressurization condition caused by large-scale pipe rupture accident. One experiment was focused on fission products plated-out on metal surface or on/in oxide film and another was focused on the graphite dusts behavior. In this paper, applicability of turbulent burst model to graphite dusts and fission products liftoff models to the experimental data was investigated. (author)

257

Database on aircraft accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating probability of aircraft crash are considered to be 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 35 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 2 for large bladed aircraft and 30 for small bladed aircraft. (2) The data of SDF aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total of 45 accidents occurred, 24 of them are large fixed-wing aircrafts, 4 are small fixed-wing aircrafts and 17 are bladed aircrafts. 23 to 45 accidents fell into land. (3) The data of US aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total of 16 accidents occurred, 13 of which are fixed-wing aircrafts, 3 are bladed aircrafts. 6 of 16 accidents fell into land. (4) The instrument flight information on commercial aircrafts is based on 'Air transport statics' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The total number of takeoffs and landings is 29,971,662 and the total flight distance is 9,232,867,684 km. (author)

258

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

CERN Document Server

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

Franic, Z

2007-01-01

259

Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures throughnuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting from the disintegration of the former Soviet Union. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has given particular attention to the accident. Estimates of average doses in separate regions of countries and for the population of the northern hemisphere as a whole were presented in Annex D of the UNSCEAR 1988 Report. The experience gained in treating the immediate radiation injuries of workers and fire fighters involved in controlling the accident were also reviewed in the UNSCEAR 1988 Report (Annex G). The UNSCEAR Committee is currently involved in the final phase of preparation of a further assessment of the exposures and effects of the accident. During the last several years, considerable attention has been devoted to investigating possible associations between health effects in the populations and the exposure to radionuclides released and dispersed following the Chernobyl accident. Of particular note has been the occurrence of numerous thyroid cancers in children. The number of thyroid cancers in individuals exposed in childhood, particularly in the severely contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is considerably greater than expected based on previous knowledge. The high incidence and the short induction period have not been experienced in other populations, and other factors are most certainly influencing the risk. If the current trend continues, further thyroid cancers can be expected to occur, especially in those exposed at young ages. The most recent findings indicate that the thyroid cancer risk for those older than 10 years of age at the time of the accident is leveling off, while the increase continues for those younger than 4-5 years in 1986. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer after childhood exposure, there is no evidence of a major public health impact 14 years after the Chernobyl accident. No increases in overall cancer incidence or mortality have been observed that could be attributed to ionizing radiation. Risk of leukaemia, one of the m

260

Normal accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP)

261

Infant siblings and the investigation of autism risk factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Infant sibling studies have been at the vanguard of autism spectrum disorders (ASD research over the past decade, providing important new knowledge about the earliest emerging signs of ASD and expanding our understanding of the developmental course of this complex disorder. Studies focused on siblings of children with ASD also have unrealized potential for contributing to ASD etiologic research. Moving targeted time of enrollment back from infancy toward conception creates tremendous opportunities for optimally studying risk factors and risk biomarkers during the pre-, peri- and neonatal periods. By doing so, a traditional sibling study, which already incorporates close developmental follow-up of at-risk infants through the third year of life, is essentially reconfigured as an enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study. This review considers the enriched-risk pregnancy cohort approach of studying infant siblings in the context of current thinking on ASD etiologic mechanisms. It then discusses the key features of this approach and provides a description of the design and implementation strategy of one major ASD enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study: the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI.

Newschaffer Craig J

2012-04-01

262

Investigations to environmental factors on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The discussions on noxious environmental factors concerning SIDS was a motive for systematically postmortal chemical-toxicological investigations on 54 SIDS-cases and 2 controlcases of the same age. Tissue levels of arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury and pentachlorphenol as well as other organic noxes were measured in several organs. Furthermore COHb-concentrations were determined. Inspite of the wide scattering values the measured extreme levels as well as the arithmetic mean- and the median averages of As, Pb, Cd, Hg, PCP and COHb ranged in concentration sizes which - according to present knowledge - can't be supposed of toxic effects. It was observed that infants from an urban environment didn't show a higher degree of the examined noxes than infants from rural regions. Also there were neither differences between SIDS-cases and controls, nor correlations between often morphologically detected infections of the respiratory system, including laryngitis - and superior concentrations of these noxes in the organs of SIDS-cases.

Althoff, H.; Wehr, K.; Michels, S.; Prajsnar, D.; Einbrodt, H.J.

1987-05-01

263

Prospective study of intellectual development, mental and behavioral disorders in children in uteroexposed to radioecological and psychosocial factors associated with the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prospective study of the parameters characterizing the mental status of children in utero exposed to radioecological factors associated with the Chernobyl accident. 197 children born from May 1986 to February 1987 whose mothers lived in the period of pregnancy at contaminated territory were examined. Control group was formed by random sampling. It is shown that the children of the group under study aged 6-7 years were characterized by relative predominance of cases with border-line level of intellectual functioning (13.2 % vs. 9.2 % in the control group). By 10-12 years this difference practically smoothed over. Average group intellectual parameters of children aged 6-7 and 10-12 years in the main group were similar and did not depend on pregnancy term at the moment of exposure. Unfavorable physiological and social-demographic factors were mainly responsible for the intellectual development and emotional disordered in prenatally exposed children

264

Measures against nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

265

German aircraft accident statistics, 1930  

Science.gov (United States)

The investigation of all serious accidents, involving technical defects in the airplane or engine, is undertaken by the D.V.L. in conjunction with the imperial traffic minister and other interested parties. All accidents not clearly explained in the reports are subsequently cleared up.

Weitzmann, Ludwig

1932-01-01

266

An investigation of BWR/4 parallel channel effects during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident for both intact and broken jet pumps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of parallel channel effects (PCE) on the effectiveness of the emergency core cooling systems in a boiling water nuclear reactor (BWR) was experimentally investigated. Specifically, the effectiveness of the core spray cooling system and the low-pressure coolant injection system during the emergency core cooling of a simulated 218-BWR/4 was studied. Experiments simulating conditions after a hypothetical design basis loss-of-coolant accident were performed in a special PCE test section in which Freon-114 was used as the working fluid. A detailed scaling analysis was performed to allow real-time simulation of the bypass leakage inflow, reflood rate, countercurrent flow limitation core decay heat, and the size of postulated jet pump breaks. It was found that BWR core cooling could be adversely affected by postulated failure of the jet pump seals by observing the parallel channel effects

267

Optimization of health protection of the public following a major nuclear accident: Interaction between radiation protection and social and psychological factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

National and international guidance on the optimization of countermeasures to reduce doses in the post-release phase of an accident rightly emphasizes the importance and relevance of psychological, social, and economic factors to this process (e.g., NRPB 1990; ICRP 1991: CEC 1993; IAEA 1994). However, whilst economic factors are, at least partially, taken into account in developing the advice, explicit guidance is not provided on how psychological and social factors should be included in the optimization. Instead it is suggested that this is a matter for those with the appropriate competence and those with responsibility for making the final decisions. This approach implicitly assumes that the optimization of psychological and social factors, and that the results of the two procedures can then be combined to arrive at an optimum course of action. We recognize that formal optimization only forms one input to the process of making decisions on countermeasures and that it is important that psychological and social factors, as well as any other factors, are not open-quotes double-counted.close quotes i.e., accounted for within international advice and then again at the time of the decision. It is our view that the optimization of radiation protection and economic factors, and certain psychological and social factors, should not be carried out independently. Research conducted by our respective organization indicates a number of areas in which the optimization of radiationeas in which the optimization of radiation protection and economic factors requires an understanding of key psychological and social processes. These areas fall into three groups; the need to ensure that countermeasures are successfully implemented, the need to achieve a net benefit for overall health, and the need to ensure a smooth transition back to normal living. 10 refs

268

General aviation accident rates and pilot community population size: an examination of rural-urban differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most investigations of general aviation accidents involving human factors have emphasized biomedical and psychological concerns, with comparatively few contributions from other disciplines. This study derives from a social science orientation and investigates the relationship between general aviation accident rates and the population size of the involved pilots' communities of residence. After excluding agricultural, air taxi, and commercial helicopter operations, an analysis of 48 Colorado communities reporting at least one 1978 accident-involved pilot revealed a correlation of -0.51 between accident rate per 1,000 pilots and community size. The smallest, and generally most rural, communities produced total and fatal accident rates of respectively 2.55 and 5.36 times greater than those for the largest metropolitan areas. A similar trend characterizes U.S. nationwide general aviation accidents and appears as well for automobile mishaps, thus lending additional support to the present findings. Discriminant analysis of individual-level data for 92 of the accidents revealed that the conventional explanations of airport facilities, terrain, pilot qualifications and exposure, and aircraft complexity failed to exert substantial effects on differences among the categories of accidents grouped by community size. Two alternate explanations are offered which speculate that: 1) the rural-urban accident differential may represent a function of variations in "pilot density," and 2) the observed differences may be attributed to attitudinal differences between rural and urban pilots produced by the former group's exposure to a type of "rural subculture." PMID:6847574

Urban, R F

1983-04-01

269

Experimental investigations of the thermohydraulic behaviour of tubes in horizontal steam generators under accident conditions for nuclear power plants with VVER-reactors. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The final report documents the results of experiments performed at the HORUS I and II test facilities within the scope of the BMFT-project no. 1500857/9 'Experimental Investigations of the Thermohydraulic Behaviour of Tubes in Horizontal Steam Generators under accident conditions for NPP with VVER-Reactors'. The experiments aimed to investigate the integral condensate mass flow and it's flow direction in a heater tube of VVER-steam generators under decay heat conditions (two phase flow during SBLOCA). The scientific tasks, the construction of the HORUS test facilities, the instrumentation and the data acquisition system are described first followed by a general representation of the experimental conditions and the experimental run. The results of measured parameters are represented and discussed. The realized experiments turned out to be able to verify the condensation models in the ATHLET-computer code. The experiments were also able to prove the accident behaviour during the two phase flow natural circulation under SBLOCA conditions in the horizontal tubes. The results of the experiments demonstrated that no return flow of condensate occured into the inlet collector as soon as the heater tubes were totally filled with steam. In this case it can be assumed that the natural circulation continues in the primary system. Slightly raised U-tubes accelerated and slightly lowered U-tubes delayed the condensation process. When the U-tube was nearly completely filled with wattube was nearly completely filled with water a return flow into the hot collector was determined because of the small condensation length in the entry section of the U-tube. A refill of the hot loop seal may occur under these conditions. The dosage of nitrogen with small quantities (1.. 5%) deteriorated the heat transfer from the primary to the secondary side in the entry section of the heater tube. There wasn't noticed an influence of the heat transfer in the other tube sections. (orig.)

270

Database on aircraft accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to this issue, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for the latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. In this report the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2011 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2012 database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2012 revised database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 shows the followings. The trend of the 2012 database changes little as compared to the last year's report. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The number of commercial aircraft accidents is 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 58 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 5 for large bladed aircraft and 99 for small bladed aircraft. The relevant accidents for evaluating probability of aircraft crash are considered to be 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 35 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 1 for large bladed aircraft and 25 for small bladed aircraft. (2) The data of SDF aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total number of accidents is 42 comprised of 21 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 4 for small fixed-wing aircraft and 17 for bladed aircraft. The 23 accidents of the total fell into land. (3) The data of US aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total number of accidents is 16 comprised of 13 for fixed-wing aircraft and 3 for bladed aircraft. The 6 accidents of the total fell into land. (4) The instrument flight information on commercial aircrafts is based on 'Air transport statics' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The total number of takeoffs and landings is 30,685,564 and the total flight distance is 9,499,283,168 km. (author)

271

Criticality accident:  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A criticality accident occurred at 10:35 on September 30, 1999. It occurred in a precipitation tank in a Conversion Test Building at the JCO Tokai Works site in Tokaimura (Tokai Village) in the Ibaraki Prefecture of Japan. STA provisionally rated this accident a 4 on the seven-level, logarithmic International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The September 30, 1999 criticality accident at the JCO Tokai Works Site in Tokaimura, Japan in described in preliminary, technical detail. Information is based on preliminary presentations to technical groups by Japanese scientists and spokespersons, translations by technical and non-technical persons of technical web postings by various nuclear authorities, and English-language non-technical reports from various news media and nuclear-interest groups. (author)

272

An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits  

OpenAIRE

Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials). We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique ...

Zahra Houshmand Neghabi; Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee

2013-01-01

273

Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur  

OpenAIRE

The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedn...

Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Ab Aziz, K.

2014-01-01

274

Investigating Human Factors in Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Manufacturing industries  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this paper is to present the work carried out in a European Commission-funded project to adapt an existing Aircraft Maintenance Human Factors (HF) training program (STAMINA) to the Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Manufacturing industries (BPM). The STAMINA approach has been successfully built into a global human factors training business recognized internationally as a quality benchmark. The Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries have a similar need for hu...

Corrigan, Siobhan

2011-01-01

275

CAMS: Computerized Accident Management Support  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The OECD Halden Reactor Project has initiated a new research programme on computerised accident management support, the so-called CAMS project (CAMS = Computerized Accident Management Support). This work will investigate the possibilities for developing systems which provide more extensive support to the control room staff and technical support centre than the existing SPDS (Safety Parameter Display System) type of systems. The CAMS project will utilize available simulator codes and the capabilities of computerized tools to assist the plant staff during the various accident stages including: identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident, and planning accident mitigation strategies. This research programme aims at establishing a prototype system which can be used for experimental testing of the concept and serve as a tool for training and education in accident management. The CAMS prototype should provide support to the staff when the plant is in a normal state, in a disturbance sate, and in an accident state. Even though better support in an accident state is the main goal of the project, it is felt to be important that the staff is familiar with the use of the system during normal operation, when they utilize the system during transients

276

The management of accidents  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: This author’s experiences in investigating well over a hundred accident occurrences has led to questioning how such events can be managed - - - while immediately recognising that the idea of managing accidents is an oxymoron, we don’t want to manage them, we don’t want not to manage them, what we desire is not to have to manage not-them, that is, manage matters so they don’t happen and then we don’t have to manage the consequences.Design/methodology/approach: The research w...

Ward, R. B.

2009-01-01

277

The weakening of cell protection as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident recovery factors affect on liquidator's organism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The markers of oxidative stress as well as intracellular antioxidants (enzymatic and non- enzymatic) were studied in 100 Chernobyl accident recovery workers(liquidators). Hormone screening tests were carried out in 250 liquidators. All persons (mean age - 35 years) have got external irradiation dose from 2 to 30 cGr. Control group was selected from persons of same age having not participated in accident liquidation. The significant antioxidant imbalance was found. ROS inactivating enzymes deficiency was revealed in neutrofils, lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM). For instance, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity in liquidator's AM was 2,8±0,3 U/mg protein (4,1-±1,8 U/mg protein in controls, P<0,05). Catalase activity was also lower than in control group (P<0,05). The significant disorder of the thiol-disulfide turnover was revealed: depression of reduced glutathione by 1,71-±0,46 ?mol/l (control: 3,15±-0,34 ?tmol/l, P<0,05). The oxidative stress destructive action realized in the conditions of excessive production of ROS, while the antioxidant potential was diminished(P<0,05). The oxidative destruction of lipids and proteins was found to be induced by free radical action. TBARS level in alveolar macrophages of liquidators was more than three times higher compared to controls. Enhanced levels of protein carbonyl groups were found as well. The decrease of TT3 in liquidators was detected most frequently. In 19% liquidators examined, TT3 was below the reference value (0,8 ng/ml). The TT3 level was registered at the low limit of the reference range (0,8 ng/ml) in 18% of liquidators. ''Low T3'' syndrome may be considered as a cell protection weakening. All the cellular protective mechanisms take part in processes of DNA synthesis and repair, transcription and translation, cell respiration and metabolism. Significant impairment of the cellular protective systems in liquidators could be regarded as a base of persistent ''chromosomal pathology'' and imbalance of metabolism complicated by the various diseases including oncology. (author)

278

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was also computed and it was about 0.66, which is above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.5. The study uses Scree plot to determine important factors and there are eight factors including environmental issues, export supportive issues, potentials for export, business plan, export plan, structural barriers, competition capability and strategy.

Hoda Nosouzi

2013-06-01

279

Expert meeting with the Belgoprocess Inc. on the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. Search and investigation on cause elucidation and reoccurrence control for the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. A visiting report on abroad  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to investigate in detail on fire cause materials, test results of thermal analysis on waste liquids, and flow of affairs relating to the fire accident (15th December, 1981) of the Euro Bitum Plant (an asphalt solidification facility of the middle level wastes) settled at the Eurochemic reprocessing work in the Kingdom of Belgium, resemble to the present accident, 4 members of the Cause Elucidation Group and Mr. Kaneko, director of the Paris Office of PNC visited to Belgium to hold a meeting with experts of the Belgoprocess Inc. for 4 days. In this meeting, after exchanging mutual detail informations on accident occurred at the Euro Bitum Plant and fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility, some discussions on cause supposition of the present accident. For cause of the fire, mutual differences were found. As a state at occurring fires was much resemble, their followed states seemed to be extremely different on responses of operators to fire-extinguishing action, filter exchanging and so forth. As finishing to recover the plant after 1 month passed from the accident to restart its operation, the Belgoprocess, Inc. has conducted some improvements of the facility such as sufficiency of fire extinguishing apparatus, addition and improvements of fire detecting means, direct measurement of solid temperature and so on, as well as reinforcement of thermal analysis procedure and renewal to new apparatus. Although no special supposition on cause of the fire at this meeting, a lot of items to learn such as operation system, responses after accident, and so forth were acquired. (G.K.)

280

Factores psicoeducativos que determinan la propensión al accidente deportivo en escolares: diseño y validación de un cuestionario de evaluación / Psychoeducational factors that determine the propensity to school sports accidents: design and validation of an assessment questionnaire  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito de este estudio ha sido el diseño y validación de una escala de propensión al accidente deportivo en escolares. La muestra ha estado formada por 254 niños (M = 14.20, DT = 1.3). Las propiedades psicométricas de la escala se obtuvieron mediante un proceso de validez de contenido y un aná [...] lisis factorial de los componentes principales. Como resultados obtuvimos un cuestionario de 27 ítems formado por cinco factores y ajustado a los tópicos de validez y fiabilidad científica. Se encontraron diferencias en todos los factores de la escala entre niños y niñas y sólo en el factor búsqueda de sensaciones al considerar la edad de los sujetos. Como conclusión, esta escala es un instrumento inédito que permite la organización de los recursos materiales y didácticos en el deporte de acuerdo a aspectos psicoeducativos relacionados con la propensión al accidente de los niños, lo que es esencial en la prevención de lesiones. Abstract in english The purpose of this study has been the design and validation of a propensity scale of sports injuries in schools. The sample for the study has been formed of 254 children (M = 14.20, DT = 1.3). Psychometric properties of the scale were obtained through a process of content validity and a factorial a [...] nalysis of main components. As a result, we obtained a questionnaire of 27 items consisting of 5 factors and adjusted to validity topics and scientific reliability. Significant differences were found in all factors of the scale in relation to sex, whilst significant differences were only observed in relation to the sensation seeking factor when considering the age of the subjects. This scale is an essential tool for preventing accidents and injuries in school sport by allowing the identification of sports accident-prone students.

Pedro A., Latorre-Román; José C., Cámara-Pérez; Antonio, Pantoja-Vallejo; Tomás, Izquierdo-Rus.

2013-05-01

281

Investigating power factor compensation capacity calculation in medium sized industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are a variety of techniques developed in order to improve the efficiency of electrical systems and reduce cost of providing electricity to the consumer. This paper presents a new technique for power-factor capacity calculation in medium-sized industrial/ commercial setups. Various loads of similar nominal power-factor are categorized and demand-factor of loads is so selected that it has engineering justifications. The developed system works on the principle of low-voltage power-factor correction, which substantially reduces electricity bill and increases loading-capacity of the electrical system. It allows commercial and industrial consumers to save on their power cost appreciably. This work utilizes software, which takes few inputs and produces numerous useful results. Adoption of this system can help the user in computing compensation-capacity, system KVA (size of transformer) and cost of compensation. A feature of this system is prediction of low PF penalty. Moreover, it also suggests the tentative payback period. (author)

282

Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Gas Law Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

Undergraduate students were asked to complete gas law questions using a Web-based tool as a first step in our understanding of the role of cognitive load in chemistry word questions and in helping us assess student problem-solving. Each question contained five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by the tool so that a…

Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.; Tang, Hui

2012-01-01

283

Accidentes biológicos en estudiantes de medicina de una universidad peruana: prevalencia, mecanismos y factores de riesgo / Biological accidents in a Peruvian university medical students: prevalence, mechanisms and risk factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Una de las más serias amenazas que enfrentan los estudiantes de medicina durante su práctica clínica es la posibilidad de exposición a accidentes biológicos, debido en la mayoría de los casos a la inexperiencia y el escaso desarrollo de las habilidades manuales. Objetivos: Establecer l [...] a frecuencia, mecanismos, circunstancias y factores de riesgo de los accidentes biológicos ocurridos entre estudiantes de medicina. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo observacional de corte transversal. Institución: Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Estudiantes de medicina. Metodología: Se aplicó una encuesta estructurada anónima, voluntaria y autoadministrada. Principales medidas de resultados: Accidentes biológicos. Resultados: En total fueron 307 entrevistados. La prevalencia de accidentes biológicos en la población estudiada fue de 51,5% (158/307). La media de accidentes biológicos en el último año fue de 1,06. El 91,1% de los estudiantes del último año presentó al menos un accidente biológico, versus 11,9% en los estudiantes del primer año. Los estudiantes del último año informaron con más frecuencia accidentes de riesgo alto para transmisión de infecciones, siendo 47,6% por pinchazo con objeto punzocortante, y 80,6% tuvo exposición a sangre; los accidentes de riesgo alto son mucho más frecuentes en quirófanos y sala de partos (51,9%). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de accidentes biológicos fue 51,5%, siendo el pinchazo la forma más frecuente. Es necesario desarrollar estrategias que permitan velar por la bioseguridad de los estudiantes de medicina. Abstract in english Introduction: One of the most serious problems of medical students is occupational exposure during their clinical training as they lack experience and limited development of hand skills. Objectives: To establish the frequency, mechanisms, circumstances and risk factors of biological accidents report [...] ed in medical students. Design: Descriptive observational transversal type study. Setting: Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Participants: Medical students. Methodology: A retrospective anonymous and voluntary survey was conducted. Study participants were randomly chosen. Main outcome measures: Biological accidents. Results: In a sample of 307 students 51,5% had at least one accident (158/307); median of biological accidents in the last year was 1,06; 91,1% of senior students had at least one biological accident last year versus 11,9% of first-year students. Senior students inform more often about high-risk infection-transmission accidents, 47,6% caused by pinching with a sharp object while 80,6% were exposed to blood; high-risk accidents are far more often in surgical and delivery rooms (51,9%). Conclusions: It is necessary to develop strategies that allow medical students to enforce biosecurity concepts.

Elizabeth, Inga; Gregory, López; Carlos, Kamiya.

2010-03-01

284

Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis events and accidents at NPPs, and what additional measures should be considered as an accident progresses to the severe accident stage. Insights are provided on the experiences and practices existing or being proposed in the NEA member states, as well as new findings from post-Fukushima studies. Emphasis is placed on identifying commendable practices that support enhanced and integrated on-site accident management response and decision-making by NPP operators. The report provides information (including commendable practices) useful for regulatory authorities to consider as they implement enhancements to their regulatory framework in the area of integrated accident management building on the lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The report's insights also should be useful to regulatory authorities, operating organisations and others in the nuclear safety community for addressing accident management issues such as procedures and guidelines, equipment, infrastructure and instrumentation, and human and organisational resources. Factors such as accidents involving spent fuel pools, multi-unit aspects of accident management, the interface between onsite and off-site organisations and resources, and degradation of the surrounding infrastructure are also discussed. (authors)

285

Experimental investigations in the PKL test facility on thermal hydraulic system behavior of PWR under accident situations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a short overview on AREVA's thermal hydraulic platform, this presentation focused on the PKL project giving an survey of the different test programs and topics of investigation with emphasis on the current test program OECD-PKL 3. The presentation also includes a short description of the test facility, some typical results and findings derived from the PKL experiments will be exemplarily discussed in more detail

286

Investigating important factors influencing electronic banking for export development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Export is one of the most important indicators of a growing economy and it is the primary source of reaching sustainable growth on the market. This paper presents an empirical study to determine important factors influencing electronic banking in export development of Iranian organizations. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some regular customers who do internet banking with Parsian bank in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.82, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.71 and 1955 with Sig. = 0.000, respectively. Using principal component analysis, the study has detected six factors including customer’s information, building trust, secure internet access, having good internet infrastructure and internet users.

Vahid Abbas Zadeh

2014-01-01

287

Qualitative Investigation of Object Oriented Frameworks Key Success Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software developers consider object-oriented frameworks as one of the most promising software development tools. Their use can shorten development time and improve productivity as well as quality of developed software. The number and the technological maturity of frameworks achieved a level, which provides to developers a reliable development environment. However, still many frameworks fail, and so do many framework based software development projects. This article presents basic knowledge needed for understanding success of frameworks and addresses key factors which impact their success. The main outcomes of the research described in the article are technological and sociological factors, for which we presume that positively influence developers’ attitude toward using frameworks and thus their success. The results of our exploratory study could help software practitioners and researchers in developing more successful frameworks and with evaluation of existing frameworks as presented in the practical application of the article’s findings.

Gregor Polan

2011-01-01

288

Investigating important factors influencing electronic banking for export development  

OpenAIRE

Export is one of the most important indicators of a growing economy and it is the primary source of reaching sustainable growth on the market. This paper presents an empirical study to determine important factors influencing electronic banking in export development of Iranian organizations. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some regular customers who do internet banking with Parsian bank in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.82, which is ...

Vahid Abbas Zadeh; Gholamreza Heydari Kord Zangeneh; Naser Azad

2014-01-01

289

Investigation of factors responsible for cell line cytoplasmic expression differences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work has described a novel cytoplasmic expression system that results in a 20-fold increase in the levels of gene expression over a standard CMV-based nuclear expression system, as compared with a 2–3 fold increase seen with previous similar systems. While this increase was seen with BHK and Neuro-2a cells, further studies revealed that some cell lines, such as COS-7, demonstrated relatively poor levels of cytoplasmic expression. The objective of this study was to determine what factors were responsible for the different expression levels between BHK (a high expressing cell line and COS-7 (a low expressing cell line. Results The main findings of this work are that the individual elements of the cytoplasmic expression system (such as the T7 RNAP gene and Internal Ribosome Entry Sequence are functioning similarly in both cell types. Both cell types were found to have the same amount of cytosolic nuclease activity, and that the cells appeared to have differences in the intra-cellular processing of DNA -cationic lipid complexes. Conclusion After exploring many factors, it was found that differences in the intra-cellular processing of the DNA-cationic lipid complex was the most probable factor responsible for the difference in cytoplasmic gene expression.

Finn Jonathan D

2005-05-01

290

INVESTIGATING THE FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE BLOG ATTITUDE SCALE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the wide application of advanced technology in education, many attitude scales have been developed to evaluate learners’ attitudes toward educational tools. However, with the rapid development of emerging technologies, using blogs as one of the Web 2.0 tools is still in its infancy and few blog attitude scales have been developed yet. In view of this need, a lot of researchers like to design a new scale based on their conceptual and theoretical framework of their own study rather than using available scales. The present study reports the design and development of a blog attitude scale (BAS. The researchers developed a pool of items to capture the complexity of the blog attitude trait, selected 29 items in the content analysis, and assigned the scale comprising 29 items to 216 undergraduate students to explore the underlying structure of the BAS. In exploratory factor analysis, three factors were discovered: blog anxiety, blog desirability, and blog self-efficacy; 14 items were excluded. The extracted items were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis which lent further support to the BAS underpinning structure.

Zahra SHAHSAVAR

2010-10-01

291

An investigation into factors that may influence tonsil morphology.  

OpenAIRE

To investigate whether tonsillar size was related to human morphology, age or duration of disease, 100 consecutive patients undergoing tonsillectomy for recurrent tonsillitis were investigated. The lengths, widths and volumes of each resected tonsil were measured and compared with patient characteristics ascertained on the day before surgery. The volume of tonsillar tissue was directly related to height (p = 0.46, P less than 0.001) and weight (p = 0.45, P less than 0.001) and age, but at any...

Crombie, I. K.; Barr, G.

1990-01-01

292

Analysis of diffusion process and influence factors in the air ingress accident of the HTR-PM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air ingress, one of the beyond design basis accidents for high temperature gas-cooled reactors, receives high attention during the design of the 250 MW pebble-bed modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR-PM), because it may result in severe consequence including the corrosion of the fuel element and graphite reflector. The diffusion process and the set-up time of the stable natural convection after the double-ended guillotine break of the hot-gas duct are studied in the paper. On the basis of the preliminary design of the HTR-PM and its DLOCA analysis results, the diffusion process, as well as the influence of the core temperature distribution and the length of the hot-gas duct, is studied with the DIFFLOW code, which adopts a one-dimension variable cross-section diffusion model with fixed wall temperature. To preliminarily estimate the influence of chemical reaction between oxygen and graphite, which will change the gas component of the mixture, the diffusion processes between the He/N2, He/O2, He/CO and He/CO2 are calculated, respectively. Furthermore, the code has been improved and the varying wall temperature can be simulated. The more accurate analysis is carried out with the changing temperature distribution from the DLOCA calculation. The analysis shows that there is enough time to adopt appropriate mitigation measures to stop the air ingress and the severe consequence of fuel element damage and large release of fission product can be avoided

293

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

OpenAIRE

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration f...

Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.

2007-01-01

294

Long term reduction of Caesium and Strontium transfer factors from soil in foodstuff and dynamics of internal doses for a russian population after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The model of the formation of the internal doses for the population living on the territory contaminated after the Chernobyl accident is described. Model parameters were obtained on the base of natural measurements results implemented in the different terms after the accident. The data on the caesium radionuclides content in the bodies of the inhabitants measurements were priority for the internal exposure dose estimation. In the case of the absence of such information, the results of the radionuclides content in the food products analysis or the data on the soil types prevailing in the areas of settlements, were used for the calculations. The data were obtained during 1986-2001 as a result of monitoring of contaminated areas in Russia that considerably differ in their soil and climate conditions, the levels of 137Cs and 90Sr surface activity on soil and types of countermeasures applied. A summary of effective half-lives (T1/2) of 137Cs and 90Sr aggregated transfer factors (Tag) from soil into agricultural and natural products observed after the Chernobyl fallout is given. The short term decrease of 137Cs Tag from soil into milk and beef during two months after fallout were observed - T1/2 varied from 13 d to 36 d in depend on the part of dry and wet fallout. The studies between autumn 1986 and 1991 suggest a decrease in the 137Cs Tag with T1/2/2 =1-2 years. From 5-6 years after deposition onwards T1/2/2 of 137Cs and 90Sr Tag's in the range of 8 to 21 years were observed. Effective half-lives of 137Cs Tag's for foods from semi-natural ecosystems (mushrooms, berries, game, fish) are longer (up to tens years). On at least for some natural products the decrease seems to be only to radioactive decay. Comparison of the data on the dynamics of 137Cs content in agricultural and natural food products indicates that the contribution of the latter in the internal dose of population grows with each year after fallout, and can reach in the remote period up to 70 %. The influence of the actually applied measures for radiation protection of the population living in different zones of radioactively contaminated territories was taken into account. The results of the internal exposure doses estimations for the population in the different terms after the accident in condition of the countermeasures absence are given for a comparison. On the most contaminated territories these doses could exceeded actual in 5-7 times

295

Factors Influencing Self-Directed Career Management: An Integrative Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the relationship between the protean career and other variables, including organizational learning climate, individual calling work orientation, and demographic variables. Design/methodology/approach: The research data were obtained from a sample consisting of 292 employees of two South Korean manufacturing…

Park, Yongho

2009-01-01

296

Factores de riesgo asociados a los accidentes de trabajo en la industria de la construcción del Valle de México / Risk Factors Associated with Work-Related Accidents in the Construction Industry in the Valley of Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la prevalencia de accidentabilidad en la industria de la construcción, factores asociados e impacto potencial en trabajadores afiliados al Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) en el Valle de México. Material y métodos: casos y controles retrospectivo de casos prevalentes. [...] Casos: 385 trabajadores de la industria de la construcción que sufrieron y les fue dictaminado accidente de trabajo en el año de 2001. Controles: 385 trabajadores activos de la industria de la construcción sin antecedente de accidente de trabajo, pareados por sexo, puesto de trabajo, y centro de trabajo. En uno y otro grupos se exploraron características demográficas y laborales que incluyó la capacitación en el trabajo. Resultados: la prevalencia de accidentabilidad en trabajadores de la construcción: 5.5%; factores de riesgo más importantes y fracción etio lógica (FeE): grupo de edad de 16 a 20 años, OR =1.58 [IC 95%: 1.40-10.7], (p=0.001), FeE:0.36, aseguramiento eventual, OR= 3.7[IC95%: 2.16-26.45], (p= 0.001), FeE: 0.72, y falta de capacitación para el trabajo, OR=5.3[IC95%: 4.9-69.2], (p= 0.01), FeE: 0.81. Variables que no mostraron significancia fueron: salario, antigüedad en el puesto, turno y jornada de trabajo. En su conjunto, la capacitación laboral estuvo ausente en 87% de todos los trabajadores sujetos a estudio. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de accidentabilidad mantiene preponderancia en la industria de la construcción del Valle de México; los factores de riesgo identificados son potencialmente modificables donde la capacitación laboral adquiere indiscutible relevancia. Abstract in english Objective: Our aim was to describe construction-industry work-related accident prevalence in, associated factors in, and potential impact on affiliated workers of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS) in the Valley of Mexico. Materials and Methods: Pre [...] valent cases in a retrospective case-control design. Cases: These include 385 construction-industry workers who were found to have construction work-related accidents in 2001. Controls: comprised 385 active construction-industry workers without work-related accident background paired by gender, workplace, and worksite. Results. Work-related accident prevalence in construction workers was 5.5%; most important risk factors and etiology fraction (Ef) included the following: age 16-20 years odds ratio, OR = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.40-10.7, p=0.001, Efi 0.36; eventual insurance, OR = 3.7, 95% CI, 2.16-26.45, p = 0.001), Efi 0.72, and no training for job, OR =5.3, 95% CI, 4.9-69.2, p = 0.01), Ef: 0.81. Variables not showing significance were included salary, work shift, and workday. Conclusions. Work-related accident prevalence maintains its preponderance in the Valley of Mexico construction industry; identified risk factorsare potentially modifiable, among which job training acquires unquestionable relevance.

Rodrigo, Sarmiento-Salinas; Pablo, López-Rojas; Irma Araceli, Marín-Cotoñieto; Arturo, Godínez-Rocha; Luis, Haro-García; Santiago, Salinas-Tovar.

2004-12-01

297

How to reduce the number of accidents  

CERN Multimedia

Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

2012-01-01

298

Monte Carlo investigation of electron beam relative output factors  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the tasks in commissioning an electron accelerator in cancer clinics is to measure relative output factors (ROFs) versus various parameters such as applicator size (called applicator factors), cutout size (cutout factors) and air-gap size (gap factors) for various electron beam energies and applicator sizes. This kind of measurement takes a lot of time and labour. This thesis shows that Monte Carlo simulation offers an alternative to this task. With BEAM (Med. Phys. 22(1995)503-524), an EGS4 user- code, clinical accelerator electron beams are simulated and ROFs for a Siemens MD2 linear accelerator and a Varian Clinac 2100C accelerator are calculate The study shows that the Monte Carlo method is not only practical in clinics but also powerful in analyzing the related physics. The calculated ROFs agree within 1% with the measurements for most cases and 2% for all cases that have been studied, which is more than acceptable in clinical practice. The details of each component of the dose, such as dose from particles scattered off the photon-jaws and the applicator, the dose from contaminant photon, the dose from direct electrons, etc., are also analyzed. The study also explains quantitatively why the effective SSD (Source to Phantom Surface Distance) is often not the nominal reference SSD. For ROF measurements for small fields using an ion chamber, this study discusses the stopping- power ratio corrections due to changes in the depth of dose maximum as a function of field size and versus various accelerators. Since it handles ROF calculations for arbitrary fields, including square, rectangular, circular and irregular fields, in the same way, Monte Carlo is the simplest method to get ROFs compared to other algorithms. As the first step towards implementing Monte Carlo methods in clinical treatment planning, Monte Carlo calculations for electron beam ROFs can replace measurements in clinical practice. It takes about 6 hours of CPU time on a single Pentium Pro 200MHz computer to simulate an accelerator and additional 2 hours for each ROF.

Zhang, Geoffrey G.

299

HORUS-II - phase B: Experimental investigations of the thermohydraulic behaviour of tubes in horizontal steam generators under accident conditions for nuclear power plants with VVER-reactors. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The final report documents the results of experiments performed at the HORUS-II test facility within the scope of the BMBF-project no. 1500984/8 'Experimental Investigations of the Thermohydraulic Behaviour of Tubes in Horizontal Steam Generators under accident conditions for NPP with VVER-Reactors'. The experiments aimed to extend the experimental data base of previous HORUS-II experiments for the processes during pure steam condensation in different pressure ranges and for various temperature differences for the conditions of horizontal heater tubes of WER-reactor types. Experiments with dosage of noncondensing gases into the steam mass flow are also performed as well as experiments with different secondary cooling conditions to simulate accident management procedures. The scientific tasks, the construction of the HORUS-II test facility, the instrumentation and the data acquisition system are described first followed by a general representation of the experimental conditions, the experimental matrix and the experimental run. The results of measured parameters are represented and discussed for selected experiments of the different test groups. The realized experiments turned out to be able to verify and to develop the condensation models in the ATHLET-computer code. The experiments were also be able to prove the accident behaviour during the two phase flow natural circulation in the horizontal tubes under several primary and secondary accident conditions. (orig.)secondary accident conditions. (orig.)

300

Factores predisponentes y repercusión del accidente hipoglucémico en embarazadas diabéticas pre-gestacionales bajo tratamiento insulínico intensivo Predisposing factors and impact of the hypoglycaemic accident on pregnant women with pregestational diabetes under intensive insulin treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analizar los factores que predisponen al accidente hipoglucémico durante el embarazo en diabéticas pre-gestacionales y su repercusión materna y perinatal. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron retrospectivamente 175 embarazadas diabéticas pre-gestacionales (73 B, 22 C, 66 D, 4 F, 1 H, 5 R, y 4 F-R en el período 2001-2006, todas estuvieron sometidas a tratamiento dietético e insulínico y este último aplicado según el método descrito por los profesores Valdés Amador y Márquez Guillén. Los resultados maternos y perinatales se analizan comparativamente entre las que sufrieron del accidente y las que no, para lo cual utilizamos el test X² de Fisher con un significado de pOBJECTIVE: to analyze the factors predisposing the hypoglycaemic accident during pregnancy in pregestational diabetic women and its maternal and perinatal repercussion. METHODS: 175 pregnant women affected by pregestational diabetes (73 B, 22 C, 66 D, 4 F, 1 H, 5 R, y 4 F-R were retrospectively studied from 2001 to 2006. All of them were under dietetic and insulin treatment. The latter was applied by the method described by professors Valdés Amador and Márquez Guillén. The maternal and perinatal results were comparatively analyzed among those who suffered the accident and those who did not, for which we used Fisher's chi square test with a significance of p< 0.05. RESULTS: a hypoglycaemic accident was detected in 78 patients (44.6 %. It was mild in 54 (30.9 % and severe in 24 (13.7 %. Hypoglycaemia was more significantly frequent in type-1 diabetic women aged 25 or under, nuliparous, with low or normal body weight and with some grade of vascular lesion. No impact was detected on perinatal morbimortality, and no congenital anomalies were observed as a result of the complication. CONCLUSIONS: type-1 diabetic women with some grade of vascular lesion and with low or normal body weight are proner to the accident due very probably to the reported loss of counterregulatory hormonal reaction.

Amador Lemay Valdés

2008-08-01

301

An investigation of factors influencing indoor radon concentrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Variations in indoor radon concentrations and some influencing factors have been studied during a two-year period (1986-1987) in 16 almost identical single-family houses.The annual average radon concentration in the houses varied from about 50 to about 400 Bq/m3. Variations in soil characteristics and radon concentration in soil gas could not be directly related to the variations of the average indoor radon concentrations. Most of the houses showed a ''normal'' seasonal variation of the radon concentration with a maximum in the winter and minimum in the summer. A deviating seasonal variation was found in three of the houses. Hourly data obtained in one unoccupied house during a period of 2-1/2 months showed no or only weak correlations between the indoor radon concentration and meteorological factors. However, for most of the houses, the seasonal variation of the indoor radon concentration was well correlated with the average indoor-outdoor temperature difference on a 2-month basis. It was demonstrated that the radon concentration can be strongly reduced in the Risoe houses if a district-heating duct, which is connected to all the houses, is ventilated, so that a slightly lowered pressure is maintained in the duct. 5 taps., 24 ill. (author)

302

Effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on goshawk reproduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the influence of nuclear accidents on the reproduction of top predators has not been investigated, it is important that we identify the effects of such accidents because humans are also top predators. We conducted field observation for 22 years and analysed the reproductive performance of the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae), a top avian predator in the North Kanto area of Japan, before and after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in 2011. The reproductive performance declined markedly compared with the pre-accident years and progressively decreased for the three post-accident study years. Moreover, it was suggested that these declines were primarily caused by an increase in the air dose rate of radio-active contaminants measured under the nests caused by the nuclear accidents, rather than by other factors. We consider the trends in the changes of the reproductive success rates and suggest that internal exposure may play an important role in the reproductive performance of the goshawk, as well as external exposure. PMID:25802117

Murase, Kaori; Murase, Joe; Horie, Reiko; Endo, Koichi

2015-01-01

303

Effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on goshawk reproduction  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the influence of nuclear accidents on the reproduction of top predators has not been investigated, it is important that we identify the effects of such accidents because humans are also top predators. We conducted field observation for 22 years and analysed the reproductive performance of the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae), a top avian predator in the North Kanto area of Japan, before and after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in 2011. The reproductive performance declined markedly compared with the pre-accident years and progressively decreased for the three post-accident study years. Moreover, it was suggested that these declines were primarily caused by an increase in the air dose rate of radio-active contaminants measured under the nests caused by the nuclear accidents, rather than by other factors. We consider the trends in the changes of the reproductive success rates and suggest that internal exposure may play an important role in the reproductive performance of the goshawk, as well as external exposure. PMID:25802117

Murase, Kaori; Murase, Joe; Horie, Reiko; Endo, Koichi

2015-01-01

304

Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

305

The investigation on the mass media reports on the JCO accident in the major atomic energy countries and Asian countries; Genshiryoku shuyokoku oyobi Ajia shokoku no JCO jiko kanren no hodo ni tsuite no chosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The JCO (Japan Conversion Organization) accident is the worst one in the history of the atomic energy developments in Japan. The many reports about the accident appeared in the 44 mass media in the world from Sep. 30 to Oct. 14, 1999. Chronological statistics of issued 522 articles are listed under particular criteria. Some of them were based on wrong knowledge and/or overestimations about the accident based on delivered articles by the news agency. Some of others gave critics over the total atomic energy industries of Japan, especially on safety managements and so-called similar Japan syndromes. This investigation gives emphasis on the articles based on wrong knowledge. We identified the countries and the newspaper publishers and the news agencies those gave wrong descriptions. Total 25 articles used the words [explosion] and [fire], which were delivered from the Kyodo News Service. Some of the Asian newspaper wrote that a large quantity of radioactivity, radioactive material and/or nuclear fuels was released. Some other news publishers said the accident was happened at fuel reprocessing facilities, when the waste fuel rods were under cutting. Critics delivered in the individual countries were summarized, i.e. USA, Canada, France, UK, German, Russia, Australia, China, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Taiwan and the news agencies. One of the key issues is the exact information release for the press corps on the early stage of the accidents. The second point is to recognize the different status on atomic energy in the individual countries, when Japan want to explain their domestic situations. Accidents of atomic energy gave many impacts on various aspects to other countries. Japan should understand the neighborhood by collecting world information on atomic energy and analyzing them. Summaries of 522 articles appeared in the mass media were attached in this investigation among the report of 180 pages. (Tanaka, Y.)

NONE

1999-12-01

306

Criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility. Think back on JCO criticality accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is written in order to understand the fundamental knowledge of criticality safety or criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility by the citizens. It consists of four chapters such as critical conditions and criticality accident of nuclear facility, risk of criticality accident, prevention of criticality accident and a measure at an occurrence of criticality accident. A definition of criticality, control of critical conditions, an aspect of accident, a rate of incident, damage, three sufferers, safety control method of criticality, engineering and administrative control, safety design of criticality, investigation of failure of safety control of JCO criticality accident, safety culture are explained. JCO criticality accident was caused with intention of disregarding regulation. It is important that we recognize the correct risk of criticality accident of nuclear fuel facility and prevent disasters. On the basis of them, we should establish safety culture. (S.Y.)

307

Variation in transfer factor of radiocaesium in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in clear cut and mature forest sites after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bank voles that were collected between 1986 and 2004 at sites in Chernobyl fallout areas of northern Sweden showed higher 137Cs activity concentrations at the mature forest sites compared to clear cuts. This difference was not attributed to differences in ground deposition between sites but to differences in aggregated transfer rates to voles. Differences in transfer between forest types were evident for all years 1986-2004 but the change occurred at different rates in the two habitats. The apparent transfer factor between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and voles was positively related and indicated that a biomagnification was about 1.5 from vegetation to these small mammalian herbivores. The aggregated transfer factor to bank voles measured in the forest habitat, although starting at higher levels declined faster with time than clear cut sites and the differences between the forest habitat and the clear cut areas diminished with time. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the mean level in bank vole was 514 Bq/kg fresh mass (SD = 505) that increased to 1485 Bq/kg (SD = 881) in 1988. The activity concentration declined thereafter. The bank voles collected in similar habitats in 2004 contained on average 1022 Bq/kg (SD = 723). Still 18 years after the radionuclide fallout over Sweden high activity concentrations in voles could be found

308

Variation in transfer factor of radiocaesium in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in clear cut and mature forest sites after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bank voles that were collected between 1986 and 2004 at sites in Chernobyl fallout areas of northern Sweden showed higher {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations at the mature forest sites compared to clear cuts. This difference was not attributed to differences in ground deposition between sites but to differences in aggregated transfer rates to voles. Differences in transfer between forest types were evident for all years 1986-2004 but the change occurred at different rates in the two habitats. The apparent transfer factor between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and voles was positively related and indicated that a biomagnification was about 1.5 from vegetation to these small mammalian herbivores. The aggregated transfer factor to bank voles measured in the forest habitat, although starting at higher levels declined faster with time than clear cut sites and the differences between the forest habitat and the clear cut areas diminished with time. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the mean level in bank vole was 514 Bq/kg fresh mass (SD = 505) that increased to 1485 Bq/kg (SD = 881) in 1988. The activity concentration declined thereafter. The bank voles collected in similar habitats in 2004 contained on average 1022 Bq/kg (SD = 723). Still 18 years after the radionuclide fallout over Sweden high activity concentrations in voles could be found.

Palo, Thomas R. [Mid-Sweden University, Department of Natural Sciences, Holmgatan 10, 85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)]. E-mail: thomas.palo@miun.se

2007-07-01

309

Investigation of Framingham Risk Factors in Turkish adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine 10-year risk for development of cardiovascular diseases usingFramingham risk scoring as a tool for the estimationof coronary risk and renew the blood lipid levels.Materials and methods: Samples from fasting 3169healthy donors declaring as having no cardiovasculardisease and diabetes (1800 women, mean age 46.8±9.2years and 1369 men, mean age 46.03±8.4 years weretested and scored according to risk factors in both genders.Results: When average values were considered, totalcholesterol level was higher (204±42 mg/dL accordingto reactive insert reference values. High total kolesteroland low HDL-C levels were seen in 20% and 19.5% ofmen and 32.6% and 1.1% of women, respectively. Thenumber of participants having systolic blood pressure?130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure ? 85 mmHgwere 775 (24.5% and the distribution of those valueswas 10.6 % in men and 13.9% in women. The mean 10-year cardiovascular disease risks were 9.4 % in men and4.6% in women among 3169 participants.Conclusion: A 10-year risk of coronary disease, in Turkishmales was 2-fold higher than in Turkish females. Useof Framingham study in clinical assessments maintains tobe a valid method in preventive approaches for developmentof cardiovascular diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(1: 42-49

Arda ?anl? Ökmen

2011-03-01

310

Intraarterial therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Investigation of prognostic factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intraarterial therapy (IAT) for acute cerebral infarction has been proven to be profitable. However, the criteria for the indications, the choice of the thrombolytic agents, and the use of adjunctive agents are controversial. We retrospectively analyzed the prognostic factors of IAT. From 1994 to 2003, 28 patients underwent IAT due to middle cerebral artery occlusion (17 women and 11 men; median age, 69 years old). We evaluated the following prognostic parameters: institution of treatment, degree of paralysis at visit, size of high-intensity area on diffusion-weighted images, dose of intraarterial urokinase administration, elapsed time from symptom onset to completion of IAT, presence of penetration of embolus by microcatheter and microguidewire, recanalization after IAT, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) within 24 hours after IAT, and intravenous heparin administration after IAT. The outcome was evaluated at discharge and was classified into the following categories according to the modified Rankin Scale: independence (0 to 2), dependence (3 to 5), and death (6). Seven patients were judged to be independent, 16 patients were judged to be dependent, and five patients died. Patients with recanalization after IAT had a better outcome than those without (p<0.05); patients with intracranial hemorrhage had a worse outcome than those without (p<0.05); and patients with intravenous heparin administration after IAT had a better outcome in activities of daily living than those wit activities of daily living than those without (p<0.05). In addition to ICH and recanalization, our results suggested that intravenous heparin administration after IAT had a favorable effect on patient outcome. (author)

311

Psychological aspects of risk appraisal in asphyxiation accidents: a review of the factors influencing children’s perception and behaviour  

OpenAIRE

Psychological aspects determining children’s behaviour in response to asphyxiation risk due to ingestion of foreign matter have been rarely and non-systematically examined in the literature. Aim of this report is to highlight – through a review of the most significant psychological research in the literature – which factors influence the behaviour, perception and assessments of children 0 to 14 years of age, in a risk situation. In particular, attention is focused on the direct experien...

Zigon, G.; Corradetti, R.; Morra, B.; Snidero, S.; Gregori, D.; Passali, D.

2005-01-01

312

Analysis of Crew Fatigue in AIA Guantanamo Bay Aviation Accident  

Science.gov (United States)

Flight operations can engender fatigue, which can affect flight crew performance, vigilance, and mood. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) requested the NASA Fatigue Countermeasures Program to analyze crew fatigue factors in an aviation accident that occurred at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. There are specific fatigue factors that can be considered in such investigations: cumulative sleep loss, continuous hours of wakefulness prior to the incident or accident, and the time of day at which the accident occurred. Data from the NTSB Human Performance Investigator's Factual Report, the Operations Group Chairman's Factual Report, and the Flight 808 Crew Statements were analyzed, using conservative estimates and averages to reconcile discrepancies among the sources. Analysis of these data determined the following: the entire crew displayed cumulative sleep loss, operated during an extended period of continuous wakefulness, and obtained sleep at times in opposition to the circadian disposition for sleep, and that the accident occurred in the afternoon window of physiological sleepiness. In addition to these findings, evidence that fatigue affected performance was suggested by the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) transcript as well as in the captain's testimony. Examples from the CVR showed degraded decision-making skills, fixation, and slowed responses, all of which can be affected by fatigue; also, the captain testified to feeling "lethargic and indifferent" just prior to the accident. Therefore, the sleep/wake history data supports the hypothesis that fatigue was a factor that affected crewmembers' performance. Furthermore, the examples from the CVR and the captain's testimony support the hypothesis that the fatigue had an impact on specific actions involved in the occurrence of the accident.

Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Miller, Donna L.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Lebacqz, J. Victor; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

313

Investigating different factors influencing on return of private banks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Return of Investment has always been an interesting area of research among academics as well as investors. Although capital asset pricing model (CAPM is capable of estimating risk of investment, many people argue that CAPM is not able to predict long-term return, properly. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effects of different financial figures including systematic risk (Beta, size of firm, ratio of book value to market share, volume of trade and the ratio of price/earnings (P/E on return of private banks in Iran. The study gathers the necessary information over the period 2005-2011 from private banks in Iran. The study uses multiple regression technique to find the effects of mentioned variables on return of private banks. The results indicate that there are some meaningful and positive relationship between return of banks and systematic risk (Beta, size, volume of trade and P/E. The study also finds some meaningful and reverse relationship between bank return and book value on market value.

Pegah Motamedi

2013-09-01

314

Epidemiological profile of patients with cerebral vascular accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: to show the profile epidemiological of patients with cerebral vascular accident in a public hospital from João Pessoa city, Paraíba, Brazil; to investigate the social demographic profile; to identify the risk factors, symptoms and sequels of the cerebral vascular accident. Methods: this is about a descriptive and exploratory study, from quantitative approach; the population was configured by sixty handbooks. Data collect was performed with a form from March to April 2007, and then data were analyzed and presented in tables and figures. This study was approval by the Ethics Committee under protocol number 58/2007. Results: data has been demonstrated that most of the handbooks belonged to patients from 46 to 85 years old; from female; they came from Mata Paraibana region; they were patients with hypertension; they had cerebral vascular accident of the type hemorrhagic. Conclusion: this study was very important for nurses, since it allowed them to have knowledge to help reduce the number of deaths and sequelae of cerebral vascular accident, also contributed to the basics to change like this, as knowledge of the disease and fitness treatment methods (among them, stand out studies of risk factors and relevance of applying an early prevention of cerebral vascular accident. Thus, the role of nursing is to prevent and detect early complications, educating the population about the disease.

Carolline Paulo Neto da Cunha Lima, Marta Miriam Lopes Costa, Maria Julia Guimarães Oliveira Soares

2009-10-01

315

Transportation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Predicting the possible consequences of transportation accidents provides a severe challenge to an analyst who must make a judgment of the likely consequences of a release event at an unpredictable time and place. Since it is impractical to try to obtain detailed knowledge of the meteorology and terrain for every potential accident location on a route or to obtain accurate descriptions of population distributions or sensitive property to be protected (data which are more likely to be more readily available when one deals with fixed-site problems), he is constrained to make conservative assumptions in response to a demanding public audience. These conservative assumptions are frequently offset by very small source terms (relative to a fixed site) created when a transport vehicle is involved in an accident. For radioactive materials, which are the principal interest of the authors, only the most elementary models have been used for assessing the consequences of release of these materials in the transportation setting. Risk analysis and environmental impact statements frequently have used the Pasquill-Gifford/gaussian techniques for releases of short duration, which are both simple and easy to apply and require a minimum amount of detailed information. However, after deciding to use such a model, the problem of selecting what specific parameters to use in specific transportation situations still presents itself. Additional complications arise because source terms are notcations arise because source terms are not well characterized, release rates can be variable over short and long time periods, and mechanisms by which source aerosols become entrained in air are not always obvious. Some approaches that have been used to address these problems will be reviewed with emphasis on guidelines to avoid the Worst-Case Scenario Syndrome

316

Cognitive Style Index: Further Investigation of the Factor Structure with an American Student Sample  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates the factor structure of the Cognitive Style Index (CSI), comparing the unitary, bipolar continuum of intuition-analysis, the theory upon which the CSI is predicated, with the two-factor theory of cognitive style. We conducted both confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses on data from a sample of 222 American…

Backhaus, Kristin; Liff, Joshua P.

2007-01-01

317

Nuclear accident emergency introduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear accident emergency is an action for controlling or reliving nuclear accident and relaxing accident result. It is different from normal order and normal work procedures, and it is also the last part of depth defense. The article introduces the main content of nuclear accident emergency management work and an example of nuclear accident emergency drill. (author)

318

Radiation accident in Vietnam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily because of a lack of safety systems, although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

319

The vver severe accident management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher

320

The vver severe accident management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher.

Asmolov, V. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2001-07-01

321

Longterm reduction of ceasium-137 transfer factors from soil in agricultural and natural foodstuffs after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the data on dynamics of 137Cs content in the most critical (during different time periods after the radioactive fallout) links of the food chain that are necessary for assessing of the current internal doses in population, reconstruction and long-term forecast of these doses are presented. The data were obtained during 1986-2000 as a result of monitoring of contaminated areas in Russia that considerably differ in their soil conditions, the levels of 137Cs surface activity on soil and types of countermeasures applied. A summary of effective half-lives (T1/2) of 137Cs aggregated transfer factors Tag from soil into agricultural and natural products observed after the Chernobyl fallout is given. (orig.)

322

Predicted occurrence rate of severe transportation accidents involving large casks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary of the results of an investigation of the severities of highway and railroad accidents as they relate to the shipment of large radioactive materials casks is discussed. The accident environments considered are fire, impact, crash, immersion, and puncture. For each of these environments, the accident severities and their predicted frequencies of occurrence are presented. These accident environments are presented in tabular and graphic form to allow the reader to evaluate the probabilities of occurrence of the accident parameter severities he selects

323

Investigation of break location effects on thermal-hydraulics during intermediate break loss-of-coolant accident experiments at ROSA-III  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rig of safety assessment (ROSA)-III facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) boiling water reactor (BWR/6) system with an electrically heated core designed for integral loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and emergency core cooling system (ECCS) tests. Break location effects on thermal-hydraulics during intermediate LOCAs were investigated by using four experiments at the ROSA-III, the 15 and 25 % main recirculation pump suction line break (MRPS-B) experiments, the 21 % single-ended jet pump drive line break (JPD-B) experiment and the 15 % main steam line break (MSL-B) experiment. Water injection from the high pressure core spray (HPCS) was not used in any of the experiments. Failure of ECCS actuation by the high containment pressure was also assumed in the tests. In the MRPS-B experiments, the discharge flow turned from low quality fluid to high quality fluid when the downcomer water level dropped to the main recirculation line outlet elevation, which suppressed coolant loss from the vessel and the core. In the JPD-B experiment, the jet pump drive nozzle was covered with low quality fluid and low quality fluid discharge continued even after the downcomer water level reached the jet pump suction elevation. Low quality fluid discharge ceased after the ADS actuation. It suggestes that the JPD-B LOCA has the possibility of causing larger and more severe core dryout and cladding temperature excursion than the MRPS-B LOCA. The MSL-B LOCA was characterized by mixture levSL-B LOCA was characterized by mixture level swell in the downcomer and the core. The core mixture level swell resulted in the much later core dryout initiation than that in the MRPS-B LOCA, however, ECCS actuation was also delayed because of slow downcomer water level drop. (author)

324

ASTEC investigations of severe core damage behaviour of VVER-1000 in case of loss of coolant accident along with Station-Black-Out  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Severe accident analysis of a reactor is an important aspect for evaluation of source term. Analyses have been carried out for VVER-1000 V320 reactor following LOCA along with Station-Black-Out using the severe accident code ASTEC. The predictions of different severe accident parameters like vessel rupture time, hydrogen and corium production and radioactivity release to containment have been compared for three break sizes. Since these predictions are dependent on different core degradation parameters and models, a sensitivity analysis is also carried out to study the effect of different core degradation parameters and models on severe core damage progression. LOCA analyses show a variation of degradation parameters which is a consequence of steam-rich and steam-starved conditions. All these calculations of VVER-1000 scenarios show that the ASTEC V2 code gives reliable and consistent results on this type of reactor, including its specifics like Zr1%Nb clad material and horizontal steam generators

325

ASTEC investigations of severe core damage behaviour of VVER-1000 in case of loss of coolant accident along with Station-Black-Out  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Severe accident analysis of a reactor is an important aspect for evaluation of source term. Analyses have been carried out for VVER-1000 V320 reactor following LOCA along with Station-Black-Out using the severe accident code ASTEC. The predictions of different severe accident parameters like vessel rupture time, hydrogen and corium production and radioactivity release to containment have been compared for three break sizes. Since these predictions are dependent on different core degradation parameters and models, a sensitivity analysis is also carried out to study the effect of different core degradation parameters and models on severe core damage progression. LOCA analyses show a variation of degradation parameters which is a consequence of steam-rich and steam-starved conditions. All these calculations of VVER-1000 scenarios show that the ASTEC V2 code gives reliable and consistent results on this type of reactor, including its specifics like Zr1%Nb clad material and horizontal steam generators.

Groudev, Pavlin, E-mail: pavlinpg@inrne.bas.bg [INRNE – BAS, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasova, Boryana [INRNE – BAS, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Chatterjee, Barun; Lele, Hemant G. [BARC, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Reactor Safety Division, Mumbai 400085 (India)

2014-06-01

326

Radiation accidents. Reflections and reminiscences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four studies are discussed, two dealing with the effects of radiation accidents on the public and two with the management of radiation casualties. The importance of the contribution of the actinides to the radiological consequences of major accidents to fast reactors emerges clearly from a recent study. The development and practical application of quantitative guides to action to protect the public in the United Kingdom from the effects of radiation accidents is reviewed. The results are given of investigating 200 cases of actual or suggested radiation over-exposure by the 'scoring' of chromosome aberrations. Treatment with DTPA is generally accepted as the most effective means of enhancing the excretion of plutonium from the body. DTPA may be administered by intravenous injection or in an aerosol and the two methods have been compared. A lipophilic derivative of DTPA shows promise. The paper ends with an outline of lessons learned from the reactor accident at Windscale in 1957. (author)

327

An investigation of hydrogen stratification and its application for the assessment of containment failure modes for a BWR Mark III containment during core meltdown accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The BNL staff have performed an extensive assessment of potential failure modes for core meltdown accidents in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) with a Mark III containment. The particular Mark III containment under consideration did not initially include provision for any system to control H/sub 2/ burning, so that H/sub 2/ phenomena were found to be dominant contributors to containment failure. However, all Mark III containments will now have provisions for the control of H/sub 2/ burning, which will influence the current assessment of H/sub 2/ phenomena. During core meltdown accidents, hydrogen may accumulate inside the reactor containment

328

Effects of accident management strategy on the severe accident environmental conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a methodology utilizing an accident management strategy in order to determine accident environmental conditions to be used as inputs to equipment survivability assessments. In the case that there is a well-established accident management strategy for a specific nuclear power plant (NPP), an application of this tool can provide a technical rationale on equipment survivability assessment so that plant-specific and time-dependent accident environmental conditions could be practically and realistically defined in accordance with the equipment and instrumentation required for the accident management strategy or appropriate actions. For this work, three different tools are introduced; probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) outcomes, major accident management strategy actions, and accident environmental stages (AESs). In order to quantitatively investigate an applicability of accident management strategy on equipment survivability, the accident simulation for most likely scenario in Korean standard nuclear power plants (KSNPs) is performed with the MAAP4 code. The accident management guideline (AMG) actions such as the reactor coolant system (RCS) depressurization, water injection into the RCS, the containment pressure and temperature control, and hydrogen concentration control in containment are applied. The effects of these AMG actions on the accident environmental conditions are investigated by comparison to actions from previous normal accident simulations from previous normal accident simulation, especially focusing on equipment survivability assessment. As a result, the AMG-involved case shows the higher accident consequences along the accident environmental stages. This implies that plant-specific AMG actions need to be considered in order to determine accident environmental conditions in equipment survivability assessments

329

Fatores associados ao óbito de motociclistas nas ocorrências de trânsito / Factors associated with the death of motorcyclists in traffic accidents / Factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclista en accidentes de tránsito  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para identificar fatores associados ao óbito em motociclistas envolvidos em ocorrências de trânsito, em Maringá-PR, foi realizado estudo retrospectivo incluindo os motociclistas envolvidos em acidentes no ano de 2004. As fontes de dados foram os registros da Polícia Militar, do SIATE e do Instituto [...] Médico Legal. Foram realizadas análises bivariadas e regressão logística binária. Identificaram-se 2.362 motociclistas nos Boletins de Ocorrência e, destes, 1.743 tinham registros nos Relatórios de Atendimento do Socorrista. As vítimas fatais diferiram das demais quanto à faixa etária, ao local de residência, ao tempo de habilitação e as suas condições fisiológicas na cena da ocorrência. No modelo final permaneceram as seguintes variáveis: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulso e saturação de O2 no sangue. As condições fisiológicas das vítimas na cena do acidente se destacaram no modelo final e a ECGl superou o RTS na associação com óbito. Abstract in spanish Para identificar factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclistas involucrados en accidentes de tránsito, en Maringá-PR se realizó estudio retrospectivo incluyendo a los motociclistas involucrados en accidentes durante 2004. Datos recolectados de registros de Policía Militar, SIATE e Instituto M [...] édico Legal. Se identificaron 2362 motociclistas en las Actas de Accidentes; de ellos, 1743 tenían registro en los Informes de Atención del Socorrista. Las víctimas fatales difirieron del resto en lo referente a faja etaria, lugar de residencia, tiempo de habilitación y condiciones fisiológicas en la escena del accidente. En el modelo final permanecen las variables: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulso y saturación de O2 en sangre. Las condiciones fisiológicas de las víctimas en la escena del accidente se destacan en el modelo final, y la ECGl superó al RTS en la asociación con fallecimiento. Abstract in english In order to identify the factors associated with death among motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents in Maringá - PR, a retrospective study was performed, including motorcyclists involved in accidents in the year 2004. Data were collected from the Military Police records, the Integrated System f [...] or Emergency Trauma Care (Sistema Integrado de Atendimento ao Trauma em Emergência -SIATE) and the Institute of Legal Medicine. Bivariate analyses and binary logistical regression were performed. A total of 2,362 motorcyclists were identified in the Police Reports, 1,743 of whom also had records in the Emergency Responders reports. Victims who succumbed to their injuries differed from victims who survived in terms of age, place of residence, time elapsed since obtaining a driver's license, and their physiological condition at the scene of the accident. The following variables were maintained in the final model: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulse, and blood oxygen saturation. The physiological conditions of the victims at the scene of the accidents were highlighted in the final model, with GCS surpassing RTS in regards to association with death.

Nelson Luiz Batista de, Oliveira; Regina Marcia Cardoso de, Sousa.

1379-13-01

330

Fatores associados ao óbito de motociclistas nas ocorrências de trânsito Factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclista en accidentes de tránsito Factors associated with the death of motorcyclists in traffic accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para identificar fatores associados ao óbito em motociclistas envolvidos em ocorrências de trânsito, em Maringá-PR, foi realizado estudo retrospectivo incluindo os motociclistas envolvidos em acidentes no ano de 2004. As fontes de dados foram os registros da Polícia Militar, do SIATE e do Instituto Médico Legal. Foram realizadas análises bivariadas e regressão logística binária. Identificaram-se 2.362 motociclistas nos Boletins de Ocorrência e, destes, 1.743 tinham registros nos Relatórios de Atendimento do Socorrista. As vítimas fatais diferiram das demais quanto à faixa etária, ao local de residência, ao tempo de habilitação e as suas condições fisiológicas na cena da ocorrência. No modelo final permaneceram as seguintes variáveis: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, pulso e saturação de O2 no sangue. As condições fisiológicas das vítimas na cena do acidente se destacaram no modelo final e a ECGl superou o RTS na associação com óbito.Para identificar factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclistas involucrados en accidentes de tránsito, en Maringá-PR se realizó estudio retrospectivo incluyendo a los motociclistas involucrados en accidentes durante 2004. Datos recolectados de registros de Policía Militar, SIATE e Instituto Médico Legal. Se identificaron 2362 motociclistas en las Actas de Accidentes; de ellos, 1743 tenían registro en los Informes de Atención del Socorrista. Las víctimas fatales difirieron del resto en lo referente a faja etaria, lugar de residencia, tiempo de habilitación y condiciones fisiológicas en la escena del accidente. En el modelo final permanecen las variables: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, pulso y saturación de O2 en sangre. Las condiciones fisiológicas de las víctimas en la escena del accidente se destacan en el modelo final, y la ECGl superó al RTS en la asociación con fallecimiento.In order to identify the factors associated with death among motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents in Maringá - PR, a retrospective study was performed, including motorcyclists involved in accidents in the year 2004. Data were collected from the Military Police records, the Integrated System for Emergency Trauma Care (Sistema Integrado de Atendimento ao Trauma em Emergência -SIATE and the Institute of Legal Medicine. Bivariate analyses and binary logistical regression were performed. A total of 2,362 motorcyclists were identified in the Police Reports, 1,743 of whom also had records in the Emergency Responders reports. Victims who succumbed to their injuries differed from victims who survived in terms of age, place of residence, time elapsed since obtaining a driver's license, and their physiological condition at the scene of the accident. The following variables were maintained in the final model: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, pulse, and blood oxygen saturation. The physiological conditions of the victims at the scene of the accidents were highlighted in the final model, with GCS surpassing RTS in regards to association with death.

Nelson Luiz Batista de Oliveira

2012-12-01

331

Hull loss accident model for narrow body commercial aircraft  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accidents with narrow body aircraft were statistically evaluated covering six families of commercial aircraft includingBoeing B737, Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD80, Tupolev TU134/TU154 and Antonov AN124. A risk indicator for eachflight phase was developed based on motion characteristics, duration time, and the presence of adverse weather conditions.The estimated risk levels based on these risk indicators then developed from the risk indicator. Regression analysis indicatedvery good agreement between the estimated risk level and the accident ratio of hull loss cases per number of delivered aircraft.The effect of time on the hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft was assessed for B737, A320 and MD80. Equationsrepresenting the effect of time on hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were proposed for B737, A320, and MD80,while average values of hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were found for TU134, TU154, and AN 124. Accidentprobability equations were then developed for each family of aircraft that the probability of an aircraft in a hull loss accidentcould be estimated for any aircraft family, flight phase, presence of adverse weather factor, hour of day, day of week, monthof year, pilot age, and pilot flight hour experience. A simplified relationship between estimated hull loss accident probabilityand unsafe acts by human was proposed. Numerical investigation of the relationship between unsafe acts by human andfatality ratio suggested that the fatality ratio in hull loss accident was dominated primarily by the flight phase media.

Somchanok Tiabtiamrat

2010-10-01

332

Development of a deformation and failure model for Zircaloy at high temperatures for light water reactor loss-of-coolant-accident investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe Zircaloy-4 deformation and failure behaviour at high temperatures (600 to 14000C), the phenomenological model NORA was developed and verified against numerous experimental results. The model can be applied to the calculation of fuel rod cladding deformation during small and large break loss-of-coolant-accidents. (orig./RW)

333

Investigation of Factors Influencing Students' Intentions to Use the Internet: Jordanian Universities Context  

OpenAIRE

The increasing use of information technology (IT) applications within universities context increases the importance of exploring cognitive and psychological factors that might influence successful introduction and usage of IT. Consideration of these factors including students' intention to use IT is receiving a huge interest in recent literature to avoid what so called the technological disenfranchisement. Accordingly, the present study investigates certain attitudinal factors that may influe...

Awadh, Muhammad; Al-adaileh, Raid Mohammed

2006-01-01

334

Depression in young adolescents: investigations using 2 and 3 factor versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument.  

OpenAIRE

Associations between parenting style and depressive symptomatology in a community sample of young adolescents (N = 2596) were investigated using self-report measures including the Parental Bonding Instrument and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Specifically, the 25-item 2-factor and 3-factor models by Parker et al. (1979), Kendler's (1996) 16-item 3-factor model, and Parker's (1983) quadrant model for the Parental Bonding Instrument were compared. Data analysis included ...

Martin, G.; Bergen, Ha; Roeger, L.; Allison, S.

2004-01-01

335

An Investigation of Factors Determining the Study Abroad Destination Choice: A Case Study of Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies on the field of education abroad have mainly focused on the factors influencing the mobility of international students from developing to developed countries and very few have been conducted to investigate the factors influencing the flow of international students to the Asia Pacific region. As a piece of country-specific…

Lee, Cheng-Fei

2014-01-01

336

Accident information needs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information

337

JAERI's activities in JCO accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was actively involved in a variety of technical supports and cooperative activities, such as advice on terminating the criticality condition, contamination checks of the residents and consultation services for the residents, as emergency response actions to the criticality accident at the uranium processing facility operated by the JCO Co. Ltd., which occurred on September 30, 1999. These activities were carried out in collaborative ways by the JAERI staff from the Tokai Research Establishment, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, and Headquarter Office in Tokyo. As well, the JAERI was engaged in the post-accident activities such as identification of accident causes, analyses of the criticality accident, and dose assessment of exposed residents, to support the Headquarter for Accident Countermeasures of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Control Committee of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). This report compiles the activities, that the JAERI has conducted to date, including the discussions on measures for terminating the criticality condition, evaluation of the fission number, radiation monitoring in the environment, dose assessment, analyses of criticality dynamics. (author)

338

How Enzymes Work: Investigating their specificity and susceptibility to environmental factors using Jell-O.  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity is a lab investigation in which students design and conduct experiments using pineapple juice containing the enzyme bromelain and its affect on the substrate gelatin found in Jell-O. The focus of student driven investigations are on enzyme specificity, activity and the impact of environmental factors on enzyme functioning.

Heather Netland, Jefferson High School, Alexandria, MN, based on the original activities from School Improvement in Maryland; "Pineapple/Jell-O Lab," Access Excellence Activities Exchange; "Enzyme Labs Using Jell-O" by Anne McDonald and Michael O'Hare, and AP & Regents Biology; "Lab 8: Pineapple Enzymes and Jell-O Molds" by Kim B. Foglia.

339

HTGR accident delineation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The areas of common cause failure, completeness, and human error in HTGR accident delineation require special attention because of the somewhat limited experience and the particularly long time scale of HTGR accidents. Some problems of accident delineation are reviewed, not by describing the sequences that have been identified and are being analyzed, but by considering the process of accident delineation in itself with emphasis on the particular problems of accident delineation and risk analysis when applied to HTGRs

340

The fate of long-lived radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea after Chernobyl NPP accident: role of hydrophysical factors and tracer applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The poster summarizes studies of 137Cs and 90Sr contamination of the Black Sea Basin carried out by Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas during 1986-2005 following the Chernobyl NPP accident. Inflows of 137Cs and 90Sr from the Dnieper and the Danube Rivers, outflow through the Bosporus Strait, temporary evolution of 137Cs and 90Sr profiles and inventories in the Black Sea water column and inventories in bottom sediments were estimated over the period 1986-2005. It has been estimated that atmospheric fallout deposited after 26 April 1986 1.7-2.4 PBq of 137Cs on the surface of the Black Sea - nearly 2 % of total 137Cs release into the environment. Consequently the 137Cs inventory increased by a factor of 6-10 in the 0-50 m layer and in the whole volume of the Black Sea - by a factor of at least 2 in comparison with pre-Chernobyl value of - 1.4 ± 0.3 PBq. The contribution of Chernobyl-origin 90Sr from atmospheric fallout was estimated as 0.1-0.3 PBq. Preaccident 90Sr level around 20 Bq m-3 was reached by 1988 except NW Black Sea. The subsequent 137Cs input from the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers was very insignificant in comparison with the short-term atmospheric fallout. In contrast to this, total amount of 90Sr delivered by the two rivers into the Black Sea was closed to amount of 90Sr falleclosed to amount of 90Sr fallen on the Black Sea surface after Chernobyl NPP accident. The results of observations and mathematical modelling testified that in the surface layers 0-50 and 0-200 m of the Black Sea in 1986-2000 an exponential decrease of the 137Cs inventories with an effective half-lifes of 5-7 years and 9-13 years respectively have been observed. Under conditions of relatively unimportant river inputs and depletion by sedimentation from the water column, the decrease of the 137Cs inventory in the surface layer has been influenced mainly by three processes: vertical water mixing, release through the Bosphorus Strait, which accounts for 2-2.5 % of the 137Cs inventory in the 0-50 m layer being depleted annually, and radioactive decay. In the case of 90Sr, these processes have been compensated essentially by river inputs from the Dnieper and Danube Rivers. The outflows from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean are interesting for estimating of radionuclides budgets in the Mediterranean Sea and for better quantifying the Chernobyl signal. The ratio 134Cs/137Cs in surface water with a decay corrected value of 0.53 ± 0.1 at 1 May 1986, showed clearly that radiocaesium had Chernobyl origin. This ratio proved to be a very useful tool for identifying Chernobyl derived 137Cs, which can be used for estimation of physical mixing processes in the Black Sea. During the subsequent years Chernobyl derived 137Cs distributed relatively rapid into the permanent Black Sea pycnocline. Further development of this approach had shown that in the Central Black Sea Basin about 50 % content of the surface water in the low permanent Black Sea pycnocline reached during 3-5 years. Consequently, total ventilation time of low permanent Black Sea pycnocline by surface waters can be estimated as 15-25 years. The process of vertical 137Cs and 90Sr transfer has been observed mainly in the 0-200 m layer of the Black Sea. Temporary evolution of 137Cs and 90Sr profiles in the Black Sea Deep-Water Basin was used for further estimations of a large-scale vertical water mixing. All 137Cs and 90Sr profiles included three parts: the high-concentrations surface mixed layer, the gradient layer and the low-concentrations layer underneath. After 1986 the increase in the surface mixed layer's thickness up to the upper boundary of the halocline and the sinking of the gradient layer for 137Cs and 90Sr profiles have been observed. The downward velocity of the gradient layer was used as an indicator of the vertical water mixing intensity. 137Cs and 90Sr profiles have been modelled by sigmoid functions with following differential analysis. The results shown that in the course of the first year after the Chernobyl NPP accident the lower boundary of the gradient

341

Approach to accident management in RBMK-1500  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to ensure the safe operation of the nuclear power plants accident management programs are being developed around the world. These accident management programs cover the whole spectrum of accidents, including severe accidents. A lot of work is done to investigate the severe accident phenomena and implement severe accident management in NPPs with vessel-type reactors, while less attention is paid to channel-type reactors CANDU and RBMK. Ignalina NPP with RBMK-1500 reactor has implemented symptom based emergency operation procedures, which cover management of accidents until the core damage and do not extend to core damage region. In order to ensure coverage of the whole spectrum of accidents and meet the requirements of IAEA the severe accident management guidelines have to be developed. This paper presents the basic principles and approach to management of beyond design basis accidents at Ignalina NPP. In general, this approach could be applied to NPPs with RBMK-1000 reactors that are available in Russia, but the design differences should be taken into account

342

Recent development and results from severe accident research in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview on Japanese activities of severe accident research is presented, covering various fields and topics of experimental investigation on severe accident phenomena such as fuel damage and melt progression, fission products release and transport, and component and containment integrity. The current status of analytical investigation on severe accident is also described in the fields of the level-1 and level-2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) studies, code development and assessment activities. The basic considerations on accident management are summarized

343

Catalog of PRA dominant accident sequence information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information concerning the dominant accident sequences from twelve published probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) is cataloged in this report, which is published as a part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP). The purpose of this report is to provide users of PRA information a single reference document. The cataloged results include plant operation information, core-melt frequency, event tree models, dominant factors affecting core-melt and sequence frequencies, and a description of each dominant accident sequence. The report provides a consistent set of insights on the factors that drive the dominant accident sequences. ASEP has reconstructed the PRA fault tree models at the system or train level of detail and requantified the sequence likelihoods to provide the consistent insights. This work provides the information for the other ASEP activities on accident likelihood assessment for the operating and near-term operating plants

344

Estimated recurrence frequencies for initiating accident categories associated with the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimated recurrence frequencies for each of twenty-five generic LMFBR initiating accident categories were quantified using the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design. These estimates were obtained using simplified systems fault trees and functional event tree models from the Accident Delineation Study Phase I Final Report coupled with order-of-magnitude estimates for the initiator-dependent failure probabilities of the individual CRBRP engineered safety systems. Twelve distinct protected accident categories where SCRAM is assumed to be successful are estimated to occur at a combined rate of 10-3 times per year while thirteen unprotected accident categories in which SCRAM fails are estimated to occur at a combined rate on the order of 10-5 times per year. These estimates are thought to be representative despite the fact that human performance factors, maintenance and repair, as well as input common cause uncertainties, were not treated explicitly. The overall results indicate that for the CRBRP design no single accident category appears to be dominant, nor can any be totally eliminated from further investigation in the areas of accident phenomenology for in-core events and post-accident phenomenology for containment

345

Accident occurrence model for the risk analysis of industrialfacilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes an accident occurrence model for the risk analysis of industrial facilities. To better understand the characteristics of industrial accident data, the proposed accident occurrence model is based on a chemical reaction. The model introduces a defensive barrier, which corresponds to the activation energy in a chemical reaction, to prevent an accident. Furthermore, the uncertainty factor in the defensive barrier is mathematically derived as a gamma distribution. The analytical results for the proposed accident occurrence model indicate a Pareto type II distribution, which is the same result found by using a risk curve. Therefore, the analytical model validates the effectiveness of analyzing industrial risk with a riskcurve. Highlights: ? An accident occurrence model based on chemical reaction was proposed. ? Uncertainty factor ? of the defensive barrier to prevent accidents was introduced. ? Accident data of the industrial facilities obey the Pareto type II distribution

346

The fungous infection of human organs by resistant melanin-synthesizing species is one of pathogenic factor and one of valid consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nature of melanin-containing components and sources of their appearance in bronchoalveolar washout by the accident liquidators at the Chernobyl NPP is studied. The appearance of mutant melanin containing fungal forms in the zones with increased radioactive contamination is conditioned by their adaptation to changed conditions of their existence. the conclusion is made that fungal infection of the mans organs through radio- and chemi-resistant melanin-synthesizing species at the background of radiation-induced weakening of immune reaction of the man's body is one of the most dangerous and real effects of the Chernobyl NPP accident

347

Movilidad, accidentalidad por tránsito y sus factores asociados en estudiantes universitarios de Guatemala / Mobility, traffic accidents, and associated factors among Guatemalan university students / Mobilidade, acidentes de trânsito e fatores associados entre estudantes universitários da Guatemala  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo foi identificar e quantificar a associação entre a intensidade de exposição (km/anos percorridos), a acidentalidade e os seus fatores em universitários da Guatemala. Realizou-se um estudo transversal durante o curso 2010-2011 sobre uma amostra de 1.016 condutores de veículos, que responde [...] ram a um questionário autoadministrado que valorizava: padrões de mobilidade, uso de dispositivos de segurança, maneira de condução e acidentalidade. Obtiveram-se associações positivas entre intensidade de exposição e maior implicância em circunstâncias de risco ao conduzir (coeficiente de regressão ajustado a 3,25; IC95%: 2,23-4,27, para as maiores exposições). Tanto a maior implicância em ditas circunstâncias como uma maioridade foram as variáveis mais fortemente associadas com a maior acidentalidade. Apesar de a intensidade de exposição ser associada positivamente com uma maior acidentalidade, estabelecemos que a maior parte da dita associação está mediada pela maior implicância em circunstâncias de risco ao conduzir. Abstract in spanish El objetivo fue identificar y cuantificar la asociación entre la intensidad de exposición (km/año recorridos), la accidentalidad y sus factores asociados en universitarios de Guatemala. Se realizó un estudio trasversal durante el curso 2010-2011, sobre una muestra de 1.016 conductores, quienes cumpl [...] imentaron un cuestionario autoadministrado que valoraba: patrones de movilidad, uso de dispositivos de seguridad, estilos de conducción y accidentalidad. Se obtuvieron asociaciones positivas entre la intensidad de exposición y la mayor implicación en circunstancias de riesgo al volante (coeficiente de regresión ajustado de 3,25, IC95%: 2,23-4,27, para las mayores exposiciones). Tanto una mayor implicación en tales circunstancias, como una mayor edad, fueron las variables más fuertemente asociadas con la mayor accidentalidad. Pese a que la intensidad de exposición se asocia positivamente con una mayor accidentalidad, se constató que la mayor parte de dicha asociación está mediada por una mayor implicación en circunstancias de riesgo al volante. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the association between the amount of driving (km/year), traffic accidents, and other factors among university students in Guatemala. A cross-sectional study was performed during the 2010-2011 school year in a sample of 1,016 drivers who completed a [...] self-administered questionnaire that assessed mobility patterns, use of safety accessories, driving style, and automobile crashes. The results showed a positive association between amount of driving and greater involvement in risky driving (adjusted regression coefficient 3.25, 95%CI: 2.23-4.27, for the highest level of exposure). More frequent involvement in risky driving and older age showed the strongest associations with traffic accidents. Although the amount of driving was positively associated with a higher accident rate, most of this association was found to be mediated by involvement in risky driving practices.

Sandra, Rodríguez-Guzmán; Eladio, Jiménez-Mejías; Virginia, Martínez-Ruiz; Fernando, Lupiáñez-Tapia; Pablo, Lardelli-Claret; José Juan, Jiménez-Moleón.

2014-04-01

348

State of material research concerning fuel rod behaviour in LWR loss-of-coolant accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When laying out an emergency cooling system, the deformation characteristics of fuel cans has to be known. In experimental investigations, some of the factors are examined which can influence the plastic behaviour of Zy-4 within the temperature range of loss-of-collant accidents (400-1,300 degrees C). (HP)

349

Perspective on post-Fukushima severe accident research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Fukushima Daiichi accident in March 2011 several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident, in which some recommendations on severe accident research are included. The review of specific severe accident research items had already started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation started after the Fukushima accident in this working group to cover additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality. The review results are categorized in nine major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. In January 2012, in collaboration with this working group, Research Expert Committee on Evaluation of Severe Accident was established in AESJ in order to investigate severe accident related issues for future LWR development. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the seven important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. They are (1) investigation of damaged core and components, (2) advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, (3) development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, (4) analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, (5) enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, (6) advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and (7) assessment of advanced containment design which exchides long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations. Lastly severe accident research conducted at Kyoto University is briefly introduced. (author)

350

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on electronic banking for developing export  

OpenAIRE

Developing economy needs appropriate infrastructure in different areas including electronic banking. This paper presents an empirical investigation on important factors influencing electronic banking for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 regular customers who use banking services of various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.752 and there are five factors including internet infr...

Naser Azad; Vahid Abbaszadeh; Mohammad Rikhtegar; Hamed Asgari

2013-01-01

351

An empirical investigation on factors influencing customer selection of ADSL services  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we present an empirical investigation on various factors affecting ADSL service selection in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed model of this paper uses a standard questionnaire and distributes it among randomly selected customers who have some experiences on internet based ADSL products. The study implements factor analysis as well as weighted regression technique to perform the study. There are eight hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper, which indicates...

Naser Azad; Darabi, K.

2013-01-01

352

Perinatal Risk Factors in Offenders with Severe Personality Disorder: A Population-based Investigation.  

OpenAIRE

Although perinatal factors are associated with the development of several psychiatric disorders, it is unknown whether these factors are linked with personality disorder. Cases of personality disorder were drawn from a national registry of all forensic psychiatric evaluations (n = 150). Two control groups were used: (1) A sample of forensic evaluations without any psychiatric disorder (n = 97) allowing for a nested case-control investigation; and (2) A population-based sample matched by age a...

Fazel, S.; Bakiyeva, L.; Cnattingius, S.; Grann, M.; Hultman, Cm; Lichtenstein, P.; Geddes, Jr

2012-01-01

353

An investigation on different factors influencing on target market selection in petrochemical industry  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors influencing on selection of petrochemical market. The survey has accomplished among 97 randomly selected experts in petrochemical industry in Iran. The survey designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some experts and using binomial test; it has confirmed that except one factor, cultural affairs, other issues including political, cultural, regulations, economic, infrastructure, market potential, buyers’ pot...

Saeedeh Koohi; Ali Alikhani

2014-01-01

354

Factors Affecting Buying Behavior of an Apartment an Empirical Investigation in Amman, Jordan  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study is to investigate the main factors that influencing the customers' buying behavior toward apartment, and tried to identify the most influencing factors that affect buying. A convenience sample consists of 120 persons who already bought an apartment in different areas in Amman. One sample ttest, independent sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used in testing the hypotheses. This study found that respondents would significantly adopt the main constructs when buying...

Mwfeq Haddad; Mahfuz Judeh and Shafig Haddad

2011-01-01

355

Correlation between the Ship Grounding Accident and the Ship Traffic – A Case Study Based on the Statistics of the Gulf of Finland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ship traffic is one of the factors that is presented in almost all of the existing grounding models, and is considered as one of the affecting factors on the likelihood of grounding accident. This effect in grounding accident is mostly accepted by the experts as a common sense or simply by just generalizing the ship-ship collision cases to grounding accidents. There is no available research on the actual causal link between the ship traffic and grounding accident in the literature. In this paper, authors have utilized the statistical analysis on historical grounding accident data in the Gulf of Finland between the years 1989 and 2010 and the AIS data of the same area in year 2010, as the source of ship traffic data, to investigate the possible existence of any correlation between the ship traffic and the grounding accident. The results show that for the studied area (Gulf of Finland there is no correlation between the traffic density and the grounding accident. However, the possibility of the existence of minor relation between the traffic distribution and grounding accident is shown by the result. This finding, however, needs further investigation for more clarification.

Arsham Mazaheri

2013-03-01

356

A comprehensive investigation of the pseudo-skin factor for partially completed vertical wells  

Science.gov (United States)

To prohibit gas and/or water coning, it is very common for wells to be completed over only a portion of their productive zone. Such a procedure causes an additional pressure drop, termed the pseudo-skin factor, which reduces the well productivity. In order to ascertain whether or not a partially penetrated well requires stimulation, one has to quantitatively determine the different components of the total skin. Hence, an accurate evaluation of the pseudo-skin factor as one of the main components of the total skin is critical. Many authors have employed different mathematics to find expressions for estimating the pseudo-skin factor, however, since a comprehensive investigation of the available models has not as yet been performed, the diversity of these expressions could be very confusing. This paper first aims to propose an analytical model which accurately estimates the pseudo-skin factor in a partially penetrated well. In model development, the impacts of anisotropy and the arbitrariness of the open interval location are all taken into account, and the model is validated against a numerical simulator (ECLIPSE). Its second aim is to take the results of the numerical simulator as the comparison basis, and make a comprehensive investigation of the available models to check their accuracy for estimating the pseudo-skin factor. The results of the investigation show that, in comparison to other methods, this proposed model, Streltsova's method and that of Yeh and Reynolds, estimate the pseudo-skin factor favourably close to that obtained by the simulator.

Farokhi, Vahid; Gerami, Shahab

2012-12-01

357

Risk factors for tuberculosis in contact investigations in Rotterdam, the Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

Contact investigations around tuberculosis patients enable early detection of infection and disease, and prevention of secondary tuberculosis cases. We aim to identify risk factors for M. tuberculosis transmission to contacts of tuberculosis patients, based on unique data from routine contact investigations by the Public Health Service in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, collected between 2001 and 2006. Through logistic regression analysis, we determined the effect of various ...

Jesse Eduard Verdier; Sake Jan de Vlas; Kidgell-koppelaar, Inge D.; Jan Hendrik Richardus

2012-01-01

358

Investigations of extracellular matrix proteases, apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors in the bovine corpus luteum  

OpenAIRE

The study is subdivided into two different parts: the first part deals with the development of a method to gain uterus milk in vivo during the preimplantation periode in cattle for the investigation of regulatory factors. The second part investigates different proteases in bovine follicles 20 hours after GnRH (Gonadotropin releasing hormone) injection (shortly bevor ovulation) for comparable as well as in the corpus luteum (CL) during oestrous cycle and induced luteolysis. In addition apoptot...

Kliem, Heike

2006-01-01

359

Nuclear Power Plant Accidents  

Science.gov (United States)

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENTS Nuclear power plants have safety and security procedures in place and are closely ... a plume). What are the main dangers of nuclear power plant accidents? Radioactive materials in the plume ...

360

Accident knowledge and emergency management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

361

The radiological accident in Cochabamba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In April 2002 an accident involving an industrial radiography source containing 192Ir occurred in Cochabamba, Bolivia, some 400 km from the capital, La Paz. A faulty radiography source container had been sent back to the headquarters of the company concerned in La Paz together with other equipment as cargo on a passenger bus. This gave rise to a potential for serious exposure for the bus passengers as well as for the company employees who were using and transporting the source. The Government of Bolivia requested the assistance of the IAEA under the terms of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The IAEA in response assembled and sent to Bolivia a team composed of senior radiation safety experts and radiation pathology experts from Brazil, the United Kingdom and the IAEA to investigate the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Government of Bolivia for the opportunity to report on this accident in order to disseminate the valuable lessons learned and help prevent similar accidents in the future

362

Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sandia National Laboratories is supporting the NRC severe accident rulemaking activities through a number of technical investigations that broadly address the phenomenological, systems, and human aspects of degreaded core accidents. The integration of results from these programs to provide a technical base for regulatory decisions is the responsibility of a program entitled, Severe Accident Risk Reduction (SARR) Program. Basically, the objectives of the SARR program are to provide an assessment of the values and impacts of a set of degraded core prevention and mitigation features and to assist NRC in formulating rules. The safety approaches being considered include not only the individual features but also all plausible combinations of these features, applied both to existing reactors and to new (design-stage) reactors

363

Spatial disorientation in general aviation accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial disorientation (SD) was the third highest "cause" of fatal accidents in small, fixed-wing aircraft and closely related to the second highest "cause"--"continued VFR flight into adverse weather." SD was a cause or factor in 16% of all fatal accidents. When SD was ascribed as a cause or factor in an accident, 90% of the time that accident involved fatalities. Small, fixed-wing aircraft under 12,500 lb (570 kg) accounted for 97.3% of all SD accidents. Inclement weather was associated with 42% of all fatal accidents, and SD was a cause or factor in 35.6% of these. Flight was initiated into and continued into adverse weather in 19.7 and 68.7%, respectively, of SD weather-related fatal accidents. Fog (56.8%) and rain (41.8%) were the most prevalent adverse weather conditions. These and other data attest to the importance of this psychophysiological phenomenon in flight safety. PMID:697670

Kirkham, W R; Collins, W E; Grape, P M; Simpson, J M; Wallace, T F

1978-09-01

364

Farm accidents in children.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE--To examine the problem of accidental injury to children on farms. DESIGN--Prospective county based study of children presenting to accident and emergency departments over 12 months with injuries sustained in a farm setting and nationwide review of fatal childhood farm accidents over the four years April 1986 to March 1990. SETTING--Accident and emergency departments in Aberystwyth, Carmarthen, Haverfordwest, and Llanelli and fatal accidents in England, Scotland, and Wales notified ...

Cameron, D.; Bishop, C.; Sibert, J. R.

1992-01-01

365

Statistical analysis of major accidents in petrochemical industry notified to the major accident reporting system (MARS).  

Science.gov (United States)

The European major accident reporting system (MARS) was created within the framework of European Union (EU) directive 82/501, the so-called "SEVESO" directive, and in order to register all the major industrial accidents notified to the European Union authorities from the member states. Statistical analysis of these accidents offers significant data to the understanding and prevention of industrial accidents. This paper makes an analysis of some characteristics of major accidents in the petrochemical sector included in MARS. The statistical analysis focused on the main categorization fields of the MARS short reports and additionally a refinement of the immediate causes of major accidents with focus on the organizational factors was attempted through the details provided in the full reports of the database. PMID:16647814

Nivolianitou, Zoe; Konstandinidou, Myrto; Michalis, Christou

2006-09-01

366

SAS3D investigations about the influence of the neutron streaming for the hypothetical loss of flow accident in SNR-300  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) accident neutron streaming causes additional neutron leakage from the core during core voiding. This leakage can be cut off after closure of the coolant channels due to fuel break-up. If this closure is not going together with axial fuel expansion or dispersal effects, such streaming cut-off can produce driving ramp rates for a short time period. This report summarizes the results of pessimistic SAS3D simulations which superimposed negative streaming reactivities due to core voiding and which were cut off node wise according to the transient fuel break-up propagation. The analyses started from the conservative ULOF bound case of the burnt Mark-Ia core of SNR-300. The integral effect of the neutron streaming in the initiating phase of the ULOF accident is shown to be rather small. In particular, there is no superposition of the streaming cut-off and the fuel-sodium interaction as positive driving mechanisms because of their different time scales. The mechanical energy determined with the nominal streaming worth distribution is 30 % below the bound case value of 98 MJ

367

[Thromboembolic accident after mitral valve replacement].  

Science.gov (United States)

Between January 1981 and December 2000, we report 112 cases of mitral valvular replacement with bileaflet prothesis. Saint Jude prosthesis was implanted in 71% of cases. With a mean follow-up of 110 months we report a thromboembolic accident in 7 cases (6.2%). The linear rate of thromboembolic accident is 0.69% A/P. This complication was concerned 5 women and 5 men. The mean age is 54 years (43-65 years). An embolic accident without prosthesis thrombosis is noted in 6 cases. We report only one case of prosthesis occlusive thrombosis with urgent chirurgical intervention. Par rapport au RVM, l'ATE est survenue dans uns délai moyen de 129 months (86-168 months). Left atrium size, embolic antecedent, and bad anticoagulation are the predicted factors of thromboembolic accidents in our study. Patient age and sex, atrial fibrillation, type of bileaflet prosthesis don't influence the occurrence of thromboembolic accident. PMID:15382464

Drissa, Habiba; Ben Salah, Faten; Ben Romdhane, Seddika; Zaouali, Romdhane Mohsen

2004-03-01

368

Online Course Delivery: An Empirical Investigation of Factors Affecting Student Satisfaction  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors investigated potential factors impacting students' satisfaction with online course delivery using business students as participants. The findings suggest that the student who would be more satisfied with the delivery of online courses fits the following profile: graduate, married, resides more than 1 mile away from campus, and male.…

Beqiri, Mirjeta S.; Chase, Nancy M.; Bishka, Atena

2010-01-01

369

Factors Affecting Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce Success: An Empirical Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

It is generally believed that Business to Business (B2B) e-commerce has a great impact on business performance improvement. Considerable research also shows that another dependent variable, B2B e-commerce success, can be a good overall measure of B2B systems. This paper investigated and examined the impact of several factors, which are either…

Chen, Chun-I Philip

2010-01-01

370

Synthesis of radioactive accidents occurred at the Nuclear Studies Center of Saclay from 1973 to 1978 in laboratories using low activity sealed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each accident is analysed by the following method: all accidents are the logical of variations with respect to a stable previous situation. The analysis consists to draw up an inventory of these variations and search for links between them. Comparison between analysis of several accidents brings out accidents factors. Actual accidents are analyzed to determine these factors

371

Problematic eating behaviors among bariatric surgical candidates: a psychometric investigation and factor analytic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychological factors (e.g., anxiety, depression) are routinely assessed in bariatric pre-surgical programs, as high levels of psychopathology are consistently related to poor program outcomes (e.g., failure to lose significant weight pre-surgery, weight regain post-surgery). Behavioral factors related to poor program outcomes and ways in which behavioral and psychological factors interact, have received little attention in bariatric research and practice. Potentially problematic behavioral factors are queried by Section H of the Weight and Lifestyle Inventory (WALI-H), in which respondents indicate the relevance of certain eating behaviors to obesity. A factor analytic investigation of the WALI-H serves to improve the way in which this assessment tool is interpreted and used among bariatric surgical candidates, and subsequent moderation analyses serve to demonstrate potential compounding influences of psychopathology on eating behavior factors. Bariatric surgical candidates (n =362) completed several measures of psychopathology and the WALI-H. Item responses from the WALI-H were subjected to principal axis factoring with oblique rotation. Results revealed a three-factor model including: (1) eating in response to negative affect, (2) overeating/desirability of food, and (3) eating in response to positive affect/social cues. All three behavioral factors of the WALI-H were significantly associated with measures of depression and anxiety. Moderation analyses revealed that depression did not moderate the relationship between anxiety and any eating behavior factor. Although single forms of psychopathology are related to eating behaviors, the combination of psychopathology does not appear to influence these problematic behaviors. Recommendations for pre-surgical assessment and treatment of bariatric surgical candidates are discussed. PMID:25464064

Gelinas, Bethany L; Delparte, Chelsea A; Wright, Kristi D; Hart, Regan

2015-01-01

372

Assessment of accident rate at lithuanian railways level crossings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose. The most pressing problem facing the rail traffic safety experts is an accident rate at the railway level crossings. The purpose is to investigate the circumstances, which affect traffic safety at the level crossings, and to offer effective tools for experts to improve the safety the problems of these dangerous spaces of railway infrastructure. Methodology. This paper observes the logistic regression as a method to estimate the accident rate at level crossings in Lithuania. The authors have studied and evaluated the key factors affecting the safety of railway crossings. These factors are the intensity of trains and road transport means through the railway level crossing, the visibility of the approaching train from both sides of the traffic, the maximum permissible speed of the trains, the number of tracks (single track, double track, and multi-track, the level of installed alarm and automatic equipment, a density of population in this area, etc. Finally, only the factors, which might be described by mathematical expressions (numbers, were identified. Findings. By using logistic regression method, it was found that the most determinant factors at level crossings are the maximum speed of trains, poor visibility crossing (less than 1,000 m, intensity of the road traffic at crossings, and inappropriate implementation of roads crossing the rails. Based on the study results, the conclusions and recommendations were formulated which primary measures to prevent accidents at level crossing and on what level crossing should be taken urgently. Originality.Revealed trends and major causes of accidents at railway crossings of Lithuania for 2004-2011 year. The necessity of implementation of progressive technical measures for the prevention accidents on railway level crossing is proved. Practical value. About 50% of Lithuanian railway crossings do not meet the requirements of the level crossing legislation. This parameter is one of the key risk factors for traffic safety at level crossings. In order to eliminate the effect on accident due to poor visibility of moving train, it is proposed to use the "speed bumps". Question of the elimination of one level crossing is becoming more and more important due to the increased volume of traffic on the roads and railways, growing the speed of trains and the implementation of important large-scale road and rail projects.

Lionginas Liudvinavichius

2013-02-01

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Investigations of Knight shifts and g factors for Y123 and Y124 superconductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • We study g factors and Knight shifts for Y123 and Y124 superconductors. • The theoretical relationships between Knight shifts and g factors are established. • High order perturbation formulas are adopted with local structures of Cu2+ sites. • Anisotropies of g factors and Knight shifts are ascribed to elongation of Cu2+ sites. -- Abstract: By adopting the uniform high order perturbation formulas of Knight shifts and g factors for 3d9 ions in orthorhombically and tetragonally elongated octahedra, the experimental results of these parameters for Cu(1) sites in YBa2Cu3O7, YBa2Cu3O7?? and YBa2Cu4O8 and Cu(2) site in YBa2Cu3O7?? are systematically investigated. The calculated Knight shifts (and g factors for Cu(2) site) agree well with the observed values. The anisotropies of the g factors and Knight shifts are attributed to the local orthorhombic and tetragonal elongations of the Cu2+ sites. The present studies would be helpful to attain a more complete spectroscopic understanding for g factors and Knight shifts

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