WorldWideScience
1

Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} HFACS provides a systematic guideline in accident investigations. The hierarchal structure of HFACS forces investigators to seek out latent HOFs. {yields} Bayesian Network enhances the ability of the HFACS by allowing experts to quantify the degree of relationships among the HOFs. {yields} The fuzzy AHP helps to reduce the subjective biases by avoiding the need to give explicit probability values for the variables' states. - Abstract: This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived.

Wang Yanfu, E-mail: isewy@nus.edu.sg [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore); Department of Safety Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Dong ying 257061 (China); Faghih Roohi, Shahrzad; Hu Xiuming; Xie Min [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore)

2011-07-15

2

Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? HFACS provides a systematic guideline in accident investigations. The hierarchal structure of HFACS forces investigators to seek out latent HOFs. ? Bayesian Network enhances the ability of the HFACS by allowing experts to quantify the degree of relationships among the HOFs. ? The fuzzy AHP helps to reduce the subjective biases by avoiding the need to give explicit probability values for the variables' states. - Abstract: This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived.

3

Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel

4

Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

Klinestiver, L.R.

1980-01-01

5

Supervisor's accident investigation handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

6

Lessons learned from accident investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

7

[Heliogeophysical factors and aviation accidents].  

Science.gov (United States)

It was shown by two independent methods that there is a certain correlation between the number of aviation accidents and heliogeophysical factors. The statistical and spectral analyses of time series of heliogeomagnetic factors and the number of aviation accidents in 1989-1995 showed that, of 216 accidents, 58% are related to sudden geomagnetic storms. A similar relation was revealed for aviation catastrophes (64% out of 86 accidents) and emergencies (54% out of 130 accidents) that coincided in time with heliogeomagnetic storms. General periodicities of the series were revealed by the method of spectral analysis, namely, cycles of 30, 42, 46, 64, 74, 83, 99, 115, 143, 169, 339 days, which confirms the causative relation between the number of aviation accidents and heliogeomagnetic factors. It is assumed that some aviation accidents that coincided in time with geomagnetic storms, are due to changes in professional abilities of pilots that were in the zone of storms. PMID:9783079

Komarov, F I; Oraevski?, V N; Sizov, Iu P; Tsirul'nik, L B; Kanonidi, Kh D; Ushakov, I B; Shalimov, P M; Kimlyk, M V; Glukhov, D V

1998-01-01

8

Accident investigation: keep asking "why?".  

Science.gov (United States)

Finding the causes of an accident or operating problem and deciding what actions to take to prevent it happening again is rather like dismantling a set of Russian dolls (Fig. 1). Each time we ask "why?" (or a similar searching question) we find another cause besides the ones we have found already and another action (or set of actions) we can take to prevent similar accidents occurring again. Many investigators stop too soon. This occurred at Flixborough, at Bhopal and in the investigation of many lesser-known accidents. We are more likely to find the deeper causes and the more original actions if groups of people with wide interests and experience are able to take part in the investigations or discuss the investigation reports. We should never look at an accident report as "closing out" a problem. As we read it, we should ask ourselves, "what else could be done?" PMID:16162391

Kletz, Trevor A

2006-03-17

9

Severe accident investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) the Institute for Reactor Safety (IRS) performs accident analyses for the European Pressurised Water Reactor (EPR) by plant calculations with SCDAP/RELAP5 and RELAP5. S/R5 mod3.2 calculations have been performed for loss-of-offsite power (LOOP), surge line rupture (SL), and 46 cm2 small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA). LOOP reflood calculations were repeated for comparison with MAAP and S/R5 mod 3.1.irs. EPR input decks have been revised and upgraded by Siemens/KWU improvements. Model improvements for S/R5 covering clad failure and fragmentation based on FZK experiments are under test. LOWCOR2 calculations are ongoing. The validation of PSI reflood model including improved FZK-Chen correlation in RELAP5 mod 3.2.2? against integral experiments is finished mostly. The support on the QUENCH programme covering pre- and post test calculations for QUENCH-03 and -04 effectively enhances understanding of the experiment and separation of physical and facility based effects. (orig.)

10

[The human factor in accidents].  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on accidents at work and traffic accidents in different countries are discussed. Comparison of the number of war victims and victims of accidents shows the latter to be more numerous. Public opinion towards is less negative than towards several infectious diseases. The reason for this is the (wrong) opinion that people can prevent getting involved in an accident. There are many reasons why the progress in our knowledge of the phenomenon of accidents has not been faster. The distribution of accidents does not fit the model of chance distribution, but it fits quite well into negative binomial distribution, which is a model of "unequal accident proneness" hypothesis. The term "accident proneness" originated as a result of controversy between European (Eysenck, Shaw and others) and American (Suchman, Haight and others) psychologists. Today, the discrepancy in the attitudes has come to be much slighter because of the more dynamic and situational approach to the phenomenon of "accident proneness". The phenomenon is defined as possession of the qualities that are harmful to safe work at a certain moment or/and lack of possession of the qualities that are indispensable for safe work at that same moment. Certain factors associated with "accident proneness", however, are stable and general: personality and sex. Some are prone to changing slowly during one's lifetime: age and experience. Many are accidental: alcohol, illness, fatigue, mood etc. Ramsey's model of accident proneness in presented in more detail. The model includes interaction between man and an objective situation at different levels: cognitive, conative and psychomotor. PMID:7763187

Petz, B

1994-09-01

11

Multidisciplinary perspective on accident investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing complexity of many computer-controlled application processes is placing increasing demands on the investigation of adverse events. At the same time, there is a growing realisation that accident investigators must consider a wider range of contributory and contextual factors that help to shape human behaviour in the causes of safety-related incidents. A range of techniques have been developed to address these issues. For example (as we show in this paper), task modelling techniques have been extended from human computer interaction and systems design to analyse the causes and consequences of operator 'error'. Similarly, barrier analysis has been widely used to identify the way in which defences either protected or failed to protect a target system from potential hazards. Many barriers fail from common causes, including misconceptions that can be traced back to early stages in the development of a safety-critical system. For instance, unwarranted assumptions can be made about the impact of training on operator behaviour in emergency situations. Similarly, barrier analysis can also be used before a system has been designed to inform the system model and make it more tolerant to errors by incorporating human and technical barriers into the design. Task models often uncover deep-rooted problems, for instance, in workload allocation across many different aspects of an interactive control system. It can be difficult to use barrier and task analysis to trace th use barrier and task analysis to trace these common causes that lie behind the failure of many different defences. In order to deal with this complex combination of contributory factors and systems, we promote the use of abstraction (via models) as a way of representing these components and their interrelations whether it is design, construction or investigation. We use, to formally model an abstraction of the system. Additionally, the system model (described using a dialect of high-level Petri-nets) allows to reason about the system and to check conformance with the other models (task model, safety case and barriers). This paper, therefore, shows how an analysis of safety case arguments can be used to support the application of barrier, task, error and system analysis during the investigation of a command and control failure. The intention, in this paper, is to show that if an accident involved the failure of multiple barriers, it is also possible to trace the common causes of those failures back to the assumptions and arguments that are embodied within a safety case. Many countries require that safety cases demonstrate a system is 'acceptably safe' before they grant regulatory approval. These documents and the associated analytical techniques, therefore, provide a rich source of information about why command and control failures occurred. We demonstrate our approach on a fatal mining accident case study

12

Accident/Mishap Investigation System  

Science.gov (United States)

InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian

2007-01-01

13

Research investigation report on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report was issued in February 2012 by Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation's Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, which consisted of six members from the private sector in independent positions and with no direct interest in the business of promoting nuclear power. Commission aimed to determine the truth behind the accident by clarifying the various problems and reveal systematic problems behind these issues so as to create a new starting point by identifying clear lessons learned. Report composed of four chapters; (1) progression of Fukushima accident and resulting damage (accident management after Fukushima accident, and effects and countermeasure of radioactive materials discharged into the environment), (2) response against Fukushima accident (emergency response of cabinet office against nuclear disaster, risk communication and on-site response against nuclear disaster), (3) analysis of historical and structural factors (technical philosophy of nuclear safety, problems of nuclear safety regulation of Fukushima accident, safety regulatory governance and social background of 'Safety Myth'), (4) Global Context (implication in nuclear security, Japan in nuclear safety regime, U.S.-Japan relations for response against Fukushima accident, lessons learned from Fukushima accident - aiming at creation of resilience). Report could identify causes of Fukushima accident and factors related to resulting damages, show the realitiesd to resulting damages, show the realities behind failure to prevent the spread of damage, and analyze the overall structural and historical background behind the accidents. (T. Tanaka)

14

32 CFR 636.13 - Traffic accident investigation reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

...INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION...636.13 Traffic accident investigation reports...privately owned motor vehicle accidents on Fort Stewart...situation exists, vehicle(s) involved in an accident will only be...

2010-07-01

15

14 CFR 420.59 - Launch site accident investigation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch site accident investigation plan. 420...TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.59 Launch site accident investigation plan....

2010-01-01

16

Factors associated with the severity of construction accidents: The case of South Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While the causes of accidents in the construction industry have been extensively studied, severity remains an understudied area. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on severity, this study analysed 24,764 construction accidents reported during 2002-11 in South Australia. A conceptual model developed through literature uses personal characteristics such as age, experience, gender and language. It also employs work-related factors such as size of organization, project size and location, mechanism of accident and body location of the injury. These were shown to discriminate why some accidents result in only a minor severity while others are fatal. Factors such as time of accident, day of the week and season were not strongly associated with accident severity. When the factors affecting severity of an accident are well understood, preventive measures could be developed specifically to those factors that are at high risk.

Jantanee Dumrak

2013-12-01

17

Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and four accident investigation commission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tokyo Electric Power Co. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused discharge of a large amount of radioactive materials into the atmosphere and outflow of contaminated water into the ocean by reactor core melt (meltdown) and harsh accident accompanied by a hydrogen explosion (severe accident). At reviewing a future nuclear power policy, it was extremely important to investigate this accident for inspection of cause investigation and correspondence, and further analyze the background of the accident. For this purpose, accident investigation commission was established in national Diet, government, private enterprise, Tokyo Electric Power Co. This report summarized outlines of these four accident investigation reports that were already announced and compared about main points at issue such as direct cause of accident, measures before accidents (against earthquake, tsunami and severe accident), correspondence at the time of accident (inside nuclear power plant emergency response and residents' evacuation), and proposals and problems. Four reports clarified deficiency, clumsiness and a lot of problems to be improved for preventive measures of a enterprise and the government (administration) against accidents, accident correspondence, disaster prevention and others. In other words, four reports were placed with the starting point to solve these concrete problems steadily. (T. Tanaka)

18

In-depth investigation of escalator riding accidents in heavy capacity MRT stations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2000, the accident rate for escalator riding was about 0.815 accidents per million passenger trips through Taipei Metro Rapid Transit (MRT) heavy capacity stations. In order to reduce the probability and severity of escalator riding accidents and enhance the safety of passengers, the Drury and Brill model [Drury, C.G., Brill, M., 1983. Human factors in consumer product accident investigation. Hum. Factors 25 (3), 329-342] for in-depth investigation was adopted to analyze the 194 escalator riding accidents in terms of victim, task, product and environment. Prevention measures have been developed based on the major causes of accidents and other related contributing factors. The results from the analysis indicated that the majority of the escalator riding accidents was caused by passengers' carrying out other tasks (38 cases, including carrying luggage 24 cases, looking after accompany persons 9 cases, and 5 others), loss of balance (26 cases, 13.4%), not holding the handrail (20 cases, 10.3%), unhealthy passengers (18 cases, 9.3%), followed by people struck by other passenger (16 cases, 8.2%). For female passengers aged 15-64 years, their rushing for trains accidents could have been prevented by wearing safer footwear or by appropriate signing being provided indicating the location and traveling direction of escalators. Female passengers aged 65 years and above whose accidents were caused by loss of balance, should be encouraged to take the elevator instead. To prevent entrapment injuries, following a stricter design code can be most effective. Further in-depth accident investigation is suggested to cover the activity of the victim prior to the accident, any involved product, the location of the accident on the escalator, any medical treatment, what went wrong, opinion of the respondent on the causes of the accident, and personal characteristics of the passengers. Also, management must trade off productivity and safety appropriately to prevent "Organizational Accidents". PMID:16434013

Chi, Chia-Fen; Chang, Tin-Chang; Tsou, Chi-Lin

2006-07-01

19

Expert point of view on the investigations of large accidents  

OpenAIRE

Accidents are taken into account in risk assessment and shall be a basis for knowledge to be considered for improving the safety level at the design and operation stages in various industries and activities (transportation). Unfortunately, in many cases, detailed data are difficult to be accessed. Lessons learnt from French accidents in plants and transportation will be developed. In the detailed investigation of accidents, emphasis should be given on the need to consider product(s), process,...

Masson, Fre?de?ric; Pineau, Jean-philippe

1998-01-01

20

The study of method for calculating the accident atmospheric dispersion factor and accident washout factor for coastal nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model to estimate the accident probabilistic dispersion factor in which the effect of internal boundary layer is considered and a set of deterministic and probabilistic models to estimate the accident washout factor are set up based on the models of accident dispersion factor given by current guides. The accident probabilistic dispersion factor, the deterministic washout factor for different time interval after accident release, the accident probabilistic washout factor and the dose corresponding to various pathway are estimated based on the measured meteorological data on the site of a coastal nuclear power plant to be built in the east part of China. The result shows that: the value of accident probabilistic dispersion factor given by the proposed model are 5.9 times of those given by the common model; for the dose obtained during 0 to 8 h after accident release, the external exposure dose from washout deposition given by deterministic model is about 5.50 times of those from dry deposition; the ratio between external exposure dose from washout and dry deposition given by conservative probabilistic model with and without considering the effect from internal boundary layer is 9.56 and 56.7 respectively; for the realistic probabilistic model the value of above ratio is 1.93 and 11.4

21

The medical investigation of airship accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of the autopsy reports for 18 of 21 victims in 3 of the 4 nonrigid Navy airship accidents during the period 1955 to 1966 revealed that the patterns of injury, complicated by postcrash entrapment, immersion, or fire, are similar to the injuries observed in the low-speed, low-altitude crashes of rigid airships and of light aircraft. With the renewed interest in the development of airships for military purposes, there is a need for improved design related to crashworthiness and to aircrew habitability, safety, restraint, and egress in order to enhance the chance for survival in the event of an accident. PMID:3171506

Stahl, C J; McMeekin, R R; Ruehle, C J; Canik, J J

1988-07-01

22

Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

Cookson, Simon

2009-01-01

23

32 CFR 634.30 - Use of traffic accident investigation report data.  

Science.gov (United States)

...INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION ...30 Use of traffic accident investigation report data...Data derived from traffic accident investigation reports and from vehicle owner accident reports will be...

2010-07-01

24

Human Factors in Accidents Involving Remotely Piloted Aircraft  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation examines human factors that contribute to RPA mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. RPA accident data from U.S. military and government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to identify human factors issues. Common contributors to RPA mishaps fell into several major categories: cognitive factors (pilot workload), physiological factors (fatigue and stress), environmental factors (situational awareness), staffing factors (training and crew coordination), and design factors (human machine interface).

Merlin, Peter William

2013-01-01

25

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident final report of the AESJ investigation committee  

CERN Document Server

The Magnitude 9 Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, followed by a massive tsunami struck  TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and triggered an unprecedented core melt/severe accident in Units 1 – 3. The radioactivity release led to the evacuation of local residents, many of whom still have not been able to return to their homes. As a group of nuclear experts, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to investigate and analyze the accident from scientific and technical perspectives for clarifying the underlying and fundamental causes, and to make recommendations. The results of the investigation by the AESJ Investigation Committee has been compiled herewith as the Final Report. Direct contributing factors of the catastrophic nuclear incident at Fukushima Daiichi NPP initiated by an unprecedented massive earthquake/ tsunami – inadequacies in tsunami measures, severe accident ma...

Atomic Energy Society of Japan

2015-01-01

26

CAIB Report: Columbia Accident Investigation Board  

Science.gov (United States)

The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster took place on February 1, 2003. For the next seven months, a group of scientists have been compiling evidence to determine what went wrong and how to prevent future accidents. At this NASA website, visitors can read the findings of this extensive report. Within the report interface, users can view six short movies illustrating the launch, the foam striking the Space Shuttle, Columbia's reentry, and the impact testing of the RCC panel. The site also has links to media coverage, released records, and the mission overview.

27

Directions in epidemiological investigations of the Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The after-Chernobyl irradiation doses of the Bulgarian population cause possible health consequences in the sphere of scholastic effects only. Different mental disturbances arise under certain conditions. There are plans for epidemiologic investigations of the kind 'case-control' which are aimed to clarify the role of the radiation factor (of medical, professional and Chernobyl origin) in the appearance of some neoplasms in hemopoietic system and thyroid. A selective analysis of the congenital malformations frequency is envisaged which will overcome the shortcomings of the current registration system. Screening study of children born in the end of 1986 is also under way which will detect possible disturbances in their cognitive functions. The specifying of individual radiation doses in all studies is based on data received by survey and on information for radiation conditions in Bulgaria prior and after the Chernobyl accident. 2 refs. (A.B.)

28

Human factors review for severe accident sequence analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes a human factors research project performed to: (1) support the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) program and (2) develop a descriptive model of operator response in accident management. The first goal was accomplished by working with SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) accident sequence to systematically assess critical operator actions and thereby demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. The second goal was accomplished by developing a model called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which provides both a conceptual structure linking off-normal safety functions with potential unconventional emergency responses and a method for developing technical guidance for those responses based on operations, engineering, and human factors data and expertise. The four components comprising the model are described and their use is shown through a table-top demonstration. 48 refs., 30 figs., 9 tabs

29

Investigation of the core melt accident in light water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the thesis the core melt accident, heating up and collapsing of the reactor core were investigated. The most important parameters of influence were found and their effect on the development of the accident were shown. A causal diagram was developed representing the great number of events occurring in the course of the core melt accident as well as their mutual dependences. Models were developed and applied for a detailed description of the collapse process, melting of materials, heat and material transport at flow-off of the melted mass and for taking into account steam blocking in the destroyed core sections. (orig.)

30

Investigations on reactivity accidents with the HTR-module  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the axially one-dimensional short-time dynamics program DYNOTTO, power transients and temperature transients of low-power pebble-bed HTR (HTR-Module) in reactivity accidents within the first half hour have been investigated. Even in case of accidents such as the uncontrolled withdrawal of all control rods, assuming complete failure of the shut-down mechanism it is shown that especially low-power HTR are highly inherently safe. Fuel temperatures remain below 1,2000C and during the further history of the accident, largely determined by after-heat development, no critical values could be detected. (orig.)

31

Risk factors for injury accidents among moped and motorcyle riders  

OpenAIRE

To study and quantify the effect of factors related to the riders of powered two-wheelers on the risk of injury accident involvement. Based on national data held by the police from 1996 to 2005, we conducted a case–control study with responsibility for the accident as the event of interest. We estimated the odds ratios for accident responsibility. Making the hypothesis that the non-responsible riders in the study are representative of all the riders on the road, we thus identified risk fact...

Moskal, A.; Martin, Jl; Laumon, Bernard

2010-01-01

32

Aeromedical Lessons from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation. The contents include: 1) Introduction and Mission Response Team (MRT); 2) Primary Disaster Field Office (DFO); 3) Mishap Investigation Team (MIT); 4) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mishap Response Plan; 5) Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP); and 6) STS-107 Crew Surgeon.

Pool, Sam L.

2005-01-01

33

Use of casual tree method for investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are many methodologies used for investigation of accidents to facilitate the search of the factors that cause these events in different areas of industry. These can be called proactive methods, if they are used before the occurrence of the events, or reactive methods that are applied after the occurrence of the incident or accident, and are used as a basis of information to prevent further events. One of these methods is the Causal Tree Method (CTM). The basic idea of this technique is that incidents and accidents result from variations in usual processes. These variations can be related to the individual, the task, the material or the environment. The tree starts with the end event (incident or accident) and works backwards. The facts relating to the end event are used in the construction of the causal tree. The end event is the starting point and only the facts that contributed to the incident or accident should be selected. The analyst has to identify and list the variations and then display them in the analytic tree, showing causal relations. The objective of this paper is to test the application of the CTM method in investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials, in order to evaluate its efficiency on finding the typical factors causing these events. (author)

Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Senne Junior, Murillo; Marques, Raissa Oliveira, E-mail: raissaomarques@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2013-07-01

34

Use of casual tree method for investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many methodologies used for investigation of accidents to facilitate the search of the factors that cause these events in different areas of industry. These can be called proactive methods, if they are used before the occurrence of the events, or reactive methods that are applied after the occurrence of the incident or accident, and are used as a basis of information to prevent further events. One of these methods is the Causal Tree Method (CTM). The basic idea of this technique is that incidents and accidents result from variations in usual processes. These variations can be related to the individual, the task, the material or the environment. The tree starts with the end event (incident or accident) and works backwards. The facts relating to the end event are used in the construction of the causal tree. The end event is the starting point and only the facts that contributed to the incident or accident should be selected. The analyst has to identify and list the variations and then display them in the analytic tree, showing causal relations. The objective of this paper is to test the application of the CTM method in investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials, in order to evaluate its efficiency on finding the typical factors causing these events. (author)

35

Accident investigation of the electrical shock incident at the PG and E PVUSA site Davis, California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the findings of the Accident Investigation Team (Team) assembled in response to a request from Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) to understand the events surrounding the electric shock of a worker at the PVUSA site in Davis, California and to provide recommendations to prevent such events from recurring. The report gives complete details on the sequence of events surrounding the accident and identifies 27 facts related to accident itself. Four technical deficiencies in the electrical systems which require further investigation were identified. The Team believes that the root cause of this accident was related to the absence of a proactive organizational entity responsible for overall health and safety on the site. Two contributing factors were identified. First, the prototype nature and associated operational difficulties of the electrical inverter resulted in large maintenance demands. Second, several of the injured employee`s co-workers noted that he occasionally failed to use appropriate personal protective equipment, but they never reported this practice to management. The direct cause of this accident was the failure of the injured employee to wear appropriate personal protective equipment (i.e., rubber gloves). Based on the review of the facts established in this investigation, five recommendations are presented to the funding agencies to reduce the possibility of future accidents at the PVUSA site.

Jacobson, L.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Garrett, J.O.; Tyler, R.

1992-02-01

36

Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We are investigating air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions. In this paper we present a program overview and highlight recent results of our investigations. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. We also describe the test facilities we use to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

37

Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

38

32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

...or owner of any vehicle involved in an accident, as described...of any Government vehicle involved in a similar accident off the installation... (iii) The accident involves only minor...the POV and the vehicle can be safely...

2010-07-01

39

Motorcycle accidents in forensic pathology. Human factors, and injury and crash tipologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the main human factors, related to motorcycle accidents, and the accident configuration and the lesive pattern. The present study considers the 200 two-wheel crashes occurred in Italy in the Province of Pavia between 1999 and 2001. For all cases a revision of the injured people’s interviews and their clinical records has been made. All the accidents of the survey have been examined considering the traumatic lesion abscribed to the accident to assess a direct causal link between human factors and the crash tipology and the injury pattern. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationship between the variables and a logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association of injury severity with some variables supposed to be predictive factors. Frontal-lateral impact collisions are about 6 times more likely to be caused by a traffic scan error of the other vehicle driver (no rider than other types of crashes (OR= 5,8; p < 0,0001; IC 95%: 2,875-11,736. Contusions-abrasions show the highest percentages in motorcyclists with no coverage worn (p < 0,001 and riders with no clothing have a higher risk to be severely injured than riders with coverage, but it is not statistically significant. Instead, there is not a statistical significant association between: rider’s gender, rider’s age, riding experience and accident configuration; damaged region of the helmet and cranium injury severity.

Alessandra Marinoni

2008-10-01

40

Techniques and Tools of NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

The Space Shuttle Columbia accident investigation was a fusion of many disciplines into a single effort. From the recovery and reconstruction of the debris, Figure 1, to the analysis, both destructive and nondestructive, of chemical and metallurgical samples, Figure 2, a multitude of analytical techniques and tools were employed. Destructive and non-destructive testing were utilized in tandem to determine if a breach in the left wing of the Orbiter had occurred, and if so, the path of the resultant high temperature plasma flow. Nondestructive analysis included topometric scanning, laser mapping, and real-time radiography. These techniques were useful in constructing a three dimensional virtual representation of the reconstruction project, specifically the left wing leading edge reinforced carbon/carbon heat protectant panels. Similarly, they were beneficial in determining where sampling should be performed on the debris. Analytic testing included such techniques as Energy Dispersive Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA), Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Analysis (ESCA), and X-Ray dot mapping; these techniques related the characteristics of intermetallics deposited on the leading edge of the left wing adjacent to the location of a suspected plasma breach during reentry. The methods and results of the various analyses, along with their implications into the accident, are discussed, along with the findings and recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Likewise, NASA's Return To Flight efforts are highlighted.

McDanels, Steve J.

2005-01-01

41

Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Influence of the critical accident seen to consciousness investigation of the public  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Here was introduced a consciousness investigation result carried out at Fukui prefecture and Osaka city after about two months of the JCO criticality accident. Peoples were disturbed by the accident, and not a little changed their individual estimations on items relating to energy. However, peoples lived in Fukui prefecture did not increase rate of opposition against nuclear energy promotion and nuclear power plant construction to their living area on comparison with a year before the accident. This reason might be understood by that the accident was not an accident of a nuclear power plant directly, and that their living area was much distant from place of the accident and was not suffered any danger. On the other hand, public opinion in Osaka city made worse on comparison with that before a year, and if such worse public opinion was thought to be due to the accident, its effect could be said to be different in each area even with no direct relation to the accident to shown a result dependent upon its various conditions. As a rough tendency on psychological disturbance due to the accident, it could be said that peoples became to have feelings of avoiding hard nuclear energy technology at a chance of the accident and to direct thoughts of soft natural energy and environment respect. (G.K.)

42

Interim report of Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AESJ's Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station was decided to be established by board meeting in June 2011 and tried to identify and analyze root cause of the giant accident of complicated nuclear system, estimate reality and extract effective lessons learned for future nuclear safety activities as a conclusion judging from experiences and knowledge of experts and obtained information with no heating and experiments. Interim report was published for member's review and focused on risk of radioactive materials release with nuclear energy use and their environmental effects. Report mentioned six points to assure nuclear safety responding to several factors of accident initiation: (1) comprehensive safety assurance with risk assessment and defense-in-depth concept, (2) response to external events. (3) severe accident management and its effectiveness assurance, (4) emergency preparedness and its response, (5) environmental restoration and decontamination and (6) response of academia for needed reform. Based on above subjects and investigation of future response to specific individual points, comprehensive and logical proposals would be derived at the end of the year with reflecting member's frank opinions to be submitted. (T. Tanaka)

43

Organizational factors related to occupational accidents in construction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of organizational factors on occupational accident causation. A field study was undertaken and focused on the phase of concreting the floors of a residential block in a building project in Brazil. The methodological approach was based on the analysis of carpenters' work practices and of the workers' accounts of minor falls. Observations were noted on work practices over this stage. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with the workers hired by the subcontractors and with professionals working for the main contractor. The results show that falls were related to the introduction of new building technology and its use by the workforce. The production planning and organization of activities by the subcontracted firms also led to temporary demands that were additional determining factors for falls on site. The work analysis reveals the need to consider organizational factors in prevention practices. PMID:22317355

Filho, J M Jackson; Fonseca, E D; Lima, F P A; Duarte, F J C M

2012-01-01

44

Road Accidents and Traffic Flows: An Econometric Investigation  

OpenAIRE

This paper develops an empirical model of the relationship between road traffic accidents and traffic flows. The analysis focuses on the accident externality which is mainly determined by the difference between the marginal and average risks. The model is estimated using a new dataset which combines hourly London traffic count data from automated vehicle recorders together with police records of road accidents. The accident-flow relationship is seen to vary considerably between different road...

Dickerson, Andrew; Peirson, John; Vickerman, Roger

1998-01-01

45

Development of severe accident evaluation technology (level 2 PSA) for sodium-cooled fast reactors. (5) Identification of dominant factors in ex-vessel accident sequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evaluation of accident progression outside of a reactor vessel (ex-vessel) and subsequent transfer behavior of radioactive materials is of great importance from the viewpoint of Level 2 PSA. Hence typical ex-vessel accident sequences in the JAEA Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor are qualitatively discussed in this paper and dominant behaviors or factors in the sequences are investigated through parametric calculations using the CONTAIN/LMR code. Scenarios to be focused on are, 1) sodium vapor leakage from the reactor vessel and 2) sodium-concrete reaction, which are both to be considered in the accident category of LOHRS (loss of heat removal system) and might be followed by an early containment failure due to the thermal effect of sodium combustion and hydrogen burning respectively. The calculated results clarify that the sodium vapor leak rate and the scale of sodium-concrete reaction are the important factors to dominate the ex-vessel accident progression. In addition to the understandings of the dominant factors, the analyzed results also provide the specific information such as pressure loading value to the containment and the timing of pressurization, which is indispensable as technical base in Level 2 PSA for developing event trees and for quantifying the accident consequences. (author)

46

Development of Human Factor Management Requirements and Human Error Classification for the Prevention of Railway Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Railway accident analysis results show that accidents cased by human factors are not decreasing, whereas H/W related accidents are steadily decreasing. For the efficient management of human factors, many expertise on design, conditions, safety culture and staffing are required. But current safety management activities on safety critical works are focused on training, due to the limited resource and information. In order to improve railway safety, human factors management requirements for safety critical worker and human error classification is proposed in this report. For this accident analysis, status of safety measure on human factor, safety management system on safety critical worker, current safety planning is analysis

47

The Accuracy Analysis of Measurement Tools for Traffic Accident Investigation  

OpenAIRE

The objective of traffic accident reconstruction is to recreate the event, which is necessary for analyzing the collision dynamics that is used as evidence in court cases. Traffic accident reconstruction and a demonstration of the event require precise data pertaining to scene measurement. However, there are differences between the individual measuring tools and methods r...

Darja Topolšek; Herbaj, Elvis A.; Marjan Sternad

2014-01-01

48

Investigation into information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report was prepared in response to a request from NRC Chairman Ahearne that directed the Office of Inspection and Enforcement to resume its investigation of information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) that occurred on March 28, 1979. This investigation was resumed on March 21, 1980. The transfer of information among individuals, agencies, and personnel from Metropolitan Edison was analyzed to ascertain what knowledge was held by various individuals of the specific events, parameters, and systems during the accident at TMI. Maximum use was made of existing records, and additional interviews were conducted to clarify areas that had not been pursued during earlier investigations. Although the passage of time between the accident and post-accident interviews hampered precise recollections of events and circumstances, the investigation revealed that information was not intentionally withheld during the accident and that the system for effective transfer of information was inadequate during the accident

49

An analysis on human factor issues in criticality accident at a uranium processing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report analyses latent factors of a human behavior directly contributing to the criticality accident. It is pouring some 16 kg-U with an enrichment of 18.8% into the precipitation tank. It is the fact that the direct cause of this accident is the workers' unsafe act. However, the authors find lots of latent factors relating to the production-biased company's policy, the poor climate for safety in the work place, the inadequate safety management and the unsuitable equipment. This accident was caused by many organizational factors. This paper also discusses lessons learned from this accident. (author)

50

Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania : A Case Study of Kibaha District  

OpenAIRE

This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district. In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk...

Komba, Deus Damian

2007-01-01

51

Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania :A Case Study of Kibaha District  

OpenAIRE

This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district.In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk ...

Komba, Deus Damian

2007-01-01

52

Cavity Heating Experiments Supporting Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

The two-color thermographic phosphor method has been used to map the local heating augmentation of scaled idealized cavities at conditions simulating the windward surface of the Shuttle Orbiter Columbia during flight STS-107. Two experiments initiated in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation were conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Generally, the first test series evaluated open (length-to-depth less than 10) rectangular cavity geometries proposed as possible damage scenarios resulting from foam and ice impact during launch at several discrete locations on the vehicle windward surface, though some closed (length-to-depth greater than 13) geometries were briefly examined. The second test series was designed to parametrically evaluate heating augmentation in closed rectangular cavities. The tests were conducted under laminar cavity entry conditions over a range of local boundary layer edge-flow parameters typical of re-entry. Cavity design parameters were developed using laminar computational predictions, while the experimental boundary layer state conditions were inferred from the heating measurements. An analysis of the aeroheating caused by cavities allowed exclusion of non-breeching damage from the possible loss scenarios being considered during the investigation.

Everhart, Joel L.; Berger, Karen T.; Bey, Kim S.; Merski, N. Ronald; Wood, William A.

2011-01-01

53

Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly

54

Investigation report on causes of radiation underexposure accident at Yamagata University Hospital and Prevention of Similar accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident in the title was announced on February 18, 2004 by the hospital, which asked its investigation immediately. The group based on 4 academic societies concerned, thereby started investigations of the in-house reports on the accident and of subsequent hospital visit in March, which involved hearing from personnel concerned, physical/technological examinations and clinical evaluation, with respect to the hospital system for radiation treatment, flow of the treatment, accident details, estimation of the actual expose dose and classification of patients. The investigational group found for the actual number of patients underexposed to be 36 (63, in the in-house report) in 1,377. The cause of the accident was thought essentially the input error for the correct power coefficient 1.032 to be a wrong one 1.320 for 15 x 15 cm 4 MV X-ray. The error had been overlooked by the contract operator from the introduction of the treatment planning equipment in 1999. For prevention, setting up of quality assurance (QA) program by the hospital, the user itself, was pointed out necessary. Making the guideline for introducing the new equipment was conceivably an important work of the trader. (N.I.)

55

The contribution of human factors to accidents in the offshore oil industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accidents such as the Piper Alpha disaster illustrate that the performance of a highly complex socio-technical system, is dependent upon the interaction of technical, human, social, organisational, managerial and environmental factors and that these factors can be important co-contributors that could potentially lead to a catastrophic event. The purpose of this article is to give readers an overview of how human factors contribute to accidents in the offshore oil industry. An introduction to human errors and how they relate to human factors in general terms is given. From here the article discusses some of the human factors which were found to influence safety in other industries and describes the human factors codes used in accident reporting forms in the aviation, nuclear and marine industries. Analysis of 25 accident reporting forms from offshore oil companies in the UK sector of the North Sea was undertaken in relation to the human factors. Suggestions on how these accident reporting forms could be improved are given. Finally, this article describes the methods by which accidents can be reduced by focusing on the human factors, such as feedback from accident reporting in the oil industry, auditing of unsafe acts and auditing of latent failures

56

Measuring the independence of aircraft accident investigation authorities in ICAO Member States  

OpenAIRE

This project examines the safety management of civil aircraft accident investigation authorities in International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Member States, with particular emphasis on the independence of the investigations. The research aims to establish the current level of resources and methodology adopted by Member States’ accident investigation authorities. The output of this work not only identifies the current situation but informs initiatives for some of the States in the pro...

Alsrisari, Sami Mohammed

2013-01-01

57

Organizational factors and reoccurrence protection on the JCO nuclear critical accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear critical accident formed at a nuclear fuel conversion factory in Tokai-mura on September, 1999 became gradually clear not to be a simple human error formed at a level of workmen but to be an organizational error or accident relating to various organizational factors. As a nuclear power facility adopts a depth protection system fundamentally, a large accident with serious danger would not form only by a single trouble and a human error and unless some factors overlaps. By reviewing recent serious accidents and troubles, all of them seem to have a keyword of 'organizational factor'. In the JCO accident, there are some organizational factors such as a climate deviating from a manual, insufficient and loose check against change of procedure, reduction of operators from a reason of profit priority, attitude on priority of working efficiency, and so forth, which are partially common to the Chernobyl accident. Recently, accidents and troubles impossible to make them a cause of simple human error by a person but to have to say an organizational error, have increased. This trend seems to depend upon not only complication and scale-up of technology system but also graduate change of social and management systems operating them. Therefore, it seems to be necessary to introduce a concept of depth protection (multiple protection) in order to keep its reliability and safety when complicating and scaling-up of system. (G.K.)

58

Risk factors influencing disease incidence in subjects who participated in liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors analyzer the relationship between disease incidence in the participants of the liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident aftereffects and the factors influencing this disease incidence. Three factors influencing the incidence of metal and neural diseases are considered. These factors are the duration of the presence at the site of the accident, time of coming to the site of accident (time elapsed since the accident to the liquidators first coming to the zone), and external irradiation dose. The basic risk factors of these diseases are the time of arrival in the accident zone and the duration of work in the zone, the irradiation dose effect being negligible here

59

The crisis of investigative Journalism in Spain. The journalism practice in the Spanair accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The crash of the McDonnell Douglas plane operated by the Spanish airline Spanair, on 20 August 2008 at Barajas Airport, and the journalistic treatment it received undoubtedly represent a unique opportunity to address the current state of journalism in Spain. In particular, this article studies the use of information sources in a crisis situation, which requires a major effort to find the maximum number of primary and specialised sources to provide, in a short period of time, the audience with the key facts to understand the event. This accident also represents an excellent opportunity to study some practices within investigative journalism and the different factors that condition the media agenda. Finally, as in any other air tragedy, where millionaire compensations can be paid to the victims, it is important to examine the application of a series of ethical frameworks, which have been captured in deontological codes designed to assure fair journalistic practices.

José Vicente García-Santamaría, Ph.D.

2010-01-01

60

Investigations for intrinsic safety againts core melt-down accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large pool-type LMFBR present interesting safety features due to the big mass of sodium and to the possibility of using high pumping inertia. It would be possible to get intrinsic safety against core melt-down in the hypothetical case of heat removal accidents without scram, in the case either of loss of pumping power or of loss of secondary loops. As well boiling at the outlet of the core as well long term failure of the vessel by temperature rise could be avoided by favorable feed-back coefficients. We show the influence of the performances and the location of an emergency cooling system, and the interest of an intrinsic shut-down system

61

Investigation of alpha experiment by severe accident analysis code SAMPSON  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The severe accident analysis code SAMPSON is adopted in this work to evaluate its capability of reproducing the complex gap cooling phenomenon. The ALPHA experiment is adopted for validation, where molten aluminum oxide (Al2O3) produced by a thermite reaction is poured into a water filled hemispherical vessel at the ambient pressure of approximately 1.3 MPa. The spreading and cooling of the debris that has relocated into the pressure vessel lower plenum are simulated, including the analysis of the RPV failure. The model included in the core to mimic the water penetration inside the gap is evaluated and improvements are proposed. The importance of the introduction of some mechanistic approach to describe the gap formation and evolution is underlined, where the results show its necessity in order to correctly reproduce the experimental trends. (author)

62

48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Accident reporting and...and space launch vehicles. 252.228-7005...252.228-7005 Accident reporting and investigation...and space launch vehicles. As prescribed...relating to each accident involving an aircraft...or space launch vehicle being...

2010-10-01

63

Investigations on accidents with massive water ingress exemplified by the pebble bed reactor PNP-500  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computer code is used for analyses of massive water ingress accidents in the High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor concept PNP-500 with pebble bed core. The analyses are mainly focussed on graphite corrosion processes. For the investigated accidents a correct reactor shut down in assumed. The mass of water ingressing into the primary circuit is varied between 1000 and 7500 kg (i.e., up to hypothetical values). The dependence of accident consequences on parameters such as intensity and starting time of the afterheat removal system or kinetic values of the chemical processes is examined. The results show that even under pessimistic assumptions the extent of the graphite corrosion is relatively low; significant damaging of fuel elements or graphite components does not occur. A primary circuit depressurization, combined with local burning of water gas, would probably not affect the fission product retention potential of the (gastight) containment. Summing up, the risk caused by these accidents remains small. (orig.)

64

Initial investigations of SNS target facility accident source terms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a Department of Energy, accelerator-based neutron source proposed for construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The project is currently nearing the end of the conceptual design stage. The objective of the target facility is to provide beams of pulsed thermal and sub-thermal neutrons for research purposes. The neutrons are created by the action of highly energetic protons (? 1 GeV) on a mercury target. The proton beam power will be 1 MW with planned upgrades to 2 MW and, eventually, to 4 MW. Over the course of facility life, significant inventories of spallation and activation products will build up in the target mercury. Accordingly, the facility is being designed to prevent or minimize potential environmental source terms. The results of calculations of the SNS target mercury radionuclide inventories and the characteristics of the dominant radionuclides are presented. The effect of the activation/spallation product chemical and physical characteristics on dispersability is discussed. Energy sources that could drive potential releases, credible initiating events and facility preventive and mitigative features are described. The source term for the limiting extremely unlikely mercury spill accident scenario is presented. These results support the conclusion that the facility has a low hazard profile with regard to the accidental release of radioactive material

65

CFD investigating the air ingress accident for a HTGR simulation of graphite corrosion oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A CFD model is proposed to investigate graphite oxidation corrosion in the HTR-10. ? A postulated air ingress accident is assumed in this paper. ? Air ingress flowrate is the predicted result, instead of the preset one. ? O2 would react with graphite on pebble surface, causing the graphite corrosion. ? No fuel exposure is predicted to be occurred under the air ingress accident. - Abstract: Through a compressible multi-component CFD model, this paper investigates the characteristics of graphite oxidation corrosion in the HTR-10 core under the postulated accident of gas duct rupture. In this accident, air in the steam generator cavity would enter into the core after pressure equilibrium is achieved between the core and the cavity, which is also called as the air ingress accident. Oxygen in the air would react with graphite on pebble surface, subsequently resulting in oxidation corrosion and challenging fuel integrity. In this paper, characteristics of graphite oxidation corrosion during the air ingress accident can be reasonably captured, including distributions of graphite corrosion amount on the different cross-sections, time histories of local corrosion amount at the monitoring points and overall corrosion amount in the core, respectively. Based on the transient simulation results, the corrosion pattern and its corrosion rate would approach to the steady-state conditions as the accident continuously progresses. The total amount of grogresses. The total amount of graphite corrosion during a 3-day accident time is predicted to be about 31 kg with the predicted asymptotic corrosion rate. This predicted value is less than that from the previous work of Gao and Shi.

66

Review of the TMI-2 accident evaluation and vessel investigation projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Programme and the Vessel Investigation Project have been reviewed as part of a literature study on core meltdown and in-vessel coolability. The emphasis is placed on the late phase melt progression, which is of special relevance to the NKS-sponsored RAK-2.1 project on Severe Accident Phenomenology. The body of the report comprises three main sections, The TMI-2 Accident Scenario, Core Region and Relocation Path Investigations, and Lower Head Investigations. In the final discussion, the lower head gap formation mechanism is explained in terms of thermal contraction and fracturing of the debris crust. This model seems more plausible than the MAAP model based on creep expansion of the lower head. (au) 1 tab., 33 ills., 31 refs.

Ladekarl Thomsen, Knud

1998-03-01

67

Review of the TMI-2 accident evaluation and vessel investigation projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Programme and the Vessel Investigation Project have been reviewed as part of a literature study on core meltdown and in-vessel coolability. The emphasis is placed on the late phase melt progression, which is of special relevance to the NKS-sponsored RAK-2.1 project on Severe Accident Phenomenology. The body of the report comprises three main sections, The TMI-2 Accident Scenario, Core Region and Relocation Path Investigations, and Lower Head Investigations. In the final discussion, the lower head gap formation mechanism is explained in terms of thermal contraction and fracturing of the debris crust. This model seems more plausible than the MAAP model based on creep expansion of the lower head. (au)

68

Importance Degree Evaluation of the Affecting Factors on Exhibition Security Accidents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of exhibition security accidents is the result of the mutual coupling factors of "man-machine-environment-management". This study is going to elaborate 11 influencing factors of exhibition security accidents from four aspects, i.e., man, mechanical equipment, environment and management. With the help of grey relational analysis, this study evaluates the importance degree of the affecting factors in exhibitions. The result shows that affecting factors of facilities and equipments failure is of the greatest importance degree and site maintenance personnel, site design, building material quality are the secondary important factors; another important factors are safety management body, social environment, activity organization management, safety management system, natural environment and event participant behavior which are considered as the third important ones. Evaluation of the importance degree of affecting factors on exhibition security incidents will provide a theoretical basis for exhibition security control.

Lin Wei-Ling

2013-01-01

69

Synergistic interaction of detrimental factors can intensify the consequences of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A lot of real efforts have been done over the past twenty years to estimate, understand and mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. This report deals with several groups of fundamental investigations, which can indicate to the possibilities of the intensification of medical radiological consequences of this accident. It was shown for cells of various origins that both the rate and the extent of recovery were decreased after the combined action of ionizing radiation with other detrimental physical factors or chemical agents. It was proved experimentally that both these observations are explained by a considerable increase in the yield of the irreversible damages, which cells incapable to recover. The rise of the irreversible component of radiation damage was accompanied by an increase of cell killing without postirradiation division, while the probability of recovery was identical for various conditions of the combined actions. It was concluded on this basis that the synergistic interaction could not be associated with the impairment of the recovery capacity itself and may be entirely attributed to the enhanced yield of irreversible damages. Basing on these new experimental data a generalized conception has been developed for the synergistic interaction of detrimental factors. The main idea of this conception is that the synergistic interaction is expected to result from additional effective damages arising from the interaction of sublesions inding from the interaction of sublesions induced by both agents. These sublesions are considered to be ineffective after each agent taken individually. The additional damage responsible for the synergistic effect seems to be irreversible, which cell is incapable to recover from. A novel mathematical model was suggested. The model predicts that the synergy can be observed only within a definite range of the ratio of damages produced by heat and another factor applied simultaneously with heat. It can optimize the synergy making a forecast of the greatest value of the synergy and condition under which it can be achieved. In addition, the model quantitatively describes and predicts the decrease in the cell recovery ability after the combined action of ionizing radiation. Finally, the model prognosticates the dependence of the synergistic effect on the dose rate of ionizing radiation, intensity of physical factor or concentration of chemical agent used simultaneously with ionizing radiation. To emphasize the importance of synergistic effects at low intensity of detrimental factors, existing in the biosphere and contaminating area, the dependence of synergistic interaction on the dose rate was carefully investigated. The predictions of the model have been tested with a number of experimental data obtained for simultaneous action of ionizing radiation with different detrimental factors on various cellular systems. The final conclusion was that the smaller dose rate of ionizing radiation the lesser intensity of physical factor or concentration of chemical agents has to be used to provide the highest or a definite level of synergistic interaction. On this basis, it is inferred that the synergism may take place at small intensities of harmful environmental factors existing in the biosphere and can intensify disaster consequences including the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Hence, the assessment of health or environmental risk both in normal and disaster conditions should take into account the synergistic interaction between harmful agents

70

Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and intractable, and methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. The number of methods in each group were four, three, zero, and two, respectively. Faced with the need to investigate an accident it is essential that the chosen method is appropriate for the system and the situation. Nuclear power plants considered as systems are tightly coupled and more or less intractable and therefore require accident models and accident investigation methods that are capable of accounting for these features. If an accident concerns the NPP operation as a whole, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. If an accident only concerns the operation of a subsystem or a component, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, or possible loosely coupled and tractable. The report provides a proposal for how these characteristics can be determined. The conclusion is that no specific method is the overall best in the sense that it can be used for all conditions. While it may be convenient, or even necessary, for an organisation to adopt a specific method as its standard, this should always be done knowingly and with a willingness to reconsider the choice when the conditions so demand it. In five or ten years we must expect that the methods developed today will have been partly obsolete, not because the methods change but because the nature of socio-technical systems, and therefore the nature of accidents, do

71

Investigations on optimization of accident management measures following a station blackout accident in a VVER-1000 pressurized water reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor safety issues are of primary importance for preserving the health of the population and ensuring no release of radioactivity and fission products into the environment. A part of the nuclear research focuses on improvement of the safety of existing nuclear power plants. Studies, research and efforts are a continuing process at improving the safety and reliability of existing and newly developed nuclear power plants at prevention of a core melt accident. Station blackout (loss of AC power supply) is one of the dominant accidents taken into consideration at performing accident analysis. In case of multiple failures of safety systems it leads to a severe accident. To prevent an accident to turn into a severe one or to mitigate the consequences, accident management measures must be performed. The present paper outlines possibilities for application and optimization of accident management measures following a station blackout accident. Assessed is the behaviour of the nuclear power plant during a station blackout accident without accident management measures and with application of primary/secondary side oriented accident management measures. Discussed are the possibilities for operators ' intervention and the influence of the performed accident management measures on the course of the accident. Special attention has been paid to the effectiveness of the passive feeding and physical phenomena having an influence on the system behaviour. The performed simulationsystem behaviour. The performed simulations show that the effectiveness of the secondary side feeding procedure can be limited due to an early evaporation or flashing effects in the feed water system. The analyzed cases show that the effectiveness of the accident management measures strongly depends on the initiation criteria applied for depressurization of the reactor coolant system. (authors)

72

Investigations on optimization of accident management measures following a station blackout accident in a VVER-1000 pressurized water reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reactor safety issues are of primary importance for preserving the health of the population and ensuring no release of radioactivity and fission products into the environment. A part of the nuclear research focuses on improvement of the safety of existing nuclear power plants. Studies, research and efforts are a continuing process at improving the safety and reliability of existing and newly developed nuclear power plants at prevention of a core melt accident. Station blackout (loss of AC power supply) is one of the dominant accidents taken into consideration at performing accident analysis. In case of multiple failures of safety systems it leads to a severe accident. To prevent an accident to turn into a severe one or to mitigate the consequences, accident management measures must be performed. The present paper outlines possibilities for application and optimization of accident management measures following a station blackout accident. Assessed is the behaviour of the nuclear power plant during a station blackout accident without accident management measures and with application of primary/secondary side oriented accident management measures. Discussed are the possibilities for operators ' intervention and the influence of the performed accident management measures on the course of the accident. Special attention has been paid to the effectiveness of the passive feeding and physical phenomena having an influence on the system behaviour. The performed simulations show that the effectiveness of the secondary side feeding procedure can be limited due to an early evaporation or flashing effects in the feed water system. The analyzed cases show that the effectiveness of the accident management measures strongly depends on the initiation criteria applied for depressurization of the reactor coolant system. (authors)

Tusheva, P.; Schaefer, F.; Kliem, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

2012-07-01

73

Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

2011-01-01

74

Investigation of safety for accelerator driven system. Investigation for abnormal event and safety analysis for accident event  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is supposed that the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) is safer than other critical systems such as Fast Reactors since the ADS is driven by the external neutron source in the subcritical state. In this study, the investigation to confirm the possibility of Core Disruptive Accident (CDA) for the ADS was performed by Level 1 PSA and detailed safety analyses. Abnormal events for the ADS were sorted by Level 1 PSA and calculation cases for the safety analysis were discussed. Based on these results, safety analyses for Unprotected Transient Over Power (UTOP) and Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) were carried out. These results showed that there were hardly possibilities of CDA for the ADS. Following points were also found by both Level 1 PSA and the safety analysis results. 1. It is not required to suppose the beam window breakage event as the accident sequence in Level 1 PSA. 2. The design of the accelerator (range of beam intensity) and the target region size is appropriate from the viewpoint of the safety analysis. In the beyond design basis accidents (UTOP and ULOF), it was considered that the creep rupture of the clad tube would happen. However, the frequency of the accidents was exceedingly small. It was concluded that the ADS had very little possibility of CDA or the re-criticality accident. (author)

75

On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

76

On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

Sousa, A.L., E-mail: alsousa@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, A.C.O., E-mail: antonio.ribeiro@bayer.com [Bayer Crop Science Brasil S.A., Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, J.P., E-mail: julianapduarte@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F., E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COOPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

2013-07-01

77

Research needs and test facilities for investigating local accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research status and needs are discussed in connection with problem areas such as initiating events, propagation mechanisms and early detection of local abnormal situations. Pros and cons of various types of in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities are briefly reviewed. Finally the paper discusses status and directions of out-of-pile tests and technologies for investigating thermohydraulics in deformed bundles and local flow blockages. 17 refs

78

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results from cytogenetic investigations into 66 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1976 are reviewed. This report is the sixth in an annual series which together contain data on 272 studies. Previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35 and R41. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. A short review is given of the laboratory's recently published dose response data for several energies of neutron radiation. A description is also given of the group's collaboration in an international experiment in which comparisons were made between a variety of dosemeters exposed to a controlled criticality pulse. In a second appendix two experiments are described in which inter- and intra-donor effects on chromosome aberration yields were examined. It was found that differences in dicentric yields were small whereas acentric aberrations were more variable. (author)

79

Investigation and evaluation for environmental impact at Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2012, JNES investigated the weather data and the environmental monitoring data and constructed the method to specify contribution of the environmental impact from each plant based on the dose analysis result at Unit 1-3 of Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. JNES calculated the dose rate in an accident early stage based on analysis of a monitoring data. Moreover, JNES evaluated the dose by additional release of the radioactive material in case of assuming the loss of coolant injection to a nuclear reactor by the request of NISA. (author)

80

Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results are reviewed from investigations during 1979 into 82 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation. Of these 45 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations, and 26 with an institution of research, education or health. 83% of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0-0.09 Gy (0-9 rad), and 17% in the range 0.1-0.29 Gy (10-29 rad). These data are compared with data obtained by physical dosimetry, and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each over-exposure, or suspected over-exposure. (author)

81

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident's causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62)

82

Experimental investigations on vessel-hole ablation during severe accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents experimental results, and subsequent analyses, of scaled reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure site ablation tests conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Power Safety (RIT/NPS). The goal of the test program is to reduce the uncertainty level associated with the phase-change-ablation process, and, thus, improve the characterization of the melt discharge loading on the containment. In a series of moderate temperature experiments, the corium melt is simulated by the binary oxide CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} or the binary eutectic and non-eutectic salts NaNO{sub 3}-KNO{sub 3}, while the RPV head steel is represented by a Pb, Sn or metal alloys plate. A complementary set of experiments was conducted at lower temperatures, using water as melt and salted ice as plate material. These experiments scale well to the postulated prototypical conditions. The multidimensional code HAMISA, developed at RIT/NPS, is employed to analyze the experiments with good pre- and post-test predictions. The effects of melt viscosity and crust surface roughness, along with failure site entrance and exit frictional losses on the ablation characteristics are investigated. Theoretical concept was proposed to describe physical mechanisms which govern the vessel-hole ablation process during core melt discharge from RPV. Experimental data obtained from hole ablation tests and separate-effect tests performed at RIT/NPS were used to validate component physical models of the HAMISA code. It is believed that the hole ablation phenomenology is quite well understood. Detailed description of experiments and experimental data, as well as results of analyses are provided in the appendixes. 40 refs, 51 figs, 13 tabs.

Sehgal, B.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Green, J.A.; Paladino, D. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

1997-12-01

83

Experimental investigations on vessel-hole ablation during severe accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents experimental results, and subsequent analyses, of scaled reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure site ablation tests conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Power Safety (RIT/NPS). The goal of the test program is to reduce the uncertainty level associated with the phase-change-ablation process, and, thus, improve the characterization of the melt discharge loading on the containment. In a series of moderate temperature experiments, the corium melt is simulated by the binary oxide CaO-B2O3 or the binary eutectic and non-eutectic salts NaNO3-KNO3, while the RPV head steel is represented by a Pb, Sn or metal alloys plate. A complementary set of experiments was conducted at lower temperatures, using water as melt and salted ice as plate material. These experiments scale well to the postulated prototypical conditions. The multidimensional code HAMISA, developed at RIT/NPS, is employed to analyze the experiments with good pre- and post-test predictions. The effects of melt viscosity and crust surface roughness, along with failure site entrance and exit frictional losses on the ablation characteristics are investigated. Theoretical concept was proposed to describe physical mechanisms which govern the vessel-hole ablation process during core melt discharge from RPV. Experimental data obtained from hole ablation tests and separate-effect tests performed at RIT/NPS were used to validate component physical models of the HAMISA code. It is believed that the hole ablation phenomenology is quite well understood. Detailed description of experiments and experimental data, as well as results of analyses are provided in the appendixes

84

An investigation of core liquid level depression in small break loss-of-coolant accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Core liquid level depression can result in partial core dryout and heatup early in a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) transient. Such behavior occurs when steam, trapped in the upper regions of the reactor primary system (between the loop seal and the core inventory), moves coolant out of the core region and uncovers the rod upper elevations. The net result is core liquid level depression. Core liquid level depression and subsequent core heatups are investigated using subscale data from the ROSA-IV Program's 1/48-scale Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and the 1/1705-scale Semiscale facility. Both facilities are Westinghouse-type, four-loop, pressurized water reactor simulators. The depression phenomena and factors which influence the minimum core level are described and illustrated using examples from the data. Analyses of the subject experiments, conducted using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 (Version 12.7) thermal-hydraulic code, are also described and summarized. Finally, the response of a typical Westinghouse four-loop plant (RESAR-3S) was calculated to qualitatively study coal liquid level depression in a full-scale system. 31 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs

85

Critical review on what factors affected the evolution of the Fukushima accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses on why the Fukushima disaster caused such different outcomes at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS) and the Fukushima Daini NPS, although both NPSs were hit by the largest tsunami in Japanese historical records and are located only 10 km apart. First, the authors' study classifies the progression of the Fukushima accident into four phases: Phase I (between earthquake occurrence and tsunami inundation), Phase II (after tsunami inundation), Phase III (efforts at restoration) and Phase IV (recovery from harsh conditions), in order to clarify the difference in the accident progression in each unit of both NPSs. The course of the accident's evolution at each unit is compared to derive the differences of mechanical and human factors which affected the accident's progression. Second, the differences of both factors are reviewed from resilience engineering perspectives to know what factors are important to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. As the conclusions of this critical review, it can be said that: (1) the system, structures and components of NPS are systematically designed, manufactured and maintained to perform the intended functions for expected events, however they have limitations to cope with unexpected events, and (2) the plant personnel can respond to such situations successfully by changing their approach flexibly in a number of ways. (author)

86

Application of Electron Microscopy Techniques to the Investigation of Space Shuttle Columbia Accident  

Science.gov (United States)

This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the investigation into the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia, and addresses the importance of a failure analysis strategy for the investigation of the Columbia accident. The main focus of the presentation is on the usefulness of electron microscopy for analyzing slag deposits from the tiles and reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) wing panels of the Columbia orbiter.

Shah, Sandeep

2005-01-01

87

CFD investigating the air ingress accident occurred in a HTGRsimulation of thermal-hydraulic characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? 3-D compressible CFD model is proposed to study air ingress phenomena for a HTR-10. ? A LOCA with a double-ended rupture of gas duck tube is assumed. ? In LOCA, air in the SG cavity enters the core via diffusion and natural convection. ? O2 will react with graphite on pebble surface, causing the generation of CO2 and CO. ? Peak coolant temperature during air ingress is slightly higher than that in the normal condition. - Abstract: The majority of this paper investigates thermal-hydraulic characteristics in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) core under steady-state and accident conditions through a transient three-dimensional compressible CFD model. With the pebble-bed geometry, the HTR-10 core is selected for the present simulations. A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with double-ended rupture of a gas duct tube is assumed and the core power would decay following this accident. In this LOCA, air in the steam generator cavity would enter the core via diffusion and natural convection mechanisms. Following air ingress into the core, O2 would react with graphite on pebble surface, causing the generation of CO2 and CO. The main thermal-hydraulic characteristics during this air ingress accident include O2 ingress into the core, CO2 and CO production histories, He concentration variations, and coolant temperature transient behavior, etc. Based on the present simulation results, the present simulation results, the peak coolant temperature during the air ingress accident is slightly higher than that under the steady-state condition, revealing the safety of HTR-10 core in this postulated accident from the thermal point of view. In addition, corrosion phenomena related to the fuel pebbles are discussed and presented in the next paper.

88

The role of environmental factors and distance from Emergency Medical Services on the severity of road accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of this work is to assess the effect of some environmental factors on road accident severity in Tuscany (Italy). ISTAT data on road accidents occurred in Tuscany in 1991-2003 (228,833 accidents) have been analysed, considering the following variables: road type and characteristics, population density in the municipality where the accident occurred, presence of Emergency Medical Services (EMSs) in the municipality, distance between the municipality and the nearest EMS, according to 3 different criteria. The effect of each variable in accident severity (fatal vs not fatal) was assessed through logistic regression analysis. The results confirm the role of structural and environmental factors in influencing accident severity, in particular population density, location on the road and road type, while the effectiveness in preventing serious consequences due to distance from EMS is limited to the municipalities very close to hospitals. PMID:19529044

Lorini, Chiara; Pasquini, Jacopo; Voller, Fabio; Comodo, Nicola; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo

2009-01-01

89

Crew Communication as a Factor in Aviation Accidents  

Science.gov (United States)

The crew communication process is analyzed. Planning and explanation are shown to be well-structured discourse types, described by formal rules. These formal rules are integrated with those describing the other most important discourse type within the cockpit: the command-and-control speech act chain. The latter is described as a sequence of speech acts for making requests (including orders and suggestions), for making reports, for supporting or challenging statements, and for acknowledging previous speech acts. Mitigation level, a linguistic indication of indirectness and tentativeness in speech, was an important variable in several hypotheses, i.e., the speech of subordinates is more mitigated than the speech of superiors, the speech of all crewmembers is less mitigated when they know that they are in either a problem or emergency situation, and mitigation is a factor in failures of crewmembers to initiate discussion of new topics or have suggestions ratified by the captain. Test results also show that planning and explanation are more frequently performed by captains, are done more during crew- recognized problems, and are done less during crew-recognized emergencies. The test results also indicated that planning and explanation are more frequently performed by captains than by other crewmembers, are done more during crew-recognized problems, and are done less during-recognized emergencies.

Goguen, J.; Linde, C.; Murphy, M.

1986-01-01

90

NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia: Synopsis of the Report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA's space shuttle Columbia broke apart on February 1, 2003 as it returned to Earth from a 16-day science mission. All seven astronauts aboard were killed. NASA created the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), chaired by Adm. (Ret.) Harold Gehman, to investigate the accident. The Board released its report (available at [http://www.caib.us]) on August 26, 2003, concluding that the tragedy was caused by technical and organizational failures. The CAIB report included 29 recommendations, 15 of which the Board specified must be completed before the shuttle returns to flight status. This report provides a brief synopsis of the Board's conclusions, recommendations, and observations. Further information on Columbia and issues for Congress are available in CRS Report RS21408. This report will not be updated.

Smith, Marcia S.

2003-01-01

91

Soil contamination following an industrial accident : towards efficient investigations and assessment  

OpenAIRE

When an industrial accident occurs, e.g. the explosion or the fire of a chemical facility, soil investigations and subsequent risk mitigation generally need to be decided and performed rapidly. This requires specific organisation and tools: Procedures for an immediate and coordinated intervention of relevant actors: industrials, administrations for industrial facilities, emergency and health, local authorities, environmental consultants and laboratories, NGOs. Models and input data on emissio...

Hazebrouck, Benoi?t; Blancher, P.; Verger, P.; Pirard, P.; Heyman, Christophe; Mosqueron, Luc; Motreff, Y.; Ricoux, C.; Pagnon, Ste?phane

2010-01-01

92

Factors contributing to anxious driving behavior: The role of stress history and accident severity  

OpenAIRE

Although fear and travel avoidance among anxious drivers are well documented, relatively little is known about the behavior of anxious individuals who continue to drive. Previous research has identified three broad domains of anxious driving behavior: exaggerated safety/caution behaviors, anxiety-based performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive driving behaviors. In an effort to explicate factors associated with the development of anxious driving behaviors, associations with objective accid...

Clapp, Joshua D.; Olsen, Shira A.; Danoff-burg, Sharon; Hagewood, J. Houston; Hickling, Edward J.; Hwang, Vivian S.; Beck, J. Gayle

2011-01-01

93

Ergonomic (human factors) problems in design of NPPs. A review of TMI and Chernobyl accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs

94

Contributing Factors in Piper PA28 and Cirrus SR20 Aircraft Accidents  

OpenAIRE

A large midwestern university has recently acquired Cirrus SR20 aircraft to replace an aging Piper PA28-161 fleet. This change to new and more advanced Cirrus aircraft has led to major changes in the flight program curriculum. New training techniques, guidelines, and operating procedures have been introduced to facilitate a successful transition. This study compared contributing factors to fatal accidents in SR20 and PA28-161 aircraft to determine if there are new risks associated with the...

Franza, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

95

Risk and preventive factors for fatalities in All-terrain Vehicle Accidents in New Zealand.  

Science.gov (United States)

All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) have been used in agriculture for a few decades now. Yet despite their invaluable contribution to the productivity of the agricultural industry they are associated with a large number of accidents, many of which result in a severe or fatal outcome. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for ATV-related fatal injuries in order to support the design of effective interventions. Using data held by the Department of Labour, the current study analysed 355 cases of serious harm accidents associated with ATVs including 45 fatalities. The findings suggest that injuries are more likely to occur when accidents involve any of the following: children under the age of 10; four-wheel drive ATVs; driving downhill; driving on a sealed road; driving backwards; or if the ATV rolls sideways. A fatal outcome is more likely to occur when ATV accidents end up with the vehicle rolling over and pinning the driver underneath. Fatalities were also associated with injuries to the head, neck and chest. Being employed; and/or having formal training; and/or having brakes and tyres well maintained on the ATV; and/or having no fluid load on the ATV reduced the risk for fatality. Since the likelihood of a fatal outcome was found to be related to human behaviour and ATV rollover, it is suggested that interventions should mainly address these two issues. PMID:20159086

Shulruf, Boaz; Balemi, Andrew

2010-03-01

96

Severe human factor accidents and their management in a in-service nuclear Power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is an important part of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in a nuclear power plant (NPP). It can be used to evaluate and quantify the behaviors of the operators in a post-accident response. The paper picks up the serious human factor event sequences that contribute more than 5% to the overall Core Damage Frequency (CDF) involved in PSA through a HRA analysis on a domestic PWR. The basic human error probabilities (BHEPs) of these human factor event sequences are resulted, on the basis of which the actions of the operators within the main control room (MCR) after the accidents are analyzed and their criticalities are arranged in order. The paper, from the point of engineering management,puts forward the measures to improve the corresponding emergency operating procedures (EOPs) and the MCR surroundings through analyzing serious human factor event sequence arrangement and the actions of operators in the post-accident interferences. With regard to the operator's interferences of high criticality the NPP should enforce training and improve its ability of interferences. (authors)

97

Investigations of soil-plant transfer of radiocesium after deposition from the Chernobyl reactor accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the low deposition of radiocaesium in NRW after the Chernobyl accident of about 2500 Bq 137Cs/m2 and 720 Bq 134Cs/m2, radiocaesium was not detectable in cereals from NRW. A deposition of about 44,100 Bq 137Cs/m2 and 13,500 Bq 134Cs/m2 was calculated for the vicinity of Tannheim, a village in Upper Swabia. Nevertheless, the content of radiocaesium in grain from Upper Swabia was found to be more than one hundred times lower than that of natural 40K. Transferfactors (TF/SP) for radiocaesium were determined for cereals from the three investigated soil types: Kalkvega (FAO classification: Calcaric Fluvisol), Braunerde (Cambisol) and Parabraunerde-Pseudogley (Luvisol-Planosol). The total variation in TF(SP) from 54 sampling sites was a factor of 43 (grain) and 18 (straw). However, the values did not reach the calculation basis of the German Regulatory Guide of 0.05 (Allgemeine Berechnungsgrundlage). The maximum TF(SP) for 134/137Cs in grain of 0.026 is clearly below that limit. A drastic increase of radioactivity in sewage sludge was observed in Upper Swabia. In the Tannheim sewage plant a radiocaesium content of about 12,500 Bq/kg dry matter was measured. In order to obtain further information on the possible radioecological consequences of using this sewage sludge as fertilizer a lysimeter study was carried out with application of the contaminated sewage sludge. Radioactivity in soil and several crops was measured for the growing periods 1989 and 1990. Although the soil type ('worst-case model') could have led one to expect high TF(SP) the increase of radiocaesium in plants was quite small. A higher uptake of radiocaesium by plants is caused by varying the potassium contents of the soil rather than by the application of the contaminated sewage sludge. (orig./HP)

98

PRTR accident: a preliminary report on the investigation of fission product chemical forms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) has sparked an interest in previous reactor incidents for which data were available which might offer insights into the radiological release characterization resulting from an accident of this nature. The Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) located at Richland, Washington, has been identified as a reactor which has undergone one such incident. At the request of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is reviewing the PRTR incident to assemble and update all the information available regarding the volatile and semi-volatile fission products released to discover and investigate any clues that remain which may indicate the most probable chemical and physical forms of these released fission products

99

PSB-VVER experimental and analytical investigation of station blackout accident in VVER-1000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In November 2003, an experiment simulating station blackout accident was carried out in the PSB-VVER integral test facility at the Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre (Russia). The purpose of the experiment was to provide missing data for code validation as well as to investigate the VVER thermohydraulics in the blackout conditions. The experiment covers a wide range of phenomena relating not only to transients but also to small break loss-of-coolant accidents. The data gained in the test has been used to assess the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. In this paper, a special attention has been paid to the code assessment regarding the mixture level and entrainment in steam generator secondary side. The analysis of the recorded transient has shown that the calculation of the heat transfer on the secondary side of steam generators is very sensitive to the steam generator nodalization. (authors)

100

Investigations of postulated accident sequences for the Fort St. Vrain HTGR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The systems analysis capability of the ORNL HTGR Safety analysis research program includes a family of computer codes: an overall plant NSSS simulation (ORTAP), and detailed component codes for investigating core neutronic accidents (CORTAP), shutdown emergency-cooling accidents via a 3-dimensional core model (ORECA), and once-through steam generator transients (BLAST). The component codes can either be run independently or in the overall NSSS code. Verification efforts have consisted primarily of using existing Fort St. Vrain reactor dynamics data to compare against code predictions. Comparisons of core thermal conditions made for reactor scrams from power levels between 30 and 50% showed good agreement. An optimization program was used to rationalize the difference between the predicted and measured refueling region outlet temperatures, and, in general, excellent agreement was attained by adjustment of models and parameters within their uncertainty ranges. However, more work is required to establish a unique and valid set of models

101

32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated 32P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a 32P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between 32P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The 32P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67±0.15 and 0.59±0.06 Gy (Bq g-1)-1 at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. In this study, a method for measuring 32P changes activated by the neutron irradiation of hair samples of criticality accident victims was developed and tested. In addition, a dose conversion factor for two neutron mean energy spectra based on these measurement results was developed. These results agree well with measured absorbed doses from exposure to fast neutron fields. The advantage of the proposed activated hair analysis method based on liquid scintillation counting is that it enables the acquisition of dose information from victims in a short time and with relatively high detection efficiency. In addition, sampling of hair is simpler than it is for other biological samples, and, finally, the conversion factor the authors developed using hair analysis data will be useful for dose assessment in real cases. However, the relation between dose and 32P-specific activity depends fundamentally on neutron spectrum information, and therefore, in order to accurately evaluate dosing in criticality accidents that may occur at different nuclear sites, conversion factors for all neutron energy spectra must be established. In addition, hair analysis can be performed only for local dose estimation. The incident direction of the top or side of phantom according to the neutron irradiation geometry must also be studied against various accident conditions. Correspondingly, in future research, the authors will augment the hair analysis method developed here by performing comprehensive dose assessment using Na activation analysis of blood samples. (authors)

102

Structural Analysis for the American Airlines Flight 587 Accident Investigation: Global Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) supported the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) in the American Airlines Flight 587 accident investigation due to LaRC's expertise in high-fidelity structural analysis and testing of composite structures and materials. A Global Analysis Team from LaRC reviewed the manufacturer s design and certification procedures, developed finite element models and conducted structural analyses, and participated jointly with the NTSB and Airbus in subcomponent tests conducted at Airbus in Hamburg, Germany. The Global Analysis Team identified no significant or obvious deficiencies in the Airbus certification and design methods. Analysis results from the LaRC team indicated that the most-likely failure scenario was failure initiation at the right rear main attachment fitting (lug), followed by an unstable progression of failure of all fin-to-fuselage attachments and separation of the VTP from the aircraft. Additionally, analysis results indicated that failure initiates at the final observed maximum fin loading condition in the accident, when the VTP was subjected to loads that were at minimum 1.92 times the design limit load condition for certification. For certification, the VTP is only required to support loads of 1.5 times design limit load without catastrophic failure. The maximum loading during the accident was shown to significantly exceed the certification requirement. Thus, the structure appeared to perform in a manner consistent with its design and certification, and failure is attributed to VTP loads greater than expected.

Young, Richard D.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Moore, David F.

2005-01-01

103

A guide to advance preparation for accident investigation. [Contains a list of System Safety Development Center publications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is an aid for DOE/DOE contractor organizations for evaluating the state of operational readiness for performance of accident investigations according to DOE requirements. The methods described are primarily related to type A/B investigations as required by DOE Order 5484.1. However, the generic considerations are applicable to any investigatory process. The material is useful for evaluating the state of readiness before, during, or after an accident.

Nertney, R J; Fielding, J R

1992-08-01

104

Status of ANL out-of-pile investigations of severe accident phenomena for liquid metal reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research addressing LMFBR whole core accidents has been terminated, and there is now emphasis on quantifying reactivity feedbacks, and in particular enhancing negative feedback, so that advanced LMR designs will provide inherently safe operation. The status of recent HCDA-related laboratory research performed at ANL, up to the time that such activities were no longer needed to support CRBR licensing, is described. Included are descriptions of programs addressing sodium channel voiding, fuel sweepout, fuel dispersal and plugging, boiled-up pool, UO2/sodium FCI, and debris coolability. Descriptions of recent investigations involving the metal fuel/sodium system are also included

105

Status of ANL out-of-pile investigations of severe accident phenomena for liquid metal reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research addressing LMFBR whole core accidents has been terminated, and there is now emphasis on quantifying reactivity feedbacks, and in particular enhancing negative feedback, so that advanced LMR designs will provide inherently safe operation. The status of recent HCDA-related laboratory research performed at ANL, up to the time that such activities were no longer needed to support CRBR licensing, is described. Included are descriptions of programs addressing sodium channel voiding, fuel sweepout, fuel dispersal and plugging, boiled-up pool, UO/sub 2//sodium FCI, and debris coolability. Descriptions of recent investigations involving the metal fuel/sodium system are also included.

Spencer, B.W.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.; Baker, L.; Cho, D.H.; Gabor, J.D.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sienicki, J.J.; Stein, R.P.

1986-01-01

106

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at the plutonium reclamation facility, Hanford site, Richland, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m., a chemical explosion occurred in Tank A-109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility on the Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington. The Facility, also known as Building 236-Z, is an inactive processing facility located at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The explosion occurred when a highly concentrated solution of hydroxylamine nitrate (HN) and nitric acid (HNO3) auto-catalytically reacted inside Tank A-109. On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225.1, Accident Investigations. The scope of the Boards investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. This paper describes the accident, gives the three root causes of the accident and also six contributing causes, and discusses the major conclusions and judgments of need identified by the Board

107

Investigating plutonium contamination in marine sediments off Fukushima coast following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident has caused large amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides to be released into the atmosphere as well as directly discharged into the sea. To obtain the vertical distribution of Pu isotopes in marine sediments and to better assess the possible contamination from the FDNPP accident in the marine environment, activities of 239+240Pu and 241Pu, as well as the atom ratios of 240Pu/239Pu and 241Pu/239Pu, were investigated in a sediment core collected from the western North Pacific in July 2011. The observed vertical profile of 239+240Pu activities and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios showed no extra injection of Pu from the accident, indicating no immediate Pu contamination from the FDNPP accident in the marine sediments in the region investigated. (author)

108

Investigation of Occupational Accidents Induce Sever Injury in Fars, Iran from 2005 to 2007  

OpenAIRE

Occupational accidents and incidents are increased in parallel of growth and expansion of industries. Implementation of preventive measures requires detailed analysis of accidents. So, the major goal of this study was analyze data on occupational accidents induced sever injury in Fars province, in the period 2005-2007 in order to use clues that would support political definition of priorities and strategies for prevention.Data were collected from 200 accidents registered in the Fars Labor Org...

Mojtaba Kamalinia; Heidar Mohammadi; Majid Habibi Mohrz; Maziyar Arassi; Mohammad Amin Faghih; Mahdieh Mirzajani

2012-01-01

109

Fukushima nuclear accident independent investigation commission by the National Diet of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Fukushima nuclear accident, Independent Investigation Commission (IIC) was firstly established in constitutional government by the National Diet of Japan. This article described recognition of its necessity, its setup process, its framework with start from almost zero and about 6 months period and time, its basic way to proceed investigation and several obstacles and hardships, significance of openness to the public, web's communication and simultaneous interpretation (transparency) and basic philosophy of the report. Further significance of Diet's IIC in the democratic system and evaluation of the report were added. As a problem of separation of three powers in Japan, specific recommendations to the legislation of IIC and their future evaluation, nation's governance system problem and social responsibility of scientists and others were also discussed. If Japan were not to be changed after the disaster, Japanese future might be unreliable. (T. Tanaka)

110

Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 or 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study. In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation. 43 refs., 6 tabs.

Emerit, I.; Levy, A.; Cernjavski, L. [Universite Paris (France)] [and others

1995-11-01

111

Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 or 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study. In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation. 43 refs., 6 tabs

112

Investigation of the radiological impact of reactor accidents under probabilistic aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis and conceptional investigation have been performed for the accident consequence model of the German reactor risk study. A dynamic atmospheric diffusion model is developed, which is applied in the first stage of the study to all distance ranges, and will be restricted finally to the long distance range. The wind direction and its variations are not taken into account in this model. The program set UFO-BAS calculates the time integrated nuclide concentration in air at any location downwind of the source. A further model which takes into account wind direction variations is being developed. On the basis of the proposals for the calculation of the health effects in the German risk study considerations on the storage requirements were accomplished. By means of these assessments a revised grid of parameters was evaluated. Furthermore, considerations were made for the implementation of an evaluation model, which will be developed by the Institut fuer Unfallforschung. (orig./RW)

113

Evaluation of dose attenuation factor of armored car against radiation accidents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Tokyo Fire Department developed an armored car against radiation accidents. The car is covered by lead shields for attenuating dose from gamma rays. Dose from neutrons also can be attenuated by pouring water into tanks attached to the surface of the car. However, dose attenuation factors of the radiation shields had been determined by an estimation of single-layer shield, and more precise evaluation of multi-layer shield was required. By request from the Tokyo Fire Department, a precise evaluation of the dose attenuation in multi-layer shield was carried out. The evaluation was made by a Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation code MCNP4B for the shields used in the front, side and back of the car. Three types of the radiation sources ({sup 252}Cf as a neutron source, {sup 60}Co as a gamma ray source, and radiation source corresponding to the JCO criticality accident) were considered in the calculation. Benchmark experiments using neutron and gamma ray sources were also performed for ensuring the evaluation method. As a result, it was found out that doses of neutron and gamma ray were attenuated to approximately 10% and 25% by the thickest shield, respectively. These values were close to the ones which had already obtained by the estimation of single-layer shield. (author)

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Fujii, Katsutoshi; Murayama, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

2002-03-01

114

Evaluation of dose attenuation factor of armored car against radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tokyo Fire Department developed an armored car against radiation accidents. The car is covered by lead shields for attenuating dose from gamma rays. Dose from neutrons also can be attenuated by pouring water into tanks attached to the surface of the car. However, dose attenuation factors of the radiation shields had been determined by an estimation of single-layer shield, and more precise evaluation of multi-layer shield was required. By request from the Tokyo Fire Department, a precise evaluation of the dose attenuation in multi-layer shield was carried out. The evaluation was made by a Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation code MCNP4B for the shields used in the front, side and back of the car. Three types of the radiation sources (252Cf as a neutron source, 60Co as a gamma ray source, and radiation source corresponding to the JCO criticality accident) were considered in the calculation. Benchmark experiments using neutron and gamma ray sources were also performed for ensuring the evaluation method. As a result, it was found out that doses of neutron and gamma ray were attenuated to approximately 10% and 25% by the thickest shield, respectively. These values were close to the ones which had already obtained by the estimation of single-layer shield. (author)

115

32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated (32)P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a (32)P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between (32)P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The (32)P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67 ± 0.15 and 0.59 ± 0.06 Gy (Bq g(-1))(-1) at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. PMID:24516187

Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Park, Seyoung; Shin, Seongwook; Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung-Sook

2014-10-01

116

Investigating critical success factors in tile industry  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine critical success factors influencing the success of tile industry in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among some experts in tile industry. Using Pearson correlation test, the study has detected that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between marketing planning and the success of tile industry (r = 0.312 Sig. = 0.001). However, there is not any meaningful relationship between low co...

Davood Salmani; Gholam Reza Taleghani; Maryam Mollaali; Arezoo Salmani

2014-01-01

117

How to identify the key factors that affect driver perception of accident risk. A comparison between Italian and Spanish driver behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Road crashes can be caused by different factors, including infrastructure, vehicles, and human variables. Many research studies have focused solely on identifying the key factors that cause road crashes. From these studies, it emerged that human factors have the most relevant impact on accident severity. More specifically, accident severity depends on several factors related directly to the driver, i.e., driving experience, driver's socio-economic characteristics, and driving behavior and attitudes. In this paper, we investigate driver behaviors and attitudes while driving and specifically focus on different methods for identifying the factors that most affect the driver's perception of accident risk. To this end, we designed and conducted a survey in two different European contexts: the city of Cosenza, which is located in the south of Italy, and the city of Granada, which is located in the south of Spain. Samples of drivers were contacted for their opinions on certain aspects of driving rules and attitudes while driving, and different types of questions were addressed to the drivers to assess their judgments of these aspects. Consequently, different methods of data analysis were applied to determine the aspects that heavily influence driver perception of accident risk. An experiment based on the stated preferences (SP) was carried out with the drivers, and the SP data were analyzed using an ordered probit (OP) model. Interesting findings emerged from different analyses of the data and from the comparisons among the data collected in the two different territorial contexts. We found that both Italian and Spanish drivers consider driving in an altered psychophysical state and violating the overtaking rules to be the most risky behaviors. PMID:25247553

de Oña, Juan; de Oña, Rocio; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella

2014-12-01

118

Reduction factors for wooden houses due to external ?-radiation based on in situ measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident  

OpenAIRE

For estimation of residents' exposure dose after a nuclear accident, the reduction factor, which is the ratio of the indoor dose to the outdoor dose is essential, as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we evaluated the median reduction factor with an interquartile range of 0.43 (0.34–0.53) based on 522 survey results for 69 detached wooden houses in two evacuation zones, Iitate village and Odaka district. The results indicated ...

Yoshida-ohuchi, Hiroko; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kanagami, Takashi; Uegaki, Masaki; Tashima, Hideo

2014-01-01

119

Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, sedentariness, metabolic syndrome

Rodrigues AN

2013-03-01

120

Learning lessons from accidents with a human and organisational factors perspective: deficiencies and failures of operating experience feedback systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper aims at reminding the failures of operating experience feedback (OEF) systems through the lessons of accidents and provides a framework for improving the efficiency of OEF processes. The risk is for example to miss lessons from other companies and industrial sectors, or to miss the implementation of adequate corrective actions with the risk to repeat accidents. Most of major accidents have been caused by a learning failure or other organisational factors as a contributing cause among several root causes. Some of the recurring organisational factors are: -) poor recognition of critical components, of critical activities or deficiency in anticipation and detection of errors, -) excessive production pressure, -) deficiency of communication or lack of quality of dialogue, -) Excessive formalism, -) organisational complexity, -) learning deficiencies (OEF, closing feedback loops, lack of listening of whistle-blowers). Some major accidents occurred in the nuclear industry. Although the Three Mile Island accident has multiple causes, in particular, an inappropriate design of the man-machine interface, it is a striking example of the loss of external lessons from incidents. As for Fukushima it is too early to have established evidence on learning failures. The systematic study and organisational analysis of OEF failures in industrial accidents whatever their sector has enabled us to provide a framework for OEF improvements. Five key OEF issues to improve in priorit Five key OEF issues to improve in priority: 1) human and organisational factors analysis of the root causes of the events, 2) listening to the field staff, dissenting voices and whistle-blowers, 3) monitoring of the external events that provide generic lessons, 4) building an alive memory through a culture of accidents with people who become experiences pillars, and 5) the setting of external audit or organisational analysis of the OEF system by independent experts. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

121

Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and intractable, and methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. The number of methods in each group were four, three, zero, and two, respectively. Faced with the need to investigate an accident it is essential that the chosen method is appropriate for the system and the situation. Nuclear power plants considered as systems are tightly coupled and more or less intractable and therefore require accident models and accident investigation methods that are capable of accounting for these features. If an accident concerns the NPP operation as a whole, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. If an accident only concerns the operation of a subsystem or a component, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, or possible loosely coupled and tractable. The report provides a proposal for how these characteristics can be determined. The conclusion is that no specific method is the overall best in the sense that it can be used for all conditions. While it may be convenient, or even necessary, for an organisation to adopt a specific method as its standard, this should always be done knowingly and with a willingness to reconsider the choice when the conditions so demand it. In five or ten years we must expect that the methods developed today will have been partly obsolete, not because the methods change but because the nature of socio-technical systems, and therefore the nature of accidents, do

Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine (Ecole des Mines de Paris, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France))

2008-01-15

122

The Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation and Reconstruction: Two Years Later  

Science.gov (United States)

The Space Shuttle Columbia was lost during re-entry over two years ago. Since the release of the official materials-related findings in August of 2003, additional testing and analysis of select pieces of debris has continued. Microanalytical techniques, including EMPA, ESCA, and x-ray elemental dot mapping, were employed during the initial investigation; the results related the microstructural characteristics of deposit layers to the breach location in the leading edge of the left wing. Such characteristics included deposition order, composition, and distribution. Subsequent to the original efforts, new analytical data and information, not available at the time of the primary investigation, has been generated. This data was obtained via a low-vacuum SEM, fitted not only with a light-element EDS detector, but an XRF tube as well. Essentially, for elements up to sodium, classic EDS was utilized; above sodium, XRF was used. Predominantly, the elements of interest were aluminum, titanium, chromium, iron, nickel, and copper. The findings of both old and new data are compared, and their application to the overall accident investigation detailed.

McDanels, Steven J.

2005-01-01

123

Investigation program on PWR-steel-containment behavior under accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a first documentation of the KfK/PNS activities and plans to investigate the behaviour of steel containments under accident conditions. The investigations will deal with a free standing spherical containment shell built for the latest type of a German pressurized water reactor. The diameter of the containment shell is 56 m. The minimum wall thickness is 38 mm. The material used is the ferritic steel 15MnNi63. According to the actual planning the program is concerned with four different problems which are beyond the common design and licensing practice: Containment behavior under quasi-static pressure increase up to containment failure. Containment behavior under high transient pressures. Containment oscillations due to earthquake loadings; consideration of shell imperfections. Containment buckling due to earthquake loadings. The investigation program consists of both theoretical and experimental activities including membrane tests allowing for very high plastic strains and oscillation tests with a thin-walled, high-accurate spherical shell. (orig.)

124

Factors contributing to driver’s condition after fatal and injury vehicle accidents in North Khorasan province- New Year 1391  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim: Injuries from traffic accidents are a major public health problem, and the third leading cause of mortality in people aged 1 to 40 years. Each year 31.8 persons per hundred thousands of Iranians are killed in car accidents. Neighboring of North Khorasan province with Razavi Khorasan, a province with a lot of pilgrims caused a large number of passengers travel via North Khorasan province. This study aimed to evaluate the road accidents and its related factors in the city of bojnurd in March 2012. Materials and Methods: this cross-sectional study was done from … to … 2012(the New Year vacation in Iran. All injured or victims from car accidents who referred to the emergency department of the Imam Ali Hospital formed the research community. Data was gathered by a questionnaire consisting vehicle specification, driver and injured characteristics. For victims and those were not able to answer, we used the family members or relatives for gathering the data. All data analysis was done in SPSS version 19.Results: during the study period, 148 injured people were admitted to the hospital. Drivers’ mean age were 33.9 with the SD of 11.9 years; among them 43.2% were used seat belt. One driver and three passengers were killed immediately, and two drivers and three passengers died in the first 24 hours of admission. Fastening seat belt by drivers reduce the hospitalization rate significantly (p-value<0.0001. 50.7% of the accidents were head-on collisions. Violation from the speed limit (41.3%, indiscretions (25.4% and drowsiness were the most common causes of accident respectively. Conclusion: training the drivers, obligation for using seat belt by driver and passengers, rest after long hours driving , and more control of traffic police especially in two way roads could reduce the car accident or in case of accident help to prevent severe damage and injury.

Javad Rezazadeh

2013-01-01

125

Investigation of high temperature irradiated fuel-liquefied Zircaloy interactions in support of severe accident safety studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of irradiated fuel (both UO2 & Mixed Oxide Fuels) interactions with liquefied Zircaloy at high temperatures is central to the understanding of bundle degradation mechanisms during reactor power transients or severe accidents. These initial interactions of the cladding and the irradiated fuel result in a melt (corium) and then to a loss of bundle geometry and the corium accumulation in a pool. ITU investigated the interaction of irradiated fuel and compared it with non-irradiated fuel with its Zircaloy cladding at 2000 °C for various short times. This was its contribution to the COLOSS (Core Loss of Geometry) project carried out under an EC framework programme. The tests were investigated by optical microscopy with image analysis and then by SEM-EDS analysis. The dissolution of the irradiated fuel by the Zircaloy melt was very variable and heterogeneous, but for non-irradiated fuel was reasonably uniform and constant. The kinetics of the non-irradiated UO2-liquefied Zircaloy interactions was shown in another work package of the project to follow diffusion-limited mechanisms that could be modelled. The large variation in the results with the irradiated fuel rods made it difficult to model these interactions, nevertheless, they appear to have similar parabolic kinetics seen in non-irradiated fuel. The cracked condition of the fuel and the fission gas release during these interactions are major factors for fuel break-up, dispersion and dissolution in the melt under temperature transients.

Bottomley, D.; Papaioannou, D.; Pellottiero, D.; Knoche, D.; Rondinella, V. V.

2010-02-01

126

The Role of Materials Degradation and Analysis in the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

The efforts following the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia included debris recovery, reconstruction, and analysis. The debris was subjected to myriad quantitative and semiquantitative chemical analysis techniques, ranging from examination via the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The results from the work with the debris helped the investigators determine the location where a breach likely occurred in the leading edge of the left wing during lift off of the Orbiter from the Kennedy Space Center. Likewise, the information evidenced by the debris was also crucial in ascertaining the path of impinging plasma flow once it had breached the wing. After the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) issued its findings, the major portion of the investigation was concluded. However, additional work remained to be done on many pieces of debris from portions of the Orbiter which were not directly related to the initial impact during ascent. This subsequent work was not only performed in the laboratory, but was also performed with portable equipment, including examination via portable X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Likewise, acetate and silicon-rubber replicas of various fracture surfaces were obtained for later macroscopic and fractographic examination. This paper will detail the efforts and findings from the initial investigation, as well as present results obtained by the later examination and analysis of debris from the Orbiter including its windows, bulkhead structures, and other components which had not been examined during the primary investigation.

McDanels, Steven J.

2006-01-01

127

Investigating the multi-causal and complex nature of the accident causal influence of construction project features.  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction project features (CPFs) are organisational, physical and operational attributes that characterise construction projects. Although previous studies have examined the accident causal influence of CPFs, the multi-causal attribute of this causal phenomenon still remain elusive and thus requires further investigation. Aiming to shed light on this facet of the accident causal phenomenon of CPFs, this study examines relevant literature and crystallises the attained insight of the multi-causal attribute by a graphical model which is subsequently operationalised by a derived mathematical risk expression that offers a systematic approach for evaluating the potential of CPFs to cause harm and consequently their health and safety (H&S) risk implications. The graphical model and the risk expression put forth by the study thus advance current understanding of the accident causal phenomenon of CPFs and they present an opportunity for project participants to manage the H&S risk associated with CPFs from the early stages of project procurement. PMID:22664676

Manu, Patrick A; Ankrah, Nii A; Proverbs, David G; Suresh, Subashini

2012-09-01

128

Accumulation factors and biogeochemical aspects of migration of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems in the areas impacted by the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accumulation factors of radionuclides, such as 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr, 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 140Ru, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce and 144Ce, in fish, mollusks and aquatic plants of the water bodies in the near and distant areas of the Chernobyl accident ''footprint'' were estimated. The dynamics of changes in the factors of accumulation by the organisms of radioisotopes of iodine, cesium and strontium was analyzed. (orig.)

129

Accident analysis of recreation vehicle. Human factors from statistic analysis and case study; RV sha no jiko bunseki. Tokei bunseki to jikorei bunseki ni miru untensha yoin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concern is heightening recently on traffic accidents associated with leisure activities. Therefore, with an objective to obtain referential information for preventing accidents caused by recreational vehicles, macroscopic (statistical) and microscopic (case study) investigations were carried out on accidents. As a result of analyzing the statistics, a trend was discovered that recreational vehicles cause accidents at higher rate than by other types of vehicles in the following types of accidents: accidents with pedestrians, children and elderly people, accidents caused by young drivers, and accidents during personal activities. Furthermore, four cases were analyzed on accident trends. Accident trends must be discussed from the following two viewpoints: frequency in occurrence of circumstances (chances) that link with accidents, and how high the accident rate (hazard risk) is under such circumstances. The former point has high correlation with how recreational vehicles are used, and drivers` attributes, and the latter point with structures and motion characteristics of recreational vehicles (for example, leisure use, cars driven by young drivers, and high vehicle height). 1 ref., 12 figs.

Takubo, N. [Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis, Tokyo (Japan); Mori, K. [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1998-05-01

130

Experimental investigation of symmetric and asymmetric heating of pressure tube under accident conditions for Indian PHWR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Circumferential temperature gradient for asymmetric heat-up was 400 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At same pressure ballooning initiates at lower temperature in asymmetrical heat-up. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 1 MPa ballooning initiated at 408 Degree-Sign C and with expansion rate of 0.005 mm/s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 2 MPa ballooning initiation at 330 Degree-Sign C and with expansion rate of 0.0056 mm/s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For symmetrical heat-up strain rate was 10 times faster than asymmetric heat-up. - Abstract: In pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), under postulated scenario of small break Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) coincident with the failure of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), a situation may arise under which reduction in mass flow rate of coolant through individual reactor channel can lead to stratified flow. Such stratified flow condition creates partial uncover of fuel bundle, which creates a circumferential temperature gradient over PT. The present investigation has been carried out to study thermo-mechanical behaviour of PT under asymmetric heating conditions for a 220 MWe PHWR. A 19-pin fuel simulator has been developed in which preferential heating of elements could be done by supplying power to the selected pins. The asymmetric heating of PT has been carried out at pressure 2 MPa and 1 MPa, respectively, by supplying power to upper region heating elements thus creating an half filled stratified flow conditions. The temperature difference up to 425 Degree-Sign C has been observed along top to bottom periphery of PT. A comparison is made between thermo-mechanical behaviour of PT under asymmetrical and symmetrical heat-up, expected from a large break LOCA condition. The radial expansion rate during symmetrical heating is found to be much faster as compared to that for asymmetric ballooning of PT at the same internal pressure. Integrity of PT is found to be maintained under both loading conditions. Heat sink around of test section, simulating moderator is found to be helpful in arresting the rise in temperature for both fuel pins and PT, thus establishing moderator as an effective heat sink under accident conditions.

Yadav, Ashwini K., E-mail: ashwinikumaryadav@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Majumdar, P., E-mail: pmajum@barc.gov.in [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Kumar, Ravi, E-mail: ravikfme@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Chatterjee, B., E-mail: barun@barc.gov.in [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Gupta, Akhilesh, E-mail: akhilfme@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Lele, H.G., E-mail: hglele@barc.gov.in [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

2013-01-15

131

Análise e classificação dos fatores humanos nos acidentes industriais / Analysis and classification of the human factors in industrial accidents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente texto apresenta a evolução do conhecimento do fenômeno "acidente", mostrando a mudança do conceito do acidente como obra do destino para um componente do processo produtivo de qualquer segmento - industrial, aeronáutico, serviços, transporte dentre outros. O método de análise e classifica [...] ção dos fatores humanos nos acidentes é apresentado e discutido quanto à viabilidade de implementação. Finalmente, conclui-se que a forma atual e moderna para prevenção de acidentes está baseada na identificação antecipada das falhas latentes da organização e do sistema, e que a ferramenta apresentada contribui para a gestão proativa e conseqüentemente para a diminuição do impacto dos acidentes do trabalho no processo produtivo. Abstract in english The present text presents the evolution of the knowledge of the phenomenon "accident", showing the change of the concept of the accident as workmanship of the destination for one component of the productive process of any segment - industrial, aeronautical, services, transports amongst others. The m [...] ethod of analysis and classification of the human factors in the accidents is presented and argued how much to the implementation viability. Finally one concludes that the current and modern form for prevention of accidents is based on the anticipated identification of the latent failures of the organization and the system, and that the presented tool contributes consequently for the pro-active management and in the reduction of the impact of the employment-related accidents in the productive process.

Cármen Regina Pereira, Correa; Moacyr Machado, Cardoso Junior.

2007-04-01

132

A abordagem sociotécnica na investigação e na prevenção de acidentes aéreos: o caso do vôo RG-254 / Sociotechnical approach to investigation and prevention of aircraft accidents: the case of flight RG-254  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta estudo de caso do acidente ocorrido com o vôo RG-254 da Varig, em setembro de 1989. Partindo de informações de investigações oficiais, publicações, material audiovisual, entrevistas com envolvidos no acidente e especialistas em segurança de vôo, os autores re-analisam o acident [...] e com enfoque sociotécnico referenciado na teoria ator-rede e no conceito de acidente "normal". O texto apresenta novo entendimento para a investigação de acidentes na aviação criticando a tradicional repartição de causas entre os chamados fatores "humanos", "técnicos" e "operacionais" e sugere aplicação do conceito de multicausalidade que não se restringe à mera listagem de "fatores contribuintes", mas que analisa as relações entre atores-redes envolvidos no sistema de aviação em que ocorreu o acidente. O acidente do RG-254 é descrito como sintoma do rompimento de relações entre os atores que atuam no sistema. Abstract in english This article presents a case study of the accident with Varig flight RG-254 in September 1989. Using as starting point the official investigation data, publications, audiovisual material and interviews with those involved in the accident as well as flight safety specialists, the authors re-analyze t [...] he accident through a sociotechnical focus, which is based on the actor-network theory and concepts of "normal" accident. The text presents a new understanding of aviation accident investigation and it reviews the traditional terms of investigation based on a rigid division between "human", "technical" and "operational" factors. It also suggests the application of the multi-causality concept, which is not restricted to a mere list of "contributing factors", but which analyzes the relationships among the actor-networks involved in the aviation system where the accident occurred. The RG-254 accident is described as a symptom of the rupture of relationship among those acting in the system.

Vitor Alexandre de Freitas, Cardoso; Henrique Luiz, Cukierman.

2007-06-01

133

Investigation of the different scenarios occurring in a PWR in case of a TMLB accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Severe accidents in light water reactors fall into one of two main categories, depending on whether or not core meltdown is accompanied by a pressure buildup in the primary system. The way in which the accident develops is, in fact, largely conditioned by this pressure aspect: temperature distribution in the core and primary system resulting from natural convection gas streams; fuel clad failure mode, etc... One major effect of pressure buildup on the accident scenario is primary system failure under the combined actions of pressure and temperature. The purpose of the present paper is to present, after a detailed thermalhydraulic study, an analysis of the timing and location of the system failures in case of a TMLB accident on CPY french type reactor

134

Investigating Accidents Related to Errors of Aeronautical Decision-Making in Flight Operations  

OpenAIRE

Aeronautical decision-making (ADM) is defined by the FAA (1991) as ‘a systematic approach to the mental process used by aircraft pilots to consistently determine the best course of action in response to a given set of circumstances’. Jensen and Benel (1977) found that decision errors contributed to 35% of all nonfatal and 52% of all fatal general aviation accidents in the United States. Diehl (1991) proposed that decision errors contributed to 56% of airline accidents and 53% of military ...

Li, Wen-chin; Harris, Don; Li, Lun-wen; Hsu, Yueh-ling; Wang, Thomas

2010-01-01

135

Multivariate Modelling of Pedestrian Fatality Risk Through on the Spot Accident Investigation  

OpenAIRE

Pedestrians are the most vulnerable users of public roads and represent one of the largest groups of road casualties; their death rate around the world due to vehicle-pedestrian collisions is high and tending to rise. In Spain, as in other countries of the European Union, steps have been taken to reduce the number and consequences of such accidents, with encouraging results in recent years. A key to countering this concern is the accident research activity that has obtained remarkable achieve...

Badea Romero, Alexandro; Furones Crespo, Arturo; Paez Ayuso, Francisco Javier; Gonza?lez Ferna?ndez, Camino

2010-01-01

136

Investigation of accident management procedures related to loss of feedwater and station blackout in PSB-VVER integral test facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four integral test facility experiments related to VVER-1000 reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TH response of the VVER-1000 primary system following total loss of feedwater and station blackout scenarios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accident management procedures in case of total loss of feedwater and station blackout. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data represent an improvement of existing database for TH code validation. - Abstract: VVER 1000 reactors have some unique and specific features (e.g. large primary and secondary side fluid inventory, horizontal steam generators, core design) that require dedicated experimental and analytical analyses in order to assess the performance of safety systems and the effectiveness of possible accident management strategies. The European Commission funded project 'TACIS 2.03/97', Part A, provided valuable experimental data from the large-scale (1:300) PSB-VVER test facility, investigating accident management procedures in VVER-1000 reactor. A test matrix was developed at University of Pisa (responsible of the project) with the objective of obtaining the experimental data not covered by the OECD VVER validation matrix and with main focus on accident management procedures. Scenarios related to total loss of feed water and station blackout are investigated by means of four experiments accounting for different countermeasures, based on secondary cooling strategies and primary feed and bleed procedures. The transients are analyzed thoroughly focusing on the identification of phenomena that will challenge the code models during the simulations.

Bucalossi, A. [EC JRC, (JRC F.5) PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Del Nevo, A., E-mail: alessandro.delnevo@enea.it [ENEA, C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Moretti, F.; D' Auria, F. [GRNSPG, Universita di Pisa, via Diotisalvi 2, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Elkin, I.V.; Melikhov, O.I. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre, Electrogorsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

2012-09-15

137

Investigating critical success factors in tile industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine critical success factors influencing the success of tile industry in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among some experts in tile industry. Using Pearson correlation test, the study has detected that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between marketing planning and the success of tile industry (r = 0.312 Sig. = 0.001. However, there is not any meaningful relationship between low cost production and success of tile industry (r = 0.13 Sig. = 0.12 and, there is a positive and meaningful relationship between organizational capabilities and success of tile industry (r = 0.635 Sig. = 0.000. Finally, our investigation states that technology and distributing systems also influence on the success of tile industry, positively. The study has also used five regression analyses where the success of tile industry was the dependent variable and marketing planning, low cost production and organizational capabilities are independent variables and the results have confirmed some positive and meaningful relationship between the successes of tile industry with all independent variables.

Davood Salmani

2014-04-01

138

Investigation into the March 28, 1979 Three Mile Island accident by Office of Inspection and Enforcement (Investigative Report No. 50-320/79-10)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant experienced the most severe accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant operating history. This report sets forth the facts concerning the events of the accident determined as a result of an investigation by the NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement. The IE investigation is limited to two aspects of the accident: (1) Those related operational actions by the licensee during the period from before the initiating event until approximately 8:00 p.m., March 28, when primary coolant flow was re-established by starting a reactor coolant pump, and (2) Those steps taken by the licensee to control the release of radioactive material to the off-site environs, and to implement his emergency plan during the period from the initiation of the event to midnight, March 30. These investigation periods were selected because they include the licensee actions which most significantly affected the accident sequence and its results

139

Investigations of radiocaesium in the natural terrestrial environment in Norway following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident affected parts of central Norway to a considerable extent, in particular the 134Cs + 137Cs deposition had a significant impact on the natural environment. When this became apparent, a comprehensive radioecological research programme was initiated in order to study the behaviour of radiocaesium in boreal and alpine ecosystems, with emphasis on food-chains leading to exposure of species used for human consumption, i.e., reindeer and freshwater fish. In this paper results from the terrestrial part of this research programme during the period 1986-1990 are presented. The work was mainly confined to the mountain areas of Dovre and Rondane. Parallel studies were performed in eutrophic and strongly oligotrophic communities. The influence of local variations in topography and microclimate on the observed radiocaesium levels in topsoils, lichens and vascular plants was studied in detail. Currently a significant re-distribution of radiocaesium from the originally strongly exposed surfaces to those that were less exposed is observed. In the soil, radiocaesium is strongly retained in the litter and raw humus layers. Current levels in lichens are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in vascular plants. This strongly affects the seasonal variation of radiocaesium in reindeer, showing winter maxima of about 5 times higher than the August levels. The radiocaesium levels in reindeer showed a decline of approximately eindeer showed a decline of approximately a factor of 3 during the period 1987-1990. Other animal species studied in the programme exhibited substantially lower radiocaesium levels than reindeer, but a considerable interspecies variation was observed. (author)

140

Light water reactor capacity factor investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the internationally accepted measurements of an electrical generating station's productivity is the capacity factor. Comparison of the United States (U.S.) nuclear power plants' average cumulative capacity factors to those of other Western world countries shows that the U.S., while leading the western world in number of operating nuclear power plants, ranks near the bottom in average cumulative capacity factor. This paper identifies the institutional and technological factors that adversely or favorably affect the domestic nuclear power plants capacity factors. A literature search, data analysis, and industry survey were performed to identify institutional and technological factors affecting the capacity factor of light water reactors

141

Long term effects of Minks of the radiation factors from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of small radiation dose influence on human and animal reproductive functions becomes more and more topical after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident. In the number of cases, animals that reside in continues internal, as well as external exposure zone, have pregnancy interruption in its early stages (up to 30 days). This, without any doubts testifies for reproductive process disorder as a whole (hypophysis-ovary-uterus system) and also, as its separate links. The important thing is that a break in any one of those links leads to pregnancy interruption. Hence, in order to determine any disorders in reproductive system functional state, profound and detailed morphofunctional study of the system links (accounting for radiation exposure factors) needs to be done. Because research in this field has just started, we were unable to find any material on this topic. There are, however, some references for morphofunctional changes of endocrine glands, hypophysis in particular and sex glands, refereed to small radiation doses

142

The Columbia Accident Investigation and The NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Laboratory Contributions Supporting NASA's Return to Flight  

Science.gov (United States)

On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry, resulting in loss of the vehicle and its seven crewmembers. For the next several months, an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA, concluded in August, 2003 that the most likely cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the mission's launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing, which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. The findings of the CAIB were supported by ballistic impact tests, which simulated the physics of External Tank Foam impact on the RCC wing leading edge material. These tests ranged from fundamental material characterization tests to full-scale Orbiter Wing Leading Edge tests. Following the accident investigation, NASA spent the next 18 months focused on returning the shuttle safely to flight. In order to fully evaluate all potential impact threats from the many debris sources on the Space Shuttle during ascent, NASA instituted a significant impact testing program. The results from these tests led to the validation of high-fidelity computer models, capable of predicting actual or potential Shuttle impact events, were used in the certification of STS-114, NASA s Return to Flight Mission, as safe to fly. This presentation will provide a look into the inner workings of the Space Shuttle and a behind the scenes perspective on the impact analysis and testing done for the Columbia Accident Investigation and NASA's Return to Flight programs. In addition, highlights from recent Shuttle missions are presented.

Melis, Matthew E.

2007-01-01

143

Experimental investigations of BWR pressure suppression pool behavior under loss of coolant accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiments discussed in this paper look into different processes which may occur during a loss-of-coolant accident in the pressure suppression pool of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). These processes include: a) development of a thermal stratification, b) bubble dynamics and related water flow during continuous release of air and c) air blowdown and associated water slug phenomenon in the water pool. The experiments have been performed in the THAI test facility, which is a cylindrical vessel of 9.2 m height, 3.2 m diameter and with a gas volume of 60 m3. The variation in the investigated test parameters included, steam and air mass flux, initial water pool temperature, blowdown pressures, downcomer submergence, etc. A systematic variation of the test parameters allowed better understanding of the phenomena. Experiments discussed in this paper were performed with a vertical downcomer of 0.1 m diameter and 2 m submergence depth in the water pool. For the blowdown experiments, a separate interconnecting vessel of 1 m3 volume was used to inject air at pressures between 3 bar and 10 bar. A high speed camera (1000 fps) was installed to visualize the formation and propagation of air bubbles in the suppression pool and the resulting pool swelling phenomena. Customized instrumentation applied during the tests included grids of densely spaced thermocouples and of pressure transducers at various locations in order to capture the temperature distribution r to capture the temperature distribution in the pool and the water slug induced pressure loadings, respectively. The present paper discusses the main outcome of the selected experiments. On the whole the experimental data may be very useful for code validation. (authors)

144

Radioecological investigations in the ecosystem of the Black Sea following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs measured in the Black Sea before and after the Chernobyl accident were compared. The majority of the radionuclides after the accident was brought to the Black Sea with precipitations in late April and in May 1986. The radioactivity of surface waters decreased appreciably from the North to the South and was rather nonuniform. In the years following the accident, radiostrontium in the northwestern part of the Black Sea was contributed to appreciably by water from the Dnieper river. The migration of the two radionuclides in the ecosystem of the Black Sea and the effect of wastes on the processes of radionuclide redistribution in the shelf zone of the sea were studied. (B.S.). 19 figs., 12 refs

145

Investigations on the behaviour of UO2 particles and sodium aerosols in SNR accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium is evaporated from hot (400-9000C) sodium pools into an inert gas atmosphere in the NALA experiments. Mixtures of Cs, NaI, SrO and UO2 simulate traces of fuel and fission products as can occur in a hypothetical SNR accident in the coolant sodium. Apart from the evaporation rate of the substrate itself, the whereabouts of these mixtures, whose release in the case of an accident is a source of radiological burden in the containment, is of interest. (orig./RW)

146

Investigation of fuel and clad relocation during LMFBR initiation phase accidents. The STAR experiment program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactivity effects of fuel and clad motion during unprotected loss of flow accidents stronglyu influence the accident progression in LMFBRs. To study these phenomena, a series of in-pile experiments (the STAR experiments) are being performed in which clad motion and fuel dispersal are observed in small pin bundles with high-speed cinematography. The major parameters varied in the series are power level, fuel type (fresh versus preirradiation), and number of pins. The results of the first four experiments are presented in the report. The irradiated fuel tests show early fuel disruption caused by fission products followed by rapid fuel sweep out and axial clad relocation

147

Investigation of fuel and clad relocation during LMFBR initiation phase accidents: the STAR experiment program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactivity effects of fuel and clad motion during Unprotected Loss of Flow accidents (ULOFs) strongly influence the accident progression in LMFBRs. To study these phenomena, a series of in-pile experiments (the STAR experiments) are being performed in which clad motion and fuel dispersal are observed in small pin bundles with high-speed cinematography. The major parameters varied in the series are power level, fuel type (fresh versus preirradiated), and number of pins. Results of the first four experiments are presented in the report. The irradiated fuel tests show early fuel disruption caused by fission products followed by rapid fuel sweep out and axial clad relocation

148

Prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales y factores relacionados en estudiantes de odontología / Prevalence of occupational accidents and related factors in students of dentistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Describir la prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales en estudiantes de Odontología y asociarla con factores propios de su práctica clínica. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal, desarrollado en una universidad pública de la ciudad de Cartagena en 2010. Participaron 213 estudiantes que se en [...] contraban en prácticas pre-clínicas y clínicas de odontología, que corresponden al 96,8 % de la población de referencia. Se aplicó un cuestionario auto-administrado para evaluar la ocurrencia de accidentes al igual que factores asociados. Los datos fueron analizados mediante prevalencias con intervalos de confianza al 95 %, usando la prueba chi², con nivel de significancia (p Abstract in english Objective Describe the prevalence of occupational accidents students of dentistry and associate it with factors of their clinical practice. Methods Cross-sectional study, developed in a public university in the city of Cartagena in 2010. Participants included 213 students in l pre-clinics and clinic [...] s practice of dentistry, selected by simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to evaluate the occurrence of accidents as well as the associated factors. The data were analyzed by prevalence rates with confidence intervals of 95 %, using the chi² test, with significance levels of 0.05. The Association Strength was estimated by OR and the multivariate analysis through nominal logistic regression. Results The prevalence of occupational accidents is 46 %, the type of accident most often is prick (48.7 %), caused mainly by the Explorer (28.9 %). 58.1 % of the accidents are reported and continue care protocol. 87.7 % of the students enfold the needle after use. At bivariate level, only statistically significant association between occupational accidents and semester was presented, being more frequent for the more advanced semesters (p=0.004). Conclusions because of high prevalence of occupational accidents, it is necessary to insist on the implementation of strategies for safe and appropriate environments for the development of educational practices for students.

Katherine M, Arrieta-Vergara; Shyrley, Díaz-Cárdenas; Farith D., González-Martínez.

2013-01-01

149

Prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales y factores relacionados en estudiantes de odontología / Prevalence of occupational accidents and related factors in students of dentistry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Describir la prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales en estudiantes de Odontología y asociarla con factores propios de su práctica clínica. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal, desarrollado en una universidad pública de la ciudad de Cartagena en 2010. Participaron 213 estudiantes que se en [...] contraban en prácticas pre-clínicas y clínicas de odontología, que corresponden al 96,8 % de la población de referencia. Se aplicó un cuestionario auto-administrado para evaluar la ocurrencia de accidentes al igual que factores asociados. Los datos fueron analizados mediante prevalencias con intervalos de confianza al 95 %, usando la prueba chi², con nivel de significancia (p Abstract in english Objective Describe the prevalence of occupational accidents students of dentistry and associate it with factors of their clinical practice. Methods Cross-sectional study, developed in a public university in the city of Cartagena in 2010. Participants included 213 students in l pre-clinics and clinic [...] s practice of dentistry, selected by simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to evaluate the occurrence of accidents as well as the associated factors. The data were analyzed by prevalence rates with confidence intervals of 95 %, using the chi² test, with significance levels of 0.05. The Association Strength was estimated by OR and the multivariate analysis through nominal logistic regression. Results The prevalence of occupational accidents is 46 %, the type of accident most often is prick (48.7 %), caused mainly by the Explorer (28.9 %). 58.1 % of the accidents are reported and continue care protocol. 87.7 % of the students enfold the needle after use. At bivariate level, only statistically significant association between occupational accidents and semester was presented, being more frequent for the more advanced semesters (p=0.004). Conclusions because of high prevalence of occupational accidents, it is necessary to insist on the implementation of strategies for safe and appropriate environments for the development of educational practices for students.

Katherine M, Arrieta-Vergara; Shyrley, Díaz-Cárdenas; Farith D., González-Martínez.

2013-02-01

150

Investigations into the health effects of the Chernobyl reactor accidents within the Gomel administrative district (Oblast)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors describe the effects of Chernobyl reactor accident on the general population. The increased incidence of various diseases is discussed in detail. They conclude by underscoring the important role of diagnostic and therapeutic measures for the maintenance of public health. (MG)

151

Contribution of activation products to fusion accident risk. I - A preliminary investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The health hazards of activation products from fusion-reactor accidents are dealt with in a study on an early conceptual tokamak reactor, using a simple consequence model based on that of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Reactor Safety Study (the Rasmussen Report) in order to determine conceivable radiation doses near the plant boundary. Though tritium releases appear to result in fewer casualties than those predicted for the most severe accidents in fission reactors of similar electrical-generating capacity, the boundary doses of stainless-steel and molybdenum structures subject to massive lithium fires are comparable to the doses similarly calculated for 'worst case' light water reactor accidents. Calculations and tables are given for major activation products, their stored energy and their boundary doses in severe fusion and fission accidents. Remedies are suggested for greatly reducing the potential for activation product release from fusion reactors, such as the use of low activation materials, the reduction of stored energy by putting lithium in relatively non-reactive form and the use of deuterium-deuterium instead of D-T reactions

152

Analysis of causes and sequences of the accident on Fukushima NPP as a factor of sever accidents prevention in the vessel reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this monograph, the provisional analysis of the causes and sequences of the sever accidents on the Fukushima NPP is presented. The analysis of the possibility of the origin of extreme events connected with the flooding of Zaporizhzhia NPP industrial site, emergency of the steam-gas explosions on NPPs with WWER and other phenomena occurred under sever accidents was carried out. It was presented the authors original working-out on symptom-oriented approaches of sever accident initiating event list identification, on criteria substantiation of explosion safety and optimization of processes management at sever accidents, as well as on the methodological support of the accident beyond the design basis management at the WWER for prevention of their transition in the stage of sever accidents.

153

An investigative report concerning safety and management in the magnetic resonance environment. There are more accidents than expected  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a questionnaire, we surveyed 2,500 facilities in Japan to clarify medical accidents concerning the magnetic resonance device and its environment. Data derived from 1,319 valid responses (52.8%), allowed us to analyze the situation of (or the reason for) the occurrence of the accidents and their environmental factors. Five hundred and nine facilities (39% of all facilities) had the experience of magnetically induced displacement of the large ferromagnetic material. Intravenous (I.V.) drip stands were involved the largest number of them: 31% (228 cases). Oxygen bottles had the second largest number of incidents: 20%. There were also many incidents involving various materials brought in by non-medical staff (exempli gratia (e.g.) stepladder for construction). About 20% of the accidents occurred outside of working hours. Patients in 12% of the facilities (154 facilities) experienced burns. In 39 of the cases, burns were received to the inside of the thighs. In 38 of the cases, patients received burns from an electrical cable touching the skin. There were also frequent incidents of burning regarding the boa. We received reports of burns and pain from the halo vest even though it's required to be worn for MR safety. Regarding incidents of contraindications, 280 patients with pacemakers were brought into the magnetic resonance (MR) inspection room. Twelve percent of the facilities experienced natural quench. Lack of training for the staff who introduce and operate highr the staff who introduce and operate high magnetic field devices are considered involving frequently occurring accidents of attractions and burns at hospitals with over 500 beds caused by carrying in materials. (author)

154

Factors affecting the integrity of PWR pressure vessels during overcooling accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor pressure vessel in a pressurized water reactor is normally subjected to temperatures and pressures that preclude propagation of sharp, crack-like defects that might exist in the wall of the vessel. However, if certain postulated accidents, referred to as overcooling accidents, were to occur, the pressure vessel could be subjected to severe thermal shock while the pressure is substantial. As a result, vessels containing high concentrations of copper and nickel, which enhance radiation embrittlement, may possess a potential for extensive propagation of preexistent inner-surface flaws prior to the vessel's normal end of life. A fracture-mechanics analysis for a typical postulated accident and also related thermal-shock experiments indicate that very shallow surface flaws that extend through the cladding into the base material could propagate. This is of particular concern because shallow flaws appear to be the most probable and presumably are the most difficult to detect

155

Statistical investigation on the relation between car accident and warm katabatic winds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possible relationship between warm katabatic winds and human health and behaviour is analyzed; notwithstanding popular belief which is very positive about it, the connection has not been previously analyzed with the proper methods. We use a statistical model to address this question and our data suggest that the effects of warm katabatic winds in the Po Valley (Italy) can indeed be detected in the increase of car accidents

156

Immunological and epidemiological investigations in regions contaminated by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have carried out in Novozybkov district of Bryansk region, Russia, immunologic inspection of residents with simultaneous evaluation of radionuclides content in the body and individual dose burden. We have not found any correlation between the dose and immune characteristics: amount of T and B lymphocytes, antibodies level. Only 3 months after the accident increased level of antibodies against thyroid antigens, thyroglobulin and microsomes was found at thyroid doses over 75 cGy. 3 tabs

157

Reactor underground test stand (RUTS) into Degelen site adits for scale investigations of nuclear reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For checking undertaken decisions correctness of final reactor tests a carrying out into reactor underground reactor test stand (RUTS) is proposed. Such experiments allow an estimation of the safety of a new generation of reactor under conditions closely approaching real ones. The RUTS presents an adequate preliminary scale reactor model for a study of severe accidents. The RUTS will be placed into Degelen site's stores. The possibility of the extension of this work into other branches of nuclear power engineering is also considered

158

Reduction factors for wooden houses due to external ?-radiation based on in situ measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident  

Science.gov (United States)

For estimation of residents' exposure dose after a nuclear accident, the reduction factor, which is the ratio of the indoor dose to the outdoor dose is essential, as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we evaluated the median reduction factor with an interquartile range of 0.43 (0.34–0.53) based on 522 survey results for 69 detached wooden houses in two evacuation zones, Iitate village and Odaka district. The results indicated no statistically significant difference in the median reduction factor to the representative value of 0.4 given in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-TECDOC-225 and 1162. However, with regard to the representative range of the reduction factor, we recommend the wider range of 0.2 to 0.7 or at least 0.2 to 0.6, which covered 87.7% and 80.7% of the data, respectively, rather than 0.2 to 0.5 given in the IAEA document, which covered only 66.5% of the data. We found that the location of the room within the house and area topography, and the use of cement roof tiles had the greatest influence on the reduction factor. PMID:25519512

Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kanagami, Takashi; Uegaki, Masaki; Tashima, Hideo

2014-01-01

159

Reduction factors for wooden houses due to external ?-radiation based on in situ measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

For estimation of residents' exposure dose after a nuclear accident, the reduction factor, which is the ratio of the indoor dose to the outdoor dose is essential, as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we evaluated the median reduction factor with an interquartile range of 0.43 (0.34-0.53) based on 522 survey results for 69 detached wooden houses in two evacuation zones, Iitate village and Odaka district. The results indicated no statistically significant difference in the median reduction factor to the representative value of 0.4 given in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-TECDOC-225 and 1162. However, with regard to the representative range of the reduction factor, we recommend the wider range of 0.2 to 0.7 or at least 0.2 to 0.6, which covered 87.7% and 80.7% of the data, respectively, rather than 0.2 to 0.5 given in the IAEA document, which covered only 66.5% of the data. We found that the location of the room within the house and area topography, and the use of cement roof tiles had the greatest influence on the reduction factor. PMID:25519512

Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kanagami, Takashi; Uegaki, Masaki; Tashima, Hideo

2014-01-01

160

Occupational accidents and affecting factors of metal industry in a factory in Ankara  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objective:According to the statistics of the Social Security Institution, 18672 occupational accidents occurred in the metal industry in 2008 in Turkey. Whereas 78 of these accidents resulted in death, 252 people became permanently incapable of working. In 2008, 369677 working days were lost as a result of occupational accidents. Evaluating the reasons for and the results of accidents in the metal industry and contributing to the development of recommendations for prevention in accordance with the information obtained. Method: The study was conducted with 201 of 210 workers working in heavy metal manufacturing and construction in the building company between April 2008 and June 2008. Results: The frequency of occupational accidents among the metal workers was 22% between January 2007 and June 2008. The reasons for the workers’ accidents are listed as; insufficient use of personal protective equipment (44%, carelessness (37%, and personal reasons, not to be taken of security measures at machines and looms/ unsuitable machines (both 17%.Conclusion: The study demonstrates that the accidents mostly occur because of failure to use of personal protective equipment, insufficient vocational training. Key Words: Occupational, accident, metal industry, preventionAnkara’da bir metal sanayi fabrikas?nda i? kazalar? ve etkileyen faktörler Özet Amaç: 2008 y?l?nda Sosyal Güvenlik Kurumu’nun verilerine göre metal sanayisinde 18672 i? kazas? meydana gelmi? ve 369677 i?günü kayb? olmu?tur.  Bu kazalardan 78 tanesi ölümle sonuçlan?rken, 252 ki?i kal?c? olarak i?göremez hale gelmi?tir. Metal sanayisinde meydana gelen kazalar?n sebep ve sonuçlar?n? inceleyerek, elde edilen bilgiler do?rultusunda kazalar?n önlenmesine yönelik tavsiyelerin geli?tirilmesi amaçlanm??t?r. Yöntem: Ara?t?rma, Ankara’da faaliyet gösteren a??r metal imalat, konstrüksiyon ve in?aat sanayi ?irketinde 2008 Nisan-2008 Haziran döneminde çal??an 210 i?çinin 201’ine anket uygulanmas?yla yürütülmü?tür. Bulgular: Ocak 2007 ve Haziran 2008 tarihleri aras?nda metal i?çilerinin i? kazas? s?kl??? %22 bulunmu?tur. ?? kazalar?n?n nedenleri olarak yetersiz ki?sel koruyucu ekipman kullan?m? (%44, dikkatsizlik (%37, ki?isel nedenler (%17 ile makine ve tezgahlarda güvenlik önlemlerinin al?nmamas?/makinelerin uygun olmamas? (%17 belirtilmi?tir. Sonuç: Çal??ma, i? kazalar?n?n ço?unlukla ki?isel koruyucu ekipman?n kullan?m?ndaki eksiklikten ve yetersiz mesleki e?itimden kaynakland???n? ortaya koymu?tur. Anahtar Kelimeler: ??, kaza, metal sanayi, önleme 

Mustafa N. Ilhan

2012-08-01

161

Investigation of Depth Distribution of Radionuclides in Soil Contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident  

Science.gov (United States)

This work was conducted as one of the researches relating to distribution maps of radiation dose rate etc. which the government has promoted as one of the counter-measures to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, and the 2nd investigation on the depth distribution of radionuclides (RNs) in soil was conducted after about 1 year from the accident, succeedingly to the 1st investigation which was conducted after about 3 months from the accident. Soil core samples to about 50cm deep were taken at 11 locations in Nihonmatsu-city, Kawamata-town and Namie-town. Sorption-desorption experiments of Cs-137 and I-131, CEC and AEC measurements and mineralogical analyses by XRD were conducted for 3 types of soils (sandy, clayey, organic) and those elutriated components (clay, silt, sand). Radiocaesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) and Ag-110m were detected at all locations investigated and only at locations where radiation dose rate is high, respectively. Radiocaesium more than 95% and 99% of the inventory distributed within 5cm and 10cm deep in soil in the surface layer (mainly sandy soil), respectively, and distributed within 16cm and 20cm deep in organic soil and soil at locations where are supposed to have been used as farmland, respectively. Radiocaesium tended to extend to deeper parts in soil that organic and clayey soils are the support layer, particularly in organic soil, compared with the 1st investigation. Distribution coefficients of Cs-137 onto organic soil and its elutriated components were also lower than that onto other soils. This is consistent with trend of penetration profile.

Sato, Haruo; Niizato, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Shingo; Abe, Hironobu; Aoki, Kazuhiro

2014-05-01

162

Investigating Factors Influencing Rates of Chemical Reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity is a lab investigation in which students observe the rate of generation of hydrogen gas from a reaction, and then modify the procedure to compare another variable affecting the rate of this reaction.

Derickson, Paula

163

Microscopic and Metallurgical Aspects of the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation and Reconstruction  

Science.gov (United States)

The Space Shuttle Columbia was descending for a landing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on February 1, 2003. Approximately 20 minutes prior to touchdown, the Columbia began disintegrating over the western United States; the majority of debris eventually impacted in eastern Texas and western Louisiana. A monumental effort eventually recovered approximately 84,000 pieces of debris, approximately 38% of the Orbiter's original dry weight. The debris was transported to KSC, where the items were catalogued and evaluated. Critical areas of interest, such as the left and right leading edge surfaces and the underside of the ship, were placed upon a grid to aid in the reconstruction. Items of interest included metallic structures, reinforced carbon-carbon composites, and ceramic heat insulation tiles. Many of the leading edge elements had re-solidified metallic deposits spattered on them. These deposits became known as slag and were one of the main focuses of the investigation. In order to help determine the sequence of events inside the left wing during the accident, the slag's composition, layering order, and directionality of deposition were studied. A myriad of analytical tests were performed in an attempt to ascertain the compositional and depositional characteristics of selected slag deposits, including the ordering of deposited layers within each individual slag deposit harvested. Initially, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) were performed to quickly characterize the overall composition of individual slag deposits: SEM utilizes a narrowlyfocused high-energy electron beam impinging upon a specimen. The incident beam excites and liberates lower energy secondary electrons, which are detected and analyzed, providing a visual representation of the sample's surface topography. EDX also relies on an incident electron beam, except an EDX unit measures X-ray energies generated by the impinging beam. Each element generates a unique X-ray signature; the EDX detector measures these discreet energies. EDX actually penetrates approximately 2 microns into the bulk of the sample. However, random examination of various portions of slag, coupled with the semiquantitative nature of the SEM/EDX analysis, did not yield convincingly pertinent data. Therefore, X-ray dot mapping was conducted, which provided more understandable data, both in terms of slag layering and composition. An X-ray dot map is generated by performing numerous EDX scans for individual elements, then compiling the scans in a visual representation. Eventually, specimens consisting of not only the slag, but of the adjacent RCC substrate as well were cross-sectioned. X-Ray dot mapping of the materialographicallymounted and -polished cross- sections provided a visual representation of both the layering sequence and compositional characteristics of the slag. Contemporaneously, Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis/X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ESCA/XPS) and powdered X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) were performed to further characterize the deposits and to attempt to identify what, if any, compounds were present. The ESCA/XPS analysis allowed the analyst to "sputter" into the sample with an electron gun, aiding in the identification of the layering sequence. XPS uses photons, rather than electrons, which impinge upon the surface of the sample. XPS measures the electrons emitted from within the first 5 nm of the sample's surface. The XRD measures the scatter angles of incident X-rays; the angle and intensity of scatter depend upon the crystalline structure of the pulverized sample. XRD is considered a qualitative rather than quantitative technique. ESCA/XPS revealed that the final layer to deposit was predominantly carbonaceous. XRD was successful in identifying specific compounds, such as Al 2O3, Al and/or Al3 21SiO47, mullite (3(Al2)O3 -SiO2), and nickel-aluminides. Eventually, Electron MicroProbe Analysis (EMPA) was conducted on the marialographically-prepared cross- sections of selected slag deposits. Microprobe combine

McDaniels, Steven J.

2004-01-01

164

Reliability based investigation of design factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Second-moment probabilistic techniques are used to formulate structural resistances and loads and to derive reliability-based safety, load, and strength factors for design. Existing concepts of the second-moment reliability theory have been extended to the practical case of multiple load combinations. This development consistently includes the stochastic character of loads and the unpredictable nature of their combinations. For this purpose, a new technique for the evaluation of load combinations is presented, whereby the moments of the extreme of combined loads is obtained in terms of the moments of individual loads and parameters describing their random fluctuations in time. Reliability-based safety, load, and strength factors are derived in terms of the acceptable level of risk, the coefficients of variation of the loads and resistance, uncertainties associated with errors in modeling and estimation, and a set of parameters describing the stochastic nature of loads and their combinations.

1978-06-30

165

Theoretical and experimental investigations on the behaviour of iodine during severe accidents: volatile iodine. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the consequences of severe accidents in nuclear power plants requires knowledge of the behaviour of radionuclides relevant from the radiological viewpoint, especially the iodine. The current modelling of iodine behaviour is not conclusive, owing to insufficiently known data. This project is intended to eliminate some of these data gaps in critical areas. 350 tests on the radiation-induced oxidation of elemental iodine (I2) in the containment atmosphere were performed yielding an extended database. Moreover, irradiation tests were performed on the formation and decomposition of ozone which is a reaction partner for I2. The reaction with ozone converts volatile I2 into non-volatile iodine oxides or iodate. An improved kinetic modelling was developed for the iodine accident code IMPAIR. Now the model is valid also for steam-containing atmospheres and, additionally, considers dose rate and thus the actual ozone concentration. An assessment of the literature concludes that ? and ? radiation have no different impact on iodine chemistry and thus do not need to be modelled separately in iodine accident codes. An assessment of the literature shows a partly significant chemical interaction of volatile iodine with aerosols. Since such reactions lead to a faster decrease of volatile iodine at least at high aerosol concentrations, a modelling should be foreseen in the future. In the frame of the international ISP-41 project, calculati international ISP-41 project, calculations to an integral test in the Canadian Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) were performed with IMPAIR. The existing model of the radiation-induced I2 formation in the sump in IMPAIR is identified as a weakness requiring future improvement. A theoretical assessment on the iodine chemistry in the droplets of a spray system concludes that a modelling is necessary in case of spraying with fresh water, and that this is already contained in available spray models. During recirculation spraying in an examplary, hypothetical EPR case, no separate modelling is necessary to predict the removal of volatile iodine by sprays. (orig.)

166

Investigation of FP paths during hypothetical severe accident as a result of Small Break LOCA of WWER-1000 reactor type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modelling the behaviour of fission product (FP) in a nuclear reactor coolant system (RCS) undergoing a hypothetical severe accident is an important step in the evaluation of radioactive release outside a nuclear power plant. This paper scrutinize Small Break LOCA sequence for WWER1000 reactor in order to investigate the possible paths for release of FP from fuel pallets to the reactor containment. Contemporaneous computer code for simulation of RCS will be use for the analysis. The results from analysis of fuel damage and release of FP trough the break of cold leg are present. (author)

167

Investigation of VVER 1000 Core Degradation During SBO Accident Scenario in Case of Pressurizer SV Stuck in Open Position  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the work performed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) in the frame of the SARNET2 project. The performed work continues the effort in modelling reactor core behaviour during severe accidents such as station blackout (SBO) sequence for VVER 1000 reactors based on parametric study. The work is oriented on investigation of overheated reactor core behaviour in case of reflooding by high pressure injection system (HPIS) at different stages and gives the preliminary results for the ASTEC V2 validation as well as analytical validation of severe accident management guidance (SAMG) for VVER 1000 reactors. An SBO scenario for investigation of VVER 1000 reactor core behaviour has been used with the assumption of opening the pressurizer safety valve and staying in open position, which induces additionally small break LOCA. Based on the previously performed work at the INRNE for the same scenarios a proper time for initiation has been chosen a proper time for initiation of HPP injection. For selected scenario consequently has been performed calculations vary the value of selected parameters. It has been selected the following parameters: porosity (PORO), velocity of molten mixture when crossing a grid (VGRI), etc. It has been investigated the influence of spherical and elliptical ''bottom head and lower plenum'' modelling on core degradation progression. (author)

168

Investigation on two-phase critical flow for loss-of-coolant accident of pressurized water reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The previous investigations were mainly conducted under the condition of low pressure, however, the steam-water specific volume and the interphase evaporation rate in high pressure are much different from those at low pressure. Therefore, the new experimental and theoretical investigation are performed in Xi'an Jiaotong University. The investigation results could be directly applied to the analysis of loss-of-coolant accident for pressurized water reactor. The system transition characteristics of cold leg and hot leg break loss-of-coolant tests are described for convective circulation test loop. Two types of loss-of-coolant accident are identified for 'hot leg' break, while three types for 'cold leg' break and the effect parameters are studied. Critical flow rate is dependent not only on the upstream fluid properties but also on the break geometries. Tests indicate that the mass flow rate with convergent-divergent nozzle reaches the maximum value among the different break sections at the same inlet fluid condition because the fluid separation does not occur. A wall surface cavity nucleation model is developed for prediction of the critical mass flow rate with water flowing in convergent-divergent nozzles

169

Investigation of liner tearing near penetrations in a reinforced concrete containment under severe accident loads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inner surfaces of reinforced concrete containment buildings in the United States are lined with steel plate. During a severe accident, the liner plate serves as the main seal for preventing the leakage of radionuclides to the outside environment, while the reinforced concrete provides structural support for the linear. If the liner is torn or punctured during the accident, gases can easily escape through cracks in the reinforced concrete wall. An overpressurization test conducted on a 1:6-scale model of a reinforced concrete containment has demonstrated that the liner can tear before extensive structural failure occurs in the reinforced concrete. In the 1:6-scale model experiment, the pressure inside the model was increased to 145 psig. At this point, leakage from the model became so great that the model could not be pressurized further. Inspection of the model revealed that this leakage was due to tears that had formed in the liner at several locations around the building. All of the liner tears observed in the 1:6-scale model initiated next to studs that were used to anchor the liner to the wall of the containment. These tears were located near thickened sections of the liner that were placed around penetrations in the containment shell. Most of the leakage occurred through a single large tear that had grown along the edge of a thickened plate that surrounded a cluster of piping penetrations. This tear is shown

170

Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" / Risk factors for accidents in children: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: Casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de [...] Referencia Nacional. Participantes: Se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos) y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles). Mediciones principales: El instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: La edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite) OR 15,04 (IC 95% 5,47 - 44,48), productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina) OR 14,19 (IC 95% 0,72 - 276,33), instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7,82 (IC 95% 5,22 - 11,73 ), cohetillos OR 5,26 (IC 95% 2,49 - 11,95), presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3,30 (IC 95% 2,02 - 5,25), cosméticos OR 2,06 (IC 95% 1,36 - 3,10), productos de limpieza OR 1,20 (IC 95% 0,22 - 5,82), medicamentos OR 1,12 (IC 95% 0,73 - 1,70). Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4,62 (IC 95% 2,61 - 8,20), trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2,04 (IC 95% 1,42 - 2,93) y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1,65 (IC 95% 1,15 - 2,36). Conclusiones: Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sope todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niños Abstract in english Objectives: To identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: Case and control incidents. Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uria, a third-level paediatric hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and [...] 400 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, persons responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumstances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5.4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR 7,82, firecrackers OR 5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR 2,06, house cleaner products OR 1,20, medicines OR 1,12, previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2,04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1,65. Conclusions: The main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by paediatricians or family practitioners

Kurt, Paulsen S.; Hector, Mejia S..

2005-01-01

171

Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" Risk factors for accidents in children: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: Casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de Referencia Nacional. Participantes: Se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles. Mediciones principales: El instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: La edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite OR 15,04 (IC 95% 5,47 - 44,48, productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina OR 14,19 (IC 95% 0,72 - 276,33, instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7,82 (IC 95% 5,22 - 11,73 , cohetillos OR 5,26 (IC 95% 2,49 - 11,95, presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3,30 (IC 95% 2,02 - 5,25, cosméticos OR 2,06 (IC 95% 1,36 - 3,10, productos de limpieza OR 1,20 (IC 95% 0,22 - 5,82, medicamentos OR 1,12 (IC 95% 0,73 - 1,70. Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4,62 (IC 95% 2,61 - 8,20, trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2,04 (IC 95% 1,42 - 2,93 y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1,65 (IC 95% 1,15 - 2,36. Conclusiones: Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sope todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niñosObjectives: To identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: Case and control incidents. Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uria, a third-level paediatric hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and 400 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, persons responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumstances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5.4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR 7,82, firecrackers OR 5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR 2,06, house cleaner products OR 1,20, medicines OR 1,12, previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2,04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1,65. Conclusions: The main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by paediatricians or family practitioners

Kurt Paulsen S.

2005-01-01

172

Causal factors guide for the evaluation of accidents in research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the field of radiological and nuclear safety, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina controls three research reactors and three critical assemblies, by means of evaluations, audits and inspections, in order to assure the fulfillment of the requirements established in the Licenses, in the regulatory standards and in the mandatory documentation in general. rom the Nuclear Regulatory Authority point of view, within the general process of research reactors safety management, the management of operating experience plays an outstanding roll. In this aspect the ARN has established specific requisites in the Operation Licences in relation to the communication, evaluation, investigation of causes, and adoption of corrective measures, for the happened events. rom the experience collected in the analysis of the reports sent by the operators it has been verified some weakness in relation to the methodology of analysis of events and in the determination of the causal factors. n such a sense, with the purpose to establish a help for the analysts and to homogenize the treatment of the events, two reference guides were designed: a guide for the evaluation of events and another with a grid of causal factors. This paper describes the main aspects of the operating management system for research reactors and critical assemblies in Argentina, and the guides developed for the event analysis and determination of causal factors. (author)or)

173

Asthma is a risk factor for acute chest syndrome and cerebral vascular accidents in children with sickle cell disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and sickle cell disease are common conditions that both may result in pulmonary complications. We hypothesized that children with sickle cell disease with concomitant asthma have an increased incidence of vaso-occlusive crises that are complicated by episodes of acute chest syndrome. Methods A 5-year retrospective chart analysis was performed investigating 48 children ages 3–18 years with asthma and sickle cell disease and 48 children with sickle cell disease alone. Children were matched for age, gender, and type of sickle cell defect. Hospital admissions were recorded for acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accident, vaso-occlusive pain crises, and blood transfusions (total, exchange and chronic. Mann-Whitney test and Chi square analysis were used to assess differences between the groups. Results Children with sickle cell disease and asthma had significantly more episodes of acute chest syndrome (p = 0.03 and cerebral vascular accidents (p = 0.05 compared to children with sickle cell disease without asthma. As expected, these children received more total blood transfusions (p = 0.01 and chronic transfusions (p = 0.04. Admissions for vasoocclusive pain crises and exchange transfusions were not statistically different between cases and controls. SS disease is more severe than SC disease. Conclusions Children with concomitant asthma and sickle cell disease have increased episodes of acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accidents and the need for blood transfusions. Whether aggressive asthma therapy can reduce these complications in this subset of children is unknown and requires further studies.

Scott Paul J

2005-01-01

174

Experimental Investigation of Operation of VVER Steam Generator in Condensation Mode in the Event of the Severe Accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For new Russian nuclear power plants with VVER-1200 reactor in the event of a beyond design basis accident, provision is made for the use of passive safety systems for necessary core cooling. These safety systems include the passive heat removal system (PHRS). In the case of leakage in the primary circuit this system assures the transition of steam generators (SG) to operation in the mode of condensation of the primary circuit steam. As a result, the condensate from SG arrives at the core providing its additional cooling. To investigate the condensation mode of VVER SG operation, a large scale HA2M-SG test facility was constructed. The rig incorporates: buffer tank, SG model with scale is 1:46, PHRS heat exchanger. Experiments at the test facility have been performed to investigate condensation mode of operation of SG model at the pressure 0.4 MPa, correspond to VVER reactor pressure at the last stage of the beyond design basis accident. The report presents the test procedure and the basic obtained test results. (authors)

Morozov, Andrey [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering by A.I. Leypunsky, 1 Bondarenko sq. Obninsk, 249033 (Russian Federation)

2008-07-01

175

Investigations of the behaviour of coated fuel particles and spherical fuel elements at accident temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A post irradiation annealing test apparature was constructed for the measurement of fission gas release at temperatures similar to those to be reached in a HTR during a hypothetical accident. From examinations with existing apparatures up to temperatures of 18000C results were available about the load capacity of coated particles as well as knowledges about fission gas release and defect behaviour. These results were used to plan a series of annealing tests with spherical fuel elements up to 25000C. It could be shown that the (U,Th)O2-particles with high burn up will fail during maximum core heat up of a HTR only after some hours at temperatures above 24000C. (orig.)

176

Factors affecting vertical distribution of Fukushima accident-derived radiocesium in soil under different land-use conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan, triggered by a big earthquake and the resulting tsunami on 11 March 2011, caused a substantial release of radiocesium (137Cs and 134Cs) and a subsequent contamination of soils in a range of terrestrial ecosystems. Identifying factors and processes affecting radiocesium retention in these soils is essential to predict how the deposited radiocesium will migrate through the soil profile and to other biological components. We investigated vertical distributions of radiocesium and physicochemical properties in soils (to 20 cm depth) at 15 locations under different land-use types (croplands, grasslands, and forests) within a 2 km × 2 km mesh area in Fukushima city. The total 137Cs inventory deposited onto and into soil was similar (58.4 ± 9.6 kBq m?2) between the three different land-use types. However, aboveground litter layer at the forest sites and herbaceous vegetation at the non-forested sites contributed differently to the total 137Cs inventory. At the forest sites, 50–91% of the total inventory was observed in the litter layer. The aboveground vegetation contribution was in contrast smaller (137Cs in mineral soil layers; 137Cs penetrated deeper in the forest soil profiles than in the non-forested soil profiles. We quantified 1 soil profiles. We quantified 137Cs retention at surface soil layers, and showed that higher 137Cs retention can be explained in part by larger amounts of silt- and clay-sized particles in the layers. More importantly, the 137Cs retention highly and negatively correlated with soil organic carbon content divided by clay content across all land-use types. The results suggest that organic matter inhibits strong adsorption of 137Cs on clay minerals in surface soil layers, and as a result affects the vertical distribution and thus the mobility of 137Cs in soil, particularly in the forest ecosystems. - Highlights: ? Vertical distribution of radiocesium was investigated for 15 soils. ? Forest litter layer held 50–91% of the total 137Cs inventory. ? 137Cs penetrated deeper in forest soils than in cropland and grassland soils. ? Stronger 137Cs retention was observed in soils rich in finer-sized particles. ? 137Cs retention was lower in soils rich in organic carbon relative to clay content.

177

Fuel-element simulator for investigating thermal-hydraulic accidents in water-water reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fuel-element simulator should provide the necessary environmental parameters (thermal flux, and temperature at the cladding surface) and satisfy the requirements of reliability and modeling an actual fuel element, according to a formulated research problem. A universal simulator design, which could be used in a wide range of research, does not exist up to now and it is hardly useful in general. In developing fuel-element simulators to study loss-of-coolant accidents in water-water reactors, the most important condition from the modeling point of view is that the overall heat capacity of the simulator should correspond to that of the fuel element. The overall heat capacity and the temperature distribution over the reactor cross section determine the reserve of accumulated energy, which cannot be modeled by simply increasing the supplied electrical power. Experiments showed the magnesium oxide, as compared to other materials, is the best model of uranium oxide due to the closeness of the heat transfer coefficient and the thermal conductivity of these materials. Moreover, MgO has a high coefficient of thermal expansion, close to that of stainless steel. The construction of fuel-element simulators often uses boron nitride powder, which is densified by one means or another. Boron nitride has the highest thermal conductivity (besides beryllium oxide), but it has a lower electrical conductivity than magnesium oxide. These materials simultaneously fulfill the function of el simultaneously fulfill the function of electrically insulating the heating element from the cladding. The basic disadvantage of this design is that the simulator has no gas gap; however, this is compensated by its simplicity, reliability, and long lifetime. This article presents several test designs for analysis and solving problems characteristic of loss-of-coolant accidents. Test results from VVER-440 fuel rod simulators using 19-rod assemblies an presented

178

The radiation factor 'hot particles': origin, methods of investigation, characterization and risk factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of hot particles (HP) is reviewed chronologically following published data. The term appeared in the 50-s when HP have been found in fallout as a result of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. After the Chernobyl accident there is a growing interest in HP. In 1986 HP have been discovered in American nuclear power plants (NPP) and in 1992 some have been found at Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria as well. Detection and collection methods and different approaches for HP investigation are discussed. The direct and indirect risks from HP are described. It is concluded that the problem deserves further investigation and the discovery of HP inside NPP is of special interest

179

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board`s investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63).

Gerton, R.E.

1997-07-25

180

Investigation of accidents with decrease of boric acid concentration in the primary coolant of VVER-1000/model 91 reactor plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of recent investigations on the problem of inhomogeneous boron dilution for the VVER-1000/model 91 reactor are summarized in the paper. The studies have been performed in cooperation by Russian and Finnish experts. The phenomena related to the formation of diluted slugs, their transport and mixing in the reactor coolant system, and the potential consequences in the core are discussed. The potential external sources of pure condensate in various reactor operating conditions have been investigated. Thermal hydraulic analyses for identification of accidents having an inherent mechanism for boron dilution in the primary circuit have been performed using computer codes APROS, SMABRE, and DINAMIKA. The results allow to determine the location and potential size of diluted slugs. Steady-state and transient analyses of the core response have been performed using computer codes HEXBU-3D and HEXTRAN to model the core in three dimensions. The results allow to draw conclusions on the potential for severe core damage

181

Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

Naser Azad

2013-03-01

182

Investigation of relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks of nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the main control room (MCR) of a nuclear power plant (NPP), there are lots of dynamic information sources for MCR operator's situation awareness. As the human-machine interface in MCR is advanced, operator's information acquisition, information gathering and decision-making is becoming an important part to maintain the effective and safe operation of NPPs. Diagnostic task in complex and huge systems like NPP is the most difficult and mental effort-demanding for operators. This research investigates the relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks. The amount of information flow is quantified, using information flow model and Conant's model, a kind of information theory. For the mental workload measure, eye blink rate, blink duration, fixation time, number of fixation, and gaze direction are measured during accident diagnosis tasks. Subjective methods such as NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) method are also used in the experiment. It is shown that the operator's mental workload has significant relation to information flow of diagnosis task. It makes possible to predict the mental workload through the quantity of the information flow of a system

183

Hot particle factor in radiation dose formation after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The necessity to apply original data about the size and the activity distributions of hot particles has been arising at many post-Chernobyl research. Such researches include first of all studying of migration processes at soil-water complex, retrospective inhalation dose reconstruction for the population, and validation different scenarios of the Chernobyl accident deployment. Results of this research show that the fuel matrix in soil can be considered as constant with accuracy 20-30 % for transuranic nuclides and major of long-living fission products. Temporal stability of hot particles at the natural environment gives a unique possibility to use the hot particle size distribution data and the soil contamination data for retrospective restoring of doses even 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. In present research the value of the integral of hot particle activity deposited into the lung was calculated using a standard inhalation model which takes into account the hot particle size distribution. This value normalized on the fallout density is equal to 0.6 Bq/(Bqm2) for areas nearby the Chernobyl NPP

184

Experimental investigations on the behaviour of main cooling pumps in loss-of-coolant accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For an analysis of loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors the stationary and transient behaviour of main cooling pumps at the flowing of a single- or two-phase medium has to be known. Therefore experiments in decisive parametric ranges were carried out on two axial, in contrast to the original in a scale of 1:4 and 1:5 scaled down model pumps. The stationary experimental results show that the valid laws of similarity for the description of the pump behaviour H/H0=f(Q/Q0; n/n0) und T/T0=f(Q/Q0; n/n0) at single-phase flow are also relevant at the two-phase flow, if the volumetric steam content as well as the pressure are taken into account as additional parameters. The results of the blowdown experiments correspond to the stationary measured values as long as no critical flow conditions occur in the experimental pump. The essay contains the following chapters: laws of similarity, model pumps, experimental set-up, measurement techniques, stationary experiments (experimental results), transient experiments (experimental results), conclusions. (orig.)

185

Investigation on the sodium leak accident of Monju. Sodium leak test simulating the Monju leak  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium fire experiments were carried out two times using the Sodium Fire Test Rig (SOFT-1) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp (PNC) as a part of works to research the cause of the accident in secondary main cooling system of Monju. The purposes of these experiments are to confirm the leak rate and leakage form of sodium from damaged thermometer, to confirm the damage to the piping insulating structure around the thermometer and to the flexible tube, and to compare the temperature history of the signal from the thermometer between the experiments and Monju. In the experiments 56({+-}2)g/sec was obtained as the leak rate under the condition of ensuring the leakage pass in the simulated thermometer. This leak rate was corrected to 53g/sec to take account of manufacturing error of the thermometer between the experiment and Monju. In calculation of this leak rate, it is assumed that the annulus size of thermometer well tip is a nominal distance and pressure value to the leakage sodium is 1.65kg/cm{sup 2}G, which was the maximum one during the leakage of Monju. The behavior of signal from the simulated thermometer was very similar to that of the damaged thermometer in Monju and it was confirmed this temperature history could be sufficiently explained by moving of the temperature contact position of the thermocouple following the runoff of leakage sodium. (J.P.N.)

Shimoyama, Kazuhito; Nishimura, Masahiro; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Usami, Masayuki

1996-11-01

186

El Cuerpo Militar de Sanidad en la Investigación de Accidentes Aéreos / The role of Military Health Service in Aircraft Accident Investigation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La investigación de un accidente o incidente aéreo puede ser simple o enormemente compleja. El proceso de investigación puede conducir a la elaboración de un informe directo y conciso o lo más frecuente, significa un largo camino de recopilación, análisis, estudio y finalmente la elaboración de posi [...] bles conclusiones. En este proceso, los aspectos médicos, psicológicos, ambientales, psicosociales o ergonómicos englobados en el término genérico de factores humanos cobran una especial relevancia, atribuyéndose hasta un 60-80% de causas directas o coadyuvantes al mismo. En este trabajo se revisan los antecedentes jurídicos y base legal en la que se apoya la Comisión para la investigación técnica de accidentes de aeronaves militares (CITAAM), así como sus atribuciones, organización y composición, sus funciones generales y más concretamente las encomendadas al vocal médico de la misma. Desde su creación en 1994, la experiencia acumulada ha sido enorme, haciéndose mención de algunos datos de interés estadístico pero señalando también la labor de formación realizada y su proyección nacional e internacional, sobre todo en el marco de la OTAN. Abstract in english Aircraft Accident Investigation means a complex task in order to identify the major causes which lead to the mishap. Investigation process end in a technical report, which encloses a large amount of information and data gathering documentation, to be studied, analyzed and lines of inquiry establishe [...] d to finally produce the appropriate conclusions. Medical, psychological, environmental, psychosocial and ergonomic faces of the investigation are framed in the so called human factors, which actually leads to 60-80% of the causal factors of accidents. In this report we have reviewed the legal basis in which the CITAAM is supported, competencies, organization and composition, general functions and specifically responsibilities of the medical representative in the board. Since the establishment of the CITAAM in 1994 the experience accumulated has been very wide-ranged and we show some statistical data and work produced in education and instruction, as well as the national and international relationships mostly in the NATO frame.

F., Rios Tejada; B., Puente Espada.

2012-12-01

187

Postulated accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This lecture on 'Postulated Accidents' is the first of a series of lectures on the dynamic and transient behaviour of nuclear power plants, especially pressurized water reactors. The main points covered will be: Reactivity Accidents, Transients (Intact Loop) and Loss of Cooland Accidents (LOCA) including small leak. This lecture will discuss the accident analysis in general, the definition of the various operational phases, the accident classification, and, as an example, an accident sequence analysis on the basis of 'Postulated Accidents'. (orig./RW)

188

Human factors issues in severe accident management: Training for decision-making under stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, there is a growing awareness that the decision-making tasks required for selecting appropriate control actions, in addition to guidance from formal procedures, also involve cognitive activities commonly referred to as judgment or reasoning. A project was completed to address the nature of the cognitive skills that may be important to decision-making in the nuclear power plant environment, especially during severe accident management. The project identified a model of decision-making that could account for both rule-based and knowledge-based decision-making and used it to identify cognitive skills for both individuals and operational crews. This analysis was then used to identify existing training techniques for cognitive skills and the general characteristics of successful training techniques

189

Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO1 and NISA2 that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident

190

Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO{sup 1} and NISA{sup 2} that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident.

Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15

191

Evaluation and Learning after Major Railway Accidents : Various perspectives of accident research theories in evaluation reports and their implications for learning after accidents  

OpenAIRE

Accident causation has been differently approached and evaluated in the last decades. This thesis studies four large accidents in the Norwegian railway organization, i.e. the Tretten accident, the Nordstrand accident, the Åsta accident and the Alnabru/Sjursøya accident. Accident causation was investigated by systematically reviewing and comparing the respective accidents? evaluation reports to three dominant accident research theories: The Energy and Barrier theory, the Man-made Disaster ...

Storsveen, Silje

2012-01-01

192

Large Break LOCA Accident Management Strategies for Accidents With Large Containment Leaks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this work is the investigation of the influence of different accident management strategies on the thermal-hydraulics in the containment during a Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident with a large containment leak from the beginning of the accident. The increasing relevance of terrorism suggests a closer look at this kind of severe accidents. Normally the course of severe accidents and their associated phenomena are investigated with the assumption of an intact containment from the beginning of the accident. This intact containment has the ability to retain a large part of the radioactive inventory. In these cases there is only a release via a very small leakage due to the un-tightness of the containment up to cavity bottom melt through. This paper represents the last part of a comprehensive study on the influence of accident management strategies on the source term of VVER-1000 reactors. Basically two different accident sequences were investigated: the 'Station Blackout'- sequence and the 'Large Break LOCA'. In a first step the source term calculations were performed assuming an intact containment from the beginning of the accident and no accident management action. In a further step the influence of different accident management strategies was studied. The last part of the project was a repetition of the calculations with the assumption of a damaged containment from the beginning of the accident. This paper concentrates on the last step in the case of a Ltrates on the last step in the case of a Large Break LOCA. To be able to compare the results with calculations performed years ago the calculations were performed using the Source Term Code Package (STCP), hydrogen explosions are not considered. In this study four different scenarios have been investigated. The main parameter was the switch on time of the spray systems. One of the results is the influence of different accident management strategies on the source term. In the comparison with the sequence with intact containment it was demonstrated that the accident management measures have quite lower consequences. In addition it was shown that in the case of a 'Large Break LOCA'-sequence the intact containment retains the nuclides up to a factor of 20 000. This is much more than in the case of a 'Station Blackout'-sequence. Within the frame of the study 17 source terms have been generated to evaluate in detail accident management strategies for VVER-1000 reactors. (authors)

193

Effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway : A long-term investigation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper reports the findings of two studies made eleven years apart in Norway (0035 and 0025) to evaluate effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway. The first study covered the period from 1991 to 2000, the second study covered the period from 2002 to 2009. In both these periods, large changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were found in the cities that were included in the study. There was, in most cities, a tendency for the use of studded tyres to go down. Effects of these changes on injury accidents were evaluated by means of negative binomial regression models, using city and day as the unit of analysis, and including more than twenty explanatory variables in order to control for confounding factors. The effects of changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were well described by an accident modification function (dose–response curve), relating the size of changes in the number of accident to the size of the change in the use of studded tyres. Accidents during the season when the use of studded tyres is permitted were found to increase by about 5 percent if the use of studded tyres was reduced by 25 percentage points (e.g. from 50 to 25 percent) and to decline by about 2 percent when the use of studded tyres increased by 20 percentage points.

Elvik, Rune; FridstrØm, Lasse

2013-01-01

194

The Teenage Nonviolence Test: A Factor Analytic Investigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the use of nonviolent strategies by young adults in the United States when faced with conflict. To date, there has been little research on this topic anywhere. The factorial structure of the Teenage Nonviolence Test (TNT, an instrument designed to elicit information on teenagers’ stated tendencies toward nonviolence, was examined. Two hundred and twenty-eight college students from the United States participated in the project. A series of principle components factor analyses with varimax rotation were performed on TNT item responses. A three-factor solution comprised of 37 of the original 55-items best fit the data. Factor 1 seemed to represent acting violently toward others and was labeled, “Physical and Psychological Violence.” Factor 2 tapped an empathic response toward persons in need and was named, “Empathy.” The final factor was labeled “Satyagraha,” as this factor appeared to assess the discovery of truth. Implications for research and social justice interventions are presented.

Lawrence H. GERSTEIN

2014-03-01

195

Additional investigations within the research programme launched after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The additional investigations concern the determination of the transfer of the fission products I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134, and Te-132 along the pasture-cattle-milk pathway insolving fresh grass, and of the fission products Cs-137 and Cs-134 from winter fodder to milk, beef and veal, and the enrichment of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the human organism as well as the migration of the fission products Cs-137, Cs-134, Ru-103, and K-40 from the Chernobyl fall-out to the soil. (DG)

196

Investigation of radioiodine behavior under accident conditions in LWR. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting from safety considerations for WWER-type reactors main aspects of iodine chemistry are represented. By means of the use of application-oriented measuring techniques, existing equipment systems and their adaption to the requirements, investigations of the retention capacity of wet condensation systems for radioiodine were carried out. After analytical pre-tests (AAS, gaschromatography, laserspectrometry) - experiments were realized relating to both iodine absorption and iodine revolatilization. The absorption levels determined are between 92,5 and 99,9%, the iodine entrainment with revolatilization from the wet-condensation model is in the range between 0,003 and 0,0004%. (orig./HP)

197

Theoretical investigations of the meltoff and resolidification process of fuel claddings during accidents in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During loss-of-coolant-flow accidents in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors with failure to scram the fuel claddings will melt after boiling and evaporation of the coolant. The CMOT model presented here describes the subsequent process of relocation and resolidification of the molten claddings. The basic thermohydrodynamics equations of the two-phase flow of cladding material and sodium vapor are solved numerically by differential approximations in a Eulerian reference net. The results calculated by the model improved the insight into the dynamics of the cladding relocation process. Here are the main results: - Shortly after the onset of cladding relocation large waves of molten cladding material are generated. The motion of these waves contributes considerably to the material transport. - The dynamics of cladding relocation exhibits strong local incoherences. - The formation of cladding blockages observed at the ends of the fuel region is confirmed by the calculations. - In case of incoherent cladding meltoff less cladding material is transported upwards. - Cladding relocation strongly depends on the axial pressure drop and the underlying friction factor correlations. Recalculation of the R5 loss-of-coolant-flow experiment performed in the U.S. TREAT test reactor is in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig./HP) 891 HP

198

Sensitivity Investigation of Reactivity Induced Accidents for a 5MW Research Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In research reactor, there is a reactor protection system (RPS) to keep the reactor in safe condition. In relation to the RIAs, the RPS has power trip and power lograte trip variables. The results of RIAs are affected by not only the initial reactor power but also the reactivity insertion rate. Therefore, we selected the parameters of the initial reactor power and the reactivity insertion rate for the sensitivity investigation in this study. Especially, a research reactor with a normal power of 5MW was considered. This sensitivity study was carried out by using RELAP5/MOD3.3. The CHFRs and fuel temperatures were investigated in the various initial reactor powers and reactivity insertions by using RELAP5/MOD3.3. In case of the step insertion of 1.5mk reactivity, the larger the initial reactor power is, the smaller the CHFR is. And in case of the constant reactivity insertion rates, there is a different trend with the initial reactor power. In case of the initial power of 100%FP, the minimum CHFR appears at the maximum reactivity insertion rate. On the other hand, in case of the initial power of 1.5%FP, the minimum CHFR is predicted at the minimum reactivity insertion rate

199

Investigating Effective Factors on Iran’s Pistachio Exportation  

OpenAIRE

The problem of Iran’s economic is depending on oil’s incomes, therefore to increase non oil exportation likeagricultural products is the main goal of country’s economic development program. The goal of this paper is to investigate effective factors in pistachio exportation and mentioned goal will be consider by variable factors such as export’s principle, aflatoxin poison, and packaging. The type of this paper is descriptive–cognition and the related information for this scope...

Seyed fathollah Amiri Aghdaie

2009-01-01

200

Factors Determining FDI to Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation  

OpenAIRE

This study empirically investigates the determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) to Nigeria during 1970-2006. This study suggests that the endowment of natural resources, trade intensity, macroeconomic risk factors like inflation and exchange rates are significant determinants of FDI flow to Nigeria. The findings also suggest that in long run market size is not the significant factor for attracting FDI to Nigeria, it contradicts the existing literature. Our results indicate that FDI fl...

Dinda, Soumyananda

2008-01-01

201

Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity score, 3-dimensional reconstructions of the PMCT, and an injury pattern analysis. We describe how, on basis ofthese data, we reached a conclusion about which of the two victims was the most likely to have been in control of the airplane at the time of accident. Furthermore, we argue that all victims of fatal airplane crashes should be subject to forensic autopsy, including PMCT and forensic chemical analysis. The continuous accumulation of knowledge about injury patterns from “simple” accidents is the foundation for the correct analysis of “difficult” accidents.

HØyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov

2012-01-01

202

The Application of Electron Microscopy Techniques to the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

The Space Shuttle Columbia was returning from a 16-day research mission, STS- 107, with nominal system performance prior to the beginning of the entry interface into earth's upper atmosphere. Approximately one minute and twenty four seconds into the peak heating region of the entry interface, an off-nominal temperature rise was observed in the left main landing gear brake line. Nearly seven minutes later, all contact was lost with Columbia. Debris was observed periodically exiting the Shuttle's flight path throughout the reentry profile over California, Nevada, and New Mexico, until its final breakup over Texas. During the subsequent investigation, electron microscopy techniques were crucial in revealing the location of the fatal damage that resulted in the loss of Columbia and her crew.

Shah, Sandeep; Jerman, Greg

2005-01-01

203

Medical Response, Search and Recovery during the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during atmospheric re-entry on mission STS-107. After an event such as this, with high visibility and international interest, the operational challenge of recovering the crewmembers could not be underestimated. The Space Shuttle Program is organized to respond to a vehicle mishap using the resources of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT). On the afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale Air Force Base (AFB), Louisiana. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin, Texas Disaster Field Office (DFO). The Lufkin DFO served as the primary area for all operations, including staging assets and deploying field teams for search, recovery and security of crewmember remains. More than 2,000 people from numerous organizations were involved with the recovery of the crew. All seven crewmembers of STS-107 were recovered and ceremonial last rights were administered. Astronaut and military personnel escorted the crew with honor to the MIT at Barksdale AFB, Louisiana. At Barksdale AFB a temporary morgue was established in an aircraft hangar and operated for approximately two weeks during which time coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) medical personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. Families of crewmembers and NASA management were notified daily of the current findings. Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team developed and executed a short-term plan to identify and relocate the crew with a military honor guard and protocol to the medical examiner at the Armed Forces Port Mortuary, Dover AFB, Delaware. After operations at Barksdale AFB were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term plan was developed and implemented which involved the Air Force Mortuary Affairs at Randolph AFB, Texas. This plan was coordinated with search teams in the field, Barksdale AFB Mortuary Affairs, KSC security, AFIP, and the crew surgeons at JSC.

Stepaniak, Philip C.

2010-01-01

204

DSMC simulations in support of the Columbia Shuttle Orbiter accident investigation.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo simulations of Columbia Shuttle Orbiter flight STS-107 are presented. The aim of this work is to determine the aerodynamic and heating behavior of the Orbiter during aerobraking maneuvers and to provide piecewise integration of key scenario events to assess the plausibility of the candidate failure scenarios. The flight of the Orbiter is examined at two altitudes: 350-kft and 300-kft. The flowfield around the Orbiter and the heat transfer to it are calculated for the undamaged configuration. The flow inside the wing for an assumed damage to the leading edge in the form of a 10- inch hole is studied. The tragic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia and her seven-member crew was followed by an investigation that lasted almost 7 months covering numerous failure scenarios. Due to the lack of physical data about flight STS-107 (especially in the high altitude part of it), numerical simulations were employed to help with the interpretation of the forensic evidence and the evaluation of the plausibility of the candidate scenarios. The conclusion of the investigation was that the physical cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the Thermal Protection System. To protect the aluminum structure of the Orbiter during re-entry, the Orbiter is covered with various materials collectively referred to as the Thermal Protection System. The three major components of the system are various types of heat-resistant tiles, blankets, and the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels. The RCC panels are layers of graphite molded to the desired shape at very high temperatures. RCC is used for the Orbiter nose cap, chin panel, forward external tank attachment point, and wing leading edge panels and T-seals. RCC is a material capable of withstanding temperatures up to 2,000 K. Each wing leading edge consists of 22 RCC panels numbered from 1 to 22 moving outward on each wing. Because the shape of the wing changes from inboard to outboard, each panel is unique. A small space between the upper carrier panel and the RCC panel allows air pressure to equalize behind the RCC panels during ascent and re-entry. The total area of these vents on the wing is approximately 66 in. Most other areas of the Orbiter exposed to medium and high heating are protected by the tiles, which are made of a silicon-based material and can withstand temperatures up to 1,500 K. Finally, regions of the Orbiter that experience only moderate heating are protected by blankets capable of withstanding either 650K or 1,000 K.

Gallis, Michail A.; Boyles, Katie A. (NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX); LeBeau, Gerald J. (NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX)

2004-06-01

205

PRTR accident: a preliminary report on the investigation of fission product chemical forms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The central process tube of PRTR was independently cooled by light water and functioned as a Fuel Element Rupture Test Facility (FERTF). On September 29, 1965, the FERTF was experimenting with a mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel element in which one rod had been purposely defected by drilling a 1/16 inch hole through the Zircaloy cladding to the fuel surface. The combined failure of the partially molten fuel rod and rupture of the surrounding process tube allowed superheated cooling water to flash into the low pressure helium region of the reactor core and subsequently leak into the containment vessel. At the request of the US NRC, PNL is reviewing the PRTR incident to assemble and update all the information available regarding the volatile and semi-volatile fission products released to discover and investigate any clues that remain which may indicate the most probable chemical and physical forms of these released fission products. This review is now half completed and has involved both an experimental study, which is complete, and a literature analysis, still in progress

206

Nondestructive Testing As a Tool in the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

Nondestructive testing (NDT) played a crucial role in determining the Columbia tragedy's cause. Over 84,000 pieces of debris were recovered; hundreds were subsequently subjected to NDT and materials analysis. Visual NDT of the debris revealed localized areas of damage such as erosion, excessive heating, knife edging and mechanical damage. Three-dimensional reconstructions were made of the left wing leading edge, utilizing a tripod-mounted laser scanning head and focused laser beam, and an advanced topometric optical scanner (ATOS) with digital white light to scan complex-shaped debris, producing monochrome 3-D models. Texture mapping provided a means to capture true colors of the debris and superimpose them on the scanned images. Uniform deposits were found over large portions of debris, obscuring underlying materials. To determine what was beneath, inverse radiography was enlisted. The radiographs guided investigators to where samples should be taken. To ascertain compositions, these samples were subjected to analytical testing, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis. This combination of visual evidence, radiography, virtual reconstruction, and materials analysis allowed the forensic scientists to verify that a breach occurred in the leading edge of the left wing, the path the plasma followed, and the sequence of events that led to the loss.

McDanels, Steve

2008-01-01

207

Investigation of CET Effect as a SAMG Entry Condition under Severe Accidents of OPR1000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

If the reactor vessel failure (RPV) failure time is delayed, the probability of achieving this objective of management becomes higher. Also, that whether the entry to SAMG is too early or too late can be checked in the aspect of how much action time the operator can secure. For these reasons, Park et al. studied the effect of SAMG entry condition on operator action time for prevention of RPV failure in the OPR1000 using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 computer code in detail. In this study, various SAMG entry conditions from the points of view of delaying RPV failure time and available operator's action time were investigated for OPR1000 using level 2 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) code MELCOR. From the point of view of delaying RPV failure time, SAMG entry condition when CET is 923K is the best for SBLOCA without SI and TLOFW among selected CET conditions. However, for SBO, the best result follows when the SAMG entry condition CET is 838K. For available operator's action time's view, there was no significant difference between selected SAMG entry conditions. For these reasons, in future study, the standards of CET selection as SAMG entry conditions and the relationship between CET and quantity of oxidation heat should be researched. Also, more SAMG entry conditions should be tested which is far more different from selected conditions, such as EDF PWR standard, CET = 1100 .deg. C.

Seo, Seungwon; Jeun, Gyoodong; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwan Yeol; Ha, Kwang Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15

208

Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing  

OpenAIRE

This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. The study also provides several suggestions for marketers seeking to use viral marketing to position brands or to change a brand’s image, to encourage new product trials and to increase product uptake rates. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use prod...

Nina Ghane; Hamid Reza Shokrizadeh; Maryam Omidvar; Hoseyn Comyab

2014-01-01

209

Accidentes vasculares cerebrales en la comarca de Osona: Factores de riesgo cardiovascular / Cerebrovascular accidents in Osona borough: Cardiovascular risk factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: La enfermedad vascular cerebral (EVC) es la segunda causa de ingreso en orden de frecuencia en nuestro servicio, esto refleja la alta incidencia de esta patología en nuestra comarca. En este estudio se analizan las características clínicas, biológicas, factores de riesgo cardiovasculares [...] (FRCV) y actuación sobre los mismos al alta hospitalaria en un servicio de Medicina Interna de un hospital comarcal; hospital de referencia de la comarca de Osona, así como otras características, de los pacientes ingresados de enero de 2001 a diciembre de 2001 por EVC. Método: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo revisando los informes de alta hospitalaria de cada paciente. Ingresaron 277 pacientes con EVC. Resultados: Las características biológicas, demográficas así como los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares analizados (hipertensión arterial, diabetes, tabaquismo, dislipemia entre otros) fueron similares respecto a otras series. La incidencia de EVC hemorrágica y cardioembólica, fue algo menor, se ha de tener en cuenta que se excluyen aquellos episodios hemorrágicos que necesitaron intervención neuroquirúrgica, éstos fueron derivados a un centro de nivel superior que dispusiera de servicio de neurocirugía. La edad no fue un factor de mal pronóstico en cuanto a presentar más secuelas después del episodio ni más mortalidad, este dato discrepa de otras series. Conclusiones: La actuación al alta sobre los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y recomendaciones higiénico-dietéticas fueron deficientes. La estancia media fue superior si la comparamos con la estancia media de las unidades de ictus especializadas. Abstract in english Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the second cause of hospitalization in the order of frequency in our service, thus reflecting this pathology’s high incidence in our borough. This study analyzes clinical and biological characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and actions taken in h [...] ospital discharge in the internal medicine department of a borough hospital (the reference hospital in Osona borough), as well as other characteristics of the hospitalized CVD patients from January 2001 to December 2001. Method: This study was performed by revising each patient’s hospital discharge report. 277 patients were hospitalized for CVD. Results: Biological and demographic characteristics, as well as cardiovascular risk factors analyzed (arterial hypertension, diabetes, smoking, or dyslipidemy) were similar to other series. Incidence of hemorrhagic and cardio-embolic CVD was slightly lower, taken into account that hemorrhagic episodes that needed neurosurgical intervention were transferred to a higher-level center with a department of neurosurgery. Age was neither a factor for bad prediction leading to bad sequels after the episode nor a cause of an increased mortality. This data differs from others series. Conclusions: Actions taken on discharge, on cardiovascular risk factors and on hygienic-dietetic recommendations were deficient. Average stay was higher when compared to average stay in specialized ictus units.

C., Sanclemente Ansó; F., Alonso Valdés; E., Rovira Pujol; D., Vigil Martín; J., Vilaró Pujals.

2004-04-01

210

Experimental investigation of material chemical effects on emergency core cooling pump suction filter performance after loss of coolant accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Integral tests of head loss through an emergency core cooling filter screen are conducted, simulating reactor building environmental conditions for 30 days after a loss of coolant accident. A test rig with five individual loops each of whose chamber is established to test chemical product formation and measure the head loss through a sample filter. The screen area at each chamber and the amounts of reactor building materials are scaled down according to specific plant condition. A series of tests have been performed to investigate the effects of calcium-silicate, reactor building spray, existence of calcium-silicate with tri-sodium phosphate (TSP), and composition of materials. The results showed that head loss across the chemical bed with even a small amount of calcium-silicate insulation instantaneously increased as soon as TSP was added to the test solution. Also, the head loss across the filter screen is strongly affected by spray duration and the head loss increase is rapid at the early stage, because of high dissolution and precipitation of aluminum and zinc. After passivation of aluminum and zinc by corrosion, the head loss increase is much slowed down and is mainly induced by materials such as calcium, silicon, and magnesium leached from NUKONTM and concrete. Furthermore, it is newly found that the spay buffer agent, tri-sodium phosphate, to form protective coating on the aluminum surface and reduce aluminum leaching is not effective for a large amo leaching is not effective for a large amount of aluminum and a long spray.

211

Characterization of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA suffered the loss of the seven-member crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003 when the vehicle broke apart upon re-entry to the Earth's atmosphere. The final report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) determined that the accident was caused by a launch ascent incident-a suitcase-sized chunk of insulating foam on the Shuttle's External Tank (ET) broke off, and moving at almost 500 mph, struck an area of the leading edge of the Shuttle s left wing. As a result, one or more of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the wing leading edge were damaged. Upon re-entry, superheated air approaching 3,000 F breached the wing damage and caused the vehicle breakup and loss of crew. The large chunk of insulating foam that broke off during the Columbia launch was determined to come from the so-called bipod ramp area where the Shuttle s orbiter (containing crew) is attached to the ET. Underneath the foam in the bipod ramp area is a layer of TPS that is a cork-filled silicone rubber composite. In March 2003, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama received cured samples of the foam and composite for testing from the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, Louisiana. The MAF is where the Shuttle's ET is manufactured. The foam and composite TPS materials for the ET have been well characterized for mechanical property data at the super-cold temperatures of the liquid oxygen and hydrogen fuels used in the ET. However, modulus data on these materials is not as well characterized. The TA Instruments 2980 Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) was used to determine the modulus of the two TPS materials over a range of -145 to 95 C in the dual cantilever bending mode. Multi-strain, fixed frequency DMA tests were followed by multi-frequency, fixed strain tests to determine the approximate bounds of linear viscoelastic behavior for the two materials. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Wingard, Charles D.

2004-01-01

212

Investigation regarding the long-term security developments in the Swedish nuclear power and the response to the accident at Fukushima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Swedish nuclear plants need to continue to work on analysis and actions in the plants, partly to meet the demands of legislation and agreed action plans, and partly due to additional security requirements on account of experiences from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, stress tests, security investigations and investigations relating to physical protection. It is also essential to continue with safety improvements to gradually increase margins against unforeseen events in aging plants during long-term operation

213

Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. The study also provides several suggestions for marketers seeking to use viral marketing to position brands or to change a brand’s image, to encourage new product trials and to increase product uptake rates. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use product on virtual marketing. In addition, the study considers internal factors such as inclusion (the need to be part of a group, the need to be different and affection on viral marketing. The survey has been accomplished among 140 Iranian people, who were familiar with virtual marketing and they are selected, randomly. Using Pearson correlation as well as regression analysis, the study provides some evidences that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between some internal/external factors and virtual marketing.

Nina Ghane

2014-04-01

214

Accidente vascular encefálico: Presentación clínica y factores de riesgo / Clinical presentation and risk factors of cerebrovascular accident  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La alteración focal aguda de la función cerebral en el adulto permite diagnosticar un accidente vascular encefálico (AVE) e iniciar precozmente el rescate de tejido cerebral. En los niños, las diferencias clínicas de esta patología en relación al adulto generan atraso, subdiagnóstico e [...] impiden el tratamiento en la etapa aguda. Objetivo: Describir la presentación clínica y factores de riesgo del AVE isquémico en 156 niños, comparar la presentación clínica según edad y tipo de AVE. Pacientes y Método: Se analiza un registro de AVE isquémico, confirmado con imágenes cerebrales, en población menor de 18 años, iniciado en Enero 2003. Resultados: La mediana de edad: 4,9 meses (33% recién nacidos, 46% menores 6 años y 21% mayor de 6 años), 64% fueron hombres. Los infartos arteriales correspondieron al 85% y el resto fueron trombosis de senos venosos. Predominaron los signos difusos (67%) en menores de 6 años (p = 0,001). Las convulsiones fueron observadas en el 61% de los niños menores de 6 años (p = 0,03), el 33% presentó signos focales. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron patologías sistémicas agudas y cardiopatías. En 14,7% no se encontraron factores de riesgo. Conclusiones: La búsqueda de signos focales agudos de AVE no tiene utilidad diagnóstica en el niño, a diferencia de los adultos, pues su ausencia no excluye patología vascular isquémica focal. La patología sistémica aguda fue el factor de riesgo más frecuente para AVE. Abstract in english Introduction: Acute focal brain dysfunction in adults serves to diagnose and to provide early rescue of the brain tissue. In children, the clinical differences of this condition compared to adults results in delayed diagnosis and treatment. Objective: To describe the clinical presentation and risk f [...] actors of CVA in 156 children and related to age and type of CVA. Patients and Method: A CVA registry of newborn to 18 years old was started in January 2003 were analized. Diagnosis was confirmed by brain imaging. Results: The median of age was 4.9 month (33% was newborn, 46% 6 years old); 64% were males. Arterial ischemic stroke represented 85%, the rest were cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. In the clinical manifestations the diffuse signs were more frequently seen (67%) in children

Marta, Hernández Ch; Catalina, Samsó Z; Raúl, Escobar H; Tomás, Mesa L.

2013-07-01

215

Molecular-genetic damages of children immune system under influence of Chernobyl accident factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Longterm study of children immunity damage under low doses radiation exposure revealed dynamic immunoregulatory mechanisms impairment which resulted in hyper-IgE-emia syndrome, cellular immunity depression and allergy status development. Investigation of DNA damage and immune cells genome stability by new 'fast micromethod' showed a reliable increase of DNA damage in children from contaminated with Cs-137 areas. There was strong correlation between DNA breaks frequency and soil contamination level, age of children (term of exposure) and serum IgE concentration. The method may be useful for diagnostics and monitoring of hyper-IgE-emia syndrome (authors)

216

A Summary of the Space Shuttle Columbia Tragedy and the Use of LS Dyna in the Accident Investigation and Return to Flight Efforts  

Science.gov (United States)

On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry resulting in loss of 7 crewmembers and craft. For the next several months an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA concluded in August, 2003 that the cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the missions launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. In order to gain a better understanding the foam impact on the orbiters RCC wing leading edge, a multi-center team of NASA and Boeing impact experts was formed to characterize the foam and RCC materials for impact analysis using LS Dyna. Dyna predictions were validated with sub-component and full scale tests. LS Dyna proved to be a valuable asset in supporting both the Columbia Accident Investigation and NASA s return to flight efforts. This paper summarizes Columbia Accident and the nearly seven month long investigation that followed. The use of LS-DYNA in this effort is highlighted. Contributions to the investigation and return to flight efforts of the multicenter team consisting of members from NASA Glenn, NASA Langley, and Boeing Philadelphia are introduced and covered in detail in papers to follow in these proceedings.

Melis, Matthew; Carney, Kelly; Gabrys, Jonathan; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.

2004-01-01

217

Lessons learned - the Columbia Space Shuttle accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 2003 February 01, the Columbia space shuttle broke apart during re-entry with the loss of all crew-members. An accident investigation board undertook a comprehensive examination of the spacecraft design, performance, and NASA design and operational practices to uncover direct and contributory accident causal factors; and recommend the improvements required for return of the shuttle program to flight status. This paper will summarize the investigative approach taken, the findings and recommendations that resulted, and the lessons of relevance to the nuclear industry. The paper will also outline a suggested 'road-map' for deriving the main lessons learned from the full board report. (author)

218

Exploring the psychological factors involved in the Ladbroke Grove rail accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten years after the event and the question as to exactly why a driver passed a signal at danger to cause the Ladbroke Grove rail disaster is still an open one. This paper uses the literature on human error and cognition, combined with critical path analysis, to provide further insight. Five aspects of train operation are drawn out of the known facts surrounding the incident: custom and practice in the use of the Driver's Reminder Appliance, operation and use of the Automatic Warning System, the sequence of signalling information, methods of supplying route information, and speed restrictions. Associated with each are several important human factors issues which, combined, give rise to five potential explanations. Critical path analysis is used to map these explanations onto the known facts of the situation. It is suggested that the proximal cause of the Ladbroke Grove rail crash was a combination of an association-activation error and a mode error (leading the driver to mistakenly assume he had activated the Reminder Appliance) together with a loss-of-activation error (the driver failing to remember that a previous signal was showing caution) and a data-driven-activation error (by associating an in-cab warning to the wrong external source). The findings support the original inquiry recommendations, but also go further into predictive methods of detecting problems at the human/transport system interface. PMID:21376909

Stanton, Neville A; Walker, Guy H

2011-05-01

219

Statistical analysis of sudden chemical leakage accidents reported in China between 2006 and 2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the data from authoritative sources, 1,400 sudden leakage accidents occurred in China during 2006 to 2011 were investigated, in which, 666 accidents were used for statistical characteristic abstracted with no or little damage. The research results were as follows: (1) Time fluctuation: the yearly number of sudden leakage accidents is shown to be decreasing from 2006 to 2010, and a slightly increase in 2011. Sudden leakage accidents occur mainly in summer, and more than half of the accidents occur from May to September. (2) Regional distribution: the accidents are highly concentrated in the coastal area, in which accidents result from small and medium-sized enterprises more easily than that of the larger ones. (3) Pollutants: hazardous chemicals are up to 95 % of sudden leakage accidents. (4) Steps: transportation represents almost half of the accidents, followed by production, usage, storage, and discard. (5) Pollution and casualties: it is easy to cause environmental pollution and casualties. (6) Causes: more than half of the cases were caused by human factor, followed by management reason, and equipment failure. However, sudden chemical leakage may also be caused by high temperature, rain, wet road, and terrain. (7) The results of principal component analysis: five factors are extracted by the principal component analysis, including pollution, casualties, regional distribution, steps, and month. According to the analysis of the accident, the characteristics, causes, and damages of the sudden leakage accident will be investigated. Therefore, advices for prevention and rescue should be acquired. PMID:24407779

Li, Yang; Ping, Hua; Ma, Zhi-Hong; Pan, Li-Gang

2014-04-01

220

Analysis Fukushima 11032011 -- Extended analysis of the Fukushima accident on 11 March 2011 under special consideration of human and organisational factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the reactor accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi on 11 March 2011, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) launched an extended analysis of the accident with the following goals: a) a comprehensive understanding of the accident unrolling and of the contributing factors; b) the identification of resulting short-, mean- and long-term requirements for the operators of Swiss nuclear power plants; c) considerations on the own surveillance activity; d) the verification of the reports delivered by the Swiss plant operators, who have to check their own plant after each incident declared as of INES 2 level or higher, whichever the location in the whole world. Undoubtedly, the design of the nuclear power plants at Fukushima Dai-ichi was inappropriate in what regards the tsunami induced by the earthquake, and that this was a key factor that led to the accident. The questions here are rather how it came to this clear design insufficiency and why the accident developed in the way it did. According to ENSI, answers to these questions require both technical as well as human and organisational considerations. ENSI had no direct access to information sources and, therefore, had to check the reliability of information obtained from public sources, especially from authorities, plant operators, expert organisations and, last but not least, media reports. The understanding gained in this way should enable a better evaluation of the situation in Switzerland and lead to the definition of the most urgent measures to be implemented. Since the principal cause of the Fukushima accident is a failure in the plant design, it is necessary to critically reconsider the design of the Swiss reactors to make sure that no such mistake has been done here. Another question is why this evident design failure was not identified earlier in the course of the decades of operation, and why no improvement has been made. In this context, human and organisational factors seem to play an important role. But the responsibility cannot be put only on a few decision makers; on the contrary some human and organisational mechanisms play a fundamental role. Such mechanisms and external conditions can lead to situations in which facts are not recognized or even rejected, although they appear evident after the events. It is the responsibility of all actors in the nuclear industry: plant operators, governments, regulatory authorities, expert organisations, to understand the potential and actual consequences of these mechanisms and to consider them within an appropriate safety culture. It is not sufficient to implement new regulations; the safety organisations must be able to respond to unforeseen situations, and this requires flexibility and adaptation ability. In this sense the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident will be helpful for the Swiss conditions

221

Investigations of the potential for accident mitigation of the conceptical design for a core retention device developed in SR 209  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential for accident mitigation of the conceptual design for the core retention device developed in SR 209, was estimated by core meltdown and containment analyses. Such a device should prevent late fission product release especially due to failure of the containment by overpressurization (according to release categories 5 and 6 of the German Risk Study, Phase A). Assuming ideal operation of the device, the long term course of a meltdown accident can be influenced in a positive sense including the prevention of overpressurization. However, functional operation of the design seems to be highly uncertain for several reasons, i.g. due to uncertainties in the behaviour of the melt in the retention device. The design does not or only insufficiently cover accident scenarios with high pressure in vessel melt, that means for sequences relevant for their high contribution to core melt frequency. The design may have strong negative impacts on the course of meltdown accidents, LOCA's, constructive details and operation of a plant. Implementation of the measure is expected to need extreme effort, without making sense from the technical point of view. The measure at all seems not to be recommendable for accident mitigation. (orig./HP)

222

Accident management strategies for accidents with large containment leaks in VVER-1000 reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this work is the investigation of the influence of different accident management strategies on the thermal-hydraulics in the containment during a severe accident with a large containment leak from the beginning of the accident. The increasing relevance of terrorism suggests a closer look at this kind of severe accidents. Normally the course of severe accidents and their associated phenomena are investigated with the assumption of an intact containment from the beginning of the accident. This intact containment has the ability to retain a large part of the radioactive inventory. In these cases there is only a release via a very small leakage due to the untightness of the containment up to cavity bottom melt through. The focus in this study is on the 'Station Blackout'-sequence (or TMLB' in the WASH-1400 nomenclature) in VVER-1000-type reactors under different accident management strategies. The results can be compared with the outcome of a previous study assuming no large containment leak from the beginning. The calculations were performed using the Source Term Code Package (STCP), hydrogen explosions are not considered. In this study four different scenarios have been investigated. One of the results is the influence of different accident management strategies on the source term. In the comparison with the sequence with intact containment it was demonstrated that the accident management measures have quite lower consequences. In addition it was shown that in the case of a 'Station Blackout'-sequence the intact containment retains the nuclides up to a factor of 6000.

Sdouz, Gert; Sonneck, Gerald [ARC Seibersdorf Research, Wien (Austria)

2003-07-01

223

Accident management strategies for accidents with large containment leaks in VVER-1000 reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this work is the investigation of the influence of different accident management strategies on the thermal-hydraulics in the containment during a severe accident with a large containment leak from the beginning of the accident. The increasing relevance of terrorism suggests a closer look at this kind of severe accidents. Normally the course of severe accidents and their associated phenomena are investigated with the assumption of an intact containment from the beginning of the accident. This intact containment has the ability to retain a large part of the radioactive inventory. In these cases there is only a release via a very small leakage due to the untightness of the containment up to cavity bottom melt through. The focus in this study is on the 'Station Blackout'-sequence (or TMLB' in the WASH-1400 nomenclature) in VVER-1000-type reactors under different accident management strategies. The results can be compared with the outcome of a previous study assuming no large containment leak from the beginning. The calculations were performed using the Source Term Code Package (STCP), hydrogen explosions are not considered. In this study four different scenarios have been investigated. One of the results is the influence of different accident management strategies on the source term. In the comparison with the sequence with intact containment it was demonstrated that the accident management measures have quite lower consequences. In addition it was shown that nsequences. In addition it was shown that in the case of a 'Station Blackout'-sequence the intact containment retains the nuclides up to a factor of 6000

224

On the bad reputation of Fukushima's nuclear accident. A risk-economic approach to distance and price factors of processed food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2011, a big earthquake hit Japan and tsunami and nuclear power plant accident followed. Various discussions have been made on economical, ecological and psychological impacts of this disaster. Its bad reputation effect has not been much discussed, however. This paper deals with the relationship between the following two factors. They are: the distance from the nuclear power plant to the production place and the price of seemingly homogeneous processed food. (author)

225

A summary of the Space Shuttle Columbia tragedy and the use of digital high-speed photography in the accident investigation and NASA's return-to-flight effort  

Science.gov (United States)

On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry resulting in loss of seven crewmembers and craft. For the next several months an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA concluded in August, 2003 that the cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into that mission's launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of the left wing which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. Supporting the findings of the CAIB, were numerous ballistic impact testing programs conducted to investigate and quantify the physics of External Tank Foam impact on the RCC wing leading edge material. These tests ranged from fundamental material characterization tests to full-scale Orbiter Wing Leading Edge tests. Following the accident investigation, NASA turned its focus to returning the Shuttle safely to flight. Supporting this effort are many test programs to evaluate impact threats from various debris sources during ascent that must be completed for certifying the Shuttle system safe for flight. Digital high-speed cameras were used extensively to document these tests as significant advances in recent years have nearly eliminated the use of film in many areas of testing. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Laboratory have participated in several of the impact test programs supporting the Accident Investigation and Return-to-Flight efforts. This paper summarizes the Columbia Accident and the nearly seven month long investigation that followed. Highlights of the NASA Glenn contributions to the impact testing are presented with emphasis on the use of high speed digital photography to document theses tests.

Pereira, J. Michael; Melis, Matthew E.; Revilock, Duane M.

2005-03-01

226

Home accidents in older people: role of primary health care team.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES--To determine the incidence and nature of unreported and reported home accidents in older people and to investigate associated environmental factors. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire requesting information on home accidents in the preceding month. SETTING--Inner London general practice. SUBJECTS--All registered patients aged over 65 years (n = 1662), of whom 120 were inappropriately registered and 1293 responded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Circumstances and consequences of accidents in the ...

Graham, H. J.; Firth, J.

1992-01-01

227

Logistic Regression Approach in Road Defects Impact on Accident Severity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Safety and accident issues are considered as an important problem in the world. Road transportation issues would have a more conspicuous countenance in the country of Iran in which, over 94 percent of all transportations take place through roads. The roads’ contribution to the traffic accidents at mean is 24 percent however this value is 36 percent in Iran. Road traffic crashes exert a huge burden on Iran's economy and health care services. Many parameters, safety signs and equipment, Vertical and horizontal arc combination along the road and all the effective factors in decreasing the accidents, are considered when determining the safety level of the roads. Road defect is being considered as one of the essential factors causing accidents to happen.  This article investigates the severity factor of the accident according to the vehicle movability situation after the accident. The results of this research has shown that most  important factors reducing the safety on the suburban roads  in Iran is “insufficient road width” pertaining to frequency  and “Level difference between road & shoulder” pertaining  to accident severity.

Mohadeseh Khalili

2013-05-01

228

Recriticality, a Key Phenomenon to Investigate in Core Disruptive Accident Scenarios of Current and Future Fast Reactor Designs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Final comments and conclusions: • Modern plants, should have performed better under Fukushima type event. • In future fast reactor systems significantly higher active and passive safety features are installed, which should cope with events like Fukushima. • One important lesson: put a focus on rare initiators, accident routes and consequences that are neither expected nor have been observed, events that are categorized under ‘black swans’. • Importance of severe accident research demonstrated - both analytically and experimentally for assessing and interpreting accident scenarios and developments. Precondition for developing preventive & mitigative safety measures. Passive safety measures are in the focus of advanced design options and must work under conditions of multiple loads and aggravating events. • Fast reactor systems behavior as the SFR under severe accident conditions: – In fast spectrum systems as the SFR the core is not in its neutronically most reactive configuration and SFRs may be loaded with MAs for waste management; – Recriticalities have a high probability because of the higher enrichment levels; – Short time scales have to be envisioned for core melt-down; – Decay heat levels might be significantly higher, if MA bearing fuel is involved. • Improve design by measures for prevention and/or mitigation of recriticalities; – High reliability of simulations required for proof; • Assessment of fuel relocated on peripheral structures; • Preventive/mitigating measures should not replace containment measures

229

Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur  

Science.gov (United States)

The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.

2014-05-01

230

Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011. Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

E. Mohammad-pajooh

2014-05-01

231

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - like syndrome and other hormonal factors of promotion and progression of thyroid gland cancer in males-liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The clinical and laboratory endocrinological screening performed in 1,000 males - liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences revealed hormonal factors leading to node formation and having unfavourable influence on progression and promotion of thyroid gland cancer. The factors include syndrome of low thriiodothyronine, hyperprolactinemia, latent hypothyrosis and increased production of thyroglobulin. Peculiarities of hormonal status in liquidators allow us to suggest the presence of MEN-like syndrome among the liquidators population. Possible mechanisms of expression of RET oncogene in adults that may result in MEN- like syndrome have been discussed. (author)

232

Epidemiological profile of patients with cerebral vascular accident  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: to show the profile epidemiological of patients with cerebral vascular accident in a public hospital from João Pessoa city, Paraíba, Brazil; to investigate the social demographic profile; to identify the risk factors, symptoms and sequels of the cerebral vascular accident. Methods: this is about a descriptive and exploratory study, from quantitative approach; the population was configured by sixty handbooks. Data collect was performed with a form from March to April 2007, and th...

Carolline Paulo Neto Da Cunha Lima, Marta Miriam Lopes Costa

2009-01-01

233

Bayes factor for investigative assessment of selected handwriting features.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper extends previous research on the use of multivariate continuous data in comparative handwriting examinations, notably for gender classification. A database has been constructed by analyzing the contour shape of loop characters of type a and d by means of Fourier analysis, which allows characters to be described in a global way by a set of variables (e.g., Fourier descriptors). Sample handwritings were collected from right- and left-handed female and male writers. The results reported in this paper provide further arguments in support of the view that investigative settings in forensic science represent an area of application for which the Bayesian approach offers a logical framework. In particular, the Bayes factor is computed for settings that focus on inference of gender and handedness of the author of an incriminated handwritten text. An emphasis is placed on comparing the efficiency for investigative purposes of characters a and d. PMID:25117907

Taroni, F; Marquis, R; Schmittbuhl, M; Biedermann, A; Thiéry, A; Bozza, S

2014-09-01

234

Lack of safety culture as a contributing factor in major radiation accidents reported in Latin and South America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last decades, the issue of improving safety culture to reduce the upward trend of radiation accidents have received considerable attention from scientific organizations. After the Chernobyl accident, IAEA invited worldwide experts in nuclear safety and formed a working group called 'International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group'. The Safety Culture concept has been developed by the Working Group and published in the Safety Series collection of IAEA in 1986 as No 75-INSAG-4 which provided a logical framework for establishing safety culture policy at individual and organisational level. The aim of this paper is to review the role of insufficient safety culture in the occurrence of 5 major radiation accidents reported in Latin and South America and the remedial action taken by competent authority and oriented towards improvement of basic principle of safety culture. (author)

235

Integrated Road Accident And Cost Prediction Model  

OpenAIRE

This paper deals with the development of an integrated road accidents and its cost prediction model for Chennai city using system dynamics approach. In this case, the simulation road accident prediction model was developed from the base year 2010 using road accident data collected from 2006 to 2010. In this research an attempt is made to establish relationship between road accident with factors of human behaviors, vehicle factors and road factors. STELLA software is a powerful tool for making...

Nachimuthu, K.; Partheeban, P.

2013-01-01

236

Road Traffic Accidents In Tamilnadu: A Historical Study  

OpenAIRE

The main purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the reasons for road traffic accidents in Tamil nadu. Also this study investigates the different causes of accidents occurred in past years in Tamilnadu. Tamilnadu was reported in one of the accident prone zone in India with having highest rate of road accidents. This study investigates why Tamilnadu reported in top number of accidents. What are the reasons for occurring accidents and how con resistance the accidents.

Manigandan, R.; Arunmozhi, R.

2013-01-01

237

Investigation on heat removal capability of calandria vault water of PHWR in a scaled facility during severe accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent Fukushima nuclear accident has triggered a debate amongst reactor designers regarding the safety measures in nuclear reactors. It has become need of the hour to analyse the capability of decay heat removal in a reactor on its own so that the integrity of reactor vessel is maintained to avoid radioactivity releases in environment. Such a study has been performed for PHWR in a scaled facility. In a hypothetical severe core damage accident in PHWR, multiple failure of the core cooling system may lead to collapse of pressure tubes and calandria tubes, which may ultimately relocate inside the calandria vessel forming a debris bed. Due to decay heat generation, the debris ultimately melts down forming a corium molten pool. Calandria vessel is surrounded by calandria vault water which acts as heat sink. In order to study the thermal behaviour of molten pool and calandria vessel under severe accident condition a scaled facility has been envisaged. Numerical analysis was also carried out to predict the temperature profile of the molten pool and the vessel

238

Gray Correlation Analysis of Coal Mine Accidents  

OpenAIRE

Based on the statistics of 2008-2012 State Administration of study safety coal mine accident,a grey relational analysis model of coal mine accidents was established,and the grey correlation matrixes were established according to the grey relevance degree of data series. The gas accident, roof accident and flood accident were considered as the main influential factors according to the advantage analysis method. The analysis method provides scientific basis for further prevention an...

Wen-Yan Tian; Zeng-Shou Dong; Ze-Min Li

2013-01-01

239

Acidente do trabalho investigado pelo CEREST Piracicaba: confrontando a abordagem tradicional da segurança do trabalho / Work related accident investigated by CEREST Piracicaba: confronting the traditional approach of safety at work  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Partindo de exploração das diferentes concepções acerca dos acidentes do trabalho e pretendendo discutir suas implicações sobre a prevenção, este artigo apresenta o caso de investigação de acidente de trabalho (AT) realizado pelo Sistema de Vigilância de Acidentes do Trabalho (SIVAT) do Centro de Re [...] ferência em Saúde do Trabalhador (CEREST) de Piracicaba, que utiliza a notificação a partir de todos os pronto-socorros E hospitais do município. A metodologia de investigação do At utilizada pelo Cerest inclui entrevistas, análise de documentos, fotografias, observação e estudo da situação do trabalho. Por outro lado, a empresa, com auxílio de laudo do Instituto de Criminalística (IC), usando uma abordagem tradicional do ato inseguro, apresenta explicações simplistas das causas dos acidentes de trabalho, o que resulta na atribuição de culpa às vítimas desses eventos, deixando de identificar os aspectos da organização do trabalho, a concepção dos equipamentos; fatores que, explorados, apontariam caminhos para a melhoria da segurança e da confiabilidade dos sistemas. Concluiu-se pela necessidade de mudanças culturais na área de segurança com investimentos permanentes na capacitação e na difusão dos novos conceitos sobre acidentes junto aos atores sociais, aos profissionais e ao poder judiciário. Abstract in english Exploring different concepts of work-related accidents and intending to discuss their implications on prevention, this article presents a case-study on work related accident (WRA) investigation conducted by the System of Surveillance of Accidents at Work (SIVAT) at the Center of Reference on Worker' [...] s Health (CEREST) in Piracicaba, using cases notified by all emergency rooms and hospitals of the Municipal district. The methodology of investigation of Wra used by Cerest includes interviews, analysis of documents, pictures, observation, and investigation of the situation at worksite. On the other hand, companies present simplistic explanations of Wra occurrences, using the traditional approach based on individual unsafe action, facilitated by reports issued by the State Criminalistics Institute (IC). Consequently victims are blamed for the events, and aspects of work organization or equipment conception are ignored. Such factors, if properly analyzed, could point out solutions for improvements in safety and reliability of the systems. Authors concluded that cultural changes in the safety field are necessary, with continuous investments in training and diffusion of new concepts on accidents among social actors, professionals, and the Judiciary.

Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia, Vilela; Renata Wey Berti, Mendes; Carmen Aparecida H., Gonçalves.

2007-06-01

240

Analysis methodology for RBMK-1500 core safety and investigations on corium coolability during a LWR severe accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis presents the work involving two broad aspects within the field of nuclear reactor analysis and safety. These are: - development of a fully independent reactor dynamics and safety analysis methodology of the RBMK-1500 core transient accidents and - experiments on the enhancement of coolability of a particulate bed or a melt pool due to heat removal through the control rod guide tubes. The first part of the thesis focuses on the development of the RBMK-1500 analysis methodology based on the CORETRAN code package. The second part investigates the issue of coolability during severe accidents in LWR type reactors: the coolability of debris bed and melt pool for in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. The first chapter briefly presents the status of developments in both the RBMK-1500 core analysis and the corium coolability areas. The second chapter describes the generation of the RBMK-1500 neutron cross section data library with the HELIOS code. The cross section library was developed for the whole range of the reactor conditions. The results of the benchmarking with the WIMS-D4 code and validation against the RBMK Critical Facility experiments is also presented here. The HELIOS generated neutron cross section data library provides a close agreement with the WIMS-D4 code results. The validation against the data from the Critical Experiments shows that the HELIOS generated neutron cross section library provides excellent predictions for the criticality, axial and radial power distribution, control rod reactivity worths and coolant reactivity effects, etc. The reactivity effects of voiding for the system, fuel assembly and additional absorber channel are underpredicted in the calculations using the HELIOS code generated neutron cross sections. The underprediction, however, is much less than that obtained when the WIMS-D4 code generated cross sections are employed. The third chapter describes the work, performed towards the accurate prediction, assessment and validation of the CHF and post-CHF heat transfer for the RBMK-1500 reactor fuel assemblies employing the VIPRE-02 code. This chapter describes the experiments, which were used for validating the CHF correlations, appropriate for the RBMK-1500 type reactors. These correlations after validation were added to the standard version of the VIPRE-02 code. The VIPRE-02 calculations were benchmarked against the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. It was found that these user-coded additional CHF correlations developed for the RBMK type reactors (Osmachkin, RRC KI and Khabenski correlations) and implemented into the code by the author, provide a good prediction of the CHF occurrence at the RBMK reactor nominal pressure range (at about 7 MPa). Transition and film boiling are also predicted well with the VIPRE-02 code for this pressure range. It was found, that for the RBMK-1500 reactor applications, EPRI CHF correlation should be used for the CHF predictions for the lower fuel assemblies of the reactor in the subchannel model of the RBMK-1500 fuel assembly. RRC KI and Bowring CHF correlations may be used for the upper fuel assemblies. For a single-channel model of the RBMK-1500 fuel channel, Osmachkin, RRC KI and Bowring correlations provide the closest predictions and may be used for the CHF estimation. For the low coolant mass fluxes in the fuel channel, Khabenski correlation can be applied. The fourth chapter presents the verification of the CORETRAN code for the RBMK-1500 core analysis. The model was verified against a number of RBMK-1500 plant data and transient calculations. The new RBMK-1500 core model was successfully applied in several safety assessment applications. A series of transient calculations, considered within the scope of the RBMK-type reactor Safety Analysis Report (SAR), were performed. Several cases of the transient calculations are presented in this chapter. The HELIOS/CORETRAN/VIPRE-02 core model for the RBMK-1500 is fully functional. The RBMK-1500 CPS logic, added into the CORETRAN provides an adequate response to the changes in the reactor parameters. Chapters 5 and

241

Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result ofthis study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs.

Kim, Jae Whan; Jung, Won Dae; Kang, Dae Il; Ha, Jae Joo

1999-06-01

242

Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result of this study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs

243

Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

2003-01-01

244

Study of human factors, and its basic aspects focusing the IEA-R1 research reactor operators, aiming at the prevention of accidents caused by human failures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents a study of human factors and possible human failure reasons that can cause incidents, accidents and workers exposition, associated to risks intrinsic to the profession. The objective is to contribute with the operators of IEA-R1 reactor located at IPEN CNEN/S P. Accidents in the technological field, including the nuclear, have shown that the causes are much more connected to human failure than to system and equipment failures, what has led the regulatory bodies to consider studies on human failure. The research proposed in this work is quantitative/qualitative and also descriptive. Two questionnaires were used to collect data. The first of them was elaborated from the safety culture attributes which are described by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. The second considered individual and situational factors composing categories that could affect people in the work area. A carefully selected transcription of the theoretical basis according to the study of human factors was used. The methodology demonstrated a good reliability degree. Results lead to mediate factors which need direct actions concerning the needs of the group and of the individual. This research shows that it is necessary to have a really effective unit of planning and organization, not only to the physical and psychological health issues but also to the safety in the work. (author)

245

Nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

246

Epidemiology of Accident Deaths in Jos, Nigeria (1996-2000  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Accidents are common events in our society and have contributed significantly to causes of morbidity and mortality in most hospitals. In our environment accidents are fast becoming the commonest cause of death. Only few cases of these accidents are reported to the corona for investigation. Methods: Records of deaths from January 1996- December 2000 reported to the corona for autopsies from two major Hospitals in Jos city were analyzed. Those related to accidents were retrieved and studied. Information from the Police regarding causes of accidents was also extracted. Data on the deceased such as age, sex, and nature of injury were also collated. Police reports on the contributing factors to accidents were also analysed. Results: A total of 270 cases of deaths were reported to the corona for autopsies out of which 122 (45% were accident deaths. One hundred and three (86% cases were males while 19 cases were females. Two-thirds of deaths (60% were in the productive age group of 21— 40 years. Multiple fractures long bones without head injury accounted for 37.7% of deaths, followed by head/upper spinal injuries 24.6%, crushed body injuries 22%, while, intra-abdominal organ injuries which accounted for 15.6%. Analysis of types of accidents showed that vehicle, motorcycle, airplane crash and pedestrian accidents accounted for 59.8%, 20.5%, 10.7% and 9.0% respectively. Information from the Police on motor vehicle accidents, records showed that 50% of the accidental events were due to dangerous driving under the influence of alcohol. Conclusion: Accident death in our environment appears to affect mostly men in the productive and reproductive age groups. However measures that regulate vehicle speed on the road and alcohol intake by drivers may reduce more than half of such deaths.

Mandong B

2006-09-01

247

Report of the investigation of the accident at the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO Trailer Park on Rainier Mesa at Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fourteen persons were injured, one fatally, when the ground upon which they were working collapsed, forming a subsidence crater in the recording trailer park of the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO nuclear weapons effects test on Rainier Mesa at the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984. Those persons injured were contractor and laboratory employees from Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. (REECo), Pan American World Services, Inc. (PANAM), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report presents the results of an investigation into the causes, effects, and response to the accident. 42 figures

248

A limited investigation of the sensitivity of the containment source term to certain primary circuit parameters under PWR severe accident conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitivity of the source term to the containment for a limited number of primary circuit parameters and phenomena has been investigated for three hypothetical PWR severe accident sequences. These sequences are: a large hot leg break with failure of electric power to engineered safety features (AB hot leg); a small cold leg break with failure of pumped ECCS (S2D) and a transient initiated sequence with failure of secondary system relief valves, power conversion and auxiliary feedwater systems and loss of on and off-site power for at least 3 hours (TMLB'). (author)

249

Accident Monitoring During Severe Accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IAEA SSR 2/1 requires that ''Instrumentation shall be provided for determining the values of all the main variables that can affect the fission process, the integrity of the reactor core, the reactor coolant systems and the containment at the nuclear power plant, for obtaining essential information on the plant that is necessary for its safe and reliable operation, for determining the status of the plant in accident conditions, and for making decisions for the purposes of accident management.'' Current criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation are largely based upon experience from the Three Mile Island NPP in 1979 and are mostly limited to design basis events. The criteria have been provided by IEEE Std. 497 using a symptom based approach. The Fukushima Daiichi accident has highlighted a need to re-examine these criteria for instrumentation that is provided to fulfil this requirement. The goal of establishing accident monitoring criteria is to provide critical information (information on the critical safety functions) to the ultimate decision makers (in the control room, emergency operating facility, etc.) during whatever situation (internal or external initiation) may arise with a significant level of confidence (validated from an alternate source). Establishing functional and design criteria for accidents beyond design basis events present many unique issues and challenges such as defining the accident environment to consider. Due to the nature of severe accidents, past approaches for choosing and qualifying accident monitoring instruments will not fully prepare an operating plant to assess the condition of the critical safety functions of the plant. This lack of reliable information will inhibit the decision makers from effectively managing the accident. This paper will describe the issues to be considered when establishing the functional and design criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation to support operation under severe accident conditions in nuclear power plants.(author).

250

Some critical factors for engineering and environmental microgravity investigations  

Science.gov (United States)

The gravity method is one of the geophysical tools used for engineering and environmental investigations where the detection of cavities, karst phenomena, subsoil irregularities, or landfills is essential. In many cases, deep or small-scale heterogeneities generating low-amplitude anomalies have to be detected and the reliability of further interpretation requires highly accurate measurements, carefully corrected for any quantifiable disturbing effects. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors likely to limit measurement quality and how to make improvements. Calibrations of a Scintrex gravimeter were made between French relative and absolute base stations, and the relative uncertainties on the calibration factors were estimated for these links. Ranging from 10 -3, for calibration on an old gravity net, to 10 -4, for a high amplitude absolute base line, this accuracy will be generally sufficient for microgravity surveys. Continuous gravity recordings of Scintrex gravimeters, installed at the same stable site, enabled the estimation of the stability and accuracy of the instruments and revealed that some of the time variations of g measurements, such as instrumental drift, tidal effects and seismic noise, are not entirely removed by standard processing procedures. The accuracy of corrected gravity measurements is mainly limited by inadequate corrections of tidal effects and by a poor estimation of ocean loading effects. In comparison with residual defaults in tidal corrections, instrumental and seismic noises are taken more properly into account by statistical data processing. In field operation, residual tidal effects are generally integrated into an experimental terrain drift estimated on the basis of frequent repeated measurements. A differential gravity approach, based on a fixed gravimeter reference whose recordings are used to correct measurements made with a mobile gravimeter, has also been investigated at a test site. Compared to standard processing, this method can help improve repeatability of gravity measurements. Microgravity surveys in the urban environment require effective and accurate consideration of the effects of infrastructures, nearby buildings and basements, as well as those of topography, in the vicinity of a gravity station. Correction procedures, applied at the same experimental site, where gravity points are located close to buildings, walls and basement slope, appear to have almost totally eliminated these disturbances.

Debeglia, N.; Dupont, F.

2002-07-01

251

Sports Accidents  

CERN Multimedia

Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

Kiebel

1972-01-01

252

Theoretical and experimental investigations on large-scale, long-term thermohydraulics relevant to severe accident conditions in containment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the course of a severe accident, the containment of a nuclear power plant constitutes the last barrier in the concept of defense---in-depth approach to protect the public from the consequences. Because of this utmost importance, emphasis has shifted from previous DBA-related containment research towards severe accident containment research. In this context the thermohydraulic phenomena play a major role in determining the source term as a potential threat to the public. The containment building is designed to contain the energy and material released in a complete, double-ended break of the largest pipe of the reactor coolant system and to withstand the impact of internally generated missiles. In terms of thermal-hydraulic issues, the containment can be generally characterized by a multiply connected domain subdivided into complexly shaped 3-D subcompartments with different surfaces and structural internals, complex, 3-D recirculating flows in large rooms, two-phase, multi-component, multi-field flow, combined mass, momentum, energy and species transfer, widely differing transport processes, detailed flow patterns in vents, jets, along walls with associated momentum and energy exchanges. This paper illustrates the DBA-related short-term flow effects in vents and between subcompartments and the long-term transfer processes in the containment

253

Database on aircraft accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating probability of aircraft crash are considered to be 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 35 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 2 for large bladed aircraft and 30 for small bladed aircraft. (2) The data of SDF aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total of 45 accidents occurred, 24 of them are large fixed-wing aircrafts, 4 are small fixed-wing aircrafts and 17 are bladed aircrafts. 23 to 45 accidents fell into land. (3) The data of US aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total of 16 accidents occurred, 13 of which are fixed-wing aircrafts, 3 are bladed aircrafts. 6 of 16 accidents fell into land. (4) The instrument flight information on commercial aircrafts is based on 'Air transport statics' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The total number of takeoffs and landings is 29,971,662 and the total flight distance is 9,232,867,684 km. (author)

254

Infant siblings and the investigation of autism risk factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Infant sibling studies have been at the vanguard of autism spectrum disorders (ASD research over the past decade, providing important new knowledge about the earliest emerging signs of ASD and expanding our understanding of the developmental course of this complex disorder. Studies focused on siblings of children with ASD also have unrealized potential for contributing to ASD etiologic research. Moving targeted time of enrollment back from infancy toward conception creates tremendous opportunities for optimally studying risk factors and risk biomarkers during the pre-, peri- and neonatal periods. By doing so, a traditional sibling study, which already incorporates close developmental follow-up of at-risk infants through the third year of life, is essentially reconfigured as an enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study. This review considers the enriched-risk pregnancy cohort approach of studying infant siblings in the context of current thinking on ASD etiologic mechanisms. It then discusses the key features of this approach and provides a description of the design and implementation strategy of one major ASD enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study: the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI.

Newschaffer Craig J

2012-04-01

255

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

CERN Document Server

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

Franic, Z

2007-01-01

256

Structure shielding in reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation shielding provided by transportation vehicles and structures typical of where people live and work were estimated for cloud and fallout gamma-ray sources resulting from a hypothetical reactor accident. Dose reduction factors are recommended for a variety of situations for realistically assessing the consequences of reactor accidents. (author)

257

Development of severe accident evaluation technology (level 2 PSA) for sodium-cooled fast reactors. (2) Identification of dominant factors in initiating phase of unprotected events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of establishing level-2 PSA evaluation method, Initiating Phase of the unprotected loss-of-flow accident was studied with theoretical investigation focusing on reactivity balance during the transient and SAS4A code analysis. Based on the knowledge accumulated in the past and present work, key parameters to be considered in the event-tree quantification were clarified. Through the SAS4A code analysis adopting the JSFR design parameters as the reference, importance of the identified items was confirmed. Within the parametric cases covered in this study, all the cases resulted in non-energetic transients demonstrating that IP energetics is highly unlikely with the JSFR design. (author)

258

Car Sales: Investigation into Factors Determining Consumer Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article examines customer behaviour in general and discusses factors determining customer behaviour in car industry. The paper describes a concept of consumer behaviour and the importance of factors influencing the situation. Empirical study about factors determining car industry in consumer-made decisions is carried out. In addition, statistical factor analysis is performed. The key sets of factors helping the user with choosing a new car are iden­tified and analysed at the level of the groups of factors (factor. The conducted analysis shows that car price, ergonomics, image, dynamic and user-friendliness as well as environmental groups are the main points that assist in buying a new car.Article in Lithuanian

Aurelija Samoškien?

2011-07-01

259

The Application of Social Marketing in Reducing Road Traffic Accidents among Young Male Drivers: An Investigation using Physical Fear Threat Appeals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There were 338 road fatalities on Irish roads in 2007. Research in 2007 by the Road Safety Authority in Ireland states that young male drivers (17 – 25 years are seven times more likely to be killed on Irish roads than other road users. The car driver fatality rate was found to be approximately 10 times higher for young male drivers than for female drivers in 2000.  Young male drivers in particular demonstrate a high proclivity for risky driving behaviours. These risky behaviours include drink driving, speeding, drug-driving and engaging in aggressive driving. Speed is the single largest contributing factor to road deaths in Ireland.  Approximately 40% of fatal accidents are caused by excessive or inappropriate speed. This study focuses on how dangerous driving behaviours may be addressed through social marketing. This study analyses the appropriate level of fear that needs to be induced in order to change young male driving behaviour.

Brian Harman

2009-02-01

260

Measures against nuclear accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

261

Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) accident. A final report on the investigation of fission product chemical forms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In September of 1965, an intentionally defective fuel rod failed in the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), causing the rupture of the surrounding pressure tube and the release of superheated cooling water into a region of the reactor core. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has reviewed the PRTR incident to assemble and update all the available information regarding the incident. A principal goal of the review was to analyze any remaining clues that may indicate the stoichiometry or most probable chemical and physical forms of the released fission products. The review confirmed the role of water in limiting iodine release. About 97% of the iodine released during the accident was subsequently found in tanks containing the reactor/rupture-loop coolant. Although the chemical form of the released radioiodine cannot be stated unambiguously, the available evidence suggests that it was released in the form of cesium iodide. Most of the remaining 3% was found in the condensate collected from air cooling systems. The chemical form of this scrubbed iodine remains undefined

262

Optimization of health protection of the public following a major nuclear accident: Interaction between radiation protection and social and psychological factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

National and international guidance on the optimization of countermeasures to reduce doses in the post-release phase of an accident rightly emphasizes the importance and relevance of psychological, social, and economic factors to this process (e.g., NRPB 1990; ICRP 1991: CEC 1993; IAEA 1994). However, whilst economic factors are, at least partially, taken into account in developing the advice, explicit guidance is not provided on how psychological and social factors should be included in the optimization. Instead it is suggested that this is a matter for those with the appropriate competence and those with responsibility for making the final decisions. This approach implicitly assumes that the optimization of psychological and social factors, and that the results of the two procedures can then be combined to arrive at an optimum course of action. We recognize that formal optimization only forms one input to the process of making decisions on countermeasures and that it is important that psychological and social factors, as well as any other factors, are not open-quotes double-counted.close quotes i.e., accounted for within international advice and then again at the time of the decision. It is our view that the optimization of radiation protection and economic factors, and certain psychological and social factors, should not be carried out independently. Research conducted by our respective organization indicates a number of areas in which the optimization of radiationeas in which the optimization of radiation protection and economic factors requires an understanding of key psychological and social processes. These areas fall into three groups; the need to ensure that countermeasures are successfully implemented, the need to achieve a net benefit for overall health, and the need to ensure a smooth transition back to normal living. 10 refs

263

An Exploratory Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS)  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the factor structure of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) using rigorous exploratory factor analytic and factor extraction procedures. The results of this study indicate that the RIAS is a single factor test. Despite these results, higher order factor analysis using the Schmid-Leiman procedure indicates…

Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Watkins, Marley W.; Brogan, Michael J.

2009-01-01

264

Fundamentals of radiation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses how radiation accidents are matters of great concern not only to the individual involved but the media and public as well. This concern is a function of ignorance about radiation effects and mechanisms, as well as a general perception of the mysterious nature of radioactivity. It is often difficult to get people to separate in their own minds the differences between the relatively miniscule risks of a chest X-ray from those of full-scale nuclear war. The result of all of these factors makes it extremely important that a potential or real radiation accident be carefully, methodically, and scientifically assessed

265

An investigation on different factors influencing perceived organizational change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies the impacts of different factors influencing on perceived organization change in municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of five factors including partnership, communication, training, believe in change and organization commitment and the other for organizational change in Likert scale. The study has been implemented among 147 regular employees of municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. Using simple regression analysis, the study has detected that all mentioned factors influence organizational change, positively. In addition, Freedman test indicates that partnership maintains the highest impact followed by believe in change, communication, organizational commitment and training.

Abbas Saleh Ardestani

2014-06-01

266

Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management

267

Investigating Human Factors in Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Manufacturing industries  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this paper is to present the work carried out in a European Commission-funded project to adapt an existing Aircraft Maintenance Human Factors (HF) training program (STAMINA) to the Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Manufacturing industries (BPM). The STAMINA approach has been successfully built into a global human factors training business recognized internationally as a quality benchmark. The Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries have a similar need for hu...

Corrigan, Siobhan

2011-01-01

268

Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur  

OpenAIRE

The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedn...

Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Ab Aziz, K.

2014-01-01

269

Investigating knowledge management critical success factors in carpet industry  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an empirical study to learn more about challenges in carpet industry using factor analysis. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of 51 questions in Likert scale and distribute it among experts in Carpet industry. We have analyzed the data using factor analysis and deleted 10 most redundant questions. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.88 for the remaining questions, which is well above the minimum desirable limit. We have also managed to remove...

Mehdi Ansari; Naser Azad; Seyed Mohsen Seyed Aliakbar

2012-01-01

270

Experimental investigation on the chemical precipitation generation under the loss of coolant accident of nuclear power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The PWR containment buildings are designed to facilitate core cooling in the event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The cooling process requires water discharged from the break and containment spray to be collected in a sump for recirculation. The containment sump contains screens to protect the components of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) and Containment Spray System (CSS) from debris. Since the containment materials may dissolve or corrode when exposed to the reactor coolant and spray solutions, various chemical precipitations can be generated in a post-LOCA environment. These chemical precipitations may become another source of debris loading to be considered in sump screen performance and downstream effects. In this study, new experimental methodology to predict the type and quantity of chemical precipitations has been developed. To generate the plant-specific chemical precipitation in a post-LOCA environment, the plant specific chemical condition of the recirculation sump during post-LOCA is simulated with the experimental reactor for the chemical effect. The plant-specific containment materials are used in the present experiment such as glass fibers, concrete blocks, aluminum specimens, and chemical reagent - boric acid, spray additives or buffering chemicals (sodium hydroxide, Tri-Sodium Phosphate (TSP), or others). The inside temperature of the reactor is controlled to simulate the plant-specific temperature profile of the recirculation sump. The total amount of aluminum released from aluminum specimens is evaluated by ICP-AES analysis to determine the amount of AlOOH and NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8} which induce very adverse effect on the head loss across the sump screens. The amount of these precipitations generated in the present experimental study is compared with the results of WCAP-16530-NP-A. (authors)

Kim, C. H.; Sung, J. J. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 25-1, Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Y. W. [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul National Univ., Bldg. 135-301, Gwanakro 599, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01

271

Factores Asociados a Accidentes, Enfermedades y Ausentismo Laboral: Análisis de una Cohorte de Trabajadores Formales en Chile / Factors Associated with Accidents, Illness and Absenteeism: Analysis of a Cohort of Formal Workers in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Estimar la asociación entre factores de riesgo y la ocurrencia de enfermedades, accidentes y ausentismo laboral en trabajadores formales. Método: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva usando dos fuentes de información: registro de evaluaciones ocupacionales preventivas y de episodios de acciden [...] tes y enfermedades laborales (2009-2012). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de variables de salud y de factores de riesgo. Regresiones logísticas para la ocurrencia de enfermedades y accidentes. Se usó una regresión Poisson-cero-inflado para el ausentismo laboral. Resultados: los > 60 años tienen un exceso de riesgo de enfermedad laboral (OR-ajustada 19,18 respecto a 60 años (IRR 2,69), trabajar en actividades inmobiliarias (IRR 2,37) y en explotación de minas (IRR 2,38), tienen una probabilidad mayor de más días de ausentismo. Conclusiones: Factores no modificables (sexo y edad), junto con factores modificables, como el sedentarismo y el estado nutricional, contribuyen a eventos laborales no deseados. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the association among lifestyle-related risk factors and the occurrence of occupational diseases, accidents and absenteeism in a cohort of formal workers. Method: A retrospective cohort study was carried out by using two information sources: a registry of preventive occupatio [...] nal evaluations and another registry of episodes of occupational accidents and diseases (2009-2012). A descriptive analysis was performed of health variables and risk factors. Logistic regressions were used to calculate the likelihood of occupational accidents and diseases and a zero-inflated Poisson regression was used to model occupational absenteeism. Results: A total of 47.221 workers were included, of which 86,3% were men. The mean follow-up was 1,96 years. Workers aged >60 years had an excess risk of occupational diseases, with an OR of 19.18 compared with workers aged 60 years (IRR 2,69), and working in the property sector (IRR 2,37) and in mining (IRR 2,38) conferred a higher probability of absenteeism. Conclusions: Unmodifiable factors (age and sex), as well as modifiable factors, such as sedentariness and nutritional status, contribute to undesired occupational events.

Lorena, Hoffmeister; Carolina, Vidal; Clelia, Vallebuona; Nelly, Ferrer; Pamela, Vásquez; Gabriela, Núñez.

2014-04-01

272

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was also computed and it was about 0.66, which is above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.5. The study uses Scree plot to determine important factors and there are eight factors including environmental issues, export supportive issues, potentials for export, business plan, export plan, structural barriers, competition capability and strategy.

Hoda Nosouzi

2013-06-01

273

Factores psicoeducativos que determinan la propensión al accidente deportivo en escolares: diseño y validación de un cuestionario de evaluación / Psychoeducational factors that determine the propensity to school sports accidents: design and validation of an assessment questionnaire  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito de este estudio ha sido el diseño y validación de una escala de propensión al accidente deportivo en escolares. La muestra ha estado formada por 254 niños (M = 14.20, DT = 1.3). Las propiedades psicométricas de la escala se obtuvieron mediante un proceso de validez de contenido y un aná [...] lisis factorial de los componentes principales. Como resultados obtuvimos un cuestionario de 27 ítems formado por cinco factores y ajustado a los tópicos de validez y fiabilidad científica. Se encontraron diferencias en todos los factores de la escala entre niños y niñas y sólo en el factor búsqueda de sensaciones al considerar la edad de los sujetos. Como conclusión, esta escala es un instrumento inédito que permite la organización de los recursos materiales y didácticos en el deporte de acuerdo a aspectos psicoeducativos relacionados con la propensión al accidente de los niños, lo que es esencial en la prevención de lesiones. Abstract in english The purpose of this study has been the design and validation of a propensity scale of sports injuries in schools. The sample for the study has been formed of 254 children (M = 14.20, DT = 1.3). Psychometric properties of the scale were obtained through a process of content validity and a factorial a [...] nalysis of main components. As a result, we obtained a questionnaire of 27 items consisting of 5 factors and adjusted to validity topics and scientific reliability. Significant differences were found in all factors of the scale in relation to sex, whilst significant differences were only observed in relation to the sensation seeking factor when considering the age of the subjects. This scale is an essential tool for preventing accidents and injuries in school sport by allowing the identification of sports accident-prone students.

Pedro A., Latorre-Román; José C., Cámara-Pérez; Antonio, Pantoja-Vallejo; Tomás, Izquierdo-Rus.

2013-05-01

274

The weakening of cell protection as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident recovery factors affect on liquidator's organism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The markers of oxidative stress as well as intracellular antioxidants (enzymatic and non- enzymatic) were studied in 100 Chernobyl accident recovery workers(liquidators). Hormone screening tests were carried out in 250 liquidators. All persons (mean age - 35 years) have got external irradiation dose from 2 to 30 cGr. Control group was selected from persons of same age having not participated in accident liquidation. The significant antioxidant imbalance was found. ROS inactivating enzymes deficiency was revealed in neutrofils, lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM). For instance, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity in liquidator's AM was 2,8±0,3 U/mg protein (4,1-±1,8 U/mg protein in controls, P<0,05). Catalase activity was also lower than in control group (P<0,05). The significant disorder of the thiol-disulfide turnover was revealed: depression of reduced glutathione by 1,71-±0,46 ?mol/l (control: 3,15±-0,34 ?tmol/l, P<0,05). The oxidative stress destructive action realized in the conditions of excessive production of ROS, while the antioxidant potential was diminished(P<0,05). The oxidative destruction of lipids and proteins was found to be induced by free radical action. TBARS level in alveolar macrophages of liquidators was more than three times higher compared to controls. Enhanced levels of protein carbonyl groups were found as well. The decrease of TT3 in liquidators was detected most frequently. In 19% liquidators examined, TT3 was below the reference value (0,8 ng/ml). The TT3 level was registered at the low limit of the reference range (0,8 ng/ml) in 18% of liquidators. ''Low T3'' syndrome may be considered as a cell protection weakening. All the cellular protective mechanisms take part in processes of DNA synthesis and repair, transcription and translation, cell respiration and metabolism. Significant impairment of the cellular protective systems in liquidators could be regarded as a base of persistent ''chromosomal pathology'' and imbalance of metabolism complicated by the various diseases including oncology. (author)

275

Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

Jantzen, Paul G.

1978-01-01

276

Investigating power factor compensation capacity calculation in medium sized industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are a variety of techniques developed in order to improve the efficiency of electrical systems and reduce cost of providing electricity to the consumer. This paper presents a new technique for power-factor capacity calculation in medium-sized industrial/ commercial setups. Various loads of similar nominal power-factor are categorized and demand-factor of loads is so selected that it has engineering justifications. The developed system works on the principle of low-voltage power-factor correction, which substantially reduces electricity bill and increases loading-capacity of the electrical system. It allows commercial and industrial consumers to save on their power cost appreciably. This work utilizes software, which takes few inputs and produces numerous useful results. Adoption of this system can help the user in computing compensation-capacity, system KVA (size of transformer) and cost of compensation. A feature of this system is prediction of low PF penalty. Moreover, it also suggests the tentative payback period. (author)

277

CAMS: Computerized Accident Management Support  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The OECD Halden Reactor Project has initiated a new research programme on computerised accident management support, the so-called CAMS project (CAMS = Computerized Accident Management Support). This work will investigate the possibilities for developing systems which provide more extensive support to the control room staff and technical support centre than the existing SPDS (Safety Parameter Display System) type of systems. The CAMS project will utilize available simulator codes and the capabilities of computerized tools to assist the plant staff during the various accident stages including: identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident, and planning accident mitigation strategies. This research programme aims at establishing a prototype system which can be used for experimental testing of the concept and serve as a tool for training and education in accident management. The CAMS prototype should provide support to the staff when the plant is in a normal state, in a disturbance sate, and in an accident state. Even though better support in an accident state is the main goal of the project, it is felt to be important that the staff is familiar with the use of the system during normal operation, when they utilize the system during transients

278

Accidentes biológicos en estudiantes de medicina de una universidad peruana: prevalencia, mecanismos y factores de riesgo / Biological accidents in a Peruvian university medical students: prevalence, mechanisms and risk factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Una de las más serias amenazas que enfrentan los estudiantes de medicina durante su práctica clínica es la posibilidad de exposición a accidentes biológicos, debido en la mayoría de los casos a la inexperiencia y el escaso desarrollo de las habilidades manuales. Objetivos: Establecer l [...] a frecuencia, mecanismos, circunstancias y factores de riesgo de los accidentes biológicos ocurridos entre estudiantes de medicina. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo observacional de corte transversal. Institución: Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Estudiantes de medicina. Metodología: Se aplicó una encuesta estructurada anónima, voluntaria y autoadministrada. Principales medidas de resultados: Accidentes biológicos. Resultados: En total fueron 307 entrevistados. La prevalencia de accidentes biológicos en la población estudiada fue de 51,5% (158/307). La media de accidentes biológicos en el último año fue de 1,06. El 91,1% de los estudiantes del último año presentó al menos un accidente biológico, versus 11,9% en los estudiantes del primer año. Los estudiantes del último año informaron con más frecuencia accidentes de riesgo alto para transmisión de infecciones, siendo 47,6% por pinchazo con objeto punzocortante, y 80,6% tuvo exposición a sangre; los accidentes de riesgo alto son mucho más frecuentes en quirófanos y sala de partos (51,9%). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de accidentes biológicos fue 51,5%, siendo el pinchazo la forma más frecuente. Es necesario desarrollar estrategias que permitan velar por la bioseguridad de los estudiantes de medicina. Abstract in english Introduction: One of the most serious problems of medical students is occupational exposure during their clinical training as they lack experience and limited development of hand skills. Objectives: To establish the frequency, mechanisms, circumstances and risk factors of biological accidents report [...] ed in medical students. Design: Descriptive observational transversal type study. Setting: Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Participants: Medical students. Methodology: A retrospective anonymous and voluntary survey was conducted. Study participants were randomly chosen. Main outcome measures: Biological accidents. Results: In a sample of 307 students 51,5% had at least one accident (158/307); median of biological accidents in the last year was 1,06; 91,1% of senior students had at least one biological accident last year versus 11,9% of first-year students. Senior students inform more often about high-risk infection-transmission accidents, 47,6% caused by pinching with a sharp object while 80,6% were exposed to blood; high-risk accidents are far more often in surgical and delivery rooms (51,9%). Conclusions: It is necessary to develop strategies that allow medical students to enforce biosecurity concepts.

Elizabeth, Inga; Gregory, López; Carlos, Kamiya.

2010-03-01

279

Acidentes e violências na infância e adolescência: fatores de risco e de proteção / Accidents and violence in childhood and adolescence: risk and protective factors / Accidentes y violencias en la infancia y adolescencia: factores de riesgo y de protección  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Apontada pelas estatísticas como a terceira causa de mortalidade em nosso país, as causas externas (acidentes e violências) ocasionam um grande impacto com repercussão econômica, social e emocional. Conhecer os fatores relacionados a este evento torna-se essencial, pois possibilita identificar e que [...] brar a teia que determina a morbimortalidade por causas externas. O estudo busca analisar as publicações existentes sobre os fatores associados aos acidentes e violências, a fim de proporcionar subsídios teóricos para os profissionais em suas práticas. Trata-se de estudo bibliográfico nas bases de dados Lilacs, Medline e Scielo. O conhecimento dos fatores de risco e proteção discutidos ao longo deste texto possibilita subsidiar a prática dos atores sociais engajados na transformação das condições geradoras de acidentes e violências. Abstract in spanish Señalada por las estadísticas como la tercera causa de mortalidad en nuestro país las causas externas (accidentes y violencias) producen un gran impacto en el ámbito económico, social y emocional. Conocer los factores relacionados con ese fenómeno se torna esencial, para que puedan ser identificadas [...] las causas y quebrada la secuencia que determina la morbimortalidad por causas externas. En el presente estudio se realizó una búsqueda de las publicaciones existentes sobre los factores asociados a los accidentes y violencias, con la finalidad de ofrecer subsidios teóricos para las prácticas de los profesionales. Se trata de un estudio bibliográfico según las bases de datos Lilacs, Medline y Scielo. El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo y protección discutidos a lo largo de este texto permite auxiliar la práctica de los actores sociales comprometidos en la transformación de las condiciones que generan accidentes y violencias. Abstract in english Singled out by statistics as the third leading cause of mortality in our country, external causes (accidents and violence) entail a great impact with economic, social and emotional rebound. Knowing the factors related to the event is essential, because it allows identifying and breaking the web that [...] determines morbidity and mortality from external causes. The study aims to analyze the existing publications on the factors associated with accidents and violence, in order to provide theoretical support for professionals in their practices. This is a bibliographical study of the Liliacs, Medline and Scielo databanks. The knowledge of the risk and protection factors discussed in the present study enables subsidize the practice of social actors engaged in transforming the conditions that lead to accidents and violence.

Christine Baccarat de Godoy, Martins.

2013-08-01

280

Investigation of high duty factor ISR RFQ-1000  

CERN Document Server

Two Integral Split Ring (ISR) RFQs with high duty factor of 16.7% have been designed for the application of heavy ion implantation and built in the past several years at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics (IHIP) in Peking University. Two kinds of PIG ion sources with permanent magnets and LEBT were installed and optimized for the injection into these two RFQs. The positive O**+ and negative O**- ions were extracted and accelerated separately as well as simultaneously. The output macro pulse O**- beam current reached 660muA at a transmission efficiency of more than 82%. The N**+ beam was also accelerated with similar transmission efficiency, but the output current intensity for positive ions were lower than the negative ions because of the extracted current limitation of ion sources. The improvements, especially for high duty factor and experimental results with the 1MeV ISR RFQ will be presented in this paper.

Lu, Y R; Fang, J X; Gao, S L; Guo, J F; Guo, Z Y; Li, D S; Li, W G; Pan, O J; Ren, X T; Wu, Y; Yan, X Q; Yu Jin Xiang; Yu, M L; Ratzinger, U; Deitinghoff, H; Klein, H; Schempp, A

2003-01-01

281

Qualitative Investigation of Object Oriented Frameworks Key Success Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software developers consider object-oriented frameworks as one of the most promising software development tools. Their use can shorten development time and improve productivity as well as quality of developed software. The number and the technological maturity of frameworks achieved a level, which provides to developers a reliable development environment. However, still many frameworks fail, and so do many framework based software development projects. This article presents basic knowledge needed for understanding success of frameworks and addresses key factors which impact their success. The main outcomes of the research described in the article are technological and sociological factors, for which we presume that positively influence developers’ attitude toward using frameworks and thus their success. The results of our exploratory study could help software practitioners and researchers in developing more successful frameworks and with evaluation of existing frameworks as presented in the practical application of the article’s findings.

Gregor Polan

2011-01-01

282

Investigation of Factors Associated With Paternal Nondisjunction of Chromosome 21  

OpenAIRE

Previous studies on relatively small samples of individuals with trisomy 21 caused by paternally derived errors have shown that: (1) advanced paternal age is not a risk factor for chromosome 21 nondisjunction (NDJ), (2) absence of recombination, but not the location of recombination is associated with paternal NDJ and (3) there is an excess of males among live-births with paternally derived trisomy 21. An excess of males is also observed among all individuals with trisomy 21. Using 128 famili...

Oliver, Tiffany Renee; Bhise, Archit; Feingold, Eleanor; Tinker, Stuart; Masse, Nirupama; Sherman, Stephanie L.

2009-01-01

283

Expert meeting with the Belgoprocess Inc. on the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. Search and investigation on cause elucidation and reoccurrence control for the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. A visiting report on abroad  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to investigate in detail on fire cause materials, test results of thermal analysis on waste liquids, and flow of affairs relating to the fire accident (15th December, 1981) of the Euro Bitum Plant (an asphalt solidification facility of the middle level wastes) settled at the Eurochemic reprocessing work in the Kingdom of Belgium, resemble to the present accident, 4 members of the Cause Elucidation Group and Mr. Kaneko, director of the Paris Office of PNC visited to Belgium to hold a meeting with experts of the Belgoprocess Inc. for 4 days. In this meeting, after exchanging mutual detail informations on accident occurred at the Euro Bitum Plant and fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility, some discussions on cause supposition of the present accident. For cause of the fire, mutual differences were found. As a state at occurring fires was much resemble, their followed states seemed to be extremely different on responses of operators to fire-extinguishing action, filter exchanging and so forth. As finishing to recover the plant after 1 month passed from the accident to restart its operation, the Belgoprocess, Inc. has conducted some improvements of the facility such as sufficiency of fire extinguishing apparatus, addition and improvements of fire detecting means, direct measurement of solid temperature and so on, as well as reinforcement of thermal analysis procedure and renewal to new apparatus. Although no special supposition on cause of the fire at this meeting, a lot of items to learn such as operation system, responses after accident, and so forth were acquired. (G.K.)

284

Investigation of factors affecting the quality of americium electroplating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four different electrolyte solutions were used in the electrodeposition of americium and their influences on the quality of the thin layer of deposited americium isotopes in combination with three different cathode disc materials were investigated. The relations between alpha spectral resolution and disc surface properties were established. PMID:22424746

Trdin, M; Benedik, L; Samardžija, Z; Pihlar, B

2012-09-01

285

Monte Carlo investigation of electron beam relative output factors  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the tasks in commissioning an electron accelerator in cancer clinics is to measure relative output factors (ROFs) versus various parameters such as applicator size (called applicator factors), cutout size (cutout factors) and air-gap size (gap factors) for various electron beam energies and applicator sizes. This kind of measurement takes a lot of time and labour. This thesis shows that Monte Carlo simulation offers an alternative to this task. With BEAM (Med. Phys. 22(1995)503-524), an EGS4 user- code, clinical accelerator electron beams are simulated and ROFs for a Siemens MD2 linear accelerator and a Varian Clinac 2100C accelerator are calculate The study shows that the Monte Carlo method is not only practical in clinics but also powerful in analyzing the related physics. The calculated ROFs agree within 1% with the measurements for most cases and 2% for all cases that have been studied, which is more than acceptable in clinical practice. The details of each component of the dose, such as dose from particles scattered off the photon-jaws and the applicator, the dose from contaminant photon, the dose from direct electrons, etc., are also analyzed. The study also explains quantitatively why the effective SSD (Source to Phantom Surface Distance) is often not the nominal reference SSD. For ROF measurements for small fields using an ion chamber, this study discusses the stopping- power ratio corrections due to changes in the depth of dose maximum as a function of field size and versus various accelerators. Since it handles ROF calculations for arbitrary fields, including square, rectangular, circular and irregular fields, in the same way, Monte Carlo is the simplest method to get ROFs compared to other algorithms. As the first step towards implementing Monte Carlo methods in clinical treatment planning, Monte Carlo calculations for electron beam ROFs can replace measurements in clinical practice. It takes about 6 hours of CPU time on a single Pentium Pro 200MHz computer to simulate an accelerator and additional 2 hours for each ROF.

Zhang, Geoffrey G.

286

Human error risk management for engineering systems: a methodology for design, safety assessment, accident investigation and training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to tackle methodological issues associated with the inclusion of cognitive and dynamic considerations into Human Reliability methods. A methodology called Human Error Risk Management for Engineering Systems is presented that offers a 'roadmap' for selecting and consistently applying Human Factors approaches in different areas of application and contains also a 'body' of possible methods and techniques of its own. Two types of possible application are discussed to demonstrate practical applications of the methodology. Specific attention is dedicated to the issue of data collection and definition from specific field assessment

287

Integrated Road Accident And Cost Prediction Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of an integrated road accidents and its cost prediction model for Chennai city using system dynamics approach. In this case, the simulation road accident prediction model was developed from the base year 2010 using road accident data collected from 2006 to 2010. In this research an attempt is made to establish relationship between road accident with factors of human behaviors, vehicle factors and road factors. STELLA software is a powerful tool for making a simulation model instead of stock and flow diagram, graphical interface, table and graph view, causal relational diagrams and build in functions. The system dynamics road accident prediction model was developed using STELLA software. The main objective of the studies is to establish simple, practicable simulation road accident and its cost models that can predict the expected number of accidents from 2010 to 2020. The predicted number of accident in 2010 was 5255 and accident for the year 2020 will be 21612. The model was also validated by comparing the predicted accident values of the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 with actual accident values. Add results of cost how much you predicted here.

K. Nachimuthu

2013-12-01

288

An investigation of factors influencing indoor radon concentrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Variations in indoor radon concentrations and some influencing factors have been studied during a two-year period (1986-1987) in 16 almost identical single-family houses.The annual average radon concentration in the houses varied from about 50 to about 400 Bq/m3. Variations in soil characteristics and radon concentration in soil gas could not be directly related to the variations of the average indoor radon concentrations. Most of the houses showed a ''normal'' seasonal variation of the radon concentration with a maximum in the winter and minimum in the summer. A deviating seasonal variation was found in three of the houses. Hourly data obtained in one unoccupied house during a period of 2-1/2 months showed no or only weak correlations between the indoor radon concentration and meteorological factors. However, for most of the houses, the seasonal variation of the indoor radon concentration was well correlated with the average indoor-outdoor temperature difference on a 2-month basis. It was demonstrated that the radon concentration can be strongly reduced in the Risoe houses if a district-heating duct, which is connected to all the houses, is ventilated, so that a slightly lowered pressure is maintained in the duct. 5 taps., 24 ill. (author)

289

An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials. We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique study different hypotheses. All t-student values are statistically meaningful when the level of significance is ten percent and some of the parameters are even meaningful when the level of significance is five percent. The results indicate that the rate of bank deposit is negatively associated with commodity market growth rate (-.001995, US dollar exchange rate (-0.004167, banking industry growth rate (-0.278826 and moving average (-0.940418. In addition, dependent variable is positively associated with Euro exchange growth rate (0.005676.

Zahra Houshmand Neghabi

2013-01-01

290

Investigating important factors influencing on strategic marketing planning  

OpenAIRE

One of the most important methods for building good marketing strategy is to learn more about existing competitors, suppliers, etc. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between wholesalers, bargaining pricing, new rivals and pricing strategy on preparing appropriate marketing strategy in meat market in city of shiraz, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 200 experts in this market. Cronbach alpha has been...

Davood Salmani; Mohammad Reza Daraei; Ali Bayazdi

2014-01-01

291

Experimental investigations in the PKL test facility on thermal hydraulic system behavior of PWR under accident situations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a short overview on AREVA's thermal hydraulic platform, this presentation focused on the PKL project giving an survey of the different test programs and topics of investigation with emphasis on the current test program OECD-PKL 3. The presentation also includes a short description of the test facility, some typical results and findings derived from the PKL experiments will be exemplarily discussed in more detail

292

Investigation of earthquake factor for optimum tuned mass dampers  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study the optimum parameters of tuned mass dampers (TMD) are investigated under earthquake excitations. An optimization strategy was carried out by using the Harmony Search (HS) algorithm. HS is a metaheuristic method which is inspired from the nature of musical performances. In addition to the HS algorithm, the results of the optimization objective are compared with the results of the other documented method and the corresponding results are eliminated. In that case, the best optimum results are obtained. During the optimization, the optimum TMD parameters were searched for single degree of freedom (SDOF) structure models with different periods. The optimization was done for different earthquakes separately and the results were compared.

Nigdeli, Sinan Melih; Bekda?, Gebrail

2012-09-01

293

Radiation accidents with uneven exposure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: radiation accidents analysis in which there has been an uneven exposure of a human body. Material and Methods. The Burnazyan FMBC Radiation Accidents Register information and published data in other countries are investigated. Results. The Radiation Accidents Register of State Scientific Research Center n.a. A. I. Burnasyan consist the full information of radiation accidents in the former USSR (1949-1991 and the Russian Federation (1992-2012 territory. There is an evidence of 39 radiation accidents with 190 victims with a diagnosis of acute radiation syndrome and uneven exposure (incl. 4 episodes after 1991 in Russia, 62 people of which (incl. one in 1997 in Russia died in the acute phase. Conclusion^ Experience in the treatment of such victims, which are available from the State Scientific Research Center n.a. A. I. Burnazyan staff, is comparable with the total experiences in other developed countries.

Soloviev V.Yu.

2013-12-01

294

How to reduce the number of accidents  

CERN Document Server

Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

2012-01-01

295

Evaluation of severe accident environmental conditions taking accident management strategy into account for equipment survivability assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a methodology utilizing accident management strategy in order to determine accident environmental conditions in equipment survivability assessments. In case that there is well-established accident management strategy for specific nuclear power plant, an application of this tool can provide a technical rationale on equipment survivability assessment so that plant-specific and time-dependent accident environmental conditions could be practically and realistically defined in accordance with the equipment and instrumentation required for accident management strategy or action appropriately taken. For this work, three different tools are introduced; Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) outcomes, major accident management strategy actions, and Accident Environmental Stages (AESs). In order to quantitatively investigate an applicability of accident management strategy to equipment survivability, the accident simulation for a most likely scenario in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPs) is performed with MAAP4 code. The Accident Management Guidance (AMG) actions such as the Reactor Control System (RCS) depressurization, water injection into the RCS, the containment pressure and temperature control, and hydrogen concentration control in containment are applied. The effects of these AMG actions on the accident environmental conditions are investigated by comparing with those from previous normal accident simulation, especially focused on equipment sulation, especially focused on equipment survivability assessment. As a result, the AMG-involved case shows the higher accident consequences along the accident environmental stages

296

Variation in transfer factor of radiocaesium in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in clear cut and mature forest sites after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bank voles that were collected between 1986 and 2004 at sites in Chernobyl fallout areas of northern Sweden showed higher 137Cs activity concentrations at the mature forest sites compared to clear cuts. This difference was not attributed to differences in ground deposition between sites but to differences in aggregated transfer rates to voles. Differences in transfer between forest types were evident for all years 1986-2004 but the change occurred at different rates in the two habitats. The apparent transfer factor between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and voles was positively related and indicated that a biomagnification was about 1.5 from vegetation to these small mammalian herbivores. The aggregated transfer factor to bank voles measured in the forest habitat, although starting at higher levels declined faster with time than clear cut sites and the differences between the forest habitat and the clear cut areas diminished with time. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the mean level in bank vole was 514 Bq/kg fresh mass (SD = 505) that increased to 1485 Bq/kg (SD = 881) in 1988. The activity concentration declined thereafter. The bank voles collected in similar habitats in 2004 contained on average 1022 Bq/kg (SD = 723). Still 18 years after the radionuclide fallout over Sweden high activity concentrations in voles could be found

297

Variation in transfer factor of radiocaesium in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in clear cut and mature forest sites after the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bank voles that were collected between 1986 and 2004 at sites in Chernobyl fallout areas of northern Sweden showed higher {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations at the mature forest sites compared to clear cuts. This difference was not attributed to differences in ground deposition between sites but to differences in aggregated transfer rates to voles. Differences in transfer between forest types were evident for all years 1986-2004 but the change occurred at different rates in the two habitats. The apparent transfer factor between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and voles was positively related and indicated that a biomagnification was about 1.5 from vegetation to these small mammalian herbivores. The aggregated transfer factor to bank voles measured in the forest habitat, although starting at higher levels declined faster with time than clear cut sites and the differences between the forest habitat and the clear cut areas diminished with time. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the mean level in bank vole was 514 Bq/kg fresh mass (SD = 505) that increased to 1485 Bq/kg (SD = 881) in 1988. The activity concentration declined thereafter. The bank voles collected in similar habitats in 2004 contained on average 1022 Bq/kg (SD = 723). Still 18 years after the radionuclide fallout over Sweden high activity concentrations in voles could be found.

Palo, Thomas R. [Mid-Sweden University, Department of Natural Sciences, Holmgatan 10, 85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)]. E-mail: thomas.palo@miun.se

2007-07-01

298

Tchernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given

299

Investigation of Framingham Risk Factors in Turkish adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine 10-year risk for development of cardiovascular diseases usingFramingham risk scoring as a tool for the estimationof coronary risk and renew the blood lipid levels.Materials and methods: Samples from fasting 3169healthy donors declaring as having no cardiovasculardisease and diabetes (1800 women, mean age 46.8±9.2years and 1369 men, mean age 46.03±8.4 years weretested and scored according to risk factors in both genders.Results: When average values were considered, totalcholesterol level was higher (204±42 mg/dL accordingto reactive insert reference values. High total kolesteroland low HDL-C levels were seen in 20% and 19.5% ofmen and 32.6% and 1.1% of women, respectively. Thenumber of participants having systolic blood pressure?130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure ? 85 mmHgwere 775 (24.5% and the distribution of those valueswas 10.6 % in men and 13.9% in women. The mean 10-year cardiovascular disease risks were 9.4 % in men and4.6% in women among 3169 participants.Conclusion: A 10-year risk of coronary disease, in Turkishmales was 2-fold higher than in Turkish females. Useof Framingham study in clinical assessments maintains tobe a valid method in preventive approaches for developmentof cardiovascular diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(1: 42-49

Arda ?anl? Ökmen

2011-03-01

300

Accident: Reminder  

CERN Multimedia

There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

2003-01-01

301

Investigation of the model fuel rods of BREST-300 reactor type with a lead coolant at the severe accident condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Capsule test of the model fuel rods of the fast breeder reactor BREST-300 type with - 2% and 10% uranium nitride fuel enrichment by 235 U into lead coolant were conducted. Test was conducted under simulating uncontrolled power pulse regime within the experimental channel of IGR reactor. A physical research of 'fuel rod-capsule-reactor' system, post-test spectrometric and material investigations were presented. The calculation and experimental data of destroying energy release in the fuel were received. A level of fuel fragmentation at the interaction with coolant were determined. It was defined that the fuel pellets particles have the dimensions 10-120 ?m and a specific surface of thermal interaction 'fuel rod-coolant' increased 800-fold comparatively with an initial fuel rod state. The extensive gas cavities in the experimental capsule volume were discovered

302

Cognitive Style Index: Further Investigation of the Factor Structure with an American Student Sample  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates the factor structure of the Cognitive Style Index (CSI), comparing the unitary, bipolar continuum of intuition-analysis, the theory upon which the CSI is predicated, with the two-factor theory of cognitive style. We conducted both confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses on data from a sample of 222 American…

Backhaus, Kristin; Liff, Joshua P.

2007-01-01

303

Investigating different factors influencing women’s economic activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many studies on how to share women’s involvement in economic activities and what sectors of industries could contribute more to their job involvement. This paper presents an empirical investigation to learn how economic growth in service industry, agricultural industry as well as other industries could contribute on economic growth. The study uses vector error correction to study the relationship between value added and women’s job opportunities in Iran over the period 1951-2003. In industrial sector, the results of the survey indicate that an increase of one percent on growth domestic product (GDP and wage increases 4.47% and reduces 1.95 % of women’s employment, respectively. In addition, an increase of one percent on GDP and wage increases 0.24% and reduces 0.25 % of women’s employment in service industry, respectively. Finally, an increase of one percent in GDP increases wage by 4.47% and reduces women’s employment by 1.95%, respectively.

Mohammad Javad Ghasemi

2014-04-01

304

Investigating different factors influencing on return of private banks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Return of Investment has always been an interesting area of research among academics as well as investors. Although capital asset pricing model (CAPM is capable of estimating risk of investment, many people argue that CAPM is not able to predict long-term return, properly. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effects of different financial figures including systematic risk (Beta, size of firm, ratio of book value to market share, volume of trade and the ratio of price/earnings (P/E on return of private banks in Iran. The study gathers the necessary information over the period 2005-2011 from private banks in Iran. The study uses multiple regression technique to find the effects of mentioned variables on return of private banks. The results indicate that there are some meaningful and positive relationship between return of banks and systematic risk (Beta, size, volume of trade and P/E. The study also finds some meaningful and reverse relationship between bank return and book value on market value.

Pegah Motamedi

2013-09-01

305

Ground based impact testing of Orbiter thermal protection system materials in support of the Columbia accident investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

On January 16, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102) was launched for a nominal 16-day mission of microgravity research. Fifteen days and 20 hours after launch, and just 16 minutes before its scheduled landing, the OV-102 vehicle disintegrated during its descent. The entire crew was lost. Film and video cameras located around the launch complex captured images of the vehicle during its ascent. Of note were data that showed a piece of debris strike the port wing at approximately 82 sec after lift-off (T+82). As resulting analysis would show, the source of the debris was the left bipod ramp of the Shuttle external tank. This foam debris struck the Orbiter leading edge at sufficient velocity to breech the thermal protection system (TPS). During reentry at the end of the mission, the hot plasma impinged inside the Orbiter wing and aerodynamic forces ultimately failed the wing structure. This thesis documents the activities conducted to evaluate the effects of foam impact on Orbiter TPS. These efforts were focused on, to the greatest extent practical, replicating the impact event during the STS-107 mission ascent. This thesis fully documents the test program development, methodology, results, analysis, and conclusions to the degree that future investigators can reproduce the tests and understand the basis for decisions made during the development of the tests.

Kerr, Justin Hamilton

306

Prevention of pedestrian accidents.  

OpenAIRE

Child pedestrian accidents are the most common road traffic accident resulting in injury. Much of the existing work on road traffic accidents is based on analysing clusters of accidents despite evidence that child pedestrian accidents tend to be more dispersed than this. This paper analyses pedestrian accidents in 573 children aged 0-11 years by a locally derived deprivation score for the years 1988-90. The analysis shows a significantly higher accident rate in deprived areas and a dose respo...

Kendrick, D.

1993-01-01

307

Activity release after SNR accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents a selection of the multitude of accident sequences, whose environmental impact has been investigated in the risk oriented analysis for the SNR-300. Two cases have been selected, one with a delayed release of fission products and fuel into the environment, and another, that causes a nearly instant release. In the first case, the long residence time of the radioactive aerosols in the containment system before the release assures a corresponding high retention effect. With the exception of the radioactive noble gases 95% of the activity released into the containment system are retained inside the plant. For single groups of nuclides the retention factor is much higher. The necessary energy release for the second case produces a great mass of fuel and fission product aerosols. Therefore the deposition is accelerated due to the high aerosol mass concentration in the containment atmosphere. The consequence is a noticeable retention (> 80%) in spite of the short time (proportional 5 min) until the containment system fails and the release to the environment starts. These results show that there is a high retention capability of the SNR-300 even under extreme assumptions about sequence activity release of accidents. (orig.)

308

Experimental Investigation of Early Initiation of Primary Cooldown by Secondary-Side Depressurization in a PWR Inadequate Core-Cooling Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal-hydraulic phenomena of inadequate core cooling caused by a cold-leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) were investigated experimentally at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Integral System Test facility. The experiments were performed under the conditions of different break sizes (0.5 and 2%) in the cold leg followed by failure of the high-pressure injection system. The primary system cooldown is implemented by the secondary-side depressurization. The effectiveness of early initiation of the recovery action on reactor safety and related thermal-hydraulic phenomena are examined. The initiation criterion for recovery action considered here is determined by core water levels instead of core exit temperature based on the current emergency operating procedures. The impact of emergency core-cooling flow bypass phenomenon may significantly deteriorate the effectiveness of the recovery operation for a cold-leg SBLOCA. The results showed that the early initiation of secondary-side depressurization can effectively minimize the risk of core damage by preventing fuel rods from heating up throughout the transient. In addition, the core suffers a rather moderate thermal stress during the cooldown process

309

In pile investigations at the Phebus facility on the behavior of PWR-type fuel bundles in severe accident conditions beyond the design criteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper describes the in pile investigations at PHEBUS facility on the behavior of 0.8 m active height, 21 rods PWR-type fuel bundles subjected to conditions representative of typical reactor accidents beyond the dimensioning criteria. The three first tests of the Severe Fuel Damage Program were performed with very different thermohydraulic conditions: - Test B9 with a high steam flow rate and a low heat up rate allowed to get a high oxidation level of the cladding. - An atmosphere with a high hydrogen content and a high pressure level were performed for the test C3 in order to study the formation of U-Zr alloy by collapse of the cladding on the fuel pellets. - Test B9R was similar to the B9 test but the cooling down was obtained with a high steam flow rate. In these three tests, the maximum temperature of the fuel was limited below the melting point of zircaloy (20000C in case of oxygen-rich zirconium). The interpretation of the tests with the ICARE 1 computer code, shows the importance of the radiative heat transfer, of the thermal insulation quality and of the energy balance including chemical reactions

310

Investigation regarding the long-term security developments in the Swedish nuclear power and the response to the accident at Fukushima; Utredning avseende den laangsiktiga saekerhetsutvecklingen i den svenska kaernkraften och aatgaerder med anledning av olyckan i Fukushima  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Swedish nuclear plants need to continue to work on analysis and actions in the plants, partly to meet the demands of legislation and agreed action plans, and partly due to additional security requirements on account of experiences from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, stress tests, security investigations and investigations relating to physical protection. It is also essential to continue with safety improvements to gradually increase margins against unforeseen events in aging plants during long-term operation.

Skaanberg, Lars

2012-07-01

311

Epidemiological profile of patients with cerebral vascular accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: to show the profile epidemiological of patients with cerebral vascular accident in a public hospital from João Pessoa city, Paraíba, Brazil; to investigate the social demographic profile; to identify the risk factors, symptoms and sequels of the cerebral vascular accident. Methods: this is about a descriptive and exploratory study, from quantitative approach; the population was configured by sixty handbooks. Data collect was performed with a form from March to April 2007, and then data were analyzed and presented in tables and figures. This study was approval by the Ethics Committee under protocol number 58/2007. Results: data has been demonstrated that most of the handbooks belonged to patients from 46 to 85 years old; from female; they came from Mata Paraibana region; they were patients with hypertension; they had cerebral vascular accident of the type hemorrhagic. Conclusion: this study was very important for nurses, since it allowed them to have knowledge to help reduce the number of deaths and sequelae of cerebral vascular accident, also contributed to the basics to change like this, as knowledge of the disease and fitness treatment methods (among them, stand out studies of risk factors and relevance of applying an early prevention of cerebral vascular accident. Thus, the role of nursing is to prevent and detect early complications, educating the population about the disease.

Carolline Paulo Neto da Cunha Lima, Marta Miriam Lopes Costa, Maria Julia Guimarães Oliveira Soares

2009-10-01

312

Loss of vacuum accidents in ITER  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Loss of Vacuum Accident (LOVA) is modeled using MELCOR, and radiological releases are estimated. For a bypass size of 0.02 m2 the time to pressurize the VV is about half an hour. Negative pressure is assumed to be restored 1 hour after the accident by operation of the maintenance detritiation systems (MDS). By this time 50 g tritium (out of 1350 g mobilized) and 150 g of dust (out of 30 kg mobilized) is leaked into the generic bypass room (GBR). The total stack releases are about 19 g-T as HTO and 21 g W dust. The release of tritium in the accident is below the ITER release limit by a factor of 5, and the dust release is below the release limit by a factor of 25. To investigate ultimate safety margins, a loss of vacuum with a 0.2. m2 cross-sectional area is postulated into a room without connection to the stack. Initially, the ingress of air suspends dust and continues until pressure in the vacuum vessel equalizes in about three seconds. An air exchange flow (velocity ?1 m/s) is established driven by the pressure difference between hot air within the vacuum vessel and cold air in the connected room. Operation of the maintenance detritiation system after one hour limits the environmental ground level releases below the no-evacuation threshold for conservative weather conditions. (authors)

313

Investigation of stress concentration factor - Stress intensity factor interaction for flaws in filleted rods  

Science.gov (United States)

To predict the fatigue life of machine parts which contain flaws in regions of stress concentration, the engineer needs to treat a series of crack sizes and/or shapes quickly and economically. In this paper the stress intensity factor distributions for circular surface flaws in the roots of fillets in rods loaded by remote tension are presented and examined. The examination reveals insight into the interaction of cracks with other stress concentrating discontinuities, and based on this it is suggested that weight function methods used in conjunction with known crack solutions may provide needed, efficient stress intensity factor prediction methods for such three-dimensional geometries.

Springfield, C. W., Jr.; Jung, H. Y.

1988-01-01

314

Transportation accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Predicting the possible consequences of transportation accidents provides a severe challenge to an analyst who must make a judgment of the likely consequences of a release event at an unpredictable time and place. Since it is impractical to try to obtain detailed knowledge of the meteorology and terrain for every potential accident location on a route or to obtain accurate descriptions of population distributions or sensitive property to be protected (data which are more likely to be more readily available when one deals with fixed-site problems), he is constrained to make conservative assumptions in response to a demanding public audience. These conservative assumptions are frequently offset by very small source terms (relative to a fixed site) created when a transport vehicle is involved in an accident. For radioactive materials, which are the principal interest of the authors, only the most elementary models have been used for assessing the consequences of release of these materials in the transportation setting. Risk analysis and environmental impact statements frequently have used the Pasquill-Gifford/gaussian techniques for releases of short duration, which are both simple and easy to apply and require a minimum amount of detailed information. However, after deciding to use such a model, the problem of selecting what specific parameters to use in specific transportation situations still presents itself. Additional complications arise because source terms are notcations arise because source terms are not well characterized, release rates can be variable over short and long time periods, and mechanisms by which source aerosols become entrained in air are not always obvious. Some approaches that have been used to address these problems will be reviewed with emphasis on guidelines to avoid the Worst-Case Scenario Syndrome

315

Longterm reduction of ceasium-137 transfer factors from soil in agricultural and natural foodstuffs after the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the data on dynamics of 137Cs content in the most critical (during different time periods after the radioactive fallout) links of the food chain that are necessary for assessing of the current internal doses in population, reconstruction and long-term forecast of these doses are presented. The data were obtained during 1986-2000 as a result of monitoring of contaminated areas in Russia that considerably differ in their soil conditions, the levels of 137Cs surface activity on soil and types of countermeasures applied. A summary of effective half-lives (T1/2) of 137Cs aggregated transfer factors Tag from soil into agricultural and natural products observed after the Chernobyl fallout is given. (orig.)

316

Nuclear accident emergency introduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear accident emergency is an action for controlling or reliving nuclear accident and relaxing accident result. It is different from normal order and normal work procedures, and it is also the last part of depth defense. The article introduces the main content of nuclear accident emergency management work and an example of nuclear accident emergency drill. (author)

317

The ultimate nuclear accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

318

The vver severe accident management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher.

Asmolov, V. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2001-07-01

319

Fast armatures must limit accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After pipe ruptures in the primary system of a nuclear power plants, quick-action stop armatures have the task to prevent the consequences of the accident by immediately stopping the volume flow in pipes, thus preventing the radioactive medium from flowing to the point of rupture. The article reports on the simulation of such accidents in the Karlstein superheated-steam reactor (HDR) as well as on the investigation procedure and results. (orig./UA) 891 UA 892 EKI

320

ACR-1000 severe accident program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) developed the Advanced CANDU ReactorTM-1000 (ACR-1000TM) as an evolutionary advancement of the current CANDU 6 reactor. The ACR-1000 is a Generation III+ plant aimed at producing electrical power for a capital cost and a unit-energy cost significantly less than that of the current generation of operating nuclear plants, while achieving shorter construction schedule, high plant capacity factor, improved operations and maintenance, increased operating life, and enhanced safety features. This paper presents an overview of the ACR-1000 severe accident program. This program has the following objectives: to ensure public safety from severe accidents, to achieve a robust design with respect to severe accidents, and to meet international guidelines and practice with respect to the severe accident design of advanced reactors. (author)

321

Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" Risk factors for accidents in children: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"  

OpenAIRE

Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: Casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de Referencia Nacional. Participantes: Se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos) y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra p...

Kurt Paulsen S.; Hector Mejia S.

2005-01-01

322

Predicted occurrence rate of severe transportation accidents involving large casks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary of the results of an investigation of the severities of highway and railroad accidents as they relate to the shipment of large radioactive materials casks is discussed. The accident environments considered are fire, impact, crash, immersion, and puncture. For each of these environments, the accident severities and their predicted frequencies of occurrence are presented. These accident environments are presented in tabular and graphic form to allow the reader to evaluate the probabilities of occurrence of the accident parameter severities he selects

323

Occupational accidents with piercing and cutting instruments in hospital nurses  

OpenAIRE

Goals: To identify factors associated with occupational accidents caused by piercing and cutting instruments and to identify the consequences of these accidents.Methods: Descriptive field research. Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews with nurses who suffered accidents during one year in four hospitals at São Paulo State - Brazil. Results: factors associated with accidents were: work overload, poor quality material, inadequate disposal materials, professional negligence, cli...

Maria Helena Palucci Marziale; Maria Lúcia Carmo Cruz Robazzi

2004-01-01

324

Investigation of break location effects on thermal-hydraulics during intermediate break loss-of-coolant accident experiments at ROSA-III  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rig of safety assessment (ROSA)-III facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) boiling water reactor (BWR/6) system with an electrically heated core designed for integral loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and emergency core cooling system (ECCS) tests. Break location effects on thermal-hydraulics during intermediate LOCAs were investigated by using four experiments at the ROSA-III, the 15 and 25 % main recirculation pump suction line break (MRPS-B) experiments, the 21 % single-ended jet pump drive line break (JPD-B) experiment and the 15 % main steam line break (MSL-B) experiment. Water injection from the high pressure core spray (HPCS) was not used in any of the experiments. Failure of ECCS actuation by the high containment pressure was also assumed in the tests. In the MRPS-B experiments, the discharge flow turned from low quality fluid to high quality fluid when the downcomer water level dropped to the main recirculation line outlet elevation, which suppressed coolant loss from the vessel and the core. In the JPD-B experiment, the jet pump drive nozzle was covered with low quality fluid and low quality fluid discharge continued even after the downcomer water level reached the jet pump suction elevation. Low quality fluid discharge ceased after the ADS actuation. It suggestes that the JPD-B LOCA has the possibility of causing larger and more severe core dryout and cladding temperature excursion than the MRPS-B LOCA. The MSL-B LOCA was characterized by mixture levSL-B LOCA was characterized by mixture level swell in the downcomer and the core. The core mixture level swell resulted in the much later core dryout initiation than that in the MRPS-B LOCA, however, ECCS actuation was also delayed because of slow downcomer water level drop. (author)

325

Accident Diagnostic, Analysis and Management (ADAM) System. Applications to Severe Accident Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accident Diagnostic, Analysis and Management (ADAM) system has been developed as a tool for online applications to accident diagnostics, accident simulation and accident management applications and training. The fundamental philosophy behind ADAM is to model a full spectrum of severe accidents using a 'balanced' mechanistic approach, and a relatively coarse nodalization of the reactor coolant and containment systems, to enable a much faster than real time (i.e., 100 to 1000 times faster than real time on a personal computer) applications to on-line investigations and/or accident management training. ADAM includes provisions for activation of various water injection systems, including the Engineered Safety Features and other mechanisms for assessment of accident management and recovery actions (e.g., fire water). The paper will address the ADAM features and limitations for application to on-line severe accident management and training. (authors)

326

Fatores associados ao óbito de motociclistas nas ocorrências de trânsito / Factors associated with the death of motorcyclists in traffic accidents / Factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclista en accidentes de tránsito  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Para identificar fatores associados ao óbito em motociclistas envolvidos em ocorrências de trânsito, em Maringá-PR, foi realizado estudo retrospectivo incluindo os motociclistas envolvidos em acidentes no ano de 2004. As fontes de dados foram os registros da Polícia Militar, do SIATE e do Instituto [...] Médico Legal. Foram realizadas análises bivariadas e regressão logística binária. Identificaram-se 2.362 motociclistas nos Boletins de Ocorrência e, destes, 1.743 tinham registros nos Relatórios de Atendimento do Socorrista. As vítimas fatais diferiram das demais quanto à faixa etária, ao local de residência, ao tempo de habilitação e as suas condições fisiológicas na cena da ocorrência. No modelo final permaneceram as seguintes variáveis: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulso e saturação de O2 no sangue. As condições fisiológicas das vítimas na cena do acidente se destacaram no modelo final e a ECGl superou o RTS na associação com óbito. Abstract in spanish Para identificar factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclistas involucrados en accidentes de tránsito, en Maringá-PR se realizó estudio retrospectivo incluyendo a los motociclistas involucrados en accidentes durante 2004. Datos recolectados de registros de Policía Militar, SIATE e Instituto M [...] édico Legal. Se identificaron 2362 motociclistas en las Actas de Accidentes; de ellos, 1743 tenían registro en los Informes de Atención del Socorrista. Las víctimas fatales difirieron del resto en lo referente a faja etaria, lugar de residencia, tiempo de habilitación y condiciones fisiológicas en la escena del accidente. En el modelo final permanecen las variables: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulso y saturación de O2 en sangre. Las condiciones fisiológicas de las víctimas en la escena del accidente se destacan en el modelo final, y la ECGl superó al RTS en la asociación con fallecimiento. Abstract in english In order to identify the factors associated with death among motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents in Maringá - PR, a retrospective study was performed, including motorcyclists involved in accidents in the year 2004. Data were collected from the Military Police records, the Integrated System f [...] or Emergency Trauma Care (Sistema Integrado de Atendimento ao Trauma em Emergência -SIATE) and the Institute of Legal Medicine. Bivariate analyses and binary logistical regression were performed. A total of 2,362 motorcyclists were identified in the Police Reports, 1,743 of whom also had records in the Emergency Responders reports. Victims who succumbed to their injuries differed from victims who survived in terms of age, place of residence, time elapsed since obtaining a driver's license, and their physiological condition at the scene of the accident. The following variables were maintained in the final model: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulse, and blood oxygen saturation. The physiological conditions of the victims at the scene of the accidents were highlighted in the final model, with GCS surpassing RTS in regards to association with death.

Nelson Luiz Batista de, Oliveira; Regina Marcia Cardoso de, Sousa.

1379-13-01

327

Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 caused substantial amounts of radioactivity to be released into the atmosphere. Radioactivity from Chernobyl was detected in the United Kingdom about a week later on 2 May. The normal environmental monitoring programme was intensified. The data were collected by the National Radiological Protection Board and the Welsh data were published. From these and other published data, tables of individual doses from exposure and intakes during the first year after Chernobyl for North Wales and the rest of Wales are tabulated. The north was more affected by rainfall during the passage of the Chernobyl cloud and this is taken separately. A distinction is also made between the doses to infants, children and adults because of differences in the activity taken into the body and its subsequent metabolism. Estimates of the body and its subsequent metabolism. Estimates of the doses from natural radioactivity in Wales are also given. (U.K.)

328

Shared characteristics of suicides and other unnatural deaths following non-fatal self-harm? A multicentre study of risk factors  

OpenAIRE

Background Mortality, including suicide and accidents, is elevated in self-harm populations. Although risk factors for suicide following self-harm are often investigated, rarely have those for accidents been studied. Our aim was to compare risk factors for suicide and accidents. Method A prospective cohort (n=30 202) from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England, 2000-2007, was followed up to 2010 using national death registers. Risk factors for suicide (intentional self-harm and undeter...

Bergen, H.; Hawton, K.; Kapur, N.; Cooper, J.; Steeg, S.; Ness, J.; Waters, K.

2012-01-01

329

An Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Teacher Efficacy Scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated the effects of positive versus negative orientation in item wording on interpretation of the Teacher Efficacy Scale (TES) factor structure by varying the orientation of items across both dimensions of efficacy. Teachers completed one of two forms of the TES. Three potential factor structures were examined using principal axis…

Deemer, Sandra A.; Minke, Kathleen M.

1999-01-01

330

Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we…

Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.

2014-01-01

331

Effects of accident management strategy on the severe accident environmental conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a methodology utilizing an accident management strategy in order to determine accident environmental conditions to be used as inputs to equipment survivability assessments. In the case that there is a well-established accident management strategy for a specific nuclear power plant (NPP), an application of this tool can provide a technical rationale on equipment survivability assessment so that plant-specific and time-dependent accident environmental conditions could be practically and realistically defined in accordance with the equipment and instrumentation required for the accident management strategy or appropriate actions. For this work, three different tools are introduced; probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) outcomes, major accident management strategy actions, and accident environmental stages (AESs). In order to quantitatively investigate an applicability of accident management strategy on equipment survivability, the accident simulation for most likely scenario in Korean standard nuclear power plants (KSNPs) is performed with the MAAP4 code. The accident management guideline (AMG) actions such as the reactor coolant system (RCS) depressurization, water injection into the RCS, the containment pressure and temperature control, and hydrogen concentration control in containment are applied. The effects of these AMG actions on the accident environmental conditions are investigated by comparison to actions from previous normal accident simulations from previous normal accident simulation, especially focusing on equipment survivability assessment. As a result, the AMG-involved case shows the higher accident consequences along the accident environmental stages. This implies that plant-specific AMG actions need to be considered in order to determine accident environmental conditions in equipment survivability assessments

332

Experimental investigation of Small-Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accidents and Loss-Of Feedwater transient at IIST facility with passive core cooling injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two experiments of Small-Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accidents (SBLOCA) and one experiment for total Loss-Of-Feedwater transient (LOFW) have been conducted at INER Integral System Test (IIST) facility by using Passive Core Cooling System (PCCS). IIST PCCS includes three Core Makeup Tanks (CMT) and four valves for Automatic Depressurized System (ADS). These experiments not only explored the thermal-hydraulic behavior of IIST PCCS, such as CMT thermal stratification after CMT actuation and asymmetric CMT inventory during top-down drain, but also showed IIST PCCS with the capability to maintain long term core cooling during the above mentioned accidents. (author)

333

Consequences of radioactive releases into the sea resulting from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant - Evolution of expert investigation according to the data available  

OpenAIRE

The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 led to an unprecedented direct input of artificial radioactivity into the marine environment. The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety was requested by the French authorities to investigate the radioecological impact of this input, in particular the potential contamination of products of marine origin used for human consumption. This article describes the close link between the responses provided and ...

Laguionie, Philippe; Bailly-du-bois, Pascal; Boust, D.; Fievet, B.; Garreau, Pierre; Connan, O.; Charmasson, Sabine; Arnaud, M.; Duffa, Celine; Champion, D.

2012-01-01

334

Hull loss accident model for narrow body commercial aircraft  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accidents with narrow body aircraft were statistically evaluated covering six families of commercial aircraft includingBoeing B737, Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD80, Tupolev TU134/TU154 and Antonov AN124. A risk indicator for eachflight phase was developed based on motion characteristics, duration time, and the presence of adverse weather conditions.The estimated risk levels based on these risk indicators then developed from the risk indicator. Regression analysis indicatedvery good agreement between the estimated risk level and the accident ratio of hull loss cases per number of delivered aircraft.The effect of time on the hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft was assessed for B737, A320 and MD80. Equationsrepresenting the effect of time on hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were proposed for B737, A320, and MD80,while average values of hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were found for TU134, TU154, and AN 124. Accidentprobability equations were then developed for each family of aircraft that the probability of an aircraft in a hull loss accidentcould be estimated for any aircraft family, flight phase, presence of adverse weather factor, hour of day, day of week, monthof year, pilot age, and pilot flight hour experience. A simplified relationship between estimated hull loss accident probabilityand unsafe acts by human was proposed. Numerical investigation of the relationship between unsafe acts by human andfatality ratio suggested that the fatality ratio in hull loss accident was dominated primarily by the flight phase media.

Somchanok Tiabtiamrat

2010-10-01

335

Human Factors and Safety Culture in Maritime Safety (revised)  

OpenAIRE

As in every industry at risk, the human and organizational factors constitute the main stakes for maritime safety. Furthermore, several events at sea have been used to develop appropriate risk models. The investigation on maritime accidents is, nowadays, a very important tool to identify the problems related to human factor and can support accident prevention and the improvement of maritime safety. Part of this investigation should in future also be near misses. Operation of ships is full of ...

Heinz Peter Berg

2013-01-01

336

The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

337

How Enzymes Work: Investigating their specificity and susceptibility to environmental factors using Jell-O.  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity is a lab investigation in which students design and conduct experiments using pineapple juice containing the enzyme bromelain and its affect on the substrate gelatin found in Jell-O. The focus of student driven investigations are on enzyme specificity, activity and the impact of environmental factors on enzyme functioning.

Heather Netland, Jefferson High School, Alexandria, MN, based on the original activities from School Improvement in Maryland; "Pineapple/Jell-O Lab," Access Excellence Activities Exchange; "Enzyme Labs Using Jell-O" by Anne McDonald and Michael O'Hare, and AP & Regents Biology; "Lab 8: Pineapple Enzymes and Jell-O Molds" by Kim B. Foglia.

338

Development of a deformation and failure model for Zircaloy at high temperatures for light water reactor loss-of-coolant-accident investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe Zircaloy-4 deformation and failure behaviour at high temperatures (600 to 14000C), the phenomenological model NORA was developed and verified against numerous experimental results. The model can be applied to the calculation of fuel rod cladding deformation during small and large break loss-of-coolant-accidents. (orig./RW)

339

Learning from accidents: electricity accident statistics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article takes a look at accidents that occur during work on electrical installations. Six accidents are described in detail. The first involved work on a temperature sensor that was powered over the 230 V mains, the second accident occurred when fitting fuses, a third as a result of a circuit-breaker being inadvertently switched on again and a fourth as a result of a mix-up of 16 kV cables. The fifth accident involved a 16 kV transformer that was reconnected on the secondary side, thus causing a shock to a fitter on the primary side; a sixth accident described involved work on the control electronics of a heating system. Each case is analysed and the safety-measures that should have been taken are discussed. Further, accidents involving railway installations are briefly looked at. Tables provide information on electrical accidents for the years 1997 to 2006

340

The Fukushima accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 11 March 2011, the Tohoku earthquake and the subsequent tsunami hit the Japanese east coast, causing more than 15,000 fatalities. To this date, 3,000 people are still missing. The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP was the nuclear installation that was most affected by the tsunami. The earthquake cut off the NPP from the national grid. About 45 minutes later, the tsunami flooded units 1-4 and led to core meltdown events with large releases for units 1, 2 and 3. Unit 4 had been in refuelling outage at that time and lost the cooling of the spent fuel pool for several days. Considerable hydrogen explosions occurred in units 1, 3 and 4. Shortly after the accident, TEPCO started to mitigate the consequences of the accident by providing external cooling to the reactors and by removing the radioactive debris from the site. Great emphasis was laid on effective radiation protection measures for the clean-up workers. Thus, up to now there has been no fatality due to the radiation caused by the Fukushima accident. The main steps of the accident sequences are described, taking into account the latest findings of investigations performed by TEPCO or on behalf of the regulatory body. The presentation focuses on the description of the status of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and the future steps for cleaning-up the site. In the presentation, the major phases of the roadmap that TEPCO has developed for the clean-up are highlighted. The risks associated with the current plant status and the clean-up phases are described. Abstract the content of the manuscript in a few lines.

341

Accident information needs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information

342

Criticality Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At a meeting of electric utility presidents in October, 1999, the Federation Power Companies (FEPCO) officially decided to establish a Japanese version of WANO, following the JCO criticality accident. The Japanese WANO is expected to be launched by the end of the year: initially, with some 30 private sector companies concerned with nuclear fuel. It is said that the private sector had to make efforts to ensure that safety was the most important value in management policy throughout the industry, and that comprehensive inspections would be implemented. In anything related to nuclear energy, sufficient safety checks are required even for the most seemingly trivial matters. Therefore, the All-Japan Council of Local Governments with Atomic Power Stations has already proposed to the Japanese government that it should enact the special law for nuclear emergency, providing that the unified responsibility for nuclear disaster prevention should be shifted to the national government, since the nuclear disaster was quite special from the viewpoint of its safety regulation and technical aspects. (G.K.)

343

JAERI's activities in JCO accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was actively involved in a variety of technical supports and cooperative activities, such as advice on terminating the criticality condition, contamination checks of the residents and consultation services for the residents, as emergency response actions to the criticality accident at the uranium processing facility operated by the JCO Co. Ltd., which occurred on September 30, 1999. These activities were carried out in collaborative ways by the JAERI staff from the Tokai Research Establishment, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, and Headquarter Office in Tokyo. As well, the JAERI was engaged in the post-accident activities such as identification of accident causes, analyses of the criticality accident, and dose assessment of exposed residents, to support the Headquarter for Accident Countermeasures of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Control Committee of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). This report compiles the activities, that the JAERI has conducted to date, including the discussions on measures for terminating the criticality condition, evaluation of the fission number, radiation monitoring in the environment, dose assessment, analyses of criticality dynamics. (author)

344

A study on people's awareness of the causal factors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident and measures to ensure nuclear power plants safety. Questionnaire survey conducted in the Kansai area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, we conducted three questionnaire surveys targeting a total of 808 respondents living in the cities of Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe, in order to elucidate people's awareness of the following 1) the causal factors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, 2) measures taken by electric power companies to ensure nuclear power plants safety, 3) management measures for earthquake and tsunami disaster. The results revealed that 1) the causal factors of the accident the respondents were aware of were a) a mega earthquake and tsunami disaster, b) insufficient preparations for an earthquake and tsunami disaster, c) failure to take adequate management decisions and insufficient preparations to prevent severe nuclear power plant accidents, d) high confidence in nuclear power plants safety, 2) most respondents knew about the information concerning the measures taken by electric power companies from television and newspapers, and only a few respondents sought additional information, 3) respondents were anxious about a) the uncertainty of pre-disaster hazard assumptions and management measures, b) limitations of technological countermeasures against the natural disasters, c) the tendency to overvalue the safety measures. (author)

345

A Comprehensive Review of Rollover Accidents Involving Vehicles Equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated 478 police accident reports from 9 states to examine and characterize rollover crashes involving ESC-equipped vehicles. The focus was on the sequence of critical events leading to loss of control and rollover, and the interactions between the accident, driver, and environment. Results show that, while ESC is effective in reducing loss of control leading to certain rollover crashes, its effectiveness is diminished in others, particularly when the vehicle departs the roadway or when environmental factors such as slick road conditions or driver factors such as speeding, distraction, fatigue, impairment, or overcorrection are present. PMID:19026219

Padmanaban, Jeya; Shields, Leland E.; Scheibe, Robert R.; Eyges, Vitaly E.

2008-01-01

346

Accident occurrence model for the risk analysis of industrialfacilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes an accident occurrence model for the risk analysis of industrial facilities. To better understand the characteristics of industrial accident data, the proposed accident occurrence model is based on a chemical reaction. The model introduces a defensive barrier, which corresponds to the activation energy in a chemical reaction, to prevent an accident. Furthermore, the uncertainty factor in the defensive barrier is mathematically derived as a gamma distribution. The analytical results for the proposed accident occurrence model indicate a Pareto type II distribution, which is the same result found by using a risk curve. Therefore, the analytical model validates the effectiveness of analyzing industrial risk with a riskcurve. Highlights: ? An accident occurrence model based on chemical reaction was proposed. ? Uncertainty factor ? of the defensive barrier to prevent accidents was introduced. ? Accident data of the industrial facilities obey the Pareto type II distribution

347

Prioritization of Lesson learned from Fukushima Accident using AHP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) the present research signifies the technical and nontechnical issues of Fukushima accident. The study exposed that besides technical fixes such as enhanced engineering safety features and better siting choices, the critical ingredient for safe operation of nuclear reactors lie in the quality of human training and transparency of the nuclear regulatory process that keeps public interest at the forefront. In this paper a strategy to increase Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety has been developed. By using AHP, best alternative to improve safety and to allocate budget for all technical and non-technical factors related with nuclear safety has been investigated. By using AHP a methodology to increase NPP safety has been proposed. With the help of this technique the qualitative aspect of Fukushima accident has been examined by considering experts judgment. The results showed that a lack of regulatory authorities was one of the main causes of accident. So, more budget allocation in this area would be helpful to reduce accidents and to improve nuclear safety. Even if AHP only addresses the qualitative aspect of safety factors, this study can be extended to quantitative evaluation with other tools such as fault trees or crisis trees so that the final results enable data-driven decision-making process, which is on-going project at Kyung Hee University

348

Prioritization of Lesson learned from Fukushima Accident using AHP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) the present research signifies the technical and nontechnical issues of Fukushima accident. The study exposed that besides technical fixes such as enhanced engineering safety features and better siting choices, the critical ingredient for safe operation of nuclear reactors lie in the quality of human training and transparency of the nuclear regulatory process that keeps public interest at the forefront. In this paper a strategy to increase Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety has been developed. By using AHP, best alternative to improve safety and to allocate budget for all technical and non-technical factors related with nuclear safety has been investigated. By using AHP a methodology to increase NPP safety has been proposed. With the help of this technique the qualitative aspect of Fukushima accident has been examined by considering experts judgment. The results showed that a lack of regulatory authorities was one of the main causes of accident. So, more budget allocation in this area would be helpful to reduce accidents and to improve nuclear safety. Even if AHP only addresses the qualitative aspect of safety factors, this study can be extended to quantitative evaluation with other tools such as fault trees or crisis trees so that the final results enable data-driven decision-making process, which is on-going project at Kyung Hee University.

Zubair, Muhammad; Park, Sujina; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Zubair, Muhammad [Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)

2013-05-15

349

Theoretical and experimental investigations into the filtration of the atmosphere within the containments of pressurized water reactors after serious reactor accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For serious accidents in nuclear power stations equipped with pressurized water reactors and with boundary conditions assumed, a conservative evaluation was made of the condition of the atmosphere within the reactor containment, particularly referring to pressure, temperature, air humidity and activity release. Based on these data the loads were calculated of accident filter systems of different designs as a function of parameters such as the course of releases and the volume flow through the filter systems. A number of experimental results are indicated on the behaviour of iodine sorption materials under extreme conditions including the least favorable temperature, humidity and pressure derived from the calculations above. Reference is made to the targets of future R and D work on aerosol removal

350

Theoretical and experimental investigations on the behaviour of iodine during severe accidents: organic iodide, iodine/silver reaction, iodine/iron reaction. Pt. 4: organic iodide. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the consequences of severe accidents in nuclear power plants requires knowledge of the behaviour of radionuclides relevant from the radiological viewpoint. The role played by radioiodine is particularly important. In the current modelling of iodine behaviour the heterogeneous formation of organic iodide is not adequately taken into consideration owing to a lack of data or insufficient accuracy of data. This project is intended to eliminate some gaps in critical areas. This final report, part 4, describes the tests carried out in the two relevant areas - heterogeneous formation of organic coatings in the gas phase (containment atmosphere) - heterogeneous formation of organic iodide at organic coatings in aqueous phase (containment sump). Moreover, modelling suggestions how to include the resulting knowledge in the iodine accident behaviour code IMPAIR are given. (orig.)

351

The investigation of antinutritional factors in Phaseolus vulgaris. Environmental and varietal differences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study enables us to indicate that the oligosaccharide raffinose family, phytate, saponin and lectin contents of P. vulgaris are clearly influenced by both environmental and genetics factors. The results also indicate no relationship between antinutritional factors analysed. From a nutritional point of view, these results would help investigators to select dry bean varieties with a high nutritive value (with a low content of alpha-galactosides, inositol phosphates, saponins and lectins human consumption and large-scale cultivation.

Burbano C.

1999-01-01

352

Investigating critical success factors in agile systems development projects / Ruhan Wagener.  

OpenAIRE

This study investigates the critical success factors involved in agile systems development projects. Various systems development methodologies and project management methodologies are presented with their underlying principles, strengths and weaknesses. Thereafter the critical success factors adopted from the work of Chow and Cao (2007) are presented. A positivistic research paradigm was chosen for data collection and analysis. The survey method was chosen for data collection. A questionn...

Wagener, Ruhan Pieter

2012-01-01

353

Model theory investigations of the melting and resolidification process of fuel pin cladding during accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model theoretical description is given of the melting, redistribution and resolidification of the fuel pin cladding tube material (cladding material motion) which occurs during the initial phase of coolant flow rate accidents in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. The report is presented under the headings; introduction, experimental results, CMOT (Cladding material MOTion model), other cladding material motion models, results of applied computations. In an appendix the CMOT computer program is described. (U.K.)

354

Hygienic measures during accidents at nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problems of radiation protection in case of large-scale accidents at nuclear power plants are discussed. Aims and purposes of protective measures are shown. Ways of radiation factor effects at various accident stages are described as well as corresponding protective measures. Attention is paid to the criteria of decision adoption at various accident development phases. Examples from the Chernobyl accident experience are presented. 10 refs.; 3 tabs

355

The Effect Of Retention Factors On Organisational Commitment: An Investigation Of High Technology Employees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate specific retention factors that induced the organisational commitment of high technology employees. A sample of 94 professional technicians from a South African owned telecommunications company based in the Gauteng province participated. The Organisational Commitment Scale and a retention factor measurement scale were administered. The most relevant explanatory factors were compensation, job characteristics, supervisor support, and work/life policies, which appeared to have a statistically significant influence on the development of organisational commitment in high technology employees. The implications of the findings are discussed.

Johan S. Basson

2006-11-01

356

Risk factors for tuberculosis in contact investigations in Rotterdam, the Netherlands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contact investigations around tuberculosis patients enable early detection of infection and disease, and prevention of secondary tuberculosis cases. We aim to identify risk factors for M. tuberculosis transmission to contacts of tuberculosis patients, based on unique data from routine contact investigations by the Public Health Service in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, collected between 2001 and 2006. Through logistic regression analysis, we determined the effect of various risk factors on the chance of finding a latent tuberculosis (TB infection or overt tuberculosis case among contacts. A total of 1165 index patients with active tuberculosis were registered and at least one contact was investigated in 731, resulting in 21,540 contacts overall. Altogether, the contact investigations led to 91 cases of active tuberculosis. Of the 12,698 contacts eligible for screening by tuberculin skin test, 1091 (9% were diagnosed with latent tuberculosis infections. Risk factors were old age of the contact, old age of the index patient, and the relationship to the index. A larger fraction of infected close contacts was strongly associated with infections among more distant contacts. Our findings emphasize the importance of including these personal and interpersonal risk factors in decision making in contact investigations.

Inge D. Kidgell-Koppelaar

2012-04-01

357

The nuclear accidents: Causes and consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author discussed and compared the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents and cited their consequences. To better understand how these accidents occurred, a brief description of PWR type (reactor type of T.M.I.) and of RBMK type (reactor type of Chernobyl) has been presented. The author has also set out briefly the safety analysis objectives and the three barriers established to protect the public against the radiological consequences. To distinguish failures that cause severe accidents and to analyze them in details, it is necessary to classify the accidents. There are many ways to do it according to their initiator event, or to their frequency, or to their degree of gravity. The safety criteria adopted by nuclear industry have been explained. These criteria specify the limits of certain physical parameters that should not be exceeded in case of incidents or accidents. To compare the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents, the events that led to both have been presented. As observed the main common contributing factors in both cases are that the operators did not pay attention to warnings and signals that were available to them and that they were not trained to handle these accident sequences. The essential conclusions derived from these severe accidents are: -The improvement of operators competence contribute to reduce the accident risks; -The rapid and correct diagnosis of real conditions at each point of the accidents permits an appropriate behavihe accidents permits an appropriate behavior that would bring the plant to a stable state; -Competent technical teams have to intervene and to assist the operators in case of emergency; -Emergency plans and an international collaboration are necessary to limit the accident risks. 11 figs. (author)

358

41 CFR 101-39.403 - Investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

...agency employing the vehicle operator shall investigate the accident within 48 hours after...may investigate any accident involving an IFMS vehicle when deemed necessary...statements, the Motor Vehicle Accident Report (SF...

2010-07-01

359

Perspective on post-Fukushima severe accident research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the Fukushima Daiichi accident in March 2011 several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident, in which some recommendations on severe accident research are included. The review of specific severe accident research items had already started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation started after the Fukushima accident in this working group to cover additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality. The review results are categorized in nine major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. In January 2012, in collaboration with this working group, Research Expert Committee on Evaluation of Severe Accident was established in AESJ in order to investigate severe accident related issues for future LWR development. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the seven important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. They are (1) investigation of damaged core and components, (2) advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, (3) development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, (4) analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, (5) enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, (6) advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and (7) assessment of advanced containment design which exchides long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations. Lastly severe accident research conducted at Kyoto University is briefly introduced. (author)

360

Influence of factors of radiative and nonradiative nature on the health state of military garnison population, stationed on the contaminated zone after accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hormonal control of 207 adult representatives of the population of 6-10 Ci/km2 radioactive density contaminated territories that live there 5 years minimum was studied. The paper presents the morbidity structure according to disease different types. Ecological and social-psychological factors are stressed to affect the morbidity along with the radioactive contamination. The paper presents the results of investigations into endocrine regulation (according to 12 studied indices). The obtained data show that men in the radioactive contaminated territories suffer more often from more severe disordered endocrine function. 3 refs., 2 tabs

361

Investigating Factors Related to the Effects of Time-Out on Stuttering in Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Response-contingent time-out has been shown to be an effective technique for enhancing fluency in people who stutter. However, the factors that determine individual responsiveness to time-out are not well understood. Aims: The study investigated the effectiveness of using response-contingent time-out to reduce stuttering frequency in…

Franklin, Diane E.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Hennessey, Neville W.; Beilby, Janet M.

2008-01-01

362

Investigation of bandwidth, efficiency, and quality factor for circular patch antennas with magneto-dielectric substrate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article documents an investigation of the effect of a magneto-dielectric substrate on the performance of a circular patch antenna; in particular, the radiation efficiency, the quality factor, and the bandwidth. Both analytical and numerical methods have been used to model the patch antenna. The numerical method is used for lossy substrates, while the analytical method is used for lossless substrates.

Nour, Baqer; Breinbjerg, Olav

2011-01-01

363

Investigation of coalescence factor in a mechanism of separation of water and petroleum emulsion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation of water separation from Karazhanbas petroleum and mixture of Mangistau petroleum with the use of coagulation activity factor is carried out. It is shown that to achieve effective separation of phases demulsifiers must save high activity up to the dehydration process completion. (author)

364

Vehicle Drivers and Fatal Accidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attempts an exploratory study of the question, "What happens to drivers of vehicles involved in accidents in which there is a fatality, whether or not the driver was at fault?" The purpose of the investigation was to determine what crisis intervention is needed for such drivers. (Author)

Foeckler, Merle M; And Others

1978-01-01

365

Investigations on bubble behaviour and aerosol retention in case of a LMFBR core disruptive accident: The KfK-FAUST tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

FAUST is a KfK program to give contributions to the assessment of the primary source term. Correlations between bubble and aerosol behaviour, especially the aerosol transport into the cover gas, are investigated by simulation tests. In the first phase, experiments with rupture disk discharge of gas-particle-mixtures into a water pool at two geometries are performed. In the second phase, the water pool is replaced by a sodium pool. Important quantities to be measured are: 1) the period of the pressure pulses in bubble and cover gas, 2) the retention factor RF, defined as the ratio of the amount of particles discharged and trapped in the cover gas 3) the entrained coolant liquid in bubble and cover gas, and 4) the coolant and particle mass escaping through defined openings in the cover plate. In the paper, experimental details, parameters, and results are presented, as well as theoretical onsets to understand bubble and cover gas behaviour and particle removal. The bubble oscillation period is usually small compared to the bubble rise time. The retention factors are > 104 in most cases, indicating the existence of very efficient particle removal processes. The overall process may, in first order, be described by the assumption of a coolant piston performing linear and adiabatic oscillations between two gas volumes. Important particle removal mechanisms are impaction during the heavy bubble oscillation and wash-out by sedimentation of the entrained coolant. (osedimentation of the entrained coolant. (orig.)

366

Problematic eating behaviors among bariatric surgical candidates: A psychometric investigation and factor analytic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychological factors (e.g., anxiety, depression) are routinely assessed in bariatric pre-surgical programs, as high levels of psychopathology are consistently related to poor program outcomes (e.g., failure to lose significant weight pre-surgery, weight regain post-surgery). Behavioral factors related to poor program outcomes and ways in which behavioral and psychological factors interact, have received little attention in bariatric research and practice. Potentially problematic behavioral factors are queried by Section H of the Weight and Lifestyle Inventory (WALI-H), in which respondents indicate the relevance of certain eating behaviors to obesity. A factor analytic investigation of the WALI-H serves to improve the way in which this assessment tool is interpreted and used among bariatric surgical candidates, and subsequent moderation analyses serve to demonstrate potential compounding influences of psychopathology on eating behavior factors. Bariatric surgical candidates (n =362) completed several measures of psychopathology and the WALI-H. Item responses from the WALI-H were subjected to principal axis factoring with oblique rotation. Results revealed a three-factor model including: (1) eating in response to negative affect, (2) overeating/desirability of food, and (3) eating in response to positive affect/social cues. All three behavioral factors of the WALI-H were significantly associated with measures of depression and anxiety. Moderation analyses revealed that depression did not moderate the relationship between anxiety and any eating behavior factor. Although single forms of psychopathology are related to eating behaviors, the combination of psychopathology does not appear to influence these problematic behaviors. Recommendations for pre-surgical assessment and treatment of bariatric surgical candidates are discussed. PMID:25464064

Gelinas, Bethany L; Delparte, Chelsea A; Wright, Kristi D; Hart, Regan

2015-01-01

367

Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting: Volume 2, Human factors research; Advanced I and C hardware and software; Severe accident research; Probabilistic risk assessment topics; Individual plant examination: Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 2, present topics in human factors research, advanced instrumentation and control hardware and software, severe accident research, probabilistic risk assessment, and individual plant examination. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

368

The mechanisms of the T-cell immunodeficit formation in some indices of the periphery link of the immune system in liquidators and patients suffered from the acute radiation disease in five years after the influence of radiation accident factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The immunologic observation of liquidators and patients undergone in five years after the influence of the Chernobyl' accident factors has been presented. Some of them such as the complex of changes connected with the radiation aging of the immune system (the decrease of the concentration of tymozine, the content of the cells), the fale of B-lymphocyte contentmay be considered to be the induces of the development of the secondary impairment in the immune system due to the injury or the disorder of the function of the epithelial cell thymus. 21 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tabs

369

Investigations of Knight shifts and g factors for Y123 and Y124 superconductors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • We study g factors and Knight shifts for Y123 and Y124 superconductors. • The theoretical relationships between Knight shifts and g factors are established. • High order perturbation formulas are adopted with local structures of Cu{sup 2+} sites. • Anisotropies of g factors and Knight shifts are ascribed to elongation of Cu{sup 2+} sites. -- Abstract: By adopting the uniform high order perturbation formulas of Knight shifts and g factors for 3d{sup 9} ions in orthorhombically and tetragonally elongated octahedra, the experimental results of these parameters for Cu(1) sites in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} and Cu(2) site in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} are systematically investigated. The calculated Knight shifts (and g factors for Cu(2) site) agree well with the observed values. The anisotropies of the g factors and Knight shifts are attributed to the local orthorhombic and tetragonal elongations of the Cu{sup 2+} sites. The present studies would be helpful to attain a more complete spectroscopic understanding for g factors and Knight shifts.

Kuang, Min-Quan, E-mail: mqkuang@yeah.net; Wu, Shao-Yi; Hu, Xian-Fen; Li, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Zhi-Hong

2013-09-15

370

Nuclear Power Plant Accidents  

Science.gov (United States)

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENTS Nuclear power plants have safety and security procedures in place and are closely monitored ... a plume). What are the main dangers of nuclear power plant accidents? Radioactive materials in the plume from ...

371

Accident knowledge and emergency management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

1997-03-01

372

The radiological accident in Cochabamba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In April 2002 an accident involving an industrial radiography source containing 192Ir occurred in Cochabamba, Bolivia, some 400 km from the capital, La Paz. A faulty radiography source container had been sent back to the headquarters of the company concerned in La Paz together with other equipment as cargo on a passenger bus. This gave rise to a potential for serious exposure for the bus passengers as well as for the company employees who were using and transporting the source. The Government of Bolivia requested the assistance of the IAEA under the terms of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The IAEA in response assembled and sent to Bolivia a team composed of senior radiation safety experts and radiation pathology experts from Brazil, the United Kingdom and the IAEA to investigate the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Government of Bolivia for the opportunity to report on this accident in order to disseminate the valuable lessons learned and help prevent similar accidents in the future

373

Accident knowledge and emergency management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

374

Synthesis of radioactive accidents occurred at the Nuclear Studies Center of Saclay from 1973 to 1978 in laboratories using low activity sealed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each accident is analysed by the following method: all accidents are the logical of variations with respect to a stable previous situation. The analysis consists to draw up an inventory of these variations and search for links between them. Comparison between analysis of several accidents brings out accidents factors. Actual accidents are analyzed to determine these factors

375

Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sandia National Laboratories is supporting the NRC severe accident rulemaking activities through a number of technical investigations that broadly address the phenomenological, systems, and human aspects of degreaded core accidents. The integration of results from these programs to provide a technical base for regulatory decisions is the responsibility of a program entitled, Severe Accident Risk Reduction (SARR) Program. Basically, the objectives of the SARR program are to provide an assessment of the values and impacts of a set of degraded core prevention and mitigation features and to assist NRC in formulating rules. The safety approaches being considered include not only the individual features but also all plausible combinations of these features, applied both to existing reactors and to new (design-stage) reactors

376

Accident prevention in radiotherapy  

OpenAIRE

In order to prevent accidents in radiotherapy, it is important to learn from accidents that have occurred previously. Lessons learned from a number of accidents are summarised and underlying patterns are looked for in this paper. Accidents can be prevented by applying several safety layers of preventive actions. Categories of these preventive actions are discussed together with specific actions belonging to each category of safety layer.

Holmbert, O.

2007-01-01

377

Motor Vehicle Accident Eye Injuries in Northern Israel  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: To investigate the occurrence and types of motor vehicle accident eye trauma in north Israel. Methods: The records between the years 2007–2011 of the Ophthalmology Emergency Room of one medical center were searched. Eye injuries due to motor vehicle accidents were classified according to type, severity of injury and demographic data of patients. Results: Nearly five percents of ER presentations were due to motor vehicle accidents. Most motor vehicle accident-related eye injuries we...

Michael Yulish; Joseph Pikkel

2014-01-01

378

Mapping patterns and characteristics of fatal road accidents in Israel  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper intends to provide a broad picture of traffic accidents in Israel by uncovering their patterns and determinants in order to answer an increasing need of designing preventive measures, addressing particular situations and targeting specific social groups with the ultimate objective of reducing the number of traffic fatalities and accidents. The analysis focuses on 1,793 fatal accidents occurred during the four-year period between 2003 and 2006, and applies data mining techniques with the objective of extracting from the data relevant information about accident patterns and major factors without a priori assumptions about the expected outcome of the study. Kohonen neural networks reveal five accident patterns: (i) single-vehicle accidents of young drivers; (ii) multiple-vehicle accidents between young drivers; (iii) accidents involving either motorcycles or bicycles; (iv) accidents where elderly pedestrians crossed in urban areas; (v) accidents where mostly young children and teenagers cross roads insmall villages. Feed-forward back-propagation neural networks indicate that demographic characteristics of both victims and drivers are the most relevant determinants, and other significant factors are the road conditions, the accident location in either urban or rural areas, the accident location in either sections or intersections, and the period of the day when the crash occurs.

Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria

2010-01-01

379

Investigation into promotion/disincentive factors and proposal of support policy in implementation of risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implementation of risk assessment (RA) has been mandated effort in business place of the type of industry that must elect a safe hygiene manager by the enforcement of the revised Occupational Safety and Health Act of April, 2006. However, it is guessed that some problems are still left unfinished in many business places to promote RA effectively. In this study, at first the authors investigated promotion factors and disincentive factors when implementing RA by literature survey. As the result, factors to show as follows were classified in some categories such as participation of the top, the organization which promotes RA, the use of the existing safety activity, matching of RA technique and work, etc. unlike conventional safety activity to learn from a disaster, infiltrating significance of RA to prevent a risk enough, letting a worker engaged in work participate in RA. Next, the authors performed the visit investigation for 8 business places and extracted a new promotion factors to show as follows. incorporating RA in usual duties, utilizing results of RA effectively. In reference to above promotion factors, the authors examined a policy to implement RA smoothly. (author)

380

Investigation of Local Effects Influence on Results of Design Basis Accident Analysis of WWER-440 Reactor Using RELAP5-3D Code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most important tasks in today's nuclear power plant safety analysis is a simulation of physical processes at nuclear facilities which accounts for 3-dimensional effects in the core and downcomer of reactor. System coupled thermo-hydraulic/neutron-kinetic code RELAP5-3D, which is a modeling tool provided to University of Kyiv by US DOE in a frame of International Nuclear Safety Program, allows simulation of variable in time spatial distribution of neutron flux in a core and also includes special components for 3D modeling of thermo-hydraulics. A model of Rivne NPP Unit 1 with WWER-440/V-213 type reactor has been developed for RELAP5-3D code. A scenario of 'Main steam line break' design basis accident has been calculated using this model. Such a problem can be characterized by intensive overcooling of a primary coolant in affected loop and, taking into account partial mixing of coolant from different primary loops, a non-uniform cooling of reactor core. Obtained results have been compared with the results obtained by model, which has been used at Design Based Accidents analysis, performed at specified unit.(author)

381

A comprehensive investigation of the pseudo-skin factor for partially completed vertical wells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To prohibit gas and/or water coning, it is very common for wells to be completed over only a portion of their productive zone. Such a procedure causes an additional pressure drop, termed the pseudo-skin factor, which reduces the well productivity. In order to ascertain whether or not a partially penetrated well requires stimulation, one has to quantitatively determine the different components of the total skin. Hence, an accurate evaluation of the pseudo-skin factor as one of the main components of the total skin is critical. Many authors have employed different mathematics to find expressions for estimating the pseudo-skin factor, however, since a comprehensive investigation of the available models has not as yet been performed, the diversity of these expressions could be very confusing. This paper first aims to propose an analytical model which accurately estimates the pseudo-skin factor in a partially penetrated well. In model development, the impacts of anisotropy and the arbitrariness of the open interval location are all taken into account, and the model is validated against a numerical simulator (ECLIPSE). Its second aim is to take the results of the numerical simulator as the comparison basis, and make a comprehensive investigation of the available models to check their accuracy for estimating the pseudo-skin factor. The results of the investigation show that, in comparison to other methods, this proposed model, Streltsova's method and that of Yeh and Reynoldssova's method and that of Yeh and Reynolds, estimate the pseudo-skin factor favourably close to that obtained by the simulator. (paper)

382

Assessment of accident rate at lithuanian railways level crossings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose. The most pressing problem facing the rail traffic safety experts is an accident rate at the railway level crossings. The purpose is to investigate the circumstances, which affect traffic safety at the level crossings, and to offer effective tools for experts to improve the safety the problems of these dangerous spaces of railway infrastructure. Methodology. This paper observes the logistic regression as a method to estimate the accident rate at level crossings in Lithuania. The authors have studied and evaluated the key factors affecting the safety of railway crossings. These factors are the intensity of trains and road transport means through the railway level crossing, the visibility of the approaching train from both sides of the traffic, the maximum permissible speed of the trains, the number of tracks (single track, double track, and multi-track, the level of installed alarm and automatic equipment, a density of population in this area, etc. Finally, only the factors, which might be described by mathematical expressions (numbers, were identified. Findings. By using logistic regression method, it was found that the most determinant factors at level crossings are the maximum speed of trains, poor visibility crossing (less than 1,000 m, intensity of the road traffic at crossings, and inappropriate implementation of roads crossing the rails. Based on the study results, the conclusions and recommendations were formulated which primary measures to prevent accidents at level crossing and on what level crossing should be taken urgently. Originality.Revealed trends and major causes of accidents at railway crossings of Lithuania for 2004-2011 year. The necessity of implementation of progressive technical measures for the prevention accidents on railway level crossing is proved. Practical value. About 50% of Lithuanian railway crossings do not meet the requirements of the level crossing legislation. This parameter is one of the key risk factors for traffic safety at level crossings. In order to eliminate the effect on accident due to poor visibility of moving train, it is proposed to use the "speed bumps". Question of the elimination of one level crossing is becoming more and more important due to the increased volume of traffic on the roads and railways, growing the speed of trains and the implementation of important large-scale road and rail projects.

Lionginas Liudvinavichius

2013-02-01

383

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on electronic banking for developing export  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developing economy needs appropriate infrastructure in different areas including electronic banking. This paper presents an empirical investigation on important factors influencing electronic banking for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 regular customers who use banking services of various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.752 and there are five factors including internet infrastructure, advanced services, usability and information design. The most important sub-criteria include building required culture, customer awareness, the role of government, internet knowledge and compatibility with internet technology.

Naser Azad

2013-06-01

384

Factors Affecting the Nominal Exchange Rate of Pakistan: An Econometric Investigation (1982-2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Which macroeconomic factors determine the nominal exchange rate of Pak-rupee against US dollar during the period 1982-2008? This issue has been investigated in this paper by using Ordinary Least Squares and Johansen’s Cointegration techniques. The results show that both monetary and real factors i.e. money supply, trade balance, foreign exchange reserves, inflation and interest rate have long run relationship with the exchange rate of Pak-rupee. However, the granger causality test results show that the relationship between most of the macroeconomic variables and nominal exchange rate bi-directional.

Naeem Ur Rehman Khattak

2012-06-01

385

Radiation Risks for Population of Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The rational behind the decisions on radiation protection for public in case of nuclear or radiological accident is primarily based on radiation risks. Investigation of long-term medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident provides a unique opportunity to obtain a new data on these risk factors. Risk assessment of radiation induced cancers requires a period of time following the accidental exposure, during which the latent period will be finished and certain amount of excess cancer cases may be revealed. This time period now elapsed for the Chernobyl accident. During last 15 years studies of stochastic consequences of the Chernobyl accident among population of Belarus have allowed estimating risk coefficient only for radiation induced thyroid cancer. On the other hand only prognosis of possible radiation induced excess cases for solid tumours could be made. Such prognosis was indeed performed for Belarusian population using models of RERF, UNSCEAR and BEIR. Radiation risks for fatal cancers during life time and lost of life expectancy were calculated as parameters of radiation detriment. The results strongly support the necessity of aimed medical follow-up for different categories of population based on level of doses, age of exposure and gender. The paper will present results of prognosis for radiation induced cancers of different types: incidence rate of fatal cancers during lifetime (per 105 of population), excess incidence rate for differelation), excess incidence rate for different types of cancer (per 105 of population), and lost of life expectancy in case of death from radiation induced cancer. (author)

386

Investigation of the factor structure of spirituality and religiosity in Iranian Shiite university students.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the important challenges facing psychologists of religion pertains to the definition of religiosity and spirituality. One way of understanding the connection between these two concepts is to suppose that one of them is a subset of the other. Another useful and sensitive way, however, is to view spirituality and religiosity as overlapping constructs, sharing some characteristics but also retaining nonshared features. Empirical studies examining the factor structure of spirituality and religiosity are scant and almost all of them come from Western culture. These factor analytic studies generally confirm that religiosity and spirituality can best be described in terms of two distinct yet correlated factors. To date, no study has investigated the relationship between these two constructs in Islamic cultures. To redress this imbalance, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the factor structure of religiosity and spirituality in two Iranian Shiite samples using an extensive set of scales (including Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith, Spiritual Involvement and Beliefs Scale - Revised, Spiritual Meaning Scale, and Spiritual Transcendence Scale). Two hypothetical models were tested: a model that viewed spirituality and religiosity as correlated but separate constructs and a model that combined the indicators of religiosity and spirituality into a single construct. In keeping with the results obtained in Western cultures, results of confirmatory factor analyses, conducted in Study 1 (N=225) and Study 2 (N=288), revealed that a two-factor model fitted the data better than a single-factor model. Implications of the results are discussed, as are study limitations and directions for further research. PMID:22239177

Joshanloo, Mohsen

2012-01-01

387

Investigation of trachoma related factors on migrant laborers' children in Shanghai  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the trachoma related factors on migrant laborers' children in Shanghai.METHODS: With random cluster sampling, 3 879 migrant laborers' children, aged(10.22±2.00years old, from 7 schools in Shanghai, participated in the questionnaire survey, under parents' guidance. RESULTS: Our survey achieved a 98.27% response rate and got a total of 3 812 valid questionnaires, 2 114 males and 1 698 females. Totally 288 cases of trachoma were found. Compared with students who were clinically diagnosed as trachoma, the other students got a high rate in using separate towels, not rubbing eyes, prefer vegetarian diet, asking parents for help when got an eye discomfort and asking for a doctor. Using separate towels would be the main relative factor of the prevalence of trachoma. CONCLUSION: Good health habits could be protective factors to susceptible population.

Wen-Wen Xue

2013-07-01

388

An analysis of the Three Mile Island accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting with a systematic analysis of the chain of events that took place during the Three Mile Island accident, the authors assess the significance of the four distinct phases of the accident. Inferences that can be drawn with respect to the safety of CANDU reactors are discussed. A rational reaction to the accident is suggested, and several factors are shown not to have played an important part, contrary to public impressions. The authors point out that over-reaction to the accident could detract from public safety. The Canadian response to the accident is discussed. (auth)

389

Managing the academic talent void: Investigating factors in academic turnover and retention in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english ORIENTATION: Globally, the demand for academic staff in higher education is expected to continue to increase. The South African situation is exacerbated by the so-called 'retirement swell' and turnover and retention problems; measurements to diagnose these factors remain limited. RESEARCH PURPOSE: T [...] his study aimed to investigate the factors that influence turnover and retention of academic and to validate the developed talent retention diagnostic tool for use in South African higher education institutions. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Limited research currently exists on the retention factors of academic staff in the South African context. RESEARCH APPROACH, DESIGN AND METHOD: Using an investigative quantitative research approach, the tool was administered to a convenience sample of academics (n = 153) in 13 higher education institutions. MAIN FINDINGS: The results showed an array of distinguishing turnover and retention factors and proved the tool to be a valid and reliable measure. Over half the respondents indicated slight to strong dissatisfaction with compensation and performance management practices. Significantly, 34% indicated that they considered exiting their academic institution, citing unhappiness about compensation, as the most likely reason, whilst 74.5% have previously looked for another job. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The research highlights key areas (i.e. compensation, emotional recognition, a bonus structure that reflects employee contribution, performance management systems, mentorship and career development opportunities) that higher education should attend to if they want to retain their key and talented academic staff. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: The results contribute to new knowledge on the factors that contribute to turnover and retention of academic staff and present a valid and reliable measure to assess these retention factors.

Marguerite, Theron; Nicolene, Barkhuizen; Yvonne, du Plessis.

2014-01-01

390

Severe Accident Research Program plan update  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In August 1989, the staff published NUREG-1365, ''Revised Severe Accident Research Program Plan.'' Since 1989, significant progress has been made in severe accident research to warrant an update to NUREG-1365. The staff has prepared this SARP Plan Update to: (1) Identify those issues that have been closed or are near completion, (2) Describe the progress in our understanding of important severe accident phenomena, (3) Define the long-term research that is directed at improving our understanding of severe accident phenomena and developing improved methods for assessing core melt progression, direct containment heating, and fuel-coolant interactions, and (4) Reflect the growing emphasis in two additional areas--advanced light water reactors, and support for the assessment of criteria for containment performance during severe accidents. The report describes recent major accomplishments in understanding the underlying phenomena that can occur during a severe accident. These include Mark I liner failure, severe accident scaling methodology, source term issues, core-concrete interactions, hydrogen transport and combustion, TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project, and direct containment heating. The report also describes the major planned activities under the SARP over the next several years. These activities will focus on two phenomenological issues (core melt progression, and fuel-coolant interactions and debris coolability) that have significant uncertainties that impact our understanding and ability to predict severe accident phenomena and their effect on containment performance SARP will also focus on severe accident code development, assessment and validation. As the staff completes the research on severe accident issues that relate to current generation reactors, continued research will focus on efforts to independently evaluate the capability of new advanced light water reactor designs to withstand severe accidents

391

US accident management program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall approach to accident management in the US and the status of key regulatory, research and industry activities are presented. Five general areas are identified for utility assessment and enhancement as part of accident management implementation: (1) strategies for managing events beyond the design basis, (2) severe accident training, (3) guidance and computational aids for technical support personnel, (4) information needs during severe accidents, and (5) structure and process for decision-making. Anticipated improvements and important technical issues in each of these areas are highlighted. US nuclear industry will play an important role in accident management by developing detailed guidance and information for use by utilities in implementing their accident management plans. The role of these products in the US program is outlined. A process and schedule for implementation is presented. A research program in support of accident management is an essential part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's activities and is also described

392

Investigating the management information needs of academic Heads of Department: a Critical Success Factors approach  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes a research project in the Department of Information Studies at the University of Sheffield. With funding from the British Library Research and Development Department a critical success factors-based investigation of the management information needs of academic Heads of Department in an number of English universities was undertaken in 1994/1995, following publication of the results of a pilot study byPellow and Wilson (1993). Senior academic staff, university administrator...

Francis Green; Brendan Loughridge

1996-01-01

393

Pilot case-control investigation of risk factors for hip fractures in the urban Indian population  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Despite the reported high prevalence of osteoporosis in India, there have been no previous studies examining the risk factors for hip fracture in the Indian population. Methods We carried out a case control investigation comprising 100 case subjects (57 women and 43 men) admitted with a first hip fracture into one of three hospitals across New Delhi. The 100 controls were age and sex matched subjects who were either healthy visitors not relat...

Malhotra Nidhi; Mithal Ambrish; Jha Ruchira M; Brown Edward M

2010-01-01

394

Investigating important factors influencing customer relationship management: A case study from banking industry  

OpenAIRE

This paper performs an investigation on measuring the effect of different factors on customer relationship management (CRM) for different branches of an Iranian banks located in various regions of city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 275 managers and using structural equation modeling examines the effects of five variables including CRM knowledge, employment’s information technology skills, specialty, strategic use, CRM performance on the performance of CRM. Cronbach...

Ali Sedigh; Ali Alikhani

2013-01-01

395

Investigation of Power Factor Behavior in AC Railway System Based on Special Traction Transformers  

OpenAIRE

The single-phase traction load has essentially an unbalance characteristic at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC), which injects harmonic into the utility grid. In this paper, the effect of harmonic distortion and unbalance loading are investigated simultaneously for electrical railway systems. Special traction transformers (i.e. single-phase, V/V, Wye-Delta, Scott, and Le Blanc) are used between the utility grid and the traction load. For analysis, different defini-tions of power factors are ...

Mohsen Kalantari; Mohammad Javad Sadeghi; Seyed Saeed Fazel; Siamak Farshad

2010-01-01

396

Investigation of Effective Factors for Path Tracing using GIS in Kheyroud Forest (Iran-Mazandaran Province)  

OpenAIRE

In this study, main factors for path tracing (Road selecting) were investigated to study principle-digitized maps including slope, slope direction, soil, volume per hectare and ecological capacity units using GIS techniques. Namkhaneh district in Kheyroud Forest (Training and Research Forest of Natural Resources Faculty of Tehran University) at the east of Nowshahr close to Caspian sea (Mazandaran province) due to complete and exact geographical information was selected as the area of this re...

Hosseini, Seyed A.; Karim Solaymani

2006-01-01

397

Motivation and Work -Investigation and Analysis of Motivation Factors at Work  

OpenAIRE

Background: Employees acting towards company goals and having a strong desire to remain in the organisation are very important for the success of a company. In order to generate such organisational commitment of the employees, the knowledge about what motivates and satisfies them is essential. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and analyse the factors which motivate employees, under consideration of individual characteristics. Limitation: Age, gender, marital status, work...

Bassy, Maren

2002-01-01

398

Perceptions of the worker role among people with psychiatric disabilities: Description and investigation of associated factors.  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To investigate how subjective perceptions of everyday occupations, activity level, day centre attendance, social interaction, self-mastery and clinical factors were related to how unemployed people with psychiatric disabilities (PD) envision a future worker role, also controlling for socio-demographic variables. Participants: 175 people with PD; 93 attended a day centre and 82 did not. Of the 93 day centre attendees 39 visited meeting place-oriented day centres and 54 attended work...

Argentzell, Elisabeth; Eklund, Mona

2013-01-01

399

Investigating Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship in Agricultural Corporations of Shirvan and Chardavol Towns  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of the present study is investigation of factors affecting development of entrepreneurship in agricultural corporations in Shirvan and Chardavol towns. In order to gain this goal, descriptive correlative research method was used. Statistics population consisted of all members of boards and CEOs of agricultural corporations (350 = N). Using Cochran's formula, 167 members were determined as samples. The sample was randomly determined. The research instrument was a questionnai...

Khatoon Vakili; Mahmood Eyvazlou; Alireza Jamshidi

2013-01-01

400

Experimental investigations on the reflooding and deformation behavior of an advanced pressurized water reactor tight-lattice fuel rod bundle in a loss-of-coolant accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work performed in the FLORESTAN program at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center on the reflooding and deformation behavior of a tight-lattice fuel rod bundle in a loss-of-coolant accident of an advanced pressurized water reactor (APWR) is described. The present forced-feed reflooding tests in an extremely tight bundle with a pitch-to-diameter ratio p/d = 1.06 show a very different thermal-hydraulic behavior compared to a standard pressurized water reactor. Blind code predictions have shown that most thermal-hydraulic computer codes do not adequately predict the reflooding behavior of this type of bundle. Deformation tests on stainless steel cladding tubes have shown that those with integral helical fins limit the burst strains and have high potential for APWR fuel rod cladding.

Erbacher, F.J.; Wiehr, K.

1988-01-01