WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors accident investigation

  1. Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Fu; Faghih Roohi, Shahrzad; Hu, Xiu Ming; Xie, Min

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived. PMID:21571433

  2. Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? HFACS provides a systematic guideline in accident investigations. The hierarchal structure of HFACS forces investigators to seek out latent HOFs. ? Bayesian Network enhances the ability of the HFACS by allowing experts to quantify the degree of relationships among the HOFs. ? The fuzzy AHP helps to reduce the subjective biases by avoiding the need to give explicit probability values for the variables' states. - Abstract: This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived.

  3. Investigations of Human and Organizational Factors in hazardous vapor accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yanfu, E-mail: isewy@nus.edu.sg [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore); Department of Safety Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Dong ying 257061 (China); Faghih Roohi, Shahrzad; Hu Xiuming; Xie Min [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent (Singapore)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} HFACS provides a systematic guideline in accident investigations. The hierarchal structure of HFACS forces investigators to seek out latent HOFs. {yields} Bayesian Network enhances the ability of the HFACS by allowing experts to quantify the degree of relationships among the HOFs. {yields} The fuzzy AHP helps to reduce the subjective biases by avoiding the need to give explicit probability values for the variables' states. - Abstract: This paper presents a model to assess the contribution of Human and Organizational Factor (HOF) to accidents. The proposed model is made up of two phases. The first phase is the qualitative analysis of HOF responsible for accidents, which utilizes Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to seek out latent HOFs. The hierarchy of HOFs identified in the first phase provides inputs for the analysis in the second phase, which is a quantitative analysis using Bayesian Network (BN). BN enhances the ability of HFACS by allowing investigators or domain experts to measure the degree of relationships among the HOFs. In order to estimate the conditional probabilities of BN, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and decomposition method are applied in the model. Case studies show that the model is capable of seeking out critical latent human and organizational errors and carrying out quantitative analysis of accidents. Thereafter, corresponding safety prevention measures are derived.

  4. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel

  5. Accident investigation reporting deficiencies related to organizational factors in machinery space fires and explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder-Hinrichs, Jens U; Baldauf, Michael; Ghirxi, Kevin T

    2011-05-01

    Careful accident investigation provides opportunities to review safety arrangements in socio-technical systems. There is consensus that human intervention is involved in the majority of accidents. Ever cautious of the consequences attributed to such a claim vis-à-vis the apportionment of blame, several authors have highlighted the importance of investigating organizational factors in this respect. Specific regulations to limit what were perceived as unsuitable organizational influences in shipping operations were adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Guidance is provided for the investigation of human and organizational factors involved in maritime accidents. This paper presents a review of 41 accident investigation reports related to machinery space fires and explosions. The objective was to find out if organizational factors are identified during maritime accident investigations. An adapted version of the Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) with minor modifications related to machinery space features was used for this review. The results of the review show that organizational factors were not identified by maritime accident investigators to the extent expected had the IMO guidelines been observed. Instead, contributing factors at the lower end of organizational echelons are over-represented. PMID:21376918

  6. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  7. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  8. Contributive factors to aviation accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajer, Marcia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA) with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accidents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS identified 370 factors. It was concluded that CENIPA reports did not contemplate the organizational factors associated with aviation accidents. PMID:21344127

  9. Investigation of dominant factors for evaluation of sodium leak and fire accident consequences by sensitivity analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity analyses of sodium leak and fire art performed to identify the dominant factors for the accident consequences. The analyses with a multi-cell zone model code SPHINCS treat sodium spray and pool simultaneous combustion and heat-mass transfer behaviors in a large-scale two cells geometry. Atmospheric gas pressure increase and temperature increase of floor steel plate below the sodium pool are analyzed as the figures of merit to be directly focused on. The analyses clarify the important and dominant factors of the phenomena in the accident sequence quantitatively, resulting in the acquirement of the knowledge to conduct systematic code validation activity and to discuss the uncertainty in the safety evaluation results. (author)

  10. Advance preparation for accident investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors which must be considered in advance planning for accident/incident investigation are discussed and developed in analytical tree format. Basic areas developed are those relating to: Reporting and classifying events; Methods for preservation of evidence; Considerations in setting up the investigation group; Methods for establishing the investigation group; Methods for initiating and conducting the investigation; Training of personnel; Reporting procedures and controls; Post-investigation activities. This paper also relates advance preparations for formal accident investigation to the comprehensive investigation methodology recently developed by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration. These considerations are, however, perfectly general and represent the necessary and sufficient conditions for establishing a state of readiness for any investigating methodology. (author)

  11. Safety-critical human factors issues derived from analysis of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident investigation reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011 had a large impact both in and outside Japan, and is not yet concluded. After Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s (TEPCO's) Fukushima accident, electric power suppliers have taken measures to respond in the event that the same state of emergency occurs - deploying mobile generators, temporary pumps and hoses, and training employees in the use of this equipment. However, it is not only the “hard” problems including the design of equipment, but the “soft” problems such as organization and safety culture that have been highlighted as key contributors in this accident. Although a number of organizations have undertaken factor analysis of the accident and proposed issues to be reviewed and measures to be taken, a systematic overview about electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture has not yet been undertaken. This study is based on three major reports: the report by the national Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (the Diet report), the report by the Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company (Government report), and the report by the non-government committee supported by the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation (Non-government report). From these reports, the sections relevant to electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture were extracted. These sections were arranged to correspond with the prerequisites for the ideal organization, and 30 issues to be reviewed by electric power suppliers were extracted using brainstorming methods. It is expected that the identified issues will become a reference for every organization concerned to work on preventive measures hereafter. (author)

  12. Safety-critical human factors issues derived from analysis of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident investigation reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011 had a large impact both in and outside Japan, and is not yet concluded. After Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s (TEPCO's) Fukushima accident, electric power suppliers have taken measures to respond in the event that the same state of emergency occurs - deploying mobile generators, temporary pumps and hoses, and training employees in the use of this equipment. However, it is not only the 'hard' problems including the design of equipment, but the 'soft' problems such as organization and safety culture that have been highlighted as key contributors in this accident. Although a number of organizations have undertaken factor analysis of the accident and proposed issues to be reviewed and measures to be taken, a systematic overview about electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture has not yet been undertaken. This study is based on three major reports: the report by the national Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (the Diet report), the report by the Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company (Government report), and the report by the non-government committee supported by the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation (Non-government report). From these reports, the sections relevant to electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture were extracted. These sections were arranged to correspond with the prerequisites for the ideal organization, and 30 issues to be reviewed by electric power suppliers were extracted using brainstorming methods. It is expected that the identified issues will become a reference for every organization concerned to work on preventive measures hereafter. (author)

  13. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  14. Accidents and human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his weak points, but also should make the best use of his strong points. (author)

  15. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately from any investigation conducted by other companies involved in the accident, and it did not review its analyses, conclusions or recommendations with any other company or investigation team. Also, at the time this report was written, other investigations, such as the U.S. Coast Guard and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Joint Investigation and the President's National Commission were ongoing. While the understanding of this accident will continue to develop with time, the information in this report can support learning and the prevention of a recurrence. The accident on April 20, 2010, involved a well integrity failure, followed by a loss of hydrostatic control of the well. This was followed by a failure to control the flow from the well with the BOP equipment, which allowed the release and subsequent ignition of hydrocarbons. Ultimately, the BOP emergency functions failed to seal the well after the initial explosions. During the course of the investigation, the team used fault tree analysis to define and consider various scenarios, failure modes and possible contributing factors. Eight key findings related to the causes of the accident emerged: (1) The annulus cement barrier did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (2) The shoe track barriers did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (3) The negative-pressure test was accepted although well integrity had not been established; (4) Influx was not recognized until hydrocarbons were in the riser; (5) Well control response actions failed to regain control of the well; (6) Diversion to the mud gas separator resulted in gas venting onto the rig; (7) The fire and gas system did not prevent hydrocarbon ignition; (8) The BOP emergency mode did not seal the well.

  16. Accident investigation: keep asking "why?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletz, Trevor A

    2006-03-17

    Finding the causes of an accident or operating problem and deciding what actions to take to prevent it happening again is rather like dismantling a set of Russian dolls (Fig. 1). Each time we ask "why?" (or a similar searching question) we find another cause besides the ones we have found already and another action (or set of actions) we can take to prevent similar accidents occurring again. Many investigators stop too soon. This occurred at Flixborough, at Bhopal and in the investigation of many lesser-known accidents. We are more likely to find the deeper causes and the more original actions if groups of people with wide interests and experience are able to take part in the investigations or discuss the investigation reports. We should never look at an accident report as "closing out" a problem. As we read it, we should ask ourselves, "what else could be done?" PMID:16162391

  17. Severe accident investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) the Institute for Reactor Safety (IRS) performs accident analyses for the European Pressurised Water Reactor (EPR) by plant calculations with SCDAP/RELAP5 and RELAP5. S/R5 mod3.2 calculations have been performed for loss-of-offsite power (LOOP), surge line rupture (SL), and 46 cm2 small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA). LOOP reflood calculations were repeated for comparison with MAAP and S/R5 mod 3.1.irs. EPR input decks have been revised and upgraded by Siemens/KWU improvements. Model improvements for S/R5 covering clad failure and fragmentation based on FZK experiments are under test. LOWCOR2 calculations are ongoing. The validation of PSI reflood model including improved FZK-Chen correlation in RELAP5 mod 3.2.2? against integral experiments is finished mostly. The support on the QUENCH programme covering pre- and post test calculations for QUENCH-03 and -04 effectively enhances understanding of the experiment and separation of physical and facility based effects. (orig.)

  18. Multidisciplinary perspective on accident investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing complexity of many computer-controlled application processes is placing increasing demands on the investigation of adverse events. At the same time, there is a growing realisation that accident investigators must consider a wider range of contributory and contextual factors that help to shape human behaviour in the causes of safety-related incidents. A range of techniques have been developed to address these issues. For example (as we show in this paper), task modelling techniques have been extended from human computer interaction and systems design to analyse the causes and consequences of operator 'error'. Similarly, barrier analysis has been widely used to identify the way in which defences either protected or failed to protect a target system from potential hazards. Many barriers fail from common causes, including misconceptions that can be traced back to early stages in the development of a safety-critical system. For instance, unwarranted assumptions can be made about the impact of training on operator behaviour in emergency situations. Similarly, barrier analysis can also be used before a system has been designed to inform the system model and make it more tolerant to errors by incorporating human and technical barriers into the design. Task models often uncover deep-rooted problems, for instance, in workload allocation across many different aspects of an interactive control system. It can be difficult to use barrier and task analysis to trace these common causes that lie behind the failure of many different defences. In order to deal with this complex combination of contributory factors and systems, we promote the use of abstraction (via models) as a way of representing these components and their interrelations whether it is design, construction or investigation. We use, to formally model an abstraction of the system. Additionally, the system model (described using a dialect of high-level Petri-nets) allows to reason about the system and to check conformance with the other models (task model, safety case and barriers). This paper, therefore, shows how an analysis of safety case arguments can be used to support the application of barrier, task, error and system analysis during the investigation of a command and control failure. The intention, in this paper, is to show that if an accident involved the failure of multiple barriers, it is also possible to trace the common causes of those failures back to the assumptions and arguments that are embodied within a safety case. Many countries require that safety cases demonstrate a system is 'acceptably safe' before they grant regulatory approval. These documents and the associated analytical techniques, therefore, provide a rich source of information about why command and control failures occurred. We demonstrate our approach on a fatal mining accident case study

  19. Research investigation report on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was issued in February 2012 by Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation's Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, which consisted of six members from the private sector in independent positions and with no direct interest in the business of promoting nuclear power. Commission aimed to determine the truth behind the accident by clarifying the various problems and reveal systematic problems behind these issues so as to create a new starting point by identifying clear lessons learned. Report composed of four chapters; (1) progression of Fukushima accident and resulting damage (accident management after Fukushima accident, and effects and countermeasure of radioactive materials discharged into the environment), (2) response against Fukushima accident (emergency response of cabinet office against nuclear disaster, risk communication and on-site response against nuclear disaster), (3) analysis of historical and structural factors (technical philosophy of nuclear safety, problems of nuclear safety regulation of Fukushima accident, safety regulatory governance and social background of 'Safety Myth'), (4) Global Context (implication in nuclear security, Japan in nuclear safety regime, U.S.-Japan relations for response against Fukushima accident, lessons learned from Fukushima accident - aiming at creation of resilience). Report could identify causes of Fukushima accident and factors related to resulting damages, show the realities behind failure to prevent the spread of damage, and analyze the overall structural and historical background behind the accidents. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Hazards awareness for aircraft accident investigators

    OpenAIRE

    Boston, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Hazards on accident sites are such that investigators must balance personal safety against the risks involved in collecting evidence intended to prevent future loss of life. Better knowledge of hazards and their mitigation could reconcile these conflicting objectives to a point at which risk might be no greater than in other workplaces. Nevertheless, the magnitude and nature of the hazards at any accident site cannot be determined in advance. The perceptions of novice accide...

  1. On the investigation of severe accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe accidents in light water reactors, which would lead to core damage without counter-measures, are investigated to analyse the plant behaviour under beyond-design conditions and thus to identify the safety margins of the plant design. The findings allow to decide on accident management procedures for stepwise extension of the plants safety concept. An overview is given on the course of severe accidents and the phenomena which have to be considered. (orig.)

  2. Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Volume One

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board's independent investigation into the February 1, 2003, loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia and its seven-member crew lasted nearly seven months. A staff of more than 120, along with some 400 NASA engineers, supported the Board's 13 members. Investigators examined more than 30,000 documents, conducted more than 200 formal interviews, heard testimony from dozens of expert witnesses, and reviewed more than 3,000 inputs from the general public. In addition, more than 25,000 searchers combed vast stretches of the Western United States to retrieve the spacecraft's debris. In the process, Columbia's tragedy was compounded when two debris searchers with the U.S. Forest Service perished in a helicopter accident. This report concludes with recommendations, some of which are specifically identified and prefaced as 'before return to flight.' These recommendations are largely related to the physical cause of the accident, and include preventing the loss of foam, improved imaging of the Space Shuttle stack from liftoff through separation of the External Tank, and on-orbit inspection and repair of the Thermal Protection System. The remaining recommendations, for the most part, stem from the Board's findings on organizational cause factors. While they are not 'before return to flight' recommendations, they can be viewed as 'continuing to fly' recommendations, as they capture the Board's thinking on what changes are necessary to operate the Shuttle and future spacecraft safely in the mid- to long-term. These recommendations reflect both the Board's strong support for return to flight at the earliest date consistent with the overriding objective of safety, and the Board's conviction that operation of the Space Shuttle, and all human space-flight, is a developmental activity with high inherent risks.

  3. Analytical HFACS for investigating human errors in shipping accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Metin; Cebi, Selcuk

    2009-01-01

    Despite the innovative trends in marine technology and the implementation of safety-related regulations, shipping accidents are still a leading concern for global maritime interests. Ensuring the consistency of shipping accident investigation reports is recognized as a significant goal in order to clearly identify the root causes of these accidents. Hence, the goal of this paper is to generate an analytical Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), based on a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP), in order to identify the role of human errors in shipping accidents. Integration of FAHP improves the HFACS framework by providing an analytical foundation and group decision-making ability in order to ensure quantitative assessment of shipping accidents. PMID:19114139

  4. The engineering investigation of aircraft accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. B.

    1982-01-01

    The organization and plan for an investigation, procedures used at the scene of the accident, engineering aspects covered in the main investigation, use of special analytical techniques and simulation tools, and use of flight recorder data are discussed. Examples of investigations are used to illustrate the processes used.

  5. Psychological factors of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

  6. Independent accident investigation: a modern safety tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, safety has been subjected to a fragmented approach. In the past, every department has had its own responsibility towards safety, focusing either on working conditions, internal safety, external safety, rescue and emergency, public order or security. They each issued policy documents, which in their time were leading statements for elaboration and regulation. They also addressed safety issues with tools of various nature, often specifically developed within their domain. Due to a series of major accidents and disasters, the focus of attention is shifting from complying with quantitative risk standards towards intervention in primary operational processes, coping with systemic deficiencies and a more integrated assessment of safety in its societal context. In The Netherlands recognition of the importance of independent investigations has led to an expansion of this philosophy from the transport sector to other sectors. The philosophy now covers transport, industry, defense, natural disaster, environment and health and other major occurrences such as explosions, fires, and collapse of buildings or structures. In 2003 a multi-sector covering law will establish an independent safety board in The Netherlands. At a European level, mandatory investigation agencies are recognized as indispensable safety instruments for aviation, railways and the maritime sector, for which EU Directives are in place or being progressed [Transport accident and incident investigation in the European Union, European Transport Safety Council, ISBN 90-76024-10-3, Brussel, 2001]. Due to a series of major events, attention has been drawn to the consequences of disasters, highlighting the involvement of rescue and emergency services. They also have become subjected to investigative efforts, which in return, puts demands on investigation methodology. This paper comments on an evolutionary development in safety thinking and of safety boards, highlighting some consequences for strategic perspectives in a further development of independent accident investigation

  7. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics.Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  8. Occupational accidents in the Netherlands: incidence, mental harm, and their relationship with psychosocial factors at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Klauw, Marloes; Hengel, Karen Oude; Roozeboom, Maartje Bakhuys; Koppes, Lando L; Venema, Anita

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the incidence of mental harm due to occupational accidents and the relation between psychosocial factors at work and the occurrence of occupational accidents in the Netherlands for the construction industry and health and welfare sector. Analyses revealed that occupational accidents in the construction industry more often involved physical harm, whereas accidents in the health and welfare sector relatively more often resulted in mental harm, in comparison to other sectors. Results showed that psychosocial factors were associated with occupational accidents in both sectors. For the construction industry, high time pressure and exposure to violence and harassment by colleagues or supervisors were associated with occupational accidents. For the health and welfare sector, low autonomy and exposure to violence and harassment by colleagues or supervisors or by people outside the organization were associated with occupational accidents. The present paper stresses the importance of also taking psychological consequences and psychosocial factors at work into account in assessing the occurrence of occupational accidents. PMID:25531558

  9. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and four accident investigation commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokyo Electric Power Co. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused discharge of a large amount of radioactive materials into the atmosphere and outflow of contaminated water into the ocean by reactor core melt (meltdown) and harsh accident accompanied by a hydrogen explosion (severe accident). At reviewing a future nuclear power policy, it was extremely important to investigate this accident for inspection of cause investigation and correspondence, and further analyze the background of the accident. For this purpose, accident investigation commission was established in national Diet, government, private enterprise, Tokyo Electric Power Co. This report summarized outlines of these four accident investigation reports that were already announced and compared about main points at issue such as direct cause of accident, measures before accidents (against earthquake, tsunami and severe accident), correspondence at the time of accident (inside nuclear power plant emergency response and residents' evacuation), and proposals and problems. Four reports clarified deficiency, clumsiness and a lot of problems to be improved for preventive measures of a enterprise and the government (administration) against accidents, accident correspondence, disaster prevention and others. In other words, four reports were placed with the starting point to solve these concrete problems steadily. (T. Tanaka)

  10. An Analysis of Construction Accident Factors Based on Bayesian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Zhao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have an analysis of construction accident factors based on bayesian network. Firstly, accidents cases are analyzed to build Fault Tree method, which is available to find all the factors causing the accidents, then qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes the factors with Bayesian network method, finally determines the safety management program to guide the safety operations. The results of this study show that bad condition of geological environment has the largest posterior probability; therefore, it is the sensitive factor that might cause the objects striking accidents, so we should pay more attention to the geological environment when preventing accidents.

  11. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, J.; Rollenhagen, C.

    2012-01-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors associated with automobile accidents and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Sok; Kim, Hyung Jin; Son, Bongsoo

    2006-09-01

    This paper develops an econometric model for vehicles' inherent mortality rate and estimates the probability of accidents and survival in the United States. Logistic regression model is used to estimate probability of survival, and censored regression model is used to estimate probability of accidents. The estimation results indicated that the probability of accident and survival are influenced by the physical characteristics of the vehicles involved in the accident, and by the characteristics of the driver and the occupants. Using restrain system and riding in heavy vehicle increased the survival rate. Middle-aged drivers are less susceptible to involve in an accident, and surprisingly, female drivers are more likely to have an accident than male drivers. Riding in powerful vehicles (high horsepower) and driving late night increase the probability of accident. Overall, the driving behavior and characteristics of vehicle does matter and affects the probabilities of having a fatal accident for different types of vehicles. PMID:16696930

  13. Understanding accident investigators : a study of the required skills and behaviours for effective UK inspectors of accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Flaherty, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    In the UK, accidents associated with maritime, aviation and rail transport are conducted by the Inspectors of Accidents at the Marine, Air and Rail Accident Investigation Branches. A review of current academic literature provides little insight into the qualities and attributes essential for the role of accident investigator. A wealth of material exists about accidents themselves but as yet, a study into the profile of the accident investigator has not been conducted. This research soug...

  14. An Analysis of Construction Accident Factors Based on Bayesian Network

    OpenAIRE

    Yunsheng Zhao; Jinyong Pei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have an analysis of construction accident factors based on bayesian network. Firstly, accidents cases are analyzed to build Fault Tree method, which is available to find all the factors causing the accidents, then qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes the factors with Bayesian network method, finally determines the safety management program to guide the safety operations. The results of this study show that bad condition of geological environment has the largest posterio...

  15. Expert point of view on the investigations of large accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Frédéric; Pineau, Jean-Philippe

    1998-01-01

    Accidents are taken into account in risk assessment and shall be a basis for knowledge to be considered for improving the safety level at the design and operation stages in various industries and activities (transportation). Unfortunately, in many cases, detailed data are difficult to be accessed. Lessons learnt from French accidents in plants and transportation will be developed. In the detailed investigation of accidents, emphasis should be given on the need to consider product(s), process,...

  16. Investigation on the causes and consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even smccident was found to be similar or even smaller than that due to the car accidents in Japan. (M.N.)Fully ten years have passed since Chernobyl accident. The worst incident in history occurred in Reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. The cause of the accident was an overlap of the defects in the safety of nuclear reactor and serious violations of rules by its operators. However we can no longer deny the fact that people who suspect the safety of nuclear power generation have increased since the accident. It is likely that such tendency attributes to the information from the mass media intending to exaggerate the accident. So, the author attempted to further investigate the Chernobyl accident upon the tenth year after the accident aiming to promote the people's porper understanding on nuclear power generation. Previously, various measures for accident prevention have been taken in nuclear power stations not to actualize the potential troubles. Citing some examples the author demonstrated that any accidient such as Chernobyl accident never happen when at least one of the multiple measures for accident prevention which are taken on a basis of the concept of defense in depth is not broken. On the other hand, the people are exposed to many kinds of unexpected damages due to accidents or disasters in the daily life. The influences of Chernobyl accident on health were compared to those of accidents and disasters which we may daily encounter, in respect of lifetime detriment. And the lifetime detriment of Chernobyl accident was found to be similar or even s

  17. Application of a human error framework to conduct train accident/incident investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinach, Stephen; Viale, Alex

    2006-03-01

    Accident/incident investigations are an important qualitative approach to understanding and managing transportation safety. To better understand potential safety implications of recently introduced remote control locomotive (RCL) operations in railroad yard switching, researchers investigated six railroad accidents/incidents. To conduct the investigations, researchers first modified the human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS) to optimize its applicability to the railroad industry (HFACS-RR) and then developed accident/incident data collection and analysis tools based on HFACS-RR. A total of 36 probable contributing factors were identified among the six accidents/incidents investigated. Each accident/incident was associated with multiple contributing factors, and, for each accident/incident, active failures and latent conditions were identified. The application of HFACS-RR and a theoretically driven approach to investigating accidents/incidents involving human error ensured that all levels of the system were considered during data collection and analysis phases of the investigation and that investigations were systematic and thorough. Future work is underway to develop a handheld software tool that incorporates these data collection and analysis tools. PMID:16310153

  18. Safety investigation of team performance in accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the capacities of the performance evaluation of teamwork (PET) method. Its practicability and efficiency are illustrated by retrospective human reliability analyse of the famous nuclear and maritime accidents. A quantitative assessment of operators' performance on the base of thermo-hydraulic (T/H) calculations and full-scope simulator data for set of NPP design basic accidents with WWER is demonstrated. The last data are obtained on the 'WWER-1000' full-scope simulator of Kozloduy NPP during the regular practical training of the operators' teams. An outlook on the 'evaluation system of main control room (MCR) operators' reliability' project, based on simulator data of operators' training is given

  19. 32 CFR 636.12 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort... this subchapter, Military Police at Fort Stewart/Hunter Army Airfield installation will investigate reportable motor vehicle accidents involving government owned or privately owned vehicles....

  20. A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Most workplace accidents that happen in enterprises are simple and seldom result in serious injuries. Very often these kinds of workplace accidents are not investigated, and if they are, then the investigation is very brief, with comments such as that it was the victim’s own fault or just an unfortunate situation which could not be helped. Most prevention analysis and investigation methods focus on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, etc. In the industrial world, such risks do give rise to disasters, albeit very seldom. Nevertheless, the fact is that simpler accidents normally caused by apparent banalities occur much more frequently and with a higher rate of fatalities, disablements and other serious injuries than the ostensibly most dangerous kinds of accidents. In 1999 a practical tool for use by safety officers was developed; this tool is based on the investigation methods applied in major accidents, but comprises a simpler and more user-friendly presentation. The tool involves three steps: Mapping the facts, analysing the events, and developing preventive solutions. Practical application of the tool has shown that it affords managers and workers a heightened insight into the cause of accidents, including those that seemed to be unavoidable, and that simple workplace accidents always have root causes on which preventive action can be focused. The problem is however that making a proper analysis is difficult and requires appropriate training, even in cases where the accidents seem to be very simple.

  1. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers. Nevertheless, research on the behaviour and accident involvement of young moped riders remains sparse. Based on analysis of 128 accident protocols, the purpose of this study was to increase knowledge about moped accidents. The study was performed in Denmark involving riders aged 16 or 17. A distinction was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved, attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders and awareness of mopeds among other road users. Due to their young age the effect of such measures could be enhanced by infrastructural measures facilitating safe interaction between mopeds and other road users. PMID:26619285

  2. The application of the triboluminescence method for the investigation of air condensates, exhaled by children, affected by a complex of ecological factors after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of tribolumnescence for an integral estimation of the functional condition of the children's respiratory system affected by a complex of ecological factors after Chernobyl katastrophe was applied. The non-respiratory function of the lungs was investigated by analysing the air condensates exhaled by 36 children at the age of 7-15 years. It was found that the kinetic parameters of triboluminescence of the condensates exhaled by the children, living in ecologically unequal areas may be different. The changes of these parameters may be caused by the activisation of the free oxygen radicals of the condensate components due to the radiation factors discovered in the zones exposed to the irradiation after Chernobyl katastrophe

  3. A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Most workplace accidents that happen in enterprises are simple and seldom result in serious injuries. Very often these kinds of workplace accidents are not investigated, and if they are, then the investigation is very brief, with comments such as that it was the victim’s own fault or just an unfortunate situation which could not be helped. Most prevention analysis and investigation methods focus on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, etc. In the indus...

  4. The study of method for calculating the accident atmospheric dispersion factor and accident washout factor for coastal nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model to estimate the accident probabilistic dispersion factor in which the effect of internal boundary layer is considered and a set of deterministic and probabilistic models to estimate the accident washout factor are set up based on the models of accident dispersion factor given by current guides. The accident probabilistic dispersion factor, the deterministic washout factor for different time interval after accident release, the accident probabilistic washout factor and the dose corresponding to various pathway are estimated based on the measured meteorological data on the site of a coastal nuclear power plant to be built in the east part of China. The result shows that: the value of accident probabilistic dispersion factor given by the proposed model are 5.9 times of those given by the common model; for the dose obtained during 0 to 8 h after accident release, the external exposure dose from washout deposition given by deterministic model is about 5.50 times of those from dry deposition; the ratio between external exposure dose from washout and dry deposition given by conservative probabilistic model with and without considering the effect from internal boundary layer is 9.56 and 56.7 respectively; for the realistic probabilistic model the value of above ratio is 1.93 and 11.4

  5. Investigating accidents involving aircraft manufactured from polymer composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    This thesis looks into the examination of polymer composite wreckage from the perspective of the aircraft accident investigator. It develops an understanding of the process of wreckage examination as well as identifying the potential for visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite aircraft wreckage. The in-field examination of aircraft wreckage, and subsequent interpretations of material failures, can be a significant part of an aircraft accident investigation. ...

  6. Investigation of the core melt accident in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the thesis the core melt accident, heating up and collapsing of the reactor core were investigated. The most important parameters of influence were found and their effect on the development of the accident were shown. A causal diagram was developed representing the great number of events occurring in the course of the core melt accident as well as their mutual dependences. Models were developed and applied for a detailed description of the collapse process, melting of materials, heat and material transport at flow-off of the melted mass and for taking into account steam blocking in the destroyed core sections. (orig.)

  7. The deadly triad. [aircraft accident factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    The contributions of a design deficiency, supervisory shortcoming, and pilot error to the occurrence of a major accident involving a mechanically intact fighter aircraft during VFR weather are analyzed. The need for physiologically oriented flight surgeons to exercise critical judgment about the adequacy of the man-machine interface is pointed out.

  8. The use of flight test techniques in aircraft accident investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, E. K.; Bach, R. E., Jr.; Wingrove, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Wind shear is a serious safety hazard to commercial aviation. Low level wind shear (downburst) was the cause of the takeoff accident in New Orleans, July 9, 1982, and the landing accident in Dallas, Aug. 2, 1985. Shear layer instability is a common cause of clear air turbulence (CAT) at cruising altitudes. A number of encounters with severe CAT, in which passengers were injured, have recently occurred (Hannibal, MO, April 1981; Morton, WY, July 1982; etc.). Improved accident investigation techniques can lead to a better understanding of the nature of the wind environment associated with downbursts and CAT and to better detection and avoidance procedures. For the past several years, NASA-Ames has worked closely with the National Transportation Safety Board in the investigation of wind related accidents.

  9. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident final report of the AESJ investigation committee

    CERN Document Server

    Atomic Energy Society of Japan

    2015-01-01

    The Magnitude 9 Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, followed by a massive tsunami struck  TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and triggered an unprecedented core melt/severe accident in Units 1 – 3. The radioactivity release led to the evacuation of local residents, many of whom still have not been able to return to their homes. As a group of nuclear experts, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to investigate and analyze the accident from scientific and technical perspectives for clarifying the underlying and fundamental causes, and to make recommendations. The results of the investigation by the AESJ Investigation Committee has been compiled herewith as the Final Report. Direct contributing factors of the catastrophic nuclear incident at Fukushima Daiichi NPP initiated by an unprecedented massive earthquake/ tsunami – inadequacies in tsunami measures, severe accident ma...

  10. Human Factors in Accidents Involving Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines human factors that contribute to RPA mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. RPA accident data from U.S. military and government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to identify human factors issues. Common contributors to RPA mishaps fell into several major categories: cognitive factors (pilot workload), physiological factors (fatigue and stress), environmental factors (situational awareness), staffing factors (training and crew coordination), and design factors (human machine interface).

  11. Fatores contribuintes aos acidentes aeronáuticos Factores contribuyentes de accidentes aeronáuticos Contributive factors to aviation accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Fajer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi comparar os resultados de investigações de acidentes aeronáuticos brasileiros do Centro de Investigação e Prevenção de Acidentes Aeronáuticos (Cenipa com os do sistema de análise e classificação de fatores humanos (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - HFACS. Foram analisados e comparados os relatórios finais de 36 investigações de acidentes aeronáuticos ocorridos entre 2000 e 2005, no estado de São Paulo. Foram mencionados 163 fatores contribuintes dos acidentes aeronáuticos nos relatórios do Cenipa, enquanto 370 foram identificados por meio do HFACS. Conclui-se que as análises do Cenipa não contemplaram fatores organizacionais associados aos acidentes aéreos.El objetivo del estudio fue comparar los resultados de investigaciones de accidentes aeronáuticos brasileños del Centro de Investigación y Prevención de Accidentes Aeronáuticos (CENIPA con los del sistema de análisis y clasificación de factores humanos (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - HFACS. Se analizaron y compararon los informes finales de 36 investigaciones de accidentes aeronáuticos ocurridos entre 2000 y 2005, en el estado de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil. Se mencionaron 163 factores contribuyentes de accidentes aeronáuticos en los informes del CENIPA, mientras que 370 fueron identificados por medio del HFACS. Se concluye que los análisis del CENIPA no contemplaron factores organizacionales asociados con los accidentes aéreos.The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS. The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accidents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS identified 370 factors. It was concluded that CENIPA reports did not contemplate the organizational factors associated with aviation accidents.

  12. Human factors review for severe accident sequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a human factors research project performed to: (1) support the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) program and (2) develop a descriptive model of operator response in accident management. The first goal was accomplished by working with SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) accident sequence to systematically assess critical operator actions and thereby demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. The second goal was accomplished by developing a model called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which provides both a conceptual structure linking off-normal safety functions with potential unconventional emergency responses and a method for developing technical guidance for those responses based on operations, engineering, and human factors data and expertise. The four components comprising the model are described and their use is shown through a table-top demonstration. 48 refs., 30 figs., 9 tabs

  13. Investigating accidents involving aircraft manufactured from polymer composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Leigh

    This study looks into the examination of polymer composite wreckage from the perspective of the aircraft accident investigator. It develops an understanding of the process of wreckage examination as well as identifying the potential for visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite aircraft wreckage. The in-field examination of aircraft wreckage, and subsequent interpretations of material failures, can be a significant part of an aircraft accident investigation. As the use of composite materials in aircraft construction increases, the understanding of how macroscopic failure characteristics of composite materials may aid the field investigator is becoming of increasing importance.. The first phase of this research project was to explore how investigation practitioners conduct wreckage examinations. Four accident investigation case studies were examined. The analysis of the case studies provided a framework of the wreckage examination process. Subsequently, a literature survey was conducted to establish the current level of knowledge on the visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite failures. Relevant literature was identified and a compendium of visual and macroscopic characteristics was created. Two full-scale polymer composite wing structures were loaded statically, in an upward bending direction, until each wing structure fractured and separated. The wing structures were subsequently examined for the existence of failure characteristics. The examination revealed that whilst characteristics were present, the fragmentation of the structure destroyed valuable evidence. A hypothetical accident scenario utilising the fractured wing structures was developed, which UK government accident investigators subsequently investigated. This provided refinement to the investigative framework and suggested further guidance on the interpretation of polymer composite failures by accident investigators..

  14. Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure

  15. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011. Method: The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States by estimating a generalized ordered logit model. Data for the analysis are retrie...

  16. Use of casual tree method for investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many methodologies used for investigation of accidents to facilitate the search of the factors that cause these events in different areas of industry. These can be called proactive methods, if they are used before the occurrence of the events, or reactive methods that are applied after the occurrence of the incident or accident, and are used as a basis of information to prevent further events. One of these methods is the Causal Tree Method (CTM). The basic idea of this technique is that incidents and accidents result from variations in usual processes. These variations can be related to the individual, the task, the material or the environment. The tree starts with the end event (incident or accident) and works backwards. The facts relating to the end event are used in the construction of the causal tree. The end event is the starting point and only the facts that contributed to the incident or accident should be selected. The analyst has to identify and list the variations and then display them in the analytic tree, showing causal relations. The objective of this paper is to test the application of the CTM method in investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials, in order to evaluate its efficiency on finding the typical factors causing these events. (author)

  17. Use of casual tree method for investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Senne Junior, Murillo; Marques, Raissa Oliveira, E-mail: raissaomarques@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    There are many methodologies used for investigation of accidents to facilitate the search of the factors that cause these events in different areas of industry. These can be called proactive methods, if they are used before the occurrence of the events, or reactive methods that are applied after the occurrence of the incident or accident, and are used as a basis of information to prevent further events. One of these methods is the Causal Tree Method (CTM). The basic idea of this technique is that incidents and accidents result from variations in usual processes. These variations can be related to the individual, the task, the material or the environment. The tree starts with the end event (incident or accident) and works backwards. The facts relating to the end event are used in the construction of the causal tree. The end event is the starting point and only the facts that contributed to the incident or accident should be selected. The analyst has to identify and list the variations and then display them in the analytic tree, showing causal relations. The objective of this paper is to test the application of the CTM method in investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials, in order to evaluate its efficiency on finding the typical factors causing these events. (author)

  18. Investigation on accident management measures for VVER-1000 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consequence of a total loss of AC power supply (station blackout) leading to unavailability of major active safety systems which could not perform their safety functions is that the safety criteria ensuring a secure operation of the nuclear power plant would be violated and a consequent core heat-up with possible core degradation would occur. Currently, a study which examines the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the plant during the early phase of the scenario is being performed. This paper focuses on the possibilities for delay or mitigation of the accident sequence to progress into a severe one by applying Accident Management Measures (AMM). The strategy 'Primary circuit depressurization' as a basic strategy, which is realized in the management of severe accidents is being investigated. By reducing the load over the vessel under severe accident conditions, prerequisites for maintaining the integrity of the primary circuit are being created. The time-margins for operators' intervention as key issues are being also assessed. The task is accomplished by applying the GRS thermal-hydraulic system code ATHLET. In addition, a comparative analysis of the accident progression for a station blackout event for both a reference German PWR and a reference VVER-1000, taking into account the plant specifics, is being performed. (authors)

  19. Understanding the human factors contribution to railway accidents and incidents in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysari, Melissa T; McIntosh, Andrew S; Wilson, John R

    2008-09-01

    Forty rail safety investigation reports were reviewed and a theoretical framework (the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System; HFACS) adopted as a means of identifying errors associated with rail accidents/incidents in Australia. Overall, HFACS proved useful in categorising errors from existing investigation reports and in capturing the full range of relevant rail human factors data. It was revealed that nearly half the incidents resulted from an equipment failure, most of these the product of inadequate maintenance or monitoring programs. In the remaining cases, slips of attention (i.e. skilled-based errors), associated with decreased alertness and physical fatigue, were the most common unsafe acts leading to accidents and incidents. Inadequate equipment design (e.g. driver safety systems) was frequently identified as an organisational influence and possibly contributed to the relatively large number of incidents/accidents resulting from attention failures. Nearly all incidents were associated with at least one organisational influence, suggesting that improvements to resource management, organisational climate and organisational processes are critical for Australian accident and incident reduction. Future work will aim to modify HFACS to generate a rail-specific framework for future error identification, accident analysis and accident investigation. PMID:18760104

  20. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

  1. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are investigating air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions. In this paper we present a program overview and highlight recent results of our investigations. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. We also describe the test facilities we use to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

  2. An investigation of glider winch launch accidents utilizing multipoint aerodynamics models in flight simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Santel, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The presented thesis investigated the mechanisms leading to accidents during the winch launch of gliders. Initially, data from the accident database of the German Federal Bureau of Aircraft Accident Investigation was studied. Critical phases of the launch were identied along with the associated probabilities and risks of accidents. From this data requirements to an aerodynamics model suitable for accident reconstruction were formulated. An instationary multipoint aerodynamics approach, based ...

  3. Risk management: Role of societal factors in major industrial accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses factors influencing the occurrence of major accidents in complex technological systems. Societal factors are identified as most significant in this context. Important types of societal factors are pin-pointed and discussed. The safety situation in the former Soviet Union and in today's Russian is described. The calamities at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and partly also Bhopal are discussed, and the role of societal factors identified. A main point of view is that it is not surprising that these catastrophes happened in the then existing conditions. What is surprising is that they did not happen earlier exclamation point

  4. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Influence of the critical accident seen to consciousness investigation of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here was introduced a consciousness investigation result carried out at Fukui prefecture and Osaka city after about two months of the JCO criticality accident. Peoples were disturbed by the accident, and not a little changed their individual estimations on items relating to energy. However, peoples lived in Fukui prefecture did not increase rate of opposition against nuclear energy promotion and nuclear power plant construction to their living area on comparison with a year before the accident. This reason might be understood by that the accident was not an accident of a nuclear power plant directly, and that their living area was much distant from place of the accident and was not suffered any danger. On the other hand, public opinion in Osaka city made worse on comparison with that before a year, and if such worse public opinion was thought to be due to the accident, its effect could be said to be different in each area even with no direct relation to the accident to shown a result dependent upon its various conditions. As a rough tendency on psychological disturbance due to the accident, it could be said that peoples became to have feelings of avoiding hard nuclear energy technology at a chance of the accident and to direct thoughts of soft natural energy and environment respect. (G.K.)

  5. A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    unfortunate situation which could not be helped. Most prevention analysis and investigation methods focus on high risks, such as explosion, fire, lack of containment for chemicals, etc. In the industrial world, such risks do give rise to disasters, albeit very seldom. Nevertheless, the fact is that simpler...... investigation methods applied in major accidents, but comprises a simpler and more user-friendly presentation. The tool involves three steps: Mapping the facts, analysing the events, and developing preventive solutions. Practical application of the tool has shown that it affords managers and workers a...

  6. The Human Factors of an Early Space Accident: Flight 3-65 of the X-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Statler, Irving C.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    The X-15 was a critical research vehicle in the early days of space flight. On November 15, 1967, the X-15-3 suffered an in-flight breakup. This 191st flight of the X-15 and the 65th flight of this third configuration was the only fatal accident of the X-15 program. This paper presents an analysis, from a human factors perspective, of the events that led up to the accident. The analysis is based on the information contained in the report of the Air Force-NASA Accident Investigation Board (AIB) dated January, 1968. The AIBs analysis addressed, primarily, the events that occurred subsequent to the pilots taking direct control of the reaction control system. The analysis described here suggests that all of the events that caused the accident occurred well before the moment when the pilot switched to direct control. Consequently, the analyses and conclusions regarding the causal factors of, and the contributing factors to, the loss of Flight 3-65 presented here differ from those of the AIB based on the same evidence. Although the accident occurred in 1967, the results of the presented analysis are still relevant today. We present our analysis and discuss its implications for the safety of space operations.

  7. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.12 Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail...

  8. Indonesian railway accidents--utilizing Human Factors Analysis and Classification System in determining potential contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iridiastadi, Hardianto; Ikatrinasari, Zulfa Fitri

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Indonesian railway accidents has not been declining, with hundreds of fatalities reported in the past decade. As an effort to help the National Transportation Safety Committee (NTSC), this study was conducted that aimed at understanding factors that might have contributed to the accidents. Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was utilized for this purpose. A total of nine accident reports (provided by the Indonesian NTSC) involving fatalities were studied using the technique. Results of this study indicated 72 factors that were closely related to the accidents. Of these, roughly 22% were considered as operator acts while about 39% were related to preconditions for operator acts. Supervisory represented 14% of the factors, and the remaining (about 25%) were associated with organizational factors. It was concluded that, while train drivers indeed played an important role in the accidents, interventions solely directed toward train drivers may not be adequate. A more comprehensive approach in minimizing the accidents should be conducted that addresses all the four aspects of HFACS. PMID:22317372

  9. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Accidents Caused by the Motorcycle Aspect in Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Aji Suraji; Ngudi Tjahjono

    2012-01-01

    Traffic safety should be given the highest priority in order to reduce accidents. It seems that motorcycles give the most contribution to accidents than other vehicles, especially in urban area. The accidents are caused by poor condition factors of the motorcycles. Therefore, it is important to know the motorcycle aspect as a base to implement an action program to reduce accident risks. The objectives of this research were to analyze motorcycle aspect on accident risks including tires, brakes...

  10. Investigating Boolean Matrix Factorization.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Snášel, V.; Platoš, J.; Krömer, P.; Húsek, Dušan; Neruda, Roman; Frolov, A. A.

    - : ACM, 2008 - (Ding, C.; Li, T.; Zhu, S.), s. 18-25 ISBN 978-1-60558-307-5. [DMMT'08. Workshop in Conjunction with SIGKDD 2008 /14./. Las Vegas (US), 24.08.2008-24.08.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * nonnegative matrix factorization * neural networks * information retrieval * data mining * binary data Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://users.cs.fiu.edu/~taoli/kdd08-workshop/DMMT08-Proceedings.pdf

  11. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011. Method: The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States by estimating a generalized ordered logit model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005–2009. Results: Results show that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because of inattentive and risky driving.

  12. Relationships between accident investigations, risk analysis, and safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several different approaches to achieve safety are in common use, and examples are accident investigations (AI), risk analysis (RA), and safety management systems (SMS). The meaning of these concepts and their practical applications vary quite a lot, which might cause confusion. A summary of definitions is presented. A general comparison is made of application areas and methodology. A proposal is made how to indicate parameters of variation. At one end of the scale there are organisations, which are highly organised in respect to safety. At the other end are small companies with informal safety routines. Although the three concepts differ in a number of respects, there are many links between them which is illustrated in a model. A number of relations have been described mainly concerned with more advanced organisations. Behind the practical safety work, there are varying sets of more or less explicit explanations and theories on safety and accident causation. Depending on the theory applied, the relations between approaches can be more or less clear and essential

  13. Interim report of Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AESJ's Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station was decided to be established by board meeting in June 2011 and tried to identify and analyze root cause of the giant accident of complicated nuclear system, estimate reality and extract effective lessons learned for future nuclear safety activities as a conclusion judging from experiences and knowledge of experts and obtained information with no heating and experiments. Interim report was published for member's review and focused on risk of radioactive materials release with nuclear energy use and their environmental effects. Report mentioned six points to assure nuclear safety responding to several factors of accident initiation: (1) comprehensive safety assurance with risk assessment and defense-in-depth concept, (2) response to external events. (3) severe accident management and its effectiveness assurance, (4) emergency preparedness and its response, (5) environmental restoration and decontamination and (6) response of academia for needed reform. Based on above subjects and investigation of future response to specific individual points, comprehensive and logical proposals would be derived at the end of the year with reflecting member's frank opinions to be submitted. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Natural factors of technological accidents: the case of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    E. G. Petrova

    2011-01-01

    The data base of technological accidents and disasters that have occurred in Russia has been created. More than 13 000 information units have been collected and analyzed. The proportion of accidents triggered by natural events (natural-technological accidents or NTA) in the total number of technological accidents as well as a part of every NTA type in the total number of NTA was estimated. About 10 percent of all accidents registered in the data base were caused by natural events; among some ...

  15. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. PMID:26513334

  16. Theoretical investigation of a hypothetic core meltdown accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from a hypothetic reactor accident (primary system rupture) accompanied by a failure of the emergency cooling system, a computer system for the simulation of this maximum credible accident (MCA) in a water-cooled nuclear reactor is developped. (TK/AK)

  17. Human and organisational factors in maritime accidents: analysis of collisions at sea using the HFACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Christine; Lardjane, Salim; Morel, Gaël; Clostermann, Jean-Pierre; Langard, Benoît

    2013-10-01

    Over the last decade, the shipping industry has implemented a number of measures aimed at improving its safety level (such as new regulations or new forms of team training). Despite this evolution, shipping accidents, and particularly collisions, remain a major concern. This paper presents a modified version of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System, which has been adapted to the maritime context and used to analyse human and organisational factors in collisions reported by the Marine Accident and Investigation Branch (UK) and the Transportation Safety Board (Canada). The analysis shows that most collisions are due to decision errors. At the precondition level, it highlights the importance of the following factors: poor visibility and misuse of instruments (environmental factors), loss of situation awareness or deficit of attention (conditions of operators), deficits in inter-ship communications or Bridge Resource Management (personnel factors). At the leadership level, the analysis reveals the frequent planning of inappropriate operations and non-compliance with the Safety Management System (SMS). The Multiple Accident Analysis provides an important finding concerning three classes of accidents. Inter-ship communications problems and Bridge Resource Management deficiencies are closely linked to collisions occurring in restricted waters and involving pilot-carrying vessels. Another class of collisions is associated with situations of poor visibility, in open sea, and shows deficiencies at every level of the socio-technical system (technical environment, condition of operators, leadership level, and organisational level). The third class is characterised by non-compliance with the SMS. This study shows the importance of Bridge Resource Management for situations of navigation with a pilot on board in restricted waters. It also points out the necessity to investigate, for situations of navigation in open sea, the masters' decisions in critical conditions as well as the causes of non-compliance with SMS. PMID:23764875

  18. Causal factors in accidents of high-speed craft and conventional ocean-going vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of 40 ocean-going commercial vessel accidents is compared with the study of a similar number of high-speed crafts (HSCs) accidents, using in both cases a methodology that highlights the sequence of events leading to the accident and identifies the associated latent or causal factors. The main objective of this study was to identify and understand the difference in the pattern of causal factors associated with HSC accidents, as compared with the more traditional ocean-going ships. From the analysis one can see that the HSC accidents are mainly related to bridge personnel and operations, where the human element is the key factor identified as being responsible for the majority of the accidents. When compared with ocean-going commercial vessels, it is clear that navigational equipment and procedures have a larger preponderance in terms of the occurrence of accidents of HSC and particular attention should be given to these issues

  19. Development of Human Factor Management Requirements and Human Error Classification for the Prevention of Railway Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railway accident analysis results show that accidents cased by human factors are not decreasing, whereas H/W related accidents are steadily decreasing. For the efficient management of human factors, many expertise on design, conditions, safety culture and staffing are required. But current safety management activities on safety critical works are focused on training, due to the limited resource and information. In order to improve railway safety, human factors management requirements for safety critical worker and human error classification is proposed in this report. For this accident analysis, status of safety measure on human factor, safety management system on safety critical worker, current safety planning is analysis

  20. Investigation into information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared in response to a request from NRC Chairman Ahearne that directed the Office of Inspection and Enforcement to resume its investigation of information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) that occurred on March 28, 1979. This investigation was resumed on March 21, 1980. The transfer of information among individuals, agencies, and personnel from Metropolitan Edison was analyzed to ascertain what knowledge was held by various individuals of the specific events, parameters, and systems during the accident at TMI. Maximum use was made of existing records, and additional interviews were conducted to clarify areas that had not been pursued during earlier investigations. Although the passage of time between the accident and post-accident interviews hampered precise recollections of events and circumstances, the investigation revealed that information was not intentionally withheld during the accident and that the system for effective transfer of information was inadequate during the accident

  1. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the "State-of-the-Art

    OpenAIRE

    Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or “human error”. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to a...

  2. National Transportation Safety Board Aircraft Accident Investigation Supported

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.

    1999-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was for NASA to help the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) gain better understanding of the events that led to the loss of Comair Flight 3272 over Monroe, Michigan, on January 9, 1997. In-flight icing was suspected as being the primary cause of this accident. Of particular interest to the Safety Board was what NASA could learn about the potential performance degradation of the wing of the Embraer EMB-120 twin-turboprop commuter aircraft with various levels of ice contamination. NASA agreed to undertake (1) ice-accretion prediction computations with NASA s LEWICE program to bound the kind of contaminations that the vehicle may have developed, (2) testing in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel to verify and refine the ice shapes developed by LEWICE, (3) a two-dimensional Navier- Stokes analysis to determine the performance degradation that those ice shapes could have caused, and (4) an examination using three-dimensional Navier-Stokes codes to study the three-dimensional effects of ice contamination.

  3. Proposal for computer investigation of LMFBR core meltdown accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental consequences of an LMFBR accident involving breach of containment are so severe that such accidents must not be allowed to happen. Present methods for analyzing hypothetical core disruptive accidents like a loss of flow with failure to scram cannot show conclusively that such accidents do not lead to a rupture of the pressure vessel. A major deficiency of present methods is their inability to follow large motions of a molten LMFBR core. Such motions may lead to a secondary supercritical configuration with a subsequent energy release that is sufficient to rupture the pressure vessel. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory proposes to develop a computer program for describing the dynamics of hypothetical accidents. This computer program will utilize implicit Eulerian fluid dynamics methods coupled with a time-dependent transport theory description of the neutronic behavior. This program will be capable of following core motions until a stable coolable configuration is reached. Survey calculations of reactor accidents with a variety of initiating events will be performed for reactors under current design to assess the safety of such reactors

  4. An integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach to analyze human factors in aviation accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Lei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human factors are critical causes of modern aviation accidents. However, existing accident analysis methods encounter limitations in addressing aviation human factors, especially in complex accident scenarios. The existing graphic approaches are effective for describing accident mechanisms within various categories of human factors, but cannot simultaneously describe inadequate human–aircraft–environment interactions and organizational deficiencies effectively, and highly depend on analysts’ skills and experiences. Moreover, the existing methods do not emphasize latent unsafe factors outside accidents. This paper focuses on the above three limitations and proposes an integrated graphic–taxonomic–associative approach. A new graphic model named accident tree (AcciTree, with a two-mode structure and a reaction-based concept, is developed for accident modeling and safety defense identification. The AcciTree model is then integrated with the well-established human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS to enhance both reliability of the graphic part and logicality of the taxonomic part for improving completeness of analysis. An associative hazard analysis technique is further put forward to extend analysis to factors outside accidents, to form extended safety requirements for proactive accident prevention. Two crash examples, a research flight demonstrator by our team and an industrial unmanned aircraft, illustrate that the integrated approach is effective for identifying more unsafe factors and safety requirements.

  5. Study of Psycho-Social Factors Affecting Traffic Accidents Among Young Boys in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Javadi, Seyyed Mohammad Hossein; Fekr Azad, Hossein; Tahmasebi, Siyamak; Rafiei, Hassan; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Tajlili, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unprecedented growth of fatalities due to traffic accidents in the recent years has raised great concerns and efforts of authorities in order to identify and control the causes of these accidents. Objectives: In the present study, the contribution of psychological, social, demographic, environmental and behavioral factors on traffic accidents was studied for young boys in Tehran, emphasizing the importance of psychosocial factors. Patients and Methods: The design of the present st...

  6. Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania :A Case Study of Kibaha District

    OpenAIRE

    Komba, Deus Damian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district.In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk ...

  7. Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania : A Case Study of Kibaha District

    OpenAIRE

    Komba, Deus Damian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district. In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk...

  8. Investigation of the management of the wastes from plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant discharged large amount of radio-nuclides and contaminated wide areas in and out of the site. The decontamination, storage, treatment and disposal of generated wastes are now under planning. Though regulations for the radioactive wastes arisen from normal operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities have been prepared, it is necessary to make amendment of those regulations to deal with wastes from the severe accident which may have much different features on nuclides contents, or possible accompanying hazardous chemical materials. Characteristics of wastes from accidents in foreign nuclear installations, and the treatment and the disposal of those wastes were surveyed by literature and radionuclide migration from the assumed temporally storage yards of the disaster debris was analyzed for consideration of future regulation. (author)

  9. Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly

  10. Experimental and calculational investigation of heat-mass-transfer processes in LOCA-type accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consideration is given to the results of investigations carried out on SVD-1 bench at bottom, top and combined reflooding after design-basis accident with guillotine rupture of cold circuit. Four types of 37-rod full-height-scale fuel assemblies of WWER-1000 have been investigated. For all types of flooding the heat transfer to water and steam-water mixture coming from bottom along with lower wetting front is the general cooling process. It is shown that the main factors acting on decrease of top flooding efficiency are exceedance of critical bubbling, flooding rates and local pressure increase in the area of upper wetting front limiting top water entry into heated region. It is pointed out that the most of the codes do not account these factors

  11. 32 CFR 634.30 - Use of traffic accident investigation report data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accident review board. The board will consist of law enforcement, engineer, safety, medical, and legal... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision... intent or criminal acts. Criminal investigations have priority. (g) Army law enforcement agencies...

  12. Investigations on pressure suppression system loads at accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For simulation of the integral behavior of pressure suppresion systems at accident conditions a mathematical model was developed which simulates a wide range of the loads occurring during a loss-of coolant accident. The multi-zone point model DRASYS serves for mathematical simulation of quasistatic (pressure and temperature build-up in the dry well and the suppression chamber) as well as dynamic loads (free-blowing process, water throw-up and condensing oscillations) in the course of a loss-of-coolant accident. For determination of the state variations with time in the individual pressure sections thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed between steam and water phases. Thermal non-equilibrium states are taken into account if phase separation interfaces between water and steam/air mixture exist. The flows between the individual pressure sections are treated as homogeneous, nonsteady, incompressible flows. For verification of the mathematical model recalculations were made of experiments performed at various test stands. Teh recalculations showed that the mathematical model has got a wide range of application and is suited for design and assessment of pressure suppression systems at accident conditions. (orig.)

  13. Aspects Concerning The Rules And The Investigation Of Traffic Accidents As Work Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnu, Lucian Ioan

    2015-07-01

    When Romania joined the European Union, it was imposed that the Romanian legislation in the field of the security and health at work be in line with the European one. The concept of health as it is defined by the International Body of Health, refers to a good physical, mental and social condition. The improvement of the activity of preventing the traffic accidents as work accidents must have as basis the correct and accurate evaluation of risks of getting injured. The goal of the activity of prevention and protection is to ensure the best working conditions, the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases and the adjustment to the scientific and technological progress. In the road transport sector, as in any other sector, it is very important to pay attention to working conditions to ensure a workforce motivated and well qualified. Some features make it a more difficult sector risk management than other sectors. However, if one takes into account how it works in practice this sector and the characteristics of drivers and how they work routinely, risks, dangers and threats can be managed efficiently and with great success.

  14. Factors contributing to anxious driving behavior: the role of stress history and accident severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Joshua D; Olsen, Shira A; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Hagewood, J Houston; Hickling, Edward J; Hwang, Vivian S; Beck, J Gayle

    2011-05-01

    Although fear and travel avoidance among anxious drivers are well documented, relatively little is known about the behavior of anxious individuals who continue to drive. Previous research has identified three broad domains of anxious driving behavior: exaggerated safety/caution behaviors, anxiety-based performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive driving behaviors. In an effort to explicate factors associated with the development of anxious driving behavior, associations with objective accident severity, accident-related distress, and life stress history were explored among individuals reporting accident involvement (N=317). Interactive effects of accident distress and self-reported stress history were noted across all three domains of anxious driving behavior. Examination of these effects indicates unique associations between accident distress and anxious behavior only in those reporting more severe life stress. Consistent with contemporary models of anxiety, these data suggest stress history may serve as a general vulnerability factor for development of anxious driving behavior following accident involvement. PMID:21377829

  15. Investigation of evaluation method for marine radiological impact during an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2012, JNES carried out to investigate the measurement information of radionuclide released to the ocean at Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, the foreign regulation for marine radiological impact, and the evaluation method for release and diffusion to the ocean at the accident inside and outside Japan. (author)

  16. Accident-precipitating factors for crashes in turbine-powered general aviation aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D; Stolzer, Alan

    2016-01-01

    General aviation (14CFR Part 91) accounts for 83% of civil aviation fatalities. While much research has focused on accident causes/pilot demographics in this aviation sector, studies to identify factors leading up to the crash (accident-precipitating factors) are few. Such information could inform on pre-emptive remedial action. With this in mind and considering the paucity of research on turbine-powered aircraft accidents the study objectives were to identify accident-precipitating factors and determine if the accident rate has changed over time for such aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. The NTSB Access database was queried for accidents in airplanes (accident-precipitating factor taxonomy. Statistical analyses employed logistic regression, contingency tables and a generalized linear model with Poisson distribution. The "Checklist/Flight Manual Not Followed" was the most frequent accident-precipitating factor category and carried an excess risk (OR 2.34) for an accident with a fatal and/or serious occupant injury. This elevated risk reflected an over-representation of accidents with fatal and/or serious injury outcomes (paccidents grouped in the "Inadequate Pre-Flight Planning/Inspection/Procedure" the "inadequate weather planning" sub-category accounted (p=0.036) for the elevated risk (OR 2.22) of an accident involving fatal and/or serious injuries. The "Violation FARs/AIM Deviation" category was also associated with a greater risk for fatal and/or serious injury (OR 2.59) with "Descent below the MDA/failure to execute the missed approach" representing the largest sub-category. Accidents in multi-engine aircraft are more frequent than their single engine counterparts and the decline (50%) in the turbine aircraft accident rate over the study period was likely due, in part, to a 6-fold increased representation of single engine airplanes. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify novel precursive factors for accidents involving turbine aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. This research highlights areas that should receive further emphasis in training/recurrency in a pre-emptive attempt to nullify candidate accident-precipitating factor(s). PMID:26590507

  17. The contribution of human factors to accidents in the offshore oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents such as the Piper Alpha disaster illustrate that the performance of a highly complex socio-technical system, is dependent upon the interaction of technical, human, social, organisational, managerial and environmental factors and that these factors can be important co-contributors that could potentially lead to a catastrophic event. The purpose of this article is to give readers an overview of how human factors contribute to accidents in the offshore oil industry. An introduction to human errors and how they relate to human factors in general terms is given. From here the article discusses some of the human factors which were found to influence safety in other industries and describes the human factors codes used in accident reporting forms in the aviation, nuclear and marine industries. Analysis of 25 accident reporting forms from offshore oil companies in the UK sector of the North Sea was undertaken in relation to the human factors. Suggestions on how these accident reporting forms could be improved are given. Finally, this article describes the methods by which accidents can be reduced by focusing on the human factors, such as feedback from accident reporting in the oil industry, auditing of unsafe acts and auditing of latent failures

  18. The microburst: Common factor in recent aircraft accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracena, F.

    1980-01-01

    The phenomenology of one class of strong thunderstorm downdrafts, microbursts, is described. Several aircraft accidents are analyzed in which a microburst was involved and a concept for an early warning wind shear sensor is presented.

  19. Factors influencing the public intention to use renewable energy technologies in South Korea: Effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima accident has influenced public attitudes toward energy sources and technologies, including not only nuclear energy, but also other energy sources. Therefore, it is worth investigating how the accident influenced public perceptions of renewable energy and its technologies, between the time before the accident and after the accident. This study aims to explore the effects of the Fukushima accident on the public perceptions of renewable energy technologies in South Korea, the closest nation to Japan. This study found that there were notable differences of public perceptions, including public attitudes, perceived benefits, trust, intention to use, knowledge and risks between before and after the earthquake. In addition, the perceived cost of renewable energy technologies was the primary determinant of the intention to use the technologies before the accident, whereas public attitudes toward the technologies became the main antecedents of the intention after the accident. After the accident, we found that there is a multi-dimensional matrix of perceived trust-benefits (with risks)-attitude-intention to use, in explaining the public acceptance of renewable energy technologies. Moreover, we found significant roles of the perceived trust, benefits and risks in the research model. Based on the empirical findings, both implications and suggestions are presented. - highlights: • The factors influence public intention to employ renewable energy technologies. • Fukushima accident made significant differences of public perceptions. • Perceived benefits and risks are employed as key determinants of public attitude. • Perceived cost and attitude are found as antecedents of the intention to use. • Perceived trust is a notable motivation of public perceptions

  20. Fatigue failure of metal components as a factor in civil aircraft accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holshouser, W. L.; Mayner, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    A review of records maintained by the National Transportation Safety Board showed that 16,054 civil aviation accidents occurred in the United States during the 3-year period ending December 31, 1969. Material failure was an important factor in the cause of 942 of these accidents. Fatigue was identified as the mode of the material failures associated with the cause of 155 accidents and in many other accidents the records indicated that fatigue failures might have been involved. There were 27 fatal accidents and 157 fatalities in accidents in which fatigue failures of metal components were definitely identified. Fatigue failures associated with accidents occurred most frequently in landing-gear components, followed in order by powerplant, propeller, and structural components in fixed-wing aircraft and tail-rotor and main-rotor components in rotorcraft. In a study of 230 laboratory reports on failed components associated with the cause of accidents, fatigue was identified as the mode of failure in more than 60 percent of the failed components. The most frequently identified cause of fatigue, as well as most other types of material failures, was improper maintenance (including inadequate inspection). Fabrication defects, design deficiencies, defective material, and abnormal service damage also caused many fatigue failures. Four case histories of major accidents are included in the paper as illustrations of some of the factors invovled in fatigue failures of aircraft components.

  1. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress

  2. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress.

  3. Program of long term immunological monitoring of population groups exposed to risk factors due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Program for long-term monitoring of health and immune status of people exposed to ionizing radiation during efforts to to eliminate effects of Chernobyl accident and those subjected to radiation factor effect linked with their living within the contanimated territories is considered. Program purpose consists in investigation into non-stochastic and stochastic immunological effects resulting from radiation factor effect under extreme conditions and under prolonged effect of low doses; in acquisition of new data on immune system state during early after the accident and delayed periods in people which took part in recovery efforts during the accident effect elimination and those who live within the controlled territories. Program is directed to early diagnostics of immune-depented pathologic states and other disfunctions of immunity during prenosologic period, and to development and conduction of combined preventive and treatment-and-sanitary measures using immunomodulation

  4. Investigation on the characteristics of criticality accident detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear fuel manufacturing and spent fuel reprocessing, a variety of safety devices must be prepared to prevent criticality accidents because it is very important for security. In order to examine the detection limits and the response time of criticality alarm systems, the tests have been carried out for simulating criticality accidents in unsteady state operation (prompt subcritical) and reactivity injection pulse operation (prompt critical) of the nuclear engineering research facility ''Yayoi'', in the Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo. The criticality accident detectors installed presently in the Tokai reprocessing facility of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel. Development Corp. are two types of γ-ray and neutron beam detectors. The γ-ray detector uses a plastic scintillator, and the neutron beam detector is an enriched uranium target coupled with a junction diode both wrapped with aluminum and inserted into the center of plexiglas (moderator). The γ-ray detector fully follows the reactor output change, and generates alarm in a complex radiation field of γ-ray and neutrons. In the tests of reactivity pulse operation mode, it generates alarm signal in the time lag of within 400 μs after passing the alarm threshold, even for a spike as high as completely saturating it. This time lag causes no problem because it is sufficiently small as compared with the actual audio or visual alarm lag of 30 ms. The neutron detector causes counting loss in high count-rate, and thus it is found difficult to confirm the exact threshold point or time lag. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Second Workshop on the Investigation and Reporting of Incidents and Accidents, IRIA 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Compiler); Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    This publication consists of papers presented at the Second Workshop on the Investigation and Reporting of Incidents and Accidents, IRIA 2003, sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and the University of Virginia.

  6. Scoping Study Investigating PWR Instrumentation during a Severe Accident Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempe, J. L. [Rempe and Associates, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knudson, D. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lutz, R. J. [Lutz Nuclear Safety Consultant, LLC, Asheville, NC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The accidents at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3 nuclear power plants demonstrate the critical importance of accurate, relevant, and timely information on the status of reactor systems during a severe accident. These events also highlight the critical importance of understanding and focusing on the key elements of system status information in an environment where operators may be overwhelmed with superfluous and sometimes conflicting data. While progress in these areas has been made since TMI-2, the events at Fukushima suggests that there may still be a potential need to ensure that critical plant information is available to plant operators. Recognizing the significant technical and economic challenges associated with plant modifications, it is important to focus on instrumentation that can address these information critical needs. As part of a program initiated by the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), a scoping effort was initiated to assess critical information needs identified for severe accident management and mitigation in commercial Light Water Reactors (LWRs), to quantify the environment instruments monitoring this data would have to survive, and to identify gaps where predicted environments exceed instrumentation qualification envelop (QE) limits. Results from the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) scoping evaluations are documented in this report. The PWR evaluations were limited in this scoping evaluation to quantifying the environmental conditions for an unmitigated Short-Term Station BlackOut (STSBO) sequence in one unit at the Surry nuclear power station. Results were obtained using the MELCOR models developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored State of the Art Consequence Assessment (SOARCA) program project. Results from this scoping evaluation indicate that some instrumentation identified to provide critical information would be exposed to conditions that significantly exceeded QE limits for extended time periods for the low frequency STSBO sequence evaluated in this study. It is recognized that the core damage frequency (CDF) of the sequence evaluated in this scoping effort would be considerably lower if evaluations considered new FLEX equipment being installed by industry. Nevertheless, because of uncertainties in instrumentation response when exposed to conditions beyond QE limits and alternate challenges associated with different sequences that may impact sensor performance, it is recommended that additional evaluations of instrumentation performance be completed to provide confidence that operators have access to accurate, relevant, and timely information on the status of reactor systems for a broad range of challenges associated with risk important severe accident sequences.

  7. Accident risk and factors regarding non-motorised road users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of all traffic fatalities worldwide are non-motorised road users (NMRUs). In Denmark, the number has increased with about 30%. NMRUs consist of about 63% of the injured in the Danish traffic. Much has been done to reduce the number of injured NMRUs with counterparts, while little effort is put into the reduction of the vast majority of the accidents, NMRU single accidents, which are about 90% of all injured NMRUs. There are no efficient tools available to reduce this number. A signif...

  8. An analysis on human factor issues in criticality accident at a uranium processing plant. Pt. 2. A study on organizational factors contributing to the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At 10:35 September 30th 1999, a criticality accident occurred in a uranium processing plant in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture, Japan during a job to make uranium solution. 150 people were exposed to the radiation. Two of three workers who have engaged in the job and were exposed to a massive dosage of radiation died of multi organ failures on 83 days and 210 days after the accident, respectively. The authors revealed in the former report (S99001) several latent factors contributing to pouring some 16 kg-U into the precipitation tank. It suggests some organizational factors played significant roles in this accident. Therefore, this report discusses organizational factors of this accident. As a result, this accident is heavily contributed by (1) company executives/managers' biased decision making giving emphasis on productivity or cost-effectiveness, (2) inappropriate process management, labor management and document management and (3) an organizational culture allowing them not to always follow rules. This report also proposes the directions of countermeasures to reestablish nuclear safety. (author)

  9. The official report of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 2011, the Act regarding Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission was enacted to investigate the Fukushima accident with the authority to request documents and request the legislative branch to use its investigative powers to obtain any necessary documents or evidence required. In December 2011, chairman and nine other members were appointed. After a six-month investigation, Commission had concluded. 'In order to prevent future disasters, fundamental reforms must take place covering both the structure of electric power industry and the structure of related government and regulatory agencies as well as operation processes, for both normal and emergency situations'. Main parts of report consisted of overview, conclusions and recommendations, and six findings; (1) was the accident preventable?, (2) Escalation of the accident, (3) Emergency response to the accident, (4) Spread of the damage, (5) Organizational issues in accident prevention and response and (6) the legal system. Based on the above findings, Commission made seven recommendations regarding (1) Monitoring of the nuclear regulatory body by the National Diet, (2) Reform the crisis management system, (3) Government responsibility for public health and welfare, (4) Monitoring the operators, (5) Criteria for the new regulatory body, (6) Reforming laws related to nuclear energy and (7) Develop a system of independent investigation commissions. National Diet's thorough debate and deliberate on these recommendation was highly encouraged for the future. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Authority investigations of the effects of Chernobylsk reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Official activities of the Health Physics Department of the Public Health Administration (KOEJAL), Budapest during and after the Chernobylsk reactor accident comprised the organization of improved environmental control services, the information of the population and the dosimetric control of certain objectives, foodstuffs passed to the institute and of persons returned from the Soviet Union. To determine the outer and inner radiation exposure of the population in Hungary wide-spread in-situ and laboratory measurements were carried out. The surface contamination and the dose rates were determined at different sites. Till the end of 1986 more than 1000 samples including aerosol, fallout, surface and drinking water, soil, plant, milk, milk-product and meat samples were taken and analysed. The institute played an important coordinative role in sampling, sample distribution among other institutes and in the evaluation of the radiation situation of the country. (V.N.) 7 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. The crisis of investigative Journalism in Spain. The journalism practice in the Spanair accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente García-Santamaría, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The crash of the McDonnell Douglas plane operated by the Spanish airline Spanair, on 20 August 2008 at Barajas Airport, and the journalistic treatment it received undoubtedly represent a unique opportunity to address the current state of journalism in Spain. In particular, this article studies the use of information sources in a crisis situation, which requires a major effort to find the maximum number of primary and specialised sources to provide, in a short period of time, the audience with the key facts to understand the event. This accident also represents an excellent opportunity to study some practices within investigative journalism and the different factors that condition the media agenda. Finally, as in any other air tragedy, where millionaire compensations can be paid to the victims, it is important to examine the application of a series of ethical frameworks, which have been captured in deontological codes designed to assure fair journalistic practices.

  12. Study of Psycho-Social Factors Affecting Traffic Accidents Among Young Boys in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Unprecedented growth of fatalities due to traffic accidents in the recent years has raised great concerns and efforts of authorities in order to identify and control the causes of these accidents. Objectives In the present study, the contribution of psychological, social, demographic, environmental and behavioral factors on traffic accidents was studied for young boys in Tehran, emphasizing the importance of psychosocial factors. Patients and Methods The design of the present study was quantitative (correlational in which a sample population including 253 boys from Tehran (Iran with an age range of 18 to 24 who had been referred to insurance institutions, hospitals, correctional facilities as well as prisons, were selected using stratified cluster sampling during the year 2013.The subjects completed the following questionnaires: demographic, general health, lifestyle, Manchester Driving Behavior Questionnaire (MDBQ, young parenting, and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient, and inferential statistics including simultaneous regression, stepwise regression, and structural equations modeling were used. Results The findings indicated that in the psychosocial model of driving behavior (including lapses, mistakes, and intentional violations and accidents, psychological factors, depression (P < 0.02, personality trait of conscientiousness (P < 0.02, failure schema due to the parenting style of mother (P = 0.001, and perception of police commands (P < 0.002, played an important role in predicting driving behavior. Among social factors, perception of police regulations (P = 0.003, had an important effect on violations and mistakes. Among environmental and behavioral factors, major factors such as driving age (P = 0.001, drug and alcohol use (P = 0.001, having driver’s license (P = 0.013, records of imprisonment or committing a crime (P = 0.012 were also able to predict occurrence of accidents. Conclusions As the results of this study show, different factors contribute to different driving behaviors and accidents. The broad scope of these factors links accidents to other social issues and damages.

  13. Initial investigations of SNS target facility accident source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a Department of Energy, accelerator-based neutron source proposed for construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The project is currently nearing the end of the conceptual design stage. The objective of the target facility is to provide beams of pulsed thermal and sub-thermal neutrons for research purposes. The neutrons are created by the action of highly energetic protons (? 1 GeV) on a mercury target. The proton beam power will be 1 MW with planned upgrades to 2 MW and, eventually, to 4 MW. Over the course of facility life, significant inventories of spallation and activation products will build up in the target mercury. Accordingly, the facility is being designed to prevent or minimize potential environmental source terms. The results of calculations of the SNS target mercury radionuclide inventories and the characteristics of the dominant radionuclides are presented. The effect of the activation/spallation product chemical and physical characteristics on dispersability is discussed. Energy sources that could drive potential releases, credible initiating events and facility preventive and mitigative features are described. The source term for the limiting extremely unlikely mercury spill accident scenario is presented. These results support the conclusion that the facility has a low hazard profile with regard to the accidental release of radioactive material

  14. Accident investigation: Analysis of aircraft motions from ATC radar recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A technique was developed for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from air traffic control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data (from an onboard Mode-C transponder), to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, thrust-drag, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This method of analyzing aircraft motions was evaluated through flight experiments which used the CV-990 research aircraft and recordings from both the enroute and terminal ATC radar systems. The results indicate that the values derived from the ATC radar records are for the most part in good agreement with the corresponding values obtained from airborne measurements. In an actual accident, this analysis of ATC radar records can complement the flight-data recorders, now onboard airliners, and provide a source of recorded information for other types of aircraft that are equipped with Mode-C transponders but not with onboard recorders.

  15. Use of CCTV to determine road accident factors in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conche, Florence; Tight, Miles

    2006-11-01

    This paper sets out to assess whether there is a potential use for images collected through the increasingly ubiquitous use of CCTV cameras in urban areas as a means of increasing understanding of the causes of road traffic accidents. Information on causation and contributory factors is essential as a means of understanding why accidents occurred and how the occurrence of similar events may be prevented in the future. CCTV records of accidents could provide an independent perspective on an accident and have the potential to increase both the quality and quantity of information available to the safety researcher. This study focuses on an area of central Leeds in the UK and shows that an existing CCTV camera system used for urban traffic management reasons has the potential to record around a quarter of the accidents which occur in the area, based on patterns of past occurrence. Most city centres in the UK will have similar camera systems set-up. By the introduction of additional strategically placed cameras and replacement of existing cameras with ones dedicated to accident recording, this figure could be increased substantially. The paper also considers how effective cameras and video records will be as a means of identifying contributory factor information once an accident is recorded. The contributory factor classification used by a recently introduced system in Britain is assessed in terms of how visible each of the factors is likely to be on video and their relative frequency of occurrence. It is concluded that CCTV has a high potential to provide corroborative evidence about many of the most commonly occurring factors, and to throw further light on accident causation. PMID:16824454

  16. Return to work following road accidents: factors associated with late work resumption

    OpenAIRE

    FORT,E; BOUFFARD,E; Charnay, P; Bernard, M.; BOISSON,D; Laumon, B.; HOURS, M

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyse factors associated with late return to work in road accident victims. Materials and methods: The ESPARR cohort comprises road accident victims monitored over time from initiation of hospital care. A total of 608 ESPARR cohort subjects were working at the time of their accident and answered questionnaires at 6 months and/or 1 year. For each level of overall severity of injury (Maximum - Abbreviated Injury Scale (M-AIS) 1, 2, 3 and 4-5), a time-off-work threshold was defin...

  17. Psychological and social factors influencing the choice of strategy after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the post-accident situation in Chernobyl provides information that focuses on social and psychological factors in the management of nuclear accidents. This paper concentrates on the short term countermeasures. It presents the main conclusions of a field survey carried out in Ukraine. The issues talked are the concern about extend of post-response in Chernobyl, the worries over health, contamination, the concern over the future and the complexity of post-accident situation. In a second part, the paper analyses and models the factors that caused the 1993 post-accident situation. Finally, several advices are given concerning the public information and behaviour focusing on the social and psychological aspect of short-term decisions (a constant effort should always be, for example, limiting the element of surprise in order to reduce the stress of population). (TEC). 3 figs

  18. CFD investigating the air ingress accident for a HTGR simulation of graphite corrosion oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A CFD model is proposed to investigate graphite oxidation corrosion in the HTR-10. ► A postulated air ingress accident is assumed in this paper. ► Air ingress flowrate is the predicted result, instead of the preset one. ► O2 would react with graphite on pebble surface, causing the graphite corrosion. ► No fuel exposure is predicted to be occurred under the air ingress accident. - Abstract: Through a compressible multi-component CFD model, this paper investigates the characteristics of graphite oxidation corrosion in the HTR-10 core under the postulated accident of gas duct rupture. In this accident, air in the steam generator cavity would enter into the core after pressure equilibrium is achieved between the core and the cavity, which is also called as the air ingress accident. Oxygen in the air would react with graphite on pebble surface, subsequently resulting in oxidation corrosion and challenging fuel integrity. In this paper, characteristics of graphite oxidation corrosion during the air ingress accident can be reasonably captured, including distributions of graphite corrosion amount on the different cross-sections, time histories of local corrosion amount at the monitoring points and overall corrosion amount in the core, respectively. Based on the transient simulation results, the corrosion pattern and its corrosion rate would approach to the steady-state conditions as the accident continuously progresses. The total amount of graphite corrosion during a 3-day accident time is predicted to be about 31 kg with the predicted asymptotic corrosion rate. This predicted value is less than that from the previous work of Gao and Shi.

  19. 48 CFR 252.228-7005 - Accident reporting and investigation involving aircraft, missiles, and space launch vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... following clause: Accident Reporting and Investigation Involving Aircraft, Missiles, and Space Launch... pertinent facts relating to each accident involving an aircraft, missile, or space launch vehicle being... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reporting...

  20. Preliminary thermal-hydraulic phenomena investigation during total instantaneous blockage accident for CEFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China)]. E-mail: 1wz@sjtu.edu.cn; Cao, X.W. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2007-08-15

    The Chinese Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is under installation and commissioning right now. It is essential to investigate core disruptive accidents (CDAs) for the evaluation of CEFR's safety characteristic. As part-I preliminary investigation, accident of total instantaneous blockage (TIB) in single subassembly scale is modeled and analyzed. The degradation scenario has been calculated by a fluid-dynamics analysis code for liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs). For further investigation of accident process and influence to the neighboring bundles, seven subassembly domain is then simulated and calculated as part-II investigation. Total instantaneous blockage is assumed to occur in the center subassembly under normal operating conditions and consequences to neighboring assemblies are studied. The result shows that the key events, such as sodium boiling, clad melting, fuel particles relocation, hexcan melt-through and melt propagation into neighboring six assemblies symmetrically are adequately simulated. From comparison and discussion of the CEFR's results with the SCARABEE tests and Superphenix (SPX1)-type reactor simulation, it is concluded that all the key events appear in the same sequence whereas the propagation is limited in neighboring six assemblies. The discrepancy is probably due to less fuel inventory and better cooling capacity in CEFR subassembly design. TIB calculations help to give a better understanding and prediction of hypothetical accident scenario in subassembly blockage accidents for CEFR.

  1. Review of the TMI-2 accident evaluation and vessel investigation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Programme and the Vessel Investigation Project have been reviewed as part of a literature study on core meltdown and in-vessel coolability. The emphasis is placed on the late phase melt progression, which is of special relevance to the NKS-sponsored RAK-2.1 project on Severe Accident Phenomenology. The body of the report comprises three main sections, The TMI-2 Accident Scenario, Core Region and Relocation Path Investigations, and Lower Head Investigations. In the final discussion, the lower head gap formation mechanism is explained in terms of thermal contraction and fracturing of the debris crust. This model seems more plausible than the MAAP model based on creep expansion of the lower head. (au)

  2. INVESTIGATION OF THE CAUSES OF MARITIME ACCIDENTS IN THE INLAND WATERWAYS OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rabiul Islam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water transport is the proven cheapest and safest mode of transportation but it is the agent of catastrophe in Bangladesh. The overall scenario of Bangladesh inland water transport has been studied. The form of occurrences of maritime accidents in the inland waterways of Bangladesh may be categorized based on mode of failure. Data analysis of major accidents shows that prevention of passenger vessels’ accident will drastically reduce the number of casualties in Bangladesh Inland Waterways where the two repeatedly reported causes of accidents are overloading and inclement weather. Literature review shows that analyses were carried out mostly to investigate the mechanism of capsizing due to violation of “The Inland Shipping Laws and Rules”. To enlighten the roles of professionals like Naval Architects and Law Enforcing Agencies, the reasons behind the accidents in Bangladesh Inland Waterways have been simplified and the nature of actions required for preventing the accidents have been identified from practical point of view. The effect of consideration of overloading condition and higher wind pressure in design has been studied and found that it will have adverse effect on the socio-economical condition of Bangladesh. Role of proper design and construction has been identified by dividing the accidental phenomenon into two phases, capsizing and sinking of vessels.

  3. Knowledge gained from hazard studies and accidents investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Lefin, Yves; Mavrothalassitis, Guy; Pineau, Jean-Philippe

    1993-01-01

    According to the European Directive related to the prevention of major technological hazards, in France, individual hazards investigation are generally carried out for each individual facility and, according to French regulations, three different reports may be issued

  4. Nuclear aerosol transport correlations: Comparisons with data, shape factors, and accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of the fission product mass is transported as an aerosol in severe nuclear reactor core melt accidents. Thus, accurate modeling of aerosol behavior is an important aspect of predicting the consequences of a core melt accident. The modeling of fission product transport as an aerosol has evolved along two paths. Detailed separate effects computer calculations (i.e. TRAPMELT, NAUA, CONTAIN, QUICK computer codes) which directly solve the integro-differential equation of aerosol agglomeration and deposition. Some integral analysis severe accident codes in development are also using the direct solution approach. The second approach to the solution of aerosol physics problems in severe accident analysis is the so-called correlation scheme incorporated in the MAAP accident analysis code. The use of the correlation method results in an efficient procedure for coupling aerosol behavior with the hydraulics of an accident sequence, and one that apparently has a numerical accuracy that is within the spread in predictions by the various direct numerical (sectional) methods. In the present paper the authors wish to briefly review the correlation method and report on further developments and implications of the method, with emphasis on as yet unpublished comparisons with experimental data, a simple methodology for estimating aerosol shape factors; and a comparison between a direct numerical attack of the aerosol transport equations and the correlation method for aerosol behavior in the primary system of a nuclear power plant under severe accident conditions

  5. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from cytogenetic investigations into 55 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1977 are reviewed. This report is the seventh in an annual series (previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35, R41 and R57) which together contain data on 327 studies. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. Two cases are described in more detail: the first concerned a non-classified worker who put an iridium-192 source in his pocket and took it home; and the second involved the accidental contamination of two people with tritium gas. In a second appendix, the confidence limits on cytogenetic dosimetry for X- and ?-ray over-exposures are given and the derivation of these limits is discussed. (author)

  6. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Factors in Major Maritime Accidents in the USA and Canada (1996-2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C, M.

    2007-01-01

    Accident reports provide important insights into the causes and contributory factors leading to particular adverse events. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis that extends across the findings presented over ten years investigations into maritime accidents by both the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and Canadian Transportation Safety Board (TSB). The purpose of the study was to assess the comparative frequency of a range of causal factors in the reporting of adverse events. In order to communicate our findings, we introduce J-H graphs as a means of representing the proportion of causes and contributory factors associated with human error, equipment failure and other high level classifications in longitudinal studies of accident reports. Our results suggest the proportion of causal and contributory factors attributable to direct human error may be very much smaller than has been suggested elsewhere in the human factors literature. In contrast, more attention should be paid to wider systemic issues, including the managerial and regulatory context of maritime operations.

  7. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Factors in Major Maritime Accidents in the USA and Canada (1996-2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C. M.

    Accident reports provide important insights into the causes and contributory factors leading to particular adverse events. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis that extends across the findings presented over ten years investigations into maritime accidents by both the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and Canadian Transportation Safety Board (TSB). The purpose of the study was to assess the comparative frequency of a range of causal factors in the reporting of adverse events. In order to communicate our findings, we introduce J-H graphs as a means of representing the proportion of causes and contributory factors associated with human error, equipment failure and other high level classifications in longitudinal studies of accident reports. Our results suggest the proportion of causal and contributory factors attributable to direct human error may be very much smaller than has been suggested elsewhere in the human factors literature. In contrast, more attention should be paid to wider systemic issues, including the managerial and regulatory context of maritime operations.

  8. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and intractable, and methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. The number of methods in each group were four, three, zero, and two, respectively. Faced with the need to investigate an accident it is essential that the chosen method is appropriate for the system and the situation. Nuclear power plants considered as systems are tightly coupled and more or less intractable and therefore require accident models and accident investigation methods that are capable of accounting for these features. If an accident concerns the NPP operation as a whole, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. If an accident only concerns the operation of a subsystem or a component, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, or possible loosely coupled and tractable. The report provides a proposal for how these characteristics can be determined. The conclusion is that no specific method is the overall best in the sense that it can be used for all conditions. While it may be convenient, or even necessary, for an organisation to adopt a specific method as its standard, this should always be done knowingly and with a willingness to reconsider the choice when the conditions so demand it. In five or ten years we must expect that the methods developed today will have been partly obsolete, not because the methods change but because the nature of socio-technical systems, and therefore the nature of accidents, do

  9. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: analysis of driver-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moafian Ghasem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ?Abstract?Objective: Road traffic accident (RTA and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran. This paper explores the as-sociation between driver-related factors and RTA in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20, 2010 to June 10, 2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department. We included 538 588 RTA records, which were classified to control for the main confounders: accident type, final cause of accident, time of accident and driver-related factors. Driver-related factors included sex, educational level, license type, type of injury, duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver’s error type. Results: A total of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male, sex ratio of almost 13:1 were involved in the RTAs. Among them 423 932 (78.71% were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74% had a diploma degree. Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811, 54.00%. The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59 (75 024, 13.93%. The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years’ of driving experience. Ne-glect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589, 64.17%. Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175, 25.66% and 129 352, 24.02%, respectively. We found significant association between type of acci-dent and sex, education, license type, time of accident, final cause of accident, driver’s error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001. Conclusion: Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures, which will change inappropriate be-havior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Automobile driving; Wounds and injuries; Mortality; Iran

  10. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from cytogenetic investigations into 66 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1976 are reviewed. This report is the sixth in an annual series which together contain data on 272 studies. Previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35 and R41. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. A short review is given of the laboratory's recently published dose response data for several energies of neutron radiation. A description is also given of the group's collaboration in an international experiment in which comparisons were made between a variety of dosemeters exposed to a controlled criticality pulse. In a second appendix two experiments are described in which inter- and intra-donor effects on chromosome aberration yields were examined. It was found that differences in dicentric yields were small whereas acentric aberrations were more variable. (author)

  11. Importance Degree Evaluation of the Affecting Factors on Exhibition Security Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of exhibition security accidents is the result of the mutual coupling factors of "man-machine-environment-management". This study is going to elaborate 11 influencing factors of exhibition security accidents from four aspects, i.e., man, mechanical equipment, environment and management. With the help of grey relational analysis, this study evaluates the importance degree of the affecting factors in exhibitions. The result shows that affecting factors of facilities and equipments failure is of the greatest importance degree and site maintenance personnel, site design, building material quality are the secondary important factors; another important factors are safety management body, social environment, activity organization management, safety management system, natural environment and event participant behavior which are considered as the third important ones. Evaluation of the importance degree of affecting factors on exhibition security incidents will provide a theoretical basis for exhibition security control.

  12. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are reviewed from investigations during 1979 into 82 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation. Of these 45 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations, and 26 with an institution of research, education or health. 83% of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0-0.09 Gy (0-9 rad), and 17% in the range 0.1-0.29 Gy (10-29 rad). These data are compared with data obtained by physical dosimetry, and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each over-exposure, or suspected over-exposure. (author)

  13. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are reviewed from investigations during 1980 into 68 cases of suspected overexposure to radiation. Of these, 37 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations and 20 with an institution of research, education or health. 55 of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0 - 0.09 Gy (0 - 9 rad) 5 in the range 0.1 - 0.29 Gy (10 - 29 rad) and for various reasons in 8 cases no biological assessment of dose was possible. The dose estimate for the case with the highest confirmed overexposure was 0.22 Gy (22 rads). The chromosome data are compared with information obtained from physical dosimetry and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each case. (author)

  14. Investigation of evaluation method for marine radiological impact during an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2012, JNES investigated the evaluation method, long-term seawater and marine deposition for release and diffusion to the ocean at the accident, and marine impact assessment code, in Japan and overseas. Also, the foreign regulations for marine radiological impact (direct release to ocean from the facilities and fallout on marine, etc.) were investigated. Furthermore, the index (e.g., intervention level) at emergency control in USA and Europe were investigated. (author)

  15. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

  16. Investigation and evaluation for environmental impact at Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2012, JNES investigated the weather data and the environmental monitoring data and constructed the method to specify contribution of the environmental impact from each plant based on the dose analysis result at Unit 1-3 of Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. JNES calculated the dose rate in an accident early stage based on analysis of a monitoring data. Moreover, JNES evaluated the dose by additional release of the radioactive material in case of assuming the loss of coolant injection to a nuclear reactor by the request of NISA. (author)

  17. Experimental investigations on vessel-hole ablation during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents experimental results, and subsequent analyses, of scaled reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure site ablation tests conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Power Safety (RIT/NPS). The goal of the test program is to reduce the uncertainty level associated with the phase-change-ablation process, and, thus, improve the characterization of the melt discharge loading on the containment. In a series of moderate temperature experiments, the corium melt is simulated by the binary oxide CaO-B2O3 or the binary eutectic and non-eutectic salts NaNO3-KNO3, while the RPV head steel is represented by a Pb, Sn or metal alloys plate. A complementary set of experiments was conducted at lower temperatures, using water as melt and salted ice as plate material. These experiments scale well to the postulated prototypical conditions. The multidimensional code HAMISA, developed at RIT/NPS, is employed to analyze the experiments with good pre- and post-test predictions. The effects of melt viscosity and crust surface roughness, along with failure site entrance and exit frictional losses on the ablation characteristics are investigated. Theoretical concept was proposed to describe physical mechanisms which govern the vessel-hole ablation process during core melt discharge from RPV. Experimental data obtained from hole ablation tests and separate-effect tests performed at RIT/NPS were used to validate component physical models of the HAMISA code. It is believed that the hole ablation phenomenology is quite well understood. Detailed description of experiments and experimental data, as well as results of analyses are provided in the appendixes

  18. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, A.L., E-mail: alsousa@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, A.C.O., E-mail: antonio.ribeiro@bayer.com [Bayer Crop Science Brasil S.A., Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, J.P., E-mail: julianapduarte@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F., E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COOPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

  19. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

  20. Links between accidents and lifestyle factors among Lithuanian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkuviene, Skirmante; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate associations of some lifestyle factors with injuries among schoolchildren. Analysis was performed using data from the survey conducted in 2002 according to the methods of World Health Organization Cross-National Study on Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC). Using stratified random sampling, the representative sample of 5645 schoolchildren aged 11, 13, and 15 years from 104 schools of Lithuania was drawn and surveyed. Associations between potential risk factors and injuries among schoolchildren were evaluated calculating odds ratio and its 95% confidence intervals. For the evaluation of the impact of explanatory variables on analyzed event, logistic regression analysis was performed. Behavioral, psychological, and social integration factors were associated with the risk to sustain injuries among school-aged children. The impact of these factors varied within subgroups of schoolchildren by grade and sex. The most significant factors were: risk-taking behavior (smoking, alcohol and drug consumption, premature sexual activity), frequent participation in sport activities, involvement in physical fight, longer time spent away from home with friends, experienced bullying, poor self-assessed health and academic achievement, unhappiness, feeling unsafe at school, and high suicidal risk. Analysis failed to identify an expected association between lower socio-economic status and risk for injury. Integrated approach to injury etiology is essential in planning injury prevention and safety promotion activities among schoolchildren, paying particular attention to lifestyle factors, which can have the potential influence on risk to sustain injuries. PMID:15687754

  1. An investigation of core liquid level depression in small break loss-of-coolant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core liquid level depression can result in partial core dryout and heatup early in a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) transient. Such behavior occurs when steam, trapped in the upper regions of the reactor primary system (between the loop seal and the core inventory), moves coolant out of the core region and uncovers the rod upper elevations. The net result is core liquid level depression. Core liquid level depression and subsequent core heatups are investigated using subscale data from the ROSA-IV Program's 1/48-scale Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and the 1/1705-scale Semiscale facility. Both facilities are Westinghouse-type, four-loop, pressurized water reactor simulators. The depression phenomena and factors which influence the minimum core level are described and illustrated using examples from the data. Analyses of the subject experiments, conducted using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 (Version 12.7) thermal-hydraulic code, are also described and summarized. Finally, the response of a typical Westinghouse four-loop plant (RESAR-3S) was calculated to qualitatively study coal liquid level depression in a full-scale system. 31 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs

  2. CFD investigating the air ingress accident occurred in a HTGRsimulation of thermal-hydraulic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► 3-D compressible CFD model is proposed to study air ingress phenomena for a HTR-10. ► A LOCA with a double-ended rupture of gas duck tube is assumed. ► In LOCA, air in the SG cavity enters the core via diffusion and natural convection. ► O2 will react with graphite on pebble surface, causing the generation of CO2 and CO. ► Peak coolant temperature during air ingress is slightly higher than that in the normal condition. - Abstract: The majority of this paper investigates thermal-hydraulic characteristics in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) core under steady-state and accident conditions through a transient three-dimensional compressible CFD model. With the pebble-bed geometry, the HTR-10 core is selected for the present simulations. A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with double-ended rupture of a gas duct tube is assumed and the core power would decay following this accident. In this LOCA, air in the steam generator cavity would enter the core via diffusion and natural convection mechanisms. Following air ingress into the core, O2 would react with graphite on pebble surface, causing the generation of CO2 and CO. The main thermal-hydraulic characteristics during this air ingress accident include O2 ingress into the core, CO2 and CO production histories, He concentration variations, and coolant temperature transient behavior, etc. Based on the present simulation results, the peak coolant temperature during the air ingress accident is slightly higher than that under the steady-state condition, revealing the safety of HTR-10 core in this postulated accident from the thermal point of view. In addition, corrosion phenomena related to the fuel pebbles are discussed and presented in the next paper.

  3. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident's causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62)

  4. Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1?) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author)

  5. Critical review on what factors affected the evolution of the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on why the Fukushima disaster caused such different outcomes at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS) and the Fukushima Daini NPS, although both NPSs were hit by the largest tsunami in Japanese historical records and are located only 10 km apart. First, the authors' study classifies the progression of the Fukushima accident into four phases: Phase I (between earthquake occurrence and tsunami inundation), Phase II (after tsunami inundation), Phase III (efforts at restoration) and Phase IV (recovery from harsh conditions), in order to clarify the difference in the accident progression in each unit of both NPSs. The course of the accident's evolution at each unit is compared to derive the differences of mechanical and human factors which affected the accident's progression. Second, the differences of both factors are reviewed from resilience engineering perspectives to know what factors are important to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. As the conclusions of this critical review, it can be said that: (1) the system, structures and components of NPS are systematically designed, manufactured and maintained to perform the intended functions for expected events, however they have limitations to cope with unexpected events, and (2) the plant personnel can respond to such situations successfully by changing their approach flexibly in a number of ways. (author)

  6. Factors contributing to industrial accidents during coal mining operations. [Bulgaria: 1978 and 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedyalkova, N.

    1980-01-01

    Four hundred cases of severe industrial traumas from 1978 to 1979 were analyzed on a computer. The information was coded into four groups, characterizing the human undergoing the trauma, the time of the event, the working environment and the equipment involved, the causes of the accident (objective and subjective with respect to the victim). Eighty-six variables (values) of two types were input into the computer: quantitative (age, length of service at that job and in the profession, the month, date, day, hour and shift); categorical (profession- 11 subgroups; place of the event- 12 subgroups; work being done at the time of the event- 12 subgroups; indirect cause of the accident- 10 subgroups; circumstances of the accident- 11 subgroups; objective 15 subgroups and subjective- 7 subgroups of causes with respect to the victim). Ten factors were identified which lead to industrial accidents (By level of importance); poor dicipline, work shift, profession, date of the month, mine transport, poor instruction, unsafe work place, length of service, month of the year, poor organization of the work place. The following conclusions were made on the basis of these results: 1) poor discipline is undoubtably a primary factor in work safety; In a narrow context, it is connected with insufficient knowledge and lack of expertise, inability to work safely, poor control and organization of the work place; 48% of industrial accidents occur among stope miners and timbermen; 27% among transport workers; 2) 50% of the accidents occurred during the first shift, 16% between 11 and 12 o'clock; 3) 39.5% occurred at the end of the month; 4) 39% occurred due to insufficient and poor quality instruction, lack of necessary expertise and the ability to work safely.

  7. [The Incidence and Risk Factors of the Home Accidents in the Househoulds with Low Socioeconomic Level in Kocaeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervin Sahiner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: AIM: This study aimed to determine the incidence of home accidents in the households with low socioeconomic level who preferred in single flat or duplex and the risk factor related to house and sociodemographic characteristics. METHOD: The prospective cohort study. The universe of the survey composed of 419 households (N=1539 persons both with single flat and duplex house located at the “42 Evler” region of Izmit district of the Kocaeli province. The questionaries included “The Sociodemographic Characteristics of the Households” and “The Characteristics and Reasons of the Home Accidents.” The data were collected with face to face tecniques by home visits of households between November 28, 2008 and April 2, 2009. After the first form were filled, each household was followed up three months for home accidents. RESULTS: Twenty-seven of the households and 13.6% of the participants had home accident. The incidence of the home accident also was 4.2 person per/year. Most of the accidents (89% occurred inside of the houses. The mostly observed home accidents were 39.1% burn, 28.6% incision and 12.8% falling respectively. It was important risk factors heater for burns, knife for incisions and slippery-floor for fallings. The incidence of the home accident was higher among women (22.0% (p0.05, and in those with not house ownership itself (for rent 34.5%, for relatives house 34.8% (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This study has showed that the incidence of home accidents are high, and the characteristics of house and some sociodemographic characteristics are important risk factors in term of the home accidents. The qualified primary health services which are financed by the government have great importance for the preventing of the household accidents, determination of the risk factors and recording the home accidents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 257-268

  8. Review of five investigation committees' reports on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant serve accident. Focusing on accident progression and causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 11, 2011, the Tohoku district-off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake and subsequent tsunami resulted in the serve core damage at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1-3, involving hydrogen explosions at Units 1, 3, and 4 and the large release of radioactive materials to the environment. Four independent committees were established by the Japanese government, the Diet of Japan, the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation, and TEPCO to investigate the accident and published their respective reports. Also, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency carried out an analysis of accident causes to obtain the lessons learned from the accident and made its report public. This article reviews the reports and clarifies the differences in their positions, from the technological point of view, focusing on the accident progression and causes. Moreover, the undiscussed issues are identified to provide insights useful for the near-term regulatory activities including accident investigation by the Nuclear Regulation Authority. (author)

  9. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  10. PSB-VVER experimental and analytical investigation of station blackout accident in VVER-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, I.A.; Kapustin, A.V.; Nikonov, S.M.; Rovnov, A.A.; Basov, A.V. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre (EREC), Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Elkin, I.V. [NSI RRC, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    In November 2003, an experiment simulating station blackout accident was carried out in the PSB-VVER integral test facility at the Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre (Russia). The purpose of the experiment was to provide missing data for code validation as well as to investigate the VVER thermohydraulics in the blackout conditions. The experiment covers a wide range of phenomena relating not only to transients but also to small break loss-of-coolant accidents. The data gained in the test has been used to assess the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. In this paper, a special attention has been paid to the code assessment regarding the mixture level and entrainment in steam generator secondary side. The analysis of the recorded transient has shown that the calculation of the heat transfer on the secondary side of steam generators is very sensitive to the steam generator nodalization. (authors)

  11. PSB-VVER experimental and analytical investigation of station blackout accident in VVER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2003, an experiment simulating station blackout accident was carried out in the PSB-VVER integral test facility at the Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre (Russia). The purpose of the experiment was to provide missing data for code validation as well as to investigate the VVER thermohydraulics in the blackout conditions. The experiment covers a wide range of phenomena relating not only to transients but also to small break loss-of-coolant accidents. The data gained in the test has been used to assess the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. In this paper, a special attention has been paid to the code assessment regarding the mixture level and entrainment in steam generator secondary side. The analysis of the recorded transient has shown that the calculation of the heat transfer on the secondary side of steam generators is very sensitive to the steam generator nodalization. (authors)

  12. PRTR accident: a preliminary report on the investigation of fission product chemical forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) has sparked an interest in previous reactor incidents for which data were available which might offer insights into the radiological release characterization resulting from an accident of this nature. The Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) located at Richland, Washington, has been identified as a reactor which has undergone one such incident. At the request of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is reviewing the PRTR incident to assemble and update all the information available regarding the volatile and semi-volatile fission products released to discover and investigate any clues that remain which may indicate the most probable chemical and physical forms of these released fission products

  13. Investigations of soil-plant transfer of radiocesium after deposition from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the low deposition of radiocaesium in NRW after the Chernobyl accident of about 2500 Bq 137Cs/m2 and 720 Bq 134Cs/m2, radiocaesium was not detectable in cereals from NRW. A deposition of about 44,100 Bq 137Cs/m2 and 13,500 Bq 134Cs/m2 was calculated for the vicinity of Tannheim, a village in Upper Swabia. Nevertheless, the content of radiocaesium in grain from Upper Swabia was found to be more than one hundred times lower than that of natural 40K. Transferfactors (TF/SP) for radiocaesium were determined for cereals from the three investigated soil types: Kalkvega (FAO classification: Calcaric Fluvisol), Braunerde (Cambisol) and Parabraunerde-Pseudogley (Luvisol-Planosol). The total variation in TF(SP) from 54 sampling sites was a factor of 43 (grain) and 18 (straw). However, the values did not reach the calculation basis of the German Regulatory Guide of 0.05 (Allgemeine Berechnungsgrundlage). The maximum TF(SP) for 134/137Cs in grain of 0.026 is clearly below that limit. A drastic increase of radioactivity in sewage sludge was observed in Upper Swabia. In the Tannheim sewage plant a radiocaesium content of about 12,500 Bq/kg dry matter was measured. In order to obtain further information on the possible radioecological consequences of using this sewage sludge as fertilizer a lysimeter study was carried out with application of the contaminated sewage sludge. Radioactivity in soil and several crops was measured for the growing periods 1989 and 1990. Although the soil type ('worst-case model') could have led one to expect high TF(SP) the increase of radiocaesium in plants was quite small. A higher uptake of radiocaesium by plants is caused by varying the potassium contents of the soil rather than by the application of the contaminated sewage sludge. (orig./HP)

  14. Risk and preventive factors for fatalities in All-terrain Vehicle Accidents in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulruf, Boaz; Balemi, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) have been used in agriculture for a few decades now. Yet despite their invaluable contribution to the productivity of the agricultural industry they are associated with a large number of accidents, many of which result in a severe or fatal outcome. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for ATV-related fatal injuries in order to support the design of effective interventions. Using data held by the Department of Labour, the current study analysed 355 cases of serious harm accidents associated with ATVs including 45 fatalities. The findings suggest that injuries are more likely to occur when accidents involve any of the following: children under the age of 10; four-wheel drive ATVs; driving downhill; driving on a sealed road; driving backwards; or if the ATV rolls sideways. A fatal outcome is more likely to occur when ATV accidents end up with the vehicle rolling over and pinning the driver underneath. Fatalities were also associated with injuries to the head, neck and chest. Being employed; and/or having formal training; and/or having brakes and tyres well maintained on the ATV; and/or having no fluid load on the ATV reduced the risk for fatality. Since the likelihood of a fatal outcome was found to be related to human behaviour and ATV rollover, it is suggested that interventions should mainly address these two issues. PMID:20159086

  15. Ergonomic (human factors) problems in design of NPPs. A review of TMI and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs

  16. Factors contributing to anxious driving behavior: The role of stress history and accident severity

    OpenAIRE

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Olsen, Shira A.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Hagewood, J. Houston; Hickling, Edward J.; Hwang, Vivian S.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Although fear and travel avoidance among anxious drivers are well documented, relatively little is known about the behavior of anxious individuals who continue to drive. Previous research has identified three broad domains of anxious driving behavior: exaggerated safety/caution behaviors, anxiety-based performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive driving behaviors. In an effort to explicate factors associated with the development of anxious driving behaviors, associations with objective accid...

  17. 0BOccupational Risk Factors in Iranian Professional Drivers and their Impacts on Traffic Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    MEHDI JAHANGIRI; ALI KARIMI; SAMIRA SLAMIZAD; MOHAMMAD OLYAEI; SEKHAVAT MOOSAVI; FATEMEH AMIRI

    2015-01-01

      In many countries road crashes are the main cause of fatal accidents related to job. The aim of our study was to characterize a population of Iranian professional drivers with regard to history of drivers’ road crash incidents and some occupational factors. Using Swedish version of the Nordic Questionnaire information about musculoskeletal pain prevalence in last 12 months, demographic features, smoking habits, age, job experience, road crash, job consent, self-perceived job stress, working...

  18. Factors Associated with Nurses’ Intention to Leave Their Jobs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Yoshinobu; Hayashida, Naomi; Orita, Makiko; Urata, Hideko; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Yumiko; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey among nurses who were working at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to clarify the factors associated with their intention to leave their jobs during the radiation emergency. We asked 345 nurses (17 men and 328 women) about their intention to leave their jobs after the accident. We also asked about relevant factors including the participants’ demographic factors, living situation, working status, an...

  19. Severe human factor accidents and their management in a in-service nuclear Power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is an important part of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in a nuclear power plant (NPP). It can be used to evaluate and quantify the behaviors of the operators in a post-accident response. The paper picks up the serious human factor event sequences that contribute more than 5% to the overall Core Damage Frequency (CDF) involved in PSA through a HRA analysis on a domestic PWR. The basic human error probabilities (BHEPs) of these human factor event sequences are resulted, on the basis of which the actions of the operators within the main control room (MCR) after the accidents are analyzed and their criticalities are arranged in order. The paper, from the point of engineering management,puts forward the measures to improve the corresponding emergency operating procedures (EOPs) and the MCR surroundings through analyzing serious human factor event sequence arrangement and the actions of operators in the post-accident interferences. With regard to the operator's interferences of high criticality the NPP should enforce training and improve its ability of interferences. (authors)

  20. The Use of LS-DYNA in the Columbia Accident Investigation and Return to Flight Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys, Jonathan; Schatz, Josh; Carney, Kelly; Melis, Matthew; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2004-01-01

    During the launch of the Space Shuttle Columbia on January 16, 2003, foam originating from the external tank impacted the shuttle's left wing 81 seconds after lift-off. Then on February 1st, Space Shuttle Columbia broke-up during re-entry. In the weeks that followed, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board had formed various teams to investigate every aspect of the tragedy. One of these teams was the Impact Analysis Team, which was asked to investigate the foam impact on the wing leading edge. This paper will describe the approach and methodology used by the team to support the accident investigation, and more specifically the use of LS-DYNA for analyzing the foam impact event. Due to the success of the analytical predictions, the impact analysis team has also been asked to support Return to Flight activities. These activities will analyze a far broader range of impact events, but not with just foam and not only on the wing leading edge. The debris list has expanded and so have the possible impact locations. This paper will discuss the Return to Flight activities and the use of LS-DYNA to support them.

  1. Quantifying human and organizational factors in accident management using decision trees: the HORAAM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the level 2 Probabilistic Safety Study (PSA 2) project, the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) has developed a method for taking into account Human and Organizational Reliability Aspects during accident management. Actions are taken during very degraded installation operations by teams of experts in the French framework of Crisis Organization (ONC). After describing the background of the framework of the Level 2 PSA, the French specific Crisis Organization and the characteristics of human actions in the Accident Progression Event Tree, this paper describes the method developed to introduce in PSA the Human and Organizational Reliability Analysis in Accident Management (HORAAM). This method is based on the Decision Tree method and has gone through a number of steps in its development. The first one was the observation of crisis center exercises, in order to identify the main influence factors (IFs) which affect human and organizational reliability. These IFs were used as headings in the Decision Tree method. Expert judgment was used in order to verify the IFs, to rank them, and to estimate the value of the aggregated factors to simplify the quantification of the tree. A tool based on Mathematica was developed to increase the flexibility and the efficiency of the study

  2. The role of social and psychological factors in radiation protection after accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inclusion of social and psychological factors in the justification and optimisation of intervention after an accident requires identification of the relevant factors and their appropriate quantification. Recent studies suggest a possible approach. Some social and psychological factors either influence the consequences of radiation protection countermeasures, or are direct consequences of those measures. Such factors can be grouped into those that alter the dose-effectiveness of a countermeasure, those that extend the need for countermeasures in time or space, and those that fall into neither of the first two categories. Factors of the first two types can be quantified in terms of changes to the anticipated averted dose and monetary cost of a countermeasure. Quantification of the third type is currently difficult, but the existence of structural models for applications in social psychology suggests that such models could be developed for radiation protection in the future. (author)

  3. Examinations on high burnup fuels to investigate fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasajima, Hideo; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Nagase, Fumihisa; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Kaminaga, Norihisa; Honda, Junichi; Nishino, Yasuharu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka Gun (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) investigates high burnup fuel behavior in reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) using the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF). RIA simulating pulse irradiation tests at the NSRR provide information on the fuel failure limit, fuel failure mode, post failure events which are required for the safety evaluation. Detailed examinations at the RFEF on the test fuel rods before and after the pulse irradiation tests provide knowledge on fuel cladding deformation, fission gas release, hydride precipitation states in the cladding and so on, which compliment the NSRR transient data and deduce the failure mechanism during an RIA.

  4. Examinations on high burnup fuels to investigate fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) investigates high burnup fuel behavior in reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) using the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF). RIA simulating pulse irradiation tests at the NSRR provide information on the fuel failure limit, fuel failure mode, post failure events which are required for the safety evaluation. Detailed examinations at the RFEF on the test fuel rods before and after the pulse irradiation tests provide knowledge on fuel cladding deformation, fission gas release, hydride precipitation states in the cladding and so on, which compliment the NSRR transient data and deduce the failure mechanism during an RIA

  5. Investigation of primary-to-secondary leakage accident on the PSB-VVER integral test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full text follows. The paper presents the main results from the test on primary-to-secondary leakage of 100 mm in equivalent diameter. The test was performed on the PSB-VVER integral test facility. PSB-VVER is a 4-loops scaled down model of primary system of NPP with VVER-1000 Russian type reactor. Volume - power scale is about 1/300 while elevation scale is 1/1. All components of the primary system of the reference NPP are modeled on PSB-VVER. Both passive (accumulators) and active (high and low pressure) ECCSs, pressurizer spray and relief circuits, feed water system and atmospheric dumping system (ADS) as well as the primary circuit gas remove emergency system are also simulated. The primary-to-secondary leakage was simulated using an external break line which connects the upper part of the hot header to SG water volume. The break line included a break nozzle (a cylindrical channel d = 5.8 mm, l/d = 10 with sharp inlet edge), quick-acting valve and two-phase mass flow rate measurement system. In addition loss of off-site power at the moment when a scram-signal is generated was assumed in the experiment. Thus the accident is to be considered as a beyond-design-basic one. The loss of off-site power results in the following: -main circulation pump shutdown; -pressurizer heaters switching off; -HPIS water cooling flow rate and number of points of water injection are reduced The study focuses on the adequacy of the associated accident management (AM) procedure developed by EDO ''GIDROPRESS'' as a General Designer of VVER-type reactors. The AM-procedure was adopted to the PSB-VVER test facility conditions using CATHARE (France) and DINAMIKA (Russia) codes analysis. The AM-procedure in PSB-VVER is as follows: after about 30 min of the onset of the accident, when the accident type and the localization of the SG affected become evident for the operator, he closes all the main steam isolation valves, inhibits the ADS actuation in the affected SG and begins to remove the core residual heat by opening the ADS in one of the intact loop. The results show that AM-procedure related to the accident investigated is adequate to prevent core overheating. (authors)

  6. Investigation of primary-to-secondary leakage accident on the PSB-VVER integral test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, I.A.; Dremin, G.I.; Galtchanskaya, S.A.; Chmal, I.I.; Moloshnikov, A.S.; Gorbunov, Y.S.; Antonova, A.I. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center, EREC, Moscow (Russian Federation); Elkin, I.V. [RRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The full text follows. The paper presents the main results from the test on primary-to-secondary leakage of 100 mm in equivalent diameter. The test was performed on the PSB-VVER integral test facility. PSB-VVER is a 4-loops scaled down model of primary system of NPP with VVER-1000 Russian type reactor. Volume - power scale is about 1/300 while elevation scale is 1/1. All components of the primary system of the reference NPP are modeled on PSB-VVER. Both passive (accumulators) and active (high and low pressure) ECCSs, pressurizer spray and relief circuits, feed water system and atmospheric dumping system (ADS) as well as the primary circuit gas remove emergency system are also simulated. The primary-to-secondary leakage was simulated using an external break line which connects the upper part of the hot header to SG water volume. The break line included a break nozzle (a cylindrical channel d = 5.8 mm, l/d = 10 with sharp inlet edge), quick-acting valve and two-phase mass flow rate measurement system. In addition loss of off-site power at the moment when a scram-signal is generated was assumed in the experiment. Thus the accident is to be considered as a beyond-design-basic one. The loss of off-site power results in the following: -main circulation pump shutdown; -pressurizer heaters switching off; -HPIS water cooling flow rate and number of points of water injection are reduced The study focuses on the adequacy of the associated accident management (AM) procedure developed by EDO ''GIDROPRESS'' as a General Designer of VVER-type reactors. The AM-procedure was adopted to the PSB-VVER test facility conditions using CATHARE (France) and DINAMIKA (Russia) codes analysis. The AM-procedure in PSB-VVER is as follows: after about 30 min of the onset of the accident, when the accident type and the localization of the SG affected become evident for the operator, he closes all the main steam isolation valves, inhibits the ADS actuation in the affected SG and begins to remove the core residual heat by opening the ADS in one of the intact loop. The results show that AM-procedure related to the accident investigated is adequate to prevent core overheating. (authors)

  7. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and i...

  8. The role of hematopoietic growth factors in nuclear and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecularly cloned hematopoietic growth factors are likely to be useful in treating persons with bone marrow failure resulting from radiation exposure. Some effects, such as increased granulocytes or platelets, are of clear therapeutic benefit. Other effects, such as a direct action on survival of hematopoietic stem cells and improved granulocyte function, may also increase survival. Many important areas remain to be studied, including which molecularly cloned hematopoietic growth factor(s) to use, optimal dose and timing, and others. Some of these issues can be studied in clinical trials; others require in vitro or animal models. Despite the limited data currently available, it is clear that the availability of molecularly cloned hematopoietic growth factors heralds a new era in treating radiation and nuclear accidents.70 references

  9. Studies on the reduction of failures and accidents due to human factors in nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation of nuclear power safety in Japan is first described, and then the studies on the safety concerning human factors in overseas countries. Then, activities in Human Factor Research Center (HFC) in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry are explained. Research subjects in HFC are the following: (1) evaluation of the influences upon operation/maintenance personnel; (2) evaluation of the system reliability taking the humans reliability into consideration; (3) development of the humans-backup system; (4) analysis and evaluation of the information on accidents and failures due to human factors in Japan; (5) establishment of the method of collecting human factors data and build-up of the data base. (Mori, K.)

  10. Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

    2010-01-01

    The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

  11. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997 chemical explosion at the plutonium reclamation facility, Hanford site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m., a chemical explosion occurred in Tank A-109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility on the Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington. The Facility, also known as Building 236-Z, is an inactive processing facility located at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The explosion occurred when a highly concentrated solution of hydroxylamine nitrate (HN) and nitric acid (HNO3) auto-catalytically reacted inside Tank A-109. On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225.1, Accident Investigations. The scope of the Boards investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. This paper describes the accident, gives the three root causes of the accident and also six contributing causes, and discusses the major conclusions and judgments of need identified by the Board

  12. Investigating plutonium contamination in marine sediments off Fukushima coast following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident has caused large amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides to be released into the atmosphere as well as directly discharged into the sea. To obtain the vertical distribution of Pu isotopes in marine sediments and to better assess the possible contamination from the FDNPP accident in the marine environment, activities of 239+240Pu and 241Pu, as well as the atom ratios of 240Pu/239Pu and 241Pu/239Pu, were investigated in a sediment core collected from the western North Pacific in July 2011. The observed vertical profile of 239+240Pu activities and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios showed no extra injection of Pu from the accident, indicating no immediate Pu contamination from the FDNPP accident in the marine sediments in the region investigated. (author)

  13. Causes and risk factors for fatal accidents in non-commercial twin engine piston general aviation aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2015-04-01

    Accidents in twin-engine aircraft carry a higher risk of fatality compared with single engine aircraft and constitute 9% of all general aviation accidents. The different flight profile (higher airspeed, service ceiling, increased fuel load, and aircraft yaw in engine failure) may make comparable studies on single-engine aircraft accident causes less relevant. The objective of this study was to identify the accident causes for non-commercial operations in twin engine aircraft. A NTSB accident database query for accidents in twin piston engine airplanes of 4-8 seat capacity with a maximum certified weight of 3000-8000lbs. operating under 14CFR Part 91 for the period spanning 2002 and 2012 returned 376 accidents. Accident causes and contributing factors were as per the NTSB final report categories. Total annual flight hour data for the twin engine piston aircraft fleet were obtained from the FAA. Statistical analyses employed Chi Square, Fisher's Exact and logistic regression analysis. Neither the combined fatal/non-fatal accident nor the fatal accident rate declined over the period spanning 2002-2012. Under visual weather conditions, the largest number, n=27, (27%) of fatal accidents was attributed to malfunction with a failure to follow single engine procedures representing the most common contributing factor. In degraded visibility, poor instrument approach procedures resulted in the greatest proportion of fatal crashes. Encountering thunderstorms was the most lethal of all accident causes with all occupants sustaining fatal injuries. At night, a failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance was the most common accident cause leading to 36% of fatal crashes. The results of logistic regression showed that operations at night (OR 3.7), off airport landings (OR 14.8) and post-impact fire (OR 7.2) all carried an excess risk of a fatal flight. This study indicates training areas that should receive increased emphasis for twin-engine training/recency. First, increased training should be provided on single engine procedures in the event of an engine failure. Second, more focus should be placed on instrument approaches and recovery from unusual aircraft attitude where visibility is degraded. Third, pilots should be made aware of appropriate speed selection for inadvertent flights in convective weather. Finally, emphasizing the importance of conducting night operations under instrument flight rules with its altitude restrictions should lead to a diminished proportion of accidents attributed to failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance. PMID:25701648

  14. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam; Karim Hamdi; Mandana Sediqi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-su...

  15. Fukushima nuclear accident independent investigation commission by the National Diet of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, Independent Investigation Commission (IIC) was firstly established in constitutional government by the National Diet of Japan. This article described recognition of its necessity, its setup process, its framework with start from almost zero and about 6 months period and time, its basic way to proceed investigation and several obstacles and hardships, significance of openness to the public, web's communication and simultaneous interpretation (transparency) and basic philosophy of the report. Further significance of Diet's IIC in the democratic system and evaluation of the report were added. As a problem of separation of three powers in Japan, specific recommendations to the legislation of IIC and their future evaluation, nation's governance system problem and social responsibility of scientists and others were also discussed. If Japan were not to be changed after the disaster, Japanese future might be unreliable. (T. Tanaka)

  16. The Analysis of the Contribution of Human Factors to the In-Flight Loss of Control Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2012-01-01

    In-flight loss of control (LOC) is currently the leading cause of fatal accidents based on various commercial aircraft accident statistics. As the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) emerges, new contributing factors leading to LOC are anticipated. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), along with other aviation agencies and communities are actively developing safety products to mitigate the LOC risk. This paper discusses the approach used to construct a generic integrated LOC accident framework (LOCAF) model based on a detailed review of LOC accidents over the past two decades. The LOCAF model is comprised of causal factors from the domain of human factors, aircraft system component failures, and atmospheric environment. The multiple interdependent causal factors are expressed in an Object-Oriented Bayesian belief network. In addition to predicting the likelihood of LOC accident occurrence, the system-level integrated LOCAF model is able to evaluate the impact of new safety technology products developed in AvSP. This provides valuable information to decision makers in strategizing NASA's aviation safety technology portfolio. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of human causal factors in the model, including the contributions from flight crew and maintenance workers. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) taxonomy was used to develop human related causal factors. The preliminary results from the baseline LOCAF model are also presented.

  17. Routes to failure: analysis of 41 civil aviation accidents from the Republic of China using the human factors analysis and classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Chin; Harris, Don; Yu, Chung-San

    2008-03-01

    The human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS) is based upon Reason's organizational model of human error. HFACS was developed as an analytical framework for the investigation of the role of human error in aviation accidents, however, there is little empirical work formally describing the relationship between the components in the model. This research analyses 41 civil aviation accidents occurring to aircraft registered in the Republic of China (ROC) between 1999 and 2006 using the HFACS framework. The results show statistically significant relationships between errors at the operational level and organizational inadequacies at both the immediately adjacent level (preconditions for unsafe acts) and higher levels in the organization (unsafe supervision and organizational influences). The pattern of the 'routes to failure' observed in the data from this analysis of civil aircraft accidents show great similarities to that observed in the analysis of military accidents. This research lends further support to Reason's model that suggests that active failures are promoted by latent conditions in the organization. Statistical relationships linking fallible decisions in upper management levels were found to directly affect supervisory practices, thereby creating the psychological preconditions for unsafe acts and hence indirectly impairing the performance of pilots, ultimately leading to accidents. PMID:18329391

  18. Effective Factors in Severity of Traffic Accident-Related Traumas; an Epidemiologic Study Based on the Haddon Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Masoumi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traffic accidents are the 8th cause of mortality in different countries and are expected to rise to the 3rd rank by 2020. Based on the Haddon matrix numerous factors such as environment, host, and agent can affect the severity of traffic-related traumas. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effective factors in severity of these traumas based on Haddon matrix. Methods: In the present 1-month cross-sectional study, all the patients injured in traffic accidents, who were referred to the ED of Imam Khomeini and Golestan Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, during March 2013 were evaluated. Based on the Haddon matrix, effective factors in accident occurrence were defined in 3 groups of host, agent, and environment. Demographic data of the patients and data regarding Haddon risk factors were extracted and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: 700 injured people with the mean age of 29.66 ± 12.64 years (3-82 were evaluated (92.4% male. Trauma mechanism was car-pedestrian in 308 (44% of the cases and car-motorcycle in 175 (25%. 610 (87.1% cases were traffic accidents and 371 (53% occurred in the time between 2 pm and 8 pm. Violation of speed limit was the most common violation with 570 (81.4% cases, followed by violation of right-of-way in 57 (8.1% patients. 59.9% of the severe and critical injuries had occurred on road accidents, while 61.3% of the injuries caused by traffic accidents were mild to moderate (p < 0.001. The most common mechanisms of trauma for critical injuries were rollover (72.5%, motorcycle-pedestrian (23.8%, and car-motorcycle (13.14% accidents (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the most important effective factors in severity of traffic accident-related traumas were age over 50, not using safety tools, and undertaking among host-related factors; insufficient environment safety, road accidents and time between 2 pm and 8 pm among environmental factors; and finally, rollover, car-pedestrian, and motorcycle-pedestrian accidents among the agent factors.

  19. Investigation of relationship between mental workload and information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Chang Hoon

    2005-02-15

    The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the relationship between an operator's mental workload and the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and further to propose the information flow rate as an analytic method for measuring the mental workload. There are two types of mental workload in the advanced MCR of NPPs: the information processing workload, which is the processing that the human operator must actually perform in order to complete the diagnosis task, and emotional stress workload experienced by the operator. In this study, the focus is on the former. Three kinds of methods are used to measure the operator's workload: information flow rate, subjective methods, and physiological measures. Information flows for eight accident diagnosis tasks are modeled qualitatively using a stage model and are quantified using Conant's model. The eight accident cases are considered here are: Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), Steam Line Break (SLB), Feedwater Line Break (FLB), Pressurizer (PZR) spray and heater failure, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) trip, Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) failure, and PZR spray failure. The information flow rate is obtained for each diagnosis task by imposing time limit restrictions for the tasks. Subjective methods require the operators to respond to questionnaires to rate their level of mental effort. NASA-TLX and MCH scale are selected as subjective methods. NASA-TLX is a subjective method used in the various fields including the aviation, automobile, and nuclear industries. It has a multi-dimensional rating technique and provides an overall workload score based on a weighted average on six subscales using pair-wise comparison tests. MCH, on the other hand, is one-dimensional and uses a 10- point rating technique. As with NASA-TLX, the higher the score is, the higher the subjective workload is. For the physiological measurements, an eye tracking system analyzes eye movements related to the operator's blinking and fixation on Areas Of Interests (AOIs). AOIs in the simulator interface, FISA-2/WS, are defined to analyzed the eye movement data. Blink frequency, blink duration, eye closure fraction, number of fixations on AOIs, and fixation time on AOIs are analyzed as the physiological measures. The duration and the rate of blinking decrease when the mental demand of the task increases. Since visual input is unavailable during eye closure, reduced blink rates help to maintain continuous visual input when high levels of attention are required. With higher the mental workloads, the fixation time and the more the number of fixations for instrument observation both increase. Through the experiments, the relationship between the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and the selected measures is investigated. Results show that the information flow rate is significantly related to the subjective measures and physiological measures. In this study, the information flow rate of diagnosis tasks is in high agreement with both subjective rating scores and eye movements parameters related to blinking and fixation on AOIs. It appears, then, that information flow rate can be an alternative as an analytic approach for measuring mental workload. By using data on the information flow rate, we can predict the mental workload required for a task without performing experiments in advance.

  20. Investigation of relationship between mental workload and information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the relationship between an operator's mental workload and the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and further to propose the information flow rate as an analytic method for measuring the mental workload. There are two types of mental workload in the advanced MCR of NPPs: the information processing workload, which is the processing that the human operator must actually perform in order to complete the diagnosis task, and emotional stress workload experienced by the operator. In this study, the focus is on the former. Three kinds of methods are used to measure the operator's workload: information flow rate, subjective methods, and physiological measures. Information flows for eight accident diagnosis tasks are modeled qualitatively using a stage model and are quantified using Conant's model. The eight accident cases are considered here are: Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), Steam Line Break (SLB), Feedwater Line Break (FLB), Pressurizer (PZR) spray and heater failure, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) trip, Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) failure, and PZR spray failure. The information flow rate is obtained for each diagnosis task by imposing time limit restrictions for the tasks. Subjective methods require the operators to respond to questionnaires to rate their level of mental effort. NASA-TLX and MCH scale are selected as subjective methods. NASA-TLX is a subjective method used in the various fields including the aviation, automobile, and nuclear industries. It has a multi-dimensional rating technique and provides an overall workload score based on a weighted average on six subscales using pair-wise comparison tests. MCH, on the other hand, is one-dimensional and uses a 10- point rating technique. As with NASA-TLX, the higher the score is, the higher the subjective workload is. For the physiological measurements, an eye tracking system analyzes eye movements related to the operator's blinking and fixation on Areas Of Interests (AOIs). AOIs in the simulator interface, FISA-2/WS, are defined to analyzed the eye movement data. Blink frequency, blink duration, eye closure fraction, number of fixations on AOIs, and fixation time on AOIs are analyzed as the physiological measures. The duration and the rate of blinking decrease when the mental demand of the task increases. Since visual input is unavailable during eye closure, reduced blink rates help to maintain continuous visual input when high levels of attention are required. With higher the mental workloads, the fixation time and the more the number of fixations for instrument observation both increase. Through the experiments, the relationship between the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and the selected measures is investigated. Results show that the information flow rate is significantly related to the subjective measures and physiological measures. In this study, the information flow rate of diagnosis tasks is in high agreement with both subjective rating scores and eye movements parameters related to blinking and fixation on AOIs. It appears, then, that information flow rate can be an alternative as an analytic approach for measuring mental workload. By using data on the information flow rate, we can predict the mental workload required for a task without performing experiments in advance

  1. Pilot human factors in stall/spin accidents of supersonic fighter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. B.; Enevoldson, E. K.; Nguyen, L. T.

    1983-01-01

    A study has been made of pilot human factors related to stall/spin accidents of supersonic fighter aircraft. The military specifications for flight at high angles of attack are examined. Several pilot human factors problems related to stall/spin are discussed. These problems include: (1) unsatisfactory nonvisual warning cues; (2) the inability of the pilot to quickly determine if the aircraft is spinning out of control, or to recognize the type of spin; (3) the inability of the pilot to decide on and implement the correct spin recovery technique; (4) the inability of the pilot to move, caused by high angular rotation; and (5) the tendency of pilots to wait too long in deciding to abandon the irrecoverable aircraft. Psycho-physiological phenomena influencin pilot's behavior in stall/spin situations include: (1) channelization of sensor inputs, (2) limitations in precisely controlling several muscular inputs, (3) inaccurate judgment of elapsed time, and (4) disorientation of vestibulo-ocular inputs. Results are given of pilot responses to all these problems in the F14A, F16/AB, and F/A-18A aircraft. The use of departure spin resistance and automatic spin prevention systems incorporated on recent supersonic fighters are discussed. These systems should help to improve the stall/spin accident record with some compromise in maneuverability.

  2. Investigation of the radiological impact of reactor accidents under probabilistic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis and conceptional investigation have been performed for the accident consequence model of the German reactor risk study. A dynamic atmospheric diffusion model is developed, which is applied in the first stage of the study to all distance ranges, and will be restricted finally to the long distance range. The wind direction and its variations are not taken into account in this model. The program set UFO-BAS calculates the time integrated nuclide concentration in air at any location downwind of the source. A further model which takes into account wind direction variations is being developed. On the basis of the proposals for the calculation of the health effects in the German risk study considerations on the storage requirements were accomplished. By means of these assessments a revised grid of parameters was evaluated. Furthermore, considerations were made for the implementation of an evaluation model, which will be developed by the Institut fuer Unfallforschung. (orig./RW)

  3. An Investigation of the Accident Behaviour for VVER-440/213 Type reactors using ESTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the first phase of a project, which aimed to replace the Source Term Code Package (STCP) by the European code package ESTER (European Source Term Evaluation Research) to investigate the phenomena during a hypothetical accident in a VVER-440/213 type reactor. At first several codes of ESTER were implemented on the RISC-6000 of the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf followed by a validation. Finally the reference case for VVER-1000 type reactors was calculated with ICARE2 and compared with STCP results. Using the known references for VVER-440/213 reactors a data base for this reactor type was generated. However it was not possible to perform a complete source term calculation with ESTER. The reasons are summarized in a concluding chapter. (author)

  4. The investigation on the public panic caused from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March 11, 2011, a huge earthquake and tidal waves in Japan lead to dangerous levels of nuclear leakage at Fukushima nuclear plant, the nuclear accident also cause public panic m many countries. To investigate the reason of the public panic, we employ the theories of sociology and psychology, analyzed that the public panic come from Ignorant Panic. Herd Behavior, Primacy Effect, Stereotype Activation Effect, and the superposition of these effects. In addition, we proposed three measures to the public panic: First, we should emphasize the safety of nuclear power and establish the positive image of nuclear power Second, we should emphasize the popular science of nuclear power so that nu clear power can be accepted in the public; Third, we should enhance the psychological intervention system for nuclear safe emergency and improve the effect of psychological intervention

  5. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 or 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study. In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation. 43 refs., 6 tabs

  6. A Human and Organizational Factors Perspective on the Fukushima Nuclear Accident - March 11 - March 15, 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident using a human and organizational factors framework. It analyzes the crisis at three levels: the front-line operators; the plant as a whole; and the political context including the management team of the electric company and national politicians. By looking at each of these levels as well as the relationships between them, this report describes the way the organizational structures and their accident management procedures contribute to or hinder the resolution of the crisis. The report offers detailed chronologies of the unfolding of the crisis at each of the three active reactors at Fukushima Dai-ichi, at the political level, and at Fukushima Dai-ni. These case descriptions are used as the basis for an analysis drawing on risk and crisis management studies, in particular examining Perrow's (1999) centralization-decentralization conundrum and Weick's (1988, 1993, 1995) work on sense-making, among others. The main findings include: 1/ The accident disrupts not only the situation, but also in the ways people go about gathering information on the situation People had to make sense of what happened and find new ways to interpret limited information 2/ Tue interruption of the communication flow between the ERC and MCR can have dramatic consequences. It is important to maintain the communication between the ERC and MCR in all circumstances. 3/ The difficulty of simultaneously supervise crisis room tranches due to its under sizing. A capacity adjustment to the ERC must be made according to the number of reactors involved. 4/ Because of the reluctance to make the decision to test a new possibility in a crisis context, internal coordination is necessary to decide on the implementation of new solutions. Cross-functional teams can be very useful in coming up with new solutions. 5/ Worker safety policies should be as clear and specific as possible before accidents occur. Where sub-contractors are involved, clear policies on worker safety and degree of commitment are even more important. 6/ Decentralization, even when planned and professed, may be difficult to maintain in practice, particularly as crisis become drawn out. (authors)

  7. 32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Park, Seyoung; Shin, Seongwook; Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2014-10-01

    In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated (32)P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a (32)P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between (32)P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The (32)P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67 ± 0.15 and 0.59 ± 0.06 Gy (Bq g(-1))(-1) at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. PMID:24516187

  8. Evaluation of dose attenuation factor of armored car against radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Fujii, Katsutoshi; Murayama, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2002-03-01

    The Tokyo Fire Department developed an armored car against radiation accidents. The car is covered by lead shields for attenuating dose from gamma rays. Dose from neutrons also can be attenuated by pouring water into tanks attached to the surface of the car. However, dose attenuation factors of the radiation shields had been determined by an estimation of single-layer shield, and more precise evaluation of multi-layer shield was required. By request from the Tokyo Fire Department, a precise evaluation of the dose attenuation in multi-layer shield was carried out. The evaluation was made by a Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation code MCNP4B for the shields used in the front, side and back of the car. Three types of the radiation sources ({sup 252}Cf as a neutron source, {sup 60}Co as a gamma ray source, and radiation source corresponding to the JCO criticality accident) were considered in the calculation. Benchmark experiments using neutron and gamma ray sources were also performed for ensuring the evaluation method. As a result, it was found out that doses of neutron and gamma ray were attenuated to approximately 10% and 25% by the thickest shield, respectively. These values were close to the ones which had already obtained by the estimation of single-layer shield. (author)

  9. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine (Ecole des Mines de Paris, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France))

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and intractable, and methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. The number of methods in each group were four, three, zero, and two, respectively. Faced with the need to investigate an accident it is essential that the chosen method is appropriate for the system and the situation. Nuclear power plants considered as systems are tightly coupled and more or less intractable and therefore require accident models and accident investigation methods that are capable of accounting for these features. If an accident concerns the NPP operation as a whole, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and intractable. If an accident only concerns the operation of a subsystem or a component, the methods must be suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, or possible loosely coupled and tractable. The report provides a proposal for how these characteristics can be determined. The conclusion is that no specific method is the overall best in the sense that it can be used for all conditions. While it may be convenient, or even necessary, for an organisation to adopt a specific method as its standard, this should always be done knowingly and with a willingness to reconsider the choice when the conditions so demand it. In five or ten years we must expect that the methods developed today will have been partly obsolete, not because the methods change but because the nature of socio-technical systems, and therefore the nature of accidents, do

  10. Investigation program on PWR-steel-containment behavior under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a first documentation of the KfK/PNS activities and plans to investigate the behaviour of steel containments under accident conditions. The investigations will deal with a free standing spherical containment shell built for the latest type of a German pressurized water reactor. The diameter of the containment shell is 56 m. The minimum wall thickness is 38 mm. The material used is the ferritic steel 15MnNi63. According to the actual planning the program is concerned with four different problems which are beyond the common design and licensing practice: Containment behavior under quasi-static pressure increase up to containment failure. Containment behavior under high transient pressures. Containment oscillations due to earthquake loadings; consideration of shell imperfections. Containment buckling due to earthquake loadings. The investigation program consists of both theoretical and experimental activities including membrane tests allowing for very high plastic strains and oscillation tests with a thin-walled, high-accurate spherical shell. (orig.)

  11. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues AN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, sedentariness, metabolic syndrome

  12. Public opinion about nuclear power generation and its formation factors after the JCO accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on public opinion about using nuclear power generation and its formation factors after the JCO accident. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to a sample of 4,000 citizens in Japan on Oct. 1999. A total of 2,985 citizens completed it. A causal model of the opinion about using nuclear power generation was examined using covariance structure analysis. The results suggested that trust in the government and the electric power companies contributed to an opinion about using nuclear power generation. The results also suggested that the person who had interest in and knowledge about nuclear power generation based his/her opinion on the perception of the risk and the trust in the government and the electric power companies, and the person who had no interest and knowledge based it only on the trust. (author)

  13. Reduction factors for wooden houses due to external ?-radiation based on in situ measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kanagami, Takashi; Uegaki, Masaki; Tashima, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    For estimation of residents' exposure dose after a nuclear accident, the reduction factor, which is the ratio of the indoor dose to the outdoor dose is essential, as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we evaluated the median reduction factor with an interquartile range of 0.43 (0.34–0.53) based on 522 survey results for 69 detached wooden houses in two evacuation zones, Iitate village and Odaka district. The results indicated no...

  14. Factors Associated with Nurses’ Intention to Leave Their Jobs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshinobu; Hayashida, Naomi; Orita, Makiko; Urata, Hideko; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Yumiko; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey among nurses who were working at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to clarify the factors associated with their intention to leave their jobs during the radiation emergency. We asked 345 nurses (17 men and 328 women) about their intention to leave their jobs after the accident. We also asked about relevant factors including the participants’ demographic factors, living situation, working status, and knowledge of radiation health effects. We found that living with preschoolers (OR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.02–3.44, p = 0.042), anxiety about life in Fukushima City after the accident (OR = 5.55, 95%CI: 1.18–26.13, p = 0.030), consideration of evacuation from Fukushima after the accident (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.45–4.06, p = 0.001), consideration of the possible radiation health effects in children (OR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.02–3.44, p = 0.042), and anxiety about relationships with colleagues in the hospital after the accident (OR = 3.23, p = 0.001) were independently associated with the nurses’ intention to leave their jobs after the accident. On the other hand, the percentage of nurses with knowledge on radiation health effects was relatively low among those who had the intention to leave the job and among those who did not have the intention to leave the job after the accident, with no significant differences between the two groups. Our results suggest the need for an education program for nurses regarding radiation health effects. PMID:25816345

  15. Learning lessons from accidents with a human and organisational factors perspective: deficiencies and failures of operating experience feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at reminding the failures of operating experience feedback (OEF) systems through the lessons of accidents and provides a framework for improving the efficiency of OEF processes. The risk is for example to miss lessons from other companies and industrial sectors, or to miss the implementation of adequate corrective actions with the risk to repeat accidents. Most of major accidents have been caused by a learning failure or other organisational factors as a contributing cause among several root causes. Some of the recurring organisational factors are: -) poor recognition of critical components, of critical activities or deficiency in anticipation and detection of errors, -) excessive production pressure, -) deficiency of communication or lack of quality of dialogue, -) Excessive formalism, -) organisational complexity, -) learning deficiencies (OEF, closing feedback loops, lack of listening of whistle-blowers). Some major accidents occurred in the nuclear industry. Although the Three Mile Island accident has multiple causes, in particular, an inappropriate design of the man-machine interface, it is a striking example of the loss of external lessons from incidents. As for Fukushima it is too early to have established evidence on learning failures. The systematic study and organisational analysis of OEF failures in industrial accidents whatever their sector has enabled us to provide a framework for OEF improvements. Five key OEF issues to improve in priority: 1) human and organisational factors analysis of the root causes of the events, 2) listening to the field staff, dissenting voices and whistle-blowers, 3) monitoring of the external events that provide generic lessons, 4) building an alive memory through a culture of accidents with people who become experiences pillars, and 5) the setting of external audit or organisational analysis of the OEF system by independent experts. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  16. Factors associated with nurses' intention to leave their jobs after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshinobu; Hayashida, Naomi; Orita, Makiko; Urata, Hideko; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Yumiko; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey among nurses who were working at the Fukushima Medical University Hospital at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to clarify the factors associated with their intention to leave their jobs during the radiation emergency. We asked 345 nurses (17 men and 328 women) about their intention to leave their jobs after the accident. We also asked about relevant factors including the participants' demographic factors, living situation, working status, and knowledge of radiation health effects. We found that living with preschoolers (OR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.02-3.44, p = 0.042), anxiety about life in Fukushima City after the accident (OR = 5.55, 95%CI: 1.18-26.13, p = 0.030), consideration of evacuation from Fukushima after the accident (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.45-4.06, p = 0.001), consideration of the possible radiation health effects in children (OR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.02-3.44, p = 0.042), and anxiety about relationships with colleagues in the hospital after the accident (OR = 3.23, p = 0.001) were independently associated with the nurses' intention to leave their jobs after the accident. On the other hand, the percentage of nurses with knowledge on radiation health effects was relatively low among those who had the intention to leave the job and among those who did not have the intention to leave the job after the accident, with no significant differences between the two groups. Our results suggest the need for an education program for nurses regarding radiation health effects. PMID:25816345

  17. 0BOccupational Risk Factors in Iranian Professional Drivers and their Impacts on Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHDI JAHANGIRI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available   In many countries road crashes are the main cause of fatal accidents related to job. The aim of our study was to characterize a population of Iranian professional drivers with regard to history of drivers’ road crash incidents and some occupational factors. Using Swedish version of the Nordic Questionnaire information about musculoskeletal pain prevalence in last 12 months, demographic features, smoking habits, age, job experience, road crash, job consent, self-perceived job stress, working load and fatigue were obtained from 403 drivers. Ninety seven (25% of the study population reported having one or more traffic accident during their driving job history. The association between self-report incident of road crash and driving duration, smoking, lack of exercise, fatigue, lack of health education and musculoskeletal complaints were statistically significant(p<0.05. Data analysis also revealed positive significant association between fatigue as dependent variable and driving duration, self perceived stress and lack of job consent as independent variables (p<0.01. The questionnaire data indicated that signs of fatigue in smoker drivers, old drivers (>50 years, high experienced drivers (>10 years, drivers without sport activities, night drivers, fat and over weighted drivers, old vehicle drivers (age of vehicle >10 years, bus and truck drivers were more than other groups of professional drivers but the differences were not significant. It can be said that occupational risk factors influence the safe operation of drivers. However, prevention strategies such as organizational changes for reducing work-related stress, recording and analysis of road incidents, national health and safety law for drivers are needed.

  18. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  19. Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R

    2016-02-01

    The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. PMID:26687540

  20. Factors contributing to driver’s condition after fatal and injury vehicle accidents in North Khorasan province- New Year 1391

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Rezazadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim: Injuries from traffic accidents are a major public health problem, and the third leading cause of mortality in people aged 1 to 40 years. Each year 31.8 persons per hundred thousands of Iranians are killed in car accidents. Neighboring of North Khorasan province with Razavi Khorasan, a province with a lot of pilgrims caused a large number of passengers travel via North Khorasan province. This study aimed to evaluate the road accidents and its related factors in the city of bojnurd in March 2012. Materials and Methods: this cross-sectional study was done from … to … 2012(the New Year vacation in Iran. All injured or victims from car accidents who referred to the emergency department of the Imam Ali Hospital formed the research community. Data was gathered by a questionnaire consisting vehicle specification, driver and injured characteristics. For victims and those were not able to answer, we used the family members or relatives for gathering the data. All data analysis was done in SPSS version 19.Results: during the study period, 148 injured people were admitted to the hospital. Drivers’ mean age were 33.9 with the SD of 11.9 years; among them 43.2% were used seat belt. One driver and three passengers were killed immediately, and two drivers and three passengers died in the first 24 hours of admission. Fastening seat belt by drivers reduce the hospitalization rate significantly (p-value<0.0001. 50.7% of the accidents were head-on collisions. Violation from the speed limit (41.3%, indiscretions (25.4% and drowsiness were the most common causes of accident respectively. Conclusion: training the drivers, obligation for using seat belt by driver and passengers, rest after long hours driving , and more control of traffic police especially in two way roads could reduce the car accident or in case of accident help to prevent severe damage and injury.

  1. Main investigation results on the forest radioecology in the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accident zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the long-term studies of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in zones of radioactive contamination after the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents, the following trends were revealed: (1) High retention capacity of stand canopy with respect to radioactive fallout. This leads to high doses absorbed by apical and leaf meristems, ?-radiation giving the main part of the dose; (2) Fast self-decontamination of crowns during the growth period and relatively slow decontamination in the phase of physiological rest, regardless of amount of atmospheric precipitation. The rate of crown decontamination determines the value and duration of radiation stress on woody plants; (3) Accumulation not less than 95% of the total radionuclide amount in the forest litter 1-2 years after the cessation of radioactive fallout; (4) Relatively slow migration of strontium and cesium radionuclides along the forest soil profile; (5) High capacity of the forest when serving as a biogeochemical barrier to the routes of horizontal and vertical radionuclide migration and export out of the zone of initial contamination, including migration into the river water; (6) Considerable difference between strontium and cesium when migrating in forest soils and in the soil-plant system; (7) Broad variations in transfer factors for uptake of cesium-137 from soil into forest plants depending on the plant species and soil type. The primary radiobiological effects connected with irradiation of organisms are considered and secondary disturbances due to changes of ecological bonds between the components of irradiated forest ecosystem are discussed

  2. Prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales y factores relacionados en estudiantes de odontología / Prevalence of occupational accidents and related factors in students of dentistry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katherine M, Arrieta-Vergara; Shyrley, Díaz-Cárdenas; Farith D., González-Martínez.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Describir la prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales en estudiantes de Odontología y asociarla con factores propios de su práctica clínica. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal, desarrollado en una universidad pública de la ciudad de Cartagena en 2010. Participaron 213 estudiantes que se en [...] contraban en prácticas pre-clínicas y clínicas de odontología, que corresponden al 96,8 % de la población de referencia. Se aplicó un cuestionario auto-administrado para evaluar la ocurrencia de accidentes al igual que factores asociados. Los datos fueron analizados mediante prevalencias con intervalos de confianza al 95 %, usando la prueba chi², con nivel de significancia (p Abstract in english Objective Describe the prevalence of occupational accidents students of dentistry and associate it with factors of their clinical practice. Methods Cross-sectional study, developed in a public university in the city of Cartagena in 2010. Participants included 213 students in l pre-clinics and clinic [...] s practice of dentistry, selected by simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to evaluate the occurrence of accidents as well as the associated factors. The data were analyzed by prevalence rates with confidence intervals of 95 %, using the chi² test, with significance levels of 0.05. The Association Strength was estimated by OR and the multivariate analysis through nominal logistic regression. Results The prevalence of occupational accidents is 46 %, the type of accident most often is prick (48.7 %), caused mainly by the Explorer (28.9 %). 58.1 % of the accidents are reported and continue care protocol. 87.7 % of the students enfold the needle after use. At bivariate level, only statistically significant association between occupational accidents and semester was presented, being more frequent for the more advanced semesters (p=0.004). Conclusions because of high prevalence of occupational accidents, it is necessary to insist on the implementation of strategies for safe and appropriate environments for the development of educational practices for students.

  3. Prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales y factores relacionados en estudiantes de odontología / Prevalence of occupational accidents and related factors in students of dentistry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katherine M, Arrieta-Vergara; Shyrley, Díaz-Cárdenas; Farith D., González-Martínez.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Describir la prevalencia de accidentes ocupacionales en estudiantes de Odontología y asociarla con factores propios de su práctica clínica. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal, desarrollado en una universidad pública de la ciudad de Cartagena en 2010. Participaron 213 estudiantes que se en [...] contraban en prácticas pre-clínicas y clínicas de odontología, que corresponden al 96,8 % de la población de referencia. Se aplicó un cuestionario auto-administrado para evaluar la ocurrencia de accidentes al igual que factores asociados. Los datos fueron analizados mediante prevalencias con intervalos de confianza al 95 %, usando la prueba chi², con nivel de significancia (p Abstract in english Objective Describe the prevalence of occupational accidents students of dentistry and associate it with factors of their clinical practice. Methods Cross-sectional study, developed in a public university in the city of Cartagena in 2010. Participants included 213 students in l pre-clinics and clinic [...] s practice of dentistry, selected by simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to evaluate the occurrence of accidents as well as the associated factors. The data were analyzed by prevalence rates with confidence intervals of 95 %, using the chi² test, with significance levels of 0.05. The Association Strength was estimated by OR and the multivariate analysis through nominal logistic regression. Results The prevalence of occupational accidents is 46 %, the type of accident most often is prick (48.7 %), caused mainly by the Explorer (28.9 %). 58.1 % of the accidents are reported and continue care protocol. 87.7 % of the students enfold the needle after use. At bivariate level, only statistically significant association between occupational accidents and semester was presented, being more frequent for the more advanced semesters (p=0.004). Conclusions because of high prevalence of occupational accidents, it is necessary to insist on the implementation of strategies for safe and appropriate environments for the development of educational practices for students.

  4. A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AND ITS RISK FACTORS IN JHANSI AND AROUND JHANSI CITY (U . P .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expansion in network, motorization and urbanization in the country has been accompanied by a rise in road accidents leading to road traffic injuries (RTIs. Accident represents a major epidemic of non - communicable disease in present century. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs and its risk factors in Jhansi & around Jhansi city. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A hospital based cross sectional study was carried out in MLB Medical College and Hospital , Jhansi and the cases sustaining ro ad traffic injuries registering from 1 January 2013 to 31 July 2014 were taken irrespective of the place of accident. The data was entered in excel sheet and results were expressed as proportions and percentages. RESULTS: Among them maximum number of cases were in 21 - 30 years age group (30.53% followed by 31 - 40 years (21.66% and >60 years (4.65% shows the least no. of victims. In the study majority of cases were reported from Orchha Road (11.5%. In the study it was observed that majority of accidents oc cur in winter season (37.24% and in night time (34.47%.Among them 19.68% victims stated that defective road as the most common condition associated with RTA followed by poor lighting (18.54%. CONCLUSIONS: In this study majority of victims were younger, males, less educated and labourer by occupation. Among risk factors defective roads, poor lighting, excessive speed, overloading and alcohol consumption were found causing RTAs.

  5. The investigation on the mass media reports on the JCO accident in the major atomic energy countries and Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JCO (Japan Conversion Organization) accident is the worst one in the history of the atomic energy developments in Japan. The many reports about the accident appeared in the 44 mass media in the world from Sep. 30 to Oct. 14, 1999. Chronological statistics of issued 522 articles are listed under particular criteria. Some of them were based on wrong knowledge and/or overestimations about the accident based on delivered articles by the news agency. Some of others gave critics over the total atomic energy industries of Japan, especially on safety managements and so-called similar Japan syndromes. This investigation gives emphasis on the articles based on wrong knowledge. We identified the countries and the newspaper publishers and the news agencies those gave wrong descriptions. Total 25 articles used the words [explosion] and [fire], which were delivered from the Kyodo News Service. Some of the Asian newspaper wrote that a large quantity of radioactivity, radioactive material and/or nuclear fuels was released. Some other news publishers said the accident was happened at fuel reprocessing facilities, when the waste fuel rods were under cutting. Critics delivered in the individual countries were summarized, i.e. USA, Canada, France, UK, German, Russia, Australia, China, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Taiwan and the news agencies. One of the key issues is the exact information release for the press corps on the early stage of the accidents. The second point is to recognize the different status on atomic energy in the individual countries, when Japan want to explain their domestic situations. Accidents of atomic energy gave many impacts on various aspects to other countries. Japan should understand the neighborhood by collecting world information on atomic energy and analyzing them. Summaries of 522 articles appeared in the mass media were attached in this investigation among the report of 180 pages. (Tanaka, Y.)

  6. Post-test investigation result on the WWER-1000 fuel tested under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model bundle of WWER-type were tested under SFD condition in the out-of-pile CORA installation. The objective of the test was to provide an information on the WWER-type fuel bundles behaviour under severe fuel damage accident conditions. Also it was assumed to compare the WWER-type bundle damage mechanisms with these experienced in the PWR-type bundle tests with aim to confirm a possibility to use the various code systems, worked our for PWR as applied to WWER. In order to ensure the possibility of the comparison of the calculated core degradation parameters with the real state of the tested bundle, some parameters have been measured on the bundle cross-sections under examination. Quantitative parameters of the bundle degradation have been evaluated by digital image processing of the bundle cross-sections. The obtained results are shown together with corresponding results obtained by the other participants of this investigation. (author). 3 refs, 13 figs

  7. Investigation on droplet impingement erosion during steam generator tube failure accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Sodium droplet impingement is regarded as one of the mechanisms causing secondary tube failure in case of steam generator tube rupture accident. ? The moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method is applied to simulate the sodium droplet impingement. ? The erosion rate correlation for water impingement is extended for application in the sodium impingement. - Abstract: Droplet impingement erosion is one of the reasons causing the secondary heat transfer tube damage in case of the heat transfer tube failure in the steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor. This paper has been dedicated to investigate the impingement phenomena, pressure load and the damage rate by impingement. Single droplet impingement on the rigid wall was first simulated with MPS-AS (moving particle semi-implicit method for all speeds) method for water and sodium. The shockwave propagation during the impingement has been well captured. The pressure load by water impingement can be characterized with . A correlation for pressure load by sodium impingement is proposed based on the water hammer theory. The new correlation shows to be consistent with the simulation result. For prediction of erosion rate by sodium droplet impingement, were extended by including the effects of liquid properties, i.e. density, sound speed and viscosity. The extended correlations show similar prediction accuracy to the original ones.

  8. Investigations related to the chemical behaviour of methyl iodide at severe PWR-accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decomposition velocity of methyl iodide in aqueous solutions of boric acid has been measured at temperatures up to 423 K and at chemical conditions which are expected to exist in the sumpwater pool during a severe reactor accident. The decomposition was due only to hydrolysis which increased by the expected amount at high temperature. No influence of the cooling water additives was observed. Treatment of the available kinetic data indicated that the influence of polluting material expectedly present in the sump is likely to be negligible too. A possible exception may be the enhancement of the decomposition rate by particulate and dissolved silver. The resistance of methyl iodide to gas phase decomposition by steam and oxygen at 423 K was investigated and only slow decomposition in the order of 10-7/s observed which is explained by reaction with steel surfaces. Neither gas phase oxidation nor hydrolysis occur at this temperature. The resistance to oxidation is of kinetic nature. Gas phase hydrolysis is not possible due to thermodynamics. This was confirmed by the observed gas phase formation of methyl iodide from hydrogen iodide and methanol at 423 K. The kinetics of this reaction are best explained by two parallel reactions, one of second order with a kinetic constant of 1.25 x 10-5/kPa s, and one of third order under action of steam with a constant of 2 x 10-6/kPa2 s. (orig./HP)

  9. Human factors review for nuclear power plant severe accident sequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses work conducted to: (1) support the severe accident sequence analysis of a nuclear power plant transient based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) develop a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Operator actions during the transient are assessed using qualitative and quantitative methods. A function-oriented accident management model provides a structure for developing technical operator guidance on mitigating core damage preventing radiological release

  10. Logistic Regression Analysis of Risk Factors Affecting Traffic Accidents: Study of Sivas, Kayseri and Yozgat

    OpenAIRE

    Kartal, Mahmut; Kutlar, Aziz; Be?en, Abdülkadir

    2011-01-01

    In this study, traffic accidents resulted in fatality and injury occurred within the city limits of Kayseri, Sivas and Yozgat during the time period 2000-2006 were analysed. In order to do this, approximately 2130 traffic accident reports examined where each city contributed nearly 700 reports to the examination. First of all, descriptive statistics of the data collected from traffic accident reports were calculated. Subsequently, without taking into account city variable, logistic regression...

  11. Effect of radiation and nonradiation factors on the population health of the Mogilev region after the Chernobyl power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative assessment of the effects of radiation and nonradiation factors on the population health in 5 districts of the Mogilev region after the Chernobyl power plant accident has shown that deterioration of the population health in some districts, changed morbidity and mortality structure were due mainly to environmental pollution with chemicals discharged into the air and water as industrial and communal wastes

  12. Investigation of accident management procedures related to loss of feedwater and station blackout in PSB-VVER integral test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Four integral test facility experiments related to VVER-1000 reactor. ? TH response of the VVER-1000 primary system following total loss of feedwater and station blackout scenarios. ? Accident management procedures in case of total loss of feedwater and station blackout. ? Experimental data represent an improvement of existing database for TH code validation. - Abstract: VVER 1000 reactors have some unique and specific features (e.g. large primary and secondary side fluid inventory, horizontal steam generators, core design) that require dedicated experimental and analytical analyses in order to assess the performance of safety systems and the effectiveness of possible accident management strategies. The European Commission funded project “TACIS 2.03/97”, Part A, provided valuable experimental data from the large-scale (1:300) PSB-VVER test facility, investigating accident management procedures in VVER-1000 reactor. A test matrix was developed at University of Pisa (responsible of the project) with the objective of obtaining the experimental data not covered by the OECD VVER validation matrix and with main focus on accident management procedures. Scenarios related to total loss of feed water and station blackout are investigated by means of four experiments accounting for different countermeasures, based on secondary cooling strategies and primary feed and bleed procedures. The transients are analyzed thoroughly focusing on the identification of phenomena that will challenge the code models during the simulations.

  13. Investigation of accident management procedures related to loss of feedwater and station blackout in PSB-VVER integral test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucalossi, A. [EC JRC, (JRC F.5) PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Del Nevo, A., E-mail: alessandro.delnevo@enea.it [ENEA, C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Moretti, F.; D' Auria, F. [GRNSPG, Universita di Pisa, via Diotisalvi 2, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Elkin, I.V.; Melikhov, O.I. [Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre, Electrogorsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four integral test facility experiments related to VVER-1000 reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TH response of the VVER-1000 primary system following total loss of feedwater and station blackout scenarios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accident management procedures in case of total loss of feedwater and station blackout. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data represent an improvement of existing database for TH code validation. - Abstract: VVER 1000 reactors have some unique and specific features (e.g. large primary and secondary side fluid inventory, horizontal steam generators, core design) that require dedicated experimental and analytical analyses in order to assess the performance of safety systems and the effectiveness of possible accident management strategies. The European Commission funded project 'TACIS 2.03/97', Part A, provided valuable experimental data from the large-scale (1:300) PSB-VVER test facility, investigating accident management procedures in VVER-1000 reactor. A test matrix was developed at University of Pisa (responsible of the project) with the objective of obtaining the experimental data not covered by the OECD VVER validation matrix and with main focus on accident management procedures. Scenarios related to total loss of feed water and station blackout are investigated by means of four experiments accounting for different countermeasures, based on secondary cooling strategies and primary feed and bleed procedures. The transients are analyzed thoroughly focusing on the identification of phenomena that will challenge the code models during the simulations.

  14. Socioemotional factors in child sexual abuse investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, Irit

    2009-05-01

    Two socioemotional factors were explored in association with children's production of forensic information during sexual abuse investigations: rapport building and interviewer's support. The study tested to what extent (a) the length and questioning style in the rapport-building session and (b) the level of support interviewers provided to the children, were associated with the amount of forensic details children provided in their investigation. These associations were explored for more talkative and less talkative children as well as for children of two age groups (4-6 and 7-9 years). A total of 71 forensic interviews of alleged victims of child sexual abuse were subject to a detailed psycholinguistic analysis. Results suggest that richer information in the child's responses is associated with a short and open style rapport-building session as well as with a higher level of interviewer's support. This association is especially marked for less talkative children who might be in special need of support and for whom the rapport with the interviewer might be more meaningful. PMID:19047478

  15. Logit Model of Motorcycle Accidents in the Philippines Considering Personal and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary R. Seva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine significant personal and environmental variables in predicting motorcycle accidents in the Philippines, compare the results with findings in other countries, and propose possible government interventions. Data were gathered from 177 participants through the use of a survey in a licensing center in the largest city in Metro Manila. Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of an accident from variables considered in the model. Three variables were found to be significant predictors of motorcycle accidents: age, driving behavior, and junction type. Younger drivers are more likely to be involved in accidents. The significance of age was unexpected because similar models found this to be insignificant. Driving behavior, specifically, committing violation predicts accident likelihood. Driving at t- and y-junctions also predicts motorcycle accidents. In the Philippines, a unique set of variables were found to predict motorcycle accidents. Although previous studies have established the effect of these variables to accident likelihood, the combination was unforeseen. Government agencies can focus on interventions directed at these three variables.

  16. Investigation into the March 28, 1979 Three Mile Island accident by Office of Inspection and Enforcement (Investigative Report No. 50-320/79-10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant experienced the most severe accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant operating history. This report sets forth the facts concerning the events of the accident determined as a result of an investigation by the NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement. The IE investigation is limited to two aspects of the accident: (1) Those related operational actions by the licensee during the period from before the initiating event until approximately 8:00 p.m., March 28, when primary coolant flow was re-established by starting a reactor coolant pump, and (2) Those steps taken by the licensee to control the release of radioactive material to the off-site environs, and to implement his emergency plan during the period from the initiation of the event to midnight, March 30. These investigation periods were selected because they include the licensee actions which most significantly affected the accident sequence and its results

  17. Comparison of different estimation methods of accident atmospheric dispersion factors for a representative inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of atmospheric diffusion models in complex terrains and low wind speed conditions was discussed in this paper. The accident atmospheric dispersion factors (ATFs) of Taohuajiang nuclear power plant were calculated by using two methods: the probabilistic method recommended by the U.S. Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC) and the three dimensional objective diagnostic wind field model coupled with Lagrangian trajectory puff model to simulate the 8760 hourly emissions of radioactive nuclides. The results indicate that the maximum hourly accident ATFs calculated by the probabilistic method are conservative in exclusion area boundary (EAB). However, in some directions, accident ATFs calculated using probabilistic method is smaller than that using Lagrangian puff model, as well as some accident ATFs in remote sectors are larger than those in close sectors. Moreover, results calculated by probabilistic method are smaller in long-term release situation. Therefore, accident ATFs obtained according to the regulatory guides may not conservative in some cases, and atmospheric diffusion model should be selected carefully when a nuclear plant is located at a site with complex environmental conditions. (authors)

  18. Análise e classificação dos fatores humanos nos acidentes industriais Analysis and classification of the human factors in industrial accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cármen Regina Pereira Correa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto apresenta a evolução do conhecimento do fenômeno "acidente", mostrando a mudança do conceito do acidente como obra do destino para um componente do processo produtivo de qualquer segmento - industrial, aeronáutico, serviços, transporte dentre outros. O método de análise e classificação dos fatores humanos nos acidentes é apresentado e discutido quanto à viabilidade de implementação. Finalmente, conclui-se que a forma atual e moderna para prevenção de acidentes está baseada na identificação antecipada das falhas latentes da organização e do sistema, e que a ferramenta apresentada contribui para a gestão proativa e conseqüentemente para a diminuição do impacto dos acidentes do trabalho no processo produtivo.The present text presents the evolution of the knowledge of the phenomenon "accident", showing the change of the concept of the accident as workmanship of the destination for one component of the productive process of any segment - industrial, aeronautical, services, transports amongst others. The method of analysis and classification of the human factors in the accidents is presented and argued how much to the implementation viability. Finally one concludes that the current and modern form for prevention of accidents is based on the anticipated identification of the latent failures of the organization and the system, and that the presented tool contributes consequently for the pro-active management and in the reduction of the impact of the employment-related accidents in the productive process.

  19. Accumulation factors and biogeochemical aspects of migration of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems in the areas impacted by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation factors of radionuclides, such as 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr, 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 140Ru, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce and 144Ce, in fish, mollusks and aquatic plants of the water bodies in the near and distant areas of the Chernobyl accident ''footprint'' were estimated. The dynamics of changes in the factors of accumulation by the organisms of radioisotopes of iodine, cesium and strontium was analyzed. (orig.)

  20. Human factors as causes for road traffic accidents in the Sultanate of Oman under consideration of road construction designs

    OpenAIRE

    Plankermann, Kai

    2014-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman has one of the highest road traffic accident (RTA) related fatality rates worldwide (Al Lamki, 2010). Since Sultan Qaboos addressed this issue in a speech in October 2009, research institutions, ministries and NGOs alike have strengthened their efforts to cope with this public health burden. Yet, still little is known about the factors contributing to the high number of RTAs. Evidence from research conducted in other countries suggests that the human factor and the i...

  1. Report from investigation committee on the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Government's Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company published its final report on July 23, 2012. Results of investigation combined final report and interim report published on December 26, 2011. The author was head of accident accuse investigation team mostly in charge of site response, prior measure and plant behavior. This article reported author related technical investigation results focusing on site response and prior measures against tsunamis of units 1-3 of Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations. Misunderstanding of working state of isolation condenser of unit 1, unsuitability of alternative water injection at manual stop of high-pressure coolant injection (HPCI) system of unit 3 and improper prior measure against tsunami and severe accident were pointed out in interim report. Improper monitoring of suppression chamber of unit 2 and again unsuitable work for HPCI system of unit 3 were reported in final report. Thorough technical investigation was more encouraged to update safety measures of nuclear power stations. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Yang, Z.L.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Bui, V.A.; Haraldsson, H.O.; Li, H.X.; Konovakhin, M.; Paladino, D.; Leung, W.H [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1999-08-01

    This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity to fragment. The molten fuel-coolant mixtures with a binary oxidic core melt (UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}) may feature low triggerability and low explosivity. The mechanical-to-thermal conversion ratio may be very low. The presence of metallic component in the melt may significantly enhance triggerability and explosivity of molten corium. The characteristics of melt spreading into 2-D channel are much different from those into 1-D channel. The evaluations of spreading parameters in reactor accident situations would be strongly affected by the uncertainties in the boundary conditions of the melt spreading process, such as downward heat removal and of upward heat removal in case of core melt spreading under water. Computer codes were developed and validated against the data obtained in the MSWI Project. The Multiphase Eulerian Lagrangian Transport code (MELT-313) was validated to investigate the hydrodynamics during the premixing process of jet penetrating into a water pool. The FlowLab code employing the multi-fluid multi-phase Lattice-Boltzmann method was developed and validated. In the Lattice-Boltzmann approach, no special treatment is needed to track the interface. A scaling technology was developed to describe the spreading efficiency of melt into I -D channel. The melt vessel interaction thermal analysis (MVITA) code describes the process of melt pool formation, melt pool convection and the resulting vessel thermal loadings. A gap cooling model and model representing penetrations were incorporated into this code. The code was coupled with ANSYS code, which performs structure analysis. Thus a coupled thermal and mechanical analysis of the loadings of a pressure vessel during the melt-vessel interaction, could be performed.

  3. Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity to fragment. The molten fuel-coolant mixtures with a binary oxidic core melt (UO2-ZrO2) may feature low triggerability and low explosivity. The mechanical-to-thermal conversion ratio may be very low. The presence of metallic component in the melt may significantly enhance triggerability and explosivity of molten corium. The characteristics of melt spreading into 2-D channel are much different from those into 1-D channel. The evaluations of spreading parameters in reactor accident situations would be strongly affected by the uncertainties in the boundary conditions of the melt spreading process, such as downward heat removal and of upward heat removal in case of core melt spreading under water. Computer codes were developed and validated against the data obtained in the MSWI Project. The Multiphase Eulerian Lagrangian Transport code (MELT-313) was validated to investigate the hydrodynamics during the premixing process of jet penetrating into a water pool. The FlowLab code employing the multi-fluid multi-phase Lattice-Boltzmann method was developed and validated. In the Lattice-Boltzmann approach, no special treatment is needed to track the interface. A scaling technology was developed to describe the spreading efficiency of melt into I -D channel. The melt vessel interaction thermal analysis (MVITA) code describes the process of melt pool formation, melt pool convection and the resulting vessel thermal loadings. A gap cooling model and model representing penetrations were incorporated into this code. The code was coupled with ANSYS code, which performs structure analysis. Thus a coupled thermal and mechanical analysis of the loadings of a pressure vessel during the melt-vessel interaction, could be performed

  4. Light water reactor capacity factor investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the internationally accepted measurements of an electrical generating station's productivity is the capacity factor. Comparison of the United States (U.S.) nuclear power plants' average cumulative capacity factors to those of other Western world countries shows that the U.S., while leading the western world in number of operating nuclear power plants, ranks near the bottom in average cumulative capacity factor. This paper identifies the institutional and technological factors that adversely or favorably affect the domestic nuclear power plants capacity factors. A literature search, data analysis, and industry survey were performed to identify institutional and technological factors affecting the capacity factor of light water reactors

  5. A abordagem sociotécnica na investigação e na prevenção de acidentes aéreos: o caso do vôo RG-254 / Sociotechnical approach to investigation and prevention of aircraft accidents: the case of flight RG-254

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vitor Alexandre de Freitas, Cardoso; Henrique Luiz, Cukierman.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta estudo de caso do acidente ocorrido com o vôo RG-254 da Varig, em setembro de 1989. Partindo de informações de investigações oficiais, publicações, material audiovisual, entrevistas com envolvidos no acidente e especialistas em segurança de vôo, os autores re-analisam o acident [...] e com enfoque sociotécnico referenciado na teoria ator-rede e no conceito de acidente "normal". O texto apresenta novo entendimento para a investigação de acidentes na aviação criticando a tradicional repartição de causas entre os chamados fatores "humanos", "técnicos" e "operacionais" e sugere aplicação do conceito de multicausalidade que não se restringe à mera listagem de "fatores contribuintes", mas que analisa as relações entre atores-redes envolvidos no sistema de aviação em que ocorreu o acidente. O acidente do RG-254 é descrito como sintoma do rompimento de relações entre os atores que atuam no sistema. Abstract in english This article presents a case study of the accident with Varig flight RG-254 in September 1989. Using as starting point the official investigation data, publications, audiovisual material and interviews with those involved in the accident as well as flight safety specialists, the authors re-analyze t [...] he accident through a sociotechnical focus, which is based on the actor-network theory and concepts of "normal" accident. The text presents a new understanding of aviation accident investigation and it reviews the traditional terms of investigation based on a rigid division between "human", "technical" and "operational" factors. It also suggests the application of the multi-causality concept, which is not restricted to a mere list of "contributing factors", but which analyzes the relationships among the actor-networks involved in the aviation system where the accident occurred. The RG-254 accident is described as a symptom of the rupture of relationship among those acting in the system.

  6. Investigation of an accident in a resins manufacturing site: The role of accelerator on polymerisation of methyl methacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casson, Valeria, E-mail: valeria.casson.moreno@gmail.com [Alma Mater Studiorum—Università di Bologna, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Mineraria e delle Tecnologie Ambientali, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Snee, Tim, E-mail: Tim.Snee@hsl.gsi.gov.uk [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK 179 JN (United Kingdom); Maschio, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.maschio@unipd.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The accelerator produces an increase in the initial rate of polymerisation. • The accelerator increases the extent of polymerisation in certain conditions. • The accelerator decreases the induction time due to the presence of inhibitor. • Runaway reaction is more likely to occur in presence of the accelerator. • The experimental data support the hypothesis about the accident. - Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of an accelerator on the polymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA). This study is based on the results of an investigation of an accident in a manufacturing site for resins located in the United Kingdom. As sequence of event to cause the accident the following was assumed: during an unattended batch process a runaway undesired polymerisation of methyl methacrylate occurred, generating rapid vaporisation of monomer, which in contact with an ignition source, led to an explosion followed by a fire. Since no initiator for the polymerisation reaction had been jet added to the blend, it was supposed that the accelerator contributed to the onset of the undesired polymerisation. The accelerator involved in the accident t has therefore been tested by differential scanning calorimetry and adiabatic calorimetry. The experimental data allowed the authors to prove the hypothesis made and to define safety ranges for the polymerisation reaction.

  7. Investigation of an accident in a resins manufacturing site: The role of accelerator on polymerisation of methyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The accelerator produces an increase in the initial rate of polymerisation. • The accelerator increases the extent of polymerisation in certain conditions. • The accelerator decreases the induction time due to the presence of inhibitor. • Runaway reaction is more likely to occur in presence of the accelerator. • The experimental data support the hypothesis about the accident. - Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of an accelerator on the polymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA). This study is based on the results of an investigation of an accident in a manufacturing site for resins located in the United Kingdom. As sequence of event to cause the accident the following was assumed: during an unattended batch process a runaway undesired polymerisation of methyl methacrylate occurred, generating rapid vaporisation of monomer, which in contact with an ignition source, led to an explosion followed by a fire. Since no initiator for the polymerisation reaction had been jet added to the blend, it was supposed that the accelerator contributed to the onset of the undesired polymerisation. The accelerator involved in the accident t has therefore been tested by differential scanning calorimetry and adiabatic calorimetry. The experimental data allowed the authors to prove the hypothesis made and to define safety ranges for the polymerisation reaction

  8. Investigation of fuel and clad relocation during LMFBR initiation phase accidents. The STAR experiment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactivity effects of fuel and clad motion during unprotected loss of flow accidents stronglyu influence the accident progression in LMFBRs. To study these phenomena, a series of in-pile experiments (the STAR experiments) are being performed in which clad motion and fuel dispersal are observed in small pin bundles with high-speed cinematography. The major parameters varied in the series are power level, fuel type (fresh versus preirradiation), and number of pins. The results of the first four experiments are presented in the report. The irradiated fuel tests show early fuel disruption caused by fission products followed by rapid fuel sweep out and axial clad relocation

  9. The Columbia Accident Investigation and The NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Laboratory Contributions Supporting NASA's Return to Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry, resulting in loss of the vehicle and its seven crewmembers. For the next several months, an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA, concluded in August, 2003 that the most likely cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the mission's launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing, which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. The findings of the CAIB were supported by ballistic impact tests, which simulated the physics of External Tank Foam impact on the RCC wing leading edge material. These tests ranged from fundamental material characterization tests to full-scale Orbiter Wing Leading Edge tests. Following the accident investigation, NASA spent the next 18 months focused on returning the shuttle safely to flight. In order to fully evaluate all potential impact threats from the many debris sources on the Space Shuttle during ascent, NASA instituted a significant impact testing program. The results from these tests led to the validation of high-fidelity computer models, capable of predicting actual or potential Shuttle impact events, were used in the certification of STS-114, NASA s Return to Flight Mission, as safe to fly. This presentation will provide a look into the inner workings of the Space Shuttle and a behind the scenes perspective on the impact analysis and testing done for the Columbia Accident Investigation and NASA's Return to Flight programs. In addition, highlights from recent Shuttle missions are presented.

  10. Long term effects of Minks of the radiation factors from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of small radiation dose influence on human and animal reproductive functions becomes more and more topical after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident. In the number of cases, animals that reside in continues internal, as well as external exposure zone, have pregnancy interruption in its early stages (up to 30 days). This, without any doubts testifies for reproductive process disorder as a whole (hypophysis-ovary-uterus system) and also, as its separate links. The important thing is that a break in any one of those links leads to pregnancy interruption. Hence, in order to determine any disorders in reproductive system functional state, profound and detailed morphofunctional study of the system links (accounting for radiation exposure factors) needs to be done. Because research in this field has just started, we were unable to find any material on this topic. There are, however, some references for morphofunctional changes of endocrine glands, hypophysis in particular and sex glands, refereed to small radiation doses

  11. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph contains the catastrophe's events chronology, the efficiency assessed of those measures assumed for their localization as well as their environmental and socio-economic impact. Among materials of the monograph the results are presented of research on the radioactive contamination field forming as well as those concerning the investigation of biogeochemical properties of Chernobyl radionuclides and their migration process in the environment of the Ukraine. The data dealing with biological effects of the continued combined internal and external radioactive influence on plants, animals and human health under the circumstances of Chernobyl accident are of the special interest. In order to provide the scientific generalizing information on the medical aspects of Chernobyl catastrophe, the great part of the monograph is allotted to appraise those factors affecting the health of different population groups as well as to depict clinic aspects of Chernobyl events and medico-sanitarian help system. The National Programme of Ukraine for the accident consequences elimination and population social protection assuring for the years 1986-1993 and this Programme concept for the period up to the year 2000 with a special regard of the world community participation there

  12. Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

  13. Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatero, J. (Finnish Meteorogical Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Haemeri, K. (Helsinki Univ., Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Jaakkola, T. (Helsinki Univ., Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland)); Jantunen, M. (National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland)); Koivukoski, J. (Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Government (Finland)); Saxen, R. (STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 muR h-1 [1 muSv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

  14. Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 ?R h-1 [1 ?Sv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

  15. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  16. A NEW HAZARD EVALUATION PROCEDURE FOR PREDICTING RISK FACTORS OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    With annual average of 73,937 occupational accidents and 1,152 deaths, Turkey still faces an important problem. The country exercises one of the lowest performances in job safety among the European Union countries. Developments in technology increased the importance of safety management in industry. These improvements also resulted in a requirement of more investment and assignment on human in work systems. This situation increases the importance of forecasting the possible accidents that wor...

  17. Relevant factors for active pedestrian safety based on 100 real accident reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    HAMDANE, Hedi; Serre, Thierry; Masson, Catherine; Anderson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The enhancement of pedestrian safety represents a major challenge in traffic accidents. This study allows a better understanding of the issues in pedestrian protection. It highlights the potential of in-depth accident studies for identifying relevant crash parameters in the pedestrian active safety. A computational simulation tool was developed to reconstruct 100 pedestrian real-world crashes. Two of them are detailed to illustrate the methodology. A description of the complete sample is then...

  18. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  19. Analyzing the role of climatic factors on road accidents (Case study: Ardabil-Parsabad road in Ardabil Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegheh Alizadeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents and their fatalities are among the currentchallenges human society facing, which in turn resulting in huge social and economiccosts on the countries. Thedeveloping countries are the biggest victims of the road accidents such that inthese countries, road accidents are considered asthe major cause of death. Unfortunately, Iran is amongthe countries in which the rate of road accidents is high. Among thedriving factors that affect road safety and transport isclimate. Ardabil-Parsabad road in Ardabil province is one of the roads manyaccidents have been occurred during years, and thistrend began when the number of cars increased resulted in huge road deaths in1990s. In this study, data has been used from four meteorological stations inArdabil, Samian, Meshkin-Shahr and Parsabad, over a period of5years(2008-2002.For this purpose, several climatic elements werecollected including the average daily temperature, average of minimum temperatures,average of maximum temperatures, the number of snowy days, the number of frostdays, starting glacial period, duration of the snowfall, duration of theglacial period, total average humidity and moderate precipitation, average of sunnyhours, average number of foggy days, the average number of windy days. This analysis is provided using Excel software inthe Arc GIS environment of continuous levels of these parameters in the region.

  20. Experimental and calculational investigations of accident processes during the standard problems at the ISB-WWER integral test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time on the basis of experiments as were performed at the two-loop integral thermal testing unit ISB-WWER modulating the first circuit of the reactor facility with WWER-1000 five standard problems were studied in 1993 - 2001 for the investigation into accident regimes of loss of coolant in the first circuit. Verification of native and frontier calculating thermal hydraulic codes: TECH', KORSAR, ATHLET, CATHARE, RELAP was checked. Results of verification calculations were sufficiently consistent with experimental data. Most of processes and events that were a possibility in emergency conditions with WWER-1000 at low and middle flow of coolant were reproduced in the experiments. Analysis of the results demonstrates that with use of these calculating codes accident processes are simulated

  1. Investigate sequence of Fukushima accident without prediction. Why isolation condenser of unit 1 was manually stopped promptly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author insisted on investigating sequence of Fukushima Daiichi accident Unit 1 without prediction to confirm whether pipe failures occurred or not due to ground motion, which could be checked by later inspection of containment inside. At 2:52 pm in March 11, pressure drop 2.4 MPa from 7 MPa to 4.6 MPa within about 10 minutes was abnormal compared to 1.4 MPa obtained by simulation without pipe rapture assumed. At 3.3 pm, isolation condensers(ICs) were manually stopped and that of system B was not operated again, which was told to follow operating manual requesting cooling rate less than 55degC/hr. Pressure was thought to be adjusted by steam relief valve (SRV), but was told by operation of system A of IC. SRV operation was recorded as not usable. Flow sheet of IC used for accident explanation was different from that submitted for application. (T. Tanaka)

  2. An analytical investigation of cold leg small break accidents of the ATLAS facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon-Sik, E-mail: yskim3@kaeri.re.kr; Cho, Seok; Choi, Ki-Yong

    2015-09-15

    A previous parametric study of the direct vessel injection (DVI) line breaks was re-evaluated to see its applicability to that of the cold leg (CL) pipe breaks in advanced thermal-hydraulic test loop for accident simulation (ATLAS). Evaluation results of the tests and analyses for the major parameters, e.g., the pressurizer (PZR) pressure, downcomer water level, collapsed core water level, and clad temperature, were compared for four different CL pipe break scenarios. The overall trends of the major parameters showed reasonable behaviors between the tests and analyses. The clad temperature showed conservative behaviors in the analyses using the suggested options. The suggested counter-current flow limit (CCFL) options for the fuel alignment plate (FAP) and cross-over legs (COLs) can be applicable to any small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) scenario for the CL pipe and DVI line breaks in the ATLAS tests.

  3. Evaluation of total loss of feedwater accident/recovery phase and investigation of the associated EOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the sequence of event and the thermohydraulic behavior during total loss of feedwater accident and recovery procedure, a RELAP5/MOD3 calculation is performed and compared with the LOFT L9-1/L3-3 experiment. Also, the predictability of the code for the major thermohydraulic phenomena following the accident is assessed. As a result, it is found that a pressure control using the spray until the time the water level reaches the top of the pressurizer, an overpressure protection by pressurizer PORV, a recovery of the secondary heat removal capability by refilling steam generator, and an effective cooldown by the continued natural circulation can be perfomed without core uncovery. It is also found that the plantspecific evaluation is necessary to confirm the effectiveness of the current symptom-oriented emergency operating procedure, especially in an overpressure protection performance and steam generator recovery performance. (Author)

  4. Evaluación de factores de riesgo en accidentes oculares graves infantiles / Assessment of the risk factors for severe ocular accidents in children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sahely, Sixto Fuentes; Acela, Boffill Corrales; Sandra María, Jalilo Hernández; Dayamí de la Caridad, González Pérez.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar factores de riesgo en accidentes oculares graves infantiles. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación aplicada, epidemiológica, descriptiva, longitudinal y prospectiva sobre accidentes oculares graves en el Servicio de Oftalmología del Hospital Pediátrico Provincial de Pinar del Río ( [...] 2006-2007). El universo y muestra estuvo constituido por dos grupos de niños de 1- 20 años, ambos sexos y todas las etnias. Primer Grupo: Niños con accidente ocular grave, Segundo Grupo: Niños sin accidente ocular; determinándose una muestra total de 130 seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio simple. Fueron utilizados métodos empíricos y teóricos de investigación científica. Resultados: El trauma ocular representó el 87,8% de los ingresos de urgencia durante el período. Se encontró que el grupo etáreo de 9-12 años (40%), y sexo masculino (89,2%) fueron los más afectados. Un 76,9% de los accidentados residía en zona rural. El 96,9% se encontraba fuera de la casa y sin compañía de adultos en el momento del trauma. Predominaron las familias con conocimientos y actitudes evaluados de regulares en relación a los accidentes oculares con un 57,7 % y 60,8% respectivamente. Conclusiones: Se constató elevada frecuencia de traumas oculares infantiles graves en Pinar del Río, precisando sus factores causales de riesgo y dificultades en la prevención de los mismos. Abstract in english Objective: To assess the risk factors for severe ocular accidents in children. Methods: An applied, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and prospective research of the severe ocular accidents was conducted in the Ophthalmologic Service at "Pepe Portilla" Provincial Children Hospital, Pinar de [...] l Rio. The target group and the sample were comprised of two groups of children from 1 to 16 years old of both sexes and all ethnics. First group: children and adolescents suffering from severe ocular accidents. Second group: children and adolescents without ocular accidents; a total sample of 130 patients were chosen by means of a simple sampling at random. Empiric and theoretical scientific research methods were used. Results: The ocular trauma represented 87, 8% of the admissions in the emergency service during the period. The group of ages between 9-12 and male sex (89, 2%) were the most affected; 76, 9% lived in rural zones and 96, 9% of the accidents occurred out of the house without adult company; knowledge and attitudes towards ocular accidents were evaluated as fair in families (57,7% and 60,8% respectively). Conclusions: a high frequency of severe ocular traumas in children was verified in Pinar del Rio, specifying causal risk factors and difficulties to prevent these accidents

  5. Evaluación de factores de riesgo en accidentes oculares graves infantiles Assessment of the risk factors for severe ocular accidents in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahely Sixto Fuentes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar factores de riesgo en accidentes oculares graves infantiles. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación aplicada, epidemiológica, descriptiva, longitudinal y prospectiva sobre accidentes oculares graves en el Servicio de Oftalmología del Hospital Pediátrico Provincial de Pinar del Río (2006-2007. El universo y muestra estuvo constituido por dos grupos de niños de 1- 20 años, ambos sexos y todas las etnias. Primer Grupo: Niños con accidente ocular grave, Segundo Grupo: Niños sin accidente ocular; determinándose una muestra total de 130 seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio simple. Fueron utilizados métodos empíricos y teóricos de investigación científica. Resultados: El trauma ocular representó el 87,8% de los ingresos de urgencia durante el período. Se encontró que el grupo etáreo de 9-12 años (40%, y sexo masculino (89,2% fueron los más afectados. Un 76,9% de los accidentados residía en zona rural. El 96,9% se encontraba fuera de la casa y sin compañía de adultos en el momento del trauma. Predominaron las familias con conocimientos y actitudes evaluados de regulares en relación a los accidentes oculares con un 57,7 % y 60,8% respectivamente. Conclusiones: Se constató elevada frecuencia de traumas oculares infantiles graves en Pinar del Río, precisando sus factores causales de riesgo y dificultades en la prevención de los mismos.Objective: To assess the risk factors for severe ocular accidents in children. Methods: An applied, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and prospective research of the severe ocular accidents was conducted in the Ophthalmologic Service at "Pepe Portilla" Provincial Children Hospital, Pinar del Rio. The target group and the sample were comprised of two groups of children from 1 to 16 years old of both sexes and all ethnics. First group: children and adolescents suffering from severe ocular accidents. Second group: children and adolescents without ocular accidents; a total sample of 130 patients were chosen by means of a simple sampling at random. Empiric and theoretical scientific research methods were used. Results: The ocular trauma represented 87, 8% of the admissions in the emergency service during the period. The group of ages between 9-12 and male sex (89, 2% were the most affected; 76, 9% lived in rural zones and 96, 9% of the accidents occurred out of the house without adult company; knowledge and attitudes towards ocular accidents were evaluated as fair in families (57,7% and 60,8% respectively. Conclusions: a high frequency of severe ocular traumas in children was verified in Pinar del Rio, specifying causal risk factors and difficulties to prevent these accidents

  6. Immunological and epidemiological investigations in regions contaminated by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out in Novozybkov district of Bryansk region, Russia, immunologic inspection of residents with simultaneous evaluation of radionuclides content in the body and individual dose burden. We have not found any correlation between the dose and immune characteristics: amount of T and B lymphocytes, antibodies level. Only 3 months after the accident increased level of antibodies against thyroid antigens, thyroglobulin and microsomes was found at thyroid doses over 75 cGy. 3 tabs

  7. Investigation of Two-Wheeled Road Traffic Accidents using Explicit FE Techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    McLundie, W. M.

    2007-01-01

    With the increase of road traffic accidents increasing due to motorised traffic in the developing world growing alongside the more traditional bicycles and light motorcycles there is good reason to re-examine the two-wheeler case. In addition, if you include the large congestion charge scheme now underway in London and similar projects being considered in other cities globally, there is an even stronger case. These schemes encourage commuters to get back onto two wheels but ...

  8. Statistical investigation on the relation between car accident and warm katabatic winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible relationship between warm katabatic winds and human health and behaviour is analyzed; notwithstanding popular belief which is very positive about it, the connection has not been previously analyzed with the proper methods. We use a statistical model to address this question and our data suggest that the effects of warm katabatic winds in the Po Valley (Italy) can indeed be detected in the increase of car accidents

  9. Study of risc factors affecting the number of mental disorders and nervous system diseases for people who participated in liquidation of consequences of ChNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrelation of disease incidence for liquidators and factors affecting it has been studied. The diseases (mental disorders and nervous system diseases) have been taken into account provided more than 10% of people have suffered of the above diseases. Date of getting into the accident zone; duration of work within the zone; the radiation dose accumulated were considered to be risc factors. Getting into the accident zone and duration of work within the zone of accident have been though to be the main risc factors. 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Investigation of genetic factors in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lima Bomfim, Izaura

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease where the transmission of signals in the central nervous system is affected leading to a broad range of symptoms. The aetiology of the disease is unknown but multiple genetic and environmental factors are believed to play a part. While no environmental factor has been unequivocally established a lot has happened with regard to our knowledge of the genetic component of MS. Besides the consistent replication of associations with the...

  11. An Investigation of Spray Performance to Remove Gaseous Iodine- Approach to mitigate the consequences of severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New technological approaches need to be in place to address such concern which has significantly deteriorated public confidence in nuclear power. Such technological approach must be capable of systematically mitigate the consequence of severe nuclear accidents involving radioactivity release. An example of such approach is spray technology. In case of an accident involving radioactivity release to the environment, it may possible to deploy spray system to quickly respond to the released radioactivity and to minimize the impact of accidental releases on humans and the environment. During early phase of Fukushima nuclear accident mitigation process, water spray operations were carried out through fire trucks and military helicopters, but the primary concern of such operations was to cool down the reactor and to extinguish the fire and not to minimize the spread of radioactive materials. The aim of this research is to investigate spray technology for effective and efficient capturing of fission products released from leaked/damaged nuclear reactor to the environment. For this purpose, a systematic approach with in depth information about release phenomena and spray features will be required. Based on the information regarding release phenomena including types of materials and their amount and size, release locations, release conditions such as rates, velocities, temperature, etc., requirements for spray application is being developed including spray material types (foam, mist etc.), spray solution additives, flow rates, pressure, drop size, spray coverage area and spray duration, etc. Subsequently the efficiency and effectiveness of spray system to reduce the Dispersion of radioactivity in the environment during the course of severe accident can be characterized. This paper is a summary of our initial investigation for the use of spray technology to reduce the consequence of severe nuclear accident. An experimental investigation of iodine removal efficiency in a spray chamber is demonstrated. The spray solution of pH 13 was prepared by adding 0.5 % NaOH and 0.2 % Na2S2O3. At constant carrier gas flow rate, the iodine removal efficiency was found to increase with increasing the spray flow rate

  12. Trends in state-level freight accident rates: An enhancement of risk factor development for RADTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is concerned with understanding and managing risk as it applies to the shipment of spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Understanding risk in relation to mode and geography may provide opportunities to minimize radiological and non-radiological risks of transportation. To enhance such an understanding, a set of state-or waterway-specific accident, fatality, and injury rates (expressed as rates per shipment kilometer) by transportation mode and highway administrative class was developed, using publicly-available data bases. Adjustments made to accommodate miscoded or incomplete information in accident data are described, as well as the procedures for estimating state-level flow data. Results indicate that the shipping conditions under which spent fuel is likely to be transported should be less subject to accidents than the ''average'' shipment within mode. 10 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Modeling of the corium cooling and loading factor analysis for containment during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to the development and study of the mathematical model for corium melt interaction with low-temperature melting blocks in the passive protection systems (PPS) against severe accidents at the NPP, and learning the peculiarities of construction and operation of the PPS. The configurations of cooling blocks' distributions considered and the results of their work in the corium cooling pool are compared to the data of other PPS's conceptions. The conclusion is made that the models developed and the results obtained may be useful for constructing the PPS against severe accidents

  14. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues AN; GR Abreu; Resende RS; Goncalves WL; Gouvea SA

    2013-01-01

    Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentarines...

  15. Investigation of Depth Distribution of Radionuclides in Soil Contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Haruo; Niizato, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Shingo; Abe, Hironobu; Aoki, Kazuhiro

    2014-05-01

    This work was conducted as one of the researches relating to distribution maps of radiation dose rate etc. which the government has promoted as one of the counter-measures to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, and the 2nd investigation on the depth distribution of radionuclides (RNs) in soil was conducted after about 1 year from the accident, succeedingly to the 1st investigation which was conducted after about 3 months from the accident. Soil core samples to about 50cm deep were taken at 11 locations in Nihonmatsu-city, Kawamata-town and Namie-town. Sorption-desorption experiments of Cs-137 and I-131, CEC and AEC measurements and mineralogical analyses by XRD were conducted for 3 types of soils (sandy, clayey, organic) and those elutriated components (clay, silt, sand). Radiocaesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) and Ag-110m were detected at all locations investigated and only at locations where radiation dose rate is high, respectively. Radiocaesium more than 95% and 99% of the inventory distributed within 5cm and 10cm deep in soil in the surface layer (mainly sandy soil), respectively, and distributed within 16cm and 20cm deep in organic soil and soil at locations where are supposed to have been used as farmland, respectively. Radiocaesium tended to extend to deeper parts in soil that organic and clayey soils are the support layer, particularly in organic soil, compared with the 1st investigation. Distribution coefficients of Cs-137 onto organic soil and its elutriated components were also lower than that onto other soils. This is consistent with trend of penetration profile.

  16. Contribution of cognitive factors to the prediction of post-traumatic stress disorder, phobia and depression after motor vehicle accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Ehring, T.; Ehlers, A; Glucksman, E

    2006-01-01

    Past research into the psychological consequences of traumatic events has largely focused on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), although other anxiety disorders and depression are also common in the aftermath of trauma. Little is known about differential predictors of these conditions. The present study investigated the extent to which theoretically derived cognitive variables predict PTSD, phobias and depression after motor vehicle accidents. The cognitive predictors were compared to a s...

  17. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Yusof bin [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Taha, Zahari bin [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  18. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  19. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents

  20. Measured transfer factors in milk and meat after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl the radioactivity in the environment in Aachen was measured in detail at the Lehrgebiet Strahlenschutz in der Kerntechnik. The change of the different radionuclides in the eco-system made it possible to obtain radioecological parameters especially for iodine and caesium. The knowledge about the transport of iodine into cow's milk could be very much improved

  1. Reduction factors for wooden houses due to external ?-radiation based on in situ measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kanagami, Takashi; Uegaki, Masaki; Tashima, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    For estimation of residents' exposure dose after a nuclear accident, the reduction factor, which is the ratio of the indoor dose to the outdoor dose is essential, as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we evaluated the median reduction factor with an interquartile range of 0.43 (0.34-0.53) based on 522 survey results for 69 detached wooden houses in two evacuation zones, Iitate village and Odaka district. The results indicated no statistically significant difference in the median reduction factor to the representative value of 0.4 given in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-TECDOC-225 and 1162. However, with regard to the representative range of the reduction factor, we recommend the wider range of 0.2 to 0.7 or at least 0.2 to 0.6, which covered 87.7% and 80.7% of the data, respectively, rather than 0.2 to 0.5 given in the IAEA document, which covered only 66.5% of the data. We found that the location of the room within the house and area topography, and the use of cement roof tiles had the greatest influence on the reduction factor. PMID:25519512

  2. An Overall Investigation of Cold Leg Pipe Break Accidents of the ATLAS Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previous parametric study of the direct vessel injection (DVI) line breaks was re-evaluated to see their applicability to the cold leg (CL) pipe breaks in ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic test Loop for Accident Simulation). Evaluation results of the tests and analyses for the major parameters, i.e., the pressurizer (PZR) pressure, downcomer water level, collapsed core water level, and clad temperature, were compared for four different CL pipe break scenarios. The overall trends of the major parameters showed reasonable behaviors between the tests and analyses. The clad temperature showed conservative behaviors in the analyses using the suggested options. The suggested counter-current flow limit (CCFL) options for the fuel alignment plate (FAP) and cross-over legs (COLs) can be applicable to any small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) scenario for the CL pipe and DVI line breaks in the ATLAS tests. In this paper, a previous parametric study of the DVI line breaks was re-evaluated to see its applicability to that of the CL pipe breaks in ATLAS. The evaluation results of the tests and analyses for the major parameters, i.e., the PZR pressure, downcomer water level, core water level, and clad temperature, were compared for four different CL pipe break scenarios. The overall trends of the major parameters showed reasonable behaviors between the tests and analyses

  3. Investigation of VVER 1000 Core Degradation During SBO Accident Scenario in Case of Pressurizer SV Stuck in Open Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the work performed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) in the frame of the SARNET2 project. The performed work continues the effort in modelling reactor core behaviour during severe accidents such as station blackout (SBO) sequence for VVER 1000 reactors based on parametric study. The work is oriented on investigation of overheated reactor core behaviour in case of reflooding by high pressure injection system (HPIS) at different stages and gives the preliminary results for the ASTEC V2 validation as well as analytical validation of severe accident management guidance (SAMG) for VVER 1000 reactors. An SBO scenario for investigation of VVER 1000 reactor core behaviour has been used with the assumption of opening the pressurizer safety valve and staying in open position, which induces additionally small break LOCA. Based on the previously performed work at the INRNE for the same scenarios a proper time for initiation has been chosen a proper time for initiation of HPP injection. For selected scenario consequently has been performed calculations vary the value of selected parameters. It has been selected the following parameters: porosity (PORO), velocity of molten mixture when crossing a grid (VGRI), etc. It has been investigated the influence of spherical and elliptical ''bottom head and lower plenum'' modelling on core degradation progression. (author)

  4. Experimental investigations of pupil accommodation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eui Chul; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2011-08-01

    PURPOSE. The contraction and dilation of the iris muscle that controls the amount of light entering the retina causes pupil accommodation. In this study, experiments were performed and two of the three factors that influence pupil accommodation were analyzed: lighting conditions and depth fixations. The psychological benefits were not examined, because they could not be quantified. METHODS. A head-wearable eyeglasses-based, eye-capturing device was designed to measure pupil size. It included a near-infrared (NIR) camera and an NIR light-emitting diode. Twenty-four subjects watched two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic videos of the same content, and the changes in pupil size were measured by using the eye-capturing device and image-processing methods: RESULTS. The pupil size changed with the intensity of the videos and the disparities between the left and right images of a 3D stereoscopic video. There was correlation between the pupil size and average intensity. The pupil diameter could be estimated as being contracted from approximately 5.96 to 4.25 mm as the intensity varied from 0 to 255. Further, from the changes in the depth fixation for the pupil accommodation, it was confirmed that the depth fixation also affected accommodation of pupil size. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that the lighting condition was an even more significant factor in pupil accommodation than was depth fixation (significance ratio: approximately 3.2:1) when watching 3D stereoscopic video. Pupil accommodation was more affected by depth fixation in the real world than was the binocular convergence in the 3D stereoscopic display. PMID:21357391

  5. Fuel-element simulator for investigating thermal-hydraulic accidents in water-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel-element simulator should provide the necessary environmental parameters (thermal flux, and temperature at the cladding surface) and satisfy the requirements of reliability and modeling an actual fuel element, according to a formulated research problem. A universal simulator design, which could be used in a wide range of research, does not exist up to now and it is hardly useful in general. In developing fuel-element simulators to study loss-of-coolant accidents in water-water reactors, the most important condition from the modeling point of view is that the overall heat capacity of the simulator should correspond to that of the fuel element. The overall heat capacity and the temperature distribution over the reactor cross section determine the reserve of accumulated energy, which cannot be modeled by simply increasing the supplied electrical power. Experiments showed the magnesium oxide, as compared to other materials, is the best model of uranium oxide due to the closeness of the heat transfer coefficient and the thermal conductivity of these materials. Moreover, MgO has a high coefficient of thermal expansion, close to that of stainless steel. The construction of fuel-element simulators often uses boron nitride powder, which is densified by one means or another. Boron nitride has the highest thermal conductivity (besides beryllium oxide), but it has a lower electrical conductivity than magnesium oxide. These materials simultaneously fulfill the function of electrically insulating the heating element from the cladding. The basic disadvantage of this design is that the simulator has no gas gap; however, this is compensated by its simplicity, reliability, and long lifetime. This article presents several test designs for analysis and solving problems characteristic of loss-of-coolant accidents. Test results from VVER-440 fuel rod simulators using 19-rod assemblies an presented

  6. Occupational accidents and affecting factors of metal industry in a factory in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa N. Ilhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective:According to the statistics of the Social Security Institution, 18672 occupational accidents occurred in the metal industry in 2008 in Turkey. Whereas 78 of these accidents resulted in death, 252 people became permanently incapable of working. In 2008, 369677 working days were lost as a result of occupational accidents. Evaluating the reasons for and the results of accidents in the metal industry and contributing to the development of recommendations for prevention in accordance with the information obtained. Method: The study was conducted with 201 of 210 workers working in heavy metal manufacturing and construction in the building company between April 2008 and June 2008. Results: The frequency of occupational accidents among the metal workers was 22% between January 2007 and June 2008. The reasons for the workers’ accidents are listed as; insufficient use of personal protective equipment (44%, carelessness (37%, and personal reasons, not to be taken of security measures at machines and looms/ unsuitable machines (both 17%.Conclusion: The study demonstrates that the accidents mostly occur because of failure to use of personal protective equipment, insufficient vocational training. Key Words: Occupational, accident, metal industry, preventionAnkara’da bir metal sanayi fabrikasında iş kazaları ve etkileyen faktörler Özet Amaç: 2008 yılında Sosyal Güvenlik Kurumu’nun verilerine göre metal sanayisinde 18672 iş kazası meydana gelmiş ve 369677 işgünü kaybı olmuştur.  Bu kazalardan 78 tanesi ölümle sonuçlanırken, 252 kişi kalıcı olarak işgöremez hale gelmiştir. Metal sanayisinde meydana gelen kazaların sebep ve sonuçlarını inceleyerek, elde edilen bilgiler doğrultusunda kazaların önlenmesine yönelik tavsiyelerin geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Yöntem: Araştırma, Ankara’da faaliyet gösteren ağır metal imalat, konstrüksiyon ve inşaat sanayi şirketinde 2008 Nisan-2008 Haziran döneminde çalışan 210 işçinin 201’ine anket uygulanmasıyla yürütülmüştür. Bulgular: Ocak 2007 ve Haziran 2008 tarihleri arasında metal işçilerinin iş kazası sıklığı %22 bulunmuştur. İş kazalarının nedenleri olarak yetersiz kişsel koruyucu ekipman kullanımı (%44, dikkatsizlik (%37, kişisel nedenler (%17 ile makine ve tezgahlarda güvenlik önlemlerinin alınmaması/makinelerin uygun olmaması (%17 belirtilmiştir. Sonuç: Çalışma, iş kazalarının çoğunlukla kişisel koruyucu ekipmanın kullanımındaki eksiklikten ve yetersiz mesleki eğitimden kaynaklandığını ortaya koymuştur. Anahtar Kelimeler: İş, kaza, metal sanayi, önleme 

  7. Experimental Investigation of Operation of VVER Steam Generator in Condensation Mode in the Event of the Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For new Russian nuclear power plants with VVER-1200 reactor in the event of a beyond design basis accident, provision is made for the use of passive safety systems for necessary core cooling. These safety systems include the passive heat removal system (PHRS). In the case of leakage in the primary circuit this system assures the transition of steam generators (SG) to operation in the mode of condensation of the primary circuit steam. As a result, the condensate from SG arrives at the core providing its additional cooling. To investigate the condensation mode of VVER SG operation, a large scale HA2M-SG test facility was constructed. The rig incorporates: buffer tank, SG model with scale is 1:46, PHRS heat exchanger. Experiments at the test facility have been performed to investigate condensation mode of operation of SG model at the pressure 0.4 MPa, correspond to VVER reactor pressure at the last stage of the beyond design basis accident. The report presents the test procedure and the basic obtained test results. (authors)

  8. 'The forefront' of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident investigation. 'Subject wise discussion' of technical committee of Niigata prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical committee of Niigata prefecture started' subject wise discussion of Fukushima Nuclear Power Station accident investigation' since October 2013. Six subjects were chosen and discussion between committee members and TEPCO was coordinated by committee's staffs. First subject was 'seismic effects of main components caused by ground motion' and discussion was focused on problems of 'relation between station blackout (SBO) and tsunami' and also 'earthquakes and small size LOCA', which were identified by the report of National Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission. Tsunami photos might show tsunami arrival time at Unit 1 might be after 15:38 and later than emergency AC power losses of Unit 1 (SBO) around at 15:36. Real cause of SBO needed to be checked such as seawater pipe failures caused by ground motion. Hydrogen explosion might occur at fourth floor of reactor building of Unit 1 because the inside of the fourth floor was 'terribly damaged'. Maintenance hatch at fifth floor of reactor building was missing and white markings attached on metal cover of isolation condenser (IC) tank might be steam condensation marks, which might be checked by inspection. These suggested IC pipe failure at fourth floor of reactor building caused by earthquakes led to small size LOCA and hydrogen explosion. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Experimental Investigation of Operation of VVER Steam Generator in Condensation Mode in the Event of the Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Andrey [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering by A.I. Leypunsky, 1 Bondarenko sq. Obninsk, 249033 (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    For new Russian nuclear power plants with VVER-1200 reactor in the event of a beyond design basis accident, provision is made for the use of passive safety systems for necessary core cooling. These safety systems include the passive heat removal system (PHRS). In the case of leakage in the primary circuit this system assures the transition of steam generators (SG) to operation in the mode of condensation of the primary circuit steam. As a result, the condensate from SG arrives at the core providing its additional cooling. To investigate the condensation mode of VVER SG operation, a large scale HA2M-SG test facility was constructed. The rig incorporates: buffer tank, SG model with scale is 1:46, PHRS heat exchanger. Experiments at the test facility have been performed to investigate condensation mode of operation of SG model at the pressure 0.4 MPa, correspond to VVER reactor pressure at the last stage of the beyond design basis accident. The report presents the test procedure and the basic obtained test results. (authors)

  10. C omplex approach to investigation of reactivity changes accidents and accidents due to component malfunction with a view to compiling safety documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics are defined of inserting reactivity, the distribution of power in the reactor core, the coefficients of reactivity and kinetic parameters. Measures for reducing the hazard of accidents caused by changes in reactivity are classified into three groups: technical and administrative measures and the system of accident protection. The methodological approach to analyses is described. An analysis is made of failures due to malfunction of components, namely failures caused by partial blocking of coolant flow through the fuel assembly, failures caused by outages of main circulation pumps, failures caused by outages of turbogenerators and failures caused by breakdown of the feed water regime. (E.S.)

  11. Asthma is a risk factor for acute chest syndrome and cerebral vascular accidents in children with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Paul J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and sickle cell disease are common conditions that both may result in pulmonary complications. We hypothesized that children with sickle cell disease with concomitant asthma have an increased incidence of vaso-occlusive crises that are complicated by episodes of acute chest syndrome. Methods A 5-year retrospective chart analysis was performed investigating 48 children ages 3–18 years with asthma and sickle cell disease and 48 children with sickle cell disease alone. Children were matched for age, gender, and type of sickle cell defect. Hospital admissions were recorded for acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accident, vaso-occlusive pain crises, and blood transfusions (total, exchange and chronic. Mann-Whitney test and Chi square analysis were used to assess differences between the groups. Results Children with sickle cell disease and asthma had significantly more episodes of acute chest syndrome (p = 0.03 and cerebral vascular accidents (p = 0.05 compared to children with sickle cell disease without asthma. As expected, these children received more total blood transfusions (p = 0.01 and chronic transfusions (p = 0.04. Admissions for vasoocclusive pain crises and exchange transfusions were not statistically different between cases and controls. SS disease is more severe than SC disease. Conclusions Children with concomitant asthma and sickle cell disease have increased episodes of acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accidents and the need for blood transfusions. Whether aggressive asthma therapy can reduce these complications in this subset of children is unknown and requires further studies.

  12. Bases epidemiológicas do Fator Acidentário Previdenciário / Epidemiological foundations of the Accident Insurance Factor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vilma Sousa, Santana.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES: O Conselho Nacional de Previdência Social, por meio da Resolução No. 1.236 de 28/4/2004, aprovou uma nova metodologia para definição do valor das alíquotas de contribuição devidas por empresas para o financiamento de benefícios previdenciários relacionados aos riscos do trabalho. Esta [...] metodologia baseia-se em um indicador denominado de Fator Acidentário Previdenciário, FAP, construído a partir do risco epidemiológico, estimado para cada ramo de atividade econômica. Como parte da sua estratégia de validação, o Ministério da Previdência Social decidiu pela avaliação da sua consistência epidemiológica. OBJETIVOS: Nesse estudo analisaram-se os propósitos, as fontes de informação, a natureza das medidas epidemiológicas empregadas e a metodologia da construção desse indicador, identificando-se as suas vantagens e limitações, aplicabilidade e impactos potenciais futuros. MÉTODOS: Análise documental da Resolução No. 1236 e do documento anexo. RESULTADOS: O FAP avança ao se pautar por critérios científicos transparentes que poderão permitir a redução das alíquotas quando houver efetiva melhoria das condições de trabalho, e conseqüentemente, da morbimortalidade entre trabalhadores. Supera as dificuldades relacionadas à definição e registro do nexo causal das doenças do trabalho ao considerá-las em sua totalidade, não se restringido às ocupacionais. Como prevê a redução de alíquotas com a melhoria das condições de saúde dos trabalhadores poderá contribuir para uma mais efetiva atuação dos empregadores na prevenção. CONCLUSÕES: É necessário o acompanhamento contínuo e sistemático da aplicação do FAP, com ampla participação da sociedade, revisando-o e ajustando-o aos diferentes cenários econômicos, sociais e de saúde do País, atentando-se para o seu impacto sobre a arrecadação e contas da Previdência Social. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The Brazilian National Social Insurance Counsel of the Ministry of Social Insurance approved the Resolution N. 1.236 of 28/4/2004 that defines a new methodology to assess the value of taxes to be paid by firms, for occupational health related insurance costs. This methodology utilizes th [...] e Accident Insurance Factor, (Fator Acidentário Previdenciário) FAP, based on relative risks estimated for each industry trade. As part of its validation strategy, the Social Insurance Ministry decided to evaluate the epidemiological consistency of FAP. OBJECTIVE: The FAP purposes, data sources, the nature of the overall methodology, its advantages and limitations are all discussed, as well as its applicability and potential future impact on the Social Insurance Ministry budget and on the workers' health and safety. METHODS: A documental analysis was conducted with the Resolution text and its attached essay. RESULTS: The FAP represents an advance because of its transparent scientific criteria that may allows reduction of taxes, when improvement in work conditions and the resulting decrease in diseases or injuries are observed. It also overcomes problems of definition and assessment of occupational causal relationships because overall diseases and injuries will be considered regardless of their causal relation to occupational exposures. Since taxes can be reduced as work and health conditions improve, it may contribute to a more effective participation of employers in prevention. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to systematically and continuously monitor the application of FAP, with extensive society participation, reviewing and adjusting it to the distinct economic, social and health scenarios in the country, considering its impact on the Social Insurance budget.

  13. Bases epidemiológicas do Fator Acidentário Previdenciário Epidemiological foundations of the Accident Insurance Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Sousa Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES: O Conselho Nacional de Previdência Social, por meio da Resolução No. 1.236 de 28/4/2004, aprovou uma nova metodologia para definição do valor das alíquotas de contribuição devidas por empresas para o financiamento de benefícios previdenciários relacionados aos riscos do trabalho. Esta metodologia baseia-se em um indicador denominado de Fator Acidentário Previdenciário, FAP, construído a partir do risco epidemiológico, estimado para cada ramo de atividade econômica. Como parte da sua estratégia de validação, o Ministério da Previdência Social decidiu pela avaliação da sua consistência epidemiológica. OBJETIVOS: Nesse estudo analisaram-se os propósitos, as fontes de informação, a natureza das medidas epidemiológicas empregadas e a metodologia da construção desse indicador, identificando-se as suas vantagens e limitações, aplicabilidade e impactos potenciais futuros. MÉTODOS: Análise documental da Resolução No. 1236 e do documento anexo. RESULTADOS: O FAP avança ao se pautar por critérios científicos transparentes que poderão permitir a redução das alíquotas quando houver efetiva melhoria das condições de trabalho, e conseqüentemente, da morbimortalidade entre trabalhadores. Supera as dificuldades relacionadas à definição e registro do nexo causal das doenças do trabalho ao considerá-las em sua totalidade, não se restringido às ocupacionais. Como prevê a redução de alíquotas com a melhoria das condições de saúde dos trabalhadores poderá contribuir para uma mais efetiva atuação dos empregadores na prevenção. CONCLUSÕES: É necessário o acompanhamento contínuo e sistemático da aplicação do FAP, com ampla participação da sociedade, revisando-o e ajustando-o aos diferentes cenários econômicos, sociais e de saúde do País, atentando-se para o seu impacto sobre a arrecadação e contas da Previdência Social.BACKGROUND: The Brazilian National Social Insurance Counsel of the Ministry of Social Insurance approved the Resolution N. 1.236 of 28/4/2004 that defines a new methodology to assess the value of taxes to be paid by firms, for occupational health related insurance costs. This methodology utilizes the Accident Insurance Factor, (Fator Acidentário Previdenciário FAP, based on relative risks estimated for each industry trade. As part of its validation strategy, the Social Insurance Ministry decided to evaluate the epidemiological consistency of FAP. OBJECTIVE: The FAP purposes, data sources, the nature of the overall methodology, its advantages and limitations are all discussed, as well as its applicability and potential future impact on the Social Insurance Ministry budget and on the workers' health and safety. METHODS: A documental analysis was conducted with the Resolution text and its attached essay. RESULTS: The FAP represents an advance because of its transparent scientific criteria that may allows reduction of taxes, when improvement in work conditions and the resulting decrease in diseases or injuries are observed. It also overcomes problems of definition and assessment of occupational causal relationships because overall diseases and injuries will be considered regardless of their causal relation to occupational exposures. Since taxes can be reduced as work and health conditions improve, it may contribute to a more effective participation of employers in prevention. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to systematically and continuously monitor the application of FAP, with extensive society participation, reviewing and adjusting it to the distinct economic, social and health scenarios in the country, considering its impact on the Social Insurance budget.

  14. Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños. Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" / Risk factors for accidents in children. Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kurt, Paulsen Sandi; Hector, Mejia Salas.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de [...] Referencia Nacional. Participantes: se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos) y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles). Mediciones principales: el instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: la edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite) OR 15.04 (IC 95% 5. 47 - 44.48), productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina) OR 14.19 (IC 95% 0.72 ­ 276.33), instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7.82 (IC 95% 5.22 ­ 11.73 ), cohetillos OR 5.26 (IC 95% 2.49 ­ 11.95), presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3.30 (IC 95% 2.02 ­ 5.25) cosméticos OR 2.06 (IC 95% 1.36 ­ 3.10), productos de limpieza OR 1.20 (IC) (95% 0.22 ­ 5.82), medicamentos OR 1.12 (IC 95% 0.73 ­ 1.70). Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4.62 (IC 95% 2.61 ­ 8.20), trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2.04 (IC95% 1.42 ­ 2.93) y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1.65 (IC 95% 1.15 ­2.36). Conclusiones: los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sobre todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niños. Abstract in english Objectives: to identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: case and control incidents Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría, a third-level Pediatric Hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and 4 [...] 00 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, person responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumstances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5,4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR7,82, firecrackers OR5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR2,06, house cleaner products OR1,20, Medicines OR 1,12. Previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2, 04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1.65. Conclusions: the main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by pediatricians or family practitioners.

  15. Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" / Risk factors for accidents in children: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kurt, Paulsen S.; Hector, Mejia S..

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: Casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de [...] Referencia Nacional. Participantes: Se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos) y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles). Mediciones principales: El instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: La edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite) OR 15,04 (IC 95% 5,47 - 44,48), productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina) OR 14,19 (IC 95% 0,72 - 276,33), instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7,82 (IC 95% 5,22 - 11,73 ), cohetillos OR 5,26 (IC 95% 2,49 - 11,95), presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3,30 (IC 95% 2,02 - 5,25), cosméticos OR 2,06 (IC 95% 1,36 - 3,10), productos de limpieza OR 1,20 (IC 95% 0,22 - 5,82), medicamentos OR 1,12 (IC 95% 0,73 - 1,70). Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4,62 (IC 95% 2,61 - 8,20), trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2,04 (IC 95% 1,42 - 2,93) y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1,65 (IC 95% 1,15 - 2,36). Conclusiones: Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sope todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niños Abstract in english Objectives: To identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: Case and control incidents. Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uria, a third-level paediatric hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and [...] 400 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, persons responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumstances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5.4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR 7,82, firecrackers OR 5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR 2,06, house cleaner products OR 1,20, medicines OR 1,12, previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2,04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1,65. Conclusions: The main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by paediatricians or family practitioners

  16. Investigation of Focusing Effect according to the Cooling Condition and Height of the Metallic layer in a Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident has led to renewed research interests in severe accidents of nuclear power plants. In-Vessel Retention (IVR) of core melt is one of key severe accident management strategies adopted in nuclear power plant design. The metallic layer is heated from below by the radioactive decay heat generated at the oxide pool, and is cooled from above and side walls. During the IVR process, reactor vessel may be cooled externally (ERVC) and the heat fluxes to the side wall increase with larger temperature difference than above. This Focusing effectis varied by cooling condition of upper boundary and height of the metallic layer. A sulfuric acid–copper sulfate (H2SO4 - CuSO4) electroplating system was adopted as the mass transfer system. Numerical analysis using the commercial CFD program FLUENT 6.3 were carried out with the same material properties and cooling conditions to examine the variation of the cell. The experimental and numerical studies were performed to investigate the focusing effect according to cooling condition of upper boundary and the height in metallic layer. The height of the side wall was varied for three different cooling conditions: top only, side only, and both top and side. Mass transfer experiments, based on the analogy concept, were carried out in order to achieve high Rayleigh number. The experimental results agreed well with the Rayleigh-Benard convection correlations of Dropkin and Somerscales and Globe and Dropkin. The heat transfer on side wall cooling condition without top cooling is highest and was enhanced by decreasing the aspect ratio. The numerical results agreed well with the experimental results. Each cell pattern (cell size, cell direction, central location of cell) differed in the cooling condition. Therefore, it is difficult to predict the internal flow due to complexity of cell formation behavior

  17. Investigations on the safety of radioactive materials transport. Pt. 2. Modeling of the radiological consequences in the vicinity of an accident. Final report on the working package 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One aim of this project 3611R03300 was to analyse methods and procedures accord-ing to state-of-the-art technology concerning their applicability to assess the radiologi-cal consequences in the near vicinity of a transport accident. The analysis focusses on the dispersion models used for the airborne radionuclides released during an accident. In view of the large amount of simulations needed for a probabilistic assessment of the accident's radiological impact, simplified methods to calculate nuclide concentrations and deposition rates for the near vicinity were searched. Additionally, conservative fac-tors were determined to convert the results valid for 150 m distance to the accident, which was the shortest distance examined in the Transportstudie Konrad 2009, to the near vicinity (20 m distance).

  18. Investigation of accidents with decrease of boric acid concentration in the primary coolant of VVER-1000/model 91 reactor plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, A.; Kalugin, S.; Podshibyakin, A. [Gidropress EDO, Podolsk (Russian Federation); Siltanen, P. [IVO International Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-07-01

    The results of recent investigations on the problem of inhomogeneous boron dilution for the VVER-1000/model 91 reactor are summarized in the paper. The studies have been performed in cooperation by Russian and Finnish experts. The phenomena related to the formation of diluted slugs, their transport and mixing in the reactor coolant system, and the potential consequences in the core are discussed. The potential external sources of pure condensate in various reactor operating conditions have been investigated. Thermal hydraulic analyses for identification of accidents having an inherent mechanism for boron dilution in the primary circuit have been performed using computer codes APROS, SMABRE, and DINAMIKA. The results allow to determine the location and potential size of diluted slugs. Steady-state and transient analyses of the core response have been performed using computer codes HEXBU-3D and HEXTRAN to model the core in three dimensions. The results allow to draw conclusions on the potential for severe core damage.

  19. Investigation of accidents with decrease of boric acid concentration in the primary coolant of VVER-1000/model 91 reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of recent investigations on the problem of inhomogeneous boron dilution for the VVER-1000/model 91 reactor are summarized in the paper. The studies have been performed in cooperation by Russian and Finnish experts. The phenomena related to the formation of diluted slugs, their transport and mixing in the reactor coolant system, and the potential consequences in the core are discussed. The potential external sources of pure condensate in various reactor operating conditions have been investigated. Thermal hydraulic analyses for identification of accidents having an inherent mechanism for boron dilution in the primary circuit have been performed using computer codes APROS, SMABRE, and DINAMIKA. The results allow to determine the location and potential size of diluted slugs. Steady-state and transient analyses of the core response have been performed using computer codes HEXBU-3D and HEXTRAN to model the core in three dimensions. The results allow to draw conclusions on the potential for severe core damage

  20. Investigation on the sodium leak accident of Monju. Sodium leak test simulating the Monju leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium fire experiments were carried out two times using the Sodium Fire Test Rig (SOFT-1) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp (PNC) as a part of works to research the cause of the accident in secondary main cooling system of Monju. The purposes of these experiments are to confirm the leak rate and leakage form of sodium from damaged thermometer, to confirm the damage to the piping insulating structure around the thermometer and to the flexible tube, and to compare the temperature history of the signal from the thermometer between the experiments and Monju. In the experiments 56(±2)g/sec was obtained as the leak rate under the condition of ensuring the leakage pass in the simulated thermometer. This leak rate was corrected to 53g/sec to take account of manufacturing error of the thermometer between the experiment and Monju. In calculation of this leak rate, it is assumed that the annulus size of thermometer well tip is a nominal distance and pressure value to the leakage sodium is 1.65kg/cm2G, which was the maximum one during the leakage of Monju. The behavior of signal from the simulated thermometer was very similar to that of the damaged thermometer in Monju and it was confirmed this temperature history could be sufficiently explained by moving of the temperature contact position of the thermocouple following the runoff of leakage sodium. (J.P.N.)

  1. Educational level and age as contributing factors to road traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ashkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ?Abstract?Objective: This research analyzes data on road traffic accidents (RTA in Fars province, whose roads are among the highly dangerous ones in Iran. It inves- tigates educational level and age involved in RTA in order to discover patterns that can prevent or decrease accidents. Methods: This research made use of data visualization techniques to find hidden patterns. The data included mor- tality rate related to RTA in Fars province and were obtained from Fars Forensic Medicine Registry covering a period of 1 year from March 21, 2010 to March 21, 2011. All data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5. The results were reported as de- scriptive indices such as frequency (percentage. The Chi- square test was applied to the data concerning educational level and age. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In the mentioned period, 1 831 people were killed, out of whom un/lowly educated people (69.6% ac- counted for the highest mortality rate. The significant rela- tionship between educational level and mortality rate was found (X2=275.98, P<0.0001. Also three was a significant association between age and mortality rate (X2=371.20, P<0.0001. Young people (age between 20 and 29 years contribute to higher RTA mortality rate compared with other age groups. Conclusion: The educational level and age are signifi- cantly correlated to mortality rate. The youth and un/lowly educated people suffer more fatal RTA. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Mortality; Education; Data mining; Iran

  2. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board's investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63)

  3. Investigation of relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the main control room (MCR) of a nuclear power plant (NPP), there are lots of dynamic information sources for MCR operator's situation awareness. As the human-machine interface in MCR is advanced, operator's information acquisition, information gathering and decision-making is becoming an important part to maintain the effective and safe operation of NPPs. Diagnostic task in complex and huge systems like NPP is the most difficult and mental effort-demanding for operators. This research investigates the relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks. The amount of information flow is quantified, using information flow model and Conant's model, a kind of information theory. For the mental workload measure, eye blink rate, blink duration, fixation time, number of fixation, and gaze direction are measured during accident diagnosis tasks. Subjective methods such as NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) method are also used in the experiment. It is shown that the operator's mental workload has significant relation to information flow of diagnosis task. It makes possible to predict the mental workload through the quantity of the information flow of a system

  4. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  5. AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING CREDIT MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTIAN-FLORIN DANANAU

    2012-01-01

    We investigate through an econometric approach the credit market and the factors that interact with it. The current research is beyond the minor aspects of the behavior and determinants of credit market in Romania and our concerns go to macroeconomic factors, consumption, investments and capital market. Results demonstrate a relationship between complex factors such as monetary policy and the credit market.

  6. Determination of transfer factors and effective half-times in several domestic animals for cesium 137 from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the wake of the Chernobyl accident contaminated fodder-hey and grass has been fed to cows, bulls, calves, lambs and swine (fed with whey). The problem was to decide if or not the animals could be slaughtered with confidence that their meat had contaminations below the legal limits. On the one hand, transfer factors fodder-to-meat and fodder-to-milk as well as the efficiency of radioactivity reducing additives had to be determined. On the other hand the correlation of live-animals measurements with the meat contamination was investigated. The correlation was satisfactory except with swine. The high-resolution Ge detectors have strong advantages as compared to Na detectors, though too expensive for general applications in slaughter-houses. 10 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs. (qui)

  7. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

  8. Investigation of Countercurrent Helium-Air Flows in Air-ingress Accidents for VHTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Oh, Chang

    2013-10-03

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an extensive experimental database for the air- ingress phenomenon for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This research is intended to be a separate-effects experimental study. However, the project team will perform a careful scaling analysis prior to designing a scaled-down test facility in order to closely tie this research with the real application. As a reference design in this study, the team will use the 600 MWth gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) developed by General Atomic. In the test matrix of the experiments, researchers will vary the temperature and pressure of the helium— along with break size, location, shape, and orientation—to simulate deferent scenarios and to identify potential mitigation strategies. Under support of the Department of Energy, a high-temperature helium test facility has been designed and is currently being constructed at Ohio State University, primarily for high- temperature compact heat exchanger testing for the VHTR program. Once the facility is in operation (expected April 2009), this study will utilize high-temperature helium up to 900°C and 3 MPa for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) depressurization and air-ingress experiments. The project team will first conduct a scaling study and then design an air-ingress test facility. The major parameter to be measured in the experiments is oxygen (or nitrogen) concentration history at various locations following a LOCA scenario. The team will use two measurement techniques: 1) oxygen (or similar type) sensors employed in the flow field, which will introduce some undesirable intrusiveness, disturbing the flow, and 2) a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging technique, which has no physical intrusiveness to the flow but requires a transparent window or test section that the laser beam can penetrate. The team will construct two test facilities, one for high-temperature helium tests with local sensors and the other for low- temperature helium tests with the PLIF technique. The results from the two instruments will provide a means to cross-calibrate the measurement techniques.

  9. Human factors issues in severe accident management: Training for decision-making under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, there is a growing awareness that the decision-making tasks required for selecting appropriate control actions, in addition to guidance from formal procedures, also involve cognitive activities commonly referred to as judgment or reasoning. A project was completed to address the nature of the cognitive skills that may be important to decision-making in the nuclear power plant environment, especially during severe accident management. The project identified a model of decision-making that could account for both rule-based and knowledge-based decision-making and used it to identify cognitive skills for both individuals and operational crews. This analysis was then used to identify existing training techniques for cognitive skills and the general characteristics of successful training techniques

  10. El Cuerpo Militar de Sanidad en la Investigación de Accidentes Aéreos / The role of Military Health Service in Aircraft Accident Investigation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Rios Tejada; B., Puente Espada.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación de un accidente o incidente aéreo puede ser simple o enormemente compleja. El proceso de investigación puede conducir a la elaboración de un informe directo y conciso o lo más frecuente, significa un largo camino de recopilación, análisis, estudio y finalmente la elaboración de posi [...] bles conclusiones. En este proceso, los aspectos médicos, psicológicos, ambientales, psicosociales o ergonómicos englobados en el término genérico de factores humanos cobran una especial relevancia, atribuyéndose hasta un 60-80% de causas directas o coadyuvantes al mismo. En este trabajo se revisan los antecedentes jurídicos y base legal en la que se apoya la Comisión para la investigación técnica de accidentes de aeronaves militares (CITAAM), así como sus atribuciones, organización y composición, sus funciones generales y más concretamente las encomendadas al vocal médico de la misma. Desde su creación en 1994, la experiencia acumulada ha sido enorme, haciéndose mención de algunos datos de interés estadístico pero señalando también la labor de formación realizada y su proyección nacional e internacional, sobre todo en el marco de la OTAN. Abstract in english Aircraft Accident Investigation means a complex task in order to identify the major causes which lead to the mishap. Investigation process end in a technical report, which encloses a large amount of information and data gathering documentation, to be studied, analyzed and lines of inquiry establishe [...] d to finally produce the appropriate conclusions. Medical, psychological, environmental, psychosocial and ergonomic faces of the investigation are framed in the so called human factors, which actually leads to 60-80% of the causal factors of accidents. In this report we have reviewed the legal basis in which the CITAAM is supported, competencies, organization and composition, general functions and specifically responsibilities of the medical representative in the board. Since the establishment of the CITAAM in 1994 the experience accumulated has been very wide-ranged and we show some statistical data and work produced in education and instruction, as well as the national and international relationships mostly in the NATO frame.

  11. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.

  12. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, Jan; Ours, Jan C. van

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  13. Exercise (effort) tolerance and factors affecting this tolerance for liquidators of consequences of the ChNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical efficiency and factors affecting it for persons exposed to irradiation (the radiation dose being in the range up to 0.75 Gy) has been studied. 670 participants of liquidating the consequences of ChNPP accident have been examined. Depending on the radiation doses to which the people have been exposed the liquidators have been subdivided into 4 groups: for the 1st group the radiation doses ranging from 0.25 to 0.75 Gy; for the 2nd group the radiation doses ranging from 0.10 to 0.24 Gy; for the 3rd group the radiation doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.10 Gy; for the 4th group the radiation dose being up to 0.05 Gy. The physical load was ensured with veloergometer. The results have made it possible to estimate one of the basic health criterion for liquidators of consequences of ChNPP accident (i.e. exercise (effort) tolerance). No direct relationship of the exercise magnitude and the radiation dose within the range up to 0.75 Gy and the irradiation time have been observed. The correlation of the exercise magnitude with due account to age has been provided. 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  14. Experimental investigation of aerosol behavior in a post-LMFBR accident reactor containment atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past year the following four tasks have been completed: (1) the generation, handling and study of a dry sodium aerosol, (2) the comparison and evaluation of techniques for the determination of the various sodium compounds, (3) the calibration of th impactor and centrifuge for a pool fire sodium aerosol, and finally (4) the determination of the shape factor and effective density of a sodium pool fire aerosol

  15. The West Jutland Study of Farm Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, DJ; Hansen, O N; Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, Ole; Lauritsen, J

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes the main elements of the West Jutland Study on the Prevention of Farm Accidents, that was presented in four separate papers al the 1996 Occupational Injury Symposium in Sydney, Australia. The objective of the study is to develop and conduct an intervention on the basis of an initial investigation of risk factors, aimed at reducing the number of occupational accidents in a randomly selected, representative sample of Danish farms. The article focuses on the underlying model...

  16. A Look at Aircraft Accident Analysis in the Early Days: Do Early 20th Century Accident Investigation Techniques Have Any Lessons for Today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    In the early years of powered flight, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics in the United States produced three reports describing a method of analysis of aircraft accidents. The first report was published in 1928; the second, which was a revision of the first, was published in 1930; and the third, which was a revision and update of the second, was published in 1936. This paper describes the contents of these reports, and compares the method of analysis proposed therein to the methods used today.

  17. Exploring factors associated with workers' safety rule violations in the Chinese construction industry: a multimethod investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dandan

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese construction industry is China's third biggest industrial killer. Accidents causation analysis revealed that more than 80% of accidents are caused by unsafe human behaviour. The current research was focused on exploring and examining the factors affecting safety rule violations among Chinese construction workers through four main studies in which a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used. In the first study, on-site observation and organisational docume...

  18. Medical Response, Search and Recovery during the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepaniak, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during atmospheric re-entry on mission STS-107. After an event such as this, with high visibility and international interest, the operational challenge of recovering the crewmembers could not be underestimated. The Space Shuttle Program is organized to respond to a vehicle mishap using the resources of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT). On the afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale Air Force Base (AFB), Louisiana. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin, Texas Disaster Field Office (DFO). The Lufkin DFO served as the primary area for all operations, including staging assets and deploying field teams for search, recovery and security of crewmember remains. More than 2,000 people from numerous organizations were involved with the recovery of the crew. All seven crewmembers of STS-107 were recovered and ceremonial last rights were administered. Astronaut and military personnel escorted the crew with honor to the MIT at Barksdale AFB, Louisiana. At Barksdale AFB a temporary morgue was established in an aircraft hangar and operated for approximately two weeks during which time coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) medical personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. Families of crewmembers and NASA management were notified daily of the current findings. Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team developed and executed a short-term plan to identify and relocate the crew with a military honor guard and protocol to the medical examiner at the Armed Forces Port Mortuary, Dover AFB, Delaware. After operations at Barksdale AFB were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term plan was developed and implemented which involved the Air Force Mortuary Affairs at Randolph AFB, Texas. This plan was coordinated with search teams in the field, Barksdale AFB Mortuary Affairs, KSC security, AFIP, and the crew surgeons at JSC.

  19. Theoretical investigations of the meltoff and resolidification process of fuel claddings during accidents in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During loss-of-coolant-flow accidents in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors with failure to scram the fuel claddings will melt after boiling and evaporation of the coolant. The CMOT model presented here describes the subsequent process of relocation and resolidification of the molten claddings. The basic thermohydrodynamics equations of the two-phase flow of cladding material and sodium vapor are solved numerically by differential approximations in a Eulerian reference net. The results calculated by the model improved the insight into the dynamics of the cladding relocation process. Here are the main results: - Shortly after the onset of cladding relocation large waves of molten cladding material are generated. The motion of these waves contributes considerably to the material transport. - The dynamics of cladding relocation exhibits strong local incoherences. - The formation of cladding blockages observed at the ends of the fuel region is confirmed by the calculations. - In case of incoherent cladding meltoff less cladding material is transported upwards. - Cladding relocation strongly depends on the axial pressure drop and the underlying friction factor correlations. Recalculation of the R5 loss-of-coolant-flow experiment performed in the U.S. TREAT test reactor is in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig./HP) 891 HP

  20. Preliminary investigation on the primary heat exchanger lower head rupture accident of forced circulation LBE-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A forced circulation LBE-cooled fast reactor was developed in China. • The steady state of this reactor was simulated by using NTC program. • The HXLHR accident of this reactor was simulated by using NTC program. • Some vapors were dragged into the core by LBE during the HXLHR accident. - Abstract: The problem about the interaction between heavy liquid metal and water is one of the grand challenges in the development of lead or Lead–Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) cooled fast reactor. In this paper, the primary heat exchanger lower head rupture (HXLHR) accident of a forced circulation LBE-cooled fast reactor was simulated with a transient analysis code NTC (Neutronics and Thermal–hydraulics Coupled transient analysis program). The simulation results showed that the water in primary heat exchanger was injected into the primary circuit and vaporized immediately. Then the main vessel was pressurized and the maximum pressure was about 27 bar compared with 0.5 bar in normal condition. During the accident, some of the generated vapors were dragged into the core by LBE, which may cause a reactivity insertion accident. If any positive void coefficient exists in the core, a further study on the HXLHR accident should be performed to evaluate the reactivity insertion accident

  1. Neutron Imaging Investigations of the Secondary Hydriding of Nuclear Fuel Cladding Alloys during Loss of Coolant Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, M.; Roessger, C.; Stuckert, J.; Steinbrueck, M.; Kaestner, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Schillinger, B.

    The hydrogen concentration and distribution at both sides of the burst opening of cladding tubes used in three QUENCH-LOCA simulation bundle experiments were investigated by means of neutron radiography and tomography. The quantitative correlation between the total macroscopic neutron cross-section and the atomic number density ratio between hydrogen and zirconium was determined by testing calibration specimens with known hydrogen concentrations. Hydrogen enrichments located at the end of the ballooning zone of the tested tubes were detected in the inner rods of the test bundles. Nearly all of the peripheral claddings exposed to lower temperatures do not show such enrichments. This implies that under the conditions investigated a threshold temperature exists below which no hydrogen enrichments can be formed. In order to understand the hydrogen distribution a model was developed describing the processes occurring during loss of coolant accidents after rod burst. The general shape of the hydrogen distributions with a peak each side of the ballooning region is well predicted by this model whereas the absolute concentrations are underestimated compared to the results of the neutron tomography investigations. The model was also used to discuss the influence of the alloy composition on the secondary hydrogenation. Whereas the relations for the maximal hydrogen concentrations agree well for one and the same alloy, the agreement for tests with different alloys is less satisfying, showing that material parameters such as oxidation kinetics, phase transition temperature for the zirconium oxide, and yield strength and ductility at high temperature have to be taken into account to reproduce the results of neutron imaging investigations correctly.

  2. Use of the radioecological investigations results of both natural plant complexes and plant resources to reduce the Chernobyl NPP accidents consequences. Chapter 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14 proposals, recommendations and other materials of Inst. of experimental botany of Academy of Sciences of Belarus on the results of investigations of radioactive contaminations of natural vegetation complexes and plant resources after the Chernobyl accident are published. 3 tabs., 4 figs

  3. Investigation of CET Effect as a SAMG Entry Condition under Severe Accidents of OPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the reactor vessel failure (RPV) failure time is delayed, the probability of achieving this objective of management becomes higher. Also, that whether the entry to SAMG is too early or too late can be checked in the aspect of how much action time the operator can secure. For these reasons, Park et al. studied the effect of SAMG entry condition on operator action time for prevention of RPV failure in the OPR1000 using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 computer code in detail. In this study, various SAMG entry conditions from the points of view of delaying RPV failure time and available operator's action time were investigated for OPR1000 using level 2 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) code MELCOR. From the point of view of delaying RPV failure time, SAMG entry condition when CET is 923K is the best for SBLOCA without SI and TLOFW among selected CET conditions. However, for SBO, the best result follows when the SAMG entry condition CET is 838K. For available operator's action time's view, there was no significant difference between selected SAMG entry conditions. For these reasons, in future study, the standards of CET selection as SAMG entry conditions and the relationship between CET and quantity of oxidation heat should be researched. Also, more SAMG entry conditions should be tested which is far more different from selected conditions, such as EDF PWR standard, CET = 1100 .deg. C

  4. Nondestructive Testing As a Tool in the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDanels, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) played a crucial role in determining the Columbia tragedy's cause. Over 84,000 pieces of debris were recovered; hundreds were subsequently subjected to NDT and materials analysis. Visual NDT of the debris revealed localized areas of damage such as erosion, excessive heating, knife edging and mechanical damage. Three-dimensional reconstructions were made of the left wing leading edge, utilizing a tripod-mounted laser scanning head and focused laser beam, and an advanced topometric optical scanner (ATOS) with digital white light to scan complex-shaped debris, producing monochrome 3-D models. Texture mapping provided a means to capture true colors of the debris and superimpose them on the scanned images. Uniform deposits were found over large portions of debris, obscuring underlying materials. To determine what was beneath, inverse radiography was enlisted. The radiographs guided investigators to where samples should be taken. To ascertain compositions, these samples were subjected to analytical testing, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis. This combination of visual evidence, radiography, virtual reconstruction, and materials analysis allowed the forensic scientists to verify that a breach occurred in the leading edge of the left wing, the path the plasma followed, and the sequence of events that led to the loss.

  5. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO1 and NISA2 that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident

  6. Analysis of Fukushima Daiichi Accident Using HFACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Saeed Almheiri [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The shadow of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident is still too big and will last long. On the other hand, it could still teach us lots of lessons to better design and operate nuclear power plants. In this paper, we will be focusing on the Fukushima Daiichi accident, especially on human organizational factors. We will analyze the accident using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) in order to better understand the organizational climate of TEPCO{sup 1} and NISA{sup 2} that led to Fukushima Daiichi Accident. HFACS was developed for the U. S. aviation industry and has been used at many industries like the rail and mining industries. We found that the HFACS to be greatly beneficial in investigating the latent and organizational causes for the accident. The application results show that the causes of Fukushima Daiichi accident were spread out from sharp end (i.e. Unsafe Act) to blunt end (i. e. Organizational Influences). This means that the corresponding countermeasures should cover from front line staff to management. Thus, we managed to develop a better understanding on how to prevent similar errors or violations. The incident and near-miss have a lot of helpful information because it may show the actual and latent deficiencies of complex systems. We applied the HFACS into Fukushima Daiichi accident to better locate the causes related to both sharp and blunt ends of operation of NPP. In order to derive useful lessons from the accident analysis, the analyst should try to find the similarities not differences from the incident. It is imperative that whatever accident/incident analysis systems we use, we should fully utilize the disastrous Fukushima accident.

  7. Evaluation and Learning after Major Railway Accidents : Various perspectives of accident research theories in evaluation reports and their implications for learning after accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Storsveen, Silje

    2012-01-01

    Accident causation has been differently approached and evaluated in the last decades. This thesis studies four large accidents in the Norwegian railway organization, i.e. the Tretten accident, the Nordstrand accident, the Åsta accident and the Alnabru/Sjursøya accident. Accident causation was investigated by systematically reviewing and comparing the respective accidents? evaluation reports to three dominant accident research theories: The Energy and Barrier theory, the Man-made Disaster theo...

  8. Experimental investigations of pressure and temperature loads on a containment after a loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the design of an LWR containment one of the important conditions to be considered is the rapid rise of internal pressure and temperature caused by a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) of the primary cooling system. The phenomena occurring within a containment during a LOCA are currently investigated through experiments with a model containment. The experimental results are compared with the results of model calculations to improve the calculational methods. An experimental facility was built, consisting of a primary coolant circuit and a special model containment. The model containment, built in conventional reinforced concrete, has a diameter of 12 m, a height of 12.5 m, a capacity of 580 m3 and is designed for an internal pressure of 6 bar. The interior is divided by concrete walls and removable partitions into several compartments, which are interconnected through openings with adjustable cross sections. By exchanging the removable partitions it is possible to modify the interior of the containment and to simulate different containment shapes. For the first experiments a PWR configuration with nine compartments has been installed. The model scales of the compartment volumes and the overflow areas are about 1 : 64 compared to the 1200 MW PWR plant Biblis A. (Auth.)

  9. Analysis methodology for RBMK-1500 core safety and investigations on corium coolability during a LWR severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents the work involving two broad aspects within the field of nuclear reactor analysis and safety. These are: - development of a fully independent reactor dynamics and safety analysis methodology of the RBMK-1500 core transient accidents and - experiments on the enhancement of coolability of a particulate bed or a melt pool due to heat removal through the control rod guide tubes. The first part of the thesis focuses on the development of the RBMK-1500 analysis methodology based on the CORETRAN code package. The second part investigates the issue of coolability during severe accidents in LWR type reactors: the coolability of debris bed and melt pool for in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. The first chapter briefly presents the status of developments in both the RBMK-1500 core analysis and the corium coolability areas. The second chapter describes the generation of the RBMK-1500 neutron cross section data library with the HELIOS code. The cross section library was developed for the whole range of the reactor conditions. The results of the benchmarking with the WIMS-D4 code and validation against the RBMK Critical Facility experiments is also presented here. The HELIOS generated neutron cross section data library provides a close agreement with the WIMS-D4 code results. The validation against the data from the Critical Experiments shows that the HELIOS generated neutron cross section library provides excellent predictions for the criticality, axial and radial power distribution, control rod reactivity worths and coolant reactivity effects, etc. The reactivity effects of voiding for the system, fuel assembly and additional absorber channel are underpredicted in the calculations using the HELIOS code generated neutron cross sections. The underprediction, however, is much less than that obtained when the WIMS-D4 code generated cross sections are employed. The third chapter describes the work, performed towards the accurate prediction, assessment and validation of the CHF and post-CHF heat transfer for the RBMK-1500 reactor fuel assemblies employing the VIPRE-02 code. This chapter describes the experiments, which were used for validating the CHF correlations, appropriate for the RBMK-1500 type reactors. These correlations after validation were added to the standard version of the VIPRE-02 code. The VIPRE-02 calculations were benchmarked against the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. It was found that these user-coded additional CHF correlations developed for the RBMK type reactors (Osmachkin, RRC KI and Khabenski correlations) and implemented into the code by the author, provide a good prediction of the CHF occurrence at the RBMK reactor nominal pressure range (at about 7 MPa). Transition and film boiling are also predicted well with the VIPRE-02 code for this pressure range. It was found, that for the RBMK-1500 reactor applications, EPRI CHF correlation should be used for the CHF predictions for the lower fuel assemblies of the reactor in the subchannel model of the RBMK-1500 fuel assembly. RRC KI and Bowring CHF correlations may be used for the upper fuel assemblies. For a single-channel model of the RBMK-1500 fuel channel, Osmachkin, RRC KI and Bowring correlations provide the closest predictions and may be used for the CHF estimation. For the low coolant mass fluxes in the fuel channel, Khabenski correlation can be applied. The fourth chapter presents the verification of the CORETRAN code for the RBMK-1500 core analysis. The model was verified against a number of RBMK-1500 plant data and transient calculations. The new RBMK-1500 core model was successfully applied in several safety assessment applications. A series of transient calculations, considered within the scope of the RBMK-type reactor Safety Analysis Report (SAR), were performed. Several cases of the transient calculations are presented in this chapter. The HELIOS/CORETRAN/VIPRE-02 core model for the RBMK-1500 is fully functional. The RBMK-1500 CPS logic, added into the CORETRAN provides an adequate response to the changes in the reactor parameters. Chapters 5 and 6 describe the experiments and the analysis performed on the coolability of particulate debris bed and melt pool during a postulated severe accident in the LWR. In the Chapter 5, the coolability potential, offered by the presence of a large number of the Control Rod Guide Tubes (CRGTs) in the BWR lower head is presented. The experimental investigations for the enhancement of coolability possible with CRGTs were performed on two experimental facilities: POMECO (POrous MEdium COolability) and COMECO (COrium MElt COolability). It was found that the presence of the CRGTs in the lower head of a BWR offers a substantial potential for heat removal during a postulated severe accident. Additional 10-20 kW of heat were removed from the POMECO and COMECO test sections through the CRGT. This corresponds to the average heat flux on the CRGT wall equal to 100-300 kW/m2. In the Chapter 6 the ex-vessel particulate debris bed coolability is investigated, considering the non-condensable gases released from the concrete ablation process. The influence of the flow of the non-condensable gases on the process of quenching a hot porous debris bed was considered. The POMECO test facility was modified, adding the air supply at the bottom of the test section, to simulate the noncondensable gas release. The process was investigated for both high and low porosity debris beds. It was found that for the low porosity bed composition the countercurrent flooding limit could be exceeded, which would degrade the quenching process for such bed compositions

  10. Experimental investigation of material chemical effects on emergency core cooling pump suction filter performance after loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integral tests of head loss through an emergency core cooling filter screen are conducted, simulating reactor building environmental conditions for 30 days after a loss of coolant accident. A test rig with five individual loops each of whose chamber is established to test chemical product formation and measure the head loss through a sample filter. The screen area at each chamber and the amounts of reactor building materials are scaled down according to specific plant condition. A series of tests have been performed to investigate the effects of calcium-silicate, reactor building spray, existence of calcium-silicate with tri-sodium phosphate (TSP), and composition of materials. The results showed that head loss across the chemical bed with even a small amount of calcium-silicate insulation instantaneously increased as soon as TSP was added to the test solution. Also, the head loss across the filter screen is strongly affected by spray duration and the head loss increase is rapid at the early stage, because of high dissolution and precipitation of aluminum and zinc. After passivation of aluminum and zinc by corrosion, the head loss increase is much slowed down and is mainly induced by materials such as calcium, silicon, and magnesium leached from NUKONTM and concrete. Furthermore, it is newly found that the spay buffer agent, tri-sodium phosphate, to form protective coating on the aluminum surface and reduce aluminum leaching is not effective for a large amount of aluminum and a long spray.

  11. Characterization of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Charles D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA suffered the loss of the seven-member crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003 when the vehicle broke apart upon re-entry to the Earth's atmosphere. The final report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) determined that the accident was caused by a launch ascent incident-a suitcase-sized chunk of insulating foam on the Shuttle's External Tank (ET) broke off, and moving at almost 500 mph, struck an area of the leading edge of the Shuttle s left wing. As a result, one or more of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the wing leading edge were damaged. Upon re-entry, superheated air approaching 3,000 F breached the wing damage and caused the vehicle breakup and loss of crew. The large chunk of insulating foam that broke off during the Columbia launch was determined to come from the so-called bipod ramp area where the Shuttle s orbiter (containing crew) is attached to the ET. Underneath the foam in the bipod ramp area is a layer of TPS that is a cork-filled silicone rubber composite. In March 2003, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama received cured samples of the foam and composite for testing from the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, Louisiana. The MAF is where the Shuttle's ET is manufactured. The foam and composite TPS materials for the ET have been well characterized for mechanical property data at the super-cold temperatures of the liquid oxygen and hydrogen fuels used in the ET. However, modulus data on these materials is not as well characterized. The TA Instruments 2980 Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) was used to determine the modulus of the two TPS materials over a range of -145 to 95 C in the dual cantilever bending mode. Multi-strain, fixed frequency DMA tests were followed by multi-frequency, fixed strain tests to determine the approximate bounds of linear viscoelastic behavior for the two materials. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  12. Factors determining FDI in Nigeria: an empirical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the recent surge of FDI in Nigeria, which is poor in terms of income but rich in natural resources. This study examines empirically whether FDI is resource seeking in Nigeria and its determining factors. Applying time series technique this paper observes that FDI flow to Nigeria is resource-seeking FDI during 1970-2006. In long run, the natural resource outflow, market size and openness have direct impact on FDI inflow while risk factors like inflation rate and foreign...

  13. Factors Determining FDI to Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2008-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) to Nigeria during 1970-2006. This study suggests that the endowment of natural resources, trade intensity, macroeconomic risk factors like inflation and exchange rates are significant determinants of FDI flow to Nigeria. The findings also suggest that in long run market size is not the significant factor for attracting FDI to Nigeria, it contradicts the existing literature. Our results indicate that FDI fl...

  14. Investigating internal and external factors influencing profitability of banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Taghavi; Hadi Noori

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to learn the impact of some internal and external factors on profitability in banking system. The proposed model of this paper introduces three econometrics methods to study the behavior of internal, external and a combination of both factors on return on assets. The proposed study of this paper uses Vector Auto- Regressive (VAR) and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) to provide estimation of the proposed model and we use historical data over t...

  15. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-01-01

    Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to rank 17 important facto...

  16. Accidentes vasculares cerebrales en la comarca de Osona: Factores de riesgo cardiovascular / Cerebrovascular accidents in Osona borough: Cardiovascular risk factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Sanclemente Ansó; F., Alonso Valdés; E., Rovira Pujol; D., Vigil Martín; J., Vilaró Pujals.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La enfermedad vascular cerebral (EVC) es la segunda causa de ingreso en orden de frecuencia en nuestro servicio, esto refleja la alta incidencia de esta patología en nuestra comarca. En este estudio se analizan las características clínicas, biológicas, factores de riesgo cardiovasculares [...] (FRCV) y actuación sobre los mismos al alta hospitalaria en un servicio de Medicina Interna de un hospital comarcal; hospital de referencia de la comarca de Osona, así como otras características, de los pacientes ingresados de enero de 2001 a diciembre de 2001 por EVC. Método: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo revisando los informes de alta hospitalaria de cada paciente. Ingresaron 277 pacientes con EVC. Resultados: Las características biológicas, demográficas así como los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares analizados (hipertensión arterial, diabetes, tabaquismo, dislipemia entre otros) fueron similares respecto a otras series. La incidencia de EVC hemorrágica y cardioembólica, fue algo menor, se ha de tener en cuenta que se excluyen aquellos episodios hemorrágicos que necesitaron intervención neuroquirúrgica, éstos fueron derivados a un centro de nivel superior que dispusiera de servicio de neurocirugía. La edad no fue un factor de mal pronóstico en cuanto a presentar más secuelas después del episodio ni más mortalidad, este dato discrepa de otras series. Conclusiones: La actuación al alta sobre los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y recomendaciones higiénico-dietéticas fueron deficientes. La estancia media fue superior si la comparamos con la estancia media de las unidades de ictus especializadas. Abstract in english Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the second cause of hospitalization in the order of frequency in our service, thus reflecting this pathology’s high incidence in our borough. This study analyzes clinical and biological characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and actions taken in h [...] ospital discharge in the internal medicine department of a borough hospital (the reference hospital in Osona borough), as well as other characteristics of the hospitalized CVD patients from January 2001 to December 2001. Method: This study was performed by revising each patient’s hospital discharge report. 277 patients were hospitalized for CVD. Results: Biological and demographic characteristics, as well as cardiovascular risk factors analyzed (arterial hypertension, diabetes, smoking, or dyslipidemy) were similar to other series. Incidence of hemorrhagic and cardio-embolic CVD was slightly lower, taken into account that hemorrhagic episodes that needed neurosurgical intervention were transferred to a higher-level center with a department of neurosurgery. Age was neither a factor for bad prediction leading to bad sequels after the episode nor a cause of an increased mortality. This data differs from others series. Conclusions: Actions taken on discharge, on cardiovascular risk factors and on hygienic-dietetic recommendations were deficient. Average stay was higher when compared to average stay in specialized ictus units.

  17. Road accidents at night

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Y.; CUNY,S; MONTEL,MC

    2002-01-01

    In-depth accident investigations can be used to identify some of the night problems that increase accident risk: irregular lighting; low contrast; presence of vulnerable opponents wearing dark clothing; reduced driver opportunities for the detection or recognition of opponents, obstacles, road profile or road signs; impossibility of seeing obstacles until they enter the headlight beam, glare from street lamps or headlights, alternation of dark and lit areas, etc. However, night accidents are...

  18. Important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima accident several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident in Japan. Among those lessons, several recommendations have been made on severe accident research. Similar to the EURSAFE efforts under EU Program, review of specific severe accident research items was started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation has been started since the Fukushima accident. Additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality have been covered. The review results are categorized in ten major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, direct containment heating, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the perspective of important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. Those are specifically investigation of damaged core and components, advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and assessment of advanced containment design which excludes long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations. (author)

  19. Investigation regarding the long-term security developments in the Swedish nuclear power and the response to the accident at Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedish nuclear plants need to continue to work on analysis and actions in the plants, partly to meet the demands of legislation and agreed action plans, and partly due to additional security requirements on account of experiences from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, stress tests, security investigations and investigations relating to physical protection. It is also essential to continue with safety improvements to gradually increase margins against unforeseen events in aging plants during long-term operation

  20. Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Ghane; Hamid Reza Shokrizadeh; Maryam Omidvar; Hoseyn Comyab

    2014-01-01

    This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. The study also provides several suggestions for marketers seeking to use viral marketing to position brands or to change a brand’s image, to encourage new product trials and to increase product uptake rates. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use produc...

  1. Investigating the effective factors on electronic trade by viral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ghane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper performs an investigation to explore a number of strategies underpinning virtual marketing. The study also provides several suggestions for marketers seeking to use viral marketing to position brands or to change a brand’s image, to encourage new product trials and to increase product uptake rates. In this article, we investigate the effect of external factors such as capturing the imagination, targeting credible sources, leveraging combinations of technology and easy to use product on virtual marketing. In addition, the study considers internal factors such as inclusion (the need to be part of a group, the need to be different and affection on viral marketing. The survey has been accomplished among 140 Iranian people, who were familiar with virtual marketing and they are selected, randomly. Using Pearson correlation as well as regression analysis, the study provides some evidences that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between some internal/external factors and virtual marketing.

  2. Beyond design depressurization accident in a medium sized HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for the release of fission products during a beyond design accident in a medium size HTGR (HTGR-500) was investigated. The dynamic simulator for nuclear power plants (DSNP) modular code was employed in the simulation of a depressurization accident coupled with the failure of forced circulation in the decay heat removal systems. For such an extreme accident the maximal localized fuel temperature reaches 3050 degC, and within 100 hours from the beginning of the accident, 3.4% of the Cs137 inventory will be released from the fuel elements to the primary circuit, and 4.6*10-2% are estimated to be released to the environment. Fission products being swept from the primary circuit by the CO and helium released from the graphite matrix, prove to be an important factor. Although a severe accident scenario was assumed, the comparative consequence analysis point at a lower risk than the analogous light water reactor severe accident. (author)

  3. Investigations of the potential for accident mitigation of the conceptical design for a core retention device developed in SR 209

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for accident mitigation of the conceptual design for the core retention device developed in SR 209, was estimated by core meltdown and containment analyses. Such a device should prevent late fission product release especially due to failure of the containment by overpressurization (according to release categories 5 and 6 of the German Risk Study, Phase A). Assuming ideal operation of the device, the long term course of a meltdown accident can be influenced in a positive sense including the prevention of overpressurization. However, functional operation of the design seems to be highly uncertain for several reasons, i.g. due to uncertainties in the behaviour of the melt in the retention device. The design does not or only insufficiently cover accident scenarios with high pressure in vessel melt, that means for sequences relevant for their high contribution to core melt frequency. The design may have strong negative impacts on the course of meltdown accidents, LOCA's, constructive details and operation of a plant. Implementation of the measure is expected to need extreme effort, without making sense from the technical point of view. The measure at all seems not to be recommendable for accident mitigation. (orig./HP)

  4. Investigation of effect of stopping supply flow into the cell on the confinement of the radioactive materials under fire accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 20th 1997, a fire accident happened at Uranium Enrichment Research Laboratory, Tokai, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and ventilation filters in the laboratory clogged. When fire accident occurs in a controlled area, a large quantity of smoke generates in the area and dropping exhaust flow from the area by the clogging of ventilation filters and rising pressure in the area are caused. Moreover, leakage of smoke including radioactive materials from the area by the pressure rising is expected. To prevent the leakage, it is expected that stopping supply flow to the area during a fire accident is effective, however, quantitative evaluation about this effect has not been performed. By using CELVA-1D code, one-dimensional thermofluid analysis code, this effect is evaluated quantitatively by modeling the laboratory and estimating source terms released during the fire accident. As the results, it has been found that the efficiency of confinement of the radioactive materials into the area is preserved in the slightly long period of time in case of stopping supply flow to the area, however, this effect can be neglected in case that scale of fire accident is relatively large. (author)

  5. On the results of investigating cause of sodium leak accident in prototype fast breeder reactor 'Monju' in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium leak accident in the secondary system of Monju occurred on December 8, 1995. The task force for investigating the accident was established in Nuclear Safety Bureau, and on May 23, 1996, the May report on the results of investigation was published. In order to elucidate the details of the fact that only one thermometer in the secondary system was broken and the reaction of leaked sodium with steel materials, the investigation was continued. In this report, also the results of these additional investigations are included. First, the accident of this time is outlined. As for the cause of the occurrence of sodium leak, the examination of the fracture surface of the broken thermometer, the high cycle fatigue due to hydrodynamic vibration, the investigation of the design, manufacture and installation of the thermometer, and the evaluation of secondary system thermometers which were not broken are reported. The cause that only one thermometer was broken was the way of its insertion which made the restraint of vibration amplitude ineffective. As the effects of sodium leak, the pile of sodium compound on floor liner, the damage of ducts and gratings, and the color change of concrete walls were observed. The burning experiment due to sodium leak was carried out to confirm the effects. (K.I.)

  6. Molecular-genetic damages of children immune system under influence of Chernobyl accident factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longterm study of children immunity damage under low doses radiation exposure revealed dynamic immunoregulatory mechanisms impairment which resulted in hyper-IgE-emia syndrome, cellular immunity depression and allergy status development. Investigation of DNA damage and immune cells genome stability by new 'fast micromethod' showed a reliable increase of DNA damage in children from contaminated with Cs-137 areas. There was strong correlation between DNA breaks frequency and soil contamination level, age of children (term of exposure) and serum IgE concentration. The method may be useful for diagnostics and monitoring of hyper-IgE-emia syndrome (authors)

  7. Temporal uncertainty analysis of human errors based on interrelationships among multiple factors: a case of Minuteman III missile accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Hao; Tian, Jin; Zhao, Tingdi

    2016-01-01

    In traditional approaches of human reliability assessment (HRA), the definition of the error producing conditions (EPCs) and the supporting guidance are such that some of the conditions (especially organizational or managerial conditions) can hardly be included, and thus the analysis is burdened with incomprehensiveness without reflecting the temporal trend of human reliability. A method based on system dynamics (SD), which highlights interrelationships among technical and organizational aspects that may contribute to human errors, is presented to facilitate quantitatively estimating the human error probability (HEP) and its related variables changing over time in a long period. Taking the Minuteman III missile accident in 2008 as a case, the proposed HRA method is applied to assess HEP during missile operations over 50 years by analyzing the interactions among the variables involved in human-related risks; also the critical factors are determined in terms of impact that the variables have on risks in different time periods. It is indicated that both technical and organizational aspects should be focused on to minimize human errors in a long run. PMID:26360211

  8. Specific complex of non-radiation risk factors for socially significant pathologies could affect the liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterov A.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The review considers the complex of non-radiation factors that could affect the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident: the demographic, social and professional group heterogeneity to warrant differentiation of risk, the effects of heavy metals, 'hot particles', chemicals, psychogenic stress, social dislocation in the post-perestroika period, alcohol abuse, smoking, and the effect of screening. All these factors tend to have a significant intensity, unlike the radiation exposure for the majority of subjects. It is concluded that the increased frequency and severity of some large socially significant pathologies in contingent liquidators may be due to a unique set of predominantly non-radiation factors associated, however, with a particular radiation accident.

  9. Investigation of NPP behavior in case of loss of coolant accident based on comparison of different ASTEC computer code versions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the work performed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India in the frame of SARNET2 project. The performed work continues the effort in the field of nuclear safety and cooperation between INRNE-BAS and BARC. The main target is development and validation of ASTEC (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code) at the further, a tool for level-2 PSA analysis for better understanding of accident progression during in-vessel phase until reactor vessel failure. (authors)

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as an accident risk factor in professional drivers in Yekaterinburg. Dangerous Sleep (DS-1 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Belkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available About 20% of all road traffic accidents may be associated with falling asleep while driving. This may be caused by sleep disorders leading to daytime sleepiness, the most common of which is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Objective: to study somatic and mental health, sleep disorders, OSAS in particular, in the population of Russian drivers (Sverdlovsk Region. Patients and methods. The descriptive cohort «Dangerous Sleep» (DS-1 study of 20 professional drivers having more than 5-year driving experience was conducted at the Clinical Institute of the Brain. The mean age of the drivers was 45.8 years. They underwent somatic evaluation for cardiovascular risk factors and a psychological examination involving a risk readiness diagnostic procedure, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and an electroencephalographic examination. A somnological examination assumed testing using the Epworth sleepiness scale, polysomnography, or overnight pulse metry. Results and discussion. 30% of the drivers were found to have marked attention disorders and an inability to adapt to extreme conditions, which create a risk for professional duties. The predisposing factors were noted to be alcohol addiction, overweight, and OSAS, the rate of the latter proved to be higher than that in the general population of able-bodied men. It was shown that a somnological examination should be obligatorily performed while hiring professional drivers, particularly to long hauliers. The drivers having a long length of experience, in whom a periodic examination detects sleep disorders, should be treated for somatic diseases and should also have individual working schedules to rule out their long night-time driving. 

  11. Investigation of 3D spatial effect on point kinetics estimation of the thermal hydraulics code RELAP for the analysis of MSLB accident of KK-NP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general safety analyses of design basis accident of NPPs are being carried out using system thermal hydraulics code like RELAP. In RELAP, power is calculated based on point kinetics approximation, which virtually ignores the space and energy dependence of neutron flux. To include the space and energy dependence of neutron flux, three-dimensional neutronics code TRIHEXFA has been externally coupled with RELAP through interface program, TRIHEXFA-RELAP Interface Program (TRIP). Calculation methodology of TRIP program is based on adiabatic approximation. In the adiabatic approximation the neutron flux is being factored into spatial and amplitude part. Spatial part of flux is slowly varying with time whereas amplitude part is strongly varying function. The RELAP controls the transient time steps. Transient time is divided into several major and minor time steps. Minor time step is the sub-step of major time step. Thermal hydraulics and neutronics data are exchanged at each major time step. Spatial part of neutron flux has been updated at each major time step using TRIHEXFA code. But amplitude part of the neutron flux is calculated at each minor time step using RELAP code. Convergence of results of the coupled code, TRIP has been checked through coupling time step descritization study. This study determines the minimum coupling time step. Transient concerning VVER-1000 Main Steam Line Break, MSLB has been considered to investigate the space-time effect on point kinetics. MSLB occurs as a consequence of the rupture of one steam line upstream of main steam line isolation valves. Reference design and data from Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KK-NPP) are used for the analysis. From this investigation it is found that TRIP significantly overestimates the maximum reactor power against uncoupled RELAP result. The time of scram also occur six seconds earlier in TRIP calculation compared to the RELAP. This exercise has also shown a proof of principle that coupling 3D neutronics code TRIHEXFA with thermal hydraulics code RELAP is feasible and working. (author)

  12. Analysis Fukushima 11032011 -- Extended analysis of the Fukushima accident on 11 March 2011 under special consideration of human and organisational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the reactor accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi on 11 March 2011, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) launched an extended analysis of the accident with the following goals: a) a comprehensive understanding of the accident unrolling and of the contributing factors; b) the identification of resulting short-, mean- and long-term requirements for the operators of Swiss nuclear power plants; c) considerations on the own surveillance activity; d) the verification of the reports delivered by the Swiss plant operators, who have to check their own plant after each incident declared as of INES 2 level or higher, whichever the location in the whole world. Undoubtedly, the design of the nuclear power plants at Fukushima Dai-ichi was inappropriate in what regards the tsunami induced by the earthquake, and that this was a key factor that led to the accident. The questions here are rather how it came to this clear design insufficiency and why the accident developed in the way it did. According to ENSI, answers to these questions require both technical as well as human and organisational considerations. ENSI had no direct access to information sources and, therefore, had to check the reliability of information obtained from public sources, especially from authorities, plant operators, expert organisations and, last but not least, media reports. The understanding gained in this way should enable a better evaluation of the situation in Switzerland and lead to the definition of the most urgent measures to be implemented. Since the principal cause of the Fukushima accident is a failure in the plant design, it is necessary to critically reconsider the design of the Swiss reactors to make sure that no such mistake has been done here. Another question is why this evident design failure was not identified earlier in the course of the decades of operation, and why no improvement has been made. In this context, human and organisational factors seem to play an important role. But the responsibility cannot be put only on a few decision makers; on the contrary some human and organisational mechanisms play a fundamental role. Such mechanisms and external conditions can lead to situations in which facts are not recognized or even rejected, although they appear evident after the events. It is the responsibility of all actors in the nuclear industry: plant operators, governments, regulatory authorities, expert organisations, to understand the potential and actual consequences of these mechanisms and to consider them within an appropriate safety culture. It is not sufficient to implement new regulations; the safety organisations must be able to respond to unforeseen situations, and this requires flexibility and adaptation ability. In this sense the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident will be helpful for the Swiss conditions

  13. An empirical investigation on factors influencing export of herbal supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts who are professional in the area of production and distribution of herbal supplements and using factor analysis, the study detects eight factors including supportive laws and regulations, organizational atmosphere, marketing structure, knowledge oriented, feasibility study, research and development, competitive strategy and partnership strategies.

  14. The state of thyroid system in children born form the parents irradiated in the result of Chornobyl accident as a factor of dysmetabolic changes in the period of sexual development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the work was to reveal functional and structural changes in the thyroid gland in children of puberty age with clinical manifestations of metabolic syndrome born from the parents irradiated in the result of Chornobyl accident. The study involved 108 patients aged 12-17. The investigated parameters characterizing TG function and the state and the of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism became the diagnostic criteria of dyshormonal disorders revealed in children with puberty dyshormonal disorders revealed in children with puberty dispituitarism. The pathological changes in the TG can be a risk factor of metabolic syndrome development.

  15. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Azad; Seyed Mohsen Seyed Aliakbar; Seyed Foad Zarifi; Somayeh Hozouri

    2013-01-01

    Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies us...

  16. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.:

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in production. In principle the welding process is rather simple, the materials to be joined are clamped between two electrodes and pressed together. Because there is an interface present with a higher res...

  17. An empirical investigation on factors influencing export of herbal supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Nazanin Hajmirzahosseini Yazdi; Abdollah Naami; Naser Azad

    2014-01-01

    During the past few years, there have been growing interests in business development of herbal supplements in many developing countries especially in Iran. Herbal supplements are used to cure many deceases such as medicating anxiety, acne, weight loss, depression, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing exporting herbal supplements. The proposed study designs a questionnaire consists of 31 questions, distributes it among 210 experts wh...

  18. Investigation of premenstrual syndrome and contributing factors among university students*

    OpenAIRE

    ERBİL, Nülüfer; KARACA, Ayşenur; KIRIŞ, Tülay

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and to investigate contributing factors for PMS among female students in a university dormitory in Ordu. Materials and methods: This descriptive study was conducted with female students at a public university dormitory in Ordu, in the East Black Sea region of Turkey. The sample contained 300 female students at the university dormitory. The study was conducted between 3 January and 12 January 2007. The research data were collected via...

  19. Recriticality, a Key Phenomenon to Investigate in Core Disruptive Accident Scenarios of Current and Future Fast Reactor Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final comments and conclusions: • Modern plants, should have performed better under Fukushima type event. • In future fast reactor systems significantly higher active and passive safety features are installed, which should cope with events like Fukushima. • One important lesson: put a focus on rare initiators, accident routes and consequences that are neither expected nor have been observed, events that are categorized under ‘black swans’. • Importance of severe accident research demonstrated - both analytically and experimentally for assessing and interpreting accident scenarios and developments. Precondition for developing preventive & mitigative safety measures. Passive safety measures are in the focus of advanced design options and must work under conditions of multiple loads and aggravating events. • Fast reactor systems behavior as the SFR under severe accident conditions: – In fast spectrum systems as the SFR the core is not in its neutronically most reactive configuration and SFRs may be loaded with MAs for waste management; – Recriticalities have a high probability because of the higher enrichment levels; – Short time scales have to be envisioned for core melt-down; – Decay heat levels might be significantly higher, if MA bearing fuel is involved. • Improve design by measures for prevention and/or mitigation of recriticalities; – High reliability of simulations required for proof; • Assessment of fuel relocated on peripheral structures; • Preventive/mitigating measures should not replace containment measures

  20. Investigation on maternal physiological and psychological factors of cheilopalatognathus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma J; Zhao W; Ma RM; Li XJ; Wen ZH; Liu XF; Hu WD; Zhang CB

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Case-control study on mothers of cheilopalatognathus children was conducted, to investigate the maternal physiological and psychological factors for occurrence of cheilopalatognathus.MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred ten mothers of cheilopalatognathus children who were scheduled for one-stage surgery were selected as a research group, and 110 mothers of normal children served as a normal control group at the same time. Trait Anxiety Inventory (T-AI), Life Events Scale (LES), Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), Type C Behavior Scale (CBS), adult Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and homemade general questionnaire survey were employed for the investigation.RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the scores for negative event tension value, anxiety, and depressive factors were higher in the study group (p event tension value, intellect, optimism, and social support factors were lower (p event stimulation, negative event stimulation, the amount of social support, as well as introvert and extrovert personalities.CONCLUSION: The study results suggest that pregnant women's physiological and psychological factors can cause changes in cheilopalatognathus incidence, which is expected to be guidance for healthcare during pregnancy, to prevent the occurrence of cheilopalatognathus.

  1. Applying hierarchical loglinear models to nonfatal underground coal mine accidents for safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Mustafa; Onder, Seyhan; Adiguzel, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Underground mining is considered to be one of the most dangerous industries and mining remains the most hazardous occupation. Categorical analysis of accident records may present valuable information for preventing accidents. In this study, hierarchical loglinear analysis was applied to occupational injuries that occurred in an underground coal mine. The main factors affecting the accidents were defined as occupation, area, reason, accident time and part of body affected. By considering subfactors of the main factors, multiway contingency tables were prepared and, thus, the probabilities that might affect nonfatal injuries were investigated. At the end of the study, important accident risk factors and job groups with a high probability of being exposed to those risk factors were determined. This article presents important information on decreasing the number accidents in underground coal mines. PMID:24934420

  2. An Investigation of Psychological Factors Influencing Investment Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hue Chang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study applies a second-order conirmatory factor analysis (CFA approach to investigate psychological factors inluencing individuals' investment decision-making. A second-order CFA approach consists of ive irst-order psychological factors in terms of mental accounting, regret avoidance, self-control, heuristic and overconidence, and one second-order factor in terms of investment decision-making. Quantitative data was yielded by the questionnaire, and an effective sample of 752 responses was used to execute the estimation procedure. The results reveal that there exist statistically signiicant relationships between ive psychological factors and investment decision-making. Investors are likely to consider a product with different functions as one with different mental accounts (gains. Thus, inancial institutions are advised to provide their potential customers with multi-function products. Since self-control is a signiicant self-imposed mechanism for investment decision-making, inancial institutions can merchandise products that can help their customers to execute the self-imposed rules of thumb. activate javascript

  3. Lessons learned - the Columbia Space Shuttle accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 2003 February 01, the Columbia space shuttle broke apart during re-entry with the loss of all crew-members. An accident investigation board undertook a comprehensive examination of the spacecraft design, performance, and NASA design and operational practices to uncover direct and contributory accident causal factors; and recommend the improvements required for return of the shuttle program to flight status. This paper will summarize the investigative approach taken, the findings and recommendations that resulted, and the lessons of relevance to the nuclear industry. The paper will also outline a suggested 'road-map' for deriving the main lessons learned from the full board report. (author)

  4. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkovi? Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  5. On the bad reputation of Fukushima's nuclear accident. A risk-economic approach to distance and price factors of processed food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2011, a big earthquake hit Japan and tsunami and nuclear power plant accident followed. Various discussions have been made on economical, ecological and psychological impacts of this disaster. Its bad reputation effect has not been much discussed, however. This paper deals with the relationship between the following two factors. They are: the distance from the nuclear power plant to the production place and the price of seemingly homogeneous processed food. (author)

  6. Analysis of avalanche risk factors in backcountry terrain based on usage frequency and accident data in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techel, F.; Zweifel, B.; Winkler, K.

    2015-09-01

    Recreational activities in snow-covered mountainous terrain in the backcountry account for the vast majority of avalanche accidents. Studies analyzing avalanche risk mostly rely on accident statistics without considering exposure (or the elements at risk), i.e., how many, when and where people are recreating, as data on recreational activity in the winter mountains are scarce. To fill this gap, we explored volunteered geographic information on two social media mountaineering websites - bergportal.ch and camptocamp.org. Based on these data, we present a spatiotemporal pattern of winter backcountry touring activity in the Swiss Alps and compare this with accident statistics. Geographically, activity was concentrated in Alpine regions relatively close to the main Swiss population centers in the west and north. In contrast, accidents occurred equally often in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. Weekends, weather and avalanche conditions influenced the number of recreationists, while the odds to be involved in a severe avalanche accident did not depend on weekends or weather conditions. However, the likelihood of being involved in an accident increased with increasing avalanche danger level, but also with a more unfavorable snowpack containing persistent weak layers (also referred to as an old snow problem). In fact, the most critical situation for backcountry recreationists and professionals occurred on days and in regions when both the avalanche danger was critical and when the snowpack contained persistent weak layers. The frequently occurring geographical pattern of a more unfavorable snowpack structure also explains the relatively high proportion of accidents in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. These results have practical implications: avalanche forecasters should clearly communicate the avalanche danger and the avalanche problem to the backcountry user, particularly if persistent weak layers are of concern. Professionals and recreationists, on the other hand, require the expertise to adjust the planning of a tour and their backcountry travel behavior depending on the avalanche danger and the avalanche problem.

  7. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nagel, Lise Loft; Uhrenholt, Lars; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2012-01-01

    A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the...... autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation...... for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury...

  8. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.

    2014-05-01

    The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

  9. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mohammad-pajooh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011. Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

  10. Investigation of factors affecting crystallization of cyclopentane clathrate hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Catherine A; Mysyk, Roman; White, Mary Anne

    2008-11-01

    We report the results of systematic investigations of the influence of thermal history and other factors on crystallization of a model clathrate hydrate (cyclopentane hydrate) studied as water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions to remove the nucleation influence of substrates other than ice and hydrates. Hydrate and ice seem to form simultaneously under the conditions of these experiments, with ice forming preferentially. Thermal treatment, melting the ice, and leaving only the hydrate, promotes further hydrate formation. Not all the hydrate formed can be accounted for by the recrystallization of water freed by melting ice. PMID:19045353

  11. Investigating factors affecting students’ performance to PISA Science items

    OpenAIRE

    V. Hatzinikita; C. Apostolopoulos; Psalidas, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate, on the one hand, the extent to which PISA Science items validly assess the knowledge and skills of 15 year-old Greek students, while, on the other hand, to examine the effect of the following factors: student’s gender, scientific processes and contexts (situations) on the students’ performance in these PISA items. The research used paper-and-pencil test with published PISA Science items, conducted individual semi-structured interviews with 15 year-old st...

  12. The EPR investigation of tooth enamel for measurements of tooth enamel for measurements of absorbed gamma doses of people irradiated in Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPR spectra of the tooth enamel of Chernobyl 'liquidators' were investigated. A lot of people were engaged in work at the Chernobyl area after the accident in 1986. A part of them is under regular medical control at the Ukrainian security service hospital. When patients lose the teeth for some reasons the EPR spectra of radiation centers in tooth enamel caused by emergency gamma radiation were investigated. The measurement of the intensities of the EPR spectra give the real individual absorbed doses of gamma radiation which are much higher than the official values registered in the medical cards of liquidators

  13. Accident risk and factors regarding non-motorised road users : a central road safety challenge with deficient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of all traffic fatalities worldwide are non-motorised road users (NMRUs). In Denmark, the number has increased with about 30%. NMRUs consist of about 63% of the injured in the Danish traffic. Much has been done to reduce the number of injured NMRUs with counterparts, while little effort is put into the reduction of the vast majority of the accidents, NMRU single accidents, which are about 90% of all injured NMRUs. There are no efficient tools available to reduce this number. A significantly better designed, maintained, and illuminated road network would most likely help. However, that is expensive and not possible for most road authorities. Despite this, the challenges with NMRUs in single accidents need more attention, if road safety is to be improved. The situation in Denmark is more than likely the case in many other countries as well; although the documentation is scarce.

  14. Bayes factor for investigative assessment of selected handwriting features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, F; Marquis, R; Schmittbuhl, M; Biedermann, A; Thiéry, A; Bozza, S

    2014-09-01

    This paper extends previous research on the use of multivariate continuous data in comparative handwriting examinations, notably for gender classification. A database has been constructed by analyzing the contour shape of loop characters of type a and d by means of Fourier analysis, which allows characters to be described in a global way by a set of variables (e.g., Fourier descriptors). Sample handwritings were collected from right- and left-handed female and male writers. The results reported in this paper provide further arguments in support of the view that investigative settings in forensic science represent an area of application for which the Bayesian approach offers a logical framework. In particular, the Bayes factor is computed for settings that focus on inference of gender and handedness of the author of an incriminated handwritten text. An emphasis is placed on comparing the efficiency for investigative purposes of characters a and d. PMID:25117907

  15. Utilization of the IAIA (Investigation and Analysis of Incidents and Accidents) method in the investigation of the P-36 platform accident; Utilizacao do metodo IAIA (Investigacao e Analise de Acidentes e Incidentes) na investigacao do acidente ocorrido na plataforma P-36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Marcus de Barros [ARCE - Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In the beginning of XXI century the Brazilian oil industry report a big accident involving that which was the biggest petroleum platform of the world. With capacity production of 180.000 barrels a day and capacity compression of 7,2 million cubic meter a day of natural gas, the off-shore platform P-36 was situated on Roncador field, in Campos basin, operating in 1360 meters of water. As consequences, eleven deaths with irreparable traumas to the families, friends and worker partners, one billion dollars in prejudices to brazilian country, environmental damages by oil leak and injuries to PETROBRAS reputation in Brazil and in the world. The method of investigation and analysis of incidents and accidents - IAIA is very wide and its philosophy contain a lot of topics, since basic concepts, investigation actions, analysis action and diagnosis by the general kind of fail. Using this method and taking advantage from the report elaborated by the commission organized by ANP - Agencia Nacional do Petroleo and DPC - Diretoria de Portos e Costas, responsible for the investigation and analysis of the accident occurred with P-36, this paper identify the direct and indirect causes of the accident, in attempt to avoid new similar situations. (author)

  16. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - like syndrome and other hormonal factors of promotion and progression of thyroid gland cancer in males-liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and laboratory endocrinological screening performed in 1,000 males - liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences revealed hormonal factors leading to node formation and having unfavourable influence on progression and promotion of thyroid gland cancer. The factors include syndrome of low thriiodothyronine, hyperprolactinemia, latent hypothyrosis and increased production of thyroglobulin. Peculiarities of hormonal status in liquidators allow us to suggest the presence of MEN-like syndrome among the liquidators population. Possible mechanisms of expression of RET oncogene in adults that may result in MEN- like syndrome have been discussed. (author)

  17. Logistic Regression Approach in Road Defects Impact on Accident Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Khalili

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Safety and accident issues are considered as an important problem in the world. Road transportation issues would have a more conspicuous countenance in the country of Iran in which, over 94 percent of all transportations take place through roads. The roads’ contribution to the traffic accidents at mean is 24 percent however this value is 36 percent in Iran. Road traffic crashes exert a huge burden on Iran's economy and health care services. Many parameters, safety signs and equipment, Vertical and horizontal arc combination along the road and all the effective factors in decreasing the accidents, are considered when determining the safety level of the roads. Road defect is being considered as one of the essential factors causing accidents to happen.  This article investigates the severity factor of the accident according to the vehicle movability situation after the accident. The results of this research has shown that most  important factors reducing the safety on the suburban roads  in Iran is “insufficient road width” pertaining to frequency  and “Level difference between road & shoulder” pertaining  to accident severity.

  18. Rough set approach for accident chains exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jinn-Tsai; Chung, Yi-Shih

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a novel non-parametric methodology--rough set theory--for accident occurrence exploration. The rough set theory allows researchers to analyze accidents in multiple dimensions and to model accident occurrence as factor chains. Factor chains are composed of driver characteristics, trip characteristics, driver behavior and environment factors that imply typical accident occurrence. A real-world database (2003 Taiwan single auto-vehicle accidents) is used as an example to demonstrate the proposed approach. The results show that although most accident patterns are unique, some accident patterns are significant and worth noting. Student drivers who are young and less experienced exhibit a relatively high possibility of being involved in off-road accidents on roads with a speed limit between 51 and 79 km/h under normal driving circumstances. Notably, for bump-into-facility accidents, wet surface is a distinctive environmental factor. PMID:17166475

  19. Home accidents in older people: role of primary health care team.

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, H. J.; Firth, J.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the incidence and nature of unreported and reported home accidents in older people and to investigate associated environmental factors. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire requesting information on home accidents in the preceding month. SETTING--Inner London general practice. SUBJECTS--All registered patients aged over 65 years (n = 1662), of whom 120 were inappropriately registered and 1293 responded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Circumstances and consequences of accidents in the ...

  20. Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result of this study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs

  1. Development of a taxonomy of performance influencing factors for human reliability assessment of accident management tasks and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Jung, Won Dae; Kang, Dae Il; Ha, Jae Joo

    1999-06-01

    In this study, a new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. We collected the existing PIF taxonomies as many as possible. Then, we analyzed the trend in the selection of PIFs, the frequency of use between PIFs in HRA methods, and the level of definition of PIFs, in order to reflect these characteristics into the development of a new PIF taxonomy. Next, we analyzed the principal task context during accident management to draw the context specific PIFs. Afterwards, we established several criteria for the selection of the appropriate PIFs for HRA under emergency operation and accident management situations. Finally, the final PIF taxonomy containing the subitems for assessing each PIF was constructed based on the results of the previous steps and the selection criteria. The final result ofthis study is the new PIF taxonomy for HRA of the tasks during emergency operation and accident management situations. The selected 11 PIFs in the study are as follows: training and experience, availability and quality of information, status and trend of critical parameters, status of safety system/component, time pressure, working environment features, team cooperation and communication, plant policy and safety culture. (author). 35 refs., 23 tabs.

  2. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  3. Factores asociados a los accidentes por exposición percutánea en personal de enfermería en un hospital de tercer nivel / Factors associated with accidents resulting from percutaneousexposure in nursing staff at a tertiary level hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mª Teresa, Gallardo López; Josefa, Masá Calles; Rafael, Fernández-Creuet Navajas; nmaculada, Salcedo Leal; Jokin de, Irala Estévez; Diego, Martínez de la Concha; Carmen, Díaz Molina.

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Los accidentes por exposición percutánea suponen aproximadamente un tercio de los accidentes laborales del personal sanitario hospitalario. Su importancia estriba en las enfermedades causadas por patógenos transmisibles por esta vía (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, infección VIH). Objetivos: d [...] escribir los accidentes de este tipo notificados en un hospital de tercer nivel; identificar factores asociados a estos accidentes en personal de enfermería; construir un modelo predictivo del riesgo individual de accidentarse. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo de una cohorte retrospectiva compuesta por todas las personas que notificaron un accidente entre el 1-1-93 y el 30-6-96. Estudio de casos y controles en el personal de enfermería durante el período 1-1-95 al 30-6-96, analizado mediante regresión logística múltiple. RESULTADOS: La incidencia acumulada de accidentes en un año fue de 0,078 para las/-os enfermeras/-os. En el 57,3% de los casos estuvieron implicadas agujas de jeringas desechables o precargadas. La incidencia acumulada en un año fue mayor para las agujas de cateterismo intravenoso (8,5 por 100.000). El riesgo de accidentabilidad, ajustado por variables confundentes, fue mayor para las/-os enfermeras/-os (OR=3,22; I.C.95%=1,96-5,27), para los trabajadores de la Unidad de Hemodiálisis (OR=35,21; I.C.95%=3,74-331,16) y para aquéllos con contrato eventual (OR=4,50; I.C.95%=2,24-9,04). CONCLUSIONES: Los accidentes por exposición percutánea en este hospital son más frecuentes entre el personal de enfermería y se producen, fundamentalmente, con algún tipo de aguja hueca. Se han identificado factores asociados a estos accidentes, lo que permite dirigir programas preventivos específicos sobre trabajadores con más riesgo. El modelo obtenido es válido para estimar el grado de accidentabilidad individual en los sujetos estudiados. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Accidents resulting from percutaneous exposure account for approximately one third of all accidents suffered at work by health workers in hospitals. Their importance lies in the illnesses caused by pathogens that can be transmitted in this way (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV virus). The a [...] ims are to describe accidents of this type notified in a tertiary level hospital, identify factors associated with these accidents in nursing staff and build a predictive model for the individual risk of having an accident. METHODS: A descriptive study of a retrospective cohort made up of all the people who notified having suffered an accident between 1-1-93 and 30-6-96. A study of cases and controls in nursing staff during the period 1-1-95 to 30-6-96, analysed through multiple logistical regression. RESULTS: The cumulative number of cases of accidents in one year was 0.078 for male and female nurses. In 57.3% of cases, disposable or pre-loaded syringes were involved. The cumulative number of cases in one year was greater for intravenous catheterisation (8.5% per 100,000). The risk of having an accident, adjusted on account of confusing variables, was greater for female and male nurses (OR=3.22; I.C.95%=1.96-5.27), for workers in the Haemodialysis Unit (OR=35.21; I.C.95%=3.74-331.16) and for those employed on a temporary contract (OR=4.50; I.C.95%=2.24-9.04). CONCLUSIONS: Accidents resulting from percutaneous exposure at this hospital are more frequent among nursing staff and are basically caused by some type of needle used for injections. Factors associated with these accidents were identified, allowing specific prevention programmes to be targeted at those workers at greater risk. The model obtained is valid to estimate the degree of individual accident probability for the subjects studied.

  4. JCO criticality accident as POST-LOCA: Poor structure induced loss of organizational control accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some problems in operation and business management of JCO (Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Co.) have been studied as background factors of the criticality accident. Open information about business conditions of JCO suggests that the cause of the accident is not so simple as to be attributed only to economic pressure, but includes immanent problems in JCO. We investigate the problems from five viewpoints, organization of safety management, system of operation management, activities for business improvement, risk awareness, and restructuring of business, and discuss the effects and causality of background factors as well as remedies for them. (author)

  5. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation accidents may be viewed as unusual exposure event which provide possible high exposure to a few people and, in the case of nuclear plants events, low exposure to large population. A number of radiation accidents have occurred over the past 50 years, involving radiation machines, radioactive materials and uncontrolled nuclear reactors. These accidents have resulted in number of people have been exposed to a range of internal and external radiation doses and those involving radioactive materials have involved multiple routs of exposure. Some of the more important accidents involving significant radiation doses or releases of radioactive materials, including any known health effects involves in it. An analysis of the common characteristics of accidents is useful resolving overarching issues, as has been done following nuclear power, industrial radiography and medical accidents. Success in avoiding accidents and responding when they do occur requires planning in order to have adequately trained and prepared health physics organization; well defined and developed instrument program; close cooperation among radiation protection experts, local and state authorities. Focus is given to the successful avoidance of accidents and response in the events they do occur. Palomares, spain in late 1960, Goiania, Brazil in 1987, Thule, Greenland in 1968, Rocky flats, Colorado in 1957 and 1969, Three mile island, Pennsylvania in 1979, Chernobyl Ukraine in april 1986, Kyshtym, former Soviet Union in 1957, Windscale, UK in Oct. 1957 Tomsk, Russian Federation in 1993, and many others are the important examples of major radiation accidents. (author)

  6. Epidemiology of Orthopedic Fractures and Other Injuries among Inpatients Admitted due to Traffic Accidents: A 10-Year Nationwide Survey in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Ren-Hao Pan; Nien-Tzu Chang; Dachen Chu; Kuo-Fang Hsu; Yuan-Nian Hsu; Jin-Chyr Hsu; Lin-Yu Tseng; Nan-Ping Yang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the major injury patterns associated with traffic accidents and evaluate the risk factors of the main injury, a survey of Taiwan's national insurance admission data between 2002 and 2011 was performed. The incidence of traffic-accidents-related hospitalization was between 9.17% and 11.54% and the average mortality rate of the inpatients admitted due to traffic accidents was 0.68%. Of all inpatients due to road traffic accidents in Taiwan, orthopedic fractures were the most comm...

  7. Investigation and analysis of aircrew ametropia and related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the refractive distribution and analysis risk factors for aircrew ametropia.METHODS: The number of 49 cases with ametropia from 1031 aircrew during May 2013 to May 2014 were reviewed. Various types of refraction composition, age, type, position, time of flight with the subjective assessment of aircrew were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Of 49 cases, 43 cases(88%were myopia, 6 cases(12%were hypermetropia.,Detection rates were higher in age over 50 years aircrew and flight time more than 3000h. Detection rates were lower in self-conscious symptom heavy aircrew, fighter aircrew and good habit of using eyes. CONCLUSION: The myopia incidence in aircrew with age >50 years and long flight time is higher, than that of fighter pilots and good habit of using eyes. We should pay attention to the increasing late-onset myopia of aviators and habit of using eyes, work intensity and time of using eyes about aircrew.

  8. Exploratory investigation of factors affecting the wing tip vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, J.; Megrail, J. L.; Shivers, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to study some factors affecting the tip vortex of a wing. It was found that there was a pronounced effect of Reynolds number on the tip-vortex core size. An attempt was made to determine what aerodynamic parameters, such as lift, drag, or induced drag, influence the size of the vortex core, but no particular function of the parameters was found to be superior to all others. Various spoilers placed on the upper and lower surfaces of the wing to increase the boundary-layer thickness resulted in a reduction in the vorticity as determined from the tuft grid. Various solid objects placed in the vortex core downstream of the wing tip seemed to decrease the vorticity within the vortex core.

  9. The investigation of the impacts of major disasters, on the basis of the Van earthquake (October 23, 2011, Turkey), on the profile of the injuries due to occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekimoglu, Yavuz; Dursun, Recep; Karadas, Sevdegul; Asirdizer, Mahmut

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the impacts of major disasters, on the basis of the Van earthquake (October 23, 2011, Turkey), on the profile of the injuries due to occupational accidents. In this study, we evaluated 245 patients of occupational accidents who were admitted to emergency services of Van city hospitals in the 1-year periods including pre-earthquake and post-earthquake. We determined that there was a 63.4% (P business before the emergence of disaster by taking into account factors that may increase their work-related accidents. PMID:26344453

  10. Gray Correlation Analysis of Coal Mine Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Yan Tian; Zeng-Shou Dong; Ze-Min Li

    2013-01-01

    Based on the statistics of 2008-2012 State Administration of study safety coal mine accident,a grey relational analysis model of coal mine accidents was established,and the grey correlation matrixes were established according to the grey relevance degree of data series. The gas accident, roof accident and flood accident were considered as the main influential factors according to the advantage analysis method. The analysis method provides scientific basis for further prevention an...

  11. A limited investigation of the sensitivity of the containment source term to certain primary circuit parameters under PWR severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of the source term to the containment for a limited number of primary circuit parameters and phenomena has been investigated for three hypothetical PWR severe accident sequences. These sequences are: a large hot leg break with failure of electric power to engineered safety features (AB hot leg); a small cold leg break with failure of pumped ECCS (S2D) and a transient initiated sequence with failure of secondary system relief valves, power conversion and auxiliary feedwater systems and loss of on and off-site power for at least 3 hours (TMLB'). (author)

  12. Study of human factors, and its basic aspects focusing the IEA-R1 research reactor operators, aiming at the prevention of accidents caused by human failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a study of human factors and possible human failure reasons that can cause incidents, accidents and workers exposition, associated to risks intrinsic to the profession. The objective is to contribute with the operators of IEA-R1 reactor located at IPEN CNEN/S P. Accidents in the technological field, including the nuclear, have shown that the causes are much more connected to human failure than to system and equipment failures, what has led the regulatory bodies to consider studies on human failure. The research proposed in this work is quantitative/qualitative and also descriptive. Two questionnaires were used to collect data. The first of them was elaborated from the safety culture attributes which are described by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. The second considered individual and situational factors composing categories that could affect people in the work area. A carefully selected transcription of the theoretical basis according to the study of human factors was used. The methodology demonstrated a good reliability degree. Results lead to mediate factors which need direct actions concerning the needs of the group and of the individual. This research shows that it is necessary to have a really effective unit of planning and organization, not only to the physical and psychological health issues but also to the safety in the work. (author)

  13. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer. PMID:26397978

  14. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  15. An investigation on Unprotected Loss of Flow Accident in Th–Pu metal fuelled 500 MWe fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Th- Pu metal FBR core reactivity coefficients are estimated. • Static and transient behavior of Th–Pu core are compared with U–Pu–6Zr core. • Under ULOFA, Th–Pu reactor reaches safe shutdown with passive SGDHRS. - Abstract: This study focuses on computing static reactivity coefficients and analyzing Unprotected Loss of Flow Accident in a Th–Pu fuelled metal reactor. An attempt is also done to compare the static and dynamic performance of the fresh core with characteristics of U–Pu–6Zr fuelled 500 MWe metal reactor. Isothermal temperature coefficient and power coefficients are evaluated in the steady state and found to be negative. The excess reactivity and control rod worth requirements of Th–Pu metal core are assumed similar to that of U–Pu–6Zr metal core. In the Unprotected Loss of Flow Accident (ULOFA) analysis, with flow coast down initiated by station black out, it is found that power to flow ratio is increasing initially up to 53 s and then starts to reduce continuously. Power to flow ratio is found to be less than 2 at all times thus ensuring the absence of coolant boiling in the entire core. Sodium voiding starts around 886 s in the upper axial blanket and provide negative reactivity. Also it will not propagate to the core center ensuring the probability for core disruptive accident a remote one. Net reactivity feedback is negative and the major contribution is from core radial expansion. Within 12 min, the power drops to 32 MWt, making it possible for Safety Grade Decay Heat Removal (SGDHR) system to start heat removal from core ensuring safe shutdown of reactor. Sensitivity analysis by considering an uncertainty margin of ±10% in thermo physical properties of fuel composition shows that feedback reactivity of the Th–Pu system is insensitive and the conclusion on the safe shutdown remains unaltered. From this study it is found that inherent safety of Th–Pu metal fuel core is better than that of reactor core fuelled with U–Pu–6Zr metal type under ULOFA condition

  16. Analyzing heterogeneous accident data from the perspective of accident occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jinn-Tsai; Chung, Yi-Shih

    2008-01-01

    Clustering and classification approaches have been commonly applied in reducing the heterogeneity in accident data. As part of an effort to understand the features of the heterogeneity, this study assessed accident data from the perspective of accident occurrences. Using the rule-based classification method, rough set theory, rules were derived which consisted of indispensable factors to certain accident outcomes and reflected the process of accident occurrences. The occurring frequency of each derived rule was then adopted as the basis for grouping accidents for further analyses. Empirical results showed that rules with high occurring frequencies were largely related to drivers with high-risk characteristics. On the other hand, road facilities played a key role in rules with low-occurring frequencies. The distinctive features indicated the essential differences between the frequently repeated and the sparsely unique processes of accident occurrences. This suggests that the heterogeneity of accident data is not limited to one single factor, such as age, gender or area. Thus, the proposed approach, which takes the process of accident occurrences into consideration, can be a potential alternative to more comprehensively analyze the heterogeneity in accident data. PMID:18215569

  17. Accidentes biológicos en estudiantes de medicina de una universidad peruana: prevalencia, mecanismos y factores de riesgo / Biological accidents in a Peruvian university medical students: prevalence, mechanisms and risk factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Inga; Gregory, López; Carlos, Kamiya.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Una de las más serias amenazas que enfrentan los estudiantes de medicina durante su práctica clínica es la posibilidad de exposición a accidentes biológicos, debido en la mayoría de los casos a la inexperiencia y el escaso desarrollo de las habilidades manuales. Objetivos: Establecer l [...] a frecuencia, mecanismos, circunstancias y factores de riesgo de los accidentes biológicos ocurridos entre estudiantes de medicina. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo observacional de corte transversal. Institución: Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Estudiantes de medicina. Metodología: Se aplicó una encuesta estructurada anónima, voluntaria y autoadministrada. Principales medidas de resultados: Accidentes biológicos. Resultados: En total fueron 307 entrevistados. La prevalencia de accidentes biológicos en la población estudiada fue de 51,5% (158/307). La media de accidentes biológicos en el último año fue de 1,06. El 91,1% de los estudiantes del último año presentó al menos un accidente biológico, versus 11,9% en los estudiantes del primer año. Los estudiantes del último año informaron con más frecuencia accidentes de riesgo alto para transmisión de infecciones, siendo 47,6% por pinchazo con objeto punzocortante, y 80,6% tuvo exposición a sangre; los accidentes de riesgo alto son mucho más frecuentes en quirófanos y sala de partos (51,9%). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de accidentes biológicos fue 51,5%, siendo el pinchazo la forma más frecuente. Es necesario desarrollar estrategias que permitan velar por la bioseguridad de los estudiantes de medicina. Abstract in english Introduction: One of the most serious problems of medical students is occupational exposure during their clinical training as they lack experience and limited development of hand skills. Objectives: To establish the frequency, mechanisms, circumstances and risk factors of biological accidents report [...] ed in medical students. Design: Descriptive observational transversal type study. Setting: Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Participants: Medical students. Methodology: A retrospective anonymous and voluntary survey was conducted. Study participants were randomly chosen. Main outcome measures: Biological accidents. Results: In a sample of 307 students 51,5% had at least one accident (158/307); median of biological accidents in the last year was 1,06; 91,1% of senior students had at least one biological accident last year versus 11,9% of first-year students. Senior students inform more often about high-risk infection-transmission accidents, 47,6% caused by pinching with a sharp object while 80,6% were exposed to blood; high-risk accidents are far more often in surgical and delivery rooms (51,9%). Conclusions: It is necessary to develop strategies that allow medical students to enforce biosecurity concepts.

  18. An investigation of graphite dust and plateout fission product behavior under pipe rupture accident condition in primary cooling system of high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), a small amount of fission products are released from fuel elements during normal operation. Then condensable fission products plateout on the inner surface of primary cooling system components. In accident conditions such as rapid depressurization events, plated-out fission products would be re-entrained into the coolant by chemical and/or mechanical forces. The re-entrainment process is called liftoff. Since this process is very complicated phenomenon, a quantitative model for analysis has not been established. Therefore, experiments were carried out to investigate the behavior of fission products and graphite dusts under the rapid depressurization condition caused by large-scale pipe rupture accident. One experiment was focused on fission products plated-out on metal surface or on/in oxide film and another was focused on the graphite dusts behavior. In this paper, applicability of turbulent burst model to graphite dusts and fission products liftoff models to the experimental data was investigated. (author)

  19. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    CERN Document Server

    Franic, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

  20. Infant siblings and the investigation of autism risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newschaffer Craig J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infant sibling studies have been at the vanguard of autism spectrum disorders (ASD research over the past decade, providing important new knowledge about the earliest emerging signs of ASD and expanding our understanding of the developmental course of this complex disorder. Studies focused on siblings of children with ASD also have unrealized potential for contributing to ASD etiologic research. Moving targeted time of enrollment back from infancy toward conception creates tremendous opportunities for optimally studying risk factors and risk biomarkers during the pre-, peri- and neonatal periods. By doing so, a traditional sibling study, which already incorporates close developmental follow-up of at-risk infants through the third year of life, is essentially reconfigured as an enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study. This review considers the enriched-risk pregnancy cohort approach of studying infant siblings in the context of current thinking on ASD etiologic mechanisms. It then discusses the key features of this approach and provides a description of the design and implementation strategy of one major ASD enriched-risk pregnancy cohort study: the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI.

  1. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating probability of aircraft crash are considered to be 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 35 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 2 for large bladed aircraft and 30 for small bladed aircraft. (2) The data of SDF aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total of 45 accidents occurred, 24 of them are large fixed-wing aircrafts, 4 are small fixed-wing aircrafts and 17 are bladed aircrafts. 23 to 45 accidents fell into land. (3) The data of US aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total of 16 accidents occurred, 13 of which are fixed-wing aircrafts, 3 are bladed aircrafts. 6 of 16 accidents fell into land. (4) The instrument flight information on commercial aircrafts is based on 'Air transport statics' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The total number of takeoffs and landings is 29,971,662 and the total flight distance is 9,232,867,684 km. (author)

  2. Car Sales: Investigation into Factors Determining Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelija Samoškien?

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines customer behaviour in general and discusses factors determining customer behaviour in car industry. The paper describes a concept of consumer behaviour and the importance of factors influencing the situation. Empirical study about factors determining car industry in consumer-made decisions is carried out. In addition, statistical factor analysis is performed. The key sets of factors helping the user with choosing a new car are iden­tified and analysed at the level of the groups of factors (factor. The conducted analysis shows that car price, ergonomics, image, dynamic and user-friendliness as well as environmental groups are the main points that assist in buying a new car.Article in Lithuanian

  3. Transfer-factors and other radiological parameters measured in Germany and Switzerland after the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl the contamination of the environment was measured in the Federal Republic of Germany, in the DDR and in Switzerland in order to draw conclusions for the radiation protection of the population. In some cases the activity was measured in coherent compartments at the same place. Thus, radioecological parameters could be derived. For that purpose, special experiments and feeding-experiments were carried out to determine radioecological parameters. This report tries to give an overall view on the most important measured parameters in Germany and Switzerland. (orig.)

  4. X-ray electron investigation of samples of fuel-containing masses formed as a result of Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Method of X-ray electron spectroscopy was used to analyze six samples (1-6) of fuel-containing masses (FCM), formed in result of Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident. It was established that ions of elements (U, Zr, Si, N, C) in analyzed samples were in chemically nonequilibrium states, typical for different oxidation degrees. Relative percentage of uranium ions of different oxidation degrees in analyzed FCM samples was determined. It was revealed, that samples 1-4 represented melts of oxygen-containing compounds, including additional ions of elements with lower oxidation degree, as compared to the most stable oxides (ZrO2, SiO2, UO2 etc). It is noted that intensive chemical processes of further oxidation of uranium ions and ions of after elements with release of heat can take place in result of contact with air and rain water. This fact should be taken into account when monitoring neutron fluxes and at temperature control of nuclear fuel. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) accident. A final report on the investigation of fission product chemical forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September of 1965, an intentionally defective fuel rod failed in the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), causing the rupture of the surrounding pressure tube and the release of superheated cooling water into a region of the reactor core. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has reviewed the PRTR incident to assemble and update all the available information regarding the incident. A principal goal of the review was to analyze any remaining clues that may indicate the stoichiometry or most probable chemical and physical forms of the released fission products. The review confirmed the role of water in limiting iodine release. About 97% of the iodine released during the accident was subsequently found in tanks containing the reactor/rupture-loop coolant. Although the chemical form of the released radioiodine cannot be stated unambiguously, the available evidence suggests that it was released in the form of cesium iodide. Most of the remaining 3% was found in the condensate collected from air cooling systems. The chemical form of this scrubbed iodine remains undefined

  6. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an assessment of the causes and consequences of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, which began on 11 March 2011. Caused by a huge tsunami that followed a massive earthquake, it was the worst accident at a nuclear power plant since the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. The report considers human, organizational and technical factors, and aims to provide an understanding of what happened, and why, so that the necessary lessons learned can be acted upon by governments, regulators and nuclear power plant operators throughout the world. Measures taken in response to the accident, both in Japan and internationally, are also examined. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident consists of a Report by the IAEA Director General and five technical volumes. It is the result of an extensive international collaborative effort involving five working groups with about 180 experts from 42 Member States with and without nuclear power programmes and several international bodies. It provides a description of the accident and its causes, evolution and consequences, based on the evaluation of data and information from a large number of sources available at the time of writing. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident will be of use to national authorities, international organizations, nuclear regulatory bodies, nuclear power plant operating organizations, designers of nuclear facilities and other experts in matters relating to nuclear power, as well as the wider public. The set contains six printed parts and five supplementary CD-ROMs. Contents: Report by the Director General; Technical Volume 1/5, Description and Context of the Accident; Technical Volume 2/5, Safety Assessment; Technical Volume 3/5, Emergency Preparedness and Response; Technical Volume 4/5, Radiological Consequences; Technical Volume 5/5, Post-accident Recovery; Annexes. The Report by the Director General is also available separately in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Japanese

  7. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting from the disintegration of the former Soviet Union. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has given particular attention to the accident. Estimates of average doses in separate regions of countries and for the population of the northern hemisphere as a whole were presented in Annex D of the UNSCEAR 1988 Report. The experience gained in treating the immediate radiation injuries of workers and fire fighters involved in controlling the accident were also reviewed in the UNSCEAR 1988 Report (Annex G). The UNSCEAR Committee is currently involved in the final phase of preparation of a further assessment of the exposures and effects of the accident. During the last several years, considerable attention has been devoted to investigating possible associations between health effects in the populations and the exposure to radionuclides released and dispersed following the Chernobyl accident. Of particular note has been the occurrence of numerous thyroid cancers in children. The number of thyroid cancers in individuals exposed in childhood, particularly in the severely contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is considerably greater than expected based on previous knowledge. The high incidence and the short induction period have not been experienced in other populations, and other factors are most certainly influencing the risk. If the current trend continues, further thyroid cancers can be expected to occur, especially in those exposed at young ages. The most recent findings indicate that the thyroid cancer risk for those older than 10 years of age at the time of the accident is leveling off, while the increase continues for those younger than 4-5 years in 1986. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer after childhood exposure, there is no evidence of a major public health impact 14 years after the Chernobyl accident. No increases in overall cancer incidence or mortality have been observed that could be attributed to ionizing radiation. Risk of leukaemia, one of the major concerns after radiation exposure, do

  8. A behavioral comparison between motorcyclists and a matched group of non-motorcycling car drivers: factors influencing accident risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswill, Mark S; Helman, Shaun

    2003-07-01

    Motorcyclists and a matched group of non-motorcycling car drivers were assessed on behavioral measures known to relate to accident involvement. Using a range of laboratory measures, we found that motorcyclists chose faster speeds than the car drivers, overtook more, and pulled into smaller gaps in traffic, though they did not travel any closer to the vehicle in front. The speed and following distance findings were replicated by two further studies involving unobtrusive roadside observation. We suggest that the increased risk-taking behavior of motorcyclists was only likely to account for a small proportion of the difference in accident risk between motorcyclists and car drivers. A second group of motorcyclists was asked to complete the simulator tests as if driving a car. They did not differ from the non-motorcycling car drivers on the risk-taking measures but were better at hazard perception. There were also no differences for sensation seeking, mild social deviance, and attitudes to riding/driving, indicating that the risk-taking tendencies of motorcyclists did not transfer beyond motorcycling, while their hazard perception skill did. PMID:12729822

  9. An Investigation of Institutional Enhancement Factors on Student College Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaokoro, Amaechi Nkemakolem

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the importance of students' hard work and institutional factors--technology, advising, mentoring, and tutoring on student's academic performance. It is important for institutions to emphasize both students' hard work and effective institutional factors that will have positive impact on student success.

  10. Prospective study of intellectual development, mental and behavioral disorders in children in uteroexposed to radioecological and psychosocial factors associated with the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospective study of the parameters characterizing the mental status of children in utero exposed to radioecological factors associated with the Chernobyl accident. 197 children born from May 1986 to February 1987 whose mothers lived in the period of pregnancy at contaminated territory were examined. Control group was formed by random sampling. It is shown that the children of the group under study aged 6-7 years were characterized by relative predominance of cases with border-line level of intellectual functioning (13.2 % vs. 9.2 % in the control group). By 10-12 years this difference practically smoothed over. Average group intellectual parameters of children aged 6-7 and 10-12 years in the main group were similar and did not depend on pregnancy term at the moment of exposure. Unfavorable physiological and social-demographic factors were mainly responsible for the intellectual development and emotional disordered in prenatally exposed children

  11. [Investigation of some virulence factors in Trichosporon spp. strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Feyza; Ku?timur, Semra

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of fungal infections have increased recently in parallel to prolonged survival of patients with chronical infections, common use of the broad-spectrum antibiotics and cytotoxic drugs and surgical interventions. Fungi such as Trichosporon, Fusarium and Geotrichum that were previously evaluated as contaminant/colonization, become important causes of morbidity and mortality especially in neutropenic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of virulence factors such as acid proteinase, phospholipase, esterase, coagulase and hemolytic activity among Trichosporon species. A total of 40 Trichosporon strains, of them 24 (60%) were T.asahii, 6 (15%) were T.inkin and 10 (25%) were the other species (one of each of T.aquatile, T.asteroides, T.coremiiforme, T.cutaneum, T.dermatis, T.faecale, T.japonicum, T.montevideense, T.mucoides, T.ovoides) were included in the study. Identification of the isolates was performed according to microscopic morphology (blastospores, arthrospores, pseudohyphae and true hyphae) on corn meal agar media, and carbohydrate assimilation patterns (API ID32C; bioMérieux, France). Secretory acid proteinase, phospholipase and esterase activities of the strains were evaluated by 1% bovine serum albumin containing agar, by egg yolk containing solid medium, and by Tween 80 containing solid medium, respectively. Hemolytic activity of the isolates were evaluated by 5-10% sheep blood Sabouraud dextrose agar. Coagulase enzyme activity was determined by using human and rabbit plasma. In our study, all of the 40 Trichosporon spp. strains were found negative in terms of acid proteinase and phospholipase enzyme activity, however all were positive for esterase enzyme activity. Hemolytic enzyme activity were identified in a total of 15 (37.5%) strains, being "+++" in three strains (2 T.asahii, 1 T.japonicum), and "++" in 12 isolates (9 T.asahii, 1 T.inkin, 1 T.asteroides, 1 T.mentevideense). Although 11 of those 15 positive strains were T.asahii, there was no statistical difference between the species in terms of hemolytic enzyme activity (p> 0.05). Coagulase enzyme activity was detected in 5% (2/40; 1 T.asahii, 1 T.inkin) of the strains with human plasma and in 27.5% (11/40; 9 T.asahii, 1 T.inkin, 1 T.montevideense) with rabbit plasma. In conclusion, our data indicated that esterase, coagulase and hemolytic activities detected in Trichosporon spp. might play role in the pathogenesis of Trichosporon infections, however, further large-scaled clinical and mycological studies are needed to prove this relation. PMID:25492658

  12. Transfer factors and effective half-lives of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in different environmental sample types obtained from Northern Finland: case Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivurova, Matias; Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kallio, Antti

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima NPP accident caused a small but detectable cesium fallout in northern Finland, of the order of 1 Bq/m(2). This fallout transferred further to soil, water, flora and fauna. By using modern HPGe detector systems traces of (134)Cs from the Fukushima fallout were observed in various samples of biota. In northern Finland different types of environmental samples such as reindeer meat, berries, fish, lichens and wolf were collected during 2011-2013. The observed (134)Cs concentrations varied from 0.1 Bq/kg to a few Bq/kg. By using the known (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio observed in Fukushima fallout the increase of the Fukushima accident to the (137)Cs concentrations was found to vary from 0.06 % to 6.9 % depending on the sample type. The aggregated transfer factors (Tag) and effective half-lives (Teff) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also determined and then compared with known values found from earlier studies which are calculated based on the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Generally, the Tag and Teff values determined in this study were found to agree with the values found in the earlier studies. The Teff values were sample-type specific and were found to vary from 0.91 to 2.1 years for (134)Cs and the estimates for (137)Cs ranged between 1.6 and 19 years. Interestingly, the ground lichens had the longest Teff whereas the beard lichen had the shortest. In fauna, highest Tag values were determined for wolf meat ranging between 1.0 and 2.2 m(2)/kg. In flora, the highest Tag values were determined for beard lichens, ranging from 1.9 m(2)/kg to 3.5 m(2)/kg. PMID:25935505

  13. An investigation on different factors influencing perceived organizational change

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Saleh Ardestani; Kaveh Teymournezhad; Sajad Ahmadvand

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the impacts of different factors influencing on perceived organization change in municipality organization in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of five factors including partnership, communication, training, believe in change and organization commitment and the other for organizational change in Likert scale. The study has been implemented among 147 regular employees of municipality organization in city of Tehran...

  14. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

    OpenAIRE

    E. Mohammad-pajooh; K. Ab. Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedn...

  15. An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Houshmand Neghabi; Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee

    2013-01-01

    Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials). We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique ...

  16. Measures against nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  17. Investigating Factors Affecting Group Processes in Virtual Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Sunil; Thompson, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread popularity of distance learning, there is a need to investigate elements of online courses that continue to pose significant challenges for educators. One of the challenges relates to creating and managing group projects. This study investigated business students' perceptions of group work in online classes. The constructs…

  18. Fundamentals of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses how radiation accidents are matters of great concern not only to the individual involved but the media and public as well. This concern is a function of ignorance about radiation effects and mechanisms, as well as a general perception of the mysterious nature of radioactivity. It is often difficult to get people to separate in their own minds the differences between the relatively miniscule risks of a chest X-ray from those of full-scale nuclear war. The result of all of these factors makes it extremely important that a potential or real radiation accident be carefully, methodically, and scientifically assessed

  19. Optimization of health protection of the public following a major nuclear accident: Interaction between radiation protection and social and psychological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National and international guidance on the optimization of countermeasures to reduce doses in the post-release phase of an accident rightly emphasizes the importance and relevance of psychological, social, and economic factors to this process (e.g., NRPB 1990; ICRP 1991: CEC 1993; IAEA 1994). However, whilst economic factors are, at least partially, taken into account in developing the advice, explicit guidance is not provided on how psychological and social factors should be included in the optimization. Instead it is suggested that this is a matter for those with the appropriate competence and those with responsibility for making the final decisions. This approach implicitly assumes that the optimization of psychological and social factors, and that the results of the two procedures can then be combined to arrive at an optimum course of action. We recognize that formal optimization only forms one input to the process of making decisions on countermeasures and that it is important that psychological and social factors, as well as any other factors, are not open-quotes double-counted.close quotes i.e., accounted for within international advice and then again at the time of the decision. It is our view that the optimization of radiation protection and economic factors, and certain psychological and social factors, should not be carried out independently. Research conducted by our respective organization indicates a number of areas in which the optimization of radiation protection and economic factors requires an understanding of key psychological and social processes. These areas fall into three groups; the need to ensure that countermeasures are successfully implemented, the need to achieve a net benefit for overall health, and the need to ensure a smooth transition back to normal living. 10 refs

  20. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Nosouzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was also computed and it was about 0.66, which is above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.5. The study uses Scree plot to determine important factors and there are eight factors including environmental issues, export supportive issues, potentials for export, business plan, export plan, structural barriers, competition capability and strategy.

  1. An empirical investigation on factors influencing sales force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In today's competitive business environment, consumers are exposed to make their choice from different alternatives. Customer loyalty has never been an easy task and many business owners may lose their customer as soon as new products appear on the market. This paper presents a study to find important factors influencing on sales force using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire and distributed among 180 customers of a well-known food chain named Shahrvand in different regions in city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 156 filled ones. The questionnaire consists of 68 questions Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.847, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of our survey indicate that five major factors including.

  2. Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management

  3. Use of PSA and severe accident assessment results for the accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, S. H.; Kim, H. G.; Jang, H. S.; Moon, S. K.; Park, J. U. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    The objectives for this study are to investigate the basic principle or methodology which is applicable to accident management, by using the results of PSA and severe accident research, and also facilitate the preparation of accidents management program in the future. This study was performed as follows: derivation of measures for core damage prevention, derivation of measures for accident mitigation, application of computerized tool to assess severe accident management.

  4. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  5. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include…

  6. Investigating Factors that Influence Item Performance on ACS Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jacob; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    General chemistry tests from the Examinations Institute of the Division of Chemical Education of the American Chemical Society have been analyzed to identify factors that may influence how individual test items perform. In this paper, issues of item order (position within a set of items that comprise a test) and answer order (position of correct…

  7. German aircraft accident statistics, 1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzmann, Ludwig

    1932-01-01

    The investigation of all serious accidents, involving technical defects in the airplane or engine, is undertaken by the D.V.L. in conjunction with the imperial traffic minister and other interested parties. All accidents not clearly explained in the reports are subsequently cleared up.

  8. Preventing accidents at intake towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

  9. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to this issue, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for the latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. In this report the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2011 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2012 database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2012 revised database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 shows the followings. The trend of the 2012 database changes little as compared to the last year's report. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The number of commercial aircraft accidents is 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 58 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 5 for large bladed aircraft and 99 for small bladed aircraft. The relevant accidents for evaluating probability of aircraft crash are considered to be 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 35 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 1 for large bladed aircraft and 25 for small bladed aircraft. (2) The data of SDF aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total number of accidents is 42 comprised of 21 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 4 for small fixed-wing aircraft and 17 for bladed aircraft. The 23 accidents of the total fell into land. (3) The data of US aircraft accidents is based on newspapers and aircraft magazines. The total number of accidents is 16 comprised of 13 for fixed-wing aircraft and 3 for bladed aircraft. The 6 accidents of the total fell into land. (4) The instrument flight information on commercial aircrafts is based on 'Air transport statics' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The total number of takeoffs and landings is 30,685,564 and the total flight distance is 9,499,283,168 km. (author)

  10. Safety culture and the accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to the accident at Three Mile Island, little attention was being paid to the human role in the safe operation of civilian nuclear power plants. The investigation of the TMI accident showed that its root causes were primarily human-related. The Kemeny Report on the TMI accident does not use the term 'safety culture'; however, it fully identifies all relevant aspects of safety culture. It was only after the accident at Chernobyl that the term 'safety culture' came into widespread use. However, it should be noted that, during the years after TMI and before Chernobyl, already major changes had been instituted concerning human factors and human reliability in the civilian nuclear energy programs of many countries. Greater credit should be given to the remarkable insights developed by the Kemeny Commission as contained in the Kemeny Report. (author)

  11. The weakening of cell protection as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident recovery factors affect on liquidator's organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The markers of oxidative stress as well as intracellular antioxidants (enzymatic and non- enzymatic) were studied in 100 Chernobyl accident recovery workers(liquidators). Hormone screening tests were carried out in 250 liquidators. All persons (mean age - 35 years) have got external irradiation dose from 2 to 30 cGr. Control group was selected from persons of same age having not participated in accident liquidation. The significant antioxidant imbalance was found. ROS inactivating enzymes deficiency was revealed in neutrofils, lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM). For instance, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity in liquidator's AM was 2,8±0,3 U/mg protein (4,1-±1,8 U/mg protein in controls, P<0,05). Catalase activity was also lower than in control group (P<0,05). The significant disorder of the thiol-disulfide turnover was revealed: depression of reduced glutathione by 1,71-±0,46 μmol/l (control: 3,15±-0,34 μtmol/l, P<0,05). The oxidative stress destructive action realized in the conditions of excessive production of ROS, while the antioxidant potential was diminished(P<0,05). The oxidative destruction of lipids and proteins was found to be induced by free radical action. TBARS level in alveolar macrophages of liquidators was more than three times higher compared to controls. Enhanced levels of protein carbonyl groups were found as well. The decrease of TT3 in liquidators was detected most frequently. In 19% liquidators examined, TT3 was below the reference value (0,8 ng/ml). The TT3 level was registered at the low limit of the reference range (0,8 ng/ml) in 18% of liquidators. ''Low T3'' syndrome may be considered as a cell protection weakening. All the cellular protective mechanisms take part in processes of DNA synthesis and repair, transcription and translation, cell respiration and metabolism. Significant impairment of the cellular protective systems in liquidators could be regarded as a base of persistent ''chromosomal pathology'' and imbalance of metabolism complicated by the various diseases including oncology. (author)

  12. Investigation of high duty factor ISR RFQ-1000

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Y R; Fang, J X; Gao, S L; Guo, J F; Guo, Z Y; Li, D S; Li, W G; Pan, O J; Ren, X T; Wu, Y; Yan, X Q; Yu Jin Xiang; Yu, M L; Ratzinger, U; Deitinghoff, H; Klein, H; Schempp, A

    2003-01-01

    Two Integral Split Ring (ISR) RFQs with high duty factor of 16.7% have been designed for the application of heavy ion implantation and built in the past several years at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics (IHIP) in Peking University. Two kinds of PIG ion sources with permanent magnets and LEBT were installed and optimized for the injection into these two RFQs. The positive O**+ and negative O**- ions were extracted and accelerated separately as well as simultaneously. The output macro pulse O**- beam current reached 660muA at a transmission efficiency of more than 82%. The N**+ beam was also accelerated with similar transmission efficiency, but the output current intensity for positive ions were lower than the negative ions because of the extracted current limitation of ion sources. The improvements, especially for high duty factor and experimental results with the 1MeV ISR RFQ will be presented in this paper.

  13. Investigating Role of Abiotic Factors on Spinosad Dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Totan; Mukherjee, Irani

    2016-01-01

    The effect of abiotic factors on dissipation of spinosad (soil moisture regimes, pH, and light) was studied. Spinosad residues were estimated using high performance liquid chromatography fitted with a UV detector. Under laboratory conditions, half-lives of spinosad were 9.0 and 7.7 days for air dried and field capacity soils, respectively. Percent dissipation of spinosad after 30 days was 47.02, 22.35, 62.5, 68.23 and 76.47 in solution with an aqueous pH of 10.85, 9.15, 6.97, 3.90 and 2.04, respectively. The half-life of spinosad in UV and sunlight was only 1.6 and 5.2 h, respectively. Light, especially the UV component, is an important factor for degradation of spinosad compared to other abiotic conditions. PMID:26350899

  14. INVESTIGATING FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ LEARNING IN A TEAM TEACHING SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Team teaching factors, including mission clarity, affiliation, innovativeness, and fairness, are examined to determine how they influence student learning in a team-taught course. The study involved 184 college students enrolled in an Introduction to Computers course delivered in a team-taught format in a large university located in the United States. The collaborative teaching design followed a traditional team teaching approach with an instructor team teaching the same course collaboratively. Students enrolled in the team-taught course filled out an online survey targeted at identifying key factors that influence student-based outcomes (satisfaction and competency in the course. Results showed that instructor team mission clarity, affiliation, and fairness are significantly related to students’ satisfaction while instructor team mission clarity and fairness are significantly related to students’ competency.

  15. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda Nosouzi; Naser Azad; Abdollah Naami

    2013-01-01

    During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was als...

  16. INVESTIGATING FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ LEARNING IN A TEAM TEACHING SETTING

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda; Yajiong

    2015-01-01

    Team teaching factors, including mission clarity, affiliation, innovativeness, and fairness, are examined to determine how they influence student learning in a team-taught course. The study involved 184 college students enrolled in an Introduction to Computers course delivered in a team-taught format in a large university located in the United States. The collaborative teaching design followed a traditional team teaching approach with an instructor team teaching the same course collaborativel...

  17. Factores Asociados a Accidentes, Enfermedades y Ausentismo Laboral: Análisis de una Cohorte de Trabajadores Formales en Chile / Factors Associated with Accidents, Illness and Absenteeism: Analysis of a Cohort of Formal Workers in Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena, Hoffmeister; Carolina, Vidal; Clelia, Vallebuona; Nelly, Ferrer; Pamela, Vásquez; Gabriela, Núñez.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estimar la asociación entre factores de riesgo y la ocurrencia de enfermedades, accidentes y ausentismo laboral en trabajadores formales. Método: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva usando dos fuentes de información: registro de evaluaciones ocupacionales preventivas y de episodios de acciden [...] tes y enfermedades laborales (2009-2012). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de variables de salud y de factores de riesgo. Regresiones logísticas para la ocurrencia de enfermedades y accidentes. Se usó una regresión Poisson-cero-inflado para el ausentismo laboral. Resultados: los > 60 años tienen un exceso de riesgo de enfermedad laboral (OR-ajustada 19,18 respecto a 60 años (IRR 2,69), trabajar en actividades inmobiliarias (IRR 2,37) y en explotación de minas (IRR 2,38), tienen una probabilidad mayor de más días de ausentismo. Conclusiones: Factores no modificables (sexo y edad), junto con factores modificables, como el sedentarismo y el estado nutricional, contribuyen a eventos laborales no deseados. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the association among lifestyle-related risk factors and the occurrence of occupational diseases, accidents and absenteeism in a cohort of formal workers. Method: A retrospective cohort study was carried out by using two information sources: a registry of preventive occupatio [...] nal evaluations and another registry of episodes of occupational accidents and diseases (2009-2012). A descriptive analysis was performed of health variables and risk factors. Logistic regressions were used to calculate the likelihood of occupational accidents and diseases and a zero-inflated Poisson regression was used to model occupational absenteeism. Results: A total of 47.221 workers were included, of which 86,3% were men. The mean follow-up was 1,96 years. Workers aged >60 years had an excess risk of occupational diseases, with an OR of 19.18 compared with workers aged 60 years (IRR 2,69), and working in the property sector (IRR 2,37) and in mining (IRR 2,38) conferred a higher probability of absenteeism. Conclusions: Unmodifiable factors (age and sex), as well as modifiable factors, such as sedentariness and nutritional status, contribute to undesired occupational events.

  18. The Epidemiological Investigation on the Risk Factors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jianjun; Lin, Yong; Guo, Zhinan; Niu, Mu; Su, Chenghao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranked the fifth in male and ninth in the female counterparts, and 50% of incidence HCC cases were occurred in China with high hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence. HCC has seriously compromised the health status of general population in China. A case–control study of 314 HCC cases and 346 controls was conducted in Xiamen, which is an epidemic area in China for both hepatitis B infection and HCC. Face-to-face interview was conducted to gather information on demographic characteristics as well as exposure of environmental factors. Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to determine the status of serological markers of HBV infection. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using unconditional logistic regression. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate the potential interactions of variables or confounders. As expected, HBV and alcohol intake still are the major risk factors of HCC. Liver disease history and passive smoking are also associated with elevated HCC risk. Indoor air pollution and pesticide exposure have newly identified as risk factors of HCC. Fruit and tea intake can significantly lower the HCC risk. The application of HBV vaccine and reduction on alcohol intake should be further promoted in high-risk population. Fruit and tea can be served as chemoprevention in daily life due to their high accessibility. PMID:26871825

  19. INVESTIGATING THE FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE BLOG ATTITUDE SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra SHAHSAVAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the wide application of advanced technology in education, many attitude scales have been developed to evaluate learners’ attitudes toward educational tools. However, with the rapid development of emerging technologies, using blogs as one of the Web 2.0 tools is still in its infancy and few blog attitude scales have been developed yet. In view of this need, a lot of researchers like to design a new scale based on their conceptual and theoretical framework of their own study rather than using available scales. The present study reports the design and development of a blog attitude scale (BAS. The researchers developed a pool of items to capture the complexity of the blog attitude trait, selected 29 items in the content analysis, and assigned the scale comprising 29 items to 216 undergraduate students to explore the underlying structure of the BAS. In exploratory factor analysis, three factors were discovered: blog anxiety, blog desirability, and blog self-efficacy; 14 items were excluded. The extracted items were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis which lent further support to the BAS underpinning structure.

  20. Investigation of factors responsible for cell line cytoplasmic expression differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Jonathan D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work has described a novel cytoplasmic expression system that results in a 20-fold increase in the levels of gene expression over a standard CMV-based nuclear expression system, as compared with a 2–3 fold increase seen with previous similar systems. While this increase was seen with BHK and Neuro-2a cells, further studies revealed that some cell lines, such as COS-7, demonstrated relatively poor levels of cytoplasmic expression. The objective of this study was to determine what factors were responsible for the different expression levels between BHK (a high expressing cell line and COS-7 (a low expressing cell line. Results The main findings of this work are that the individual elements of the cytoplasmic expression system (such as the T7 RNAP gene and Internal Ribosome Entry Sequence are functioning similarly in both cell types. Both cell types were found to have the same amount of cytosolic nuclease activity, and that the cells appeared to have differences in the intra-cellular processing of DNA -cationic lipid complexes. Conclusion After exploring many factors, it was found that differences in the intra-cellular processing of the DNA-cationic lipid complex was the most probable factor responsible for the difference in cytoplasmic gene expression.

  1. Determination of field related transfer factors for Cs-137 and Sr-90, from the fallout of the reactor accident in Chernobyl (USSR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artner, Christoph; Gerzabek, Martin H.; Horak, Othmar; Mueck, Konrad

    1991-05-01

    The plant ground transfer factor (TF) is defined. The resulting activity of the ground after radionuclide distribution causes a measurable absorption of both isotopes, Cs-137 and Sr-90, by the plants and allows to obtain TF in field conditions. Two hundred specimens of various plants were chosen. The corresponding ground specimens were taken from a zero to twenty centimeters ground layer. A survey of Cs-137 TF of various plants is given. The TF's for Sr-90 are, at least, an order of magnitude higher than those for Cs-137. In most cases, the correlation between Cs-137 TF and the measured ground activity concentration is negative. The TF's obtained for Cs-137 and Sr-90 are, in general, comparable with data which were determined long before the reactor accident by various tests with artificially contaminated grounds.

  2. The Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important that the causes of this accident (and other, similar accidents but with less dramatic consequences) are completely understood and that the role of every contributing factor is exactly determined in order to discuss modifications and to judge their relative importance and schedule in an objective way. If the role of the various factors contributing to an accident is not fully understood, there will always be a 'mythology' of prejudiced and highly simplified assumptions. The experience of failure analysis shows that the causes first assumed are hardly ever the right ones, and that in some major and complex cases even the second or third generation of assumed causes is wrong. (orig.)

  3. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book examines the ways in which complex technological systems fail and argues that people are intrinsically unable to build, manage and maintain modern technologies. Accidents in several different types of activities are examined in detail as support for this conclusion. (orig./HSCH)

  4. An Investigation of Affecting Factors on Civilians\\\\\\' Social Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available JAbstract:Trust is one of the main variables of social capital which is studied in the framework of social order. Trustaspects get changed according to social change. Nowadays with change in society, aspects and circle of trustare no longer confined to family members and local communities. The level of social trust is defined inrelation to different organizations, foundations and occupations. Accordingly in order to gain trust there existsome requirements that organizations have to meet. Among these requirements are honesty, efficiency andmoving towards realizing public aims. The present paper is done on the basis of surveys carried out in thefield of social trust in Tehran, Qazvin, and Qom. Factor analysis of items shows that items of interpersonaltrust are gathered under one factor and have a high correlation. As a second factor items related to trustinggroups, social occupations and media have a high correlation. Therefore interpersonal trust can be termed"trusting familiar groups" and the other group can be termed "trusting unfamiliar groups". The average levelof trust on the first group is by far higher than the second group.Regards to ,regrestion result 10 influence independent variation on dependent variation ,(social trustThe variation of appropriate located general molarity with affected coefficient 0/25 has been the mostinfluence on social trust and then the variation of social security feeling with 0/24 is located second rankingthe variations of social solidarity with 0/18 social satisfaction 0/16,religious loyality ,altruism mentality with0/12,social acceptability with 0/08 are located next ranking .But the result of studying is shown ,the variation of social and economic base ,social alienation anddisappointment feeling had been inverted coefficient effect to the variation of social trust .Namely,with increasing very unit of recently 3variation responders , rang of social trust had been reduced inamount of 0/05.

  5. CAMS: Computerized Accident Management Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has initiated a new research programme on computerised accident management support, the so-called CAMS project (CAMS = Computerized Accident Management Support). This work will investigate the possibilities for developing systems which provide more extensive support to the control room staff and technical support centre than the existing SPDS (Safety Parameter Display System) type of systems. The CAMS project will utilize available simulator codes and the capabilities of computerized tools to assist the plant staff during the various accident stages including: identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident, and planning accident mitigation strategies. This research programme aims at establishing a prototype system which can be used for experimental testing of the concept and serve as a tool for training and education in accident management. The CAMS prototype should provide support to the staff when the plant is in a normal state, in a disturbance sate, and in an accident state. Even though better support in an accident state is the main goal of the project, it is felt to be important that the staff is familiar with the use of the system during normal operation, when they utilize the system during transients

  6. Experimental investigations in the PKL test facility on thermal hydraulic system behavior of PWR under accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short overview on AREVA's thermal hydraulic platform, this presentation focused on the PKL project giving an survey of the different test programs and topics of investigation with emphasis on the current test program OECD-PKL 3. The presentation also includes a short description of the test facility, some typical results and findings derived from the PKL experiments will be exemplarily discussed in more detail

  7. Expert meeting with the Belgoprocess Inc. on the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. Search and investigation on cause elucidation and reoccurrence control for the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. A visiting report on abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate in detail on fire cause materials, test results of thermal analysis on waste liquids, and flow of affairs relating to the fire accident (15th December, 1981) of the Euro Bitum Plant (an asphalt solidification facility of the middle level wastes) settled at the Eurochemic reprocessing work in the Kingdom of Belgium, resemble to the present accident, 4 members of the Cause Elucidation Group and Mr. Kaneko, director of the Paris Office of PNC visited to Belgium to hold a meeting with experts of the Belgoprocess Inc. for 4 days. In this meeting, after exchanging mutual detail informations on accident occurred at the Euro Bitum Plant and fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility, some discussions on cause supposition of the present accident. For cause of the fire, mutual differences were found. As a state at occurring fires was much resemble, their followed states seemed to be extremely different on responses of operators to fire-extinguishing action, filter exchanging and so forth. As finishing to recover the plant after 1 month passed from the accident to restart its operation, the Belgoprocess, Inc. has conducted some improvements of the facility such as sufficiency of fire extinguishing apparatus, addition and improvements of fire detecting means, direct measurement of solid temperature and so on, as well as reinforcement of thermal analysis procedure and renewal to new apparatus. Although no special supposition on cause of the fire at this meeting, a lot of items to learn such as operation system, responses after accident, and so forth were acquired. (G.K.)

  8. Expert meeting with the Belgoprocess Inc. on the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. Search and investigation on cause elucidation and reoccurrence control for the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. A visiting report on abroad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, Hideyuki; Fujita, Hideto; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Koyama, Tomozo

    1997-11-01

    In order to investigate in detail on fire cause materials, test results of thermal analysis on waste liquids, and flow of affairs relating to the fire accident (15th December, 1981) of the Euro Bitum Plant (an asphalt solidification facility of the middle level wastes) settled at the Eurochemic reprocessing work in the Kingdom of Belgium, resemble to the present accident, 4 members of the Cause Elucidation Group and Mr. Kaneko, director of the Paris Office of PNC visited to Belgium to hold a meeting with experts of the Belgoprocess Inc. for 4 days. In this meeting, after exchanging mutual detail informations on accident occurred at the Euro Bitum Plant and fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility, some discussions on cause supposition of the present accident. For cause of the fire, mutual differences were found. As a state at occurring fires was much resemble, their followed states seemed to be extremely different on responses of operators to fire-extinguishing action, filter exchanging and so forth. As finishing to recover the plant after 1 month passed from the accident to restart its operation, the Belgoprocess, Inc. has conducted some improvements of the facility such as sufficiency of fire extinguishing apparatus, addition and improvements of fire detecting means, direct measurement of solid temperature and so on, as well as reinforcement of thermal analysis procedure and renewal to new apparatus. Although no special supposition on cause of the fire at this meeting, a lot of items to learn such as operation system, responses after accident, and so forth were acquired. (G.K.)

  9. An Investigation of Work Culture and Social Factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Ahmadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research examines work culture and social factors influencing it among employees of Islamic Azad University, the largest private organization in Iran. First, it has been tried to determine a rate for work culture and then relationships between work culture and participatory management, organizational justice, job satisfaction, and demographic variables have been examined. Research method is cross-sectional survey; research population is all personnel of the Islamic Azad Universities in three provinces: Fars, Boushehr and Kohkiloye-Boyerahmad. Overall, 481 subjects were selected by means of simple random sampling. Measurement tool is questionnaire, which includes four scales. Construct validity was obtained through factor analysis; Reliability test was also performed by means of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Research findings indicate that work culture is on average among subjects. Also, there are significant relationships between work culture and participatory management, organizational justice, job satisfaction, age and years of employment. Using regression analysis, it appears that of all independent variables, job satisfaction and years of employment are strongest predictors of work culture. Taken together, they explain 18% of the variance of work culture.

  10. An investigation of factors influencing indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations in indoor radon concentrations and some influencing factors have been studied during a two-year period (1986-1987) in 16 almost identical single-family houses.The annual average radon concentration in the houses varied from about 50 to about 400 Bq/m3. Variations in soil characteristics and radon concentration in soil gas could not be directly related to the variations of the average indoor radon concentrations. Most of the houses showed a ''normal'' seasonal variation of the radon concentration with a maximum in the winter and minimum in the summer. A deviating seasonal variation was found in three of the houses. Hourly data obtained in one unoccupied house during a period of 2-1/2 months showed no or only weak correlations between the indoor radon concentration and meteorological factors. However, for most of the houses, the seasonal variation of the indoor radon concentration was well correlated with the average indoor-outdoor temperature difference on a 2-month basis. It was demonstrated that the radon concentration can be strongly reduced in the Risoe houses if a district-heating duct, which is connected to all the houses, is ventilated, so that a slightly lowered pressure is maintained in the duct. 5 taps., 24 ill. (author)

  11. An investigation on different factors influencing growth of banking deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Houshmand Neghabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Banking deposit is the primary source of contributing to economy and it is important to understand what factors influence such deposits. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find the relationship between banking deposit and other important factors such as capital market, money market, commodity market, foreign exchange rates such as US dollar and Euro exchange rates to local currency (Rials. We gather the data over the period of 2010-2012 and using ordinary least square technique study different hypotheses. All t-student values are statistically meaningful when the level of significance is ten percent and some of the parameters are even meaningful when the level of significance is five percent. The results indicate that the rate of bank deposit is negatively associated with commodity market growth rate (-.001995, US dollar exchange rate (-0.004167, banking industry growth rate (-0.278826 and moving average (-0.940418. In addition, dependent variable is positively associated with Euro exchange growth rate (0.005676.

  12. Factores psicoeducativos que determinan la propensión al accidente deportivo en escolares: diseño y validación de un cuestionario de evaluación / Psychoeducational factors that determine the propensity to school sports accidents: design and validation of an assessment questionnaire

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro A., Latorre-Román; José C., Cámara-Pérez; Antonio, Pantoja-Vallejo; Tomás, Izquierdo-Rus.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio ha sido el diseño y validación de una escala de propensión al accidente deportivo en escolares. La muestra ha estado formada por 254 niños (M = 14.20, DT = 1.3). Las propiedades psicométricas de la escala se obtuvieron mediante un proceso de validez de contenido y un aná [...] lisis factorial de los componentes principales. Como resultados obtuvimos un cuestionario de 27 ítems formado por cinco factores y ajustado a los tópicos de validez y fiabilidad científica. Se encontraron diferencias en todos los factores de la escala entre niños y niñas y sólo en el factor búsqueda de sensaciones al considerar la edad de los sujetos. Como conclusión, esta escala es un instrumento inédito que permite la organización de los recursos materiales y didácticos en el deporte de acuerdo a aspectos psicoeducativos relacionados con la propensión al accidente de los niños, lo que es esencial en la prevención de lesiones. Abstract in english The purpose of this study has been the design and validation of a propensity scale of sports injuries in schools. The sample for the study has been formed of 254 children (M = 14.20, DT = 1.3). Psychometric properties of the scale were obtained through a process of content validity and a factorial a [...] nalysis of main components. As a result, we obtained a questionnaire of 27 items consisting of 5 factors and adjusted to validity topics and scientific reliability. Significant differences were found in all factors of the scale in relation to sex, whilst significant differences were only observed in relation to the sensation seeking factor when considering the age of the subjects. This scale is an essential tool for preventing accidents and injuries in school sport by allowing the identification of sports accident-prone students.

  13. Investigating different factors influencing women’s economic activities

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Ghasemi

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies on how to share women’s involvement in economic activities and what sectors of industries could contribute more to their job involvement. This paper presents an empirical investigation to learn how economic growth in service industry, agricultural industry as well as other industries could contribute on economic growth. The study uses vector error correction to study the relationship between value added and women’s job opportunities in Iran over the period 1951-2003. In...

  14. Experimental investigation of the focusing effect of the metallic layer heat transfer in a severe accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focusing effect of the metallic layer was investigated experimentally for Rayleigh numbers ranging 8.49×107?5.49×109 and aspect ratios 0.135?0.540 respectively. The height of the side wall was varied. High Rayleigh numbers were achieved using mass transfer experiments based on the heat and mass transfer analogy. Piecewise electrodes are adopted to measure the local average mass transfer. An electrical resistance was attached to the top wall so as to mimic top hotter wall condition. The measured results and existing heat transfer correlations were in good agreements. As the height reduces, the focusing effect becomes severe, especially at the corner near the bottom. (author)

  15. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    OpenAIRE

    Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration f...

  16. The management of accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ward

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This author’s experiences in investigating well over a hundred accident occurrences has led to questioning how such events can be managed - - - while immediately recognising that the idea of managing accidents is an oxymoron, we don’t want to manage them, we don’t want not to manage them, what we desire is not to have to manage not-them, that is, manage matters so they don’t happen and then we don’t have to manage the consequences.Design/methodology/approach: The research will begin by defining some common classes of accidents in manufacturing industry, with examples taken from cases investigated, and by working backwards (too late, of course show how those involved could have managed these sample events so they didn’t happen, finishing with the question whether any of that can be applied to other situations.Findings: As shown that the management actions needed to prevent accidents are control of design and application of technology, and control and integration of people.Research limitations/implications: This paper has shown in some of the examples provided, management actions have been know to lead to accidents being committed by others, lower in the organization.Originality/value: Today’s management activities involve, generally, the use of technology in many forms, varying from simple tools (such as knives to the use of heavy equipment, electric power, and explosives. Against these we commit, in control of those items, the comparatively frail human mind and body, which, again generally, does succeed in controlling these resources, with (another generality by appropriate management. However, sometimes the control slips and an accident occurs.

  17. A method for modeling and analysis of directed weighted accident causation network (DWACN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Xu, Weixiang; Guo, Xin; Ding, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Using complex network theory to analyze accidents is effective to understand the causes of accidents in complex systems. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to establish directed weighted accident causation network (DWACN) for the Rail Accident Investigation Branch (RAIB) in the UK, which is based on complex network and using event chains of accidents. DWACN is composed of 109 nodes which denote causal factors and 260 directed weighted edges which represent complex interrelationships among factors. The statistical properties of directed weighted complex network are applied to reveal the critical factors, the key event chains and the important classes in DWACN. Analysis results demonstrate that DWACN has characteristics of small-world networks with short average path length and high weighted clustering coefficient, and display the properties of scale-free networks captured by that the cumulative degree distribution follows an exponential function. This modeling and analysis method can assist us to discover the latent rules of accidents and feature of faults propagation to reduce accidents. This paper is further development on the research of accident analysis methods using complex network.

  18. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis events and accidents at NPPs, and what additional measures should be considered as an accident progresses to the severe accident stage. Insights are provided on the experiences and practices existing or being proposed in the NEA member states, as well as new findings from post-Fukushima studies. Emphasis is placed on identifying commendable practices that support enhanced and integrated on-site accident management response and decision-making by NPP operators. The report provides information (including commendable practices) useful for regulatory authorities to consider as they implement enhancements to their regulatory framework in the area of integrated accident management building on the lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The report's insights also should be useful to regulatory authorities, operating organisations and others in the nuclear safety community for addressing accident management issues such as procedures and guidelines, equipment, infrastructure and instrumentation, and human and organisational resources. Factors such as accidents involving spent fuel pools, multi-unit aspects of accident management, the interface between onsite and off-site organisations and resources, and degradation of the surrounding infrastructure are also discussed. (authors)

  19. The accident of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with details of the accident in three mile island and reinforcement and strengthen. It includes state before accident and leakage process, measurement of state of emergency, activity of investigation and advice, restoration about pollution, core and radiation waste, long-term measurement plan, strengthen for design and plan of state of emergency through problem on TMI-2 accident. It adds the appendix on Davis-Besse power plant accident and measurement in Maanshan -1, 2 nuclear power plant.

  20. Factores predisponentes y repercusión del accidente hipoglucémico en embarazadas diabéticas pre-gestacionales bajo tratamiento insulínico intensivo / Predisposing factors and impact of the hypoglycaemic accident on pregnant women with pregestational diabetes under intensive insulin treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amador, Lemay Valdés; Magdalena, Copello Veublen; Osvaldo, Santana Bacallao; Bertha, Rodríguez Anzardo; Jacinto, Lang Prieto; Blanca Elena, Herrera; Antonio, Santurio Gil.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analizar los factores que predisponen al accidente hipoglucémico durante el embarazo en diabéticas pre-gestacionales y su repercusión materna y perinatal. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron retrospectivamente 175 embarazadas diabéticas pre-gestacionales (73 B, 22 C, 66 D, 4 F, 1 H, 5 R, y 4 F-R) en el [...] período 2001-2006, todas estuvieron sometidas a tratamiento dietético e insulínico y este último aplicado según el método descrito por los profesores Valdés Amador y Márquez Guillén. Los resultados maternos y perinatales se analizan comparativamente entre las que sufrieron del accidente y las que no, para lo cual utilizamos el test X² de Fisher con un significado de p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to analyze the factors predisposing the hypoglycaemic accident during pregnancy in pregestational diabetic women and its maternal and perinatal repercussion. METHODS: 175 pregnant women affected by pregestational diabetes (73 B, 22 C, 66 D, 4 F, 1 H, 5 R, y 4 F-R) were retrospectively stu [...] died from 2001 to 2006. All of them were under dietetic and insulin treatment. The latter was applied by the method described by professors Valdés Amador and Márquez Guillén. The maternal and perinatal results were comparatively analyzed among those who suffered the accident and those who did not, for which we used Fisher's chi square test with a significance of p

  1. Long term reduction of Caesium and Strontium transfer factors from soil in foodstuff and dynamics of internal doses for a russian population after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model of the formation of the internal doses for the population living on the territory contaminated after the Chernobyl accident is described. Model parameters were obtained on the base of natural measurements results implemented in the different terms after the accident. The data on the caesium radionuclides content in the bodies of the inhabitants measurements were priority for the internal exposure dose estimation. In the case of the absence of such information, the results of the radionuclides content in the food products analysis or the data on the soil types prevailing in the areas of settlements, were used for the calculations. The data were obtained during 1986-2001 as a result of monitoring of contaminated areas in Russia that considerably differ in their soil and climate conditions, the levels of 137Cs and 90Sr surface activity on soil and types of countermeasures applied. A summary of effective half-lives (T1/2) of 137Cs and 90Sr aggregated transfer factors (Tag) from soil into agricultural and natural products observed after the Chernobyl fallout is given. The short term decrease of 137Cs Tag from soil into milk and beef during two months after fallout were observed - T1/2 varied from 13 d to 36 d in depend on the part of dry and wet fallout. The studies between autumn 1986 and 1991 suggest a decrease in the 137Cs Tag with T1/2/2 =1-2 years. From 5-6 years after deposition onwards T1/2/2 of 137Cs and 90Sr Tag's in the range of 8 to 21 years were observed. Effective half-lives of 137Cs Tag's for foods from semi-natural ecosystems (mushrooms, berries, game, fish) are longer (up to tens years). On at least for some natural products the decrease seems to be only to radioactive decay. Comparison of the data on the dynamics of 137Cs content in agricultural and natural food products indicates that the contribution of the latter in the internal dose of population grows with each year after fallout, and can reach in the remote period up to 70 %. The influence of the actually applied measures for radiation protection of the population living in different zones of radioactively contaminated territories was taken into account. The results of the internal exposure doses estimations for the population in the different terms after the accident in condition of the countermeasures absence are given for a comparison. On the most contaminated territories these doses could exceeded actual in 5-7 times

  2. Investigation of Framingham Risk Factors in Turkish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda ?anl? Ökmen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine 10-year risk for development of cardiovascular diseases usingFramingham risk scoring as a tool for the estimationof coronary risk and renew the blood lipid levels.Materials and methods: Samples from fasting 3169healthy donors declaring as having no cardiovasculardisease and diabetes (1800 women, mean age 46.8±9.2years and 1369 men, mean age 46.03±8.4 years weretested and scored according to risk factors in both genders.Results: When average values were considered, totalcholesterol level was higher (204±42 mg/dL accordingto reactive insert reference values. High total kolesteroland low HDL-C levels were seen in 20% and 19.5% ofmen and 32.6% and 1.1% of women, respectively. Thenumber of participants having systolic blood pressure?130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure ? 85 mmHgwere 775 (24.5% and the distribution of those valueswas 10.6 % in men and 13.9% in women. The mean 10-year cardiovascular disease risks were 9.4 % in men and4.6% in women among 3169 participants.Conclusion: A 10-year risk of coronary disease, in Turkishmales was 2-fold higher than in Turkish females. Useof Framingham study in clinical assessments maintains tobe a valid method in preventive approaches for developmentof cardiovascular diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(1: 42-49

  3. Transient thermal hydraulic analysis of the IAEA 10 MW MTR reactor during Loss of Flow Accident to investigate the flow inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Transient analyses of a slow and fast LOFA were investigated. • A reactor kinetic and thermal hydraulic coupled model was developed. • Based on force balance, the flow rate during flow inversion was determined. • Flow inversion in a hot channel occurred earlier than in an average channel. • Two temperature peaks were observed during both slow and fast LOFA. - Abstract: Transient analyses of the IAEA 10 MW MTR reactor are investigated during a fast and slow Loss of Flow Accident (LOFA) with a neutron kinetic and thermal hydraulic coupling model. A spatial-dependent thermal hydraulic technique is adopted for analyzing the local thermal hydraulic parameters and hotspot location during a flow inversion. The flow rate through the channel is determined in terms of a balance between driving and preventing forces. Friction and buoyancy forces act as resistance of the flow before a flow inversion while buoyancy force becomes the driving force after a flow inversion. By taking into account the buoyancy effect to determine the flow rate, the difference in the flow inversion time between hot and average channels is investigated: a flow inversion occurs earlier in the hot channel than in an average channel. Furthermore, the movement of the hotspot location before and after a flow inversion is investigated for a slow and fast LOFA. During a flow inversion, two temperature peaks are observed: (1) the first temperature peak is at the initiation of the LOFA, and (2) the second temperature peak is when a flow inversion occurs. The maximum temperature of the cladding is found at the second temperature peak for both LOFA analyses, and is lower than the saturation temperature

  4. Factores de riesgo asociados a los accidentes de trabajo en la industria de la construcción del Valle de México / Risk Factors Associated with Work-Related Accidents in the Construction Industry in the Valley of Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, Sarmiento-Salinas; Pablo, López-Rojas; Irma Araceli, Marín-Cotoñieto; Arturo, Godínez-Rocha; Luis, Haro-García; Santiago, Salinas-Tovar.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la prevalencia de accidentabilidad en la industria de la construcción, factores asociados e impacto potencial en trabajadores afiliados al Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) en el Valle de México. Material y métodos: casos y controles retrospectivo de casos prevalentes. [...] Casos: 385 trabajadores de la industria de la construcción que sufrieron y les fue dictaminado accidente de trabajo en el año de 2001. Controles: 385 trabajadores activos de la industria de la construcción sin antecedente de accidente de trabajo, pareados por sexo, puesto de trabajo, y centro de trabajo. En uno y otro grupos se exploraron características demográficas y laborales que incluyó la capacitación en el trabajo. Resultados: la prevalencia de accidentabilidad en trabajadores de la construcción: 5.5%; factores de riesgo más importantes y fracción etio lógica (FeE): grupo de edad de 16 a 20 años, OR =1.58 [IC 95%: 1.40-10.7], (p=0.001), FeE:0.36, aseguramiento eventual, OR= 3.7[IC95%: 2.16-26.45], (p= 0.001), FeE: 0.72, y falta de capacitación para el trabajo, OR=5.3[IC95%: 4.9-69.2], (p= 0.01), FeE: 0.81. Variables que no mostraron significancia fueron: salario, antigüedad en el puesto, turno y jornada de trabajo. En su conjunto, la capacitación laboral estuvo ausente en 87% de todos los trabajadores sujetos a estudio. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de accidentabilidad mantiene preponderancia en la industria de la construcción del Valle de México; los factores de riesgo identificados son potencialmente modificables donde la capacitación laboral adquiere indiscutible relevancia. Abstract in english Objective: Our aim was to describe construction-industry work-related accident prevalence in, associated factors in, and potential impact on affiliated workers of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS) in the Valley of Mexico. Materials and Methods: Pre [...] valent cases in a retrospective case-control design. Cases: These include 385 construction-industry workers who were found to have construction work-related accidents in 2001. Controls: comprised 385 active construction-industry workers without work-related accident background paired by gender, workplace, and worksite. Results. Work-related accident prevalence in construction workers was 5.5%; most important risk factors and etiology fraction (Ef) included the following: age 16-20 years odds ratio, OR = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.40-10.7, p=0.001, Efi 0.36; eventual insurance, OR = 3.7, 95% CI, 2.16-26.45, p = 0.001), Efi 0.72, and no training for job, OR =5.3, 95% CI, 4.9-69.2, p = 0.01), Ef: 0.81. Variables not showing significance were included salary, work shift, and workday. Conclusions. Work-related accident prevalence maintains its preponderance in the Valley of Mexico construction industry; identified risk factorsare potentially modifiable, among which job training acquires unquestionable relevance.

  5. Experimental investigation of hydrogen distribution within a light water reactor containment following a loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During and after a LOCA in a LWR, chemical reactions and the radiolytic decomposition of the water result in formation of gaseous hydrogen, the concentration of which may reach the limits of inflammability. The experimental results of hydrogen dispersion in air were as follows: If the feed rate does not exceed 2 m3/h and the hydrogen injection source is at floor level, the hydrogen is homogeneously dispersed throughout the compartment. If the source is located halfway up the compartment wall, a vertical concentration stratification occurs. Equalisation of the concentration - essentually through diffusion - proceeds relatively slowly: after 20 hours the maximun concentration gradient was still as high as 30 percent of its inital maximum value. The openings between the compartments hinder the dispersion of the hydrogen only if their cross sections are very small, i.e. in this case 2. Thermal stratification in the compartment (temperature higher at the top than at the bottom) clearly restricts hydrogen dispersion and thus results in a distinctly higher hydrogen concentration in the cooler section. The calculations carried out parallel with the experiments were only in part in agreement with the experimental results. The results of the most important experiment (investigation of thermal stratification), however, could be accurately confirmed with the computer code RALOC. The results have shown that under certain conditions elevated hydrogen concentrations may occur locally so that ist is not always justified to assume a homogeneous dispersion of the hydrogen throughout the containment. (orig./HP)

  6. Tchernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given

  7. [A STUDY INVESTIGATING THE FACTORS OF INTERNET ADDICTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhari?, Zrinka; Staševi?, Ina; Ropac, Darko; Petri?evi?, Nina; Juriši?, Irena

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the characteristics of Internet use among elementary school eighth-graders in the Bjelo- var-Bilogora County, to evaluate gender and sociodemographic differences, and to examine predictors for Internet addiction. The study included 437 (female 51%) eighth-graders, mean age 13.8 ± 0.5 years. An anonymous questionnaire was used to measure the participants' Internet use, the functions for which they used Internet, their parents' attitude towards the child's Internet use, and their signs of Internet addiction. Logistic regression was conducted to evaluate predictors for Internet addiction. The majority of children (71.5%) reported using Internet every day. Considering important risk factors of Internet addiction development, we found that 32% of children almost always stayed on-line longer than intended, 13% of boys and 4% of girls almost always neglected chores to spend more time on-line and 51.7% of children thought their life would be boring and uninteresting without the Internet. There was no significant difference between urban and rural students. In terms of the function for which they used the Internet, they were mostly engaged in on-line community/chat websites (70%), to listen to music and watch movies (81 %), and boys in gaming websites. Most of the students (43.4%) spent 1-2 hours daily on-line, 26.2% of students spent 3-4 hours on-line, and 9% spent more than 5 hours daily on-line. In conclusion, more public health preventive measures should be conducted to raise public awareness and concern about the negative effect of Internet use and Internet addiction, especially in the young population. PMID:26285469

  8. Factores predisponentes y repercusión del accidente hipoglucémico en embarazadas diabéticas pre-gestacionales bajo tratamiento insulínico intensivo Predisposing factors and impact of the hypoglycaemic accident on pregnant women with pregestational diabetes under intensive insulin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador Lemay Valdés

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analizar los factores que predisponen al accidente hipoglucémico durante el embarazo en diabéticas pre-gestacionales y su repercusión materna y perinatal. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron retrospectivamente 175 embarazadas diabéticas pre-gestacionales (73 B, 22 C, 66 D, 4 F, 1 H, 5 R, y 4 F-R en el período 2001-2006, todas estuvieron sometidas a tratamiento dietético e insulínico y este último aplicado según el método descrito por los profesores Valdés Amador y Márquez Guillén. Los resultados maternos y perinatales se analizan comparativamente entre las que sufrieron del accidente y las que no, para lo cual utilizamos el test X² de Fisher con un significado de pOBJECTIVE: to analyze the factors predisposing the hypoglycaemic accident during pregnancy in pregestational diabetic women and its maternal and perinatal repercussion. METHODS: 175 pregnant women affected by pregestational diabetes (73 B, 22 C, 66 D, 4 F, 1 H, 5 R, y 4 F-R were retrospectively studied from 2001 to 2006. All of them were under dietetic and insulin treatment. The latter was applied by the method described by professors Valdés Amador and Márquez Guillén. The maternal and perinatal results were comparatively analyzed among those who suffered the accident and those who did not, for which we used Fisher's chi square test with a significance of p< 0.05. RESULTS: a hypoglycaemic accident was detected in 78 patients (44.6 %. It was mild in 54 (30.9 % and severe in 24 (13.7 %. Hypoglycaemia was more significantly frequent in type-1 diabetic women aged 25 or under, nuliparous, with low or normal body weight and with some grade of vascular lesion. No impact was detected on perinatal morbimortality, and no congenital anomalies were observed as a result of the complication. CONCLUSIONS: type-1 diabetic women with some grade of vascular lesion and with low or normal body weight are proner to the accident due very probably to the reported loss of counterregulatory hormonal reaction.

  9. Investigating different factors influencing on return of private banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Motamedi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Return of Investment has always been an interesting area of research among academics as well as investors. Although capital asset pricing model (CAPM is capable of estimating risk of investment, many people argue that CAPM is not able to predict long-term return, properly. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effects of different financial figures including systematic risk (Beta, size of firm, ratio of book value to market share, volume of trade and the ratio of price/earnings (P/E on return of private banks in Iran. The study gathers the necessary information over the period 2005-2011 from private banks in Iran. The study uses multiple regression technique to find the effects of mentioned variables on return of private banks. The results indicate that there are some meaningful and positive relationship between return of banks and systematic risk (Beta, size, volume of trade and P/E. The study also finds some meaningful and reverse relationship between bank return and book value on market value.

  10. Tradespace investigation of strategic design factors for large space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlow, Brandon; Jewison, Christopher; Sternberg, David; Hall, Sherrie; Golkar, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Future large telescope arrays require careful balancing of satisfaction across the stakeholders' community. Development programs usually cannot afford to explicitly address all stakeholder tradeoffs during the conceptual design stage, but rather confine the analysis to performance, cost, and schedule discussions, treating policy and budget as constraints defining the envelope of the investigation. Thus, it is of interest to develop an integrated stakeholder analysis approach to explicitly address the impact of all stakeholder interactions on the design of large telescope arrays to address future science and exploration needs. This paper offers a quantitative approach for modeling some of the stakeholder influences relevant to large telescope array designs-the linkages between a given mission and the wider NASA community. The main goal of the analysis is to explore the tradespace of large telescope designs and understand the effects of different design decisions in the stakeholders' network. Proposed architectures that offer benefits to existing constellations of systems, institutions, and mission plans are expected to yield political and engineering benefits for NASA stakeholders' wider objectives. If such synergistic architectures are privileged in subsequent analysis, regions of the tradespace that better meet the needs of the wider NASA community can be selected for further development.

  11. Integrated Road Accident And Cost Prediction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nachimuthu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of an integrated road accidents and its cost prediction model for Chennai city using system dynamics approach. In this case, the simulation road accident prediction model was developed from the base year 2010 using road accident data collected from 2006 to 2010. In this research an attempt is made to establish relationship between road accident with factors of human behaviors, vehicle factors and road factors. STELLA software is a powerful tool for making a simulation model instead of stock and flow diagram, graphical interface, table and graph view, causal relational diagrams and build in functions. The system dynamics road accident prediction model was developed using STELLA software. The main objective of the studies is to establish simple, practicable simulation road accident and its cost models that can predict the expected number of accidents from 2010 to 2020. The predicted number of accident in 2010 was 5255 and accident for the year 2020 will be 21612. The model was also validated by comparing the predicted accident values of the years 2010, 2011 and 2012 with actual accident values. Add results of cost how much you predicted here.

  12. Injury severities of truck drivers in single- and multi-vehicle accidents on rural highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Chen, Suren

    2011-09-01

    In adverse driving conditions, such as inclement weather and/or complex terrain, trucks are often involved in single-vehicle (SV) accidents in addition to multi-vehicle (MV) accidents. Ten-year accident data involving trucks on rural highway from the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) is studied to investigate the difference in driver-injury severity between SV and MV accidents by using mixed logit models. Injury severity from SV and MV accidents involving trucks on rural highways is modeled separately and their respective critical risk factors such as driver, vehicle, temporal, roadway, environmental and accident characteristics are evaluated. It is found that there exists substantial difference between the impacts from a variety of variables on the driver-injury severity in MV and SV accidents. By conducting the injury severity study for MV and SV accidents involving trucks separately, some new or more comprehensive observations, which have not been covered in the existing studies can be made. Estimation findings indicate that the snow road surface and light traffic indicators will be better modeled as random parameters in SV and MV models respectively. As a result, the complex interactions of various variables and the nature of truck-driver injury are able to be disclosed in a better way. Based on the improved understanding on the injury severity of truck drivers from truck-involved accidents, it is expected that more rational and effective injury prevention strategy may be developed for truck drivers under different driving conditions in the future. PMID:21658494

  13. How to reduce the number of accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  14. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  15. Psychological aspects of risk appraisal in asphyxiation accidents: a review of the factors influencing children’s perception and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Zigon, G; Corradetti, R; Morra, B; Snidero, S; Gregori, D; PASSALI, D.

    2005-01-01

    Psychological aspects determining children’s behaviour in response to asphyxiation risk due to ingestion of foreign matter have been rarely and non-systematically examined in the literature. Aim of this report is to highlight – through a review of the most significant psychological research in the literature – which factors influence the behaviour, perception and assessments of children 0 to 14 years of age, in a risk situation. In particular, attention is focused on the direct experience of ...

  16. Effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on goshawk reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kaori; Murase, Joe; Horie, Reiko; Endo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Although the influence of nuclear accidents on the reproduction of top predators has not been investigated, it is important that we identify the effects of such accidents because humans are also top predators. We conducted field observation for 22 years and analysed the reproductive performance of the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae), a top avian predator in the North Kanto area of Japan, before and after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in 2011. The reproductive performance declined markedly compared with the pre-accident years and progressively decreased for the three post-accident study years. Moreover, it was suggested that these declines were primarily caused by an increase in the air dose rate of radio-active contaminants measured under the nests caused by the nuclear accidents, rather than by other factors. We consider the trends in the changes of the reproductive success rates and suggest that internal exposure may play an important role in the reproductive performance of the goshawk, as well as external exposure. PMID:25802117

  17. Effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on goshawk reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kaori; Murase, Joe; Horie, Reiko; Endo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Although the influence of nuclear accidents on the reproduction of top predators has not been investigated, it is important that we identify the effects of such accidents because humans are also top predators. We conducted field observation for 22 years and analysed the reproductive performance of the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae), a top avian predator in the North Kanto area of Japan, before and after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in 2011. The reproductive performance declined markedly compared with the pre-accident years and progressively decreased for the three post-accident study years. Moreover, it was suggested that these declines were primarily caused by an increase in the air dose rate of radio-active contaminants measured under the nests caused by the nuclear accidents, rather than by other factors. We consider the trends in the changes of the reproductive success rates and suggest that internal exposure may play an important role in the reproductive performance of the goshawk, as well as external exposure. PMID:25802117

  18. Factores de riesgo para accidentes en niños: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" Risk factors for accidents in children: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Paulsen S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en niños atendidos en el Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria" de la ciudad de La Paz - Bolivia. Diseño: Casos y controles incidentes. Lugar: Hospital del Niño "Dr. Ovidio Aliaga Uria", Institución de tercer nivel y centro de Referencia Nacional. Participantes: Se enrolaron para el estudio 200 pacientes pediátricos que acudieron a consulta por un accidente (casos y 400 pacientes pediátricos, atendidos por otra patología que no fuera accidente (controles. Mediciones principales: El instrumento evaluó los factores de riesgo en la vivienda, seguridad del niño, compañía del niño en el momento del accidente, lugar de ocurrencia y la actividad en dicho momento. Resultados: La edad promedio de los niños accidentados fue de 5,4 años, los principales OR fueron: productos al alcance de los niños; calientes (agua en ebullición, aceite OR 15,04 (IC 95% 5,47 - 44,48, productos volátiles (Kerosene, alcohol, gasolina OR 14,19 (IC 95% 0,72 - 276,33, instrumentos punzo cortantes OR 7,82 (IC 95% 5,22 - 11,73 , cohetillos OR 5,26 (IC 95% 2,49 - 11,95, presencia de bolsas plásticas en el domicilio OR 3,30 (IC 95% 2,02 - 5,25, cosméticos OR 2,06 (IC 95% 1,36 - 3,10, productos de limpieza OR 1,20 (IC 95% 0,22 - 5,82, medicamentos OR 1,12 (IC 95% 0,73 - 1,70. Accidentes previos en los últimos seis meses OR 4,62 (IC 95% 2,61 - 8,20, trabajo de la madre durante el día fuera del domicilio OR 2,04 (IC 95% 1,42 - 2,93 y no tener rejas o barandas de protección en las gradas, terrazas, etc OR 1,65 (IC 95% 1,15 - 2,36. Conclusiones: Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a accidentes en la edad pediatría, fueron relacionados al trabajo materno fuera del domicilio, presencia de productos peligrosos al alcance de los niños, también fue importante la ausencia de elementos de seguridad como rejas y barandas. Consideramos que los factores encontrados son prevenibles en gran parte a través de campañas educativas del personal de salud, sope todo los pediatras deben informar múltiples factores de riesgo existentes al alcance de los niñosObjectives: To identify risk factors of accidents in children treated at the Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uría in La Paz, Bolivia. Design: Case and control incidents. Place: Hospital del Niño Ovidio Aliaga Uria, a third-level paediatric hospital. Participants: we studied 200 accident patients and 400 control patients. Measurements: we evaluated risk factors at home, children safety, persons responsible for the children at the time of the accident, place and circumstances of the accident. Results: the average age was 5.4 years; products within reach of children were: boiling water, oil OR 15,04, volatile products OR 14,19, sharp objects OR 7,82, firecrackers OR 5,26, plastic bags OR 3,30, cosmetics OR 2,06, house cleaner products OR 1,20, medicines OR 1,12, previous accidents in the last 6 months OR 4,62. Mother working outside the home OR 2,04 and absence of protection for stairs and patios OR 1,65. Conclusions: The main risk factors for accidents in children were: mother working outside the home, dangerous products within reach of children, absence of safety devices. Most of the risk factors are preventable through education, safety campaigns especially by paediatricians or family practitioners

  19. Asthma is a risk factor for acute chest syndrome and cerebral vascular accidents in children with sickle cell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Paul J; Zacharisen Michael C; Lynn John; Nordness Mark E; Kelly Kevin J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Asthma and sickle cell disease are common conditions that both may result in pulmonary complications. We hypothesized that children with sickle cell disease with concomitant asthma have an increased incidence of vaso-occlusive crises that are complicated by episodes of acute chest syndrome. Methods A 5-year retrospective chart analysis was performed investigating 48 children ages 3–18 years with asthma and sickle cell disease and 48 children with sickle cell disease alone....

  20. THE EFFECT OF THE ECONOMIC CYCLE ON WORKPLACE ACCIDENTS IN SIX EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis TARGOUTZIDIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the economic cycle on workplace accidents. In particular, the effect of some major factors of the economic cycle (unemployment, output per capita and unit labor cost on fatal and non-fatal injuries is examined in six European countries (Finland, Italy, France, Switzerland, Austria and Germany. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis are applied, considering relevant data of the selected countries, over the period 1990-2005. The analysis indicates a counter-cyclical behavior of workplace accidents. Output per capita is the only parameter whose impact is statistically significant in all cases. The different effect of the examined factors on workplace accidents and the inter-relations between these factors indicate that an economic model of the workplace is required, if the impact of the economic cycle on workplace accidents is to be studied thoroughly.

  1. Analysis of the FPT-0, FPT-1 and FPT-2 experiments of the PHEBUS FP program investigating in-vessel phenomena during a LWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results and the current status of the analysis of the core degradation aspects for the FPT0, FPT1 and FPT2 tests, using the mechanistic ICARE/CATHARE code system developed by IRSN 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire'. The objective of those experiments, in the framework of the International Phebus Fission Product program, was to get a significant FP release induced by fuel rod degradation and fuel melting in a prototypical way using real materials as present in a PWR fuel assembly. During the transient, most of the phenomena that could occur in-vessel during a PWR severe accident (thermo mechanical fuel rod rupture, absorber rod degradation, steam-zircaloy chemical reaction and hydrogen generation, fuel dissolution and molten pool formation) have been observed. They are quite well simulated with the ICARE2 V3mod1 code version, in particular the hydrogen generation. The experiments showed core degradation far beyond any other integral experiment (PBF SFD, Phebus-SFD, CORA, FLHT, and LOFT-FP-2). The severe damage observed in the bundle seems to be due to significant material interactions, initiated by structural materials possibly enhanced by the fuel swelling and fragmentation, and its changes in stoichiometry. The fuel burn-up and the oxygen potential during cladding oxidation are probably important factors. It was observed that fuel liquefaction and transition from rod like geometry to molten pool could occur at a temperature (2600+/-200K) largely below the actual melting point of the pure UO2 (3110K). Though the detailed modeling of such interactions has still to be improved, the ICARE2 code simulates fairly well the observed fuel degradation. The Phebus FP series of integral experiments have proved the capability of the program to significantly improve our understanding of the source term issue and important aspects of core degradation

  2. Longterm reduction of ceasium-137 transfer factors from soil in agricultural and natural foodstuffs after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the data on dynamics of 137Cs content in the most critical (during different time periods after the radioactive fallout) links of the food chain that are necessary for assessing of the current internal doses in population, reconstruction and long-term forecast of these doses are presented. The data were obtained during 1986-2000 as a result of monitoring of contaminated areas in Russia that considerably differ in their soil conditions, the levels of 137Cs surface activity on soil and types of countermeasures applied. A summary of effective half-lives (T1/2) of 137Cs aggregated transfer factors Tag from soil into agricultural and natural products observed after the Chernobyl fallout is given. (orig.)

  3. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity

  4. An Investigation of the Critical Success Factors of IT Projects in Saudi Arabian Public Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz I. Almajed; Pam Mayhew

    2013-01-01

    Despite of the huge investments in information technology (IT), IT project success rates are unsatisfactory and still remain very low. This issue has been investigated by many researchers all over the world to identify the critical success factors. However, there is no universal agreement on which factors are significant to success. This paper presents an investigative study of the main factors that affect IT projects success in Saudi Arabian public organizations. A two-phase approach has be...

  5. Pilot error and its relationship with higher organizational levels: HFACS analysis of 523 accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wen-Chin; Harris, Don

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Based on Reason’s model of human error, the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was developed as an analytical framework for the investigation of the role of human error in aviation accidents. However, there is little empirical work that formally describes numerically the relationship between the levels and components in the model (the organizational structures, psychological pre-cursors of errors, and actual errors). Method: This research analyzed 523 accid...

  6. Investigation of break location effects on thermal-hydraulics during intermediate break loss-of-coolant accident experiments at ROSA-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rig of safety assessment (ROSA)-III facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) boiling water reactor (BWR/6) system with an electrically heated core designed for integral loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and emergency core cooling system (ECCS) tests. Break location effects on thermal-hydraulics during intermediate LOCAs were investigated by using four experiments at the ROSA-III, the 15 and 25 % main recirculation pump suction line break (MRPS-B) experiments, the 21 % single-ended jet pump drive line break (JPD-B) experiment and the 15 % main steam line break (MSL-B) experiment. Water injection from the high pressure core spray (HPCS) was not used in any of the experiments. Failure of ECCS actuation by the high containment pressure was also assumed in the tests. In the MRPS-B experiments, the discharge flow turned from low quality fluid to high quality fluid when the downcomer water level dropped to the main recirculation line outlet elevation, which suppressed coolant loss from the vessel and the core. In the JPD-B experiment, the jet pump drive nozzle was covered with low quality fluid and low quality fluid discharge continued even after the downcomer water level reached the jet pump suction elevation. Low quality fluid discharge ceased after the ADS actuation. It suggestes that the JPD-B LOCA has the possibility of causing larger and more severe core dryout and cladding temperature excursion than the MRPS-B LOCA. The MSL-B LOCA was characterized by mixture level swell in the downcomer and the core. The core mixture level swell resulted in the much later core dryout initiation than that in the MRPS-B LOCA, however, ECCS actuation was also delayed because of slow downcomer water level drop. (author)

  7. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  8. The ultimate nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

  9. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  10. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Nilsson, L.; Puska, E.K.; Sjövall, H.

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: (1) the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst; (2) the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power bu...

  11. ASTEC investigations of severe core damage behaviour of VVER-1000 in case of loss of coolant accident along with Station-Black-Out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groudev, Pavlin, E-mail: pavlinpg@inrne.bas.bg [INRNE – BAS, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasova, Boryana [INRNE – BAS, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Chatterjee, Barun; Lele, Hemant G. [BARC, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Reactor Safety Division, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-06-01

    Severe accident analysis of a reactor is an important aspect for evaluation of source term. Analyses have been carried out for VVER-1000 V320 reactor following LOCA along with Station-Black-Out using the severe accident code ASTEC. The predictions of different severe accident parameters like vessel rupture time, hydrogen and corium production and radioactivity release to containment have been compared for three break sizes. Since these predictions are dependent on different core degradation parameters and models, a sensitivity analysis is also carried out to study the effect of different core degradation parameters and models on severe core damage progression. LOCA analyses show a variation of degradation parameters which is a consequence of steam-rich and steam-starved conditions. All these calculations of VVER-1000 scenarios show that the ASTEC V2 code gives reliable and consistent results on this type of reactor, including its specifics like Zr1%Nb clad material and horizontal steam generators.

  12. Epidemiological profile of patients with cerebral vascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolline Paulo Neto da Cunha Lima, Marta Miriam Lopes Costa, Maria Julia Guimarães Oliveira Soares

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to show the profile epidemiological of patients with cerebral vascular accident in a public hospital from João Pessoa city, Paraíba, Brazil; to investigate the social demographic profile; to identify the risk factors, symptoms and sequels of the cerebral vascular accident. Methods: this is about a descriptive and exploratory study, from quantitative approach; the population was configured by sixty handbooks. Data collect was performed with a form from March to April 2007, and then data were analyzed and presented in tables and figures. This study was approval by the Ethics Committee under protocol number 58/2007. Results: data has been demonstrated that most of the handbooks belonged to patients from 46 to 85 years old; from female; they came from Mata Paraibana region; they were patients with hypertension; they had cerebral vascular accident of the type hemorrhagic. Conclusion: this study was very important for nurses, since it allowed them to have knowledge to help reduce the number of deaths and sequelae of cerebral vascular accident, also contributed to the basics to change like this, as knowledge of the disease and fitness treatment methods (among them, stand out studies of risk factors and relevance of applying an early prevention of cerebral vascular accident. Thus, the role of nursing is to prevent and detect early complications, educating the population about the disease.

  13. The vver severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher

  14. The vver severe accident management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmolov, V. [Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The basic approach to the VVER safety management is based on the defence-in-depth principle the main idea of which is the multiplicity of physical barriers on the way of dangerous propagation on the one hand and the diversity of measures to protect each of them on the other hand. The main events of severe accident with loss of core cooling at NPP with WWER can be represented as a sequence of NPP states, in which each subsequent state is more severe than the previous one. The following sequence of states of the accident progression is supposed to be realistic and the most probable: -) loss of efficient core cooling; -) core melting, relocation of the molten core to the lower head and molten pool formation, -) reactor vessel damage, and -) containment damage and fission products release. The objectives of accident management at the design basis stage, the determining factors and appropriate determining parameters of processes are formulated in this paper. The same approach is used for the estimation of processes parameters at beyond design basis accident progression. The accident management goals and the determining factors and parameters are also listed in that case which is characterized by the loss of integrity of the fuel cladding. The accident management goal at the stage of core melt relocation implies the need for an efficient core-catcher.

  15. Consequences of radioactive releases into the sea resulting from the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant - Evolution of expert investigation according to the data available

    OpenAIRE

    Laguionie, Philippe; Bailly-du-bois, Pascal; Boust, D; Fievet, B.; Garreau, Pierre; Connan, O.; Charmasson, Sabine; Arnaud, M.; Duffa, Celine; D Champion

    2012-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011 led to an unprecedented direct input of artificial radioactivity into the marine environment. The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety was requested by the French authorities to investigate the radioecological impact of this input, in particular the potential contamination of products of marine origin used for human consumption. This article describes the close link between the responses provided and ...

  16. Fatores associados ao óbito de motociclistas nas ocorrências de trânsito / Factors associated with the death of motorcyclists in traffic accidents / Factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclista en accidentes de tránsito

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nelson Luiz Batista de, Oliveira; Regina Marcia Cardoso de, Sousa.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Para identificar fatores associados ao óbito em motociclistas envolvidos em ocorrências de trânsito, em Maringá-PR, foi realizado estudo retrospectivo incluindo os motociclistas envolvidos em acidentes no ano de 2004. As fontes de dados foram os registros da Polícia Militar, do SIATE e do Instituto [...] Médico Legal. Foram realizadas análises bivariadas e regressão logística binária. Identificaram-se 2.362 motociclistas nos Boletins de Ocorrência e, destes, 1.743 tinham registros nos Relatórios de Atendimento do Socorrista. As vítimas fatais diferiram das demais quanto à faixa etária, ao local de residência, ao tempo de habilitação e as suas condições fisiológicas na cena da ocorrência. No modelo final permaneceram as seguintes variáveis: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulso e saturação de O2 no sangue. As condições fisiológicas das vítimas na cena do acidente se destacaram no modelo final e a ECGl superou o RTS na associação com óbito. Abstract in spanish Para identificar factores asociados al fallecimiento de motociclistas involucrados en accidentes de tránsito, en Maringá-PR se realizó estudio retrospectivo incluyendo a los motociclistas involucrados en accidentes durante 2004. Datos recolectados de registros de Policía Militar, SIATE e Instituto M [...] édico Legal. Se identificaron 2362 motociclistas en las Actas de Accidentes; de ellos, 1743 tenían registro en los Informes de Atención del Socorrista. Las víctimas fatales difirieron del resto en lo referente a faja etaria, lugar de residencia, tiempo de habilitación y condiciones fisiológicas en la escena del accidente. En el modelo final permanecen las variables: Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECGl), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulso y saturación de O2 en sangre. Las condiciones fisiológicas de las víctimas en la escena del accidente se destacan en el modelo final, y la ECGl superó al RTS en la asociación con fallecimiento. Abstract in english In order to identify the factors associated with death among motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents in Maringá - PR, a retrospective study was performed, including motorcyclists involved in accidents in the year 2004. Data were collected from the Military Police records, the Integrated System f [...] or Emergency Trauma Care (Sistema Integrado de Atendimento ao Trauma em Emergência -SIATE) and the Institute of Legal Medicine. Bivariate analyses and binary logistical regression were performed. A total of 2,362 motorcyclists were identified in the Police Reports, 1,743 of whom also had records in the Emergency Responders reports. Victims who succumbed to their injuries differed from victims who survived in terms of age, place of residence, time elapsed since obtaining a driver's license, and their physiological condition at the scene of the accident. The following variables were maintained in the final model: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), pulse, and blood oxygen saturation. The physiological conditions of the victims at the scene of the accidents were highlighted in the final model, with GCS surpassing RTS in regards to association with death.

  17. Causes of the JCO criticality accident and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan's first civil nuclear accident involving fatalities occurred on 30 September 1999 at the Tokai-mura uranium processing plant operated by JCO Co. Ltd. Following the accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) set up an Accident Investigation Committee to identify the causes of the accident and examine the measures required to prevent a recurrence. Based on the NSC report, this paper discusses the accident causes, problems regarding technical responses and lessons learned. (author)

  18. Development of a deformation and failure model for Zircaloy at high temperatures for light water reactor loss-of-coolant-accident investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe Zircaloy-4 deformation and failure behaviour at high temperatures (600 to 14000C), the phenomenological model NORA was developed and verified against numerous experimental results. The model can be applied to the calculation of fuel rod cladding deformation during small and large break loss-of-coolant-accidents. (orig./RW)

  19. Scaling and design analyses of a scaled-down, high-temperature test facility for experimental investigation of the initial stages of a VHTR air-ingress accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A 1/8th geometric-scale test facility that models the VHTR hot plenum is proposed. • Geometric scaling analysis is introduced for VHTR to analyze air-ingress accident. • Design calculations are performed to show that accident phenomenology is preserved. • Some analyses include time scale, hydraulic similarity and power scaling analysis. • Test facility has been constructed and shake-down tests are currently being carried out. - Abstract: A critical event in the safety analysis of the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is an air-ingress accident. This accident is initiated, in its worst case scenario, by a double-ended guillotine break of the coaxial cross vessel, which leads to a rapid reactor vessel depressurization. In a VHTR, the reactor vessel is located within a reactor cavity that is filled with air during normal operating conditions. Following the vessel depressurization, the dominant mode of ingress of an air–helium mixture into the reactor vessel will either be molecular diffusion or density-driven stratified flow. The mode of ingress is hypothesized to depend largely on the break conditions of the cross vessel. Since the time scales of these two ingress phenomena differ by orders of magnitude, it is imperative to understand under which conditions each of these mechanisms will dominate in the air ingress process. Computer models have been developed to analyze this type of accident scenario. There are, however, limited experimental data available to understand the phenomenology of the air-ingress accident and to validate these models. Therefore, there is a need to design and construct a scaled-down experimental test facility to simulate the air-ingress accident scenarios and to collect experimental data. The current paper focuses on the analyses performed for the design and operation of a 1/8th geometric scale (by height and diameter), high-temperature test facility. A geometric scaling analysis for the VHTR, a time scale analysis of the air-ingress phenomenon, a transient depressurization analysis of the reactor vessel, a hydraulic similarity analysis of the test facility, a heat transfer characterization of the hot plenum, a power scaling analysis for the reactor system, and a design analysis of the containment vessel are discussed

  20. [Orofacial injuries in skateboard accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohberg, U; Bonsmann, M

    1992-04-01

    In a clinical study, 25 accidents involving injuries by a fall with a skateboard were investigated and classified in respect of epidemiology, accident mechanism and injury patterns in the facial region. Accident victims are predominantly boys between 7 and 9 years of age. A multiple trauma involving the teeth and the dental system in general and the soft parts of the face is defined as a characteristic orofacial injury pattern in skateboard accidents. The high proportion of damage to the front teeth poses problems of functional and aesthetic rehabilitation necessitating long-term treatment courses in children and adolescents. Effective prevention of facial injuries may be possible by evolving better facial protection systems and by creating areas of playgrounds where skateboarders can practise safely. PMID:1351349

  1. Scaling and design analyses of a scaled-down, high-temperature test facility for experimental investigation of the initial stages of a VHTR air-ingress accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcilesi, David J. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Nuclear Engineering Program; Ham, Tae Kyu [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Nuclear Engineering Program; Kim, In Hun [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Nuclear Engineering Program; Sun, Xiaodong [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Nuclear Engineering Program; Christensen, Richard N. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Nuclear Engineering Program; Oh, Chang H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    A critical event in the safety analysis of the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is an air-ingress accident. This accident is initiated, in its worst case scenario, by a double-ended guillotine break of the coaxial cross vessel, which leads to a rapid reactor vessel depressurization. In a VHTR, the reactor vessel is located within a reactor cavity that is filled with air during normal operating conditions. Following the vessel depressurization, the dominant mode of ingress of an air–helium mixture into the reactor vessel will either be molecular diffusion or density-driven stratified flow. The mode of ingress is hypothesized to depend largely on the break conditions of the cross vessel. Since the time scales of these two ingress phenomena differ by orders of magnitude, it is imperative to understand under which conditions each of these mechanisms will dominate in the air ingress process. Computer models have been developed to analyze this type of accident scenario. There are, however, limited experimental data available to understand the phenomenology of the air-ingress accident and to validate these models. Therefore, there is a need to design and construct a scaled-down experimental test facility to simulate the air-ingress accident scenarios and to collect experimental data. The current paper focuses on the analyses performed for the design and operation of a 1/8th geometric scale (by height and diameter), high-temperature test facility. A geometric scaling analysis for the VHTR, a time scale analysis of the air-ingress phenomenon, a transient depressurization analysis of the reactor vessel, a hydraulic similarity analysis of the test facility, a heat transfer characterization of the hot plenum, a power scaling analysis for the reactor system, and a design analysis of the containment vessel are discussed.

  2. Scaling and design analyses of a scaled-down, high-temperature test facility for experimental investigation of the initial stages of a VHTR air-ingress accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical event in the safety analysis of the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is an air-ingress accident. This accident is initiated, in its worst case scenario, by a double-ended guillotine break of the coaxial cross vessel, which leads to a rapid reactor vessel depressurization. In a VHTR, the reactor vessel is located within a reactor cavity that is filled with air during normal operating conditions. Following the vessel depressurization, the dominant mode of ingress of an air—helium mixture into the reactor vessel will either be molecular diffusion or density-driven stratified flow. The mode of ingress is hypothesized to depend largely on the break conditions of the cross vessel. Since the time scales of these two ingress phenomena differ by orders of magnitude, it is imperative to understand under which conditions each of these mechanisms will dominate in the air ingress process. Computer models have been developed to analyze this type of accident scenario. There are, however, limited experimental data available to understand the phenomenology of the air-ingress accident and to validate these models. Therefore, there is a need to design and construct a scaled-down experimental test facility to simulate the air-ingress accident scenarios and to collect experimental data. The current paper focuses on the analyses performed for the design and operation of a 1/8th geometric scale (by height and diameter), high-temperature test facility. A geometric scaling analysis for the VHTR, a time scale analysis of the air-ingress phenomenon, a transient depressurization analysis of the reactor vessel, a hydraulic similarity analysis of the test facility, a heat transfer characterization of the hot plenum, a power scaling analysis for the reactor system, and a design analysis of the containment vessel are discussed.

  3. Health requirements for accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following results and requirements on accident dosimetry can be drawn from the analysis of diagnostic and therapeutic treatments with accident exposed persons: information on dose is needed for classifying persons and providing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. If and how therapy is used, depends on the actual clinical state and results of laboratory examinations. For this purpose dosimetric data provided within several hours with an accuracy given by a factor of 3 and within two or three days by a factor of 1.5 to 2 are needed. The type of irradiation must be known (whole-body, local, type of radiation). (author)

  4. Investigating Happiness and its Related Factors in Married Women Referred to Health Centers of Shahroud City

    OpenAIRE

    Sooky, Zahra; KERAMAT, Afsaneh; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Tagharrobi, Zahra; Taebi, Mahboubeh; Sadat, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Happiness is one of the most important factors affecting women's mental health. Several factors contribute to happiness in different societies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the level of happiness in married women and its related factors. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with stratified sampling proportional to different age groups of married women in selected health centers (based on socioeconomic status). Subjects were 379 married wo...

  5. Investigation of Factors Influencing Students' Intentions to Use the Internet: Jordanian Universities Context

    OpenAIRE

    Awadh, Muhammad [???? ????? ????; Al-Adaileh, Raid Mohammed

    2006-01-01

    The increasing use of information technology (IT) applications within universities context increases the importance of exploring cognitive and psychological factors that might influence successful introduction and usage of IT. Consideration of these factors including students' intention to use IT is receiving a huge interest in recent literature to avoid what so called the technological disenfranchisement. Accordingly, the present study investigates certain attitudinal factors that may influe...

  6. The Effect Of Retention Factors On Organisational Commitment: An Investigation Of High Technology Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Dockel; Johan S Basson; Melinda Coetzee

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate specific retention factors that induced the organisational commitment of high technology employees. A sample of 94 professional technicians from a South African owned telecommunications company based in the Gauteng province participated. The Organisational Commitment Scale and a retention factor measurement scale were administered. The most relevant explanatory factors were compensation, job characteristics, supervisor support, and work/li...

  7. Inside the “fragile” infant: pathophysiology, molecular background, risk factors and investigation of neonatal osteopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Dokos, Charalampos; Tsakalidis, Christos; Tragiannidis, Athanasios; Rallis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Current research in bone mineral metabolism reveals many aspects of osteopenia occurred in premature infants. This review examines not only the pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms of newborn osteopenia but also the risk factors and investigation. Osteopenia of premature infants has increased incidence among other diseases of prematurity. Identification of risk factors is essential for monitoring of osteopenia. Some of the risk factors include low birth weight, prematurity, long term a...

  8. Investigation of Individual Factors Associated with Anxiety in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Ashley H.; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca; Michele Lease, A.

    2015-01-01

    As youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to experience anxiety than youth in the general population, investigation of associated factors is important for diagnosis and treatment. The present study extended prior research by examining factors associated with caregiver-reported anxiety in 2662 youth (mean age = 8.82 years) with…

  9. An Investigation of Factors Determining the Study Abroad Destination Choice: A Case Study of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the field of education abroad have mainly focused on the factors influencing the mobility of international students from developing to developed countries and very few have been conducted to investigate the factors influencing the flow of international students to the Asia Pacific region. As a piece of country-specific…

  10. Experimental investigation of void distribution in Suppression Pool during the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident using air–water two-phase mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Basic understanding of the venting phenomena in the SP during a LOCA was obtained. • A series of experiment is carried out using the PUMA-E test facility. • Two phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. • The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. - Abstract: During the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the non-condensable gas initially contained in the BWR containment is discharged to the pressure suppression chamber through the blowdown pipes. The performance of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) can be degraded due to the released gas ingestion into the suction intakes of the ECCS pumps. The understanding of the relevant phenomena in the pressure suppression chamber is important in analyzing potential gas intrusion into the suction intakes of ECCS pumps. To obtain the basic understanding of the relevant phenomena and the generic data of void distribution in the pressure suppression chamber during the initial blowdown period of a LOCA, tests with various blowdown conditions were conducted using the existing Suppression Pool (SP) tank of the integral test facility, called Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR applications (PUMA-E) facility, a scaled downcomer pipe installed in the PUMA-E SP, and air discharge pipe system. Two different diameter sizes of air injection pipe (0.076 and 0.102 m), a range of air volumetric flux (7.9–24.7 m/s), initial void conditions in an air injection pipe (fully void, partially void, and fully filled with water) and different air velocity ramp rates (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 s) are used to investigate the impact of the blowdown conditions to the void distribution in the SP. Two distinct phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. The quasi-steady phase provided less void penetration depth and was categorized by oscillations in the void penetration. The initial void conditions in an air injection pipe and air volumetric fluxes were only found to significantly impact on the void distribution in the SP

  11. Important factors governing exposure of the population and countermeasure application in rural settlements of the Russian Federation in the long term after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural settlements located in areas of the Russian Federation contaminated after the Chernobyl accident and exceeding an annual dose of 1 mSv a-1 have been classified according to 137Cs contamination density, internal dose and the neighbourhood of forests. It has been shown that, with the exception of the most contaminated areas, the internal doses decreased in accordance with a decline in 137Cs availability for plant root uptake. An inverse tendency was observed in areas with 137Cs contamination above 555 kBq m-2 which can be explained by a reduction or even termination of countermeasure application and by an increasing consumption of forest products in areas where restrictive countermeasures are still implemented. Twenty-seven settlements have been studied to estimate the effectiveness of countermeasures applied previously and to identify the most important factors governing the radiation exposure to the population and its change with time. It has been shown that the effectiveness of countermeasures which resulted in a decrease of up to 40% of doses has a tendency to decline in the long term. The need for continuation of remediation in rural settlements was evaluated both for selected settlements and extrapolated to the whole contaminated area and it has been shown that the application of countermeasures will be of importance at least up to the year 2045. Rather high effectiveness in terms of internal dose reduction (factor of 2-2.5) of radical improvement (disking, ploughing and reseeding) and administration of Cs binders to animals (Ferrocyn) was demonstrated for the selected settlements. It could be demonstrated that for forest-remote settlements there is a linear dependence between internal dose normalised to the density of contamination and the proportion of peat soils around settlements. For near-forest settlements, this dependence was less pronounced which can be explained by the high contribution of forest food products to the internal dose. Milk is still the major dose-forming product in rural Russian settlements (its contribution to internal dose in forest-remote settlements is above 70%); however, in near-forest settlements, the contribution of mushrooms to the internal dose is comparable to the contribution from milk

  12. The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

  13. The Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqua, M.; Stueck, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Tohoku earthquake and the subsequent tsunami hit the Japanese east coast, causing more than 15,000 fatalities. To this date, 3,000 people are still missing. The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP was the nuclear installation that was most affected by the tsunami. The earthquake cut off the NPP from the national grid. About 45 minutes later, the tsunami flooded units 1-4 and led to core meltdown events with large releases for units 1, 2 and 3. Unit 4 had been in refuelling outage at that time and lost the cooling of the spent fuel pool for several days. Considerable hydrogen explosions occurred in units 1, 3 and 4. Shortly after the accident, TEPCO started to mitigate the consequences of the accident by providing external cooling to the reactors and by removing the radioactive debris from the site. Great emphasis was laid on effective radiation protection measures for the clean-up workers. Thus, up to now there has been no fatality due to the radiation caused by the Fukushima accident. The main steps of the accident sequences are described, taking into account the latest findings of investigations performed by TEPCO or on behalf of the regulatory body. The presentation focuses on the description of the status of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and the future steps for cleaning-up the site. In the presentation, the major phases of the roadmap that TEPCO has developed for the clean-up are highlighted. The risks associated with the current plant status and the clean-up phases are described. Abstract the content of the manuscript in a few lines.

  14. The Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 11 March 2011, the Tohoku earthquake and the subsequent tsunami hit the Japanese east coast, causing more than 15,000 fatalities. To this date, 3,000 people are still missing. The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP was the nuclear installation that was most affected by the tsunami. The earthquake cut off the NPP from the national grid. About 45 minutes later, the tsunami flooded units 1-4 and led to core meltdown events with large releases for units 1, 2 and 3. Unit 4 had been in refuelling outage at that time and lost the cooling of the spent fuel pool for several days. Considerable hydrogen explosions occurred in units 1, 3 and 4. Shortly after the accident, TEPCO started to mitigate the consequences of the accident by providing external cooling to the reactors and by removing the radioactive debris from the site. Great emphasis was laid on effective radiation protection measures for the clean-up workers. Thus, up to now there has been no fatality due to the radiation caused by the Fukushima accident. The main steps of the accident sequences are described, taking into account the latest findings of investigations performed by TEPCO or on behalf of the regulatory body. The presentation focuses on the description of the status of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and the future steps for cleaning-up the site. In the presentation, the major phases of the roadmap that TEPCO has developed for the clean-up are highlighted. The risks associated with the current plant status and the clean-up phases are described. Abstract the content of the manuscript in a few lines.

  15. Normal Accident at Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrow, Charles

    1981-01-01

    Discusses some aspects of the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Explains a number of factors involved including the type of accident, warnings, design and equipment failure, operator error, and negative synergy. Presents alternatives to systems with catastrophic potential. (MK)

  16. Theoretical and experimental investigations into the filtration of the atmosphere within the containments of pressurized water reactors after serious reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For serious accidents in nuclear power stations equipped with pressurized water reactors and with boundary conditions assumed, a conservative evaluation was made of the condition of the atmosphere within the reactor containment, particularly referring to pressure, temperature, air humidity and activity release. Based on these data the loads were calculated of accident filter systems of different designs as a function of parameters such as the course of releases and the volume flow through the filter systems. A number of experimental results are indicated on the behaviour of iodine sorption materials under extreme conditions including the least favorable temperature, humidity and pressure derived from the calculations above. Reference is made to the targets of future R and D work on aerosol removal

  17. Hull loss accident model for narrow body commercial aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchanok Tiabtiamrat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidents with narrow body aircraft were statistically evaluated covering six families of commercial aircraft includingBoeing B737, Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD80, Tupolev TU134/TU154 and Antonov AN124. A risk indicator for eachflight phase was developed based on motion characteristics, duration time, and the presence of adverse weather conditions.The estimated risk levels based on these risk indicators then developed from the risk indicator. Regression analysis indicatedvery good agreement between the estimated risk level and the accident ratio of hull loss cases per number of delivered aircraft.The effect of time on the hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft was assessed for B737, A320 and MD80. Equationsrepresenting the effect of time on hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were proposed for B737, A320, and MD80,while average values of hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were found for TU134, TU154, and AN 124. Accidentprobability equations were then developed for each family of aircraft that the probability of an aircraft in a hull loss accidentcould be estimated for any aircraft family, flight phase, presence of adverse weather factor, hour of day, day of week, monthof year, pilot age, and pilot flight hour experience. A simplified relationship between estimated hull loss accident probabilityand unsafe acts by human was proposed. Numerical investigation of the relationship between unsafe acts by human andfatality ratio suggested that the fatality ratio in hull loss accident was dominated primarily by the flight phase media.

  18. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  19. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nagel, Lise Loft; Uhrenholt, Lars; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2012-01-01

    A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. ...

  20. Investigation of anemometer sites by means of sector-dependent gust factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffer, J.; Jurksch, G.

    1985-04-01

    A sector-dependent gust factor analysis is made of the wind velocity measurements performed during the period 1975 to 1982. On the basis of examples of selected sites it is demonstrated that the median values of the gust factors reflect the roughness in the different sectors. In addition the gust factors serve as a means for the investigation of the quality of anemometer sites, repectively of the homogeneity of time series of the wind velocity. The influence of the thermal stability on the median values of the gust factors may be neglected as only strong wind conditions (v >= 6 m/s) are considered.