WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors accident investigation

  1. Investigation of Key Factors for Accident Severity at Railroad Grade Crossings by Using a Logit Model

    Hu, Shou-Ren; Li, Chin-Shang; Lee, Chi-Kang

    2010-01-01

    Although several studies have used logit or probit models and their variants to fit data of accident severity on roadway segments, few have investigated accident severity at a railroad grade crossing (RGC). Compared to accident risk analysis in terms of accident frequency and severity of a highway system, investigation of the factors contributing to traffic accidents at an RGC may be more complicated because of additional highway–railway interactions. Because the proportional odds assumption ...

  2. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel

  3. Investigating the role of behavioral factors in non-fatal accidents of urban and suburban driver

    P. Azad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are of the most important events, which cause death and injury of a large number of people and impose huge economic losses. According to previous studies, human factors are the main cause of traffic accidents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of behavioral factors in driving-related non-fatal accidents. Material and Method: The present analytical study was carried out among 150 drivers of urban and suburban transportation system in Yazd province. The research tool was Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ which is consisted of two sections: demographic information and driving behavior. Result: 83/9 % of the participants reported to use safety belt nearly always. The highest deliberate violations, slips, and mistakes were belonged to drivers with age group of 18-25. Moreover, deliberate violations had a significant relationship with rage (P < 0.05. Survey of behavioral factors in terms of vehicle ownership type showed that “deliberate violations” and “slips and mistakes” high among personal bus drivers and state-owned bus drivers, respectively, which shows the significant association between these behavioral factors and ownership type. What is more, rates of deliberate and unintentional violations and slips were higher among those with a history of two times incidents (P < 0.004. Conclusion: The results revealed that behavioral factors such as age, type of vehicle ownership, and accident history played a significant role in occurrence of traffic accidents.

  4. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  5. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  6. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  7. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  8. Safety-critical human factors issues derived from analysis of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident investigation reports

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011 had a large impact both in and outside Japan, and is not yet concluded. After Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s (TEPCO's) Fukushima accident, electric power suppliers have taken measures to respond in the event that the same state of emergency occurs - deploying mobile generators, temporary pumps and hoses, and training employees in the use of this equipment. However, it is not only the 'hard' problems including the design of equipment, but the 'soft' problems such as organization and safety culture that have been highlighted as key contributors in this accident. Although a number of organizations have undertaken factor analysis of the accident and proposed issues to be reviewed and measures to be taken, a systematic overview about electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture has not yet been undertaken. This study is based on three major reports: the report by the national Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (the Diet report), the report by the Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company (Government report), and the report by the non-government committee supported by the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation (Non-government report). From these reports, the sections relevant to electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture were extracted. These sections were arranged to correspond with the prerequisites for the ideal organization, and 30 issues to be reviewed by electric power suppliers were extracted using brainstorming methods. It is expected that the identified issues will become a reference for every organization concerned to work on preventive measures hereafter. (author)

  9. Safety-critical human factors issues derived from analysis of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi accident investigation reports

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011 had a large impact both in and outside Japan, and is not yet concluded. After Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s (TEPCO's) Fukushima accident, electric power suppliers have taken measures to respond in the event that the same state of emergency occurs - deploying mobile generators, temporary pumps and hoses, and training employees in the use of this equipment. However, it is not only the “hard” problems including the design of equipment, but the “soft” problems such as organization and safety culture that have been highlighted as key contributors in this accident. Although a number of organizations have undertaken factor analysis of the accident and proposed issues to be reviewed and measures to be taken, a systematic overview about electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture has not yet been undertaken. This study is based on three major reports: the report by the national Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (the Diet report), the report by the Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company (Government report), and the report by the non-government committee supported by the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation (Non-government report). From these reports, the sections relevant to electric power suppliers' organization and safety culture were extracted. These sections were arranged to correspond with the prerequisites for the ideal organization, and 30 issues to be reviewed by electric power suppliers were extracted using brainstorming methods. It is expected that the identified issues will become a reference for every organization concerned to work on preventive measures hereafter. (author)

  10. Accidents and human factors

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  11. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    separately from any investigation conducted by other companies involved in the accident, and it did not review its analyses, conclusions or recommendations with any other company or investigation team. Also, at the time this report was written, other investigations, such as the U.S. Coast Guard and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Joint Investigation and the President's National Commission were ongoing. While the understanding of this accident will continue to develop with time, the information in this report can support learning and the prevention of a recurrence. The accident on April 20, 2010, involved a well integrity failure, followed by a loss of hydrostatic control of the well. This was followed by a failure to control the flow from the well with the BOP equipment, which allowed the release and subsequent ignition of hydrocarbons. Ultimately, the BOP emergency functions failed to seal the well after the initial explosions. During the course of the investigation, the team used fault tree analysis to define and consider various scenarios, failure modes and possible contributing factors. Eight key findings related to the causes of the accident emerged: (1) The annulus cement barrier did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (2) The shoe track barriers did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (3) The negative-pressure test was accepted although well integrity had not been established; (4) Influx was not recognized until hydrocarbons were in the riser; (5) Well control response actions failed to regain control of the well; (6) Diversion to the mud gas separator resulted in gas venting onto the rig; (7) The fire and gas system did not prevent hydrocarbon ignition; (8) The BOP emergency mode did not seal the well.

  12. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    from any investigation conducted by other companies involved in the accident, and it did not review its analyses, conclusions or recommendations with any other company or investigation team. Also, at the time this report was written, other investigations, such as the U.S. Coast Guard and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Joint Investigation and the President's National Commission were ongoing. While the understanding of this accident will continue to develop with time, the information in this report can support learning and the prevention of a recurrence. The accident on April 20, 2010, involved a well integrity failure, followed by a loss of hydrostatic control of the well. This was followed by a failure to control the flow from the well with the BOP equipment, which allowed the release and subsequent ignition of hydrocarbons. Ultimately, the BOP emergency functions failed to seal the well after the initial explosions. During the course of the investigation, the team used fault tree analysis to define and consider various scenarios, failure modes and possible contributing factors. Eight key findings related to the causes of the accident emerged: (1) The annulus cement barrier did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (2) The shoe track barriers did not isolate the hydrocarbons; (3) The negative-pressure test was accepted although well integrity had not been established; (4) Influx was not recognized until hydrocarbons were in the riser; (5) Well control response actions failed to regain control of the well; (6) Diversion to the mud gas separator resulted in gas venting onto the rig; (7) The fire and gas system did not prevent hydrocarbon ignition; (8) The BOP emergency mode did not seal the well.

  13. Investigating Prevalence of deaths from Traffic Accidents and Factors Associated with it in Yazd in 2009

    Gh Soltani

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: This study findings provide useful information for setting priorities in order to prevent the traffic accidents injuries. In addition, appropriate intervention programs are necessary in order to prevent traffic accidents and their complications, as well as to minimize injuries in accordance with other relevant organizations.

  14. Risk and protection factors in fatal accidents.

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at addressing the interest and appropriateness of performing accident severity analyses that are limited to fatal accident data. Two methodological issues are specifically discussed, namely the accident-size factors (the number of vehicles in the accident and their level of occupancy) and the comparability of the baseline risk. It is argued that - although these two issues are generally at play in accident severity analyses - their effects on, e.g., the estimation of survival probability, are exacerbated if the analysis is limited to fatal accident data. As a solution, it is recommended to control for these effects by (1) including accident-size indicators in the model, (2) focusing on different sub-groups of road-users while specifying the type of opponent in the model, so as to ensure that comparable baseline risks are worked with. These recommendations are applied in order to investigate risk and protection factors of car occupants involved in fatal accidents using data from a recently set up European Fatal Accident Investigation database (Reed and Morris, 2009). The results confirm that the estimated survival probability is affected by accident-size factors and by type of opponent. The car occupants' survival chances are negatively associated with their own age and that of their vehicle. The survival chances are also lower when seatbelt is not used. Front damage, as compared to other damaged car areas, appears to be associated with increased survival probability, but mostly in the case in which the accident opponent was another car. The interest of further investigating accident-size factors and opponent effects in fatal accidents is discussed. PMID:20159090

  15. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident investigation. 1960.29 Section 1960.29 Labor... MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.29 Accident investigation. (a) While all accidents should be investigated, including accidents involving property damage only, the extent of such investigation shall...

  16. Accident/Mishap Investigation System

    Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian

    2007-01-01

    InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

  17. Research investigation report on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    This report was issued in February 2012 by Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation's Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, which consisted of six members from the private sector in independent positions and with no direct interest in the business of promoting nuclear power. Commission aimed to determine the truth behind the accident by clarifying the various problems and reveal systematic problems behind these issues so as to create a new starting point by identifying clear lessons learned. Report composed of four chapters; (1) progression of Fukushima accident and resulting damage (accident management after Fukushima accident, and effects and countermeasure of radioactive materials discharged into the environment), (2) response against Fukushima accident (emergency response of cabinet office against nuclear disaster, risk communication and on-site response against nuclear disaster), (3) analysis of historical and structural factors (technical philosophy of nuclear safety, problems of nuclear safety regulation of Fukushima accident, safety regulatory governance and social background of 'Safety Myth'), (4) Global Context (implication in nuclear security, Japan in nuclear safety regime, U.S.-Japan relations for response against Fukushima accident, lessons learned from Fukushima accident - aiming at creation of resilience). Report could identify causes of Fukushima accident and factors related to resulting damages, show the realities behind failure to prevent the spread of damage, and analyze the overall structural and historical background behind the accidents. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Estimating the Influence of Accident Related Factors on Motorcycle Fatal Accidents using Logistic Regression (Case Study: Denpasar-Bali

    Wedagama D.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Denpasar the capital of Bali Province, motorcycle accident contributes to about 80% of total road accidents. Out of those motorcycle accidents, 32% are fatal accidents. This study investigates the influence of accident related factors on motorcycle fatal accidents in the city of Denpasar during period 2006-2008 using a logistic regression model. The study found that the fatality of collision with pedestrians and right angle accidents were respectively about 0.44 and 0.40 times lower than collision with other vehicles and accidents due to other factors. In contrast, the odds that a motorcycle accident will be fatal due to collision with heavy and light vehicles were 1.67 times more likely than with other motorcycles. Collision with pedestrians, right angle accidents, and heavy and light vehicles were respectively accounted for 31%, 29%, and 63% of motorcycle fatal accidents.

  19. Psychological factors of radiation accidents

    With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

  20. 14 CFR 415.41 - Accident investigation plan.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accident investigation plan. 415.41 Section... Launch Range § 415.41 Accident investigation plan. An applicant must file an accident investigation plan... reporting and responding to launch accidents, launch incidents, or other mishaps, as defined by § 401.5...

  1. The Tchernobyl enigma or: the human factors in severe accidents

    Using the analysis of many documents published after the Tchernobyl accident, we attempt to distinguish the main human factors aspects in severe accidents that come out, and the causes the most frequently quoted to ''explain'' it. But the Tchernobyl accident keeps its ''enigmatic'' feature, like any other accident. The need to make a deeper investigation concerning safety leads to look for various research paths that go beyond the usual normative positions, based on a too much mechanistic model of man. It is to the functioning of groups in work situations that we suggest to devote part of the research and thinking effort. We attempt to show briefly how two theories, the theory of ''groupthink'' and the theory of ''trade defensive ideologies'', can throw a light on the problem of human factors in nuclear power plants

  2. Independent accident investigation: a modern safety tool

    Historically, safety has been subjected to a fragmented approach. In the past, every department has had its own responsibility towards safety, focusing either on working conditions, internal safety, external safety, rescue and emergency, public order or security. They each issued policy documents, which in their time were leading statements for elaboration and regulation. They also addressed safety issues with tools of various nature, often specifically developed within their domain. Due to a series of major accidents and disasters, the focus of attention is shifting from complying with quantitative risk standards towards intervention in primary operational processes, coping with systemic deficiencies and a more integrated assessment of safety in its societal context. In The Netherlands recognition of the importance of independent investigations has led to an expansion of this philosophy from the transport sector to other sectors. The philosophy now covers transport, industry, defense, natural disaster, environment and health and other major occurrences such as explosions, fires, and collapse of buildings or structures. In 2003 a multi-sector covering law will establish an independent safety board in The Netherlands. At a European level, mandatory investigation agencies are recognized as indispensable safety instruments for aviation, railways and the maritime sector, for which EU Directives are in place or being progressed [Transport accident and incident investigation in the European Union, European Transport Safety Council, ISBN 90-76024-10-3, Brussel, 2001]. Due to a series of major events, attention has been drawn to the consequences of disasters, highlighting the involvement of rescue and emergency services. They also have become subjected to investigative efforts, which in return, puts demands on investigation methodology. This paper comments on an evolutionary development in safety thinking and of safety boards, highlighting some consequences for strategic

  3. Introduction of the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident, Investigation Details, Findings and Crew Survival Investigation Report

    Chandler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    As the Space Shuttle Program comes to an end, it is important that the lessons learned from the Columbia accident be captured and understood by those who will be developing future aerospace programs and supporting current programs. Aeromedical lessons learned from the Accident were presented at AsMA in 2005. This Panel will update that information, closeout the lessons learned, provide additional information on the accident and provide suggestions for the future. To set the stage, an overview of the accident is required. The Space Shuttle Columbia was returning to Earth with a crew of seven astronauts on 1Feb, 2003. It disintegrated along a track extending from California to Louisiana and observers along part of the track filmed the breakup of Columbia. Debris was recovered from Littlefield, Texas to Fort Polk, Louisiana, along a 567 statute mile track; the largest ever recorded debris field. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) concluded its investigation in August 2003, and released their findings in a report published in February 2004. NASA recognized the importance of capturing the lessons learned from the loss of Columbia and her crew and the Space Shuttle Program managers commissioned the Spacecraft Crew Survival Integrated Investigation Team (SCSIIT) to accomplish this. Their task was to perform a comprehensive analysis of the accident, focusing on factors and events affecting crew survival, and to develop recommendations for improving crew survival, including the design features, equipment, training and procedures intended to protect the crew. NASA released the Columbia Crew Survival Investigation Report in December 2008. Key personnel have been assembled to give you an overview of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, the medical response, the medico-legal issues, the SCSIIT findings and recommendations and future NASA flight surgeon spacecraft accident response training. Educational Objectives: Set the stage for the Panel to address the

  4. ACCOUNT OF ROAD CONDITIONS WHILE INVESTIGATING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    D. D. Selioukov; I. I. Leonovich

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers problems on better traffic safety at government, authority, engineering and driver activity levels, account of road conditions while investigating traffic accidents. The paper also provides road defects mentioned in forensic transport examinations of traffic accidents.

  5. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations

    Lundberg, J.; Rollenhagen, C.; Hollnagel, E.;

    2012-01-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance....... This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of...... effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Understanding accident investigators : a study of the required skills and behaviours for effective UK inspectors of accidents

    Flaherty, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    In the UK, accidents associated with maritime, aviation and rail transport are conducted by the Inspectors of Accidents at the Marine, Air and Rail Accident Investigation Branches. A review of current academic literature provides little insight into the qualities and attributes essential for the role of accident investigator. A wealth of material exists about accidents themselves but as yet, a study into the profile of the accident investigator has not been conducted. This research soug...

  7. Organizational aspects of three accidents : how common organizational factors contributed to the occurrence of the accidents

    Hansen, Kathe-Mari Solberg

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, two serious accidents and one major incident in the offshore drilling industry have been studied and compared. The main objective of this study was to seek out common organizational factors that contributed to these accidents. The findings clearly demonstrated that commonalities exist. Essentially, five factors represent recurring elements in these accidents: management, communication, competence, procedures, and compliance. How the regulatory regimes were organized also contr...

  8. On the weighting of accident probabilities for evident emotive factors

    Problems in risk management of the additive property of; accident risk costs, the special case of the infrequent disaster, and the correct amount to spend on accident prevention, are considered. The need for weighting by additional emotive factors is discussed. Such factors here considered are; the scale factor relating to the number of people who as a result of the accident are killed, the age factor which takes into account the novelty of the situation against the background of common human experience, and the comprehension factor which is a weighting associated with the extent to which the 'man in the street' may be expected to understand the mechanism of the accident. A table shows how these factors combine for a set of accident scenarios including radioactive spills and a loss of coolant reactor accident. (U.K.)

  9. Aeromedical Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Chandler, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an update on the Columbia accident response presented in 2005 with additional information that was not available at that time. It will provide information on the following topics: (1) medical response and Search and Rescue, (2) medico-legal issues associated with the accident, (3) the Spacecraft Crew Survival Integrated Investigation Team Report published in 2008, and (4) future NASA flight surgeon spacecraft accident response training.

  10. International cooperation and challenges: Understanding cross-cultural issues in the processes of accident investigation

    Li, Wen-Chin; Young, Hong-Tsu; Wang, Thomas; Harris, Don

    2007-01-01

    The idea that national cultural characteristics play a part in aviation safety had been suggested by Helmreich & Merritt (1998). This research involved around 45 aviation accident investigators from different cultural backgrounds and investigated attribution of causal factors in the Ueberlingen accident report through the application of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (Wiegmann & Shappell, 2003). Hofstede’s (1991 & 2001) cultural dimensions draw a clear picture of the att...

  11. Investigation of adolescent accident predictive variables in hilly regions.

    Mohanty, Malaya; Gupta, Ankit

    2016-09-01

    The study aims to determine the significant personal and environmental factors in predicting the adolescent accidents in the hilly regions taking into account two cities Hamirpur and Dharamshala, which lie at an average elevation of 700--1000 metres above the mean sea level (MSL). Detailed comparisons between the results of 2 cities are also studied. The results are analyzed to provide the list of most significant factors responsible for adolescent accidents. Data were collected from different schools and colleges of the city with the help of a questionnaire survey. Around 690 responses from Hamirpur and 460 responses from Dharamshala were taken for study and analysis. Standard deviations (SD) of various factors affecting accidents were calculated and factors with relatively very low SD were discarded and other variables were considered for correlations. Correlation was developed using Kendall's-tau and chi-square tests and factors those were found significant were used for modelling. They were - the victim's age, the character of road, the speed of vehicle, and the use of helmet for Hamirpur and for Dharamshala, the kind of vehicle involved was an added variable found responsible for adolescent accidents. A logistic regression was performed to know the effect of each category present in a variable on the occurrence of accidents. Though the age and the speed of vehicle were considered to be important factors for accident occurrence according to Indian accident data records, even the use of helmet comes out as a major concern. The age group of 15-18 and 18-21 years were found to be more susceptible to accidents than the higher age groups. Due to the presence of hilly area, the character of road becomes a major concern for cause of accidents and the topography of the area makes the kind of vehicle involved as a major variable for determining the severity of accidents. PMID:26077876

  12. Safety investigation of team performance in accidents

    The paper presents the capacities of the performance evaluation of teamwork (PET) method. Its practicability and efficiency are illustrated by retrospective human reliability analyse of the famous nuclear and maritime accidents. A quantitative assessment of operators' performance on the base of thermo-hydraulic (T/H) calculations and full-scope simulator data for set of NPP design basic accidents with WWER is demonstrated. The last data are obtained on the 'WWER-1000' full-scope simulator of Kozloduy NPP during the regular practical training of the operators' teams. An outlook on the 'evaluation system of main control room (MCR) operators' reliability' project, based on simulator data of operators' training is given

  13. The medical investigation of airship accidents.

    Stahl, C J; McMeekin, R R; Ruehle, C J; Canik, J J

    1988-07-01

    A review of the autopsy reports for 18 of 21 victims in 3 of the 4 nonrigid Navy airship accidents during the period 1955 to 1966 revealed that the patterns of injury, complicated by postcrash entrapment, immersion, or fire, are similar to the injuries observed in the low-speed, low-altitude crashes of rigid airships and of light aircraft. With the renewed interest in the development of airships for military purposes, there is a need for improved design related to crashworthiness and to aircrew habitability, safety, restraint, and egress in order to enhance the chance for survival in the event of an accident. PMID:3171506

  14. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark.

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers. Nevertheless, research on the behaviour and accident involvement of young moped riders remains sparse. Based on analysis of 128 accident protocols, the purpose of this study was to increase knowledge about moped accidents. The study was performed in Denmark involving riders aged 16 or 17. A distinction was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved, attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders and awareness of mopeds among other road users. Due to their young age the effect of such measures could be enhanced by infrastructural measures facilitating safe interaction between mopeds and other road users. PMID:26619285

  15. Safety investigation of team performance in accidents.

    Petkov, G; Todorov, V; Takov, T; Petrov, V; Stoychev, K; Vladimirov, V; Chukov, I

    2004-07-26

    The paper presents the capacities of the performance evaluation of teamwork (PET) method. Its practicability and efficiency are illustrated by retrospective human reliability analyse of the famous nuclear and maritime accidents. A quantitative assessment of operators' performance on the base of thermo-hydraulic (T/H) calculations and full-scope simulator data for set of NPP design basic accidents with WWER is demonstrated. The last data are obtained on the 'WWER-1000' full-scope simulator of Kozloduy NPP during the regular practical training of the operators' teams. An outlook on the "evaluation system of main control room (MCR) operators' reliability" project, based on simulator data of operators' training is given. PMID:15231353

  16. Investigation of accident management strategies for VVER-1000-Type reactors

    The goal of this work is the search for an optimal accident management strategy to prevent containment failure and to stop the core/concrete interaction from hindering cavity bottom melt-through on the one hand and from ending the ex-vessel source term increase on the other hand, i.e., to terminate the accident. The work is based on the results of previous studies of physical and chemical phenomena during different accident scenarios for VVER-1000-type reactors. For a TMLB' sequence (an accident caused by a transient in which core melt occurs because the electric power cannot be restored before the pressure vessel melts through), a number of calculations were performed using the source term code package (STCP) to investigate the influence of several accident management measures on the core/concrete interaction and the containment integrity

  17. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  18. Risk and resilience factors of persons exposed to accidents

    HERTA, DANA – CRISTINA; BRÎNDAS, PAULA; TRIFU, RALUCA; COZMAN, DOINA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Resilience encompasses factors promoting effective functioning in the context of adversity. Data regarding resilience in the wake of accidental trauma is still scarce. The aim of the current study is to comparatively assess adaptive, life – promoting factors in persons exposed to motor vehicle accidents (MVA) vs. persons exposed to other types of accidents, and to identify psychological factors of resilience and vulnerability in this context of trauma exposure. Methods We ...

  19. Investigation of the core melt accident in light water reactors

    In the thesis the core melt accident, heating up and collapsing of the reactor core were investigated. The most important parameters of influence were found and their effect on the development of the accident were shown. A causal diagram was developed representing the great number of events occurring in the course of the core melt accident as well as their mutual dependences. Models were developed and applied for a detailed description of the collapse process, melting of materials, heat and material transport at flow-off of the melted mass and for taking into account steam blocking in the destroyed core sections. (orig.)

  20. A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    accidents normally caused by apparent banalities occur much more frequently and with a higher rate of fatalities, disablements and other serious injuries than the ostensibly most dangerous kinds of accidents. In 1999 a practical tool for use by safety officers was developed; this tool is based...... on the investigation methods applied in major accidents, but comprises a simpler and more user-friendly presentation. The tool involves three steps: Mapping the facts, analysing the events, and developing preventive solutions. Practical application of the tool has shown that it affords managers and workers...

  1. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident final report of the AESJ investigation committee

    Atomic Energy Society of Japan

    2015-01-01

    The Magnitude 9 Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, followed by a massive tsunami struck  TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and triggered an unprecedented core melt/severe accident in Units 1 – 3. The radioactivity release led to the evacuation of local residents, many of whom still have not been able to return to their homes. As a group of nuclear experts, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to investigate and analyze the accident from scientific and technical perspectives for clarifying the underlying and fundamental causes, and to make recommendations. The results of the investigation by the AESJ Investigation Committee has been compiled herewith as the Final Report. Direct contributing factors of the catastrophic nuclear incident at Fukushima Daiichi NPP initiated by an unprecedented massive earthquake/ tsunami – inadequacies in tsunami measures, severe accident ma...

  2. Investigation of VVER 1000 Fuel Behavior in Severe Accident Condition

    This paper presents the results obtained during a simulation of fuel behavior with the MELCOR computer code in case of severe accident for the VVER reactor core. The work is focused on investigating the influence of some important parameters, such as porosity, on fuel behavior starting from oxidation of the fuel cladding, fusion product release in the primary circuit after rupture of the fuel cladding, melting of the fuel and reactor core internals and its further relocation to the bottom of the reactor vessel. In the analyses are modeled options for blockage of melt and debris during its relocation. In the work is investigated the uncertainty margin of reactor vessel failure based on modeling of the reactor core and an investigation of its behavior. This is achieved by performing sensitivity analyses for VVER 1000 reactor core with gadolinium fuel type. The paper presents part of the work performed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) in the frame of severe accident research. The performed work continues the effort in the modeling of fuel behavior during severe accidents such as Station Blackout sequence for VVER 1000 reactors based on parametric study. The work is oriented towards the investigation of fuel behavior during severe accident conditions starting from the initial phase of fuel damaging through melting and relocation of fuel elements and reactor internals until the late in-vessel phase, when melt and debris are relocated almost entirely on the bottom head of the reactor vessel. The received results can be used in support of PSA2 as well as in support of analytical validation of Sever Accident Management Guidance for VVER 1000 reactors. The main objectives of this work area better understanding of fuel behavior during severe accident conditions as well as plant response in such situations. (author)

  3. Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)

    The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure

  4. Use of casual tree method for investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials

    There are many methodologies used for investigation of accidents to facilitate the search of the factors that cause these events in different areas of industry. These can be called proactive methods, if they are used before the occurrence of the events, or reactive methods that are applied after the occurrence of the incident or accident, and are used as a basis of information to prevent further events. One of these methods is the Causal Tree Method (CTM). The basic idea of this technique is that incidents and accidents result from variations in usual processes. These variations can be related to the individual, the task, the material or the environment. The tree starts with the end event (incident or accident) and works backwards. The facts relating to the end event are used in the construction of the causal tree. The end event is the starting point and only the facts that contributed to the incident or accident should be selected. The analyst has to identify and list the variations and then display them in the analytic tree, showing causal relations. The objective of this paper is to test the application of the CTM method in investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials, in order to evaluate its efficiency on finding the typical factors causing these events. (author)

  5. Investigation on accident management measures for VVER-1000 reactors

    A consequence of a total loss of AC power supply (station blackout) leading to unavailability of major active safety systems which could not perform their safety functions is that the safety criteria ensuring a secure operation of the nuclear power plant would be violated and a consequent core heat-up with possible core degradation would occur. Currently, a study which examines the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the plant during the early phase of the scenario is being performed. This paper focuses on the possibilities for delay or mitigation of the accident sequence to progress into a severe one by applying Accident Management Measures (AMM). The strategy 'Primary circuit depressurization' as a basic strategy, which is realized in the management of severe accidents is being investigated. By reducing the load over the vessel under severe accident conditions, prerequisites for maintaining the integrity of the primary circuit are being created. The time-margins for operators' intervention as key issues are being also assessed. The task is accomplished by applying the GRS thermal-hydraulic system code ATHLET. In addition, a comparative analysis of the accident progression for a station blackout event for both a reference German PWR and a reference VVER-1000, taking into account the plant specifics, is being performed. (authors)

  6. Accident investigation of the electrical shock incident at the PG and E PVUSA site Davis, California

    Jacobson, L.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Garrett, J.O.; Tyler, R.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Accident Investigation Team (Team) assembled in response to a request from Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) to understand the events surrounding the electric shock of a worker at the PVUSA site in Davis, California and to provide recommendations to prevent such events from recurring. The report gives complete details on the sequence of events surrounding the accident and identifies 27 facts related to accident itself. Four technical deficiencies in the electrical systems which require further investigation were identified. The Team believes that the root cause of this accident was related to the absence of a proactive organizational entity responsible for overall health and safety on the site. Two contributing factors were identified. First, the prototype nature and associated operational difficulties of the electrical inverter resulted in large maintenance demands. Second, several of the injured employee`s co-workers noted that he occasionally failed to use appropriate personal protective equipment, but they never reported this practice to management. The direct cause of this accident was the failure of the injured employee to wear appropriate personal protective equipment (i.e., rubber gloves). Based on the review of the facts established in this investigation, five recommendations are presented to the funding agencies to reduce the possibility of future accidents at the PVUSA site.

  7. Integral Test Facility PKL: Experimental PWR Accident Investigation

    Klaus Umminger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of the thermal-hydraulic behavior of pressurized water reactors under accident conditions have been carried out in the PKL test facility at AREVA NP in Erlangen, Germany for many years. The PKL facility models the entire primary side and significant parts of the secondary side of a pressurized water reactor (PWR at a height scale of 1 : 1. Volumes, power ratings and mass flows are scaled with a ratio of 1 : 145. The experimental facility consists of 4 primary loops with circulation pumps and steam generators (SGs arranged symmetrically around the reactor pressure vessel (RPV. The investigations carried out encompass a very broad spectrum from accident scenario simulations with large, medium, and small breaks, over the investigation of shutdown procedures after a wide variety of accidents, to the systematic investigation of complex thermal-hydraulic phenomena. This paper presents a survey of test objectives and programs carried out to date. It also describes the test facility in its present state. Some important results obtained over the years with focus on investigations carried out since the beginning of the international cooperation are exemplarily discussed.

  8. An investigation on body displacement after two drowning accidents.

    Mateus, Marcos; de Pablo, Hilda; Vaz, Nuno

    2013-06-10

    The finding of human remains in aquatic environments is usually attributed to causes such as work-related or recreational accidents, suicides, discarded homicide victims, and natural disasters. When the point and date of entry in the water is unknown, these findings pose serious challenges to forensic analysis given the difficulty to estimate the drift of the body. In this context, the information retrieved from cases where the point of entry and body recovery sites are known, as well as the timing, is significant. Two drowning accidents in marine coastal waters were analyzed. In both cases the post-mortem submersion interval (PMSI) is known, as well as the accident (point of entry) and body recovery sites. Accumulated degree days (ADD) was estimated in both cases using satellite sea surface temperature data. In both cases the bodies were recovered in the vicinity of the accident site (~2 km in case 1 and less than 1 km in case 2). Results were interpreted in terms of oceanographic conditions, physical settings and ADD. The results provide some relevant clues on the fate of human cadavers in coastal marine environments that can be used by officials and agencies involved in the recovery of bodies, as well as by forensic investigators when dealing with these findings. PMID:23578843

  9. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

  10. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    We are investigating air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions. In this paper we present a program overview and highlight recent results of our investigations. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. We also describe the test facilities we use to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

  11. Report of investigation regarding accident in Tomsk reprocessing facilities in Russia

    At 1258 on April 6, 1993, the explosion accident of a welded tank occurred in the military reprocessing facilities in Tomsk, Siberia District, Russia. Japan carried out the investigation of the effect on the environmental radiation in Japan, dispatched the investigation mission to Russia, and explained the way of thinking on securing the safety of Japanese reprocessing plants to local communities. Science and Technology Agency organized the working group for investigating the accident, which exerted efforts to collect the information, analyze and examine it. This report is the summary of its results. The explosion occurred in the tank for adjusting the acid concentration of the solution to be supplied to the solvent extraction shop, and the building was destructed. No one died or was injured. The results of the radioactivity examination are reported. The process of the accident was inferred, and described. The factors that caused the accident were the mixing of organic impurities the use of the diluting liquid containing aromatic hydrocarbon, the contact of nitric acid with organic substances at high temperature, in sufficient agitation at the time of pouring nitric acid and so on. The safety countermeasures in Japanese reprocessing plants and the response by Japan based on the accident are described. (K.I.)

  12. Techniques and Tools of NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    McDanels, Steve J.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia accident investigation was a fusion of many disciplines into a single effort. From the recovery and reconstruction of the debris, Figure 1, to the analysis, both destructive and nondestructive, of chemical and metallurgical samples, Figure 2, a multitude of analytical techniques and tools were employed. Destructive and non-destructive testing were utilized in tandem to determine if a breach in the left wing of the Orbiter had occurred, and if so, the path of the resultant high temperature plasma flow. Nondestructive analysis included topometric scanning, laser mapping, and real-time radiography. These techniques were useful in constructing a three dimensional virtual representation of the reconstruction project, specifically the left wing leading edge reinforced carbon/carbon heat protectant panels. Similarly, they were beneficial in determining where sampling should be performed on the debris. Analytic testing included such techniques as Energy Dispersive Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA), Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Analysis (ESCA), and X-Ray dot mapping; these techniques related the characteristics of intermetallics deposited on the leading edge of the left wing adjacent to the location of a suspected plasma breach during reentry. The methods and results of the various analyses, along with their implications into the accident, are discussed, along with the findings and recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Likewise, NASA's Return To Flight efforts are highlighted.

  13. Investigation on Nodalization for Analysis of SFR Channel Blockage Accidents

    Chang, Won Pyo; Kwon, Young Min; Ha, Ki Suk; Lee, Kwi Lim; Jeong, Hae Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The present paper demonstrates nodalization analysis results obtained in application of the MATRA-LMR/FB to channel blockage accidents for a SFR (Sodium cooled Fast Reactor), KALIMER-150. In the earlier study, a uniform node size over the total sub-channel length in a subassembly was used. The study was carried out not only for the radially different positions, i.e. central, medium between the center and the duct wall, and edge sub-channels in the assembly, but also for larger blockage sizes larger than 6 sub-channels, the blockage size of which was classified into a DBE(Design Basis Event) in the KALIMER-150 design. The present investigation focuses mainly on the identification of conservatism as well as consistency in the analyses of the maximum coolant temperature for the 6 sub-channels blockage accidents

  14. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Influence of the critical accident seen to consciousness investigation of the public

    Here was introduced a consciousness investigation result carried out at Fukui prefecture and Osaka city after about two months of the JCO criticality accident. Peoples were disturbed by the accident, and not a little changed their individual estimations on items relating to energy. However, peoples lived in Fukui prefecture did not increase rate of opposition against nuclear energy promotion and nuclear power plant construction to their living area on comparison with a year before the accident. This reason might be understood by that the accident was not an accident of a nuclear power plant directly, and that their living area was much distant from place of the accident and was not suffered any danger. On the other hand, public opinion in Osaka city made worse on comparison with that before a year, and if such worse public opinion was thought to be due to the accident, its effect could be said to be different in each area even with no direct relation to the accident to shown a result dependent upon its various conditions. As a rough tendency on psychological disturbance due to the accident, it could be said that peoples became to have feelings of avoiding hard nuclear energy technology at a chance of the accident and to direct thoughts of soft natural energy and environment respect. (G.K.)

  15. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    2011. Method: The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States by estimating a generalized ordered logit model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005–2009. Results: Results show...

  16. 49 CFR 837.3 - Published reports, material contained in the public accident investigation dockets, and accident...

    2010-10-01

    .... For information regarding the types of documents routinely issued by the Board, see 49 CFR part 801... public accident investigation dockets, and accident database data. 837.3 Section 837.3 Transportation... OF RECORDS IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS § 837.3 Published reports, material contained in the public...

  17. An investigation of construction accidents in Rwanda: Perspectives from Kigali

    Cokeham, M; Tutesigensi, A

    2013-01-01

    The International Labour Organization suggests that measuring accident statistics is the first step in reducing accident numbers. However, many developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, including Rwanda, do not record accident statistics. In response to this, a questionnaire survey of 130 construction workers was undertaken in Kigali, the capital of the Republic of Rwanda, to raise awareness of construction accidents within the country. The survey generated information about 482...

  18. Investigation of Qom Rural Area Water Network Accident in 2010 and Minimization Approaches of Accident Frequencies

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study : Accidents in water networks can lead to increase the uncounted water, costs of repair, maintenance, restoration and enter water contaminants to water network. The aim of this study is to survey the accidents of Qom rural water network and choose the right approaches to reduce the number of accidents. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four sector of Qom province (Markazi, Dastjerd, Kahak and Qahan, were assessed over a period of 8 months (July – January 2010. This study was conducted through questionnaire of Ministry of Energy. Results: The total number of accidents was 763. The highest number of accidents in the four sectors was related to Markazi sector with 228 accidents. According to the time of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to September (19.7% and November (6.8%, respectively. According to the location of the accident on network, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to distribution network (64% and connections (17.5% and transmission pipe (18.34%, respectively. According to the type of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to breaking (47.8% and gasket failure (1.2%, respectively. Considering with the pipes’ material, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to polyethylene pipes (93% and steel and cast iron pipes (0.5%, 0.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Due to the high break rate of Polyethylene pipes, it is recommended to be placed in priority of leak detection and rehabilitation.   .

  19. Investigation of Qom Rural Area Water Network Accident in 2010 and Minimization Approaches of Accident Frequencies

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian; Ahmad Reza Yari; Mohsen Ansari; Shahram Nazari; Mohamad Saberi Bidgoli; Gharib Majidi

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims of the Study : Accidents in water networks can lead to increase the uncounted water, costs of repair, maintenance, restoration and enter water contaminants to water network. The aim of this study is to survey the accidents of Qom rural water network and choose the right approaches to reduce the number of accidents. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four sector of Qom province (Markazi, Dastjerd, Kahak and Qahan), were assessed over a period of 8 mon...

  20. Accident investigation practices in Europe--main responses from a recent study of accidents in industry and transport

    Europe has during recent years been shocked by disasters from natural events and technical breakdowns. The consequences have been comprehensive, measured by lost lives, injuries, and material and environmental damage. ESReDA wanted in 2000 - by setting up a special expert group on accident investigation - to clarify the state of art of accident investigation practices and to map the use of thoroughly accident investigation in order to learn lessons from past disasters and prevent new ones. The scope was to cover three sectors in the society: transport, production processes and storage of hazardous materials, and energy production. The main method used was a questionnaire, which was sent in 2001 to about 150 organisations. About 50 replies were analysed. The replies showed great variations but also similarities, among others in definition of accident and incident, the objectives of the investigation team, criteria used to start an investigation, the status of the investigation organisation, the flow of information, the composition of the investigation team, and the use of internal or international procedures or rules. Several methods (in total 14 different methods were mentioned) were used for carrying out accident /incident investigations. Most of the respondents were willing to co-operate in one or another way with ESReDA. Although there are important biases in the material, the results from questionnaire are important inputs to the future work of ESReDA Expert group in this field. 3 safety approaches have been identified

  1. A human factor analysis of a radiotherapy accident

    Since September 2005, I.R.S.N. studies activities of radiotherapy treatment from the angle of the human and organizational factors to improve the reliability of treatment in radiotherapy. Experienced in nuclear industry incidents analysis, I.R.S.N. analysed and diffused in March 2008, for the first time in France, the detailed study of a radiotherapy accident from the angle of the human and organizational factors. The method used for analysis is based on interviews and documents kept by the hospital. This analysis aimed at identifying the causes of the difference recorded between the dose prescribed by the radiotherapist and the dose effectively received by the patient. Neither verbal nor written communication (intra-service meetings and protocols of treatment) allowed information to be transmitted correctly in order to permit radiographers to adjust the irradiation zones correctly. This analysis highlighted the fact that during the preparation and the carrying out of the treatment, various factors led planned controls to not be performed. Finally, this analysis highlighted the fact that unsolved areas persist in the report over this accident. This is due to a lack of traceability of a certain number of key actions. The article concluded that there must be improvement in three areas: cooperation between the practitioners, control of the actions and traceability of the actions. (author)

  2. Organizational factors related to occupational accidents in construction.

    Filho, J M Jackson; Fonseca, E D; Lima, F P A; Duarte, F J C M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of organizational factors on occupational accident causation. A field study was undertaken and focused on the phase of concreting the floors of a residential block in a building project in Brazil. The methodological approach was based on the analysis of carpenters' work practices and of the workers' accounts of minor falls. Observations were noted on work practices over this stage. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with the workers hired by the subcontractors and with professionals working for the main contractor. The results show that falls were related to the introduction of new building technology and its use by the workforce. The production planning and organization of activities by the subcontracted firms also led to temporary demands that were additional determining factors for falls on site. The work analysis reveals the need to consider organizational factors in prevention practices. PMID:22317355

  3. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Cause analysis and teachings from a viewpoint of a human factor

    On the JCO criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999, from relatively earlier time since its occurrence it was elucidated that it was formed not by accident and error operation of apparatus and instruments but by unsafe actions of operators beyond regular manual as its direct cause, and that an organizational factor on business managers and safety administration unable to control such unsafe actions of operators at its background. Then, it was judged to be essential to carry out an accident research from a viewpoint of the human factor (HF) for elucidation on essence of the accident, to establish a 'special workshop on the JCO accident research' to investigate elucidation of the accident cause and countermeasure of reoccurrence at a standpoint of HF. As a result, the essential cause of this accident was summarized that safety information such as ideals, information, teachings and so forth necessary for safety management were failed to share among different organizations. As a teaching of this accident, nuclear energy participants must recognize that safety culture is not finished only in specific organization and range but produced by protecting weathering of danger consciousness and effort of mutually exciting and learning by sharing a safety information beyond different organization, range and time. (G.K.)

  4. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. PMID:26513334

  5. Investigating Boolean Matrix Factorization

    Snášel, V.; Platoš, J.; Krömer, P.; Húsek, Dušan; Neruda, Roman; Frolov, A. A.

    - : ACM, 2008 - (Ding, C.; Li, T.; Zhu, S.), s. 18-25 ISBN 978-1-60558-307-5. [DMMT'08. Workshop in Conjunction with SIGKDD 2008 /14./. Las Vegas (US), 24.08.2008-24.08.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * nonnegative matrix factorization * neural networks * information retrieval * data mining * binary data Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://users.cs.fiu.edu/~taoli/kdd08-workshop/DMMT08-Proceedings.pdf

  6. Cavity Heating Experiments Supporting Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Everhart, Joel L.; Berger, Karen T.; Bey, Kim S.; Merski, N. Ronald; Wood, William A.

    2011-01-01

    The two-color thermographic phosphor method has been used to map the local heating augmentation of scaled idealized cavities at conditions simulating the windward surface of the Shuttle Orbiter Columbia during flight STS-107. Two experiments initiated in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation were conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Generally, the first test series evaluated open (length-to-depth less than 10) rectangular cavity geometries proposed as possible damage scenarios resulting from foam and ice impact during launch at several discrete locations on the vehicle windward surface, though some closed (length-to-depth greater than 13) geometries were briefly examined. The second test series was designed to parametrically evaluate heating augmentation in closed rectangular cavities. The tests were conducted under laminar cavity entry conditions over a range of local boundary layer edge-flow parameters typical of re-entry. Cavity design parameters were developed using laminar computational predictions, while the experimental boundary layer state conditions were inferred from the heating measurements. An analysis of the aeroheating caused by cavities allowed exclusion of non-breeching damage from the possible loss scenarios being considered during the investigation.

  7. Investigation into information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island

    This report was prepared in response to a request from NRC Chairman Ahearne that directed the Office of Inspection and Enforcement to resume its investigation of information flow during the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) that occurred on March 28, 1979. This investigation was resumed on March 21, 1980. The transfer of information among individuals, agencies, and personnel from Metropolitan Edison was analyzed to ascertain what knowledge was held by various individuals of the specific events, parameters, and systems during the accident at TMI. Maximum use was made of existing records, and additional interviews were conducted to clarify areas that had not been pursued during earlier investigations. Although the passage of time between the accident and post-accident interviews hampered precise recollections of events and circumstances, the investigation revealed that information was not intentionally withheld during the accident and that the system for effective transfer of information was inadequate during the accident

  8. Data Mining of Causal Relations from Text: Analysing Maritime Accident Investigation Reports

    Tirunagari, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a process of extracting information of interest from text. Such a method includes techniques from various areas such as Information Retrieval (IR), Natural Language Processing (NLP), and Information Extraction (IE). In this study, text mining methods are applied to extract causal relations from maritime accident investigation reports collected from the Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB). These causal relations provide information on various mechanisms behind accidents,...

  9. Accident-precipitating factors for crashes in turbine-powered general aviation aircraft.

    Boyd, Douglas D; Stolzer, Alan

    2016-01-01

    General aviation (14CFR Part 91) accounts for 83% of civil aviation fatalities. While much research has focused on accident causes/pilot demographics in this aviation sector, studies to identify factors leading up to the crash (accident-precipitating factors) are few. Such information could inform on pre-emptive remedial action. With this in mind and considering the paucity of research on turbine-powered aircraft accidents the study objectives were to identify accident-precipitating factors and determine if the accident rate has changed over time for such aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. The NTSB Access database was queried for accidents in airplanes (turbine engines and occurring between 1989 and 2013. We developed and utilized an accident-precipitating factor taxonomy. Statistical analyses employed logistic regression, contingency tables and a generalized linear model with Poisson distribution. The "Checklist/Flight Manual Not Followed" was the most frequent accident-precipitating factor category and carried an excess risk (OR 2.34) for an accident with a fatal and/or serious occupant injury. This elevated risk reflected an over-representation of accidents with fatal and/or serious injury outcomes (pturbine aircraft accident rate over the study period was likely due, in part, to a 6-fold increased representation of single engine airplanes. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify novel precursive factors for accidents involving turbine aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. This research highlights areas that should receive further emphasis in training/recurrency in a pre-emptive attempt to nullify candidate accident-precipitating factor(s). PMID:26590507

  10. Proposal for computer investigation of LMFBR core meltdown accidents

    The environmental consequences of an LMFBR accident involving breach of containment are so severe that such accidents must not be allowed to happen. Present methods for analyzing hypothetical core disruptive accidents like a loss of flow with failure to scram cannot show conclusively that such accidents do not lead to a rupture of the pressure vessel. A major deficiency of present methods is their inability to follow large motions of a molten LMFBR core. Such motions may lead to a secondary supercritical configuration with a subsequent energy release that is sufficient to rupture the pressure vessel. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory proposes to develop a computer program for describing the dynamics of hypothetical accidents. This computer program will utilize implicit Eulerian fluid dynamics methods coupled with a time-dependent transport theory description of the neutronic behavior. This program will be capable of following core motions until a stable coolable configuration is reached. Survey calculations of reactor accidents with a variety of initiating events will be performed for reactors under current design to assess the safety of such reactors

  11. Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania: A Case Study of Kibaha District

    Komba, Deus Damian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district.In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk ...

  12. Risk Factors and Road Traffic Accidents in Tanzania : A Case Study of Kibaha District

    Komba, Deus Damian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis discusses the risk factors which are associated to the cause of road traffic accidents in Kibaha district in Tanzania; the study describes the composition of motor related injuries including non motorized casualties in Kibaha district. The thesis assesses different road safety measures taken by the local authorities to prevent accidents in Kibaha district. In identifying risk factor associated to the cause of road traffic accidents, four theoretical frameworks: System theory, risk...

  13. Investigation of the management of the wastes from plant accident

    The accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant discharged large amount of radio-nuclides and contaminated wide areas in and out of the site. The decontamination, storage, treatment and disposal of generated wastes are now under planning. Though regulations for the radioactive wastes arisen from normal operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities have been prepared, it is necessary to make amendment of those regulations to deal with wastes from the severe accident which may have much different features on nuclides contents, or possible accompanying hazardous chemical materials. Characteristics of wastes from accidents in foreign nuclear installations, and the treatment and the disposal of those wastes were surveyed by literature and radionuclide migration from the assumed temporally storage yards of the disaster debris was analyzed for consideration of future regulation. (author)

  14. A Study of The Relationship Between The Components of The Five-Factor Model of Personality and The Occurrence of Occupational Accidents in Industry Workers

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are among the most important problems of both the developed and the developing countries. Individual factors and personality traits are the primary causes of human errors and contribute to accidents. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the components of the five-factor model of personality and the occurrence of occupational accidents in industrial workers. The independent T-test indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between the personality traits and accident proneness. In the two groups of industry workers injured in occupational accidents and industry workers without any occupational accidents, there is a significant relationship between personality traits, neuroticism (p=0.001, openness to experience (p=0.001, extraversion (p=0.024 and conscientiousness (p=0.021. Nonetheless, concerning the personality trait of agreeableness (p = 0.09, the group of workers with accidents did not differ significantly from the workers without any accidents. The results showed that there is a direct and significant relationship between accident proneness and the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience. Furthermore, there is a meaningful but inverse correlation between accident proneness and the personality traits of extraversion and conscientiousness, while there was no relationship between accident proneness and the personality trait of agreeableness.

  15. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers...

  16. Aspects Concerning The Rules And The Investigation Of Traffic Accidents As Work Accidents

    Tarnu, Lucian Ioan

    2015-07-01

    When Romania joined the European Union, it was imposed that the Romanian legislation in the field of the security and health at work be in line with the European one. The concept of health as it is defined by the International Body of Health, refers to a good physical, mental and social condition. The improvement of the activity of preventing the traffic accidents as work accidents must have as basis the correct and accurate evaluation of risks of getting injured. The goal of the activity of prevention and protection is to ensure the best working conditions, the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases and the adjustment to the scientific and technological progress. In the road transport sector, as in any other sector, it is very important to pay attention to working conditions to ensure a workforce motivated and well qualified. Some features make it a more difficult sector risk management than other sectors. However, if one takes into account how it works in practice this sector and the characteristics of drivers and how they work routinely, risks, dangers and threats can be managed efficiently and with great success.

  17. Investigations on pressure suppression system loads at accident conditions

    For simulation of the integral behavior of pressure suppresion systems at accident conditions a mathematical model was developed which simulates a wide range of the loads occurring during a loss-of coolant accident. The multi-zone point model DRASYS serves for mathematical simulation of quasistatic (pressure and temperature build-up in the dry well and the suppression chamber) as well as dynamic loads (free-blowing process, water throw-up and condensing oscillations) in the course of a loss-of-coolant accident. For determination of the state variations with time in the individual pressure sections thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed between steam and water phases. Thermal non-equilibrium states are taken into account if phase separation interfaces between water and steam/air mixture exist. The flows between the individual pressure sections are treated as homogeneous, nonsteady, incompressible flows. For verification of the mathematical model recalculations were made of experiments performed at various test stands. Teh recalculations showed that the mathematical model has got a wide range of application and is suited for design and assessment of pressure suppression systems at accident conditions. (orig.)

  18. Investigation report on criticality accident at the Uranium Processing Plant of the JCO, Ltd

    This report is a summarized one of investigation results on a criticality accident at the Uranium Processing Plant of the JCO, Ltd., carried out by the Nuclear Safety Investigation Special Group (SISG) of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). AESJ published a statement of the president on this accident on October 8, 1999, and decided to perform its investigation under SISG. SISG carried out some questionnaires for new trials together with conventional lectures of the well-informed. This report contains six chapters on critical safety and accident, process of the accident and elucidation of its facts, cause analysis and picking-out on problems, questionnaires on improvement proposal', questionnaires on 'duty of AESJ7, and future efforts on nuclear safety culture. At the last chapter, SISG discussed about some items on re-occurrence protection of the nuclear accident. (G.K.)

  19. Accident risk and factors regarding non-motorised road users

    Agerholm, Niels; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2015-01-01

    is put into the reduction of the vast majority of the accidents, NMRU single accidents, which are about 90% of all injured NMRUs. There are no efficient tools available to reduce this number. A significantly better designed, maintained, and illuminated road network would most likely help. However......, that is expensive and not possible for most road authorities. Despite this, the challenges with NMRUs in single accidents need more attention, if road safety is to be improved. The situation in Denmark is more than likely the case in many other countries as well; although the documentation is scarce....

  20. Factors influencing the public intention to use renewable energy technologies in South Korea: Effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    The Fukushima accident has influenced public attitudes toward energy sources and technologies, including not only nuclear energy, but also other energy sources. Therefore, it is worth investigating how the accident influenced public perceptions of renewable energy and its technologies, between the time before the accident and after the accident. This study aims to explore the effects of the Fukushima accident on the public perceptions of renewable energy technologies in South Korea, the closest nation to Japan. This study found that there were notable differences of public perceptions, including public attitudes, perceived benefits, trust, intention to use, knowledge and risks between before and after the earthquake. In addition, the perceived cost of renewable energy technologies was the primary determinant of the intention to use the technologies before the accident, whereas public attitudes toward the technologies became the main antecedents of the intention after the accident. After the accident, we found that there is a multi-dimensional matrix of perceived trust-benefits (with risks)-attitude-intention to use, in explaining the public acceptance of renewable energy technologies. Moreover, we found significant roles of the perceived trust, benefits and risks in the research model. Based on the empirical findings, both implications and suggestions are presented. - highlights: • The factors influence public intention to employ renewable energy technologies. • Fukushima accident made significant differences of public perceptions. • Perceived benefits and risks are employed as key determinants of public attitude. • Perceived cost and attitude are found as antecedents of the intention to use. • Perceived trust is a notable motivation of public perceptions

  1. Experimental investigations on nuclear aerosols in a severe accident

    DELGADO TARDÁGUILA, ROSARIO

    2016-01-01

    [EN] In case of a severe accident in a NPP fission products are released from the degraded fuel and may reach the environment if their confinement is lost and/or bypassed. Given the high radio-toxic nature of nuclear aerosols for environment and population, their unrestricted release should be absolutely avoided. One particular situation is the core meltdown sequence with steam generator tube rupture (SGTR). The containment bypass turns this sequence into an indispensable scenario to mode...

  2. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress

  3. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress.

  4. Scoping Study Investigating PWR Instrumentation during a Severe Accident Scenario

    Rempe, J. L. [Rempe and Associates, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knudson, D. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lutz, R. J. [Lutz Nuclear Safety Consultant, LLC, Asheville, NC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The accidents at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3 nuclear power plants demonstrate the critical importance of accurate, relevant, and timely information on the status of reactor systems during a severe accident. These events also highlight the critical importance of understanding and focusing on the key elements of system status information in an environment where operators may be overwhelmed with superfluous and sometimes conflicting data. While progress in these areas has been made since TMI-2, the events at Fukushima suggests that there may still be a potential need to ensure that critical plant information is available to plant operators. Recognizing the significant technical and economic challenges associated with plant modifications, it is important to focus on instrumentation that can address these information critical needs. As part of a program initiated by the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), a scoping effort was initiated to assess critical information needs identified for severe accident management and mitigation in commercial Light Water Reactors (LWRs), to quantify the environment instruments monitoring this data would have to survive, and to identify gaps where predicted environments exceed instrumentation qualification envelop (QE) limits. Results from the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) scoping evaluations are documented in this report. The PWR evaluations were limited in this scoping evaluation to quantifying the environmental conditions for an unmitigated Short-Term Station BlackOut (STSBO) sequence in one unit at the Surry nuclear power station. Results were obtained using the MELCOR models developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored State of the Art Consequence Assessment (SOARCA) program project. Results from this scoping evaluation indicate that some instrumentation identified to provide critical information would be exposed to conditions that

  5. Scoping Study Investigating PWR Instrumentation during a Severe Accident Scenario

    The accidents at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3 nuclear power plants demonstrate the critical importance of accurate, relevant, and timely information on the status of reactor systems during a severe accident. These events also highlight the critical importance of understanding and focusing on the key elements of system status information in an environment where operators may be overwhelmed with superfluous and sometimes conflicting data. While progress in these areas has been made since TMI-2, the events at Fukushima suggests that there may still be a potential need to ensure that critical plant information is available to plant operators. Recognizing the significant technical and economic challenges associated with plant modifications, it is important to focus on instrumentation that can address these information critical needs. As part of a program initiated by the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), a scoping effort was initiated to assess critical information needs identified for severe accident management and mitigation in commercial Light Water Reactors (LWRs), to quantify the environment instruments monitoring this data would have to survive, and to identify gaps where predicted environments exceed instrumentation qualification envelop (QE) limits. Results from the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) scoping evaluations are documented in this report. The PWR evaluations were limited in this scoping evaluation to quantifying the environmental conditions for an unmitigated Short-Term Station BlackOut (STSBO) sequence in one unit at the Surry nuclear power station. Results were obtained using the MELCOR models developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored State of the Art Consequence Assessment (SOARCA) program project. Results from this scoping evaluation indicate that some instrumentation identified to provide critical information would be exposed to conditions that

  6. Program of long term immunological monitoring of population groups exposed to risk factors due to Chernobyl accident

    Program for long-term monitoring of health and immune status of people exposed to ionizing radiation during efforts to to eliminate effects of Chernobyl accident and those subjected to radiation factor effect linked with their living within the contanimated territories is considered. Program purpose consists in investigation into non-stochastic and stochastic immunological effects resulting from radiation factor effect under extreme conditions and under prolonged effect of low doses; in acquisition of new data on immune system state during early after the accident and delayed periods in people which took part in recovery efforts during the accident effect elimination and those who live within the controlled territories. Program is directed to early diagnostics of immune-depented pathologic states and other disfunctions of immunity during prenosologic period, and to development and conduction of combined preventive and treatment-and-sanitary measures using immunomodulation

  7. [Risk factors for accidents during sports while serving in German armed forces].

    Gundlach, N; Sammito, S; Böckelmann, I

    2012-03-01

    In the German Armed Forces sports activities should bring the benefits of good health and trained fitness which are the hallmarks of sportsmen. In order to achieve this aim it is important to avoid accidents which negate the benefit of sports. Until today there appear to be no studies in existence which demonstrate the risk factors of sports activities undertaken while in military service. Equivalent studies on civilian sport activities are scarcely comparable. To find out risk factors for accidents with any period of recovery we followed sports accidents while on duty in a German barracks with 4,300 soldiers over a two-year period. Additionally we asked about the time needed for recovery from each accident, parameters of lifestyle, the body mass index and the possibility of a nightshift before each accident. We examined a minimum of 410 accidents. We found associations between the accidents studied and particular risk factors, including doing sports more than two times a week, being active in a fitness or sports club, having the accident together with another sportsman and doing a nightshift before the day of the accident. Bad ground conditions contributed to a large number of accidents. A body mass index of 25 and higher had a significantly prolonged time for recovery. To avoid accidents, sport and ground conditions should be adapted to each other. In addition, overweight people are not only compromised for cardiovascular and neurological diseases but also have a higher risk of needing a prolonged time for recovery, thus it is important that overweight should be avoided and not only just be treated. PMID:22422284

  8. Have US Legislatures Fully Considered Causal Factors in Assigning Liability for Inherent Risk Accidents?

    Terence J. Centner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The public’s dissatisfaction with American tort rules has led US state legislatures to enact more than 120 statutes for assigning liability for accident losses. Many of these statutes address the liability of accidents involving inherent risks of activities where neither the activity provider nor injured participant was negligent. Due to business complaints about high insurance costs, legislatures decided that participants ought to bear the costs arising from inherent risk accidents. Yet, causal factors associated with sport activities may support an alternative liability rule to maximize social welfare. Because inherent risk statutes lead to increased activity levels, they are accompanied by increased accident costs. Factors causing incorrect liability results may be compared to offer a recommendation for a liability regime for inherent risk accidents.

  9. Punishment as a factor in preventing alcohol-related accidents.

    Ross, H L

    1993-07-01

    As a humanitarian and economic 'bad', infliction of punishment requires justification in terms of compensating achievements, as well as moral appropriateness. In the context of road accidents, there is evidence that increasing the certainty and swiftness of threatened punishment may deter risky behavior, although increasing the severity of the threat seems ineffective. These effects may be generalizable to other kinds of accidents, but empirical evidence is lacking. A further possibility for the justifiable use of punishment is in its application to negligent service of alcohol. PMID:8358271

  10. An analysis on human factor issues in criticality accident at a uranium processing plant. Pt. 2. A study on organizational factors contributing to the accident

    At 10:35 September 30th 1999, a criticality accident occurred in a uranium processing plant in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture, Japan during a job to make uranium solution. 150 people were exposed to the radiation. Two of three workers who have engaged in the job and were exposed to a massive dosage of radiation died of multi organ failures on 83 days and 210 days after the accident, respectively. The authors revealed in the former report (S99001) several latent factors contributing to pouring some 16 kg-U into the precipitation tank. It suggests some organizational factors played significant roles in this accident. Therefore, this report discusses organizational factors of this accident. As a result, this accident is heavily contributed by (1) company executives/managers' biased decision making giving emphasis on productivity or cost-effectiveness, (2) inappropriate process management, labor management and document management and (3) an organizational culture allowing them not to always follow rules. This report also proposes the directions of countermeasures to reestablish nuclear safety. (author)

  11. The official report of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission

    In October 2011, the Act regarding Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission was enacted to investigate the Fukushima accident with the authority to request documents and request the legislative branch to use its investigative powers to obtain any necessary documents or evidence required. In December 2011, chairman and nine other members were appointed. After a six-month investigation, Commission had concluded. 'In order to prevent future disasters, fundamental reforms must take place covering both the structure of electric power industry and the structure of related government and regulatory agencies as well as operation processes, for both normal and emergency situations'. Main parts of report consisted of overview, conclusions and recommendations, and six findings; (1) was the accident preventable?, (2) Escalation of the accident, (3) Emergency response to the accident, (4) Spread of the damage, (5) Organizational issues in accident prevention and response and (6) the legal system. Based on the above findings, Commission made seven recommendations regarding (1) Monitoring of the nuclear regulatory body by the National Diet, (2) Reform the crisis management system, (3) Government responsibility for public health and welfare, (4) Monitoring the operators, (5) Criteria for the new regulatory body, (6) Reforming laws related to nuclear energy and (7) Develop a system of independent investigation commissions. National Diet's thorough debate and deliberate on these recommendation was highly encouraged for the future. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Calculation of atmospheric dispersion factor for accident release from coastal nuclear power

    A model of calculating the probabilistic atmospheric dispersion factor for accident release from nuclear power plant (NPP), in which the effect of internal bound layer was taken into account and proposed. The final accident probabilistic dispersion factor used to evaluate dose, the dose for each pathway and the individual effective dose at the bound of a coastal NPP (0.5 km from the coastline) were estimated. The measured parameters from field atmosphere dispersion experiment on site of a NPP were applied. The result showed that not only the value of accident probabilistic dispersion factor but also the value of individual effective dose predicted were 5.9 times higher than those derived by a traditional model. Hence, the effect of internal bound layer on the accident dispersion factor and dose must be taken into account for coastal NPP when the frequency occurring internal bound layer is too high to be neglected

  13. Organizational factors and reoccurrence protection on the JCO nuclear critical accident

    A nuclear critical accident formed at a nuclear fuel conversion factory in Tokai-mura on September, 1999 became gradually clear not to be a simple human error formed at a level of workmen but to be an organizational error or accident relating to various organizational factors. As a nuclear power facility adopts a depth protection system fundamentally, a large accident with serious danger would not form only by a single trouble and a human error and unless some factors overlaps. By reviewing recent serious accidents and troubles, all of them seem to have a keyword of 'organizational factor'. In the JCO accident, there are some organizational factors such as a climate deviating from a manual, insufficient and loose check against change of procedure, reduction of operators from a reason of profit priority, attitude on priority of working efficiency, and so forth, which are partially common to the Chernobyl accident. Recently, accidents and troubles impossible to make them a cause of simple human error by a person but to have to say an organizational error, have increased. This trend seems to depend upon not only complication and scale-up of technology system but also graduate change of social and management systems operating them. Therefore, it seems to be necessary to introduce a concept of depth protection (multiple protection) in order to keep its reliability and safety when complicating and scaling-up of system. (G.K.)

  14. The crisis of investigative Journalism in Spain. The journalism practice in the Spanair accident

    José Vicente García-Santamaría, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The crash of the McDonnell Douglas plane operated by the Spanish airline Spanair, on 20 August 2008 at Barajas Airport, and the journalistic treatment it received undoubtedly represent a unique opportunity to address the current state of journalism in Spain. In particular, this article studies the use of information sources in a crisis situation, which requires a major effort to find the maximum number of primary and specialised sources to provide, in a short period of time, the audience with the key facts to understand the event. This accident also represents an excellent opportunity to study some practices within investigative journalism and the different factors that condition the media agenda. Finally, as in any other air tragedy, where millionaire compensations can be paid to the victims, it is important to examine the application of a series of ethical frameworks, which have been captured in deontological codes designed to assure fair journalistic practices.

  15. Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in BWR severe accidents

    Chemical changes may significantly alter physical properties of fission product materials, and hence their state and transport rate. Thus, it is possible that an appropriate accounting of chemical change could have a large impact on transport model results. This paper will describe how the chemical reactions of Cs, I, and Te are being implemented in the transport model that is used in the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

  16. Review of five investigation committees' reports on the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant severe accident. Focusing on accident progression and causes

    On March 11, 2011, the Tohoku District-off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake and the subsequent tsunami resulted in the severe core damage at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station Units 1-3, involving hydrogen explosions at Units 1, 3, and 4 and the large release of radioactive materials to the environment. Four independent committees were established by the Japanese government, the Diet of Japan, the Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation, and TEPCO to investigate the accident and published their respective reports. Also, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency carried out an analysis of accident causes to obtain the lessons learned from the accident and made its report public. This article reviews the reports and clarifies the differences in their positions, from the technological point of view, focusing on the accident progression and causes. Moreover, the undiscussed issues are identified to provide insights useful for the near-term regulatory activities including accident investigation by the Nuclear Regulation Authority. (author)

  17. Key factors contributing to accident severity rate in construction industry in Iran: a regression modelling approach.

    Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Construction industry involves the highest risk of occupational accidents and bodily injuries, which range from mild to very severe. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the factors associated with accident severity rate (ASR) in the largest Iranian construction companies based on data about 500 occupational accidents recorded from 2009 to 2013. We also gathered data on safety and health risk management and training systems. Data were analysed using Pearson's chi-squared coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Median ASR (and the interquartile range) was 107.50 (57.24- 381.25). Fourteen of the 24 studied factors stood out as most affecting construction accident severity (psafety and health risk management system to reduce ASR. PMID:27092639

  18. Psychological and social factors influencing the choice of strategy after a nuclear accident

    The analysis of the post-accident situation in Chernobyl provides information that focuses on social and psychological factors in the management of nuclear accidents. This paper concentrates on the short term countermeasures. It presents the main conclusions of a field survey carried out in Ukraine. The issues talked are the concern about extend of post-response in Chernobyl, the worries over health, contamination, the concern over the future and the complexity of post-accident situation. In a second part, the paper analyses and models the factors that caused the 1993 post-accident situation. Finally, several advices are given concerning the public information and behaviour focusing on the social and psychological aspect of short-term decisions (a constant effort should always be, for example, limiting the element of surprise in order to reduce the stress of population). (TEC). 3 figs

  19. Ontology Development and Evolution in the Accident Investigation Domain

    Carvalho, Robert; Berrios, Dan; Williams, James

    2004-01-01

    InvestiigationOrganizer (IO) is a collaborative semantic web system designed to support the conduct of mishap investigations. IO provides a common repository for a wide range of mishap related information, allowing investigators to integrate evidence, causal models, and investigation results. IO has been used to support investigations ranging from a small property damage case to the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Through IO'S use in these investigations, we have learned significant lessons? about the application of ontologies and semantic systems to solving real-world problems. This paper will describe the development of the ontology within IO, from the initial development, its growth in response to user requests during use in investigations, and the recent work that was done to control the results of that growth. This paper will also describe the lessons learned from this experience and how they may apply to the implementaton of future ontologies and semantic systems.

  20. Risk Factors for Intracranial Haemorrhage in Accidents Associated with the Shower or Bathtub.

    Thomas C Sauter

    Full Text Available There has been little research on bathroom accidents. It is unknown whether the shower or bathtub are connected with special dangers in different age groups or whether there are specific risk factors for adverse outcomes.This cross-sectional analysis included all direct admissions to the Emergency Department at the Inselspital Bern, Switzerland from 1 January 2000 to 28 February 2014 after accidents associated with the bathtub or shower. Time, age, location, mechanism and diagnosis were assessed and special risk factors were examined. Patient groups with and without intracranial bleeding were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test.The association of risk factors with intracranial bleeding was investigated using univariate analysis with Fisher's exact test or logistic regression. The effects of different variables on cerebral bleeding were analysed by multivariate logistic regression.Two hundred and eighty (280 patients with accidents associated with the bathtub or shower were included in our study. Two hundred and thirty-five (235 patients suffered direct trauma by hitting an object (83.9% and traumatic brain injury (TBI was detected in 28 patients (10%. Eight (8 of the 27 patients with mild traumatic brain injuries (GCS 13-15, (29.6% exhibited intracranial haemorrhage. All patients with intracranial haemorrhage were older than 48 years and needed in-hospital treatment. Patients with intracranial haemorrhage were significantly older and had higher haemoglobin levels than the control group with TBI but without intracranial bleeding (p<0.05 for both.In univariate analysis, we found that intracranial haemorrhage in patients with TBI was associated with direct trauma in general and with age (both p<0.05, but not with the mechanism of the fall, its location (shower or bathtub or the gender of the patient. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified only age as a risk factor for cerebral bleeding (p<0.05; OR 1.09 (CI 1.01;1.171.In patients

  1. 32 CFR 634.30 - Use of traffic accident investigation report data.

    2010-07-01

    ... data will be used to inform and educate drivers and to conduct traffic engineering studies. (e) Army... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use of traffic accident investigation report data... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic...

  2. Review of the TMI-2 accident evaluation and vessel investigation projects

    The results of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Programme and the Vessel Investigation Project have been reviewed as part of a literature study on core meltdown and in-vessel coolability. The emphasis is placed on the late phase melt progression, which is of special relevance to the NKS-sponsored RAK-2.1 project on Severe Accident Phenomenology. The body of the report comprises three main sections, The TMI-2 Accident Scenario, Core Region and Relocation Path Investigations, and Lower Head Investigations. In the final discussion, the lower head gap formation mechanism is explained in terms of thermal contraction and fracturing of the debris crust. This model seems more plausible than the MAAP model based on creep expansion of the lower head. (au)

  3. Breaking the chain: An empirical analysis of accident causal factors by human factors analysis and classification system

    Li, Wen-Chin; Harris, Don

    2006-01-01

    This research analyzed 523 accidents in the R.O.C. Air Force between 1978 and 2002 using the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework described by Wiegmann & Shappell (2003). This study provides an understanding, based upon empirical evidence, of how actions and decisions at higher levels in the organization to result in operational errors and accidents. Suggestions are made about intervention strategies focusing on the categories at higher levels of HFACS. Specific ...

  4. Does the influence of risk factors on accident occurrence change over time?

    Elvik, Rune

    2016-06-01

    A large number of studies have been made to assess the relationship between risk factors and accident occurrence. A risk factor is any factor that makes an accident more likely to occur. Very many risk factors have been identified, for example, being under the influence of alcohol while driving, driving on slippery roads, entering complex junctions, or driving in hours of darkness. Few studies have been made to determine whether the associations between risk factors and accident occurrence remain stable over time. This paper presents examples of studies that have replicated estimates of risk. All these studies were made within a given country, using the same method, to ensure that estimates of risk are comparable. The risk factors included in the paper are: daylight, horizontal curves, junctions, road surface conditions, precipitation, drinking and driving and driver age. For all these risk factors, their association with accidents has changed over time, mostly becoming weaker. A protective factor, snow depth, is also included. Its protective effect has become smaller over time. Possible reasons for the weakening influence of risk factors are discussed. PMID:26974026

  5. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely

  6. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    Results from cytogenetic investigations into 55 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1977 are reviewed. This report is the seventh in an annual series (previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35, R41 and R57) which together contain data on 327 studies. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. Two cases are described in more detail: the first concerned a non-classified worker who put an iridium-192 source in his pocket and took it home; and the second involved the accidental contamination of two people with tritium gas. In a second appendix, the confidence limits on cytogenetic dosimetry for X- and γ-ray over-exposures are given and the derivation of these limits is discussed. (author)

  7. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: analysis of driver-related factors

    Moafian Ghasem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Road traffic accident (RTA and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran. This paper explores the as-sociation between driver-related factors and RTA in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20, 2010 to June 10, 2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department. We included 538 588 RTA records, which were classified to control for the main confounders: accident type, final cause of accident, time of accident and driver-related factors. Driver-related factors included sex, educational level, license type, type of injury, duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver’s error type. Results: A total of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male, sex ratio of almost 13:1 were involved in the RTAs. Among them 423 932 (78.71% were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74% had a diploma degree. Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811, 54.00%. The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59 (75 024, 13.93%. The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years’ of driving experience. Ne-glect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589, 64.17%. Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175, 25.66% and 129 352, 24.02%, respectively. We found significant association between type of acci-dent and sex, education, license type, time of accident, final cause of accident, driver’s error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001. Conclusion: Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures, which will change inappropriate be-havior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Automobile

  8. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Factors in Major Maritime Accidents in the USA and Canada (1996-2006)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C, M.

    2007-01-01

    Accident reports provide important insights into the causes and contributory factors leading to particular adverse events. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis that extends across the findings presented over ten years investigations into maritime accidents by both the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and Canadian Transportation Safety Board (TSB). The purpose of the study was to assess the comparative frequency of a range of causal factors in the reporting of adverse events. In order to communicate our findings, we introduce J-H graphs as a means of representing the proportion of causes and contributory factors associated with human error, equipment failure and other high level classifications in longitudinal studies of accident reports. Our results suggest the proportion of causal and contributory factors attributable to direct human error may be very much smaller than has been suggested elsewhere in the human factors literature. In contrast, more attention should be paid to wider systemic issues, including the managerial and regulatory context of maritime operations.

  9. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    The results are reviewed from investigations during 1979 into 82 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation. Of these 45 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations, and 26 with an institution of research, education or health. 83% of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0-0.09 Gy (0-9 rad), and 17% in the range 0.1-0.29 Gy (10-29 rad). These data are compared with data obtained by physical dosimetry, and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each over-exposure, or suspected over-exposure. (author)

  10. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    The results are reviewed from investigations during 1980 into 68 cases of suspected overexposure to radiation. Of these, 37 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations and 20 with an institution of research, education or health. 55 of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0 - 0.09 Gy (0 - 9 rad) 5 in the range 0.1 - 0.29 Gy (10 - 29 rad) and for various reasons in 8 cases no biological assessment of dose was possible. The dose estimate for the case with the highest confirmed overexposure was 0.22 Gy (22 rads). The chromosome data are compared with information obtained from physical dosimetry and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each case. (author)

  11. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran:analysis of driver-related factors

    Ghasem Moafian; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Amin Hoseinzadeh; Kamran Bagheri Lankarani; Yaser Sarikhani

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA)and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran.This paper explores the association between driver-related factors and RTA in the country.Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20,2010 to June 10,2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department.We included 538 588 RTA records,which were classified to control for the main confounders:accident type,final cause of accident,time of accident and driver-related factors.Driver-related factors included sex,educational level,license type,type of injury,duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver's error type.Results:Atotal of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male,sex ratio of almost 13:1) were involved in the RTAs.Among them 423 932 (78.71%) were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74%) had a diploma degree.Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811,54.00%).The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59(75 024,13.93%).The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years' of driving experience.Neglect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589,64.17%).Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175,25.66% and 129 352,24.02%,respectively).We found significant association between type of accident and sex,education,license type,time of accident,final cause of accident,driver's error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001).Conclusion:Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures,which will change inappropriate behavior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users.

  12. Experimental investigations on vessel-hole ablation during severe accidents

    This report presents experimental results, and subsequent analyses, of scaled reactor pressure vessel (RPV) failure site ablation tests conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Power Safety (RIT/NPS). The goal of the test program is to reduce the uncertainty level associated with the phase-change-ablation process, and, thus, improve the characterization of the melt discharge loading on the containment. In a series of moderate temperature experiments, the corium melt is simulated by the binary oxide CaO-B2O3 or the binary eutectic and non-eutectic salts NaNO3-KNO3, while the RPV head steel is represented by a Pb, Sn or metal alloys plate. A complementary set of experiments was conducted at lower temperatures, using water as melt and salted ice as plate material. These experiments scale well to the postulated prototypical conditions. The multidimensional code HAMISA, developed at RIT/NPS, is employed to analyze the experiments with good pre- and post-test predictions. The effects of melt viscosity and crust surface roughness, along with failure site entrance and exit frictional losses on the ablation characteristics are investigated. Theoretical concept was proposed to describe physical mechanisms which govern the vessel-hole ablation process during core melt discharge from RPV. Experimental data obtained from hole ablation tests and separate-effect tests performed at RIT/NPS were used to validate component physical models of the HAMISA code. It is believed that the hole ablation phenomenology is quite well understood. Detailed description of experiments and experimental data, as well as results of analyses are provided in the appendixes

  13. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

  14. Investigations of radioactivity level variations in Armenia after the Chernobyl accident

    The problem of radioactive pollution of biosphere has been acquiring a special topicality after nuclear weapon testing and NPP-induced accidents that have already brought to global pollution of the Earth with radioactive substances. One of visual examples of regional radioactive pollution is dispersion of emissions all over the territory of Central Europe after the Chernobyl accident, which aftermaths impacted Armenia, as well. Monitoring investigations in the Ararat Valley showed a precise peak of gross radioactivity of atmospheric fallout in 1986 - the year of Chernobyl accident. Gross mean annual radioactivity was established 1783 10 7 Bq/KXm 2 yr. Later, a sharp fall in the activity was observed. Mostly, radioactive fallout consisted of short-lived radionuclides. Measurements for 1986-1987 showed that gross β-radioactivity level in soils amounted to 977-1022 Bq/KXg, repeated measurements in 1991 allowed establishing 640-656 Bq/KXg. A precise indicator of radioactive emissions that reached Armenia after the Chernobyl accident was a short-lived radionuclide 134 Cs (T1/2=2.07 yr) identified in soils. Measurements made 2 years later showed half as much decay of 134 Cs, and in some points established were its traces only. 137 Cs/134 Cs ratio in varied 1.4 to 1.8 in atmospheric fallout and 2.1 to 33.4 in soils. Thus, monitoring investigations evidence a regional character of Chernobyl emission dispersion, this being proved by investigations of radioactivity level variations in Armenia, too

  15. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

    Sousa, A.L., E-mail: alsousa@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, A.C.O., E-mail: antonio.ribeiro@bayer.com [Bayer Crop Science Brasil S.A., Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, J.P., E-mail: julianapduarte@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F., E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COOPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

  16. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

    Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

  17. Risk factors for traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis: a case-reference study.

    Na Ayuthya, R S; Böhning, D

    1997-12-01

    It was aimed to study injures from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis and identify patients' characteristics as well as to search for risk factors for traffic accidents leading to hospitalization. The study included 346 in-patient cases suffering injuries from road traffic accidents in Bangkok Metropolis. The patients were recruited during a period of 4 months of the year 1992 from five hospitals in various areas of Bangkok which were judged to be representative for Bangkok Metropolis. Using the method of case-reference, relative risk could be estimated for various exposure factors. Most of the patients drove a motorcycle, had their license for only a short period, and drove more than 5 hours a day. About one third of the patients were under the influence of alcohol. The traffic accident characteristics were that they occurred mainly at night time with the peak between 21.00 and 24.00 hours. About 90% of all traffic accidents occurred during the rainy season and most of them occurred near to road junctions. Reference data was available for some variables and the following risk group could be identified: RR (male-age 20-24) = 17.06 (8.8-33.9), RR (single-marital status) = 2.25 (1.7-3.1), RR (primary-education) = 6.2 (2.9-12.6), RR (unskilled labourer-occupation) = 3.91 (2.7-5.9), RR (salesperson-occupation) = 3.34 (2.2-5.0). PMID:9656420

  18. An investigation of core liquid level depression in small break loss-of-coolant accidents

    Core liquid level depression can result in partial core dryout and heatup early in a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) transient. Such behavior occurs when steam, trapped in the upper regions of the reactor primary system (between the loop seal and the core inventory), moves coolant out of the core region and uncovers the rod upper elevations. The net result is core liquid level depression. Core liquid level depression and subsequent core heatups are investigated using subscale data from the ROSA-IV Program's 1/48-scale Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and the 1/1705-scale Semiscale facility. Both facilities are Westinghouse-type, four-loop, pressurized water reactor simulators. The depression phenomena and factors which influence the minimum core level are described and illustrated using examples from the data. Analyses of the subject experiments, conducted using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 (Version 12.7) thermal-hydraulic code, are also described and summarized. Finally, the response of a typical Westinghouse four-loop plant (RESAR-3S) was calculated to qualitatively study coal liquid level depression in a full-scale system. 31 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report

    This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident's causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62)

  20. Critical review on what factors affected the evolution of the Fukushima accident

    This paper focuses on why the Fukushima disaster caused such different outcomes at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS) and the Fukushima Daini NPS, although both NPSs were hit by the largest tsunami in Japanese historical records and are located only 10 km apart. First, the authors' study classifies the progression of the Fukushima accident into four phases: Phase I (between earthquake occurrence and tsunami inundation), Phase II (after tsunami inundation), Phase III (efforts at restoration) and Phase IV (recovery from harsh conditions), in order to clarify the difference in the accident progression in each unit of both NPSs. The course of the accident's evolution at each unit is compared to derive the differences of mechanical and human factors which affected the accident's progression. Second, the differences of both factors are reviewed from resilience engineering perspectives to know what factors are important to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. As the conclusions of this critical review, it can be said that: (1) the system, structures and components of NPS are systematically designed, manufactured and maintained to perform the intended functions for expected events, however they have limitations to cope with unexpected events, and (2) the plant personnel can respond to such situations successfully by changing their approach flexibly in a number of ways. (author)

  1. FACTORS RELATED TO MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENT RISK BEHAVIOR AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN NORTHEASTERN THAILAND.

    Chumpawadee, Urai; Homchampa, Pissamai; Thongkrajai, Pramote; Suwanimitr, Amorn; Chadbunchachai, Witaya

    2015-07-01

    Young motorcycle drivers in Thailand are at high risk for road traffic accidents. We conducted this study to identify factors associated with motorcycle accident risk behavior (MARB). We studied 372 randomly selected university students aged 18-22 years (mean 20.2 years; women comprised 68.0% of our participants), who attend a government university in northeastern Thailand. Each student was asked to fill out a questionnaire asking about MARB and factors associated with this behavior. The respondents had an average of 6.2 years (SD+3.09) motorcycle driving experience, 72.3% had a motorcycle driver's license and 83.0% had accident insurance. The prevalence of self-reported motorcycle accident injuries was 42.7%. Their major MARB were using a telephone while driving (69.3%), speeding (45.4%), driving with more than one passenger (40.1%), drunk driving (22.1%), and not wearing a helmet (23.3%). Factors related to MARB were: gender, with men engaged in risky behavior more often than women (p 5 years experience were more likely to engage in risky behavior (p < 0.05); and knowledge of safe driving, those with a greater knowledge of safe driving were more likely to drive safely (p < 0.001). Having a greater awareness of MARB was associated with lower risk of engaging in risky behavior (p < 0.001). Students who engaged in risky behavior were more likely to view it as normal behavior (p < 0.001) and less likely to have adequate self-control (p < 0.001). Our findings indicate a need to strengthen accident prevention programs for university students in northeastern Thailand. PMID:26867401

  2. Investigation of Radionuclide Concentrations in Pine Needles in Vietnam after the Chernobyl Accident

    This work presents the results of measurements concentrations in pine needles in Vietnam after the Chernobyl accident. Investigations were made since second half of 1986 to 1988. Increasing of concentration radionuclide levels in 1986 was not significant and was ended at the end of 1987. The concentrations of radionuclide Cs-137 in pine needles were compared with those in precipitations. The pine needles can be recommended as a useful and accessible material for supplementary monitoring of radioactive situation in the environment. The results obtained can contribute to the overall picture of studies on the dynamics of radioactive distribution and global fallouts formed by macro scale nuclear accidents. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  4. Demographic factors, fatigue, and driving accidents: An examination of the published literature.

    Di Milia, Lee; Smolensky, Michael H; Costa, Giovanni; Howarth, Heidi D; Ohayon, Maurice M; Philip, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    This article reviews the literature pertaining to the association between demographic variables (e.g., age, sex, race, socio-economic status) with fatigue, and when feasible, accident risk. It also explores their potential influence and interaction with some working arrangements, commute time, personality characteristics, and circadian chronotype. Fatigue has been implicated in a range of impairments that can have detrimental effects on individuals, and it is differentially associated with conventional demographic variables. However, several major methodological limitations prevent clear conclusions. First, there is absence of a shared definition both within and across disciplines. Second, although fatigue has been investigated using a variety of diverse designs, they have either been too weak to substantiate causality or lacked ecological validity. Third, while both subjective and objective measures have been used as dependent variables, fatigue has been more often found to be more strongly linked with the former. Fourth, with the exception of age and sex, the influence of other demographic variables is unknown, since they have not yet been concomitantly assessed. In instances when they have been assessed and included in statistical analyses, they are considered as covariates or confounders; thus, their contribution to the outcome variable is controlled for, rather than being a planned aspect of investigation. Because the interaction of demographic factors with fatigue is largely a neglected area of study, we recommend greater interdisciplinary collaborations, incorporation of multiple demographic variables as independent factors, and use of within-participant analyses. These recommendations would provide meaningful results that may be used to inform public policy and preventive strategies. PMID:21130214

  5. Comorbidity and radiation: methodological aspects of health assessment of persons exposed to the Chornobyl accident factors.

    Nosach, O V

    2013-01-01

    Comorbidity is one of the most challenging problems of a modern medicine. In a population exposed to the factors of the Chornobyl accident there is an obvious increase in the number of diseases occurring simultaneously against the background of rising prevalence of different classes of chronic medical nosology. The scientific data analysis are presented on the methodological approaches that can be used to create a specialized system for integrated assessment of the health of patients with comorbid disorders. Developing such a system it should be taken into account the trends of changes in the incidence, prevalence and structure of chronic disease, factors and regularities of comorbid disease in the cohorts of Chornobyl accident clean-up workers, evacuees and dwellers of contaminated territories. The system should provide a non-random selection of combinations (clusters) of the most common diseases with serious consequences for the survivors. PMID:25191728

  6. Factors contributing to anxious driving behavior: The role of stress history and accident severity

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Olsen, Shira A.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Hagewood, J. Houston; Hickling, Edward J.; Hwang, Vivian S.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Although fear and travel avoidance among anxious drivers are well documented, relatively little is known about the behavior of anxious individuals who continue to drive. Previous research has identified three broad domains of anxious driving behavior: exaggerated safety/caution behaviors, anxiety-based performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive driving behaviors. In an effort to explicate factors associated with the development of anxious driving behaviors, associations with objective accid...

  7. Ergonomic (human factors) problems in design of NPPs. A review of TMI and Chernobyl accidents

    The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs

  8. 0BOccupational Risk Factors in Iranian Professional Drivers and their Impacts on Traffic Accidents

    MEHDI JAHANGIRI; ALI KARIMI; SAMIRA SLAMIZAD; MOHAMMAD OLYAEI; SEKHAVAT MOOSAVI; FATEMEH AMIRI

    2015-01-01

      In many countries road crashes are the main cause of fatal accidents related to job. The aim of our study was to characterize a population of Iranian professional drivers with regard to history of drivers’ road crash incidents and some occupational factors. Using Swedish version of the Nordic Questionnaire information about musculoskeletal pain prevalence in last 12 months, demographic features, smoking habits, age, job experience, road crash, job consent, self-perceived job stress, working...

  9. Severe human factor accidents and their management in a in-service nuclear Power plant

    Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is an important part of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in a nuclear power plant (NPP). It can be used to evaluate and quantify the behaviors of the operators in a post-accident response. The paper picks up the serious human factor event sequences that contribute more than 5% to the overall Core Damage Frequency (CDF) involved in PSA through a HRA analysis on a domestic PWR. The basic human error probabilities (BHEPs) of these human factor event sequences are resulted, on the basis of which the actions of the operators within the main control room (MCR) after the accidents are analyzed and their criticalities are arranged in order. The paper, from the point of engineering management,puts forward the measures to improve the corresponding emergency operating procedures (EOPs) and the MCR surroundings through analyzing serious human factor event sequence arrangement and the actions of operators in the post-accident interferences. With regard to the operator's interferences of high criticality the NPP should enforce training and improve its ability of interferences. (authors)

  10. Fatores contribuintes aos acidentes aeronáuticos Factores contribuyentes de accidentes aeronáuticos Contributive factors to aviation accidents

    Marcia Fajer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi comparar os resultados de investigações de acidentes aeronáuticos brasileiros do Centro de Investigação e Prevenção de Acidentes Aeronáuticos (Cenipa com os do sistema de análise e classificação de fatores humanos (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - HFACS. Foram analisados e comparados os relatórios finais de 36 investigações de acidentes aeronáuticos ocorridos entre 2000 e 2005, no estado de São Paulo. Foram mencionados 163 fatores contribuintes dos acidentes aeronáuticos nos relatórios do Cenipa, enquanto 370 foram identificados por meio do HFACS. Conclui-se que as análises do Cenipa não contemplaram fatores organizacionais associados aos acidentes aéreos.El objetivo del estudio fue comparar los resultados de investigaciones de accidentes aeronáuticos brasileños del Centro de Investigación y Prevención de Accidentes Aeronáuticos (CENIPA con los del sistema de análisis y clasificación de factores humanos (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - HFACS. Se analizaron y compararon los informes finales de 36 investigaciones de accidentes aeronáuticos ocurridos entre 2000 y 2005, en el estado de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil. Se mencionaron 163 factores contribuyentes de accidentes aeronáuticos en los informes del CENIPA, mientras que 370 fueron identificados por medio del HFACS. Se concluye que los análisis del CENIPA no contemplaron factores organizacionales asociados con los accidentes aéreos.The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS. The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accidents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS

  11. Aircraft accident investigation: the decision-making in initial action scenario.

    Barreto, Marcia M; Ribeiro, Selma L O

    2012-01-01

    In the complex aeronautical environment, the efforts in terms of operational safety involve the adoption of proactive and reactive measures. The process of investigation begins right after the occurrence of the aeronautical accident, through the initial action. Thus, it is in the crisis scenario, that the person responsible for the initial action makes decisions and gathers the necessary information for the subsequent phases of the investigation process. Within this scenario, which is a natural environment, researches have shown the fragility of rational models of decision making. The theoretical perspective of naturalistic decision making constitutes a breakthrough in the understanding of decision problems demanded by real world. The proposal of this study was to verify if the initial action, after the occurrence of an accident, and the decision-making strategies, used by the investigators responsible for this activity, are characteristic of the naturalistic decision making theoretical approach. To attend the proposed objective a descriptive research was undertaken with a sample of professionals that work in this activity. The data collected through individual interviews were analyzed and the results demonstrated that the initial action environment, which includes restricted time, dynamic conditions, the presence of multiple actors, stress and insufficient information is characteristic of the naturalistic decision making. They also demonstrated that, when the investigators make their decisions, they use their experience and the mental simulation, intuition, improvisation, metaphors and analogues cases, as strategies, all of them related to the naturalistic approach of decision making, in order to satisfy the needs of the situation and reach the objectives of the initial action in the accident scenario. PMID:22317482

  12. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be...... initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...

  13. Status of ANL out-of-pile investigations of severe accident phenomena for liquid metal reactors

    Research addressing LMFBR whole core accidents has been terminated, and there is now emphasis on quantifying reactivity feedbacks, and in particular enhancing negative feedback, so that advanced LMR designs will provide inherently safe operation. The status of recent HCDA-related laboratory research performed at ANL, up to the time that such activities were no longer needed to support CRBR licensing, is described. Included are descriptions of programs addressing sodium channel voiding, fuel sweepout, fuel dispersal and plugging, boiled-up pool, UO2/sodium FCI, and debris coolability. Descriptions of recent investigations involving the metal fuel/sodium system are also included

  14. Status of ANL out-of-pile investigations of severe accident phenomena for liquid metal reactors

    Spencer, B.W.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.; Baker, L.; Cho, D.H.; Gabor, J.D.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sienicki, J.J.; Stein, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Research addressing LMFBR whole core accidents has been terminated, and there is now emphasis on quantifying reactivity feedbacks, and in particular enhancing negative feedback, so that advanced LMR designs will provide inherently safe operation. The status of recent HCDA-related laboratory research performed at ANL, up to the time that such activities were no longer needed to support CRBR licensing, is described. Included are descriptions of programs addressing sodium channel voiding, fuel sweepout, fuel dispersal and plugging, boiled-up pool, UO/sub 2//sodium FCI, and debris coolability. Descriptions of recent investigations involving the metal fuel/sodium system are also included.

  15. Quantifying human and organizational factors in accident management using decision trees: the HORAAM method

    In the framework of the level 2 Probabilistic Safety Study (PSA 2) project, the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) has developed a method for taking into account Human and Organizational Reliability Aspects during accident management. Actions are taken during very degraded installation operations by teams of experts in the French framework of Crisis Organization (ONC). After describing the background of the framework of the Level 2 PSA, the French specific Crisis Organization and the characteristics of human actions in the Accident Progression Event Tree, this paper describes the method developed to introduce in PSA the Human and Organizational Reliability Analysis in Accident Management (HORAAM). This method is based on the Decision Tree method and has gone through a number of steps in its development. The first one was the observation of crisis center exercises, in order to identify the main influence factors (IFs) which affect human and organizational reliability. These IFs were used as headings in the Decision Tree method. Expert judgment was used in order to verify the IFs, to rank them, and to estimate the value of the aggregated factors to simplify the quantification of the tree. A tool based on Mathematica was developed to increase the flexibility and the efficiency of the study

  16. Risk factors related to systemic arterial hypertension in victims of cerebral vascular accident

    Joselany Áfio Caetano; Verineida Lima; Enedina Soares; Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo Santos

    2006-01-01

    The Cerebrovascular accident (AVC)is the third cause of death in the world.Apart systemic arterial hypertension (HAS),many other preventable factors are related to its appearance and evolution.This study aimed at identifying the risk factors for AVC in interned hypertensive patients.It was a descriptive study held at a philanthropic hospital in Sobral-Ceará,with fourteen patients taken ill with AVC.Among those,85.7%(n=12)were above 65 years old and the same quantitative were retired;71,4%(n=1...

  17. 32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident

    In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated 32P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a 32P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between 32P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The 32P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67±0.15 and 0.59±0.06 Gy (Bq g-1)-1 at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. In this study, a method for measuring 32P changes activated by the neutron irradiation of hair samples of criticality accident victims was developed and tested. In addition, a dose conversion factor for two neutron mean energy spectra based on these measurement results was developed. These results agree well with measured absorbed doses from exposure to fast neutron fields. The advantage of the proposed activated hair analysis method based on liquid scintillation counting is that it enables the acquisition of dose information from victims in a short time and with relatively high detection efficiency. In addition, sampling of hair is simpler than it is for other biological samples, and, finally, the conversion factor the authors developed using hair analysis data will be useful for dose assessment in real cases. However, the relation between

  18. The role of social and psychological factors in radiation protection after accidents

    The inclusion of social and psychological factors in the justification and optimisation of intervention after an accident requires identification of the relevant factors and their appropriate quantification. Recent studies suggest a possible approach. Some social and psychological factors either influence the consequences of radiation protection countermeasures, or are direct consequences of those measures. Such factors can be grouped into those that alter the dose-effectiveness of a countermeasure, those that extend the need for countermeasures in time or space, and those that fall into neither of the first two categories. Factors of the first two types can be quantified in terms of changes to the anticipated averted dose and monetary cost of a countermeasure. Quantification of the third type is currently difficult, but the existence of structural models for applications in social psychology suggests that such models could be developed for radiation protection in the future. (author)

  19. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated.

  20. Aviation safety and maintenance under major organizational changes, investigating non-existing accidents.

    Herrera, Ivonne A; Nordskag, Arve O; Myhre, Grete; Halvorsen, Kåre

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the following questions: Do concurrent organizational changes have a direct impact on aviation maintenance and safety, if so, how can this be measured? These questions were part of the investigation carried out by the Accident Investigation Board, Norway (AIBN). The AIBN investigated whether Norwegian aviation safety had been affected due to major organizational changes between 2000 and 2004. The main concern was the reduction in safety margins and its consequences. This paper presents a summary of the techniques used and explains how they were applied in three airlines and by two offshore helicopter operators. The paper also discusses the development of safety related indicators in the aviation industry. In addition, there is a summary of the lessons learned and safety recommendations. The Norwegian Ministry of Transport has required all players in the aviation industry to follow up the findings and recommendations of the AIBN study. PMID:19819363

  1. Investigation of fragmentation phenomena and debris bed formation during core meltdown accident in SFR using simulated experiments

    Highlights: • Study on settling characteristics of debris after severe accident in SFR. • Understanding fragmentation mechanisms of liquid molten simulant. • Correlation between key parameters of PSD in the ULLN expression. • Investigation of debris bed formation and radial stratification on collector tray. - Abstract: The event of a severe core melt down accident, resulting in the relocation of the active core is analyzed as a part of the nuclear reactor safety research in order to ensure safe removal of decay heat. Molten Fuel Coolant Interaction (MFCI) and debris bed configuration on the core catcher plate assumes importance in assessing the post accident heat removal capability. The key factors affecting the coolability of the debris bed are the bed porosity, morphology of the fragmented particles, degree of spreading/heaping of the debris on the core catcher and the fraction of lump formed. A well defined debris bed is helpful in fixing a prototypical source term for the PAHR studies. Towards this, a series of experiments on fragmentation kinetics and subsequent debris bed formation is conducted with molten Wood's metal (an alloy of Bi 50%, Pb 25%, Sn 12.5% and Cd 12.5% with melting point of 346 K) in water simulant system. The experiments are carried out using 2 kg, 5 kg and 20 kg melt inventories. The particle size distribution obtained for the fragmented debris is fit using an Upper Limit Log Normal (ULLN) distribution. The dependence of particle size distribution on initial melt temperature and interaction height is quantified by correlating them to the key parameters i.e. shape factor and location factor in the ULLN expression. Morphology of the debris particles is investigated to understand the fragmentation mechanisms involved. Three major mechanisms of fragmentation are identified namely melt entrainment mechanism, boundary layer stripping and hydrodynamic breakup due to capillary forces. Finally, an approach to quantify the stratification

  2. Investigation of fragmentation phenomena and debris bed formation during core meltdown accident in SFR using simulated experiments

    Mathai, Amala M., E-mail: amala@igcar.gov.in [Safety Engineering Division, RDG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Sharma, Anil Kumar, E-mail: aksharma@igcar.gov.in [Safety Engineering Division, RDG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Anandan, J., E-mail: janand@igcar.gov.in [Safety Engineering Division, RDG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Malarvizhi, B., E-mail: malar@igcar.gov.in [Safety Engineering Division, RDG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Das, Sanjay Kumar, E-mail: skd@igcar.gov.in [Safety Engineering Division, RDG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Nashine, B.K., E-mail: bknash@igcar.gov.in [Safety Engineering Division, RDG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India); Chellapandi, P., E-mail: pcp@igcar.gov.in [Reactor Design Group (RDG), IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Study on settling characteristics of debris after severe accident in SFR. • Understanding fragmentation mechanisms of liquid molten simulant. • Correlation between key parameters of PSD in the ULLN expression. • Investigation of debris bed formation and radial stratification on collector tray. - Abstract: The event of a severe core melt down accident, resulting in the relocation of the active core is analyzed as a part of the nuclear reactor safety research in order to ensure safe removal of decay heat. Molten Fuel Coolant Interaction (MFCI) and debris bed configuration on the core catcher plate assumes importance in assessing the post accident heat removal capability. The key factors affecting the coolability of the debris bed are the bed porosity, morphology of the fragmented particles, degree of spreading/heaping of the debris on the core catcher and the fraction of lump formed. A well defined debris bed is helpful in fixing a prototypical source term for the PAHR studies. Towards this, a series of experiments on fragmentation kinetics and subsequent debris bed formation is conducted with molten Wood's metal (an alloy of Bi 50%, Pb 25%, Sn 12.5% and Cd 12.5% with melting point of 346 K) in water simulant system. The experiments are carried out using 2 kg, 5 kg and 20 kg melt inventories. The particle size distribution obtained for the fragmented debris is fit using an Upper Limit Log Normal (ULLN) distribution. The dependence of particle size distribution on initial melt temperature and interaction height is quantified by correlating them to the key parameters i.e. shape factor and location factor in the ULLN expression. Morphology of the debris particles is investigated to understand the fragmentation mechanisms involved. Three major mechanisms of fragmentation are identified namely melt entrainment mechanism, boundary layer stripping and hydrodynamic breakup due to capillary forces. Finally, an approach to quantify the stratification

  3. The role of hematopoietic growth factors in nuclear and radiation accidents

    Molecularly cloned hematopoietic growth factors are likely to be useful in treating persons with bone marrow failure resulting from radiation exposure. Some effects, such as increased granulocytes or platelets, are of clear therapeutic benefit. Other effects, such as a direct action on survival of hematopoietic stem cells and improved granulocyte function, may also increase survival. Many important areas remain to be studied, including which molecularly cloned hematopoietic growth factor(s) to use, optimal dose and timing, and others. Some of these issues can be studied in clinical trials; others require in vitro or animal models. Despite the limited data currently available, it is clear that the availability of molecularly cloned hematopoietic growth factors heralds a new era in treating radiation and nuclear accidents.70 references

  4. Fukushima nuclear accident independent investigation commission by the National Diet of Japan

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, Independent Investigation Commission (IIC) was firstly established in constitutional government by the National Diet of Japan. This article described recognition of its necessity, its setup process, its framework with start from almost zero and about 6 months period and time, its basic way to proceed investigation and several obstacles and hardships, significance of openness to the public, web's communication and simultaneous interpretation (transparency) and basic philosophy of the report. Further significance of Diet's IIC in the democratic system and evaluation of the report were added. As a problem of separation of three powers in Japan, specific recommendations to the legislation of IIC and their future evaluation, nation's governance system problem and social responsibility of scientists and others were also discussed. If Japan were not to be changed after the disaster, Japanese future might be unreliable. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Experimental investigation of thermal behavior of concentric tubes during a severe accident

    A pair of experiments were conceived and executed to provide data and a technical basis for investigating selected aspects of postulated severe accidents in a pressure tube/calandria tube configuration. The response to core damage and debris relocation within the pressure tube was investigated experimentally. The experimental objectives of the two tests were: 1) to assess the potential for failure of an unflawed pair of concentric tubes when prototypic wall stress is produced while high temperature debris is resident within the inner tube and sub-cooled water is present outside the outer tube, and 2) to assess the dynamic and energetic interaction given the rupture of the concentric tubes and the discharge of molten debris under steam pressure into the surrounding sub-cooled water pool. These experiments provide an effective demonstration of the passive cooling mechanism which can prevent calandria tube failure and of the interaction between molten debris and water if a calandria tube were to fail. (author)

  6. Including severe accidents in the design basis of nuclear power plants: An organizational factors perspective after the Fukushima accident

    Highlights: • The Fukushima accident was man-made and not caused by natural phenomena. • Vulnerabilities were known by regulator and licensee but measures were not taken. • There was lack of independence and transparency of the regulatory body. • Laws and regulations have not been updated to international standards. • Organizational failures have played an important role in the Fukushima accident. - Abstract: The Fukushima accident was clearly an accident made by humans and not caused by natural phenomena as was initially thought. Vulnerabilities were known by both regulators and operator but they postponed measures. The emergency plan was not effective in protecting the public, because the involved parties were not sufficiently prepared to make the right decisions. The shortcomings and faults mentioned above resulted from the lack of independence and transparency of the regulatory body. Even laws and regulations, and technical standards, have not been upgraded to international standards. Regulators have not defined requirements and left for the operator to decide what would be more appropriate. In this aspect, there was clearly a lack of independence between these bodies and operator’s lobby power. The above situation raised the question of urgent updating of institutions, in particular those responsible for nuclear safety. The above evidences show that several nuclear safety principles were not followed. This paper intends to highlight some existing safety criteria that were developed from the operational experience of the severe accidents that occurred at TMI and Chernobyl that should be incorporated in the design of new nuclear power plants and to provide appropriate design changes (backfittings) for reactors that belong to the previous generation prior to the occurrence of these accidents, through the study of design vulnerabilities. Furthermore, the main criteria that define an effective regulatory agency are also discussed. Although these

  7. Test Plans for Investigating Molten Fuel Behavior in Coolant Channel during SFR Core Melting Accidents

    Suk, Soo Dong; Hahn, Doo Hee; Lee, Yong Bum

    2006-09-15

    The metal-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor system is expected to accommodate all credible malfunctions or accident initiators passively without damage to the core. However, the evaluation of the safety performance and the containment requirements for this system will most likely require consideration of postulated low-probability accident sequences that result in partial or whole core melting. For these sequences, some phenomenological uncertainties exist and experimental data are needed for modeling purposes. One such data need is concerned with the potential for freezing and plugging of molten metallic fuel in above-and below-core structures and possibly in inter subassembly spaces. The first basic data need is the properties for metallic fuel/steel mixtures such as liquidus/solidus and mobilization temperatures, as part of measurement of phenomenological data describing the relocation and freezing behavior of molten metallic fuel. Accordingly, plans for two different tests, one for determination of the liquidus/solidus temperature and another for determination of the mobilization temperature, are described in this report. Test plans are then described in the report for the investigations of the relocation and freezing behavior of molten metallic fuel in coolant channels, including possible chemical interactions of molten fuel with the channel steel structure.

  8. Test Plans for Investigating Molten Fuel Behavior in Coolant Channel during SFR Core Melting Accidents

    The metal-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor system is expected to accommodate all credible malfunctions or accident initiators passively without damage to the core. However, the evaluation of the safety performance and the containment requirements for this system will most likely require consideration of postulated low-probability accident sequences that result in partial or whole core melting. For these sequences, some phenomenological uncertainties exist and experimental data are needed for modeling purposes. One such data need is concerned with the potential for freezing and plugging of molten metallic fuel in above-and below-core structures and possibly in inter subassembly spaces. The first basic data need is the properties for metallic fuel/steel mixtures such as liquidus/solidus and mobilization temperatures, as part of measurement of phenomenological data describing the relocation and freezing behavior of molten metallic fuel. Accordingly, plans for two different tests, one for determination of the liquidus/solidus temperature and another for determination of the mobilization temperature, are described in this report. Test plans are then described in the report for the investigations of the relocation and freezing behavior of molten metallic fuel in coolant channels, including possible chemical interactions of molten fuel with the channel steel structure

  9. Discussion about Enterprise Accident Investigation and Analysis Methods%企业事故调查分析方法探讨

    孟凡强

    2011-01-01

    对企业事故调查分析方法进行了探讨,明确了企业事故调查分析程序,提出了具体的事故调查取证方法、事故原因分析方法和事故责任分析方法。%The investigation and analysis methods of enterprise accidents are discussed, the investigation and analysis procedure of enterprise accidents is defined and concrete accident investigating and evidence collecting methods, accident cause analysis methods and accident responsibility analysis methods are presented.

  10. An outline of the interim report of the investigation committee on the accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations

    Interim report of the Investigation Committee of the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations (NPSs) was published in December 26, 2011. The Japanese cabinet approved ten committee members including the author in May 2011. The committee interviewed more than 400 people over a total of 900 hours of hearings with about 40 staffs consisting of administrative team and three investigation teams of social system, root causes of the accident and countermeasures to prevent damage expansion of the accident. Interim report concluded 'the accident at Fukushima NPSs was caused by failures of every provision against reactor severe accident'. The failures appeared on (1) function of supervisory system for emergency response, (2) Fukushima Daiichi NPSs on-site disaster response especially related with operation of isolation condenser of unit 1 and high-pressure coolant injection system of unit 3, (3) Fukushima Daiichi NPSs off-site disaster response such the government failed to make use of data on the radioactive plumes released from the plant for evacuations, and (4) preparedness against tsunami and severe accident management. Possible worst or best simulation cases were also discussed. With no human support available on-site, workers might not have been able to prevent the meltdowns. Final report was due at the end of July 2012. (T. Tanaka)

  11. The Analysis of the Contribution of Human Factors to the In-Flight Loss of Control Accidents

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2012-01-01

    In-flight loss of control (LOC) is currently the leading cause of fatal accidents based on various commercial aircraft accident statistics. As the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) emerges, new contributing factors leading to LOC are anticipated. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), along with other aviation agencies and communities are actively developing safety products to mitigate the LOC risk. This paper discusses the approach used to construct a generic integrated LOC accident framework (LOCAF) model based on a detailed review of LOC accidents over the past two decades. The LOCAF model is comprised of causal factors from the domain of human factors, aircraft system component failures, and atmospheric environment. The multiple interdependent causal factors are expressed in an Object-Oriented Bayesian belief network. In addition to predicting the likelihood of LOC accident occurrence, the system-level integrated LOCAF model is able to evaluate the impact of new safety technology products developed in AvSP. This provides valuable information to decision makers in strategizing NASA's aviation safety technology portfolio. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of human causal factors in the model, including the contributions from flight crew and maintenance workers. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) taxonomy was used to develop human related causal factors. The preliminary results from the baseline LOCAF model are also presented.

  12. Investigation of relationship between mental workload and information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks in NPPs

    The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the relationship between an operator's mental workload and the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and further to propose the information flow rate as an analytic method for measuring the mental workload. There are two types of mental workload in the advanced MCR of NPPs: the information processing workload, which is the processing that the human operator must actually perform in order to complete the diagnosis task, and emotional stress workload experienced by the operator. In this study, the focus is on the former. Three kinds of methods are used to measure the operator's workload: information flow rate, subjective methods, and physiological measures. Information flows for eight accident diagnosis tasks are modeled qualitatively using a stage model and are quantified using Conant's model. The eight accident cases are considered here are: Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), Steam Line Break (SLB), Feedwater Line Break (FLB), Pressurizer (PZR) spray and heater failure, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) trip, Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) failure, and PZR spray failure. The information flow rate is obtained for each diagnosis task by imposing time limit restrictions for the tasks. Subjective methods require the operators to respond to questionnaires to rate their level of mental effort. NASA-TLX and MCH scale are selected as subjective methods. NASA-TLX is a subjective method used in the various fields including the aviation, automobile, and nuclear industries. It has a multi-dimensional rating technique and provides an overall workload score based on a weighted average on six subscales using pair-wise comparison tests. MCH, on the other hand, is one-dimensional and uses a 10- point rating technique. As with NASA-TLX, the higher the score is, the higher the subjective workload is. For the physiological measurements, an eye tracking system analyzes eye movements

  13. Effective Factors in Severity of Traffic Accident-Related Traumas; an Epidemiologic Study Based on the Haddon Matrix

    Kambiz Masoumi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traffic accidents are the 8th cause of mortality in different countries and are expected to rise to the 3rd rank by 2020. Based on the Haddon matrix numerous factors such as environment, host, and agent can affect the severity of traffic-related traumas. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effective factors in severity of these traumas based on Haddon matrix. Methods: In the present 1-month cross-sectional study, all the patients injured in traffic accidents, who were referred to the ED of Imam Khomeini and Golestan Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, during March 2013 were evaluated. Based on the Haddon matrix, effective factors in accident occurrence were defined in 3 groups of host, agent, and environment. Demographic data of the patients and data regarding Haddon risk factors were extracted and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: 700 injured people with the mean age of 29.66 ± 12.64 years (3-82 were evaluated (92.4% male. Trauma mechanism was car-pedestrian in 308 (44% of the cases and car-motorcycle in 175 (25%. 610 (87.1% cases were traffic accidents and 371 (53% occurred in the time between 2 pm and 8 pm. Violation of speed limit was the most common violation with 570 (81.4% cases, followed by violation of right-of-way in 57 (8.1% patients. 59.9% of the severe and critical injuries had occurred on road accidents, while 61.3% of the injuries caused by traffic accidents were mild to moderate (p < 0.001. The most common mechanisms of trauma for critical injuries were rollover (72.5%, motorcycle-pedestrian (23.8%, and car-motorcycle (13.14% accidents (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the most important effective factors in severity of traffic accident-related traumas were age over 50, not using safety tools, and undertaking among host-related factors; insufficient environment safety, road accidents and time between 2 pm and 8 pm among environmental factors; and finally, rollover, car

  14. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads

    Kirrilly Thompson; Chelsea Matthews

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Riding horses on roads can be dangerous, but little is known about accidents and near misses. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey, mostly attributed to speed. Whilst our findings confirmed factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around road rules, hand signals and road rage....

  15. Investigation of the radiological impact of reactor accidents under probabilistic aspects

    An analysis and conceptional investigation have been performed for the accident consequence model of the German reactor risk study. A dynamic atmospheric diffusion model is developed, which is applied in the first stage of the study to all distance ranges, and will be restricted finally to the long distance range. The wind direction and its variations are not taken into account in this model. The program set UFO-BAS calculates the time integrated nuclide concentration in air at any location downwind of the source. A further model which takes into account wind direction variations is being developed. On the basis of the proposals for the calculation of the health effects in the German risk study considerations on the storage requirements were accomplished. By means of these assessments a revised grid of parameters was evaluated. Furthermore, considerations were made for the implementation of an evaluation model, which will be developed by the Institut fuer Unfallforschung. (orig./RW)

  16. The investigation on the public panic caused from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    March 11, 2011, a huge earthquake and tidal waves in Japan lead to dangerous levels of nuclear leakage at Fukushima nuclear plant, the nuclear accident also cause public panic m many countries. To investigate the reason of the public panic, we employ the theories of sociology and psychology, analyzed that the public panic come from Ignorant Panic. Herd Behavior, Primacy Effect, Stereotype Activation Effect, and the superposition of these effects. In addition, we proposed three measures to the public panic: First, we should emphasize the safety of nuclear power and establish the positive image of nuclear power Second, we should emphasize the popular science of nuclear power so that nu clear power can be accepted in the public; Third, we should enhance the psychological intervention system for nuclear safe emergency and improve the effect of psychological intervention

  17. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract

    Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 or 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study. In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation. 43 refs., 6 tabs

  18. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract

    Emerit, I.; Levy, A.; Cernjavski, L. [Universite Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Clastogenic factors are found in the plasma of persons irradiated accidentally or therapeutically. They persisted in the plasma of A-bomb survivors over 30 years. Clastogenic factors were found in 33 or 47 Chernobyl accident recovery workers (often referred to as liquidators) in a previous study. In the present study, we show that there is a positive correlation between clastogenic activity and dose and that these biomarkers of oxidative stress can be influenced successfully by appropriate antioxidant treatment. With the authorization of the Armenian Ministry of Health, 30 workers were treated with antioxidants from Ginkgo biloba leaves. The extract EGb 761 containing flavonoids and terpenoids was given at a daily dose of 3 x 40 mg (Tanakan, IPSEN, France) during 2 months. The clastogenic activity of the plasma was reduced to control levels on the first day after the end of the treatment. A 1-year follow-up showed that the benefit of the treatment persisted for at least 7 months. One-third of the workers again had clastogenic factors after 1 year, demonstrating that the process which produced clastogenic factors continued. However, the observation that antioxidants do not have to be given continuously is encouraging for intervention trials on a large-scale basis. These appear justified, since clastogenic factors are thought to be risk factors for the development of late effects of irradiation. 43 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

    Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine (Ecole des Mines de Paris, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France))

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that

  20. Study of Factors Related to Accidents Occuring during the Construction Phase of Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Projects

    H Asilian Mahabadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Construction phase in industries is a dynamic process that is naturally and intrinsically dangerous and as it becomes more complicated, the accidents rate also increases. One should note that without considering a model, one could not obtain useful and reliable information and method to prevent accidents. Therefore, to achieve useful methods for preventing accidents, it is desirable to consider a model. The general goal of this study was presentation of a model. A model is the reflection of a fact. In other words, it should be said that the model represents a system or process whose behavior can be predicted. Models are therefore used for understanding the behavior of actual terminals and show a theory in the way that covers important variables for describing phenomena and instead, ignore factors of low importance in the expression of those phenomena. Methods: This study was a research article conducted in 2004-2005 in the Assaluyeh region. Data was gathered from accident reports present in security and health records of the projects and also statistics present at the treatment centers. In this study, an analytical model (multi-regression was presented to describe the impact of effective and deep factors on the possibility of an increase in accidents leading to death, through measurement of the effects of independent variables on the dependent variables. For this purpose, the structure of 50 accidents that led to death were studied along with another 2700 accidents, and after studying the accident reports and related documents, observing operations and equipment, counseling with accident observers and an expert team of managers, supervisors and engineers, and simulation of some accidents, unsafe conditions and functions, mismanagement and use of worn out and defective tools, equipment, devices and machinery were considered as the four independent variables and the job accidents leading to death were considered as dependent

  1. Investigation program on PWR-steel-containment behavior under accident conditions

    This report is a first documentation of the KfK/PNS activities and plans to investigate the behaviour of steel containments under accident conditions. The investigations will deal with a free standing spherical containment shell built for the latest type of a German pressurized water reactor. The diameter of the containment shell is 56 m. The minimum wall thickness is 38 mm. The material used is the ferritic steel 15MnNi63. According to the actual planning the program is concerned with four different problems which are beyond the common design and licensing practice: Containment behavior under quasi-static pressure increase up to containment failure. Containment behavior under high transient pressures. Containment oscillations due to earthquake loadings; consideration of shell imperfections. Containment buckling due to earthquake loadings. The investigation program consists of both theoretical and experimental activities including membrane tests allowing for very high plastic strains and oscillation tests with a thin-walled, high-accurate spherical shell. (orig.)

  2. A Human and Organizational Factors Perspective on the Fukushima Nuclear Accident - March 11 - March 15, 2011

    This report examines the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident using a human and organizational factors framework. It analyzes the crisis at three levels: the front-line operators; the plant as a whole; and the political context including the management team of the electric company and national politicians. By looking at each of these levels as well as the relationships between them, this report describes the way the organizational structures and their accident management procedures contribute to or hinder the resolution of the crisis. The report offers detailed chronologies of the unfolding of the crisis at each of the three active reactors at Fukushima Dai-ichi, at the political level, and at Fukushima Dai-ni. These case descriptions are used as the basis for an analysis drawing on risk and crisis management studies, in particular examining Perrow's (1999) centralization-decentralization conundrum and Weick's (1988, 1993, 1995) work on sense-making, among others. The main findings include: 1/ The accident disrupts not only the situation, but also in the ways people go about gathering information on the situation People had to make sense of what happened and find new ways to interpret limited information 2/ Tue interruption of the communication flow between the ERC and MCR can have dramatic consequences. It is important to maintain the communication between the ERC and MCR in all circumstances. 3/ The difficulty of simultaneously supervise crisis room tranches due to its under sizing. A capacity adjustment to the ERC must be made according to the number of reactors involved. 4/ Because of the reluctance to make the decision to test a new possibility in a crisis context, internal coordination is necessary to decide on the implementation of new solutions. Cross-functional teams can be very useful in coming up with new solutions. 5/ Worker safety policies should be as clear and specific as possible before accidents occur. Where sub-contractors are involved

  3. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam; Karim Hamdi; Mandana Sediqi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-su...

  4. Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.

    Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R

    2016-02-01

    The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. PMID:26687540

  5. The Role of Materials Degradation and Analysis in the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    McDanels, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    The efforts following the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia included debris recovery, reconstruction, and analysis. The debris was subjected to myriad quantitative and semiquantitative chemical analysis techniques, ranging from examination via the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The results from the work with the debris helped the investigators determine the location where a breach likely occurred in the leading edge of the left wing during lift off of the Orbiter from the Kennedy Space Center. Likewise, the information evidenced by the debris was also crucial in ascertaining the path of impinging plasma flow once it had breached the wing. After the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) issued its findings, the major portion of the investigation was concluded. However, additional work remained to be done on many pieces of debris from portions of the Orbiter which were not directly related to the initial impact during ascent. This subsequent work was not only performed in the laboratory, but was also performed with portable equipment, including examination via portable X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Likewise, acetate and silicon-rubber replicas of various fracture surfaces were obtained for later macroscopic and fractographic examination. This paper will detail the efforts and findings from the initial investigation, as well as present results obtained by the later examination and analysis of debris from the Orbiter including its windows, bulkhead structures, and other components which had not been examined during the primary investigation.

  6. Learning lessons from accidents with a human and organisational factors perspective: deficiencies and failures of operating experience feedback systems

    This paper aims at reminding the failures of operating experience feedback (OEF) systems through the lessons of accidents and provides a framework for improving the efficiency of OEF processes. The risk is for example to miss lessons from other companies and industrial sectors, or to miss the implementation of adequate corrective actions with the risk to repeat accidents. Most of major accidents have been caused by a learning failure or other organisational factors as a contributing cause among several root causes. Some of the recurring organisational factors are: -) poor recognition of critical components, of critical activities or deficiency in anticipation and detection of errors, -) excessive production pressure, -) deficiency of communication or lack of quality of dialogue, -) Excessive formalism, -) organisational complexity, -) learning deficiencies (OEF, closing feedback loops, lack of listening of whistle-blowers). Some major accidents occurred in the nuclear industry. Although the Three Mile Island accident has multiple causes, in particular, an inappropriate design of the man-machine interface, it is a striking example of the loss of external lessons from incidents. As for Fukushima it is too early to have established evidence on learning failures. The systematic study and organisational analysis of OEF failures in industrial accidents whatever their sector has enabled us to provide a framework for OEF improvements. Five key OEF issues to improve in priority: 1) human and organisational factors analysis of the root causes of the events, 2) listening to the field staff, dissenting voices and whistle-blowers, 3) monitoring of the external events that provide generic lessons, 4) building an alive memory through a culture of accidents with people who become experiences pillars, and 5) the setting of external audit or organisational analysis of the OEF system by independent experts. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  7. Cases of fatal accidents and violence among children, adolescents and young people: perception of the family and associated factors

    Christine Baccarat De Godoy Martins; Maria Helena Prado de Mello Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of children and young people die from fatal accidents or violence every year and others suffer the consequences of non-lethal lesions. Knowing the associated factors is essential for moving forward in the control of these events. The study analysed the families’ perception and factors associated with deaths due to external causes of children, adolescents and young people. Cross-sectional study from deaths from accidents and violence in the age group of 0 to 24 years in the city ofCui...

  8. 0BOccupational Risk Factors in Iranian Professional Drivers and their Impacts on Traffic Accidents

    MEHDI JAHANGIRI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available   In many countries road crashes are the main cause of fatal accidents related to job. The aim of our study was to characterize a population of Iranian professional drivers with regard to history of drivers’ road crash incidents and some occupational factors. Using Swedish version of the Nordic Questionnaire information about musculoskeletal pain prevalence in last 12 months, demographic features, smoking habits, age, job experience, road crash, job consent, self-perceived job stress, working load and fatigue were obtained from 403 drivers. Ninety seven (25% of the study population reported having one or more traffic accident during their driving job history. The association between self-report incident of road crash and driving duration, smoking, lack of exercise, fatigue, lack of health education and musculoskeletal complaints were statistically significant(p<0.05. Data analysis also revealed positive significant association between fatigue as dependent variable and driving duration, self perceived stress and lack of job consent as independent variables (p<0.01. The questionnaire data indicated that signs of fatigue in smoker drivers, old drivers (>50 years, high experienced drivers (>10 years, drivers without sport activities, night drivers, fat and over weighted drivers, old vehicle drivers (age of vehicle >10 years, bus and truck drivers were more than other groups of professional drivers but the differences were not significant. It can be said that occupational risk factors influence the safe operation of drivers. However, prevention strategies such as organizational changes for reducing work-related stress, recording and analysis of road incidents, national health and safety law for drivers are needed.

  9. Main investigation results on the forest radioecology in the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accident zones

    As a result of the long-term studies of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in zones of radioactive contamination after the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accidents, the following trends were revealed: (1) High retention capacity of stand canopy with respect to radioactive fallout. This leads to high doses absorbed by apical and leaf meristems, β-radiation giving the main part of the dose; (2) Fast self-decontamination of crowns during the growth period and relatively slow decontamination in the phase of physiological rest, regardless of amount of atmospheric precipitation. The rate of crown decontamination determines the value and duration of radiation stress on woody plants; (3) Accumulation not less than 95% of the total radionuclide amount in the forest litter 1-2 years after the cessation of radioactive fallout; (4) Relatively slow migration of strontium and cesium radionuclides along the forest soil profile; (5) High capacity of the forest when serving as a biogeochemical barrier to the routes of horizontal and vertical radionuclide migration and export out of the zone of initial contamination, including migration into the river water; (6) Considerable difference between strontium and cesium when migrating in forest soils and in the soil-plant system; (7) Broad variations in transfer factors for uptake of cesium-137 from soil into forest plants depending on the plant species and soil type. The primary radiobiological effects connected with irradiation of organisms are considered and secondary disturbances due to changes of ecological bonds between the components of irradiated forest ecosystem are discussed

  10. How to identify the key factors that affect driver perception of accident risk. A comparison between Italian and Spanish driver behavior.

    de Oña, Juan; de Oña, Rocio; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Road crashes can be caused by different factors, including infrastructure, vehicles, and human variables. Many research studies have focused solely on identifying the key factors that cause road crashes. From these studies, it emerged that human factors have the most relevant impact on accident severity. More specifically, accident severity depends on several factors related directly to the driver, i.e., driving experience, driver's socio-economic characteristics, and driving behavior and attitudes. In this paper, we investigate driver behaviors and attitudes while driving and specifically focus on different methods for identifying the factors that most affect the driver's perception of accident risk. To this end, we designed and conducted a survey in two different European contexts: the city of Cosenza, which is located in the south of Italy, and the city of Granada, which is located in the south of Spain. Samples of drivers were contacted for their opinions on certain aspects of driving rules and attitudes while driving, and different types of questions were addressed to the drivers to assess their judgments of these aspects. Consequently, different methods of data analysis were applied to determine the aspects that heavily influence driver perception of accident risk. An experiment based on the stated preferences (SP) was carried out with the drivers, and the SP data were analyzed using an ordered probit (OP) model. Interesting findings emerged from different analyses of the data and from the comparisons among the data collected in the two different territorial contexts. We found that both Italian and Spanish drivers consider driving in an altered psychophysical state and violating the overtaking rules to be the most risky behaviors. PMID:25247553

  11. The investigation on the mass media reports on the JCO accident in the major atomic energy countries and Asian countries

    The JCO (Japan Conversion Organization) accident is the worst one in the history of the atomic energy developments in Japan. The many reports about the accident appeared in the 44 mass media in the world from Sep. 30 to Oct. 14, 1999. Chronological statistics of issued 522 articles are listed under particular criteria. Some of them were based on wrong knowledge and/or overestimations about the accident based on delivered articles by the news agency. Some of others gave critics over the total atomic energy industries of Japan, especially on safety managements and so-called similar Japan syndromes. This investigation gives emphasis on the articles based on wrong knowledge. We identified the countries and the newspaper publishers and the news agencies those gave wrong descriptions. Total 25 articles used the words [explosion] and [fire], which were delivered from the Kyodo News Service. Some of the Asian newspaper wrote that a large quantity of radioactivity, radioactive material and/or nuclear fuels was released. Some other news publishers said the accident was happened at fuel reprocessing facilities, when the waste fuel rods were under cutting. Critics delivered in the individual countries were summarized, i.e. USA, Canada, France, UK, German, Russia, Australia, China, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Taiwan and the news agencies. One of the key issues is the exact information release for the press corps on the early stage of the accidents. The second point is to recognize the different status on atomic energy in the individual countries, when Japan want to explain their domestic situations. Accidents of atomic energy gave many impacts on various aspects to other countries. Japan should understand the neighborhood by collecting world information on atomic energy and analyzing them. Summaries of 522 articles appeared in the mass media were attached in this investigation among the report of 180 pages. (Tanaka, Y.)

  12. Investigation of the different scenarios occurring in a PWR in case of a TMLB accident

    Severe accidents in light water reactors fall into one of two main categories, depending on whether or not core meltdown is accompanied by a pressure buildup in the primary system. The way in which the accident develops is, in fact, largely conditioned by this pressure aspect: temperature distribution in the core and primary system resulting from natural convection gas streams; fuel clad failure mode, etc... One major effect of pressure buildup on the accident scenario is primary system failure under the combined actions of pressure and temperature. The purpose of the present paper is to present, after a detailed thermalhydraulic study, an analysis of the timing and location of the system failures in case of a TMLB accident on CPY french type reactor

  13. Investigation on droplet impingement erosion during steam generator tube failure accident

    Highlights: ► Sodium droplet impingement is regarded as one of the mechanisms causing secondary tube failure in case of steam generator tube rupture accident. ► The moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method is applied to simulate the sodium droplet impingement. ► The erosion rate correlation for water impingement is extended for application in the sodium impingement. - Abstract: Droplet impingement erosion is one of the reasons causing the secondary heat transfer tube damage in case of the heat transfer tube failure in the steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor. This paper has been dedicated to investigate the impingement phenomena, pressure load and the damage rate by impingement. Single droplet impingement on the rigid wall was first simulated with MPS-AS (moving particle semi-implicit method for all speeds) method for water and sodium. The shockwave propagation during the impingement has been well captured. The pressure load by water impingement can be characterized with . A correlation for pressure load by sodium impingement is proposed based on the water hammer theory. The new correlation shows to be consistent with the simulation result. For prediction of erosion rate by sodium droplet impingement, were extended by including the effects of liquid properties, i.e. density, sound speed and viscosity. The extended correlations show similar prediction accuracy to the original ones.

  14. Investigations related to the chemical behaviour of methyl iodide at severe PWR-accidents

    The decomposition velocity of methyl iodide in aqueous solutions of boric acid has been measured at temperatures up to 423 K and at chemical conditions which are expected to exist in the sumpwater pool during a severe reactor accident. The decomposition was due only to hydrolysis which increased by the expected amount at high temperature. No influence of the cooling water additives was observed. Treatment of the available kinetic data indicated that the influence of polluting material expectedly present in the sump is likely to be negligible too. A possible exception may be the enhancement of the decomposition rate by particulate and dissolved silver. The resistance of methyl iodide to gas phase decomposition by steam and oxygen at 423 K was investigated and only slow decomposition in the order of 10-7/s observed which is explained by reaction with steel surfaces. Neither gas phase oxidation nor hydrolysis occur at this temperature. The resistance to oxidation is of kinetic nature. Gas phase hydrolysis is not possible due to thermodynamics. This was confirmed by the observed gas phase formation of methyl iodide from hydrogen iodide and methanol at 423 K. The kinetics of this reaction are best explained by two parallel reactions, one of second order with a kinetic constant of 1.25 x 10-5/kPa s, and one of third order under action of steam with a constant of 2 x 10-6/kPa2 s. (orig./HP)

  15. ERSEC, investigation of the reflooding phase of a Loss of Coolant Accident

    1 - Description of test facility: ERSEC loop in Grenoble, France: - uniformly heated and internally cooled single tube installed in the ERSEC; - tube placed in a vacuum chamber with reflecting shield to reduce external heat losses; - constant operating conditions (flooding rate, subcooling of water and power generation); - initial conditions: Pressure 0.3 MPa; Flooding rate 52 kg/m2 s; inlet water subcooling 23 K; Power 6.2 KW. 2 - Description of test: Investigation of the thermal-hydraulics of the reflood phase of a loss of coolant accident. Scaling Information: - analytical experiment, two-phase thermal-hydraulic oriented exercise; - 0.3 MPa total pressure, assumed as constant. Parameters offered for Comparison: - wall temperatures of tube at 4 distinct elevations versus time; - quench time at different elevations; - water entrainment at tube exit versus time; - steam temperature at tube exit versus time. Findings: - experiment characterized by strong non-equilibrium effects(e.g. subcooled boiling and void formation); - thermal equilibrium codes could not predict the measurements in all respects; - RELAP4-MOD 6 empiricism derived from bundle experiments not applicable for this internally cooled mono-tube experiment; - ISP 7 results not representative for capabilities to predict nuclear plant system behaviour

  16. Experimental investigation of symmetric and asymmetric heating of pressure tube under accident conditions for Indian PHWR

    Yadav, Ashwini K., E-mail: ashwinikumaryadav@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Majumdar, P., E-mail: pmajum@barc.gov.in [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Kumar, Ravi, E-mail: ravikfme@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Chatterjee, B., E-mail: barun@barc.gov.in [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Gupta, Akhilesh, E-mail: akhilfme@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Lele, H.G., E-mail: hglele@barc.gov.in [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Circumferential temperature gradient for asymmetric heat-up was 400 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At same pressure ballooning initiates at lower temperature in asymmetrical heat-up. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 1 MPa ballooning initiated at 408 Degree-Sign C and with expansion rate of 0.005 mm/s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 2 MPa ballooning initiation at 330 Degree-Sign C and with expansion rate of 0.0056 mm/s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For symmetrical heat-up strain rate was 10 times faster than asymmetric heat-up. - Abstract: In pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), under postulated scenario of small break Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) coincident with the failure of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), a situation may arise under which reduction in mass flow rate of coolant through individual reactor channel can lead to stratified flow. Such stratified flow condition creates partial uncover of fuel bundle, which creates a circumferential temperature gradient over PT. The present investigation has been carried out to study thermo-mechanical behaviour of PT under asymmetric heating conditions for a 220 MWe PHWR. A 19-pin fuel simulator has been developed in which preferential heating of elements could be done by supplying power to the selected pins. The asymmetric heating of PT has been carried out at pressure 2 MPa and 1 MPa, respectively, by supplying power to upper region heating elements thus creating an half filled stratified flow conditions. The temperature difference up to 425 Degree-Sign C has been observed along top to bottom periphery of PT. A comparison is made between thermo-mechanical behaviour of PT under asymmetrical and symmetrical heat-up, expected from a large break LOCA condition. The radial expansion rate during symmetrical heating is found to be much faster as compared to that for asymmetric ballooning of PT at the same internal pressure. Integrity of PT is found to be

  17. Experimental investigation of symmetric and asymmetric heating of pressure tube under accident conditions for Indian PHWR

    Highlights: ► Circumferential temperature gradient for asymmetric heat-up was 400 °C. ► At same pressure ballooning initiates at lower temperature in asymmetrical heat-up. ► At 1 MPa ballooning initiated at 408 °C and with expansion rate of 0.005 mm/s. ► At 2 MPa ballooning initiation at 330 °C and with expansion rate of 0.0056 mm/s. ► For symmetrical heat-up strain rate was 10 times faster than asymmetric heat-up. - Abstract: In pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), under postulated scenario of small break Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) coincident with the failure of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), a situation may arise under which reduction in mass flow rate of coolant through individual reactor channel can lead to stratified flow. Such stratified flow condition creates partial uncover of fuel bundle, which creates a circumferential temperature gradient over PT. The present investigation has been carried out to study thermo-mechanical behaviour of PT under asymmetric heating conditions for a 220 MWe PHWR. A 19-pin fuel simulator has been developed in which preferential heating of elements could be done by supplying power to the selected pins. The asymmetric heating of PT has been carried out at pressure 2 MPa and 1 MPa, respectively, by supplying power to upper region heating elements thus creating an half filled stratified flow conditions. The temperature difference up to 425 °C has been observed along top to bottom periphery of PT. A comparison is made between thermo-mechanical behaviour of PT under asymmetrical and symmetrical heat-up, expected from a large break LOCA condition. The radial expansion rate during symmetrical heating is found to be much faster as compared to that for asymmetric ballooning of PT at the same internal pressure. Integrity of PT is found to be maintained under both loading conditions. Heat sink around of test section, simulating moderator is found to be helpful in arresting the rise in temperature for both fuel

  18. First Annual Report: NASA-ONERA Collaboration on Human Factors in Aviation Accidents and Incidents

    Srivastava, Ashok; Fabiani, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This is the first annual report jointly prepared by NASA and ONERA on the work performed under the agreement to collaborate on a study of the human factors entailed in aviation accidents and incidents particularly focused on consequences of decreases in human performance associated with fatigue. The objective of this Agreement is to generate reliable, automated procedures that improve understanding of the levels and characteristics of flight-crew fatigue factors whose confluence will likely result in unacceptable crew performance. This study entails the analyses of numerical and textual data collected during operational flights. NASA and ONERA are collaborating on the development and assessment of automated capabilities for extracting operationally significant information from very large, diverse (textual and numerical) databases much larger than can be handled practically by human experts. This report presents the approach that is currently expected to be used in processing and analyzing the data for identifying decrements in aircraft performance and examining their relationships to decrements in crewmember performance due to fatigue. The decisions on the approach were based on samples of both the numerical and textual data that will be collected during the four studies planned under the Human Factors Monitoring Program (HFMP). Results of preliminary analyses of these sample data are presented in this report.

  19. A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AND ITS RISK FACTORS IN JHANSI AND AROUND JHANSI CITY (U . P .

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expansion in network, motorization and urbanization in the country has been accompanied by a rise in road accidents leading to road traffic injuries (RTIs. Accident represents a major epidemic of non - communicable disease in present century. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs and its risk factors in Jhansi & around Jhansi city. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A hospital based cross sectional study was carried out in MLB Medical College and Hospital , Jhansi and the cases sustaining ro ad traffic injuries registering from 1 January 2013 to 31 July 2014 were taken irrespective of the place of accident. The data was entered in excel sheet and results were expressed as proportions and percentages. RESULTS: Among them maximum number of cases were in 21 - 30 years age group (30.53% followed by 31 - 40 years (21.66% and >60 years (4.65% shows the least no. of victims. In the study majority of cases were reported from Orchha Road (11.5%. In the study it was observed that majority of accidents oc cur in winter season (37.24% and in night time (34.47%.Among them 19.68% victims stated that defective road as the most common condition associated with RTA followed by poor lighting (18.54%. CONCLUSIONS: In this study majority of victims were younger, males, less educated and labourer by occupation. Among risk factors defective roads, poor lighting, excessive speed, overloading and alcohol consumption were found causing RTAs.

  20. Cases of fatal accidents and violence among children, adolescents and young people: perception of the family and associated factors

    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of children and young people die from fatal accidents or violence every year and others suffer the consequences of non-lethal lesions. Knowing the associated factors is essential for moving forward in the control of these events. The study analysed the families’ perception and factors associated with deaths due to external causes of children, adolescents and young people. Cross-sectional study from deaths from accidents and violence in the age group of 0 to 24 years in the city ofCuiabá-State of Mato Grosso, followed by a domestic survey with the families. The families could not tell whether the accident/violence was a foreseeable event and do not believe that habits/lifestyle have favoured the occurrence. Intentional deaths showed a greater association with factors: maternity/paternity in adolescence, role overload of the mother, consumption of alcohol/drugs, family conflicts and prior deaths from external cause. Feelings of appreciation (study, housing, work, and whether the victim’s pregnancy has been desired were positive in a higher proportion among cases at which the victims died in an accident. The families had easy access to health care services; however, it was difficult to access the network of social and religious support. Associated factors differ according to the intentionality of the event.

  1. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in North Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carp decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs was estimated to be about 1 year during 1987-2002 and 5 years during 1993-2005. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carp was found to be similar to the ratio observed in other environmental samples. The concentration factor for carp (wet weight) was estimated to be 128 ± 74 L kg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective dose received by adult members of the Croatian population due to consumption of carp contaminated with 134Cs and 137Cs are small: per capita dose from this source during 1987-2005 was estimated to be 0.5 ± 0.2 μSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp, it can be concluded that carp consumption was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium from fallout to humans after the Chernobyl accident

  2. Investigations of radiocaesium in the natural terrestrial environment in Norway following the Chernobyl accident

    Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident affected parts of central Norway to a considerable extent, in particular the 134Cs + 137Cs deposition had a significant impact on the natural environment. When this became apparent, a comprehensive radioecological research programme was initiated in order to study the behaviour of radiocaesium in boreal and alpine ecosystems, with emphasis on food-chains leading to exposure of species used for human consumption, i.e., reindeer and freshwater fish. In this paper results from the terrestrial part of this research programme during the period 1986-1990 are presented. The work was mainly confined to the mountain areas of Dovre and Rondane. Parallel studies were performed in eutrophic and strongly oligotrophic communities. The influence of local variations in topography and microclimate on the observed radiocaesium levels in topsoils, lichens and vascular plants was studied in detail. Currently a significant re-distribution of radiocaesium from the originally strongly exposed surfaces to those that were less exposed is observed. In the soil, radiocaesium is strongly retained in the litter and raw humus layers. Current levels in lichens are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in vascular plants. This strongly affects the seasonal variation of radiocaesium in reindeer, showing winter maxima of about 5 times higher than the August levels. The radiocaesium levels in reindeer showed a decline of approximately a factor of 3 during the period 1987-1990. Other animal species studied in the programme exhibited substantially lower radiocaesium levels than reindeer, but a considerable interspecies variation was observed. (author)

  3. Educational level and age as contributing factors to road traffic accidents

    Ashkan Sami; Ghasem Moafian; Arman Najafi; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi; Navid Yamini; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Kamran B Lankarani

    2013-01-01

    Objective:This research analyzes data on road traffic accidents (RTA) in Fars province,whose roads are among the highly dangerous ones in Iran.It investigates educational level and age involved in RTA in order to discover patterns that can prevent or decrease accidents.Methods:This research made use of data visualization techniques to find hidden patterns.The data included mortality rate related to RTA in Fars province and were obtained from Fars Forensic Medicine Registry covering a period of 1 year from March 21,2010 to March 21,2011.All data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5.The results were reported as descriptive indices such as frequency (percentage).The Chisquare test was applied to the data concerning educational level and age.P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results:In the mentioned period,1 831 people were killed,out of whom un/lowly educated people (69.6%) accounted for the highest mortality rate.The significant relationship between educational level and mortality rate was found (X2=275.98,P<0.0001).Also three was a significant association between age and mortality rate (x2=371.20,P<0.0001).Young people (age between 20 and 29 years)contribute to higher RTA mortality rate compared with other age groups.Conclusion:The educational level and age are significantly correlated to mortality rate.The youth and un/lowly educated people suffer more fatal RTA.

  4. Accident analysis of recreation vehicle. Human factors from statistic analysis and case study; RV sha no jiko bunseki. Tokei bunseki to jikorei bunseki ni miru untensha yoin

    Takubo, N. [Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis, Tokyo (Japan); Mori, K. [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Concern is heightening recently on traffic accidents associated with leisure activities. Therefore, with an objective to obtain referential information for preventing accidents caused by recreational vehicles, macroscopic (statistical) and microscopic (case study) investigations were carried out on accidents. As a result of analyzing the statistics, a trend was discovered that recreational vehicles cause accidents at higher rate than by other types of vehicles in the following types of accidents: accidents with pedestrians, children and elderly people, accidents caused by young drivers, and accidents during personal activities. Furthermore, four cases were analyzed on accident trends. Accident trends must be discussed from the following two viewpoints: frequency in occurrence of circumstances (chances) that link with accidents, and how high the accident rate (hazard risk) is under such circumstances. The former point has high correlation with how recreational vehicles are used, and drivers` attributes, and the latter point with structures and motion characteristics of recreational vehicles (for example, leisure use, cars driven by young drivers, and high vehicle height). 1 ref., 12 figs.

  5. Investigation into the March 28, 1979 Three Mile Island accident by Office of Inspection and Enforcement (Investigative Report No. 50-320/79-10)

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant experienced the most severe accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant operating history. This report sets forth the facts concerning the events of the accident determined as a result of an investigation by the NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement. The IE investigation is limited to two aspects of the accident: (1) Those related operational actions by the licensee during the period from before the initiating event until approximately 8:00 p.m., March 28, when primary coolant flow was re-established by starting a reactor coolant pump, and (2) Those steps taken by the licensee to control the release of radioactive material to the off-site environs, and to implement his emergency plan during the period from the initiation of the event to midnight, March 30. These investigation periods were selected because they include the licensee actions which most significantly affected the accident sequence and its results

  6. On human factor in road traffic accidents%谈道路交通事故中人的因素

    高玉英; 马淑清

    2012-01-01

    Combining the typical traffic accidents this and last years,the paper has the deep analysis of the influential human factors,including the drivers,the bicycle riders and the pedestrians,in the traffic accidents,illustrates the causality relationship between the various behaviors of men who are involved in traffic and the traffic accidents,so as to warn people to adhere to the traffic regulation and to cherish their lives.%结合今年及去年的典型交通事故案例,对交通事故中人(驾驶员、骑车人、行人)的影响因素进行了深入分析,剖析了交通参与人的种种行为与交通事故的因果关系,达到警示人们遵守交通法规、珍爱生命的效果。

  7. Evaluation of dropped rod accident after elimination of NFRT and correction of hot channel factor reduction rate

    In recent years, NFRT(Negative Flux Rate Trip) is eliminated in order to prevent the reactor trip during dropped rod accident in domestic Westinghouse type plants. The theoretical background of dropped rod accident is introduced and the correlations related FΔH are verified for KORI unit 1 which is 2-loop plant. The results show that the default line of Hot Channel Factor Reduction Rate(HCFRR) for low level leakage loading pattern isn't conservative. So, new correlation is generated and applied to the analysis of the dropped rod accident. The minimum pre-drop FΔH is decreased about 2.6% because of NFRT elimination and new HCFRR correlation. According to the sensitivity study on compensation for the reduction, the Rod Insertion Limit(RIL) is shifted 14 steps upward. So, the minimum pre-drop FΔH is increased about 2.5%. The effect of RIL change on plant operation is additionally evaluated

  8. Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity

  9. Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    Sehgal, B.R.; Yang, Z.L.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Bui, V.A.; Haraldsson, H.O.; Li, H.X.; Konovakhin, M.; Paladino, D.; Leung, W.H [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1999-08-01

    This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity

  10. Comparison of different estimation methods of accident atmospheric dispersion factors for a representative inland nuclear power plant

    The applicability of atmospheric diffusion models in complex terrains and low wind speed conditions was discussed in this paper. The accident atmospheric dispersion factors (ATFs) of Taohuajiang nuclear power plant were calculated by using two methods: the probabilistic method recommended by the U.S. Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC) and the three dimensional objective diagnostic wind field model coupled with Lagrangian trajectory puff model to simulate the 8760 hourly emissions of radioactive nuclides. The results indicate that the maximum hourly accident ATFs calculated by the probabilistic method are conservative in exclusion area boundary (EAB). However, in some directions, accident ATFs calculated using probabilistic method is smaller than that using Lagrangian puff model, as well as some accident ATFs in remote sectors are larger than those in close sectors. Moreover, results calculated by probabilistic method are smaller in long-term release situation. Therefore, accident ATFs obtained according to the regulatory guides may not conservative in some cases, and atmospheric diffusion model should be selected carefully when a nuclear plant is located at a site with complex environmental conditions. (authors)

  11. Experimental investigations of BWR pressure suppression pool behavior under loss of coolant accident conditions

    The experiments discussed in this paper look into different processes which may occur during a loss-of-coolant accident in the pressure suppression pool of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). These processes include: a) development of a thermal stratification, b) bubble dynamics and related water flow during continuous release of air and c) air blowdown and associated water slug phenomenon in the water pool. The experiments have been performed in the THAI test facility, which is a cylindrical vessel of 9.2 m height, 3.2 m diameter and with a gas volume of 60 m3. The variation in the investigated test parameters included, steam and air mass flux, initial water pool temperature, blowdown pressures, downcomer submergence, etc. A systematic variation of the test parameters allowed better understanding of the phenomena. Experiments discussed in this paper were performed with a vertical downcomer of 0.1 m diameter and 2 m submergence depth in the water pool. For the blowdown experiments, a separate interconnecting vessel of 1 m3 volume was used to inject air at pressures between 3 bar and 10 bar. A high speed camera (1000 fps) was installed to visualize the formation and propagation of air bubbles in the suppression pool and the resulting pool swelling phenomena. Customized instrumentation applied during the tests included grids of densely spaced thermocouples and of pressure transducers at various locations in order to capture the temperature distribution in the pool and the water slug induced pressure loadings, respectively. The present paper discusses the main outcome of the selected experiments. On the whole the experimental data may be very useful for code validation. (authors)

  12. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  13. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  14. The Columbia Accident Investigation and The NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Laboratory Contributions Supporting NASA's Return to Flight

    Melis, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry, resulting in loss of the vehicle and its seven crewmembers. For the next several months, an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA, concluded in August, 2003 that the most likely cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the mission's launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing, which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. The findings of the CAIB were supported by ballistic impact tests, which simulated the physics of External Tank Foam impact on the RCC wing leading edge material. These tests ranged from fundamental material characterization tests to full-scale Orbiter Wing Leading Edge tests. Following the accident investigation, NASA spent the next 18 months focused on returning the shuttle safely to flight. In order to fully evaluate all potential impact threats from the many debris sources on the Space Shuttle during ascent, NASA instituted a significant impact testing program. The results from these tests led to the validation of high-fidelity computer models, capable of predicting actual or potential Shuttle impact events, were used in the certification of STS-114, NASA s Return to Flight Mission, as safe to fly. This presentation will provide a look into the inner workings of the Space Shuttle and a behind the scenes perspective on the impact analysis and testing done for the Columbia Accident Investigation and

  15. Long term effects of Minks of the radiation factors from the Chernobyl accident

    The study of small radiation dose influence on human and animal reproductive functions becomes more and more topical after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident. In the number of cases, animals that reside in continues internal, as well as external exposure zone, have pregnancy interruption in its early stages (up to 30 days). This, without any doubts testifies for reproductive process disorder as a whole (hypophysis-ovary-uterus system) and also, as its separate links. The important thing is that a break in any one of those links leads to pregnancy interruption. Hence, in order to determine any disorders in reproductive system functional state, profound and detailed morphofunctional study of the system links (accounting for radiation exposure factors) needs to be done. Because research in this field has just started, we were unable to find any material on this topic. There are, however, some references for morphofunctional changes of endocrine glands, hypophysis in particular and sex glands, refereed to small radiation doses

  16. Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident

    Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

  17. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; YAMASHITA, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thy...

  18. Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland

    Paatero, J. (Finnish Meteorogical Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Haemeri, K. (Helsinki Univ., Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Jaakkola, T. (Helsinki Univ., Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland)); Jantunen, M. (National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland)); Koivukoski, J. (Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Government (Finland)); Saxen, R. (STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 muR h-1 [1 muSv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

  19. A NEW HAZARD EVALUATION PROCEDURE FOR PREDICTING RISK FACTORS OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Hüseyin CEYLAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With annual average of 73,937 occupational accidents and 1,152 deaths, Turkey still faces an important problem. The country exercises one of the lowest performances in job safety among the European Union countries. Developments in technology increased the importance of safety management in industry. These improvements also resulted in a requirement of more investment and assignment on human in work systems. This situation increases the importance of forecasting the possible accidents that workers can face and preventing the accidents by taking necessary precautions. In this study a prognostic model has been developed to forecast the occupational accidents in coming periods at the departments of the facilities in hazardous work systems. The validity of the proposed model has been proved by implementing it into practice in hazardous work systems in the manufacturing industry.

  20. Investigation of Two-Wheeled Road Traffic Accidents using Explicit FE Techniques.

    McLundie, W. M.

    2007-01-01

    With the increase of road traffic accidents increasing due to motorised traffic in the developing world growing alongside the more traditional bicycles and light motorcycles there is good reason to re-examine the two-wheeler case. In addition, if you include the large congestion charge scheme now underway in London and similar projects being considered in other cities globally, there is an even stronger case. These schemes encourage commuters to get back onto two wheels but ...

  1. Statistical investigation on the relation between car accident and warm katabatic winds

    The possible relationship between warm katabatic winds and human health and behaviour is analyzed; notwithstanding popular belief which is very positive about it, the connection has not been previously analyzed with the proper methods. We use a statistical model to address this question and our data suggest that the effects of warm katabatic winds in the Po Valley (Italy) can indeed be detected in the increase of car accidents

  2. Study of risc factors affecting the number of mental disorders and nervous system diseases for people who participated in liquidation of consequences of ChNPP accident

    Interrelation of disease incidence for liquidators and factors affecting it has been studied. The diseases (mental disorders and nervous system diseases) have been taken into account provided more than 10% of people have suffered of the above diseases. Date of getting into the accident zone; duration of work within the zone; the radiation dose accumulated were considered to be risc factors. Getting into the accident zone and duration of work within the zone of accident have been though to be the main risc factors. 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. Analysis of causes and sequences of the accident on Fukushima NPP as a factor of sever accidents prevention in the vessel reactor

    In this monograph, the provisional analysis of the causes and sequences of the sever accidents on the Fukushima NPP is presented. The analysis of the possibility of the origin of extreme events connected with the flooding of Zaporizhzhia NPP industrial site, emergency of the steam-gas explosions on NPPs with WWER and other phenomena occurred under sever accidents was carried out. It was presented the authors original working-out on symptom-oriented approaches of sever accident initiating event list identification, on criteria substantiation of explosion safety and optimization of processes management at sever accidents, as well as on the methodological support of the accident beyond the design basis management at the WWER for prevention of their transition in the stage of sever accidents.

  4. An Investigation of Spray Performance to Remove Gaseous Iodine- Approach to mitigate the consequences of severe accident

    New technological approaches need to be in place to address such concern which has significantly deteriorated public confidence in nuclear power. Such technological approach must be capable of systematically mitigate the consequence of severe nuclear accidents involving radioactivity release. An example of such approach is spray technology. In case of an accident involving radioactivity release to the environment, it may possible to deploy spray system to quickly respond to the released radioactivity and to minimize the impact of accidental releases on humans and the environment. During early phase of Fukushima nuclear accident mitigation process, water spray operations were carried out through fire trucks and military helicopters, but the primary concern of such operations was to cool down the reactor and to extinguish the fire and not to minimize the spread of radioactive materials. The aim of this research is to investigate spray technology for effective and efficient capturing of fission products released from leaked/damaged nuclear reactor to the environment. For this purpose, a systematic approach with in depth information about release phenomena and spray features will be required. Based on the information regarding release phenomena including types of materials and their amount and size, release locations, release conditions such as rates, velocities, temperature, etc., requirements for spray application is being developed including spray material types (foam, mist etc.), spray solution additives, flow rates, pressure, drop size, spray coverage area and spray duration, etc. Subsequently the efficiency and effectiveness of spray system to reduce the Dispersion of radioactivity in the environment during the course of severe accident can be characterized. This paper is a summary of our initial investigation for the use of spray technology to reduce the consequence of severe nuclear accident. An experimental investigation of iodine removal efficiency in a spray

  5. Trends in state-level freight accident rates: An enhancement of risk factor development for RADTRAN

    Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is concerned with understanding and managing risk as it applies to the shipment of spent commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Understanding risk in relation to mode and geography may provide opportunities to minimize radiological and non-radiological risks of transportation. To enhance such an understanding, a set of state-or waterway-specific accident, fatality, and injury rates (expressed as rates per shipment kilometer) by transportation mode and highway administrative class was developed, using publicly-available data bases. Adjustments made to accommodate miscoded or incomplete information in accident data are described, as well as the procedures for estimating state-level flow data. Results indicate that the shipping conditions under which spent fuel is likely to be transported should be less subject to accidents than the ''average'' shipment within mode. 10 refs., 3 tabs

  6. The investigation of Passive Accident Mitigation Scheme for advanced PWR NPP

    Highlights: • We put forward a new PAMS and analyze its operation characteristics under SBO. • We conduct comparative analysis between PAMS and Traditional Secondary Side PHRS. • The PAMS could cope with SBO accident and maintain the plant in safe conditions. • PAMS could decrease heat removal capacity of PHRS. • PAMS has advantage in reducing cooling rate and PCCT temperature rising amplitude. - Abstract: To enhance inherent safety features of nuclear power plant, the advanced pressurized water reactors implement a series of passive safety systems. This paper puts forward and designs a new Passive Accident Mitigation Scheme (PAMS) to remove residual heat, which consists of two parts: the first part is Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS), and the other part is Passive Heat Removal System (PHRS). This paper takes the Westinghouse-designed Advanced Passive PWR (AP1000) as research object and analyzes the operation characteristics of PAMS to cope with the Station Blackout Accident (SBO) by using RELAP5 code. Moreover, the comparative analysis is also conducted between PAMS and Traditional Secondary Circuit PHRS to derive the advantages of PAMS. The results show that the designed scheme can remove core residual heat significantly and maintain the plant in safe conditions; the first part of PAMS would stop after 120 min and the second part has to come into use simultaneously; the low pressurizer (PZR) pressure signal would be generated 109 min later caused by coolant volume shrinkage, which would actuate the Passive Safety Injection System (PSIS) to recovery the water level of pressurizer; the flow instability phenomenon would occur and last 21 min after the PHRS start-up; according to the comparative analysis, the coolant average temperature gradient and the Passive Condensate Cooling Tank (PCCT) water temperature rising amplitude of PAMS are lower than those of Traditional Secondary Circuit PHRS

  7. Modeling of the corium cooling and loading factor analysis for containment during severe accidents

    The paper is devoted to the development and study of the mathematical model for corium melt interaction with low-temperature melting blocks in the passive protection systems (PPS) against severe accidents at the NPP, and learning the peculiarities of construction and operation of the PPS. The configurations of cooling blocks' distributions considered and the results of their work in the corium cooling pool are compared to the data of other PPS's conceptions. The conclusion is made that the models developed and the results obtained may be useful for constructing the PPS against severe accidents

  8. The Effects of the Daily Driven Distance and Age Factor on the Traffic Accidents

    Ş. KALYONCUOĞLU, Figen; TIĞDEMİR, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    Based on Turkish traffic survey data (n=5,520), driver accident rates per million kilometre-driver were compared according to the daily driven distances (DDD) for each age group as very old (65+, n=39), old (56-65, n=183), above middle-aged (36-55, n=1,875), middle-aged (26-35, n=2,204), and young (25-, n=1,219). When the accidents-per-km comparison was made in groups matched for daily exposure, there was no evidence of higher risk with increasing age. In all age groups, risk per km decreased...

  9. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents

  10. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Hashim, Yusof bin [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Taha, Zahari bin [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  11. Measured transfer factors in milk and meat after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    After the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl the radioactivity in the environment in Aachen was measured in detail at the Lehrgebiet Strahlenschutz in der Kerntechnik. The change of the different radionuclides in the eco-system made it possible to obtain radioecological parameters especially for iodine and caesium. The knowledge about the transport of iodine into cow's milk could be very much improved

  12. Peculiarities of allergic diseases in persons exposed to radiation accident factors

    Certain features of the allergic diseases in patients participated in Chernobyl accident response are considered. Examples of the concrete pathological cases are discussed. It was shown that the immune system pathology resulted from irradiation led to the development of allergic and autoallergic processes

  13. Investigation of VVER 1000 Core Degradation During SBO Accident Scenario in Case of Pressurizer SV Stuck in Open Position

    This paper presents the work performed at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) in the frame of the SARNET2 project. The performed work continues the effort in modelling reactor core behaviour during severe accidents such as station blackout (SBO) sequence for VVER 1000 reactors based on parametric study. The work is oriented on investigation of overheated reactor core behaviour in case of reflooding by high pressure injection system (HPIS) at different stages and gives the preliminary results for the ASTEC V2 validation as well as analytical validation of severe accident management guidance (SAMG) for VVER 1000 reactors. An SBO scenario for investigation of VVER 1000 reactor core behaviour has been used with the assumption of opening the pressurizer safety valve and staying in open position, which induces additionally small break LOCA. Based on the previously performed work at the INRNE for the same scenarios a proper time for initiation has been chosen a proper time for initiation of HPP injection. For selected scenario consequently has been performed calculations vary the value of selected parameters. It has been selected the following parameters: porosity (PORO), velocity of molten mixture when crossing a grid (VGRI), etc. It has been investigated the influence of spherical and elliptical ''bottom head and lower plenum'' modelling on core degradation progression. (author)

  14. Investigation on two-phase critical flow for loss-of-coolant accident of pressurized water reactor

    1996-01-01

    The previous investigations were mainly conducted under the condition of low pressure,however,the steam-water specific volume and the interphase evaporation rate in high pressure are much different from those in low pressure,Therefore,the new experimental and theoretical investigation are performed in Xi'an Jiaotong University.The investigation results could be directly applied to the analysis of loss-of -coolant accident for pressurized water reacor.The system transition characteristics of cold leg and hot leg break loss-of -coolant tests are described for convective circulation test loop.Two types of loss-of-coolant accident are identified for :hot leg” break,while three types for “cold leg”break and the effect parameters on the break geometries.Tests indicate that the mass flow rate with convergent-divergent nozzle reaches the maximum value among the different break sections at the same inlet fluid condition because the fluid separation does not occur.A wall surface cavity nucleation model is developed for prediction of the critical mass flow rate with water flowing in convergentdivergent nozzles.

  15. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  16. Investigations of the behaviour of coated fuel particles and spherical fuel elements at accident temperatures

    A post irradiation annealing test apparature was constructed for the measurement of fission gas release at temperatures similar to those to be reached in a HTR during a hypothetical accident. From examinations with existing apparatures up to temperatures of 18000C results were available about the load capacity of coated particles as well as knowledges about fission gas release and defect behaviour. These results were used to plan a series of annealing tests with spherical fuel elements up to 25000C. It could be shown that the (U,Th)O2-particles with high burn up will fail during maximum core heat up of a HTR only after some hours at temperatures above 24000C. (orig.)

  17. Investigation of alternative solutions for severe accident management in future reactors

    Since 1991, the CEA/DRN 'Innovations-Future Reactors' Program (IFRP) has been developed in order to elaborate, to evaluate and validate technical options which can be of interest for future reactors. The main objectives of this program are: to improve both the safety and cost of future nuclear power plants, to optimize the fuel cycle and the management of nuclear materials. The present paper is focused on the third R and D theme, i.e., on the 'Innovation-Severe Accident Research Program' (ISARP). This specific CEA long-term program is developed in addition to shorter-term studies conducted in collaboration with the CEA partners (EDF and FRAMATOME), more particularly, for the future European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR). (J.P.N.)

  18. Investigation of the behaviour of packaged radioactive waste under fire accident conditions

    A study has been made of the behaviour of packaged intermediate level waste (ILW) when exposed to fire conditions so as to provide information to support safety cases for ILW transport and disposal. The temperatures used in the study were selected to exceed those that the waste might be subject to in fire accidents during the transport and handling of ILW. Four waste materials, immobilised in cement or in organic resin, with properties representative of a wide range of waste streams were included in the study. Tests were carried out on samples of both real waste materials and non-radioactive simulants, and also on full-scale (500 litre) drums of simulant wastes. The overall release fractions were low, even for external temperatures of up to 1000oC. Examination showed that the stainless steel drums were still in good condition and on sectioning, little damage to the matrix or decrease in its strength was evident. (author)

  19. Fuel-element simulator for investigating thermal-hydraulic accidents in water-water reactors

    A fuel-element simulator should provide the necessary environmental parameters (thermal flux, and temperature at the cladding surface) and satisfy the requirements of reliability and modeling an actual fuel element, according to a formulated research problem. A universal simulator design, which could be used in a wide range of research, does not exist up to now and it is hardly useful in general. In developing fuel-element simulators to study loss-of-coolant accidents in water-water reactors, the most important condition from the modeling point of view is that the overall heat capacity of the simulator should correspond to that of the fuel element. The overall heat capacity and the temperature distribution over the reactor cross section determine the reserve of accumulated energy, which cannot be modeled by simply increasing the supplied electrical power. Experiments showed the magnesium oxide, as compared to other materials, is the best model of uranium oxide due to the closeness of the heat transfer coefficient and the thermal conductivity of these materials. Moreover, MgO has a high coefficient of thermal expansion, close to that of stainless steel. The construction of fuel-element simulators often uses boron nitride powder, which is densified by one means or another. Boron nitride has the highest thermal conductivity (besides beryllium oxide), but it has a lower electrical conductivity than magnesium oxide. These materials simultaneously fulfill the function of electrically insulating the heating element from the cladding. The basic disadvantage of this design is that the simulator has no gas gap; however, this is compensated by its simplicity, reliability, and long lifetime. This article presents several test designs for analysis and solving problems characteristic of loss-of-coolant accidents. Test results from VVER-440 fuel rod simulators using 19-rod assemblies an presented

  20. Prevention and investigations of core degradation in case of beyond design accidents of the 2400 MWTH gas-cooled fast reactor

    The present paper deals with studies carried out to assess the ability of the core of the Gas Fast Reactor (GFR) to withstand beyond design accidents. The work presented here is aimed at simulating the behaviour of this core by using analytical models whose input parameters are calculated with the CATHARE2 code. Among possible severe accident initiators, the Unprotected Loss Of Coolant Accident (ULOCA of 3 Inches diameter) is investigated in detail in the paper with CATHARE2. Additionally, a simplified pessimistic assessment of the effect of a postulated power excursion that could result from the failure of prevention provisions is presented. (author)

  1. Occupational accidents and affecting factors of metal industry in a factory in Ankara

    Mustafa N. Ilhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective:According to the statistics of the Social Security Institution, 18672 occupational accidents occurred in the metal industry in 2008 in Turkey. Whereas 78 of these accidents resulted in death, 252 people became permanently incapable of working. In 2008, 369677 working days were lost as a result of occupational accidents. Evaluating the reasons for and the results of accidents in the metal industry and contributing to the development of recommendations for prevention in accordance with the information obtained. Method: The study was conducted with 201 of 210 workers working in heavy metal manufacturing and construction in the building company between April 2008 and June 2008. Results: The frequency of occupational accidents among the metal workers was 22% between January 2007 and June 2008. The reasons for the workers’ accidents are listed as; insufficient use of personal protective equipment (44%, carelessness (37%, and personal reasons, not to be taken of security measures at machines and looms/ unsuitable machines (both 17%.Conclusion: The study demonstrates that the accidents mostly occur because of failure to use of personal protective equipment, insufficient vocational training. Key Words: Occupational, accident, metal industry, preventionAnkara’da bir metal sanayi fabrikasında iş kazaları ve etkileyen faktörler Özet Amaç: 2008 yılında Sosyal Güvenlik Kurumu’nun verilerine göre metal sanayisinde 18672 iş kazası meydana gelmiş ve 369677 işgünü kaybı olmuştur.  Bu kazalardan 78 tanesi ölümle sonuçlanırken, 252 kişi kalıcı olarak işgöremez hale gelmiştir. Metal sanayisinde meydana gelen kazaların sebep ve sonuçlarını inceleyerek, elde edilen bilgiler doğrultusunda kazaların önlenmesine yönelik tavsiyelerin geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Yöntem: Araştırma, Ankara’da faaliyet gösteren ağır metal imalat, konstrüksiyon ve inşaat sanayi şirketinde 2008 Nisan-2008 Haziran d

  2. Investigation of Focusing Effect according to the Cooling Condition and Height of the Metallic layer in a Severe Accident

    Moon, Je-Young; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident has led to renewed research interests in severe accidents of nuclear power plants. In-Vessel Retention (IVR) of core melt is one of key severe accident management strategies adopted in nuclear power plant design. The metallic layer is heated from below by the radioactive decay heat generated at the oxide pool, and is cooled from above and side walls. During the IVR process, reactor vessel may be cooled externally (ERVC) and the heat fluxes to the side wall increase with larger temperature difference than above. This {sup F}ocusing effect{sup i}s varied by cooling condition of upper boundary and height of the metallic layer. A sulfuric acid–copper sulfate (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} - CuSO{sub 4}) electroplating system was adopted as the mass transfer system. Numerical analysis using the commercial CFD program FLUENT 6.3 were carried out with the same material properties and cooling conditions to examine the variation of the cell. The experimental and numerical studies were performed to investigate the focusing effect according to cooling condition of upper boundary and the height in metallic layer. The height of the side wall was varied for three different cooling conditions: top only, side only, and both top and side. Mass transfer experiments, based on the analogy concept, were carried out in order to achieve high Rayleigh number. The experimental results agreed well with the Rayleigh-Benard convection correlations of Dropkin and Somerscales and Globe and Dropkin. The heat transfer on side wall cooling condition without top cooling is highest and was enhanced by decreasing the aspect ratio. The numerical results agreed well with the experimental results. Each cell pattern (cell size, cell direction, central location of cell) differed in the cooling condition. Therefore, it is difficult to predict the internal flow due to complexity of cell formation behavior.

  3. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  4. Investigations on the safety of radioactive materials transport. Pt. 2. Modeling of the radiological consequences in the vicinity of an accident. Final report on the working package 2

    One aim of this project 3611R03300 was to analyse methods and procedures accord-ing to state-of-the-art technology concerning their applicability to assess the radiologi-cal consequences in the near vicinity of a transport accident. The analysis focusses on the dispersion models used for the airborne radionuclides released during an accident. In view of the large amount of simulations needed for a probabilistic assessment of the accident's radiological impact, simplified methods to calculate nuclide concentrations and deposition rates for the near vicinity were searched. Additionally, conservative fac-tors were determined to convert the results valid for 150 m distance to the accident, which was the shortest distance examined in the Transportstudie Konrad 2009, to the near vicinity (20 m distance).

  5. Asthma is a risk factor for acute chest syndrome and cerebral vascular accidents in children with sickle cell disease

    Scott Paul J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and sickle cell disease are common conditions that both may result in pulmonary complications. We hypothesized that children with sickle cell disease with concomitant asthma have an increased incidence of vaso-occlusive crises that are complicated by episodes of acute chest syndrome. Methods A 5-year retrospective chart analysis was performed investigating 48 children ages 3–18 years with asthma and sickle cell disease and 48 children with sickle cell disease alone. Children were matched for age, gender, and type of sickle cell defect. Hospital admissions were recorded for acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accident, vaso-occlusive pain crises, and blood transfusions (total, exchange and chronic. Mann-Whitney test and Chi square analysis were used to assess differences between the groups. Results Children with sickle cell disease and asthma had significantly more episodes of acute chest syndrome (p = 0.03 and cerebral vascular accidents (p = 0.05 compared to children with sickle cell disease without asthma. As expected, these children received more total blood transfusions (p = 0.01 and chronic transfusions (p = 0.04. Admissions for vasoocclusive pain crises and exchange transfusions were not statistically different between cases and controls. SS disease is more severe than SC disease. Conclusions Children with concomitant asthma and sickle cell disease have increased episodes of acute chest syndrome, cerebral vascular accidents and the need for blood transfusions. Whether aggressive asthma therapy can reduce these complications in this subset of children is unknown and requires further studies.

  6. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report

    On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board's investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63)

  7. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report

    Gerton, R.E.

    1997-07-25

    On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board`s investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63).

  8. Causal factors guide for the evaluation of accidents in research reactors

    In the field of radiological and nuclear safety, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina controls three research reactors and three critical assemblies, by means of evaluations, audits and inspections, in order to assure the fulfillment of the requirements established in the Licenses, in the regulatory standards and in the mandatory documentation in general. rom the Nuclear Regulatory Authority point of view, within the general process of research reactors safety management, the management of operating experience plays an outstanding roll. In this aspect the ARN has established specific requisites in the Operation Licences in relation to the communication, evaluation, investigation of causes, and adoption of corrective measures, for the happened events. rom the experience collected in the analysis of the reports sent by the operators it has been verified some weakness in relation to the methodology of analysis of events and in the determination of the causal factors. n such a sense, with the purpose to establish a help for the analysts and to homogenize the treatment of the events, two reference guides were designed: a guide for the evaluation of events and another with a grid of causal factors. This paper describes the main aspects of the operating management system for research reactors and critical assemblies in Argentina, and the guides developed for the event analysis and determination of causal factors. (author)

  9. Investigation of relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks of nuclear power plant

    In the main control room (MCR) of a nuclear power plant (NPP), there are lots of dynamic information sources for MCR operator's situation awareness. As the human-machine interface in MCR is advanced, operator's information acquisition, information gathering and decision-making is becoming an important part to maintain the effective and safe operation of NPPs. Diagnostic task in complex and huge systems like NPP is the most difficult and mental effort-demanding for operators. This research investigates the relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks. The amount of information flow is quantified, using information flow model and Conant's model, a kind of information theory. For the mental workload measure, eye blink rate, blink duration, fixation time, number of fixation, and gaze direction are measured during accident diagnosis tasks. Subjective methods such as NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) method are also used in the experiment. It is shown that the operator's mental workload has significant relation to information flow of diagnosis task. It makes possible to predict the mental workload through the quantity of the information flow of a system

  10. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads

    Kirrilly Thompson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52% reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1 identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2 harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3 mandating personal protective equipment, (4 improving road signage, (5 comprehensive data collection, (6 developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7 safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8 increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  11. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads.

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3) mandating personal protective equipment, (4) improving road signage, (5) comprehensive data collection, (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives. PMID:26479376

  12. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  13. Investigation of Countercurrent Helium-Air Flows in Air-ingress Accidents for VHTRs

    Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Oh, Chang

    2013-10-03

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an extensive experimental database for the air- ingress phenomenon for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This research is intended to be a separate-effects experimental study. However, the project team will perform a careful scaling analysis prior to designing a scaled-down test facility in order to closely tie this research with the real application. As a reference design in this study, the team will use the 600 MWth gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) developed by General Atomic. In the test matrix of the experiments, researchers will vary the temperature and pressure of the helium— along with break size, location, shape, and orientation—to simulate deferent scenarios and to identify potential mitigation strategies. Under support of the Department of Energy, a high-temperature helium test facility has been designed and is currently being constructed at Ohio State University, primarily for high- temperature compact heat exchanger testing for the VHTR program. Once the facility is in operation (expected April 2009), this study will utilize high-temperature helium up to 900°C and 3 MPa for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) depressurization and air-ingress experiments. The project team will first conduct a scaling study and then design an air-ingress test facility. The major parameter to be measured in the experiments is oxygen (or nitrogen) concentration history at various locations following a LOCA scenario. The team will use two measurement techniques: 1) oxygen (or similar type) sensors employed in the flow field, which will introduce some undesirable intrusiveness, disturbing the flow, and 2) a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging technique, which has no physical intrusiveness to the flow but requires a transparent window or test section that the laser beam can penetrate. The team will construct two test facilities, one for high-temperature helium tests with

  14. Human factors issues in severe accident management: Training for decision-making under stress

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, there is a growing awareness that the decision-making tasks required for selecting appropriate control actions, in addition to guidance from formal procedures, also involve cognitive activities commonly referred to as judgment or reasoning. A project was completed to address the nature of the cognitive skills that may be important to decision-making in the nuclear power plant environment, especially during severe accident management. The project identified a model of decision-making that could account for both rule-based and knowledge-based decision-making and used it to identify cognitive skills for both individuals and operational crews. This analysis was then used to identify existing training techniques for cognitive skills and the general characteristics of successful training techniques

  15. A Look at Aircraft Accident Analysis in the Early Days: Do Early 20th Century Accident Investigation Techniques Have Any Lessons for Today?

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    In the early years of powered flight, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics in the United States produced three reports describing a method of analysis of aircraft accidents. The first report was published in 1928; the second, which was a revision of the first, was published in 1930; and the third, which was a revision and update of the second, was published in 1936. This paper describes the contents of these reports, and compares the method of analysis proposed therein to the methods used today.

  16. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi. PMID:26690320

  17. Medical Response, Search and Recovery during the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Stepaniak, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during atmospheric re-entry on mission STS-107. After an event such as this, with high visibility and international interest, the operational challenge of recovering the crewmembers could not be underestimated. The Space Shuttle Program is organized to respond to a vehicle mishap using the resources of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT). On the afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale Air Force Base (AFB), Louisiana. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin, Texas Disaster Field Office (DFO). The Lufkin DFO served as the primary area for all operations, including staging assets and deploying field teams for search, recovery and security of crewmember remains. More than 2,000 people from numerous organizations were involved with the recovery of the crew. All seven crewmembers of STS-107 were recovered and ceremonial last rights were administered. Astronaut and military personnel escorted the crew with honor to the MIT at Barksdale AFB, Louisiana. At Barksdale AFB a temporary morgue was established in an aircraft hangar and operated for approximately two weeks during which time coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) medical personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. Families of crewmembers and NASA management were notified daily of the current findings. Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team developed and executed a short-term plan to identify and relocate the crew with a military honor guard and protocol to the medical examiner at the Armed Forces Port Mortuary, Dover AFB, Delaware. After operations at Barksdale AFB were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term plan was developed and implemented which involved the Air Force Mortuary Affairs at Randolph AFB, Texas. This plan was coordinated with search teams

  18. Preliminary investigation on the primary heat exchanger lower head rupture accident of forced circulation LBE-cooled fast reactor

    Highlights: • A forced circulation LBE-cooled fast reactor was developed in China. • The steady state of this reactor was simulated by using NTC program. • The HXLHR accident of this reactor was simulated by using NTC program. • Some vapors were dragged into the core by LBE during the HXLHR accident. - Abstract: The problem about the interaction between heavy liquid metal and water is one of the grand challenges in the development of lead or Lead–Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) cooled fast reactor. In this paper, the primary heat exchanger lower head rupture (HXLHR) accident of a forced circulation LBE-cooled fast reactor was simulated with a transient analysis code NTC (Neutronics and Thermal–hydraulics Coupled transient analysis program). The simulation results showed that the water in primary heat exchanger was injected into the primary circuit and vaporized immediately. Then the main vessel was pressurized and the maximum pressure was about 27 bar compared with 0.5 bar in normal condition. During the accident, some of the generated vapors were dragged into the core by LBE, which may cause a reactivity insertion accident. If any positive void coefficient exists in the core, a further study on the HXLHR accident should be performed to evaluate the reactivity insertion accident

  19. Investigating product development strategy in beverage industry using factor analysis

    Naser Azad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a product development strategy that is associated with the company's current service or product innovation, based on customers’ needs and changing environment, plays an important role in increasing demand, increasing market share, increasing sales and profits. Therefore, it is important to extract effective variables associated with product development to improve performance measurement of firms. This paper investigates important factors influencing product development strategies using factor analysis. The proposed model of this paper investigates 36 factors and, using factor analysis, we extract six most influential factors including information sharing, intelligence information, exposure strategy, differentiation, research and development strategy and market survey. The first strategy, partnership, includes five sub-factor including product development partnership, partnership with foreign firms, customers’ perception from competitors’ products, Customer involvement in product development, inter-agency coordination, customer-oriented approach to innovation and transmission of product development change where inter-agency coordination has been considered the most important factor. Internal strengths are the most influential factors impacting the second strategy, intelligence information. The third factor, introducing strategy, introducing strategy, includes four sub criteria and consumer buying behavior is the most influencing factor. Differentiation is the next important factor with five components where knowledge and expertise in product innovation is the most important one. Research and development strategy with four sub-criteria where reducing product development cycle plays the most influential factor and finally, market survey strategy is the last important factor with three factors and finding new market plays the most important role.

  20. Investigating Montara platform oil spill accident by implementing RST-OIL approach.

    Satriano, Valeria; Ciancia, Emanuele; Coviello, Irina; Di Polito, Carmine; Lacava, Teodosio; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    Oil Spills represent one of the most harmful events to marine ecosystems and their timely detection is crucial for their mitigation and management. The potential of satellite data for their detection and monitoring has been largely investigated. Traditional satellite techniques usually identify oil spill presence applying a fixed threshold scheme only after the occurrence of an event, which make them not well suited for their prompt identification. The Robust Satellite Technique (RST) approach, in its oil spill detection version (RST-OIL), being based on the comparison of the latest satellite acquisition with its historical value, previously identified, allows the automatic and near real-time detection of events. Such a technique has been already successfully applied on data from different sources (AVHRR-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and MODIS-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) showing excellent performance in detecting oil spills both during day- and night-time conditions, with an high level of sensitivity (detection also of low intensity events) and reliability (no false alarm on scene). In this paper, RST-OIL has been implemented on MODIS thermal infrared data for the analysis of the Montara Platform (Timor Sea - Australia) oil spill disaster occurred in August 2009. Preliminary achievements are presented and discussed in this paper.

  1. Nondestructive Testing As a Tool in the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    McDanels, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) played a crucial role in determining the Columbia tragedy's cause. Over 84,000 pieces of debris were recovered; hundreds were subsequently subjected to NDT and materials analysis. Visual NDT of the debris revealed localized areas of damage such as erosion, excessive heating, knife edging and mechanical damage. Three-dimensional reconstructions were made of the left wing leading edge, utilizing a tripod-mounted laser scanning head and focused laser beam, and an advanced topometric optical scanner (ATOS) with digital white light to scan complex-shaped debris, producing monochrome 3-D models. Texture mapping provided a means to capture true colors of the debris and superimpose them on the scanned images. Uniform deposits were found over large portions of debris, obscuring underlying materials. To determine what was beneath, inverse radiography was enlisted. The radiographs guided investigators to where samples should be taken. To ascertain compositions, these samples were subjected to analytical testing, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis. This combination of visual evidence, radiography, virtual reconstruction, and materials analysis allowed the forensic scientists to verify that a breach occurred in the leading edge of the left wing, the path the plasma followed, and the sequence of events that led to the loss.

  2. Liuzhou city from 2006 to 2014 epidemiological characteristics of serious road traffic accident investigation%2006~2014年柳州市重大道路交通事故流行病学特征分析

    刘华; 李兵; 黄福文; 杨家有; 汤中飞; 邓旺生; 陆菊; 阮海林

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查分析柳州市重大道路交通事故发生的特点及规律,为控制和预防道路交通创伤提供科学依据。方法回顾性分析2006~2014年柳州市重大道路交通事故监测统计资料。结果(1)2006~2014年柳州市重大道路交通事故发生例数、死亡人数、受伤人数呈总体下降趋势。以1月份发生事故最多,占事故总数的11.5%;6月份发生事故最少,为6.8%。夜间19:00~23:00时事故发生最多,凌晨3:00~6:00时发生最少。(2)重大道路交通事故多数发生在平直道路上。(3)白天发生事故最多,夜间无路灯照明的路段事故伤亡和受伤人数明显高于夜间有路灯照明的路段。(4)重大道路交通事故发生的主要原因为人为因素,占总数的96.7%。结论减少重大道路交通事故发生,必须加强交通安全宣传、教育,提高全民安全意识;交管部门严格执法,尤其要加强交通事故高发时段、路段的管理;加强道路安全设施建设,改善交通环境。%Objective Investigation and analysis of Liuzhou significant characteristics and law of road traffic acci‐dents ,which will provide a scientific basis for control and prevention of road traffic trauma . Methods From 2006 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed to collect statistics of serious road traffic accidents monitoring . Results (1)Liuzhou serious road traffic accident cases ,the number of deaths ,injury in the overall downward trend ,most ac‐cidents in January ,accounted for 11.5% of total number of accidents ,accidents in June at least (6 .8% ) .Most clearly 19 :00~23 :00 when the accident happened at night ,there was at least 3 :00~6:00 in the morning .(2)The most serious road traffic accident happened on the straight path .(3)Accidents occur most often during the day and night with no street lamp lighting significantly better than the number of road accident casualties and injuries have

  3. Important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident

    After the Fukushima accident several investigation committees issued reports with lessons learned from the accident in Japan. Among those lessons, several recommendations have been made on severe accident research. Similar to the EURSAFE efforts under EU Program, review of specific severe accident research items was started before Fukushima accident in working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) in terms of significance of consequences, uncertainties of phenomena and maturity of assessment methodology. Re-investigation has been started since the Fukushima accident. Additional effects of Fukushima accident, such as core degradation behaviors, sea water injection, containment failure/leakage and re-criticality have been covered. The review results are categorized in ten major fields; core degradation behavior, core melt coolability/retention in containment vessel, function of containment vessel, source term, hydrogen behavior, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core concrete interaction, direct containment heating, recriticality and instrumentation in severe accident conditions. Based on these activities and also author's personal view, the present paper describes the perspective of important severe accident research issues after Fukushima accident. Those are specifically investigation of damaged core and components, advanced severe accident analysis capabilities and associated experimental investigations, development of reliable passive cooling system for core/containment, analysis of hydrogen behavior and investigation of hydrogen measures, enhancement of removal function of radioactive materials of containment venting, advanced instrumentation for the diagnosis of severe accident and assessment of advanced containment design which excludes long-term evacuation in any severe accident situations. (author)

  4. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.

  5. Analysis methodology for RBMK-1500 core safety and investigations on corium coolability during a LWR severe accident

    This thesis presents the work involving two broad aspects within the field of nuclear reactor analysis and safety. These are: - development of a fully independent reactor dynamics and safety analysis methodology of the RBMK-1500 core transient accidents and - experiments on the enhancement of coolability of a particulate bed or a melt pool due to heat removal through the control rod guide tubes. The first part of the thesis focuses on the development of the RBMK-1500 analysis methodology based on the CORETRAN code package. The second part investigates the issue of coolability during severe accidents in LWR type reactors: the coolability of debris bed and melt pool for in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. The first chapter briefly presents the status of developments in both the RBMK-1500 core analysis and the corium coolability areas. The second chapter describes the generation of the RBMK-1500 neutron cross section data library with the HELIOS code. The cross section library was developed for the whole range of the reactor conditions. The results of the benchmarking with the WIMS-D4 code and validation against the RBMK Critical Facility experiments is also presented here. The HELIOS generated neutron cross section data library provides a close agreement with the WIMS-D4 code results. The validation against the data from the Critical Experiments shows that the HELIOS generated neutron cross section library provides excellent predictions for the criticality, axial and radial power distribution, control rod reactivity worths and coolant reactivity effects, etc. The reactivity effects of voiding for the system, fuel assembly and additional absorber channel are underpredicted in the calculations using the HELIOS code generated neutron cross sections. The underprediction, however, is much less than that obtained when the WIMS-D4 code generated cross sections are employed. The third chapter describes the work, performed towards the accurate prediction, assessment and

  6. Exploring factors associated with workers' safety rule violations in the Chinese construction industry: a multimethod investigation

    Wang, Dandan

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese construction industry is China's third biggest industrial killer. Accidents causation analysis revealed that more than 80% of accidents are caused by unsafe human behaviour. The current research was focused on exploring and examining the factors affecting safety rule violations among Chinese construction workers through four main studies in which a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used. In the first study, on-site observation and organisational docume...

  7. Factors Associated with Fatal Occupational Accidents among Mexican Workers: A National Analysis

    Gonzalez-Delgado, Mery; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Robles, Eduardo; Borja, Víctor H.; Aguilar, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the factors associated with fatal occupational injuries in Mexico in 2012 among workers affiliated with the Mexican Social Security Institute. Methods Analysis of secondary data using information from the National Occupational Risk Information System, with the consequence of the occupational injury (fatal versus non-fatal) as the response variable. The analysis included 406,222 non-fatal and 1,140 fatal injuries from 2012. The factors associated with the lethality of the injury were identified using a logistic regression model with the Firth approach. Results Being male (OR=5.86; CI95%: 4.22-8.14), age (OR=1.04; CI95%: 1.03-1.06), employed in the position for 1 to 10 years (versus less than 1 year) (OR=1.37; CI95%: 1.15-1.63), working as a facilities or machine operator or assembler (OR: 3.28; CI95%: 2.12- 5.07) and being a worker without qualifications (OR=1.96; CI95%: 1.18-3.24) (versus an office worker) were associated with fatality in the event of an injury. Additionally, companies classified as maximum risk (OR=1.90; CI 95%: 1.38-2.62), workplace conditions (OR=7.15; CI95%: 3.63-14.10) and factors related to the work environment (OR=9.18; CI95%:4.36-19.33) were identified as risk factors for fatality in the event of an occupational injury. Conclusions Fatality in the event of an occupational injury is associated with factors related to sociodemographics (age, sex and occupation), the work environment and workplace conditions. Worker protection policies should be created for groups with a higher risk of fatal occupational injuries in Mexico. PMID:25790063

  8. Selection of the important performance influencing factors for the assessment of human error under accident management situations in nuclear power plants

    This paper introduces the process and final results of selection of the important Performance Influencing Factors (PIFs) under emergency operation and accident management situations in nuclear power plants for use in the assessment of human errors. We collected two types of PIF taxonomies, one is the full set PIF list mainly developed for human error analysis, and the other is the PIFs for human reliability analysis (HRA) in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). 5 PIF taxonomies among the full set PIF list and 10 PIF taxonomies among HRA methodologies (CREAM, SLIM, INTENT, were collected in this research. By reviewing and analyzing PIFs selected for HRA methodologies, the criterion could be established for the selection of appropriate PIFs under emergency operation and accident management situations. Based on this selection criteria, a new PIF taxonomy was proposed for the assessment of human error under emergency operation and accident management situations in nuclear power plants

  9. Investigations of the potential for accident mitigation of the conceptical design for a core retention device developed in SR 209

    The potential for accident mitigation of the conceptual design for the core retention device developed in SR 209, was estimated by core meltdown and containment analyses. Such a device should prevent late fission product release especially due to failure of the containment by overpressurization (according to release categories 5 and 6 of the German Risk Study, Phase A). Assuming ideal operation of the device, the long term course of a meltdown accident can be influenced in a positive sense including the prevention of overpressurization. However, functional operation of the design seems to be highly uncertain for several reasons, i.g. due to uncertainties in the behaviour of the melt in the retention device. The design does not or only insufficiently cover accident scenarios with high pressure in vessel melt, that means for sequences relevant for their high contribution to core melt frequency. The design may have strong negative impacts on the course of meltdown accidents, LOCA's, constructive details and operation of a plant. Implementation of the measure is expected to need extreme effort, without making sense from the technical point of view. The measure at all seems not to be recommendable for accident mitigation. (orig./HP)

  10. The identification of multiple thrombophilic risk factors in an infant with cerebrovascular accident

    Neves, Joana; Costa, Elísio; Branca, Rosa; Carrilho, Inês; Barbot, José; Barbot, Clara

    2005-01-01

    La frecuencia del accidente vascular cerebral (AVC) neonatal ha aumentado de manera significativa en los últimos años. Ello puede deberse no tanto a un aumento real del número de casos, como a una mayor certeza en su diagnóstico. Actualmente, su incidencia se ha calculado en un caso por cada 4.000 nacimientos. Caso clínico. Lactante con AVC en el área de la arteria cerebral media izquierda, del cual se disponía de información documentada sobre factores de riesgo (FR) tromboembólicos hereditar...